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PROFITABLE PRODUCTION STRATEGIES

APRIL 2018

Arkansas researchers work to expand GreenSeeker use

A hand-held ‘fuel gauge’ for rice

On-farm trials help MSU demystify row-rice yield data LSU AgCenter releases new hybrid


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45,705 LAPS: THIS IS WHAT 504 MORE HOURS LOOKS LIKE. What would you do with three extra weeks (504 hours) of time? Because with two modes of action and a wider spectrum of control than propanil, RebelEXÂŽ rice herbicide provides up to 504 additional hours of residual control of barnyardgrass. The double dose of powerful control also knocks out propanil-resistant weeds, grasses and aquatics, including sprangletop. So enjoy your extra time, however you spend it. Visit 504MoreHours.com to find out more about the benefits of RebelEX.

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April 2018 March 2018

COLUMNS

www.ricefarming.com

COVER STORY

4 From the Editor

A hand-held ‘fuel gauge’ for rice

Rice'sindustry Rice long history received bucks several hot 'what's ‘gifts’ in for food' thetrends 2018 season

6 Guest Column 6 Rice Update RiceUSA and sustainability

The customer’s stomach is always right 8 USA Rice Update Rice industry sets priorities for Ethe D P Anext R T Farm M E NBill TS

18 D EIndustry P A R T MNews ENTS 19 Industry News RiceSpecialist 20 business scene Speaking

ON THE COVER: Used in conjunction with a nitrogen-rich reference strip, this handheld device can help growers ON THE COVER: Armyworms once and consultants optimize fertilizer-use again plagued California rice growers efficiency, according to University of in 2017. Arkansas trials. Photo by by Vicky Luis Espino, Photo Boyd University of California Cooperative Extension

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The California rice industry prepares for what may become annual armyworm infestations. Arkansas rice researchers work to expand GreenSeeker use across the state.

F E AT U R E S 8 9

The Seven yinyears and yang in the works

10 14

A 9-percent bump Attractive have spurred U.S. rice Floods aidprices expansion

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Putting row rice to the test

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New toolshighest in theyields toolafter box two-year produced

17 17

GET CONNECTED Stay up-to-date with the latest from Rice Farming.

Shorter LSU AgCenter supplies releases have shorn new hybrid, up the seeks partner to market, butcommercialize increased 2018 it. planting projections cloud long-term outlook. growers to plan to plant more acres this Giant invasive snail threatens the year, but Arkansas rains are a wild card. rice-crawfish rotation in southwest Louisiana. Conventional flood and optimized AWD

MSU trial. Several new crop-protection products are available in time for this year’s rice season. yields demystified Row-rice On-farm trials help MSU researchers understand harvest data. The smell of success University of Arkansas breeding program releases new jasmine-type long grain. APRIL 2018

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Here to stay?

Rice business scene

Let EPA know the importance of neonic insecticides 20 Specialist Speaking Early herbicide mistakes can plague you all season long

Vol. 52, No. 4 5

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Look for the Soybean South supplement following page 12 in the the Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi and Texas versions of Rice Farming .

9 8

10 14

17

16

Farm & Gin Show recap GROWER ONE LLC PUBLISHING,

Tight world rice supplies mean any disruption could push markets higher. Weed resistsbicides multiple hers of action ive mode Rotate effect pigweed biotype new to thwart

17 18 MARCH APRIL 2018

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From The

Editor

Rice industry received several ‘gifts’ for the 2018 season The 2018 rice season reminds me of Christmas. You rip into the boxes under the tree and can’t wait to go outside and try out your new toys. This year, rice producers received a number of presents in the form of a new herbicide-tolerant technology, a new herbicidal mode of action and three new jasmine-type varieties. And the gift-giving has just started. Speaking at field days last season, university weed scientists Bob Scott and Eric Webster happily remarked about the large number of new active ingredients in the herbicide pipeline. These are not just new products that involve combining existing active ingredients into a new premix Vicky Boyd but new modes of action coming to rice. Editor This will be the first season that Provisia rice from BASF will be planted commercially. The system involves the PVL01 longgrain variety, which was developed in conjunction with Louisiana State University AgCenter breeders to tolerate over-the-top applications of Provisia herbicide. As it has with Clearfield rice varieties, Horizon Ag will market Provisia rice seed. The system was designed to help growers manage fields overgrown with red and weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides, such as Newpath and Beyond, used with Clearfield rice. The former DowDuPont, now called Corteva Agriscience, is rolling out Loyant herbicide with Rinskor Active commercially this season. Rinskor Active is Corteva’s brand name for florpyrauxifen-benzyl, the active ingredient in Loyant. A member of the Weed Science Society of America’s Group 4, the herbicide controls a wide range of grasses, broadleaves and sedges. It also brings a new mode of action to rice to help control ALS-, glyphosate-, ACCase-, PPO- and triazine-resistant biotypes as well as other Group 4-resistant weeds in rice. And just when you thought you’d opened all of your presents, three breeding programs each gave gifts to the industry. The LSU AgCenter released the new Clearfield jasmine, CLJ01. It has better yield than but comparable aroma to Jazzman-2, a previous LSU jasmine-type release. In addition, CLJ01 has the Clearfield trait, allowing growers to apply an IMI herbicide over the top to control weeds. The California Cooperative Rice Research Foundation released Calaroma-201, and the University of Arkansas released ARoma 17 — both conventional longgrain jasmine-type rices. In addition, the California foundation released M-210, a medium-grain rice similar to M-206 but with resistance to both blast races found in the state. I can hardly wait the eight or so months until Christmas to see what types of presents are left under the tree for the 2019 rice season.

Vicky Send comments to: Editor, Rice Farming Magazine, 6515 Goodman Road, Box 360, Olive Branch, MS 38654. Call 901-767-4020 or email vlboyd@onegrower.com.

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RiceFaRming EDITORIAL/PRODUCTION Editor Vicky Boyd 209-505-3612 vlboyd@onegrower.com Copy Editor Amanda Huber ahuber@onegrower.com Art Director Ashley Kumpe akumpe@onegrower.com

ADMINISTRATION Publisher/Vice President Lia Guthrie 901-497-3689 lguthrie@onegrower.com Associate Publisher Carroll Smith 901-326-4443 csmith@onegrower.com Sales Manager Scott Emerson 386-462-1532 semerson@onegrower.com Circulation Manager Charlie Beek 847-559-7324 Production Manager Kathy Killingsworth 901-767-4020 kkillingsworth@onegrower.com For circulation changes or change of address, call 847-559-7578

ONE GROWER PUBLISHING, LLC Mike Lamensdorf President/Treasurer Lia Guthrie Publisher/Vice President ASSOCIATED PUBLICATIONS — One Grower Publishing LLC also publishes COTTON FARMING, THE PEANUT GROWER, SOYBEAN SOUTH and CORN SOUTH magazines. RICE FARMING (ISSN 0194-0929) is published monthly January through May, and Decem ber, by One Grower Publishing LLC, 6515 Goodman Road, Box 360, Olive Branch, MS 38654. Periodicals postage paid at Memphis, TN. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to OMEDA COMMUNICATIONS, CUSTOMER SERVICE DEPARTMENT, P.O. BOX 1388, NORTHBROOK, IL 60065-1388. Annual subscriptions are $25.00. International rates are $55.00 Canada/ Mexico, $90.00 all other countries for Air-Speeded Delivery. (Surface delivery not available due to problems in reliability.) $5.00 single copy. All statements, including product claims, are those of the person or organization making the statement or claim. The publisher does not adopt any such statement or claims as its own and any such statement or claim does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the publisher. RICE FARMING is a registered trademark of One Grower Publishing LLC, which reserves all rights granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in association with its registration.

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Toolbox Packed With Effective Herbicides Elmer Smith Crop Production Services Heth, Arkansas I had my first experience with rice when I worked as a research intern with a crop protection company the summer before I graduated from the University of Arkansas. After that, I scouted rice for retail companies and joined Crop Production Services in July 2017. As of April 1, I have been involved with this crop for 28 years. Our biggest weed problem is barnyardgrass that is resistant to multiple herbicide modes of action. We also battle sprangletop and smartweed. We’ve found that applying RebelEX herbicide for the first pre-flood application usually means we don’t have to come back with a post-flood application of another herbicide. Last year, one of my farmers had a 35-acre field he had leveled late in the year so it was really soft. After getting a stand, we didn’t want to track it up with a ground rig. But by the time the wind got right for the airplane to spray, we had barnyardgrass ranging from just emerging to tillering. The grass was much bigger than the rice. I knew I needed a strong herbicide program to save the field. Right before going to flood, I ran RebelEX herbicide at 20 ounces, Facet L herbicide at 21 ounces to help with the residual and a quart of MSO surfactant per acre. I used the high rate of RebelEX because I didn’t want the barnyardgrass to get away from us. This combination cleaned up everything — including the broadleaves — and was the only application we made on that field except for spraying the four levees. The RebelEX did an excellent job. I was shocked that it killed even the most mature grasses. And most importantly, the farmer was happy with the outcome. I’m also excited about Loyant herbicide, which should help with our barnyardgrass problem and work well on land-formed fields that farmers can pump up in three to four days. This year, I’m going to try Loyant on our row-rice fields to control pigweed. We can apply it pre-flood before the rice completely canopies, and then keep the field wet for three to four days to make sure we get good control. Loyant is an effective broadleaf material as well as a grass herbicide so it should help control dayflower, too. For farmers who want to use Loyant this year, the main thing to remember is to pick fields where you can get the water on pretty fast to ensure maximum control. We have good rice farmers in this area, and they were able to get their ground prepared last fall. This is a positive that saves a lot of money, too. Once it dries out, they can get in there with their drills and plant. We are as ready to go as we have ever been in this heavy gumbo soil.

• B.S., Agronomy, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville • Has consulted for 28 years and today advises on rice, corn, soybeans and grain sorghum • Arkansas Certified Crop Adviser and Resistance Management Specialist • Member of the American Society of Agronomy • Married to his wife, Angela. One daughter: Kayla Lucas, husband Spencer. Two sons: Elmer D. “Trey” Smith III, Ph.D., and Jacob Dalton Smith, wife Brianna. • Two grandchildren: Granddaughter, Emery Smith, 3. Grandson, Liam Smith, 18 months. • Enjoys deer and duck hunting, mowing his five-acre property and spending time with the family

Recap: Effective Herbicides Pack Toolbox 1. Our biggest weed problem is barnyardgrass that is resistant to multiple herbicide modes of action. We also battle sprangletop and smartweed. 2. Applying RebelEX for the first pre-flood application usually means we don’t have to come back with a postflood application of another herbicide.

3. Loyant herbicide should help with our barnyardgrass problem and work well on land-formed fields that farmers can pump up in three to four days. It also is an effective broadleaf material so it should control dayflower, too.

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USA Rice

Update

‘The customer’s stomach is always right’

By Betsy Ward

Releases offer domestically grown options Market research we conducted a few years ago revealed that while consumers were often surprised to learn they could “buy American” when purchasing rice, at least 75 percent reported that once they were aware of the option, they would look for U.S.-grown rice. Good news, right? But wait, there’s another shoe dropping. Roughly half of those respondents said they would NOT look for U.S.-grown rice if they were making an exotic dish like biryani or Thai fried rice. They said that in the interest of “authenticity,” they would look for imported basmati or jasmine rice. You and I both know that isn’t necessary; we have plenty of good domestically grown options. But remember my hybrid adage — if the customer wants it, they must be right. So we need to explain to them that what they actually want is an authentic tasting, cooking and smelling rice that’s grown locally in the United States. I am happy to see PHOTO COURTESY USA RICE

President and CEO USA Rice

A

s far as adages go, “The customer is always right” is one of the most famous; another is that “an army marches on its stomach.” I’ve created a combined version — a hybrid if you will — “The customer’s stomach is always right.” In addition to tracking rice import statistics and domestic acreage that give us a sense of the marketplace, we spend a good deal of time interacting with chefs, retail officials and consumers to analyze what their stomachs are telling them they want. What they are interested in is aromatics. This doesn’t mean these varieties will replace traditional long, medium or short grain. Far from it, and I actually see a way these “exotic” varieties might help boost traditional varieties. It just means these specialty varieties are appealing to consumers right now, and we need to address this.

Exotic rice varieties, such as jasmine and basmati, may be the entryway for consumers to learn about more traditional types, such as short, medium and long grain.

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that research is catching up with consumer interest, and producers are getting new tools for their tool kit. This year, the University of Arkansas released a new jasmine variety, ARoma 17, specifically suited to Arkansas’ climate — something that traditional jasmine isn’t. In March, Louisiana State University’s AgCenter released a new Clearfield jasmine, CLJ01, and the first acres have just been planted. We plan to take the 2018 USA Rice Foodservice Farm & Mill Tours to those fields for harvest and tasting. By next year, we could see more than 15,000 tons of this rice in the market. And earlier this year in California, a new early maturing, high-yielding jasmine-type, Calaroma-201, was approved for release to growers, joining a catalog of another jasmine and two basmati-style varieties. Jasmine or basmati: a gateway starch These are exciting times when we’re able to tell foodies they can get authentic and local rice on the same fork. So what did I mean when I said this interest in basmati and jasmine could help traditional rice varieties? My theory is rooted in the science of persuasion. It is well established that it is far easier to get people who are already doing something to do more of it than to get them to start doing something new. Convincing a rice eater to eat more rice is easier than convincing a potato devotee that rice is the answer. If we have consumers with a mild interest in rice but a strong interest in the exotic jasmine and basmati, let’s get them eating our aromatics. Then we can help broaden their palate to long, medium and short grain. I bet when you woke up this morning, you weren’t thinking of jasmine or basmati as a gateway starch. That’s OK. We do, and thanks to these new varieties being made available to producers and eventually consumers, we’re going to put this theory to the test by bringing the two together. I’ll leave you with another hybrid maxim for your thoughts: “An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory (milled basis).”   RICEFARMING.COM


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PHOTOS COURTESY LSU AGCENTER

At the LSU AgCenter’s 104th Rice Field Day, AgCenter rice breeder Jim Oard, center, talks about work to develop hybrid rice.

Seven years in the works LSU AgCenter releases new hybrid, seeks partner to commercialize it. By Bruce Schultz

T

he Louisiana State University AgCenter has released a new hybrid rice with high quality and competitive yield potential. The long-grain hybrid, LAH169, was developed at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in Crowley during the past seven years. Jim The rights to commercial development will Oard be available for bidding. The date for submitting bids will be announced after details are finalized, says Alana Fernandez of the LSU AgCenter Office of Intellectual Property. LSU AgCenter hybrid rice breeder Jim Oard says LAH169 has good grain quality with low chalk. “It has 50 percent less chalk than the commercial hybrids currently available,” he says. He says LAH169 can have a respectable yield. “The main crop yield performance of LAH169 in 25 trials in five locations across three years in Louisiana was 94 percent of RiceTec CLXL745, the most popular hybrid in Louisiana,” Oard says. “In limited trials across two years, the combined main and ratoon yields of LAH169 were nearly identical to CLXL745.” The new hybrid is moderately resistant to blast, sheath blight and panicle blight, he says.

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A seed crop of LAH169 has been grown at the LSU AgCenter winter nursery in Puerto Rico, Oard says. That rice will be harvested in April and will be stored at the Rice Research Station until a partner to increase seed has been identified. Oard says hybrid development will continue. “We have a Clearfield hybrid in the pipeline,” he says. New Clearfield jasmine release, too Also available for the first time is a new Clearfield jasmine-type long-grain rice named CLJ01. It is superior to its aromatic predecessors, Jazzman-1 and Jazzman-2, in terms of yield and quality, says AgCenter rice breeder Adam Famoso. The biggest difference is yield. “Over three years of tests off-station, on average it’s been 30 percent or better than Jazzman-2,” Famoso says. Its aroma is on par with Thai jasmine, he says. Its quality is exceptional, with the lowest chalk of any rice grown at the Rice Research Station, Famoso says.   Bruce Schultz is an assistant communications specialist with the LSU AgCenter in Crowley. He may be reached at bschultz@ agcenter.lsu.edu. RICEFARMING.COM


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A 9-percent bump Attractive prices have spurred U.S. rice growers to plan to plant more acres this year, but Arkansas rain remains a wild card. By Vicky Boyd

T

he U.S. Department of Agriculture expects rice growers will plant 2.69 million acres this season, or 9 percent more than they did in 2017, according to its recently released 2018 Planting Intentions Report. But at least in Arkansas, which is responsible for more than 50 percent of U.S. rice acreage, prolonged rain could affect rice as well as soybean acres, says Dr. Jarrod Hardke, University of Arkansas Extension rice agronomist. “If we have growers sitting inside watching it rain over the next few weeks or for a prolonged time, that may incentivize growers to move more acreage into soybeans and away from rice,” he said in a March 29 University of Arkansas webinar. “We’re still actually in very good shape. A big positive is rice prices have greatly improved. But we’re going to need some dry conditions in the very near future to keep things on track.” The USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service based its planting intentions report on a survey of thousands of growers nationwide, says Eugene Young, NASS regional director for the Delta Regional Office in Little Rock, Arkansas. In

the Delta District, which comprises Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana, about 77 percent of growers this year returned the voluntary survey that asks them how many acres they planned to plant, he says. At the same time, the USDA released the Rice Stocks Report that found 83.4 million hundredweight were in combined on-farm and off-farm storage on March 1, Young says. That was a 22 percent reduction from the 107.5 million cwt in storage March 1, 2017, and the lowest March 1 stocks on hand since 1999, he says. Rain, rain, go away During the last week of March, most of Arkansas received 2-4 inches of rain on top of earlier precipitation, Hardke says. Before the rain, growers in some spots were able to start planting limited fields. Although growers may feel anxious and behind schedule, he says planted acreage was about average for the end of March. If the rain stops by early April, growers on light ground could probably get back in fairly quickly. But on the heavier, clay soils on which about 40-plus percent of the state’s rice is grown, growers typically

U.S. Planted Rice Acres 2016

2017

2018 (est.)

Arkansas

1,546,000

1,161,000

1,331,000

California

541,000

445,000

440,000

Louisiana

437,000

400,000

410,000

Mississippi

195,000

115,000

120,000

Missouri

236,000

169,000

210,000

Texas

195,000

173,000

170,000

Total

3,150,000

2,463,000

2,690,000

Information courtesy USDA-NASS

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VICKY BOYD

Editor

In preparation for planting, most rice growers have already selected the varieties or hybrids they plan to plant this year and had the seed treated with insecticides and/or fungicides.

have to wait two to three weeks after the rain stops before they can re-enter fields. As long as rains don’t continue for several weeks, Hardke says he’s comfortable with the USDA’s long-grain estimate of about 1.15 million acres for Arkansas, based on conversations he’s had with growers and consultants. Where he disagrees is with the USDA’s projections of 180,000 acres of medium-grain rice for Arkansas. Instead, Hardke says he believes growers will likely plant 220,000-225,000 acres, based on past history. With current very low medium-grain stocks and two consecutive years of reduced medium-grain acres, he says historical trends would predict a rebound this season. Titan, a University of Arkansas medium-grain release, saw limited plantings in 2017 compared to the industry-leading Jupiter. Hardke says he expects acreage of Titan to increase but still be limited to about 25 percent of overall Arkansas plantings this year. The constraint is due to not all food processors who use medium grain having listed Titan as a preferred variety yet.   RICEFARMING.COM


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A hand-held ‘fuel gauge’ for rice Arkansas rice researchers work to expand GreenSeeker use across the state.

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By Jarrod Hardke and Trent Roberts

R

ice production is a costly endeavor with high input costs as well as operating expenses. Anything we can do to maximize efficiency and optimize inputs is a step in the right direction. Sustainability is really about efficiency. Being efficient with our resources and inputs will most often lead to increased yields and profits, which makes us more sustainable. One of the highest single item input costs for rice producers is nitrogen fertilizer, which depending on your system and current urea prices, accounts for more than 10 percent of variable input costs.

RICEFARMING.COM


TRENT ROBERTS, UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Mike Simmons, a Northeast Arkansas crop consultant, prepares a nitrogen-rich reference plot for use with the GreenSeeker handheld.

TWITTER: @RICEFARMING

Trent Roberts, soil fertility specialist with the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture, likes to think of it this way. “We all know that rice cultivars are the ‘race cars’ and that nitrogen fertilizer is the ‘fuel’ that allows those cultivars to achieve top performance. But I haven’t ever seen a fuel gauge on a rice plant. Well, maybe the GreenSeeker is a handheld ‘fuel gauge’?” Arkansas rice growers have supported GreenSeeker research by Roberts’ team through the Arkansas Rice Research and Promo- Trent tion Board for the past sev- Roberts eral years. The 2017 growing season was the first wide-scale implementation of GreenSeeker use across the state in the UofA Division of Agriculture Rice Research Verification Program (RRVP) fields. Jarrod Every field planted to a Hardke variety (pureline cultivar) and even a few of the fields planted to hybrid cultivars had a nitrogen-rich strip included. Of the 15 RRVP fields, 11 had a nitrogen-rich strip where the GreenSeeker handheld was used weekly during the midseason nitrogen application growth stages. On five of the 11 fields where GreenSeeker was used, we were able to hold off on a midseason nitrogen application and still feel comfortable that we had adequate nitrogen to maximize yield. Early season rainfall was a major issue in Northeast Arkansas during 2017, and many rice fields, including some RRVP fields, were flooded or underwater for an extended period of time. The ability to use the GreenSeeker handheld on these fields was a great benefit to make sure that any nitrogen that was lost could be applied later if the response index (RI) suggested that we needed it. GreenSeeker put to the test for on-farm trials, too In addition to its use as a standard recommendation in RRVP fields, several on-farm trials were implemented to demonstrate how APRIL 2018

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the surface of what we can do with the GreenSeeker and NDVI,” Roberts says. “We have some limited data using aerial imagery and NDVI from airplanes. Looking at this limited amount of data suggests that the RI approach will hold true regardless of how you get the NDVI values.” Roberts also says that during the upcoming growing seasons, the potential exists to use a GreenSeeker handheld, a drone, a plane or maybe even satellite images to determine the RI and make decisions on midseason nitrogen management in rice. “So, in the long run, our limiting factor is getting producers or consultants to put out those reference strips,” he says.

to use the GreenSeeker handheld in 2017. Four of those trials are presented in Figure 1. These data highlight how well the GreenSeeker and RI are able to identify fields that need more nitrogen fertilizer at midseason. Typically, we would recommend applying midseason nitrogen anytime the RI number is greater than 1.15. In fields identified as Field 1 and Field 3, the RI was 1.35 and 1.18, respectively. When we applied midseason nitrogen to those fields, we observed a significant and positive yield increase of 21 and 14 bushels per acre for Field 1 and Field 3, respectively. You can also see that Field 1 had the higher RI and also resulted in the greatest yield increase. For the other two fields, the RI was below 1.15, and we would not have expected the midseason nitrogen to have an effect on rice yield. We are essentially saying that the field and the nitrogen-rich reference strip “looked” the same, even though the reference strip received an extra 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Several consultants cooperated on demonstrations Several consultants cooperated with county Extension agents on GreenSeeker demonstrations this past season. Mike Simmons, a crop consultant in Northeast Arkansas, worked with Greene County agriculture agent Dave Freeze to conduct some of their own research with the GreenSeeker unit.

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VICKY BOYD

Figure 1. Rice response to midseason nitrogen as influenced by the response index (RI) obtained from the GreenSeeker handheld unit. Fields 1 and 3 resulted in a significant yield increase with the addition of midseason nitrogen (45 lb N/acre). Fields 2 and 4 resulted in no significant increase in rice yield with the addition of midseason nitrogen (45 lb N/acre).

Used in conjunction with a nitrogen-rich reference strip, this handheld device can help growers and consultants optimize fertilizer-use efficiency, according to University of Arkansas trials.

Simmons was interested in looking at the variability using different N rates in the reference plot as well as how the GreenSeeker unit performed when held at different heights above the crop canopy. At the end of the day, 100 extra units of nitrogen was adequate for the reference strip and the height above the canopy didn’t have any effect on the response index (RI) reading. Simmons was excited about the ability to add another tool for nitrogen management in rice, but they did mention it was one more thing to carry and keep track of in the field. “I think we are really just scratching

Just add a reference strip Using the GreenSeeker handheld for midseason nitrogen is as easy as: 1. Using an optimum single preflood nitrogen rate determined by N-STaR (Nitrogen Soil Test for Rice) 2. Including a nitrogen-rich “reference strip” in every field and 3. Taking GreenSeeker readings each week beginning three weeks post-flood and after internode elongation. Robert's final advice to growers is “whether you have a GreenSeeker or not, go put out a reference strip. We have many county agents and consultants who have GreenSeeker units. We will help you take the readings — all you need to do is put out the reference strip.” Using an RI in conjunction with a nitrogen-rich reference strip is an easy and simple way to predict nitrogen needs at midseason in rice. More information on the use of GreenSeeker in rice and how to use the nitrogen-rich reference strips and response index can be found in the 2018 Rice Farming for Profit publication at http://uaex.edu/rice. The hard part is putting out the reference strip — and all that requires is a little extra urea and a few flags to mark the edges.   Dr. Jarrod Hardke is University of Arkansas rice Extension agronomist based at the Rice Research and Extension Center in Stuttgart, Ark. He may be reached at jhardke@uaex.edu. Dr. Trent Roberts is Extension soil fertility specialist with the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture in Fayetteville. He may be reached at tlrobert@uark.edu. RICEFARMING.COM


2018 Rice Awards Nomination Form The Rice Farmer of the Year, Rice Industry Award and Rice Lifetime Achievement Award recognize those rice leaders who have demonstrated dedication, determination and innovation to the industry. We need your help to identify candidates who are worthy of these prestigious awards. Please take the time to consider which industry members in your area should be recipients of these honors and mail or scan/email this form and supporting materials.

Categories: Please check the box of the appropriate award category:

q Rice Farmer of the Year Award • Must farm at least 200 acres. • A farmer who has successfully achieved goals in his/her farming operation, rice industry association, community improvement/development, innovative production practices and/or environmental stewardship.

q Rice Industry Award

If you are submitting more than one nomination form, please make a copy before you fill out the form. Nomination forms can be downloaded or submitted online at www.ricefarming.com.

Nominee’s name Nominee’s address Nominee’s phone number/email address Nominee’s rice acreage (if applicable)

• Has been in the rice industry for more than five years. • A researcher, Extension person, government/association leader, etc… who has demonstrated commitment to the rice industry through innovative practices, industry association, community involvement/development.

Your name

q Rice Lifetime Achievement Award

Your profession

• Has been in the rice industry for more than 10 years. • An industry leader who has provided great contributions to the rice industry through industry associations, community involvement/development, innovative practices/projects that have advanced the industry.

Deadline:

June 15, 2018

Number of years involved in the rice industry (if applicable)

Your address Your phone number/email address Your signature

Date

Please send completed form & supporting materials to: Carroll Smith 7201 Eastern Ave., Germantown, TN 38138 Scan/Email: csmith@onegrower.com

On a separate piece of paper, please consider the following: Dedication to farming and/or agriculture and the rice industry, local community and education. Determination to succeed and overcome hurdles that have emerged while trying to reach goals. Innovation to identify new and better ways for the industry to become more profitable, manage risk, achieve a higher level of efficiency. In addition to completing this form, please describe the nominee in terms of the above guidelines. It also is helpful to send letters of recommendation for the nominee from other individuals in the rice industry who are familiar with his/her accomplishments. A panel of judges from across the Rice Belt will select the recipients of the 2018 Rice Awards. The award recipients will be honored at the USA Rice Outlook Conference, Dec. 5-7, 2018, in San Diego, California, where an official presentation will be made at the awards luncheon. They also will be featured in a special salute sponsored by Horizon Ag, USA Rice and Rice Farming magazine in the December 2018 issue.

SPONSORS


Putting row rice to the test Conventional flood and optimized AWD produced the highest yields after two-year Mississippi State University trial. By Bobby Golden

Putting row rice to the test Atwill investigated both conventional and Clearfield herbicide systems using three rice cultivars — CL151, Rex and XL745. Six different rice irrigation treatments were also included:  A continuous flood  An optimized AWD (alternate wetting and drying) treatment allowing the flood to recede to 4 inches below the soil surface on the top while maintaining flood water on the bottom of the plots  AWD but allowing the Water levels were monitored flood throughout the plot to rewith a Pani pipe in each plot. cede 4 inches below the soil surface  AWD but allowing the flood throughout the plot to recede 8 inches below the soil surface  AWD but allowing the flood throughout the plot to recede 12 inches below the soil surface and  AWD but allowing the flood throughout the plot to recede 16 inches below the soil surface. Water levels in each paddy were monitored using a Pani pipe, and irrigations were triggered at each respective threshold. Although individual herbicide treatments performed well in

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PHOTOS COURTESY MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

P

roducing rice in a “rowed-up” manner as other row crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton was a foreign concept just a few years ago. Row rice or furrow-irrigated rice was initially investigated by Mississippi State University researchers in the 1980s as an alternative to conventional flooded rice production. Some of you may recall Dr. Joe Street and Dr. Ted Miller worked with Clarksdale’s Leon Bramlett to explore the agronomics of furrow-irrigated rice. Bramlett wanted an alternate crop to raise on his traditional cotton farm. The idea of furrow-irrigated rice was begun in Mississippi. This was long before the introduction of new rice herbicides, such as Facet, Command, Newpath and Clearpath, and issues with weed control ultimately led to the abandonment of the concept. Today, there is tremendous interest in growing furrow-irrigated rice compared to growing rice in a typical flooded environment. In 2016, the MSU Irrigation Team, prompted by producer demand, started investigating furrow-irrigated rice. Graduate student Lee Atwill has completed two years of small-plot research at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville.

Results of two-year trial help demonstrate why producers involved in large on-farm trials have experienced varying results from row rice.

Atwill’s trial, additional scouting may be required for broadleaf weeds with row rice. Nitrogen use investigated, too Nitrogen management was also investigated using the different rice cultivars and irrigation treatments. The results suggest that high yields were achieved when nitrogen was applied using a three-way spilt of 50/25/25. The other treatments of 100 percent pre-flood, two thirds/one third split, and a four-way split of 25 percent/25 percent/25 percent/25 percent all resulted in similar yield. All fertilizer was NBPT treated, and applications were made to wet soils with the exception of the initial pre-flood treatments. Rice yields among irrigation treatments resulted in the continuous flood and optimized AWD treatments producing similar results. All other irrigation plots were statistically similar, resulting in a 20-bushel yield decrease compared to continuous flood and optimized AWD. It should be noted that the optimized AWD allowed the water on the top of the plots to recede to 4 inches below the soil surface while maintaining flood water on the bottom of the plots. The other row-rice irrigation treatments differ in that the entire plot was allowed to dry equally from top to bottom. These small-plot trial “worst-case” scenarios help explain the yield variation we have seen in the on-farm trial work.   Dr. Bobby Golden is an Extension agronomist at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, Mississippi. He may be reached at bgolden@drec.msstate.edu. RICEFARMING.COM


Row-rice yields demystified On-farm trials help MSU researchers understand harvest data. By Bobby Golden and Dan Roach

Three sub-fields When you think about what happens on the farm, each field of furrow-irrigated rice is actually three sub-fields. As demonstrated by Example 1, the top one third is the driest, the middle is similar to the optimized AWD treatments (soupy wet but never dry) and the bottom one third resembles a continuously irrigated field. This yield map is from a furrow-irrigated field that was divided by a levee in the center of the field, essentially creating two individual fields. Water was held by the levee, as well as the flash board riser. When you break down the yield in each subsection, in the top of the field — the driest — yields were reduced by 12 percent. The center part of the field, in the optimized AWD section (part that remains soupy), yields were reduced by 7 percent. The section on the bottom side of the field TWITTER: @RICEFARMING

IMAGES COURTESY MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

D

ata from on-farm trials are helping Mississippi State University researchers understand some of the yield parameters associated with furrow-irrigated rice, also known as row rice. If you ask experienced furrow-irrigated rice producers, one thing is clear — they recognize only a small, if any, yield reduction. MSU researchers, recognizing the significant yield reduction observed in small-plot data compared to producer experience, began looking deeper into the on-farm data for answers. The two-year furrow-irrigated rice small-plot data suggest that a continuous-flood irrigation and an optimized AWD (alternate wetting and drying, allowing the flood to recede to 4 inches below the soil surface while maintaining flood water on the bottom side of the plots) irrigation yield substantially better than allowing the soil to become dry.

Example 1

Furrow-irrigated field

with a continuous flood yielded the highest. The take-home from this analysis is furrow-irrigated fields where producers keep the field moist and are holding a continuous flood on the bottom one third can expect a yield reduction in the 8- to 10-bushel range. In fields where the grade will not allow producers to hold a continuous flood on the bottom side, they can expect substantial yield losses in the 20-bushel range. Here is the adjacent conventional-levee yield map compared to the row-rice field. In this comparison, the whole field aver-

Conventional flood-irrigated field

age of the row-rice field was equal to the conventional-levee field. The adjacent conventional-levee field was on 0.2 grade with levees every 100 feet, contributing to a lower field average. Fields with grades greater than 0.1 could be a good fit for row rice.   Dr. Bobby Golden is an agronomist at the Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville. He may be reached at bgolden@ drec.msstate.edu. Dan Roach is an Extension associate at the DREC. APRIL 2018

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Recognize an outstanding consultant or pest control advisor (PCA) for their dedication, leadership and innovation in the U.S. rice industry. For more information, go to ricefarming.com/rcoy or go to page 19 in this issue of Rice Farming.

Submit nominations by June 30, 2018.

S P O N S O R E D

B Y

Abbreviated Rules. No Purchase Necessary. Contest ends on 6/30/18 at 11:59:59 PM (CT). To enter, go to http://www.ricefarming. com/rcoy. Nominators must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and District of Columbia who are 18 years of age or older at the time of entry and possess knowledge and/or experience in the rice farming industry. Entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and District of Columbia who are 18 years of age or older at the time of entry and serve as a rice consultant or as a pest control advisor in the rice farming industry. Subject to complete Official Rules found at http://www.ricefarming.com/rcoy. Void where prohibited. Sponsor: Dow AgroSciences LLC, 9330 Zionsville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46268. ® Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (“DuPont”) or affiliated companies of Dow or DuPont.

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Bob Scott discusses rice herbicide trials at the 2017 Rice Expo in Stuttgart.

Bob Scott named director of Arkansas Rice Research Station

Weed scientist Bob Scott, who most recently was director of the University of Arkansas’ Newport Extension Center, was appointed director of the university’s Rice Research and Extension Center in Stuttgart, Arkansas. He replaces Nathan McKinney, who had served as interim director. In a news release, Rick Cartwright, director of the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, said, “Bob has done an outstanding job as Arkansas’ Extension weed specialist for more than 15 years. He’s an exceptional technical specialist and research scientist, and his first-rate leadership at the Lonoke and Newport Extension centers has prepared him to take on this new leadership role at Stuttgart.” Before joining the Division of Agriculture, Scott worked four years as a technical service representative at American Cyanamid and one year for BASF, which acquired Cyanamid during his time there. He was part of the team that developed Clearfield Rice. Since joining the university, Scott has been based at the Lonoke Extension Center and also spent time at the Newport center. About 50 percent of his work has been related to rice. Scott already has a hand in the division’s rice breeding program, where he has worked with senior rice breeder Karen Moldenhauer and is a co-author on her CL172 research.

Arkansas’ Terry Siebenmorgen honored for post-harvest rice processing work Terry Siebenmorgen, director of the University of Arkansas’s Rice Process-

News ing Program, received the Rice Technical Working Group Distinguished Service Award at the organization’s biennial meeting recently in Long Beach, California. The award recognizes Siebenmorgen’s career-long research to improve post-harvest rice processing, according to a university news release. His work ranges from preharvest property characterization through drying, storage, milling and end-use quality evaluation. Siebenmorgen’s research has improved understanding of the development, composition and processing behavior of individual rice kernels. He developed and tested the “glass transition hypothesis” of how rice kernels change in physical and chemical structure because of heating during drying. Subsequent research showed that under certain conditions, this process can lead to some kernels fissuring and then breaking during milling. More precision in harvesting rice at ideal moisture content and adjusting drying methods led to greater milling yields and improved food quality and value. Among other revelations, Siebenmorgen’s research showed that preharvest conditions, such as high night-time air temperatures, affected post-harvest quality and milling yields. During his career at the University of Arkansas, Siebenmorgen built his research into a broader program, combining the expertise of collaborating food science researchers, laboratory staff and graduate students into the Rice Processing Program based in Fayetteville.

COURTESY UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Submit a nomination for the 2018 Rice Consultant of the Year Award.

VICKY BOYD

Industry

Dr. Terry Siebenmorgen (right) received the Distingished Service Award from the Rice Technical Working Group for his contributions to post-harvest handling of rice. He is shown here with Jean-Francois Meullenet, interim director of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. RICEFARMING.COM


N O M I N A T I O N

Nominate an outstanding consultant or pest control advisor (PCA) for the Rice Consultant of the Year Award. “At Dow AgroSciences, we understand rice consultants have a vital role in the industry,” says Jaret Fipps, rice herbicides product manager, Dow AgroSciences. “Consultants have a big task in being asked to be experts on current conditions, evolving technologies and individual production needs to help growers manage successful operations. “As a thank you, we are sponsoring the Rice Consultant of the Year Award to provide an opportunity to recognize those who exceed expectations for their contributions to the rice industry.”

F O R M

Please use a separate page for biographical/professional information. Additional recommendations via letters or emails from other farmers, consultants and industry members are also encouraged to provide support for the nominee. See instructions at bottom left to submit these materials. Consultant’s Name: Company Name: Mailing Address: City:

State:

Phone:

Email:

Zip:

Please describe the dedication, leadership and innovation that makes this person a good candidate for the 2018 Rice Consultant of the Year Award. The RCOY award recipient will be honored in a four-page salute in Rice Farming magazine and at a special recognition event. A one-night’s hotel stay and round-trip travel to the event will be provided for the award recipient and the nominator.

Submit nominations by June 30, 2018. Options to submit supporting materials: E-mail: csmith@onegrower.com Mail: Carroll Smith 7201 Eastern Ave. Germantown, TN 38138

Your Name: City:

State:

Online: ricefarming.com/rcoy

Phone:

Email:

Address:

S P O N S O R E D

Zip:

B Y

Abbreviated Rules. No Purchase Necessary. Contest ends on 6/30/18 at 11:59:59 PM (CT). To enter, go to http://www.ricefarming.com/rcoy. Nominators must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and District of Columbia who are 18 years of age or older at the time of entry and possess knowledge and/or experience in the rice farming industry. Entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and District of Columbia who are 18 years of age or older at the time of entry and serve as a rice consultant or as a pest control advisor in the rice farming industry. Subject to complete Official Rules found at http://www.ricefarming.com/rcoy. Void where prohibited. Sponsor: Dow AgroSciences LLC, 9330 Zionsville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46268. Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (“DuPont”) or affiliated companies of Dow or DuPont.

®

TWITTER: @RICEFARMING

APRIL 2018

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Specialists

Speaking

Proper N management is critical to optimize yield DR. JARROD HARDKE

ARKANSAS Asst. Professor/Rice Extension Agronomist University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service jhardke@uaex.edu Each of the past several years have proven rainy and problematic about the time many of our rice acres are ready to receive nitrogen fertilizer and go to flood. Our goal is always to apply preflood nitrogen in the most efficient manner to set ourselves up for maximum yield potential achieved with the lowest input costs. Unfortunately, this isn’t always easy. If we can make our preflood nitrogen applications onto dry soil at the four- to five-leaf stage and establish a timely permanent flood, then we’re in great shape. However, flooding can take time, so we recommend using NBPT-treated urea if flooding will take longer than two to three days on a loam soil or longer than seven days on a clay soil. That’s easy enough — apply nitrogen to dry soil and flood up. But what about when we can’t get the soil to dry? That’s the area recent research efforts have begun to focus on.

The goal is to make every attempt to get the soil dry before the end of the recommended nitrogen application window based on the DD50 Rice Management Program. If we still cannot get the soil dry by that point, it’s time to make a move or risk lost yield potential as a result of the planting not having sufficient nitrogen as it begins tillering — which is the fi rst yield component. If we’ve reached the end of the window and soil is muddy with no standing water, apply NBPT-treated urea and attempt to let the soil dry beneath it before flooding. However, if rainfall occurs before the soil dries, go ahead and flood up. The preferred preflood N management option is always to apply NBPT-treated urea onto dry soil and establish the permanent flood in a timely manner (~ seven days) to incorporate N below the soil surface. If faced with soil conditions that are not dry and before resorting to any other N application option, wait until the final recommended time to apply N based on the DD50 Rice Management Program. Consider increasing the preflood rate only slightly, by 20-30 pounds N, when applying to muddy soil conditions to offset potential nitrogen loss that can occur. Going with a “spoon feed” approach into standing water carries additional risk and possibly costs but can also be used as a last resort to maximize yield potential. Do not begin these spoon-feed applications until the end of the recommended nitrogen window. When you go this route, apply 100 pounds urea per acre once a week for a minimum of four total applications.

VICKY BOYD

To maximize yield potential, apply NBPT-treated nitrogen preflood onto dry soil at the four- to fiveleaf rice stage, then flood up.

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RICEFARMING.COM


When spoon-feeding into standing water, there is no need to use NBPT-treated urea. Rice fertilized in this way will be taller and more rank compared to rice fertilized with more efficient methods, so there are additional risks of increased lodging and disease pressure. But yield potential remains high. Do not apply large rates of nitrogen into the floodwater or you risk losing most of the nitrogen before the plant has a chance to take it up. When rice plants are small, their nitrogen uptake is initially slow, and too much nitrogen can be lost before the plants can capture it. Every field is unique and should be managed that way. Following recommended timings from the DD50 Rice Management program (http://www.DD50.uaex.edu) can help to maximize yields by increasing efficiency. Let’s still hope for dry soil conditions to make things easier.

LSU AgCenter begins row-rice trials DR. DUSTIN HARRELL LOUISIANA Extension Rice Specialist dharrell@agcenter.lsu.edu

Furrow-irrigated rice, also known as row rice, is increasing in popularity in rice-production areas across the MidSouth. The practice involves growing rice by only watering down irrigation furrows in a similar manner to upland crops like corn, soybeans and cotton. The advantages to the system include putting rice in production on land that may have more slope that makes it unsuitable for growing flooded rice, the ability to make last-minute cropping decisions and a decrease in water use in some years. Weed control, nitrogen fertilization and blast control are some of the challenges associated with the system. Blast can be controlled by planting one of the more blast-resistant hybrids or varieties. Overlapping residual herbicides is the best strategy for weed control in this system. Nitrogen fertilization is where we have the most questions that need to be answered. One thing we do know is that alternating from a saturated soil to a dry soil repeatedly will cause nitrogen use efficiency to be reduced compared with our preflood nitrogen applications in traditionally grown rice. So how much more nitrogen fertilizer do we need to apply in furrow-irrigated rice systems? Do we need to split nitrogen fertilizer applications two, three or four times to maximize efficiency? How many days apart should we wait between nitrogen applications? Is the use of urease inhibitors on urea even more critical in this type of system? In order to answer these types of questions and establish best management practices for furrow-irrigated rice production, we have begun research with the system at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in Crowley. TWITTER: @RICEFARMING

Speaking

DR. DUSTIN HARRELL, LSU AGCENTER

Specialists

This custom hipper-roller was used to make furrows in the LSU row-rice trial.

The furrows for the research were made by using a custom hipper-roller similar to those used in commercial production in north Louisiana and throughout the Delta, although the implement is on a much smaller scale and facilitates perfectly spaced research plots. The furrow-irrigated research plots were planted on March 15 at the station. Research will evaluate nitrogen fertilization rates and timings, which will be compared to similar treatments in drill-seeded delayed flood rice. The RiceTec hybrid CLXL745 and the Clearfield variety CL153 will be evaluated in the studies.

Let EPA know the importance of neonic insecticides DR. M.O. “MO” WAY TEXAS Rice Research Entomologist moway@aesrg.tamu.edu

In Texas, our main rice pests are the rice water weevil, chinch bug, rice stink bug and stem borers — primarily the Mexican rice borer. We have tools to control all these pests, but we must use these insecticides following label instructions. Over the years, we have lost excellent pest management tools because of misuse and abuse. FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE LETTER! We can’t afford to lose any more options for pest control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently concerned about neonicotinoid insecticides, which in some crops are linked to honeybee mortality. Neonicotinoids labeled for use in Texas rice are CruiserMaxx Rice, NipsIt Inside, Belay and Tenchu 20SG. All these insecticides are critical to profitable/sustainable rice production in the state. Rice is a self-pollinating plant and is not very attractive to APRIL 2018

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Specialists

Speaking

honeybees. I have observed honeybees foraging in flowering rice, but this is rare. My Arkansas and Mississippi colleagues — Drs. Gus Lorenz and Jeff Gore — have done some excellent work quantifying honeybee presence in heading rice. Their bottom line: Very few honeybees (or native bees) forage in rice. If you want more information, contact Gus or Jeff at glorenz@uaex.edu or JGore@ drec.msstate.edu, respectively. They recently presented their data at the 37th Rice Technical Working Group in Long Beach, California. EPA is now accepting comments from stakeholders regarding neonicotinoids. I submitted comments on behalf of Texas (and other Southern rice-producing states) for seed treatment and foliar-applied neonicotinoids. I encourage you readers to also submit comments in favor of continued use of neonicotinoids in rice. If you want copies of my comments and/or want to submit your own, contact me at moway@aesrg.tamu.edu, 409-239-4265 or 409-658-2186. I recently met with EPA scientists at their headquarters in

Row rice may not be a silver bullet, but it has a fit SAM ATWELL

MISSOURI Agronomy Specialist atwells@missouri.edu According to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, all of our Southeast Missouri delta has a huge replenishing aquifer. So if your well is not pumping to capacity, it’s not a lack of water in your aquifer — it’s your well. Row rice or furrow-irrigated rice remains a hot topic, and acres are on the increase because it’s a big deal if we can remove all or most levees from rice fields, maintain yields and increase profits. University of Missouri researchers have studied furrow-irrigated rice since 1988. Many changes occur between anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, and adjustments must be made. Plus water stress is not good for rice. Rice consultants armed with new technology offer changes and the never-ending need for continued research on furrow-irrigated rice. The goal for most Missouri farmers using the system is to grow rice on problem fields and make a profit. Should you switch to or consider furrow-irrigated on non-rice land depends on your specific situation. Problems like topography, crop rotation, water, soils and economics are all valid reasons for making changes, but they may not carry the same weight. Saving money by pumping less water is probably the hardest to justify. Lack of water from a weak well that can’t hold a flood will probably not be solved with the system. However, sloping

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Washington, D.C., during a “Rice Production 101” meeting. Our goal was to educate and answer questions about rice production in the United States. This meeting was organized by Lydia Holmes of USA Rice. Dr. Dustin Harrell (Louisiana State University), Dr. Bobby Golden (Mississippi State University) and Roberta Firoved (representing California) gave outstanding presentations on general rice-production practices, including water management, in all the U.S. rice-producing regions. Folks at EPA need to know the practicalities of rice production and need to understand how vital our industry is to wildlife conservation and protection. So this was not a contentious meeting but rather an educational seminar. Making regulatory decisions in a vacuum is a sure way to undermine our rice industry. Clearly, we want to protect the environment, but we also want to continue producing healthy, safe, abundant food. We can do both, but it requires research, knowledge transfer and cooperation with our regulatory agencies. fields with lots of levees is the number one reason to switch, followed by crop rotation, sandy soils and heavy clay soils that wick well. A furrow-irrigated field rarely outyields a good flooded field, but it often outyields a bad field or a another less-profitable crop. Advantages for Furrow-Irrigated Row-Bedded Rice: 1. Rotate crops without tearing down levees, rebedding and reworking ground every year. 2. Have your fields prepared in the fall for any crop next spring. 3. Eliminate levees to gain more land area and easier to harvest. 4. Flexibility to switch or choose a crop to plant right before planting. (economics, seed) 5. Grow rice on irregularly pitched fields. 6. Grow rice on sandy soils. 7. Establish permanent beds on heavy clay soils and zero grade for soybeans. 8. Easier to use ground equipment longer into season. (less aerial applications) Disadvantages: 1. Yield and grain quality more difficult to achieve. 2. Water management uniformity more difficult. (Upper 1/3, middle 1/3, lower 1/3) 3. Fertilizer management uniformity more difficult. (Upper 1/3, middle 1/3, lower 1/3) 4. Weed control more difficult. (Upper 1/3, middle 1/3, lower 1/3) 5. Disease, particularly blast, potential is greater. 6. Potential for more adjustments of pesticide applications. 7. Purchase and handle more collapsible poly tubing. RICEFARMING.COM


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