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One Architecture supports the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in institutionalizing resilience within the organization’s loan programs and advisory practice. ONE combines strategic advisory with design-driven consultancy aimed at implementation.

January 2018

Asia and the Pacific are chronically exposed to climate change effects. The population of the region is particularly vulnerable to those impacts, given current socioeconomic challenges. Unabated warming could largely diminish previous achievements of economic development and system improvements, putting the future of the region at risk. As a result, the Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund (UCCRTF, now URF) was established in December 2013 to support the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) response to significant unmet needs of the region for both physical and economic infrastructure. The URF backs systems-based approaches to climate change as a central element of city planning. The Global Resilience Academies that URF organized in collaboration with the Rockefeller Foundation are an example of this approach, as a participatory platform for problem solving. In it, a diverse group of participants define and design initiatives that link value creation to realizable implementation components, such as necessary stakeholders and funding sources. In ADB’s Academies, One Architecture (ONE) founder Matthijs Bouw worked with officials and community leaders from Makassar in Indonesia on a local resilience strategy, and worked with the regional agricultural center Janiuay in the Philippines on their solid waste strategy. In addition, URF works in close concert with the Office of Public Private Partnership (OPPP) to address large-scale resilience-building infrastructure projects. These types of infrastructure investments and Public-Private Partnership structures provides a vehicle through which implementation of large scale projects can be shaped by resilience and offer the financial security for city-makers to sustainably invest in resilience. Within this collaboration between URF and OPPP, ONE works at identifying and developing concrete projects that provide opportunities for building resilience. The case study of New Clark City in the Philippines offers a prime example of building leadership capacity, guiding investment, and detailing discrete projects to shape implementation. < As documents, the River Study and Resilience Framework are initial steps in informing the processes by which resilience can be institutionalized in New Clark City.

Clients and Partners: Bases Conversion and Development Authority The Asian Development Bank One Architecture team: ZJA Architects Arcadis Level Agency for Infrastructure

Original Master Plan team: AlloyMTD AECOM Singapore Nippon Koei Co., LTD Philkoei International, Inc 1

ne × resilient planning TPLEX SECTION 3 (2018)




New Clark City (formerly Clark Green City) is currently being developed as a leading example of smart, green, disaster-resilient city, striving for sustainable economic growth in the rapidly growing greater Manila region. Situated in a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) that includes Clark International Airport, New Clark City (NCC) will eventually have 1.2 million inhabitants and some 500,000 jobs, which include a sizable part of the government of the Philippines, universities, and a strong manufacturing sector.



CLLEX PHASE 2 (2020)

CLLEX PHASE 1 (2020)



Building a “..disaster resilient, smart, green city,” requires a committed approach to the application of nature-based systems as a hallmark of planning and implementation. Nature in and around cities has a fundamental role in achieving sustainability, ensuring access to clean air, protecting safe drinking water, providing a variety of green spaces and mitigating impacts from climate change.




Co-benefits are fostered when solutions are developed and implemented simultaneously and at multiple scales. The Master Plan review was a targeted effort to drive development through emphasis on nature-based solutions as cheaper, more adaptive, supporting diverse ecosystem services, and serving multiple functions.

SCTEX Sub-Clark Tarlac Express Way



NCC RIVER STUDY 02. Master Plan Challenges


Manila-Clark Railway

Mountain range

Historic and Project Rainfall in Clark, Philippines (15.35°N 120.54°E)


100 yr floodplain (existing natural condition)


Rainfall (mm)

400 300 200 Master Plan“green zone”









Historical Average (1901-2015)








Mean Projected Precipitation (2020-2039) bcc_csm_1_1, RCP8.5 (high emissions scenario) Mean Projected Precipitation (2020-2039) bcc_csm_1_1, RCP2.6 (low emissions scenario)





10 km

Figure 1.

Historic (average) rainfall amounts in Clark, Philippines.


Climate risk

Figure 2.

historical data to develop a “design storm”, climate change scenarios suggest looking forward toward precipitation events. This includes using design storms that consider the impacts of climate change as well as designing adaptive, responsive systems to handle wet weather events of the future.

Climate change impacts in the New Clark City region of the Philippines include both increased annual rainfall and increased severity of wet weather events. Even in low emissions scenarios, annual average rainfall is expected to increase by nearly 17% by NCC RIVER STUDY 2039 according to the World Bank Climate Change 04. Approach to the River Portal.

^ New Clark City is located on a former air force base approximately 95 kilometers SLEX (59 miles) North of metro Manila with strong regional connectivity.

2.1.1 Master Plan risk A few risks are pertinent to the master plan and in relation to the river. One of which is broader climate change impacts. Scientists agree that climate change is occurring, but the extent to which change will happen is less certain.

Furthermore, the number of extreme events that occur each year are expected to increase. The Climate 4.4.1 Natural edge Change in the Philippines Report projects an increase These edges receive no modification or engineering, the number of undisturbed. days with greater so that the river inecosystem is left These than 200mm of rain from 8 to does 12. not require high edges indicate land use that levels of flood protection. This strategy can be paired the typical drainage design approach uses with parcel level While protections.


While a variety of climate models and carbon emissions scenarios allow us to consider future possibilities, this uncertainty makes it difficult to design

data, chart Climate Change in the Philippines Report, 2011 (cited above)


Looking southwest (up river) at the “green zone” and natural 100-year floodplain misalignment. Mountain range in the distance.

and engineer practical drainage systems for today that will meet future demand. Existing topographic conditions throughout New Clark City show many hills and valleys, and mountainous terrain. From satellite imagery, it is easy to see the footprint of fertile locations near the river, which align in many locations with the projected 100-year floodplain. Encroachment onto these natural areas alters the riverway and flow conditions, and are likely to increase flood susceptibility for new developments along and near the channel.

The recent discourse around resilient urban design has centered on incorporating climate change impacts into design by considering more intense rain events and creating adaptive spaces that can change and grow as the future becomes more certain. The intent of this study is set out a series of resilient NCC RIVER STUDY design and planning strategies that will mitigate 04. Approach to the River identified risks and safeguard investments. Adaptive open space that functions as a floodplain during extreme weather provides a low-cost opportunity for resilience in New Clark City.

The design of the river system in the master plan is based on peak flows produced by the 1% wet weather event, but climate models suggest that the 1% storm of 2017 could be the 20% storm of 2050. image Nearmap Natural edgessatellite that imagery. Retrieved August 2017. are not altered by engineering


Landscaped edges that activate the pedestrian realm and enhance urban experience

4.4.2 Landscaped edge These edges receive minimal engineering and earthwork, such as revetment, earthen levee, or other method for bank stabilization. Furthermore, these edges may be programmed in relation to abutting land use, particularly for temporary or floodable uses such as trails or bike paths.

ONE’s involvement began with the participation in the Global Resilience Academies that ADB organized with the Rockefeller Foundation in Bangkok and Manila, and has now expanded to a broad range of consultancy projects. TAS PACKAGES








^ The relationship between the products developed through transaction advisory services (TAS). The River Study and Resilience Framework were input for the TAS packages for utilities and sub-developments.

Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA), a federal agency acting as the Master Developer, has mandated ADB’s OPPP as transaction advisor in the development of this new planned urban center. ADB assists BCDA in the overall evaluation of the Master Plan for the city and in running tender processes for suitable PublicPrivate Partnerships (PPP) projects to attract private sector participation. In the summer of 2017, the Master Plan for this city was completed. The consultant team led by ONE provided technical expertise in urban planning and infrastructure development, with an additional focus on resilience. In the first phase of the work, ONE reviewed the Master Plan for NCC through an extensive series of workshops with clients, stakeholders and the Master Plan’s original consultant team.

Hard edges to protect land use and activity behind

Edge Typology 4.4.3 Urban edge These edges become hardscape engineering works, such as bulkheads. These edges indicate land use that is critical to protect from multiple levels of flooding, a limited amount of space, and/or a connection to urban functions. These edges may be further programmed in relation to abutting land use type, to capitalize on co-benefits.

Urban Edge

Landscape Edge

Natural Edge NCC RIVER STUDY 07. Phase 1 Impact

Ecological Value

Urban Functions


This initial review process made clear that the introduction of nature-based systems and decentral infrastructures offers many potential resilience benefits and cost savings. It also made evident that clear implementation strategies were a necessary addition to the Master Plan.

Promenade, playground, Protect urban environment bike path, connection to from levels of flooding other urban functions

Stabilize river bank

Sports field, recreational trails, agriculture

Preserve natural landscape and habitat

Wetland, park facilities

As an outcome of this review process, the ONE team developed three products as addenda to the Master Plan: NCC RIVER STUDY 07. Phase 1 Impact

photos (opposite page) Urban Edge - Chicago River Walk; Landscape Edge - Bayou Promenade, Buffalo; Natural Edge - Mill River Park, Stamford



Large blocks over 200m between intersections on the existing Master Plan

Increase of approx. 1600m of 25m collector road

10 additional hectares of park in revised River Plan

- A ‘River Zone Plan’ that re-designs the Cutcut river from a channeled drainage infrastructure into a more nature-based valley that both creates ‘room for the river’ and will serve as a series of public parklands which form a spine for the new development.

Phase 1: Priority Development Zone

Phase 1: NCC River Park (single parcel)

Position south of the river for future adaptation and development phasing

- A ‘Resilience Framework’ that analyzes vulnerabilities and opportunities for resilience in the urban systems, which illustrates how an integrated approach to addressing these will benefit the city’s development.

Figure 40. Increase of collector road and river zone.

Cost Increase 1: Additional roads to reduce block size

Cost Increase 2: Expanded river zone to build

25m collector roads estimated at $489/m Increase road length of 1,600m 1,600m *$489/m = $782,000

Park development was not estimated in MP Increase in park area 1,600m Estimate of $500,000/ha to design and build active urban park land 10ha *$500,000/ha = $5,000,000

Estimated Cost Increase of ~$1M

Estimated Cost Increase of ~$5M



^ Pages from the River Study with River Zone Plan emphasize early analysis, potential design strategies and components of implementation.

- A set of implementation guidelines that serves as the basis for the design guidelines and as a framework for future program and development management.


ne × resilient implementation



2.2 Nature-based solutions and ecosystem adaptation

2.3 Proximity to transit

Resilience interacts at all scales. A multi-scalar approach is necessary for the development of New Clark City and its future success.

Building a “..disaster resilient, smart, green city,” requires a committed approach to institute the application of nature-based systems as a hallmark of planning and implementation.

In this framework, program suggestions and high-level guidelines have been articulated on three scales:

NCC’s River Zone Plan, with its ecosystembased adaptation and nature-based designed green areas, propels the existing Master Plan objectives towards cultivating a sustainable city, that values smaller scale green links and larger ecologic zones.

RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK In the Resilience Framework, a high-level document, the main principles of resilience are outlined and applied to the NCC’s context. In the document, the hazards and the relevant climate data are compiled and visualized, followed by an analysis of the impacts on, and possible vulnerabilities of, the different urban systems. Subsequently, actions and guidelines for future development and disaster recovery are articulated at three scales: the city, the district and the facility.

City Naturalized NATURALIZED



Local features that interact with many facilities

Parcel or structure-level aspects and qualities



Ecosystem services

At a District level, resilience begins with the identification of urban strategies that addressed localized features, from an open space network to sustainable, smart infrastructure. Co-benefits are derived from the integration of these features, such that community services and amenities remain central to necessary investment.




NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK 03. Shocks and Stresses



Large-scale planning systems and mechanisms

Urban benefit

Using nature-based systems is: - Cheaper and more cost effective - More adaptive - Supports additional ecosystem services - Environmentally friendly - Sustainable


City resilience relies on strategies that shape large-scale city processes through the establishment Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), institutionalized by inclusive governance structures, and implemented within clearly designated Master Plan zones. To ensure city prosperity, continued operation and economic stablity must be a top priority for identified critical infrastructure.


Nature has a fundamental role in achieving the New Urban Agenda’s goal of sustainability, ensuring access to clean air, safe drinking water and green space. Nature in and around cities can mitigate public health issues by reducing pollution and protecting natural resources, including wetlands and natural river zones that can reduce flooding. Co-benefits are revealed when these solutions are developed and implemented simultaneously at multiple scales.


Scales of resilience

Facility level resilience is balanced by diligent, up-to-date facility management for day to day operations as well as disaster response and recovery operations that occur at acute moments. Disaster risk reduction is rooted in smart design and construction practices as well as policies. NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK


Figure 3.

03. Shocks and Stresses

Resilience at every scale, through large-scale planning mechanisms, localized connections, and parcel-level aspects.


photo Bishan Park, Singapore

Climate change


Cluster I

Climate change impacts in the New Clark City region of the Philippines include both increased annual rainfall and increased severity of wet weather events.

heat waves, sea level rise

Cluster II heat waves, extreme rainfall events, sea level rise, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides

3.2 Floods In cases and around the world, floods are the most costly common disaster. As it pertains to New Clark City, susceptibility to flooding includes heavy precipitation events, typhoons, and seasonal rains.

Cluster X heat waves, increasing ocean temperature, extreme rainfall events, sea level rise

3.2.1 Heavy precipitation, rainfall events

Cluster III heat waves, sea level rise

Sea Level Rise

The Resilience Framework combines both the physical and social actions that are necessary to build resilience. The use of visual tools not only make the document easy to use and understand, they also show how the resilience lens will impact the city for the better, specifically in its communityand open spaces.

heat waves, extreme rainfall events, sea level rise

Increasing Ocean Temperature

ne page 2 of 4 / 19 December 2017

6. Siting and edge conditions should be coordinated with the River Study component of the Masterplan. Adjusting the siteplan to the guidelines established in the Resiliency Framework, which “give the river room,” should create considerable cost savings, by the reduction in hard infrastructure (floodwalls) and regrading activities. See Figure 6.1 below for an overview. Relevant pages from the study are attached to this memo for reference.

Raised Road creates integrated flood protection on Eastern edge of site

By stepping back from the river, out of the floodplain, to create a soft/natural edge, construction & engineering greatly reduced here

Levee/Berm possible here

Full-height bulkhead only required here

Expanding the Greenbelt/Blueway creates extra capacity for floodwaters, reducing risk to structures on North side

7. Potential Alternate Location for Venues. Locating the Athletic Venues on the eastern-most lots would allow for the reinstitution of key roadways and multiple access routes, and can be better coordinated with the Greenbelt/ Blueway. Note that final feld orientation must be determined by local conditions (prevailing wind direction and sun angles) and proponent will be expected to explain and justify the derivation of final siting and orientation. Athletes Village and other supporting buildings located in-between to create transition from venues to commercial and government zones

Aquatic Center should be placed as near as possible to the Stadium to allow for shared parking facilities

Locating the Stadium to the southeast would allow vehicular access on 3-sides, and a greenbelt/pedestrian frontage on the the 4th side.

35 E Broadway, Suite 5C New York, NY 10002 United States of America


PO Box 15816 1001 NH Amsterdam The Netherlands w w w.o n e a rc h i te c tu r e.n l

^ A document page form the NGAC sub-development transaction advisory process. > Pages from the Resilience Framework that emphasize nature-based solutions, climate data and the systemic dynamics that city planning and management must respond to.

Advisory team supporting ADB’s OPPP on the procurement processes for the first sub-development, the National Government Center and the Sports Village. In collaboration with Level Agency and ARCADIS, ONE’s Technical Advisory team is working directly with BCDA and the area sub-developer to refine the district-level Master Plan, such that the aggressive implementation schedule (prompted by the forthcoming Southeast Asian Games) can be met while still ensuring quality urban design, inviting streetscapes, smart land use, and long-term resiliency. The next stage of support for NCC focuses on the areawide energy and water utilities planning. Integrating resilience thinking into the transaction advisory processes is not only a sustainable way to reduce risk, it also helps reduce costs and create additional value. Likewise, working across multiple development contracts allows for synergistic thinking. For instance, the team’s advice in organizing initial sub-developments on the left river bank only, with strong connections between the green spaces and the future River Park, have the broader impact of reducing infrastructure costs, generating opportunities for green infrastructure, and improving the adaptive capacity of future development as well as to climate change. By utilizing a resilience lens, NCC’s water utilities will not only be state-of-the-art for the Philippines, but will also include nature-based solutions for recycling and recharge, as well as provide equitable rates for NCC communities. By advising during the procurement phase, resilience becomes embedded as a standardized component in shaping the development, construction and management processes for the city.

heat waves, increasing ocean temperature, extreme rainfall events, sea level rise

Cluster XI sea level rise

Heat Waves

Figure 5.

Implications of severe flooding.

Observed Baseline (1971 - 2000)mm DJF MAM JJA SON

Change in 2020 (2000 - 2035) DJF MAM JJA SON

615.7 71.7 212.4 155.2 120.8 434 40.9

-0.3 2.7 4.2 7.5 16.3 26.0 34.2

Auroroa Bataan Bulacan Nueva Ecija Pampanga Tarlac Zambales Figure 6.

extreme rainfall events, sea level rise

Cluster VII heat waves, increasing ocean temperature, sea level rise

sea level rise

NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK 06. District Resilience NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK 06. District Resilience 18

Figure 4. Philippine exposure to climate change and extreme events. Derived from the Climate Change Adapatation Best Practices in the Philippines. Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Dec/Jan/Feb Mar/Apr/May Jun/Jul/Aug Sept/Oct/Nov Figure 7.

546.4 368.7 288.9 316.5 320.6 265.4 368.0

768.7 1326.2 1041.4 995.0 1030.4 1193.5 1793.9

1151.1 872.6 842.1 745.0 785.2 644.3 872.0

-17.1 -5.2 -23.0 -13.8 -18.8 -13.7 -4.5

6.7 9.4 12.8 10.1 4.4 -1.6 13.3

5.8 -0.4 -2.9 1.6 -5.1 -9.6 -1.6

8.7 -8.2 -13.2 -7.4 -15.4 -6.7 -2.2

-29.2 -8.1 -36.4 -25.7 -26.4 -18.2 -21.6

7.4 29.1 23.6 22.7 13.9 8.8 31.4

-5.7 1.5 -3.3 -2.4 7.2 -5.5 5.6

Seasonal rainfall projections for Tarlac (New Clark City) in 2020, medium-range emission scenario.


Cluster VI


Change in 2050 (2035 - 2065) DJF MAM JJA SON

Region 3

Cluster XI


Cluster VII

Cluster IV heat waves, sea level rise

Rainfall Events


Even in low emissions scenarios, annual average rainfall is expected to increase by nearly 17% by 2039 according to the World Bank Climate Change report.

Cluster IX

Observed Baseline (1971 - 2000) mm 43.4 265.4 1,193.4 644.3

Projected Rainfall in 2020 (2006 - 2035)mm 54.7 229.0 1,174.4 582.4

Projected Rainfall in 2050 (2036 - 2065)mm 40.5 217.1 1,298.5 608.9

Seasonal rainfall projections for Tarlac (New Clark City) in 2020, medium-range emission scenario.

charts Climate Change in the Philippines Report, 2011. photo Rescuers hold on a flood victim, Manila,

NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK 06. District Resilience



Key urban strategies

Key urban strategies

GUIDELINE 43. Prioritize green infrastructure throughout blocks and within parcels.

GUIDELINE 44. Develop green links to manage stormwater and enhance public spaces.

Green and Open Space Plan

Green and Open Space Plan, Landscape Architecture

rk River Pa

New Clark City is an aspiring green city. The use of green infrastructure for water drainage, water harvesting, and water cleaning is a critical element. Green infrastructure is often more cost effective than grey infrastructure. They also provide ecosystem services, improve health and livability, provide space for local food production, and mitigate heat island effects. Green infrastructure also forms a key component of open space design. pbo ild a C rPageNumber 60

r Park Rive

Filtration Park / Rain Garden

Urban Farm

Pocket Park

Figure 36. Green infrastructures form an inter-block network and connect to the river park


Green Rooftop


photo Buffalo Niagara Medical Center, Buffalo. Rooftop Garden.


Single location for renewable solar energy

Coordination is a requirement

Energy Use - gas, fuel

Interconnected systems


A complex picture is revealed when individual systems are overlaid, as they are in the real world. It is clear that systems do not function isolation, it is important to delaminate the systems to understand component parts and vulnerabilities.

ENERGY Energy Saving

Sustainable Infrastructure - solar energy, water, wind

Economic systems function a bit differently, than those presented in this chapter, in that it may stand as a driving feature, interacting with all other systems at a baseline.

Waste Treatment - decomposition Switching Station proposed at civic

Energy Generation - electricity, heat


NATURAL SYSTEM Treatment plants incorporated in open space

Stormwater Infrastruc-

Production Process Supply

Consumption Food Loss

Reuse and Circulation - irrigation


Treatment - filtration, disposal


Figure 28. Map of sub-systems in connection

Infrastructure forms an intricate web of community benefits, economic value, and ecologic productivity. In order to unleash those resources and assets committed coordination must take place. Each of these systems have different owners, authorities, management agencies, users, and jurisdictional bounds.

Reuse - fertilizer

Agriculture LEGEND NCC Boundary Civic Center Metro Clark Landfill Area for Deep Well Site Sewage Treatment Plant Dam Proposed Switching Station Transmission Line Substation Water Treatment Plant Transit Hub Government/Institutional Mixed Use 01 Open Space (“Green Zone”) Forest

Every resident shall have green space within proximity of their home. The different green spaces shall be linked when possible, into a continuous network. These networks shall include links to the higher order green spaces, such as the River Park and the surrounding natural areas. This is critical not only for ecological reasons, but also to make sure that the green spaces are accessible to all.

Figure 37. Green infrastructures form an inter-block network and connect to the river park

NCC RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK photo Fhornton creek water channel, Seattle. 04. Systems Le jardin des cultures nord depuis la résidence Gide, Canne.




Figure 29. Inter-relationship between infrastructure systems.



ne × office

^ As a pilot project for coastal protection, the Global Resilience Partnership’s Tacloban Project works to impart resilience-based policies and practices into the mangrove and beach forest rehabilitation process in the Philippines.

^ Climate Ready East Boston’s ‘layered approach’ explores how localized public infrastructure interventions address short and long term threats, as a flexible mechanism to ensure that policy, development and resiliency align.

^ Scheduled to begin construction in 2019, the East Side Coastal Resiliency project is an integrated coastal protection and community infrastructure project serving Manhattan’s Lower East Side, and the first compartment of the Big U masterplan.

^ The Triboro Corridor project, as a design initiative for the Fourth Regional Plan, visualizes how to re-envision an underutilized rail corridor as a passenger line, open space spine, and economic engine through incremental equitable development.

ABOUT THE OFFICE One Architecture, founded in Amsterdam in 1995, is an award-winning firm that designs buildings, infrastructure and urban environments. ONE works around the globe, using design to guide cities, regions and countries toward meaningful long-term spatial and infrastructure planning. The New York office, One Urbanism, was established in 2015 to focus on planning and resilient design.

organization, (digital-) technology, culture, policy and politics form an active part of the work we do.

ONE engages processes as much as projects. Over the years, this interest has resulted in an open, collaborative, practice in which issues such as finance,

ONE is a global leader in resilience infrastructure, through flagship projects in New York and other cities, as well as through its consultancy for, a.o., 100 Resilient Cities and the Asian Development Bank. ONE also understands resilience as the primary lens to view and understand complex systems. ONE founder Matthijs Bouw is the Rockefeller Urban Resilience Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania.




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35 E Broadway . 5C . New York, NY 10002 . USA

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