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Tejo Policy Conference II – Angola, Portugal and the EU: Current Relations and Potential Future Implications

21 March 2014, Lisbon, Portugal

Table of Contents 04. IPLI Foreword 05. CLIPIS Foreword 06. Conference Panelist Remarks 08. International Student Participants 10. Photo Report 11. Partners and Special Thanks




IPLI Foreword

In launching this second Tejo Policy Conference which explored the strategic relationship between Angola, Portugal and the European Union (EU), IPLI was pleased to once again work with its partner: Lusíada Center for Research in International Politics and Security (CLIPIS) at Universidade Lusíada in Lisbon. IPLI’s participation in this initiative marked a broadening beyond the traditional scope of IPLI’s research area which until recently was situated almost entirely within the zone of the EU and Euro-Mediterranean region. IPLI elected to expand its geographic area of study in recognition of the need to more closely examine the increasingly complex links between nation-states and the consequences that their policies can have on one another irrespective of the physical distances between them. It is within this framework that IPLI agreed to work with CLIPIS to analyze the importance of the growing tripartite relationship between Angola, Portugal and the EU. This conference successfully served as a platform that enabled policy makers, researchers, academics and students to come together to discuss issues of global significance. IPLI assesses that it is of paramount importance to sensitize future policy makers to the importance of examining and understanding the effects that public policies in one country can have in another distant country or bloc of nations. As part of IPLI’s commitment to “unite the policy makers of today and tomorrow,” in advance of this conference, IPLI organized an international essay competition for students at its partner universities in France at l’Institut d’études politiques in Paris and in Lille. The winners of this essay competition were selected to participate at the conference and were privileged to meet up close with a myriad of policy makers and researchers who participated at the event. This meeting provided them with a rich opportunity to debate and discuss the implications of the important issues that were raised during the conference. In addition to enabling the attendance of a delegation of international students at the event, IPLI was pleased to jointly confer the first IPLI-CLIPIS academic award to a Universidade Lusíada student who participated at the event. This student was selected by the jury prize committee for having written the best paper on the conference topic. This conference served as a significant and unique contribution to the growing international policy discussions surrounding the evolution of the relationship between Angola, Portugal and the EU. IPLI was honored to cooperate with CLIPIS in this academic event and it looks forward to broadening and enhancing its collaboration with CLIPIS in the future. IPLI


CLIPIS Foreword The Lusíada Center for Research in International Politics and Security (CLIPIS) is a research unit of the Universidade Lusíada that aims to produce and disseminate scientific research in the areas of international relations and security studies through the organization of debates, international conferences and multidisciplinary seminars. Twice per year CLIPIS produces its scientific journal Revista Lusíada de Política Internacional e Segurança. In addition to its own projects, CLIPIS carries out research projects in cooperation with other Portuguese and foreign universities, research centers and think tanks. Notably with the IPLI (International Policy and Leadership Institute), the IDN (National Defense Institute) and the ISCPSI (Higher Institute of Police Sciences and Internal Security). CLIPIS is composed of two research groups with the following objectives: one dedicated to the study of Portuguese foreign policy; and the other dedicated to the wider study of the multi-dimensional aspects of global international relations. Currently CLIPIS is composed of eleven doctoral researchers and is enlarging its membership to include foreign researchers in the subsequent phases of its institutional development. In pursuit of its objectives, in March 2014, CLIPIS co-organized an international conference with IPLI focused on relations between Angola, Portugal and the European Union. The aim of this conference was to analyze the relationship between Angola and Portugal and to reflect on the policy impact of these relations within the broader context of links to the EU. Some of the key issues that were discussed at this conference included the following: What do all parties gain from this relationship? Within the framework of the triangular relationship between Portugal, Angola and the EU, what is the exact role of Portugal? What can Portugal “offer” that is of interest to Angola and the EU? How can Angola benefit from its ties to Portugal in order to establish greater connections with the EU? The conference was a success and I look forward to collaborating with the IPLI in the near future.

Prof. Doutor José Francisco Lynce Zagalo Pavia Coordinator of CLIPIS and Assistant Professor of International Relations at Lusíada Universities of Lisbon and Porto 5

Conference Panelist Remarks

Ambassador António Martins da Cruz

The foreign policy priorities for Portugal are the following: the EU, NATO and Portugal’s connections with lusophone countries. Angola does not need Portugal in order to dialogue with the EU, however; it is easier for Angola to work through Portugal due to a shared culture and language. Africa should be a priority and Portugal should work to convince the EU that Africa is a strategic partner, a true partner, and not just a source of resources and commercial opportunities. The EU is somewhat envious of Portugal’s access and ability to invest in Angola and therefore it is in the strategic interest of Portugal to maintain strong relations with Angola in order to avoid an EU disinterest in Portugal and a scenario where other EU member states attempt to fill a gap left by Portugal. Between 2008-2013, the EU gave a total of 2 billion euros to Angola. This is not a sufficient effort and the EU can do more. On a separate matter, it would be very beneficial to Portugal if Angola becomes a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council because it will bring Angola to a new level of engagement in international geopolitics. 6

Brigadeiro Manuel Correia de Barros

Historically, there have been ups and downs in the relationship between Angola and Portugal but common interests between the two countries have tended to prevail in maintaining good working relations. Angola needs to make use of international investments flowing into Angola as a way to develop the country. While Angola is the 6th most important market for Portugal and the fastest growing, unfortunately poverty, inequality, inefficiency and corruption present large obstacles to development. In order to overcome these obstacles, Angola needs important partnerships with countries like Portugal in order to assist in combatting the endemic problems it faces. It is important for Portugal to be a gateway for Angola to the EU, but is it truly up to the task? Conversely, one has to consider whether the EU is interested in Portugal’s potential role as a gateway to Angola. It is hard to see the EU as a model now, given the growing inequality between rich and poor and the rise of nationalism.

Mestre António Luvualu de Carvalho

Comissário Jefe Sebastião Martins

Angola has a key role in Africa. It is a major player along with South Africa and Nigeria. Angola is seeking ways to position itself on the international stage, including by casting itself as a peacekeeper in Africa. Congo, Sudan and Madagascar have historically requested Angolan intervention in internal disputes. Angola is now campaigning to become a nonpermanent member of the UN Security Council and it hopes to rely on the support of Portugal to achieve this goal. In 2008, Angola was adversely affected by a drop in oil prices and since then has endeavored to develop other facets of its economy. Development priorities for Angola should include building up its agricultural and banking sectors and Angola should also work to gain better access to large international distribution chains in order to export its goods. The gateway dynamic between Angola and Portugal is an integral part of the relationship between the two countries in the current international order. Angola and Portugal both have great growth potential and should push each other forward.

Angola experienced eight percent growth in 2013 and economic forecasts estimate 5.9 percent growth in 2014. With only moderate inflation and a growing consumer class, Angola is becoming a more attractive country for investment. EU countries are realizing this and in recent times we have seen that when there has been a cooling of relations between Portugal and Angola, EU countries such as France and Spain have attempted to move in to fill the gap. Angola needs stable gateways to the EU in order to assist in the repositioning of its economy, therefore Angola needs to be receptive to offers of cooperation from EU countries other than Portugal. In future years it will be important for Angola to consolidate its peace which was hard won in 2002. Angola should move to engage more as an international player by seeking an expanded role in regional peacekeeping. Angola should also play a key role in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the country should move to build relations with Brazil, China and South Africa.

Dr. José Tavares Moreira

Prof. Doutor José Lamego

Portugal is a key country for Angola because it can provide access for Angolan products to the enormous EU commercial market. Also, Angola currently imports most of its products from Portugal. The link between Portugal and Angola can additionally facilitate partnerships between Angolan and EU companies. Angolan investors are increasingly attracted to the eurozone as a way to diversify their international investment portfolios and therefore it is important to continue to work on the development of a robust capital market in Angola to further promote this trend.

If a credible Common Defense and Security Policy emerges within Europe, then Angola could benefit from having Portugal represent its regional security interests within the EU. A significant relationship between Angola and Portugal exists, thanks to the Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP). This link is crucial for dealing with scenarios when ties between the two countries have been tested due to various diplomatic considerations.


International Student Participants

Promoting students’ education and awareness of a wide variety of international policy issues is a key objective for IPLI. In pursuit of this goal, in advance of the Tejo Policy Conference, IPLI organized an international policy essay contest for students at IPLI’s partner universities in France at the Institut d’études politiques in Paris and in Lille (Commonly known as Sciences Po Paris and Sciences Po Lille). Students were invited to submit papers that analyzed the current state of relations between Angola, Portugal and the EU and to examine the issue of strategic partnership between Angola and Portugal. In particular, their papers were required to provide recommendations that policy makers could consider in potential efforts to enhance relations in the tripartite Angola, Portugal, EU relationship. IPLI’s goal in launching this essay contest was to encourage motivated students to go beyond their normal fields of study and to push themselves to broaden their knowledge in a new area of expertise. IPLI received numerous essay submissions for the competition and chose a select few students to participate as IPLI’s delegates at the event. The following testimonials from student participants highlight some of the things that they learned at the conference: 8

“This conference was the perfect opportunity to meet prominent diplomats and scholars on the issue. Therefore it was a unique occasion to share ideas and knowledge about an interesting and unusual topic. This meeting in Lisbon had a great influence on my understanding of the Angolan-Portuguese relationship as well as of its implications within the EU.”

The delegation of students from Sciences Po Paris and Sciences Po Lille

“The inspiring panel at the IPLI conference showed us once again how Portugal and Angola are deeply intertwined at several levels. As they are facing new challenges, sharing valuable instruments can stimulate both nations on the internal and on the external scene.” “Many of the insightful perspectives put forth by Portuguese and Angolan policy makers during this year’s IPLI conference were novel to me, and allowed me to further reconsider an issue I had already previously contemplated at length. The method by which diplomatic relations were approached and analyzed by both concerned parties will be useful to me in my future work at university.” “This conference allowed me to see the relationship between two countries from a different perspective. It helped me to understand their strong correlation and mutual benefit. I have to mention that the presence of such important participants made the conference more interesting and significant.”

For this edition of the Tejo Policy Conference, a new initiative, the IPLI-CLIPIS academic award, was created to offer Universidade Lusíada students a chance to compete in an effort to win recognition from an academic jury for writing the most outstanding essay on the theme of the conference. The winner of this competition, Ricardo Cabral Fernandes, was presented with his award by the rector of the university, Prof. Doutor Eng. Diamantino Freitas Gomes Durão. 9


PARTNERS LUSÍADA CENTER OF RESEARCH IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS AND SECURITY The Lusíada Center of Research in International Politics and Security (CLIPIS) is a research unit of the Universidade Lusíada that aims to produce and disseminate scientific research in the areas of International Relations and Security Studies. CLIPIS headquarters are located in Lisbon, Portugal. For more information please visit:ção/clipis/clipis/apresentação.aspx

INTERNATIONAL POLICY AND LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE The International Policy and Leadership Institute (IPLI) is a policy institute focused on promoting good governance in the Euro-Mediterranean region by uniting the policy makers of today and tomorrow. IPLI headquarters are located in Paris, France. IPLI associates with a variety of prestigious international academic institutions with established programs in public affairs/ public policy as well as with think tanks with research programs focused on Euro-Mediterranean countries.


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