Active with Brazil

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BRAZIL ACTIVE WITH


BRAZIL: a key partner for the OECD As the largest country in South America and the eighth economy in the world, Brazil is a strategic partner for the OECD. Over the last two decades, Brazil has enriched our work by intensifying its participation in OECD activities. It also became the first Key Partner of the OECD to formalise its aspiration to OECD membership, in May 2017. Brazil has been a source of valuable policy experience, providing insights on innovative approaches to global challenges. The Brazilian administration is fully engaged in our work on a wide array of policy issues, from competition to taxation, education to environment, digital policies to regulatory framework. Today, Brazil participates in more OECD bodies, projects and programmes, and has adhered to more OECD instruments, than any other Partner of the OECD. 2020 has been a watershed year for the world economy and marks a critical turning point for Brazil’s future. The country was finally pulling out of a long recession when the COVID-19 outbreak hit, and it is now projected to suffer another recession. While the policy measures taken by the government have helped vulnerable populations weather the initial phases of the outbreak, the COVID-19 crisis has nevertheless taken a profound toll on Brazil’s economy and society. Limited fiscal space, exacerbated by the pandemic-related increase in public debt, calls for renewed momentum toward an ambitious structural reform agenda. The country must build on its success with the pension reform to further improve overall fiscal sustainability and public spending efficiency. Addressing the high degree of inequality that affects both well-being and economic growth, while strengthening its green growth policies, will also be key to Brazil’s recovery. Other priorities for “building back better” include raising investment levels by improving the business climate and access to finance, tackling infrastructure bottlenecks, promoting gender inclusion and opportunities for women, and increasing its participation in global value chains to reap and distribute the benefits of globalisation more widely. The OECD stands ready to support Brazil in these endeavours. This brochure provides an overview of the scope, depth and richness of the growing and mutually beneficial OECDBrazil partnership. We look forward to further deepening our co-operation and to continue to design, develop and deliver better policies for better lives in Brazil.

ANGEL GURRÍA, OECD Secretary-General


CONTENTS

Contents

THE OECD AND BRAZIL 2

EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

36

The OECD and Brazil: A growing and mutually beneficial

Creating jobs

37

co-operation

4

Supporting SME development and strengthening

Brazil: The most active Key Partner of the OECD

6

local skills

38

Working together to tackle the COVID-19 crisis

8

Strengthening the health system

39

Finding global solutions at the G20

9

Educating and empowering new generations

Leading OECD work with Latin America

with the right skills

41

and the Caribbean

11

Tackling gender inequality

43

Supporting Brazil’s alignment with OECD standards

13

Measuring better lives

44

SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH 15

INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION

45

Strengthening economic growth

16

Building a knowledge and digital economy

46

Promoting green growth

18

Promoting a vibrant global steel industry

47

Increasing agriculture productivity and food security

19

Making growth work for all

20

ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY

48

Upgrading participation in global value chains

21

Promoting sustainable development

49

Supporting good water governance

50

EFFICIENT FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS

22

Improving energy strategy

51

Promoting trade

23

Enhancing nuclear energy and other applications

52

Invigorating international investment

24

Strengthening chemical and transgenic safety

53

Fostering sound competition

25

Strengthening financial education

26

PARTNERING TO ACHIEVE GLOBAL GOALS

54

Reinforcing consumer protection

27

Promoting effective development co-operation

PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

28

and the 2030 agenda Strengthening corporate and state-owned enterprise

55

Reaching out to trade unions, business communities

and foundations

56

governance

29

Enhancing the business environment

30

ANNEXES

58

Fighting transnational corruption

31

Today’s OECD: Better policies for better lives

58

Aligning with international tax standards

32

OECD Legal Instruments: facilitating international

Increasing transparency and public expenditure efficiency 34

co-ordination

60

Promoting digital transformation in the public sector

Brazil’s participation in OECD Bodies

64

35

CONTENTS . 1


THE OECD AND BRAZIL

2 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 3

THE OECD AND BRAZIL

HOW WE WORK TOGETHER


The OECD and Brazil: A growing and mutually beneficial co-operation With a gross domestic product of USD 3.372 trillion1 and a population of 212 million, Brazil is the eighth largest economy in the world. Its formal expression of interest in joining the OECD is, therefore, of the greatest strategic importance, and even more so because it is the first to have come from a Key Partner country2. The co-operation between Brazil and the OECD dates back from the early 1990s, when the Organisation launched its engagement with four Latin American countries (also including Argentina, Chile and Mexico). Since then, Brazil has become the most engaged nonmember country by participating in the most OECD bodies and projects and adhering to the greatest number of standards of the Organisation.

Consolidating this growing and mutually beneficial co-operation, Brazil presented its application for OECD membership at the Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM) of May 2017. This request is currently under consideration by the OECD Council, along with five other candidates including Argentina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Peru and Romania.

“We are ready to begin our process of joining the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We are already advanced, adopting the highest worldwide practices in all areas, from financial regulation to environmental protection.” Jair Bolsonaro, President of Brazil at the UNGA 2019 in New York, United States.

1. GDP in PPP at 2018 international prices. Source: World Bank. 2. The five OECD Key Partner countries include: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa.

1996

During President Cardoso’s government, Brazil joins its first OECD committee (Steel committee).

4 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

1999

Minister of Finance Luis Felipe Lampreia visits OECD Headquarters

2000

Brazil joins the Anti-Bribery Convention and Recommendation of the Council against Hard Core Cartels.

2007

Brazil is invited to an “enhanced engagement” with the OECD, subsequently referred to as Key Partnership.

2008

Minister of Foreign Affairs Celso Amorim visits OECD headquarters.

2009

Minister Mantega launches the Economic Survey of Brazil with SecretaryGeneral Gurría in Brasilia.


THE OECD AND BRAZIL

Jair Bolsonaro, President of Brazil, and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, during the G20 Leaders’ Summit 2019, in Osaka, Japan.

2014

OECD launches the Better Life index in Portuguese in São Paulo with football legend Pelé.

2015

Brazil signs Co-operation Agreement and Programme of Work.

2017

Brazil presents its application for OECD membership during the 2017 Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM).

2018

President Michel Temer receives OECD Secretary-General Gurría in Brasilia.

2019

Signing of OECDUK MOU on co-operation with Brazil with Minister of Foreign Affairs Ernesto Araújo.

2020

Ministers of Casa Civil, Braga Netto, and Foreign Affairs, Ernesto Araujo, address the OECD Council.

THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 5


Brazil: The most active Key Partner of the OECD

Today, Brazil is an “Associate” (or “member”), i.e. participating on an equal footing with OECD Members, in 14 OECD Bodies and Programmes, and a “Participant” in another 25 OECD Bodies (see Annexes). In terms of legal instruments, which are standards, best practises and policy guidelines developed by the Organisation’s committees, Brazil has adhered to 94 OECD legal instruments. Recently, Brazil requested adherence to an additional 52 instruments, including the Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and Current Invisible Operations “Brazil’s accession to the OECD is a top priority of the Government of President Jair Bolsonaro, committed to transforming Brazil into a market-driven liberal economy and a true liberal democracy. It will not only benefit the ongoing process of reforms in our country, but also strengthen the Organization’s reach and relevance at this critical juncture. Accession will provide a unique opportunity for enhancing our cooperation with all members in a wide array of policy issues that are key to the promotion of a more sustainable, prosperous, and inclusive world, reinforcing our shared values and principles. Time is of the essence here. Brazil is ready to start the accession process to OECD and to conclude it expeditiously, we call on all parties involved to examine this request with a sense of urgency.” Ernesto Araújo, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil

Accession to the OECD would be the culmination of our institutional improvement efforts. A guarantee that we are following the path of prosperity. Paulo Guedes, Minister of the Economy of Brazi

6 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


THE OECD AND BRAZIL

Partnerships in OECD Bodies and Projects and adherence to OECD Legal Instruments Instruments

Bodies

100

90 Key Partnership starts 80 Joint Work Programme starts 70

60

50

40

30

20

10

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

0 Pre-1996

Number of legal instruments

Accession request

Source: OECD, Global Relations Secretariat THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 7


Working together to tackle the COVID-19 crisis

To further strengthen Brazil’s co-operation with the Organisation, in January 2020 President Bolsonaro announced the creation of the Special Secretariat in the Presidency (Casa Civil) for External Relations. The Special Secretariat oversees OECD matters within the Casa Civil and supports the work of the Inter-Ministerial Council for OECD matters, created in July 2019 to monitor and reinforce Brazil’s co-operation with the OECD. Led by Casa Civil, the Inter-Ministerial Council also features the participation of senior officials from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Economy. Joining these efforts, in November 2019, members of the Parliament created the Parliamentary Friends of the OECD to discuss and support Brazil’s alignment with OECD standards and best practices.

As was the case for many activities of the Organisation, the OECD’s bilateral co-operation with Brazil in 2020 had to be reshaped in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Casa Civil’s Secretary for External Relations developed an informal OECD-Brazil taskforce to promote the exchange of experiences and insights on how to best respond to the crisis. A series of virtual meetings led by the Minister-Chief of the Presidency (Casa Civil), Walter Braga Netto, were held with the participation of the OECD Secretary-General, OECD experts and Brazilian authorities on specific topics such as health, labour, social issues, and SMEs. The Brazilian Government also contributed to the translation of several policy notes for the Portuguese OECD COVID-19 Hub, live since June 2020, with others translated by the Getulio Vargas Foundation. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the execution of ongoing projects has been limited, although some have seen their timetables adjusted. Some projects have been adapted to address the sanitary, economic and social repercussions of the COVID-19 crisis, providing an assessment of its impact and recommendations on policy responses. “Brazil’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic has combined robust emergency measures and the continuity of a reform process which is in line with OECD policies.” Walter Souza Braga Netto, Chief of Staff Minister of Brazil at the 2020 OECD Council Meeting at Ministerial Level, virtual.

Walter Souza Braga Netto, Chief of Staff Minister of Brazil, and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, during OECD-Brazil taskforce virtual meeting on COVID-19 response, April 2020. 8 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


THE OECD AND BRAZIL

Finding global solutions at the G20

The OECD and Brazil have established a close co-operation in the context of the G20, with the aim to strengthen the global economy and make it more inclusive, rules-based and open. In particular, in areas such as infrastructure, international taxation, capital flow management, steel and digital, which have proven to be an important platform to advance the OECD–Brazil partnership. As Co-Chair of the G20’s Infrastructure Working Group, Brazil is actively engaged in ongoing work with the Saudi Arabian Presidency, focusing on the priorities of technology and infrastructure, and on regulatory frameworks to attract private investment into infrastructure. The OECD is working with Saudi Arabia as Chair of the G20, as well as with Brazil and Australia as Co-Chairs of this group, to provide evidence and analysis on both priority areas, with the aim to help G20 countries narrow

the infrastructure financing gap and promote better quality infrastructure investment. Brazil continues to be actively engaged in the G20-OECD international tax agenda. Brazil has played an important role in guiding this work as a member of the Steering Group of the Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), which today includes over 100 countries, and aims to enhance the global standard in the fight against global tax evasion. Currently, Brazil is also engaged in discussions towards a consensus solution to the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy. Regarding tax transparency, Brazil is also closely involved in work on Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) and is part of the Steering Group of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes.

L The G20 Osaka Summit was held from 28-29 June 2019 in Japan. THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 9


Finding global solutions at the G20

Engagement under the G20 has led Brazil to request adherence to the revised OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and pursue an active engagement in the OECD work on capital flow management. The ongoing adherence process of Brazil to the Code represents an important call to bring other key G20 emerging economies closer to this important standard. Indeed, it provides a unique platform from which to support countries in their search for long-term capital, while allowing appropriate flexibility to respond to financial stability concerns linked to large capital inflows and outflows. Throughout 2019, Brazil was Co-Chair of the G20’s Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity, created by G20 leaders at the 2016 Hangzhou Summit and facilitated by the OECD. It aims

I Emmanuel Macron, President of France, Angel Gurria, Secretary-General of the OECD, and Jair Bolsonaro, President of Brazil at the G20 Summit in Osaka, Japan, June 2019. 10 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

to address the causes of excess capacity in the global steel market through multilateral co-operation. In its Co-Chair role, Brazil exhorted major steel-producing economies to continue addressing the excess capacity problem, particularly in light of lower projected steel demand. Brazil is also an adhering country to the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence (AI), and to the G20 AI Principles, which were drawn from the OECD Principles. Brazil also participates in the work of the OECD AI Observatory and is working closely with the OECD to implement the G20 AI Principles.

www.oecd.org/g20


THE OECD AND BRAZIL

Leading OECD work with Latin America and the Caribbean Launched at the OECD’s 2016 Ministerial Council Meeting, the OECD Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme (LACRP) aims to support countries from the region in advancing their reform agendas following three key regional priorities: increasing productivity, advancing social inclusion, and strengthening institutions and governance. The LACRP responds to the region’s growing awareness of the need for better policies and structural reforms to ensure higher rates of growth and sustain economic and social development. Since 2019, Brazil is co-chair, together with Mexico of the LACRP, leading discussions of its Steering Group that provides strategic guidance to Programme activities and consists of both OECD Members and a number of Latin American partners. Brazil also participates in a number of LACRP activities, such

as regional policy networks on the subjects of competition, corporate governance, state-owned enterprises, fiscal affairs, regulation, investment, open government, budgeting, migration and development. The LACRP supports policy reform in several policy areas with both OECD and LAC countries, and in partnership with other international organisations active in the region. LACRP activities bring and adapt the OECD working methods of production of comparable statistics, policy dialogue, policy assessment, and policy advice to the region, facilitating the broader participation of LAC countries in OECD work and their access to OECD expertise. In July 2020, Brazil took part in the OECD-LAC Virtual Social Inclusion Ministerial Summit on Informality and Social Inclusion in Times of COVID-19. This conference brought together high level

Thematic Priorities of the OECD LAC Regional Programme

Social Inclusion

OECD-LAC Regional Programme Productivity

Governance

L OECD-LAC Virtual Social Inclusion Ministerial Summit, July 2020. THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 11


Leading OECD work with Latin America and the Caribbean

authorities and diverse stakeholders from Latin American, Caribbean OECD countries. Several Brazilian officials, including Paulo Guedes, Minister of Economy; Onyx Lorenzoni, Minister for Citizenship; and Cristiane Rodrigues Britto, Deputy Minister for Policies for Women, joined the discussions. As Co-chair of the OECD LAC Regional Programme, Brazil was represented by Ambassador Carlos Cozendey, Delegate of Brazil to International Economic Organisations based in Paris, at the 10th Steering Group, which formalised a concrete roadmap for the future. Brazil takes part in OECD regional flagship publications, including the Latin American Economic Outlook (LEO), Boosting Productivity and Inclusive Growth in Latin America, Shaping the Digital Transformation in Latin America, Revenue Statistics

in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Integrity for Good Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

www.oecd.org/latin-america/regionalprogramme “I would like to highlight the role of Brazil as Co-chair, along Mexico, of the OECD LAC Regional Programme. Thanks to this collaboration, we have witnessed how Brazil has not only committed to domestic reform but also to disseminate OECD standards across the region.” Sybel Galván Gómez, Permanent Representative of Mexico to the OECD

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Integrity for Good Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean

SECCIONES ESPECIALES: INGRESOS FISCALES PROVENIENTES DE RECURSOS NATURALES NO RENOVABLES EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE LA PRESIÓN FISCAL EQUIVALENTE EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE: AMPLIANDO EL MAPA DE LOS INGRESOS FISCALES DE LA REGIÓN Esta publicación proporciona datos comparables sobre los ingresos tributarios de 26 economías de América Latina y el Caribe durante el período 1990‑2018. Utilizando la Base de datos de Revenue Statistics de la OCDE, se aplica la metodología de la OCDE a países de América Latina y el Caribe, para permitir la comparación de niveles y estructuras tributarias sobre una base coherente, entre las economías de la región y también con otros países. Esta publicación ha sido elaborada conjuntamente por el Centro de Política y Administración Tributaria de la OCDE, el Centro de Desarrollo de la OCDE, el Centro Interamericano de Administraciones Tributarias (CIAT), la Comisión Económica de las Naciones Unidas para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) y el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). La edición 2020 cuenta con el apoyo del Fondo Regional para el Desarrollo en Transición para América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) de la Unión Europea, resultado del trabajo conjunto liderado por la Unión Europea, la OCDE y su Centro de Desarrollo y la CEPAL.

1990-2018

1990-2018

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Boosting Productivity and Inclusive Growth in Latin America

mic Outlook 2020

Latin American Economic Outlook 2020

ISBN 978-92-64-26940-8 11 2017 01 1 P

PRINT ISBN 978-92-64-59346-6 PDF ISBN 978-92-64-42419-7

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12 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

SCAN TO READ THE REPORTS

Shaping the Digital Transformation in Latin America STRENGTHENING PRODUCTIVITY, IMPROVING LIVES

STRENGTHENING PRODUCTIVITY, IMPROVING LIVES

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264269415-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

Boosting Productivity and Inclusive Growth in Latin America

Shaping the Digital Transformation in Latin America

DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION FOR BUILDING BACK BETTER

Over the past two decades, most Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have experienced robust economic growth and been able to make significant reductions in poverty and income inequality. However, growth in the region was not strong enough to ensure convergence towards levels of per capita income observed in advanced OECD economies. An important part of this underperformance can be explained by weak productivity growth. Should this weakness persist, it will be very difficult for LAC countries to achieve better lives for the majority of families. The present publication portrays the situation of LAC countries and discusses best-practice policies. Participation in global value chains is encouraged to enable knowledge spillovers and a process of learning by doing. More regional trade integration would help this process, as Latin America ranks very low and remains a sizeable outlier. The diffusion of knowledge and technology would be facilitated by making it easier to do business, notably allowing new entrants that are facing high barriers to operate and grow. Improved access to education is important to meet the demand for skills, and to boost innovation and research and development, which is particularly true in a context of fast technological change.

Boosting Productivity and Inclusive Growth in Latin America

Latin American Economic Outlook 2020 DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION FOR BUILDING BACK BETTER

by the OECD Development Centre, the United Nations Economic an (UN ECLAC), the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for

Conclusions Conclusionsand andPolicy PolicyConsiderations Considerations

2020

OR BUILDING BACK BETTER

020 focuses on the role of digital transformation in helping to 19 pandemic is having a profound impact on socio-economic cenario faced by a region with significant structural weaknesses. igh aspirations and reinforces the need to transform the very gion. The report explores how digital transformation can help to , boost productivity, strengthen institutions and achieve higher 0 also highlights that international partnerships are fundamental tion.

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FROM COMMITMENTS TO ACTION

Estadísticas tributarias en América Latina y el Caribe

1990-2018

1990-2018

PAPERBACK ISBN 978-92-64-72155-5 PDF ISBN 978-92-64-28282-7

FROM COMMITMENTS TO ACTION

Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean Estadísticas tributarias en América Latina y el Caribe

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THE OECD AND BRAZIL

Supporting Brazil’s alignment with OECD standards OECD members have actively accompanied Brazil in their path towards attaining OECD standards. A case in point has been the United Kingdom Government, through its Prosperity Fund, has played a major role in supporting the OECD-Brazil co-operation, not only through providing funding, but also by helping build contacts with key Brazilian stakeholders and advancing talks and policy debates in important areas such as trade and taxation. Main outcomes of this fruitful co-operation includes the report The Role of Services for Economic Performance in Brazil which provided an analysis of the service sector in the Brazilian economy; the report Trade Facilitation in Brazil: Analysis and Policy Options, which presented the state of play on trade facilitation in Brazil; seminars and workshop with experts from the OECD Secretariat and Member countries and Brazilian authorities on the Codes of Liberalisation; and an open dialogue with Brazilian authorities about the country’s taxation system which led to the report Transfer Pricing in Brazil: Towards Convergence with the OECD Standard.

Consolidating this successful trilateral partnership, at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting 2019, the OECD and the UK Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding formalising UK’s support to the development of activities focusing on bringing Brazil closer to OECD standards and best practices. Recent and ongoing projects funded by the UK Prosperity Fund, include Transfer Pricing, Small and Medium Enterprises, State-Owned Enterprises, Minority Shareholders Rights, Environment Chemicals and Waste Management and FDI Statistics. “We are totally committed to keep implementing OECD’s best practices in Brazil and to strengthen cooperation for a rapid, inclusive and sustainable global recovery”. Marcelo Barros Gomes, Special Secretary for External Relations at the Office of the Presidency of the Republic of Brazil and Coordinator for the OECD Brazilian Committee for accession.

I Mark Field, Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Ernesto Araújo, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Angel Gurría, SecretaryGeneral of the OECD, and Marcelo Guaranys, Deputy Minister of Economy of Brazil, signing the OECD-UK MOU, May 2019. THE OECD AND BRAZIL . 13


Supporting Brazil’s alignment with OECD standards

“Since its request for accession, Brazil has intensified its participation in the OECD, in line with its Key Participant Status. We have been present in basically all Committee level meetings, raised the status and substance of participation in different OECD bodies, becoming, for instance, an “associate” in the Competition Policy Committee. We have now adhered to around 40% of OECD “acquis” on the basis of a careful internal coordination work. Time to move!” Carlos Márcio Cozendey, Ambassador of Brazil to the OECD

“Brazil is an engaged partner of the OECD. In the last years, the presence of Brazil in the committees has grown exponentially, covering practically all areas of work. The same apllies to the standards and legal instruments that have become incorporated and implemented in the Brasilian legal system. Today, Brazil is active in the LAC region dialogue with the OECD, co-chairing the regional programmme and becoming closer to the organization. As a prospective candidate to full membership, Brazil has shown that the political will is real and ambitious. As Ambassador of Portugal to the OECD and leader of the Informal Reflection Group on Brazil, I warmly welcome this application and I look forward to the streghtening of these relations that will benefit Brazil, the OECD itself and its Member States.” Bernardo Lucena, Ambassador of Portugal to the OECD, Leader of the Informal Reflection Group on Brazil

14 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

“Brazil has been the most active Key Partner since 2007 and it has demonstrated over the past three decades its strong commitment to better policies and higher policy standards, having adhered as of today to more than one third of OECD standards with the aim to advance Brazil’s reform agenda. In spite of the COVID-19 pandemic, this engagement remained firm and the exchange of experiences to tackle this crisis was used intensively. Looking forward, we remain committed to our strategic and ever closer co-operation and partnership with Brazil.” Andreas Schaal, Director of OECD Global Relations

“In a fast-changing and inter-connected world economy, the OECD External Relations Committee (ERC) is an essential body in bringing together the OECD and partner countries. In this context, the guiding principle in our relations with external partners are shared interests and mutual benefit. Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most active key partner countries. Though progress in various policy areas is still needed, Brazil has demonstrated over the past years a true commitment to aligning its domestic policies to global standards. This is especially true for the implementation of measures to adopt market-friendly policies and ambitious reforms of the tax and pension systems. The ERC therefore looks forward to continuing working closely with Brazil and supporting the country to build back better from the COVID-19 crisis.” Ambassador Scholl, Ambassador of Austria to the OECD, Chair of the External Relations Committee


SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH

SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH . 15


Strengthening economic growth

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe human suffering and triggered a deep recession in Brazil. Economic policies reacted in a timely and decisive manner to the crisis, supporting millions of Brazilians. But a strong and inclusive recovery from the recession will require long-lasting improvements in economic policies. The OECD contributes to these efforts by providing thorough analysis of Brazil’s macroeconomic and structural policies to guide developing and implementing the reforms. The 2020 Economic Survey of Brazil analyses policy options to improve well-being and inclusive growth. It highlights the importance of structural reforms and a stronger integration into the global economy to raise productivity and provide better income opportunities for all Brazilians. It also points to the importance of well-designed education and training policies to accompany the expected structural changes in the economy. Since the turn of the millennium, growth has become more inclusive thanks to better education and a strong system of social benefits, and the survey proposes ways to raise the effectiveness of social transfers to build on this progress while preserving fiscal sustainability. Finally, the survey explores policy options to improve economic governance, fight corruption and preserve Brazil’s precious natural assets.

OECD Economic Surveys BRAZIL

December 2020

December 2020

OECD Economic Outlook

December 2020

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OECD Economic Outlook

DECEMBER 2020

BRAZIL

PRINT ISBN 978-92-64-76814-7 PDF ISBN 978-92-64-62200-5 ISSN 0376-6438 2020 SUBSCRIPTION (18 ISSUES)

Volume 2020/2 No. 108

Volume 2020/14

CTIVITY; SKILLS POLICIES TO FACILITATE STRUCTURAL

OECD Economic Surveys

human suffering and triggered a deep recession in Brazil. cisive manner to the crisis, supporting millions of Brazilians. ecession will require long-lasting improvements in economic ne of Brazil’s principal challenges given a high debt burden, y. Public spending will need to become more efficient, including st corruption and economic crimes. Social protection can be ost effective policies and benefits, which could allow significant growth will hinge on raising productivity, which has been virtually ng underlying policy challenges, including reducing regulatory ial efficiency and fostering a stronger integration into the global ations and structural changes in the economy, which should d education policies. Training with a strong focus on local skill on and seize new opportunities to move into better jobs.

PRELIMINARY VERSION

16 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

Twice a year, the OECD Economic Outlook analyses the major trends and forces that shape the short-term economic prospects of OECD Members and selected non-Members, including Brazil. The latest version, published in December 2020, discusses the growth outlook, the economic policy response to the pandemic, the need to strengthen public finances and structural reforms to lift growth and make it more inclusive. Going for Growth is the OECD’s flagship report highlighting the main growth challenges and developments in structural policy reforms. Based on a broad set of internationally comparable indicators of structural policies and performance, Going for Growth identifies five priorities for each country with the aim to improve labour productivity. It also examines the potential effects of the reforms on policy objectives other than GDP growth, in particular relating to objectives for green growth, reducing inequality, public finance and macroeconomic imbalances.

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SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

The 2019 edition recommends that Brazil: l

Increase the effectiveness of social benefits. Shifting the focus of expenditures on social benefits could lead to faster reductions in income inequality;

l

Enhance outcomes and equity in education. Improving education outcomes and equality of educational opportunities would accelerate productivity;

l

Reduce barriers to trade. Trade barriers harm competitiveness by hampering access to imported intermediate and capital inputs and reduce competition.

l

Reduce distortions in the tax system. Less onerous and distortive indirect taxes would contribute to faster productivity gains by reducing tax compliance costs.

l

Increase public and private investment in infrastructure. Addressing infrastructure gaps would lead to higher productivity growth and improve export competitiveness.

www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/economic-survey-brazil.htm www.oecd.org/eco/outlook/brazil-economic-forecastsummary.htm www.oecd.org/eco/growth/Brazil.pdf www.latameconomy.org/en

SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH . 17


Promoting green growth

Governments around the world are striving to re-ignite growth in their economies while reducing widening inequalities, especially in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. But reverting to the previous growth model is not an alternative. There is now a unique window of opportunity to bring the climate and economic growth agendas together: fostering economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our wellbeing relies. The OECD’s Green Growth Strategy offers an opportunity to re-think the current economic model and equip countries, including Brazil, to tap into greener and more sustainable development. It has set out a comprehensive guide to encouraging green growth and measuring progress towards it. The Green Growth and Sustainable Development Forum (GGSD Forum) is an OECD initiative aimed at providing a dedicated space for multi-disciplinary dialogue on green growth and sustainable development. The latest edition, held in November 2019, focused on the importance of shifting into a more a circular and low-carbon economy in order to meet the Sustainable Development Goals on Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG 12) and on Climate Action (SDG 13).

The OECD’s Scaling up climate-compatible infrastructure: Insights from national development banks in Brazil and South Africa report provides recommendations on how National Development Banks (NDBs) can help reach climate and development goals. It builds on a case study of Brazil’s Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES), which is a key player in the transition towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways in Brazil.

www.oecd.org/greengrowth www.oecd.org/development/environment-development

Projected global changes, 2011-2060 (Environment at a glance)

x1.5

Population

x2.1

Total materials use

x2.7

Income per capita

By 2060 the global economy is projected to quadruple and global material use to double.

Environment at a Glance 2020 Environment at a Glance 2020 presents a digest of major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality and circular economy. Analysis is based on indicators from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance and to track the course towards sustainable development. The report uses the latest comparable data received from OECD members and compiled from other international sources. It builds on an interactive web‑based platform where users can access indicators updated in real‑time from OECD databases, play with the data and graphics, and consult and download thematic web‑books.

s

om chronic under-investment for decades and currently makes up sions. A deep transformation of existing infrastructure systems is ent, one that includes systemic conceptual and behavioural changes vern our societies and economies. This report is a joint effort by ld Bank Group, supported by the German Federal Ministry for the Nuclear Safety. It focuses on how governments can move beyond mate action and more effectively align financial flows with climate explores six key transformative areas that will be critical to align silient societies (planning, innovation, public budgeting, financial s) and looks at how rapid socio-economic and technological n open new pathways to low-emission, resilient futures.

RETHINKING INFRASTRUCTURE

(2018), Financing Climate Futures: Rethinking Infrastructure, 0.1787/9789264308114-en.

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/4ea7d35f-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

ISBN 978-92-64-49855-6

ISBN: 9789264308107 97 2018 46 1 P

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Environment at a Glance 2020

ry, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. mation.

THINKING INFRASTRUCTURE

doi.org/10.1787/9789264308114-en

Environment at a Glance 2020

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Financing Climate Futures


SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

Increasing agricultural productivity and food security As one of the world’s leading exporters of primary products, Brazil relies on its agriculture to build a resilient and dynamic economy. The agriculture and the agroprocessing sectors in Brazil have shown impressive growth over the past two decades. This has been driven by productivity improvements and structural adjustment resulting from economic reforms, as well as by new technologies. Government policy and industry initiatives are increasingly focused on sustainability of agricultural development.

In 2019, the OECD produced a report on Antimicrobial use, resistance and economic benefits and costs to livestock producers in Brazil following the implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

l

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation: an annual OECD monitoring and evaluation exercise that measures government support to agriculture, which now includes 53 major agriculture-producing countries. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook: an annual publication which details projections on the medium-term outlook of important commodities in major world economies. The 2019 edition featured an in-depth analysis of the prospects and challenges in Latin America.

Co-operation between the OECD and Brazil on agriculturerelated issues has deepened over the last twenty years. Brazil actively participates in the Committee for Agriculture and integrates a range of collaborative analytical activities, including: l

l

l The

As an adherent to the Declaration on Better Policies to Achieve a Productive, Sustainable and Resilient Global Food System, Brazil pursues policies that support competitive, sustainable, productive and resilient farm and food businesses.

www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies www.oecd.org/tad/code

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2019

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2019

OECD‑FAO Agricultural Outlook 2020‑2029

OECD‑FAO Agricultural Outlook 2020‑2029

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SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH . 19


Making growth work for all Supported by strong economic growth, Brazil experienced both a decline in inequality and growth in household incomes from the early 2000s to the mid-2010s. However, the economic and COVID-19 crises have put pressure on this progress and risk compromising opportunities for upward social mobility. The 2020 Latin American Economic Outlook focuses on the role of digital transformation in helping to navigate through challenging times, notably the Covid-19 pandemic. It also explores how digital transformation can help cope with the current socioeconomic situation, boost productivity, strengthen institutions and achieve higher levels of inclusion and well-being. It is highlighted in Can Social Protection be an Engine for Inclusive Growth? that Brazil’s social insurance schemes have contributed to reducing inequalities, with a 49% decline in poverty. Hence, the importance of investing in social protection to foster development. In 2020, the OECD released detailed social expenditure data for countries in Latin America, including Brazil, in co-operation with United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and

R BUILDING BACK BETTER

the OECD Development Centre, the United Nations Economic (UN ECLAC), the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for

Latin American Economic Outlook 2020 DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION FOR BUILDING BACK BETTER

This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

PRINT ISBN 978-92-64-59346-6 PDF ISBN 978-92-64-42419-7

ISBN 978-92-64-54283-9 ŽͲĨƵŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ hŶŝŽŶ

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www.oecd.org/development/ www.oecd.org/dev/ www.oecd.org/social/ministerial/ www.oecd.org/migration/sicremi.htm www.oecd.org/social/income-distribution-database.htm

Tackling Vulnerability in the Informal Economy

Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

A majority of workers in the world are informally employed and contribute to economic and social development through market and non-market activities that are not protected, regulated, well-recognised or valued. This study provides an in-depth diagnosis of informality and the vulnerability prevailing in the informal economy. It explores new ideas to improve the lives of workers in the informal economy based on the ILO indicators of informality and the new OECD Key Indicators of Informality based on Individuals and their Household (KIIbIH). The report contributes in four ways to the global debate on the transition from the informal to the formal economy: 1) by examining the multiple faces of informality in a large sample of countries representing diverse conditions, locations and stages of development; 2) by presenting new empirical evidence on the links between informality and the development process; 3) by assessing risks and vulnerabilities in the informal economy, such as poverty and occupational risks, which can be mitigated with social protection and appropriate risk management instruments; 4) by showing that the transition to formality is a complex issue that touches on a wide range of policy domains.

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Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/939b7bcd-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

ISBN 978-92-64-77943-3

This project is co-funded by the European Union

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Tackling Vulnerability in the Informal Economy

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/689afed1-en.

The OECD also investigates the social impact of migration movements, monitoring international migration movements in Brazil, Latin America and the Americas at large through the International Migration in the Americas publication series, published in collaboration with the Organization of American States.

Development Centre Studies

Middle-class households feel left behind and have questioned the benefits of economic globalisation. In many OECD countries, middle incomes have grown less than the average and in some they have not grown at all. Technology has automated several middle-skilled jobs that used to be carried out by middle-class workers a few decades ago. The costs of some goods and services such as housing, which are essential for a middleclass lifestyle, have risen faster than earnings and overall inflation. Faced with this, middle classes have reduced their ability to save and in some cases have fallen into debt. This report sheds light on the multiple pressures on the middle class. It analyses the trends of middle-income households through dimensions such as labour occupation, consumption, wealth and debt, as well as perceptions and social attitudes. It also discusses policy initiatives to address the concerns raised by the middle class, by protecting middle-class living standards and financial security in the face of economic challenges.

Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

Latin American Economic Outlook 2020 DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION FOR BUILDING BACK BETTER

0 focuses on the role of digital transformation in helping to pandemic is having a profound impact on socio-economic nario faced by a region with significant structural weaknesses. aspirations and reinforces the need to transform the very on. The report explores how digital transformation can help to oost productivity, strengthen institutions and achieve higher lso highlights that international partnerships are fundamental n.

The OECD analyses inequality trends in Brazil and policies to address them through its Income Distribution Database and various reports. For instance, Under Pressure: the Squeezed Middle Class sheds light on the pressures faced by the middleclass – showing that the share of social benefits received by lowand middle-income households in Brazil is disproportionately low, and much lower than the OECD average.

Development Centre Studies

Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

mic Outlook 2020

the Caribbean. The OECD Social Expenditure Database will help Brazil to better identify gaps in public social policy support, and benchmark its performance against OECD countries.

Development Centre Studies

Tackling Vulnerability in the Informal Economy


SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

Upgrading participation in global value chains

Brazil is one of the world’s largest economies, yet the role it plays in international markets does not reflect its economic size. Making better use of existing competitive strengths and consolidating its integration into the global economy would provide significant opportunities for growth and productivity. International production, trade and investment are increasingly organised within Global Value Chains (GVCs) in which different stages of production processes are located across different countries. Recent OECD analysis Trade in Value Added: Brazil focused on examining how the changing structure of global production networks impacts productivity and provided useful insights to Brazilian policy-makers as they work to foster productivity growth and Brazil’s participation in GVCs. Since 2018, Brazil has taken part in the OECD Development Centre’s Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development initiative, which provides policy

Advisory Board

Business Consultative Platform

dialogue and peer learning between the OECD and non-OECD countries. It aims at improving evidence and identifying policy guidelines to support countries’ production transformation and better integration into global markets. In 2019-2020, the OECD and the Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) realised the Value Chain Development for Deeper Integration of East Asia and Latin America project, which provided a better mapping of Brazil’s integration into regional and global production systems. In the forthcoming 2020 Production Transformation Policy Review of the Dominican Republic report, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture shared the country’s experience in pursuing economic transformation and upgrading the agro-food sector’s GVC.

oe.cd/gvc oe.cd/tiva

Research Consultative Platform

G L O B A L VA L U E C H A I N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T 2 0 19

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION, SUPPLY CHAIN TR ADE, AND WORKERS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND PEER LEARNING BETTER EVIDENCE

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SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH . 21


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EFFICIENT FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS


FUNCTIONING MARKETS

Promoting trade

Brazil’s performance in ensuring transparency, predictability and due process in trade facilitation surpasses most other Latin American, Caribbean and upper middle-income countries. Nonetheless, despite recent improvements, the country is only ranked 21st in terms of exports. Further opening up to global trade will support Brazil’s continued growth and economic development, as it not only brings high-quality goods and lowers prices for consumers, but also helps the diffusion of technology and best practices.

The joint OECD-WTO Aid for Trade at a Glance 2019 analyses how in Brazil, among other countries, trade contributes to economic diversification and empowerment while focusing on eliminating extreme poverty, particularly through the effective participation of women and youth.

The OECD and Brazil have collaborated for many years on a wide range of trade-related issues, in particular with regard to global value chains, trade facilitation, trade in services, and the development of the statistical data necessary to support analysis on these topics.

In the 2020 OECD Digital Trade Openness Review of Brazil, the country’s participation in digital trade and the environment in which this participation is unfolding is mapped out. Like most OECD countries, Brazil has been taking steps towards digital government to ensure that public policies and services are more inclusive, convenient and designed to meet citizens’ needs.

The 2020 OECD Services Restrictiveness Index is a unique tool that provides up-to-date information on regulatory changes that affect trade in services in 46 countries across 22 sectors, including Brazil.

AID FOR TRADE AT A GLANCE 2019: ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION AND EMPOWERMENT

In support to Brazil’s ongoing trade liberalisation agenda, the OECD is currently preparing a Trade Adaptation Policies Review to discuss and better prepare the country to deal with the impact of trade liberalisation on less competitive sectors and their workers. To be launched in 2021, the review will build on the more recent literature on experience with social protection and assistance programmes aimed at accompanying trade adjustment of workers.

AIDFORTRADE AT A GLANCE 2019 ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION AND EMPOWERMENT

www.oecd.org/site/tad/ www.oecd.org/trade/topics/services-trade/documents/oecdstri-country-note-brazil.pdf

OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index: Policy trends up to 2020 January 2020

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EFFICIENT FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS . 23


Invigorating international investment

Brazil is the largest recipient of Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America and the fifth largest recipient worldwide. Nonetheless, its investment rate has traditionally been low, both in an emerging market context and compared to other countries in the region. Strong foreign investment in the private sector will be decisive for Brazil’s post-COVID economic recovery. Brazil has been an adherent to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises since 1997. This policy commitment provides an open and transparent environment for international investment and encourages the positive contribution of multinational enterprises to make economic and social progress. As an element of the Declaration, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are the most comprehensive set of government-backed recommendations on responsible business conduct in existence today. Governments adhering to the Guidelines aim to encourage and maximise the positive impact multinational enterprises can make to sustainable development and enduring social progress.

24 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

Since 2017, Brazil is going through the adherence process of the OECD Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and of Current Invisible Operations. Adhering to the Code will enhance the transparency of Brazil’s capital account regime, provide an important consolidation for its reform efforts, and improve Brazil’s investment climate. Brazil also participates in the OECD’s work on investment promotion, which allows the government to compare and evaluate its agency APEX Brasil with other agencies in the LAC region and the OECD. It provides a dialogue platform that allows participants to benefit from international best practices to improve the efficiency of their investment attraction efforts. It also supports Brazil’s decisions on the structure and future activities of its investment promotion agency during a period in which Brazil works to restore investors’ confidence and attract further investments.

www.oecd.org/investment K Ludger Schuknecht, OECD Deputy Secretary-General, at the opening session of the 2019 Brazil Investment Forum, in Sao Paulo, Brazil.


FUNCTIONING MARKETS

Fostering sound competition

As one of the leading competition authorities in Latin America, Brazil contributes substantially to the OECD’s competition knowledge and the development and revision of standards and guidelines. The OECD plays a unique role in the field of competition, owing to its internationally recognised standards and guidelines, longstanding technical expertise and competition roundtables, which help advance dialogue on key and emerging issues. The OECD’s convening power, whether through its Global Forum on Competition or the OECD-IDB Latin American and Caribbean Competition Forum (LACCF), promotes peer-to-peer learning, international cooperation between competition authorities, and facilitates the dissemination of OECD standards and best practices. In the OECD Peer Reviews of Competition Law and Policy: Brazil 2019, Brazil underwent a peer review of its competition law and policies. The report focuses on the extent to which the laws, institutions, policies and enforcement practices in Brazil are in line with the OECD competition policy instruments.

In 2019, Brazil’s competition authority, the Administrative Council for Economic Defense (CADE), signed an agreement with the OECD for the upcoming Review of the Brazilian Public Procurement Framework. The OECD will provide recommendations to prevent and detect bid rigging. The OECD is currently preparing a report Fighting Bid Rigging in the Procurement of Public Works in Brazil, which will assess the Brazilian public procurement rules and practices, and make recommendations to improve competition. On 28-29 September 2020, 18th OECD Latin American and Caribbean Competition Forum (LACCF) took place virtually, and brought together high-level competition officials and focused on digital evidence-gathering in cartel investigations and competition law and policy.

www.oecd.org/competition www.oecd.org/competition/latinamerica www.oecd.org/daf/competition/brazil-competition.htm

OECD Peer Reviews of Competition Law and Policy

BRAZIL 2019

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EFFICIENT FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS . 25


Strengthening financial education

Financial education has become an important complement to market conduct and prudential regulation in improving individual financial behaviours. The Brazilian government has been engaged in informing the rising middle class about how to save and invest wisely, while helping the poorest households understand and use basic financial services. In 2010, with support from the OECD, Brazil adopted the National Strategy for Financial Education (Estratégia Nacional de Educação Financeira – ENEF), which aims to promote financial education and social security; increase the capacity of citizens to make conscious choices about the administration of resources; and contribute to the efficiency and soundness of financial markets.

Brazil uses data collection methodologies developed by the OECD’s International Network on Financial Education (OECD/INFE) and has participated in the 2015 and 2018 Financial Literacy option of the OECD Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA), and in the OECD/INFE International Survey of Adult Financial Literacy Competencies. In 2016, the OECD and the Brazilian Securities Commission (CVM) established the OECD/CVM Centre on Financial Education and Literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Based in Rio de Janeiro, the Centre serves as a platform to monitor and enhance financial literacy in the region through surveys and analyses, and to strengthen co-operation with the region’s governments and financial authorities in the design and implementation of financial education and inclusion policies. The OECD/INFE LAC Regional Network meets once a year in the margins of the annual meeting of the OECD/CVM Centre. Currently, 39 public authorities (central banks, financial markets authorities, ministries of finance, social policy and education) from 19 LAC countries are members of the regional network. The MoU establishing the Centre was renewed in 2019, with financial innovation and sustainable finance added to the areas of co-operation.

www.oecd.org/finance/financial-education

L Masamichi Kono, OECD Deputy Secretary-General, and Marcelo Barbosa, Chairman, of the Securities and Exchange Commission of Brazil (CVM) at the OECD, January 2020. 26 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


FUNCTIONING MARKETS

Reinforcing consumer protection

The Internet is providing consumers in Brazil with opportunities to purchase an expanding range of products at competitive prices. However, the complexity of the environment and the continued emergence of new business models can also put their interests at risk. Protecting digital consumers is thus becoming a key issue in Brazil that was underscored during the COVID-19 quarantine period. To achieve effective consumer protection in e-commerce and address key challenges and risks, the OECD revised its Recommendation on Consumer Protection in E-commerce, which seeks to underpin the dynamic and innovative potential of e-commerce while addressing important consumer concerns. In August 2018, Brazil adhered to the Recommendation and has since then shown interest in adhering to other OECD Recommendations related to consumer protection.

Brazil takes part in the measurement and cross-border enforcement co-operation initiatives, notably through the OECD Recommendation on Consumer Policy Decision-Making. Recently, Brazil participated in the OECD’s Global Awareness Campaigns on the Safety of Products Sold Online (2018) and Product Recalls (2019), and assisted in the translation of the OECD campaign materials into Portuguese.

www.oecd.org/sti/consumer/ www.oecd.org/going-digital/topics/digital-consumers/

The report OECD Review of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Brazil includes policy recommendations on ways in which to enhance the country’s consumer policy framework and adequately address consumer protection issues arising from digital transformation.

Unpacking E‑commerce BUSINESS MODELS, TRENDS AND POLICIES

Unpacking E‑commerce BUSINESS MODELS, TRENDS AND POLICIES

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PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE


Strengthening corporate and state-owned enterprise governance Corporate governance is attracting growing attention in Latin America as a means of strengthening corporate performance and enhancing investor confidence in the integrity of companies, in both the public and private sectors. Brazil has been playing a leading role in OECD work in this area. In order to strengthen the enforcement of shareholder rights, improve corporate governance of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), and align with good international practices in privatisation, Brazil has been actively participating in the OECD’s Latin American Corporate Governance Roundtable and the Latin American Network on Corporate Governance of StateOwned Enterprises. In December 2019, the OECD published the Equity Market Development in Latin America, in which recommendations aimed at strengthening Brazil’s equity market development are proposed.

l The

federal-level SOEs project – aims at strengthening the professionalisation of state owners and SOE boards of directors, to level the playing field between SOEs and private firms and to improve transparency and disclosure.

l Comparative

research and workshops – hosted by Brazil’s Securities Commission (CVM) and Ministry of Economy, they stimulate the development of legal reforms to provide shareholders with greater recourse when their rights are violated. Brazil against the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises aims at creating capacity-building activities with SOEs and state officials responsible for overseeing them.

l Assessing

www.oecd.org/corporate www.oecd.org/daf/ca/corporategovernanceinlatinamerica.htm

Private Enforcement of Shareholder Rights

Currently, as a result of the adoption of the “SOE Statute” (Law 13,303) and the current push for privatisation, the following OECD initiatives are being implemented in Brazil:

A comparison of selected jurisdictions and policy alternatives for Brazil

l The

shareholder rights project – supports the development of legal and regulatory reforms to help strengthen investor confidence in Brazilian capital markets. Equity Market Development in Latin America Enhancing Access to Corporate Finance

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PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . 29


Enhancing the business environment

Regulations are an essential tools for governments to promote economic growth, social welfare and environmental protection. By setting the “rules of the game”, they stimulate economic activity and foster the proper functioning of markets. While Brazil has implemented some regulatory quality tools, the country could further benefit from adopting a more systematic approach to regulatory policy. Brazil participates in the OECD Indicators of Regulatory Policy and Governance for Latin America, which show that the Brazilian government has made public consultation and ex ante impact assessment of regulation an integral part of its rulemaking process. The use of these tools is key to strengthening transparency in the rule-making process and fostering a more business-friendly regulatory environment.

As an adherent to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the leading international instrument on Responsible Business Conduct (RBC), Brazil is one of nine Latin American countries taking part in the project on RBC in Latin America (2019-2022). Due for completion in 2022, the OECD is conducting a Responsible Business Conduct Policy Review of Brazil and provide recommendations to strengthen its regulatory and policy framework.

www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy http://mneguidelines.oecd.org/rbclac.htm www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy/ireg-lac.htm

Brazil was one of the countries surveyed in the 2019 Indicators of Regulatory Policy and Governance for Latin America (iREG), which reflect the state of play in three regulatory policy topics: Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA), stakeholder engagement, and ex-post evaluation and administrative simplification. This exercise showed that Brazil would benefit from adopting a whole-of-government approach to regulatory policy in order to foster a strong business environment, increased competitiveness and better relations with its stakeholders.

OECD DUE DILIGENCE GUIDANCE FOR RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS CONDUCT

REGULATORY POLICY

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

© Skreidzeleu - shutterstock.com

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GOVERNANCE

Fighting transnational corruption

The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention is the cornerstone of the OECD’s efforts to fight international bribery. It is the first and only global instrument to fight the supply side of corruption in cross-border business deals. As a Party to the Convention, Brazil has committed to fighting bribery in international business and set an example in the Latin America region. Today, bribing a foreign public official is a crime in all 44 countries that are Party to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, including Brazil. In recent years, Brazil has made changes to its anti-corruption legislation in order to comply with its obligations under the Convention, and has been recognised by the OECD Working Group on Bribery (WGB) for its significant anticorruption enforcement efforts. The evaluation of Brazil’s Phase 4 implementation of the Anti-Bribery Convention is currently scheduled to take place in December 2022.

Brazil is also a member of the OECD Latin America and Caribbean Anti-Corruption Initiative, which provides a platform for countries from the region to compare experiences, share best practices, and discuss challenges in the fight against foreign bribery. Equally, in return, the experiences of these Latin American countries enrich the anti-corruption policy debate in the OECD. Solid legal frameworks and effective enforcement can help change perceptions of corruption in Brazil and the Latin America region as a whole. In recent years, some key achievements in this area included the enactment of a new corporate liability law, which represented the first anti-corruption law to hold companies responsible for their employee’s corrupt actions, and the conclusion of Brazil’s first foreign bribery case.

www.oecd.org/corruption www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/brazil-oecdantibriberyconvention.htm

J Rodrigo Maia, Speaker of the Brazilian House of Representatives, and Angel Gurría, SecretaryGeneral of the OECD, at the OECD, February 2020. PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . 31


Aligning with international tax standards

In an increasingly interconnected world, national tax law has not kept pace with the growth of global corporations, fluid capital and the digital economy. Thus, leaving gaps that can be exploited to erode the taxable base and shift profits to low tax environments. Brazil, within the framework of the G20 and the OECD, has been working hard to tackle this critical issue.

Brazil is involved in the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes and has made significant progress in implementing tax transparency. In fact, after ratifying the multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Brazil launched the Automatic Exchanges of Information (AEOI) on financial accounts and endorsed in November 2019 the Punta del Este Declaration.3

Brazil is actively involved in OECD work on tax, in particular in the area of tax transparency and in the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project. It is a member of the Inclusive Framework on BEPS, which brings together over 135 countries and jurisdictions to collaborate on strategies to tackle tax avoidance. Currently, they are working on a consensus-based solution for the two-Pillar approach to address the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy.

Brazil participates in the OECD-Latin America and the Caribbean Fiscal Initiative, which aims at improving tax and public expenditure policies by providing a high-quality tool for the comparative analysis of tax policy over time and between countries. In addition, it takes part in the Global Forum on VAT, which aims at replacing indirect tax regimes by a value added tax system in accordance with OECD standards.

3. Under this Declaration, Latin American regional authorities commit to intensify their use of exchange of information to tackle tax evasion, corruption and other financial crimes and report back on the progress made. 32 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


GOVERNANCE

Recently, the OECD and Brazil closely collaborated on the following projects:

“The report outlines the direction of our next efforts, which is the full alignment with the OECD transfer pricing standard.”

l Transfer

José Barroso Tostes Neto, Special Secretary of Brazil’s Federal Revenue

Pricing in Brazil: Towards Convergence with the OECD Standard – This report is an outcome of the joint project on transfer pricing between OECD and Receita Federal do Brasil (RFB). It contains the findings of analysis of the transfer pricing framework in Brazil compared to the OECD guidelines for Multinational Enterprise and Tax Administrations. The project identified a number of issues resulting from the gaps and divergences between the Brazilian and OECD approaches to transfer pricing that undermine Brazil’s ability to secure the appropriate tax base and to avoid double taxation.

“Aligning Brazil’s transfer pricing rules with the OECD standard will reduce the barriers to investment stemming from the existing risk of double taxation.” Grace Perez-Navarro, Deputy-Director of the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration.

l Making

Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Brazil (Stage 1) – In accordance with the OECD Model Tax Convention, this report reflects the outcomes of the Action 14 Minimum Standard’s implementation assessment made by peers. Stage 1 evaluated Brazil against the schedule agreed in the terms of reference. This will be followed by a stage 2, which will monitor the follow-up of any recommendations previously made.

OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project

Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Brazil (Stage 1) INCLUSIVE FRAMEWORK ON BEPS: ACTION 14 Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Brazil (Stage 1)

www.oecd.org/tax/beps www.oecd.org/tax/transparency/automatic-exchange-ofinformation www.eoi-tax.org/jurisdictions/BR#default

Transfer Pricing in Brazil Towards Convergence with the OECD Standard

A JOINT ASSESSMENT OF THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE BRAZILIAN AND OECD FRAMEWORKS

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PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . 33


Increasing transparency and public expenditure efficiency To increase budgeting and public expenditure effectiveness, both internal and external auditors are crucial in the government’s institutional framework. They are responsible for examining public accounts and ensuring that public officials act with integrity and are held accountable when misusing public resources. Building on previous collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da União, TCU) and the Office of the Comptroller General (Controladoria Geral da União, CGU), the OECD continues to engage with key accountability actors in Brazil.

General (CGU). Within the same project, the OECD supports the CGU in consolidating the Integrity Management Units of the Federal Executive Government’s entities, and works together with CGU to apply insights from behavioural sciences to selected integrity policies. This will allow the improvement of CGU’s methodologies and tools to identify corruption and fraud risks, including ethical and behavioural misconduct. Together, the projects contribute to promoting a culture of accountability and integrity in the public administration and to further strengthen Brazil’s internal control environment and integrity risk management in view of safeguarding public resources and expenditure.

Together with the OECD, Brazil is strengthening the control functions of internal and external auditors by focusing on four pillars:

www.oecd.org/gov/budgeting www.oecd.org/gov/ethics

l auditing

for greater policy coherence; and sustainable budgeting; l internal control and risk management; l government-wide monitoring and evaluation. l strategic

OECD Public Governance Reviews

OECD Public Governance Reviews

Brazil’s Federal Court of Accounts InsIGht AnD FOREsIGht FOR BEttER GOvERnAnCE

Brazil’s Federal Court of Accounts InsIGht AnD FOREsIGht FOR BEttER GOvERnAnCE

34 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

Auditing Decentralised Policies in Brazil

In 2020, a two-year project aimed at improving policies and practices for promoting integrity, and assessing corruption and integrity risks was launched with the Office of the Comptroller

OECD Public Governance Reviews

In 2018, the OECD started a two-year joint project in collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Court of Accounts (TCU), as well as the state and municipal audit institutions of Brazil, to support the National Auditing System. The project breaks new ground on co-ordinated, evidence-based audit selection in a Multi-Level Governance context. Specifically, the project involves the development of tools and methodologies to support strategic, risk-based auditing in specific sectors of government policy, including recommendations for better use of indicators. This experience is of great interest to Supreme Audit Institutions in OECD and non-OECD countries that struggle with the challenge of auditing decentralised policy delivery and policy coherence in a decentralised external audit system.

OECD Public Governance Reviews

Auditing Decentralised Policies in Brazil COLLABORATIVE AND EVIDENCE‑BASED APPROACHES FOR BETTER OUTCOMES

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GOVERNANCE

Promoting digital transformation in the public sector In an increasingly digitalised world, the challenge is to enhance a country’s wellbeing and sustainability while keeping it competitive. Over the last decades, the Brazilian government has progressively embraced digital technologies to improve its public sector, with important gains in terms of efficiency, agility and responsiveness for citizens and businesses.

and possible future journey of the innovation system, including technology, of the Brazilian public service. As Brazil continues its transformation towards a digitally enabled-state, a service design and delivery culture capable of mobilising different sectors and levels of government, together with the private and civic sector, is increasingly required for more open, innovative and inclusive policies and initiatives. The OECD will continue to engage and support the Government of Brazil towards the development of citizen and data-driven approaches that can bring the country’s public sector to advanced levels of digital maturity.

Brazil participates in OECD work on open government data policies, as the country wishes to promote the strategic use and sharing of data to improve public sector productivity, as well as to support public sector integrity and fight corruption, in collaboration with civil society organisations, journalists and academia.

TOWARDS THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR Like most OECD countries, Brazil has been taking steps towards digital government to ensure that public policies and services are more inclusive, convenient and designed to meet citizens’ needs. This report takes stock of the progress made by the Brazilian government, based on good practices and principles in OECD countries, and provides recommendations to help Brazil drive its digital transformation of the public sector.

OECD Digital Government Studies

Digital Government Review of Brazil TOWARDS THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Digital Government Review of Brazil

For more information, visit www.oecd.org/going-digital #GoingDigital

Making the transformation work for growth and well-being

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264307636-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

OECD Public Governance Reviews ISBN 978‑92‑64‑30762‑9 42 2018 49 1 P

TOWARDS THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

This publication is a contribution to the OECD Going Digital project which aims to provide policymakers with the tools they need to help their economies and societies prosper in an increasingly digital and data-driven world.

The Innovation System of the Public Service of Brazil

Brazil is a member of the OECD Observatory of Public Sector Innovation (OPSI), which collects and analyses experiences of public sector innovation to provide practical advice to desiring countries. In 2019, the OECD launched The Innovation System of the Public Service of Brazil, which explores the past, present

Digital Government Review of Brazil

OECD Public Governance Reviews

To strengthen its path towards digital transformation, the Brazilian government worked with the OECD to assess the strengths and areas of improvement in its current policies and initiatives. The OECD Digital Government Review of Brazil, released in November 2018, takes stock of the policy efforts and commitments underway and provides action-oriented recommendations to support the government to enhance the digital change underway in the public sector.

OECD Digital Government Studies

OECD Digital Government Studies

Brazil has deeply intensified its digital government cooperation with the OECD in the last years. The country is an active participant of the OECD Working Party of Senior Digital Government Officials and contributes to the OECD Expert Group Meeting on Open Government Data. The richness of the Brazilian experience on digital government and its position as a key partner in the LAC is widely recognised by OECD member countries.

www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government www.oecd.org/governance/observatory-public-sectorinnovation/home

The Innovation System of the Public 9HSTCQE*dahgcj+ Service of Brazil AN EXPLORATION OF ITS PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE JOURNEY

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PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE . 35


EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

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SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Creating jobs

Improving the quality of jobs in a context of widespread informality, which was amplified by the COVID-19 crisis, remains a key challenge in Brazil’s labour market. Brazil, much like most OECD countries, can also do more to promote the inclusiveness of the labour market and ensure that the youth entering into the workforce are equipped with the skills they need. The new OECD Jobs Strategy, launched in 2018, presents a coherent framework and comprehensive set of policy recommendations for fostering good jobs for all in a changing world of work. The OECD Jobs Strategy report features a chapter on how Brazil and other emerging economies can confront the dual challenge of low productivity and inclusiveness in a context of widespread informality.

presents new evidence on changes in job stability, and discusses the policy implications of these changes with n ageing, and other megatrends are transforming the labour w labour market regulation might be used to extend rights ell as to rebalance bargaining power between employers and social dialogue can be mobilised to address emerging of government, social partners and new forms of collective essed, with a particular focus on the most vulnerable ges for social protection policies, presenting evidence ker, and discussing reform avenues for preserving and ction systems.

THE FUTURE OF WORK OECD Employment Outlook 2019

OECD Employment Outlook 2019

In the OECD report Tackling Vulnerability in the Informal Economy, 39 countries including Brazil were studied. The report demonstrates how informally employed workers contribute to the economic and social development of the country, while not yet being well protected by regulations. The report also suggests new ways of improving the lives of workers in the informal economy based on the ILO Indicators of Informality and the new OECD Key Indicators of Informality based on Individuals and their Household (KIIbIH).

www.oecd.org/employment/outlook/ www.oecd.org/employment/jobs-strategy/country/

THE FUTURE OF WORK

787/9ee00155-en.

thers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases.

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The OECD’s Jobs Strategy Dashboard provides cross-national data on the quantity, quality, inclusiveness and adaptability of labour markets in OECD countries and other emerging economies. In Brazil, and despite significant improvement, substantial scope for progress remains in the quantity and inclusiveness of jobs. Hence, the country needs to simultaneously promote formality and reach out to the most vulnerable, by providing them with the skills needed to succeed in the labour market and protect them against financial hardship. Unfortunately, the current focus on protecting formal jobs through a combination of rigid product market regulations, strict employment protection rules and high minimum wages risks is proving counter-productive.

ISBN 978-92-64-72715-1

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2019

UTURE

and comprehensive approach for ensuring that people and interconnected and rapidly changing world. The updated e lessons learned from applying the original skills strategy in g new OECD evidence about the skills implications of n, population ageing, and migration. The Strategy also CD about skills policies that work in these three broad e life course, using skills effectively in work and society, and

OECD Skills Strategy 2019

Good Jobs for All in a Changing World of Work

SKILLS TO SHAPE A BETTER FUTURE

THE OECD JOBS STRATEGY

THRIVING IN A DIGITAL WORLD

THE OECD JOBS STRATEGY

SKILLS TO SHAPE A BETTER FUTURE

h gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. .

THRIVING IN A DIGITAL WORLD

OECD Skills Outlook 2019

Good Jobs for All in a Changing World of Work

OECD Skills Strategy 2019

/10.1787/9789264313835-en.

OECD Skills Outlook 2019

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EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT . 37


Supporting SME development and strengthening local skills Small and medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are critical for the post-COVID recovery, economic growth and social inclusion. In Brazil, they represent 98.5% of all legally constituted companies (11.5 million) and account for about 62% of total employment. However, the contribution of small businesses to the overall economy remains less prominent compared to high middle-income countries. With support from the Brazilian Ministry of Economy, the 2020 OECD Review of SME and Entrepreneurship Policy of Brazil offers policy recommendations to boost SME and entrepreneurship policies in the country. It finds that labour productivity gaps between SMEs and large companies are wider in Brazil than the OECD average. Furthermore, the report offers guidance to address Brazil’s specific challenges, such as the preferential tax regimes for micro and small companies, which play an important role in Brazil. Launched in May 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, the report becomes even more important, as SMEs are heavily impacted by the crisis. The report was presented and discussed in a high-level virtual meeting led by Minister-Chief of Staff of the Presidency (Casa Civil), Braga Netto, on 15 May. Part of a

Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2019 highlights how sufficient and affordable access to different sources of finance is crucial to allow SMEs and entrepreneurs to reach their full potential. The eighth edition of this report provides data from 46 countries around the world, including Brazil, on debt finance, alternative finance instruments and financing conditions, as well as information on policy initiatives to improve their access to finance. The OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2019 presents the latest trends in performance of small and medium-sized enterprises of OECD and partner countries, including Brazil, and explores the implications of digitalisation and globalisation for market conditions and SME access to strategic resources such as finance, skills and technology.

www.oecd.org/cfe/smes/

OECD Studies on SMEs and Entrepreneurship

Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2019

OECD Studies on SMEs and Entrepreneurship

SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Brazil 2020

OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2019

AN OECD SCOREBOARD

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AN OECD SCOREBOARD

OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2019

Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2019

SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Brazil 2020

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Brazil-OECD series of sectoral dialogues on COVID-19 to discuss the impact of the pandemic crisis and the best policy responses to tackle it, the meeting also featured the participation of Carlos da Costa, Deputy Minister for Productivity, Employment and Competition, and OECD Secretary-General, Angel Gurria.


SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Strengthening the health system

A strong health system is critical to ensuring the wellbeing of the population and promoting sustainable growth. This has become clear in 2020 with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. While Brazil’s improvements in expanding access coverage to all, through the Sistema Único de Saúde, was paramount to save the lives of thousands of citizens, further steps are needed to increase access to high-quality care. Despite many achievements since its creation in the early 1990’s, the national health system of Brazil – SUS – faces significant on-going challenges in sustainability and financing, growing demand due to population ageing and rising exposure to risk factors, which were all compounded in 2020 by the sudden, broad impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Ministry of Health is currently working with the OECD in the preparation of the following reviews:

OECD Health System Review of Brazil is a strategic assessment of the performance of the health system, drawing comparisons, as appropriate, between the Brazilian health system and the health systems of OECD Member countries, with a focus on public health policies, efficiency and sustainability, and health information systems;

l The

OECD Review of Primary Health Care in Brazil assess the role of primary health care as a key lever to provide universal coverage of high-quality services and ensure sustainability of the health system.

l The

The OECD publishes data on the performance of health systems in Brazil on its Health Statistics online database, and in the Health at a Glance series. Through these, Brazilian policy-makers get comparable metrics from all OECD and many G20 countries, which help improve the country’s health framework.

EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT . 39


Strengthening the health system

In 2019, the OECD issued the working paper Health systems characteristics: a survey of 21 Latin America and Caribbean countries, jointly prepared with the Inter-American Development Bank It which provides a comparative analysis of health systems in Brazil and 21 Latin American countries. In The Heavy Burden of Obesity, the OECD analysed the consequences of obesity and overweightness in 52 countries, including OECD, European Union and G20 countries. It demonstrated how this epidemic reduces life expectancy, increases healthcare costs, decreases workers’ productivity and lowers GDP, and emphasised the importance of an urgent scaleup of public policies to address it.

In 2020, the OECD will publish the first Health at a Glance: Latin America and the Caribbean with the World Bank. This will provide comparable metrics on the performance of health systems. Previously, Brazil appeared in Health at a Glance 2019, which compared key indicators for population health and health system performance across OECD members and partner countries. Recently, Brazil has expressed strong interest in participating in the Patient-Reported Indicator Surveys (PaRIS) initiative, which collects data on health outcomes for patients and how they experience care to make health systems more people-centred.

www.oecd.org/health/ www.oecd.org/health/paris.htm

Health at a Glance 2019 OECD INDICATORS

erview chapter summarises the comparative performance uch health spending is associated with staffing, access, quality a special focus on patient‑reported outcomes and experiences, ters for people‑centred health systems.

PaRIS

Patient – Reported Indicators Survey The next generation of OECD health statistics

The Heavy Burden of Obesity

OECD INDICATORS

ISBN 978-92-64-38208-4

THE ECONOMICS OF PREVENTION

Health at a Glance 2019

10.1787/4dd50c09-en.

h gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases.

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OECD Health Policy Studies

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population health and health system performance across es. It highlights how countries differ in terms of the health status ccess to and quality of health care; and the resources available arable data across 80 indicators, with data coming from official

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OECD Health Policy Studies

The Heavy Burden of Obesity THE ECONOMICS OF PREVENTION


SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Educating and empowering new generations with the right skills Implementing effective policies requires evidence that is comprehensive, tailored to a country’s needs and internationally comparable. Through its active engagement in OECD work on education and skills, Brazil has become part of a global community that exchanges experiences and best practices in the development of education and skills policies.

Brazil will be part of the soon to be launched PISA for Schools Community, which provides schools with an online forum for peer-learning and experience-sharing on student performance and well-being. Since its inception, Brazil has participated in Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS). TALIS is a largescale international survey that focuses on the working conditions of teachers and the learning environment in schools.

The OECD works closely with Brazil to improve the country’s education, training and skills system to help drive inclusive economic growth. Through its international education surveys and knowledge-base, the OECD is well-placed to provide Brazil with reliable and comparable evidence to inform education policy decisions. As technological change, globalisation and population ageing transform the world of work, Brazil faces profound changes to its economy. Ensuring its population is equipped with relevant skills will be critical for Brazil to seize the opportunities of the future of work.

Annually, Brazil’s data is included in the OECD Education at a Glance. This publication develops and analyses quantitative internationally comparable indicators to assist governments in building more effective and equitable education systems. Brazil is the only non-OECD Member to participate fully in the programme on Indicators of Education Systems, an authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on education around the world.

This review examines the external systems in place to assure the quality of higher education in Brazil. It highlights the relative success of the Brazilian quality assurance model in regulating market entry for private operators in Brazil, which cater to over 70% of students. But it also calls into question the effectiveness of existing systems to monitor the quality of undergraduate programmes and institutions and the ability of public authorities to act decisively to protect students from bad quality education.

The report analyses the systems that regulate the launch of new higher education institutions and programmes and evaluates quality assessment mechanisms for existing programmes and institutions. It also looks at the structures allowing public authorities to intervene to end or improve poor quality provision.

Brazil

Rethinking Quality Assurance for Higher Education in Brazil

Getting Skills Right

Brazil

Reviews of National Policies for Education

Reviews of National Policies for Education

Brazil contributed to the conceptualisation of PISA for Development, an initiative that enhances the relevance of PISA to a wider range of countries. As Honduras’ peer-learning partner, Brazil has provided insights from its own experience.

Getting Skills Right

Brazil has been strongly engaged in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) since its establishment in 2000 and is the first OECD Partner country to obtain an Associate status on the PISA Governing Board. PISA is a triennial international survey, which aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students.

Reviews of National Policies for Education

Rethinking Quality Assurance for Higher Education in Brazil

The review offers policy recommendations. It proposes a more differentiated system of quality assurance. It also recommends significant modifications to the design and purpose of the National Examination of Student Performance (ENADE). This work was requested by the National Commission for Evaluation of Higher Education (CONAES) and CAPES, the federal body responsible for quality assurance and funding of postgraduate education.

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264309050-en.

This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

Rethinking Quality Assurance for Higher Education in Brazil

Since the initial field trial was completed in 2018, over 500 schools throughout Brazil have administered the PISA-based Test for Schools, a student-assessment tool used to support 9HSTCQE*dajaed+ research, benchmarking and school improvement.

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EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT . 41


Educating and empowering new generations with the right skills

The 2018 OECD report Getting Skills Right: Brazil examined the challenges facing the adult learning system in Brazil, and makes concrete suggestions on how to better align education with labour market needs. As part of the reform of the adult learning system, the OECD was invited in June 2019 at a workshop in Brasilia to present its work on setting up voucher systems and a robust Skills Assessment and Anticipation system. In 2018, the OECD published the review Rethinking Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Brazil, which examines the external systems in place to assure the quality of higher education in Brazil.

In 2020, the OECD is updating Brazil’s Education Policy Outlook Country Profile which examines the current education system in Brazil and the policy responses brought forth.

www.oecd.org/pisa www.oecd.org/pisa/aboutpisa/pisafordevelopment.htm www.oecd.org/edu/school/talis.htm www.oecd.org/skills/piaac www.oecd.org/edu/ceri

Recently, Brazil took part in the “Fostering and assessing creativity and critical thinking skills” project, which was featured in the 2019 Fostering Students’ Creativity and Critical Thinking. The report highlights the importance of teaching, learning and making progress in creativity and critical thinking in primary and secondary education. Brazil is actively involved in the Future of Education and Skills 2030 project, which aims at helping education systems determine the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values students need to thrive in and shape their future.

Educational Research and Innovation

Fostering Students’ Creativity and Critical Thinking

OECD INDICATORS

Education at a Glance 2020 OECD INDICATORS

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PISA 2018 Results

Education at a Glance 2020

WHAT IT MEANS IN SCHOOL

ARE STUDENTS READY TO THRIVE IN AN INTERCONNECTED WORLD?

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VOLUME VI


SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Tackling gender inequality

Gender equality is both a fundamental right and a critical pillar of promoting inclusive and sustainable growth. Over the past decade, Brazil has promoted women’s rights and addressed barriers to gender equality through legal reforms and initiatives aimed at changing social norms. While gender gaps in Brazil have declined in recent years, more remains to be done. Discriminatory social norms and institutions are an important barrier to achieving development goals, as the OECD Social institutions and Gender Index’s (SIGI) data and research have shown. The SIGI examines discrimination against women in laws, practices and attitudes, in 180 countries with the aim to provide the necessary data for transformative policychange. Brazil is classified in the SIGI as having low levels of discrimination against women.

The OECD report The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An Uphill Battle took stock of how Brazil, OECD countries and other emerging economies were doing in implementing policies to achieve gender equality. The OECD also monitors progress of G20 countries towards achieving the Brisbane target to reduce the gender gap in labour market participation by 25% by 2025.

The SIGI 2019 Country Profile for Brazil helps to assess how social norms and institutions are hindering or fostering gender equality in the country. In Brazil, halving the gender gap in labour force participation by 2025 could lead to a cumulative 6.5 percentage point increase in growth in GDP per capita.

The OECD’s work on Bridging the Digital Gender Divide provides insights into the root causes of the divide and policies to strengthen women’s participation in the digital economy. Likewise, Brazil is actively seeking to ensure women are involved in the digital transformation, with programmes such as #MinasProgramam helping to deconstruct stereotypes and encouraging girls to computer programming.

The SIGI Latin American and the Caribbean Regional Report, provides a deep analysis of the discriminatory social institutions women face in the region and their development costs

and Gender Index (SIGI) has consistently shown that governments rms and practices to achieve gender equality and promote port provides an overview of the main outcomes of the SIGI in al integrity, access to productive and financial resources and , this report provides a set of policy recommendations to enhance quality commitments through a three-pronged approach: starting policies, enforcing laws through community mobilisation and ncy of policy through monitoring.

Social Institutions and Gender Index

Index

ort

ES INTO OPPORTUNITIES

The Pursuit of Gender Equality

Social Institutions and Gender Index

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SIGI 2019 Global Report TRANSFORMING CHALLENGES INTO OPPORTUNITIES

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BRIDGING THE DIGITAL GENDER DIVIDE INCLUDE, UPSKILL, INNOVATE

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TRANSFORMING CHALLENGES INTO OPPORTUNITIES

ISBN 978-92-64-53585-5

www.genderindex.org www.genderindex.org/country/brazil/

The Pursuit of Gender Equality

SIGI 2019 Global Report

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hich gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. on.

and impacts. Overall, Brazil performs relatively well in the SIGI compared to other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It currently has low levels of discrimination in social institutions (0.21 compared to a regional average of 0.25). For example, women and men are granted equal parental authority in the household. Regarding women’s civil liberties, Brazil has a legislated quota of 30% to support women’s political participation.

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EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT . 43


Measuring better lives

Is life really getting better? How can we tell? What are the key ingredients to improving life: better education, environment, healthcare or housing? Does progress mean the same thing to all people or in all countries and societies? These questions are all the more relevant following the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Launch of the Portuguese version of its Better Life Index in Portuguese with football legend Pelé, Brazil, June 2014.

The OECD Better Life initiative focuses on developing statistics to capture aspects of life that matter to people and that shape the quality of their lives. This allows for a better understanding of what drives the well-being of people and nations and what needs to be done to achieve greater progress for all. The two core products of this initiative are the Better Life Index and the How’s Life? report.

How’s Life? was jointly released in March 2020 with a country note for Brazil. It presents selected findings based on the set of well-being indicators used for the Better Life Initiative and shows what Brazilian users of the Better Life Index are telling us about their well-being priorities.

The Better Life Index is an interactive web-based tool that invites you to create your own index based on 11 dimensions essential to well-being, from health and education to local environment, personal security and overall satisfaction with life, as well as more traditional measures such as income.

www.oecd.org/stastistics/howslife.htm www.oecd.org/statistics/better-life-initiative.htm oe.cd/how-is-life http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/pt/

You can then compare well-being across countries and share your index with other people who have created indexes, as well as with the OECD. The Better Life Index contains data for OECD How’s Life? 2020 countries, including Brazil, and is currently available in English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. MEASURING WELL‑BEING

How’s Life? charts whether life is getting better for people in 37 OECD countries and 4 partner countries. This fifth edition presents the latest evidence from an updated set of over 80 indicators, covering current well‑being outcomes, inequalities, and resources for future well‑being. Since 2010, people’s well‑being has improved in many respects, but progress has been slow or deteriorated in others, including how people connect with each other and their government. Large gaps by gender, age and education persist across most well‑being outcomes. Generally, OECD countries that do better on average also feature greater equality between population groups and fewer people living in deprivation. Many OECD countries with poorer well‑being in 2010 have since experienced the greatest gains. However, advances in current well‑being have not always been matched by improvements in the resources that sustain well‑being over time, with warning signs emerging across natural, human, economic and social capital. Beyond an overall analysis of well‑being trends since 2010, this report explores in detail the 15 dimensions of the OECD Better Life Initiative, including health, subjective well‑being, social connections, natural capital, and more, and looks at each country’s performance in dedicated country profiles.

This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

This report responds to a demand from citizens, analysts and 9HSTCQE*gfeghj+ policy- makers for better and more comparable information on people’s well-being and societal progress. The fifth edition of ISBN 978‑92‑64‑65467‑9

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MEASURING WELL‑BEING

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/9870c393-en.

MEASURING WELL‑BEING

How’s Life? 2020

How’s Life? Measuring Well-Being is a biannual report. As the flagship report of OECD work on well-being, it paints a broad picture of how life is in OECD countries and other major economies, by looking at people’s material and non-material conditions and quality of life along the 11 dimensions of the Better Life Initiative.

How’s Life? 2020

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INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION

INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION . 45


Building a knowledge and digital economy

Developing innovation capabilities and disseminating advanced technologies across the economy and society is critical for advancing Brazil’s economic and societal objectives. The OECD offers evidence-based policy advice on how to leverage science, technology and innovation to drive new businesses, jobs and well-being.

Brazil is also a member of the OECD Global Forum on Productivity, which provides a platform on which to share country experiences and discuss productivity-enhancing policies, and is engaged with the OECD on a number of statistical activities, including the unique micro-data projects DynEmp and MultiProd that help to shed light on how firms can contribute to aggregate employment and productivity growth.

Brazil actively contributes to and leverages the OECD’s agenda on digital economy and innovation. The OECD Review of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Brazil provides recommendations to increase digital uptake by individuals and businesses, foster digital innovation and enhance data governance and privacy. Building on the Going Digital integrated policy framework, the Review puts forward a coherent wholeof-government approach to help Brazil make the digital transformation work for growth and well-being.

The OECD and Brazil share a common interest in several critical policy areas. Brazil adhered to the recent OECD Recommendation on Artificial Intelligence adopted in May 2019 – the first intergovernmental standard on trustworthy AI – and the Recommendation of Digital Security of Critical Activities in December 2019. Brazil also participates in the OECD AI Observatory that provides multi-disciplinary, evidence-based policy analysis on AI and facilitates multi-stakeholder dialogue.

www.oecd.org/sti www.oecd.org/going-digital www.stip.oecd.org/stip/countries/Brazil

Complementing this, the OECD Review of Telecommunication and Broadcasting in Brazil sets out concrete recommendations for strengthening communication infrastructure as a fundamental building block for seizing the benefits of digital technologies, including reinforcing the institutional framework, adapting the legal framework to converging communication and broadcasting sectors, improving market conditions and fostering competition.

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Going Digital in Brazil

OECD Telecommunication and Broadcasting Review of Brazil 2020

OECD Telecommunication and Broadcasting Review of Brazil 2020

In the context of strengthening trust in digital technologies to foster their adoption across firms and contribute to productivity growth, Brazil helped develop an OECD questionnaire to measure corporate Digital Risk Management. Brazil is integrated into STIP Compass, an online tool which allows countries to compare and contrast their policy environment for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) with OECD and other peers. Brazil is working to align its national STI agenda with the Sustainable Development Goals.

OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation

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INDUSTRY & INNOVATION

Promoting a vibrant global steel industry

Brazil plays a significant role in global steel and related raw materials markets. It is one of the largest iron ore producers in the world and the largest steel producer by far in Latin America. The country’s steel sector is nevertheless facing important headwinds associated with the recent slowdown in the economy and in the global steel market.

The OECD is also committed to continue engaging with Brazilian steel industry stakeholders, including through the Brazilian Steel Institute and Latin American Steel Association, who are regularly invited to meetings and workshops of the Steel Committee to share their views on the market outlook and to inform policymakers of their position on trade and structural issues.

www.oecd.org/sti/ind/steel.htm The steel sector continues to suffer from excess capacity, which has weighed on the financial viability of many steel producers and led to an escalation of trade frictions. In 2019, Brazil was the 9th largest steel producing economy in the world with 32.2 metric million tonnes (mmt), representing 1.7% of global crude steel production. Brazil is also the second largest iron ore producer (18.6%) and the second largest exporter in the world (25%). The OECD co-operates with Brazil to monitor steel market and policy developments and promote structural adjustment in the steel sector. The OECD Steel Committee has enjoyed a long and fruitful relationship with Brazil, which has actively participated in the discussions as an Associate since 1996. Brazil is a founding member of the OECD Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity (GFSEC), established in 2016, and has played an active role in all its deliberations thus far. The co-operation with Brazil in the Steel Committee and in the GFSEC significantly contributes to the shared international dialogue on the issue of steel excess capacity, steel and raw materials trade, industry upgrading, structural adjustment, innovation and environmental challenges. The GFSEC helps increase transparency with respect to steel-making capacity developments and relevant government policies and measures, and provides a unique platform for developing co-ordinated and effective actions to address the global excess capacity challenge.

INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION . 47


ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY

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ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY

Promoting sustainable development

As world economies become more integrated, economic growth has created environmental problems that demand global solutions. To ensure that natural resources are preserved for future generations, social and economic development must be accompanied by active policies from individual countries and the international community. Brazil has shown interest in more active participation in OECD environment related work. It has requested to become a participant in the OECD Environment Policy Committee and to adhere to selected OECD legal instruments related to environment. With the support of the UK Prosperity Fund, the project Evaluating Brazil’s progress in implementing Environmental Performance Review (EPR) recommendations and promoting its alignment with OECD core acquis on the environment, launched in 2020, will provide Brazil with an assessment and roadmap for the implementation of OECD environmental standards, including in terms of chemicals and waste management. The 2018 OECD report Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable use in Latin America: Evidence from Environmental Performance Reviews highlights several good policy practices from Brazil related to biodiversity conservation and management of

Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in Latin America USING TAXES FOR CLIMATE ACTION

EVIDENCE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE REVIEWS This report synthesises key findings on biodiversity and ecosystem services from the Environmental Performance Reviews completed for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru between 2013 and 2017. The report aims to provide a sense of the common challenges facing these Latin American countries, the strategies being used to tackle them, the gaps that remain and how these can be addressed. Focusing on Latin America is particularly pertinent given the great wealth of biodiversity in the region and the growing pressures on its conservation and sustainable use.

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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in Latin America EVIDENCE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE REVIEWS

The 2019 Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECDcountry data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The indicators reflect data gathered from member and partner countries, including Brazil. The 2019 OECD paper Towards Green Growth in Emerging Market Economies: Evidence from Environmental Performance Reviews presents the main achievements in Brazil (and other selected emerging market economies), along with common trends and policy challenges. It provides insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of green growth policy frameworks and measures, which may provide useful lessons for other OECD and partner countries. It draws on the country studies conducted within the OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme.

www.oecd.org/environment www.oecd.org/env/countryreivews

Environment at a Glance 2020 Environment at a Glance 2020 presents a digest of major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality and circular economy. Analysis is based on indicators from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance and to track the course towards sustainable development. The report uses the latest comparable data received from OECD members and compiled from other international sources. It builds on an interactive web‑based platform where users can access indicators updated in real‑time from OECD databases, play with the data and graphics, and consult and download thematic web‑books.

Environment at a Glance 2020

SCAN TO READ THE REPORTS

Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/4ea7d35f-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

ISBN 978-92-64-49855-6

Environment at a Glance 2020

USING TAXES FOR CLIMATE ACTION

ISBN 978-92-64-30960-9 97 2018 48 1 P

Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in Latin America

Taxing Energy Use 2019 Consult this publication on line at https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264309630-en. This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

Taxing Energy Use 2019

protected areas. However, challenges regarding deforestation have increased in recent years, and it is therefore important that Brazil continues to reinforce its combat against deforestation and protect its rich biodiversity and its sustainable use.

9HSTCQE*ejiffg+

ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY . 49


Supporting good water governance

Harnessing water to drive sustainable growth requires investments in water infrastructure, information and institutions. Good quality water services are costly and require efficient water management. Brazil has made remarkable progress in this area in recent decades, however, additional reforms could further strengthen the sustainability of these policies. Although water is abundant in Brazil, it is unevenly distributed across regions and users, meaning that the country faces both severe droughts and an over-abundance of water at the same time. Economic, demographic, and climate trends make these issues more critical, as they affect rainfall variability, availability and demand, and increase the number of people and assets at risk.

OECD Studies on Water

The OECD and Brazil’s National Water Agency (ANA) have enjoyed fruitful collaborations on water governance for several years. They work together to find ways in which to enhance the federal and state capacity in delivering effective water policies. In fact, this co-operation has shed light on examples of solutions and good practices of interest to OECD Member countries and Partners, such as Brazil’s National Pact for Water Management. This Pact aims at enhancing federal-state-basin multi-level dialogue towards integrated management, while taking into account the diversity across states in terms of performance, hydrology, development and institutional capacity.

OECD Studies on Water

Water Charges in Brazil THE WAYS FORWARD

50 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

THE WAYS FORWARD

www.oecd.org/water

Water Charges in Brazil

In 2019-20, the OECD initiated a new collaboration on Making OECD Policy Recommendations Happen. It consists of four capacitybuilding workshops focused on the role of water charges in contributing to sustainable and inclusive growth of Brazil.

SCAN TO READ THE REPORT


ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY

Improving energy strategy

Brazil’s energy policies measure up well against the world’s most urgent energy challenges. Access to electricity across the country is almost universal and renewables meet almost 45% of primary energy demand, making Brazil’s energy sector one of the least carbon-intensive in the world. The International Energy Agency and Brazil have agreed to further intensify their co-operation on policy solutions towards a sustainable and secure energy future. On 31 October 2017, Brazil joined the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an Association country, opening new avenues for co-operation. The IEA works with Brazil to improve and consolidate the country’s energy data and statistics. The focus has been to further understand their current data collection and reporting methodologies, and support the development of energy efficiency indicators.

renewables and waste of Brazil, as well as many other Latin American. In January 2020, the sustained work between the IEA and Brazil led to the co-authoring of the IEA Hydropower Technology Roadmap, which is an international benchmarking exercise on energy efficiency. Brazil and the IEA are discussing a collaboration on the BioFuture Platform, which aims to promote international coordination on advanced low carbon fuels. The IEA will also support the development of Brazil’s ten-year energy efficiency plan and co-host an energy efficiency training event in Brazil to share regional and global experiences.

www.iea.org www.worldenergyoutlook.org

The IAE Energy Efficiency in Emerging Economies Programme conducted in 2018, supported the development and review of the national Energy Efficiency Action Plan in Brazil. This included a national workshop on the role of energy efficiency in the further decarbonisation of Brazil’s energy system, and how it can support economic and social development. As part of the 2019 Clean Energy Transitions Programme, activities with Brazil were broader and deeper than ever before. In particular, the work on data and statistics regarding energy efficiency and energy innovation took off. Notably, Brazil became the first country in South America to fill out the IEA’s Energy Efficiency Data Questionnaire. As a consequence, the IEA included Brazil in the annual Energy Efficiency Statistical Report for the first time and an online course on energy efficiency indicators was launched in Portuguese. The latest World Energy Balances (2019), features detailed data for over 150 countries and regions, on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY . 51


Enhancing nuclear energy and other applications

Nuclear energy provides reliable baseload electricity on a large scale, contributes to security of energy supply and is a proven solution to climate change and air pollution. Brazil continues to strengthen its engagement with the Nuclear Energy Agency notably through the exchange of views on nuclear power, education and research. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the framework of the OECD that aims to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing the scientific technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally sound and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. NEA membership consists of 33 countries representing 82% of the world’s installed nuclear electricity generating capacity. Brazil has two nuclear power reactors, which provide about 3% of the country’s electricity, as well as a third reactor under construction and additional reactors under consideration. Its nuclear activities include significant research and development

programmes and both uranium enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication. Brazil has the world’s eighth largest identified uranium resource base. Moreover, Brazil is an important and growing market for medical radioisotopes. Brazil is one of the founding members of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for which the NEA acts as the Technical Secretariat. The GIF carries out international research cooperation to develop reactors with improved performance in terms of safety, proliferation resistance, economic performance, better use of natural resources and waste minimisation. In November 2019, the NEA Director General Mr William D. Magwood IV and senior staff visited Brazil for a series of meetings with various ministries and institutions to further strengthen the ongoing co-operation.

www.oecd-nea.org www.gen-4.org www.ifnec.org

J Visit of William D. Magwood IV,NEA Director-General, to Brazil in November 2019 52 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY

Strengthening chemical and transgenic safety

Brazil has made remarkable progress in its chemical and transgenic industry in the last decade. This development has been critical to its economic growth and social improvement; however it remains crucial to ensure that safety is not neglected in the process. Brazil is an adherent to the OECD’s system for the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of Chemicals, which allows the results of non-clinical safety tests on chemicals to be shared across OECD and partner MAD-adhering countries. Brazil participates in the development and use of alternative invitro methods for testing chemicals. Brazil is also increasingly involved with work-sharing arrangements for the review of pesticides and in the OECD Network on Illegal Trade of Pesticides. As the second producer of transgenic crops worldwide, Brazil has co-led and participated in the preparation of several OECD documents addressing biosafety concerns of key agricultural products (cassava, common bean, cowpea, papaya, sugarcane, sweet potato), as well as for the disease-vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, used in the fight against Dengue Fever. Brazil benefits from the OECD Chemicals and Biotechnology Programme, which supports government and industry efforts to manage risks posed by the production and use of industrial chemicals, nanomaterials, pesticides, biocides, geneticallyengineered organisms, and novel foods and feeds. It also addresses related areas of concern, such as chemical accidents and the development of Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) which inform the public about the amount of hazardous chemicals and pollutants released to the air, water and soil. As Brazil is currently setting up its industrial chemicals management system, while strengthening its biosafety and novel food/feed safety system including for products issued from new breeding techniques, future collaboration aims

at co-operating more in areas of work relevant to Brazil’s new legislation, such as priority setting and risk assessment methodologies.

www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety www.oecd.org/env/ehs ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY . 53


PARTNERING TO ACHIEVE GLOBAL GOALS

54 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL


Brazil is a major provider of South-South co-operation, with a particular focus on Latin America and Africa. Collaboration between Brazil and the OECD on issues of international development co-operation is long-standing and has been especially fruitful since 2017.

Under the joint OECD, UN Environment and World Bank initiative, the case study of the Brazilian Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES) – Scaling up climatecompatible infrastructure: Insights from national development banks in Brazil and South Africa – was published October 2019.

Brazil is actively engaged in triangular Development Cooperation at the OECD, which helps to promote South-South relations and overcome North-South divisions. As a member of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), Brazil has adhered to the OECD Recommendation on Good Pledging Practice. In 2019, Brazil participated in high-level meetings of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)-DAC Dialogue on Development Co-operation.

In April 2019, Brazil joined the OECD Territorial Approach to the SDGs programme, which aims at promoting productivity growth, social inclusion and environmental stability in regions. Since then, a Special collaboration with the State of Parana to produce tailored policy recommendations and an action plan by the end of summer 2020 has begun. This will involve an evaluation of where Parana stands vis-à-vis SDGs, and lead to best practice sharing from OECD experts in the field.

Since 2018, Brazil has been an observer in the international Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) task force, represented by the Brazilian Co-operation Agency (ABC), the government Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) think tank, and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Moreover, Brazil has contributed to the development of a new statistical framework to measure support for SDGs. In particular, IPEA tested the TOSSD methodology on SDG 13 (Climate action).

www.oecd.org/dac

Enabling Women’s Economic Empowerment Enabling Women’s Economic Empowerment NEW APPROACHES TO UNPAID CARE WORK IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

In June 2019, the OECD published the research Enabling Women’s Economic Empowerment: New Approaches to Unpaid Care Work in Developing Countries, which among other countries, was conducted in Brazil. The report analysed unpaid care work and offered recommendations on how governments, private sector and civil society actors can design policies to support both those who need and those who provide care.

NEW APPROACHES TO UNPAID CARE WORK IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

SCAN TO READ THE REPORT

A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER . 55

GLOBAL GOALS

Promoting effective development co-operation and the 2030 agenda


Reaching out to trade unions, business community and foundations With the intensification of global market interconnections, international collaboration should not be restricted to the governmental level. How do we bring business communities, foundations and trade unions into the international dialogue? The Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) is an international trade union organisation, which has consultative status with the Organisation and its various committees. TUAC works closely with the International Trade Union Confederation and the Trade Union Confederation of the Americas to ensure that the voice of workers in non-OECD countries is also heard. The Central Única dos Trabalhadores and other union centres participate in work undertaken in TUAC to prepare the positions taken by Global Unions in the G20 and other fora. The OECD has given the business community a seat at the table in major policy discussions. The Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC), serves at the voice of business on behalf of major industrial and employer organisations. Brazil, represented by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria

56 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

(CNI), interacts actively with major business organisations from the OECD and non-OECD Member countries. BIAC members participate in discussions and policy formation through consultation with leadership, government delegates, committees, and working groups, and provide first hand insight, advice and industry perspective. As a result, policies and programmes are strengthened and better positioned to really work in the marketplace. The OECD also works closely with the Federation of Industries of São Paulo (FIESP). The Emerging Markets Network (EMnet), is an initiative dedicated to the business sector that serves as a platform for dialogue and experience-sharing among OECD-based multinational corporations and their counterparts in emerging economies. EMnet promotes exchanges on business constraints in emerging and OECD markets among its members. Next to executives of companies EMnet involves policy-makers and OECD experts in closed-door sessions providing a frank conversation about common constraints. As a unique platform for dialogue with the private sector, EMnet produces periodic Policy Notes providing an overview of the private sector’s perspective on


GLOBAL GOALS

doing business in emerging economies. Every year, one out of four meetings of the network focuses on Latin America. The 2019 session focused on “Leveraging the impact of new technologies”. The Global Network of Foundations Working for Development (netFWD) gathers self-selected foundations committed to optimising the impact of philanthropy for development through the sharing of experiences, policy influencing and the development of innovative partnerships. The OECD Development Centre launched netFWD in 2012, recognising not only the increasingly important role foundations play in the development arena and the innovative practices emerging from the philanthropic sector, but also the demand for a platform of co-operation and exchange. Co-operation with the Brazilian philanthropic sector has been strong since the Network’s inception, with three members and associates from the country: Instituto Ayrton Senna, Itaú Social Foundation, and the Worldwide Initiative for Grantmaker Support (WINGS), a global network of associations of foundations. The Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV), one of the world’s leading think tanks, has been a Knowledge Partner of the OECD Forum,

the Organisation’s flagship event. They have also been active in bringing the OECD Better Life Index to a Brazilian audience. In addition, parliamentarians from Brazil are becoming increasingly involved in the OECD Global Parliamentary Network, which aims at facilitating dialogue amongst parliamentarians on the enacting and implementation of reforms. In June 2019, the Brazilian Congress greated the Parliamentary Friendship Group Brazil-OECD. Gathering Federal Deputies and Senators from different parties, the group has provided an important platform to expand and strengthen the co-operation between the Brazilian legislators and the Organisation.

www.biac.org www.tuac.org www.oecd.org/dev/oecdemnet.htm www.oecd.org/development/networks www.oecd.org/forum www.oecd.org/parliamentarians

A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER . 57


Annexes

L Château de la Muette, Paris – OECD headquarters

TODAY’S OECD: BETTER POLICIES FOR BETTER LIVES The OECD is an intergovernmental organisation created to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people all over the world. The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to seek solutions to common problems, share experiences and identify best practices. 58 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

Governments of members and partners work with the Organisation to understand the key drivers of economic, social and environmental change. The OECD measures productivity and global flows of trade and investment, it analyses and compares data to predict future trends, and it sets international standards on a wide range of areas, from governance to the fight against bribery and corruption, taxation to the environment.


ANNEXES

GLOBAL RELATIONS

GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE

Through its relationship building over the last 50 years, the OECD has transformed itself into a global organisation, with 37 Members from America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania, including developed and emerging countries. Costa Rica has been invited to join the OECD in 2020.

The OECD is structured around the Council, substantive committees and the Secretariat:

At the 2007 Ministerial Council Meeting, Ministers invited the Secretary General “to strengthen OECD co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through enhanced engagement programmes with a view to possible membership”. A central element of Enhanced Engagement has been the Partners’ direct and active participation in the work of the OECD’s official bodies. OECD’s relations with non-Members have been further extended. Its regional programmes cover South-East Asia, South-East Europe, Eurasia, the Middle East and North Africa, as well as Latin America and the Caribbean. The OECD has also developed Country Programmes with Kazakhstan, Morocco, Peru and Thailand.

l Decision-making power is vested in the OECD Council. Overseeing

the Organisation’s functioning and giving strategic direction, it is made up of one representative per Member country plus a representative of the European Union. The Council takes decisions by consensus. l At the committee level, representatives of member countries and

partners from the permanent delegations to the OECD or their capitals participate in meetings, to request, review and contribute to work undertaken by the Secretariat. l The Secretariat collects data, conducts research and analyses

and produces policy proposals. The Secretary-General heads the Secretariat and is assisted by one or more Deputy SecretariesGeneral. The Secretary-General also chairs the Council, providing the link between national delegations and the Secretariat.

FAST FACTS History: Established in 1961 Headquarters: Paris, France Secretary-General: Angel Gurría Membership: 37 countries (Costa Rica has been invited to become the 38th Member) Key Partners: 5 countries Regional Programmes: 5 regions Country Programmes: 4 countries Publications: About 250 new titles per year Committees: About 250 Committees and their subsidiary bodies

Governance structure of the OECD COUNCIL Strategic direction and control

COMMITTEES Discussion, monitoring and peer reviews

SECRETARIAT Research, analysis and policy recommendations

ANNEXES . 59


Annexes

WORKING METHODS

OECD LEGAL INSTRUMENTS: FACILITATING INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATION

Through the OECD, governments work together with a multidisciplinary approach to develop evidence-based policy guidance, increasingly involving different stakeholders including parliaments, business communities and civil society. On the basis of comparable statistics collected across member and partner governments, the OECD Secretariat analyses countries’ policy experiences and identifies good practices, to inform policy making in participating countries and beyond. “Peer reviews”, based on dialogue and consensus-building, allow for an effective monitoring of reform progress in a broad range of policy areas. Identified good practices and policy recommendations contribute to designing new international standards that can be embodied into OECD legal instruments as described in the next section.

The OECD works in a broad range of policy areas Development assistance Migration

Education

Pensions

Healthcare

Employment

Corruption

Competition Trade

Governance

Tax evasion

Entrepreneurship Fiscal policy Finance Agriculture

60 . ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL

Climate change Innovation

Energy

For more than 50 years, the OECD has developed policy guidelines and standards which promote a level playing field and enhance policy dialogue in the international community. There are currently 450 legal instruments of the OECD, setting out binding and non-binding standards in almost all fields of the Organisation’s work. The majority of them are Council Decision and Recommendations (known together as “OECD Acts”, see acts.oecd.org). Two further categories of legal instruments have been developed through the practice of the Organisation, namely Declarations and International Agreements concluded with the OECD framework. Perhaps the best-known examples are the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (and related OECD Acts) to which Brazil has been an Adherent since 1997; the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions to which Brazil has been a party since 2000; the 2018 Recommendation of the Council on the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct; and the Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence adopted in 2019. Currently, a concerted effort is being made to further integrate the perspectives of Brazil in the OECD’s standard-setting activities. In particular, the participation of Brazil and of other Key Partners in the development of new legal instruments and the revision of existing ones is crucial to ensure their global relevance.


ANNEXES

BRAZIL CURRENTLY ADHERES TO 94 OECD LEGAL INSTRUMENTS: Agriculture and Food 1. Decision of the Council Revising the OECD Schemes for the Varietal Certification or the Control of Seed Moving in International Trade 2. Decision of the Council revising the OECD Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables 3. Decision of the Council revising the OECD Standard Codes for the Official Testing of Agricultural and Forestry Tractors 4. Recommendation of the Council on the OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains Anti-Corruption and Integrity 5. Recommendation of the Council on Tax Measures for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions 6. Recommendation of the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions 7. Declaration on Propriety, Integrity and Transparency in the Conduct of International Business and Finance 8. Recommendation of the Council on Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas 9. Declaration on the Fight Against Foreign Bribery - Towards a New Era of Enforcement 10. Recommendation of the Council on the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector 11. Recommendation of the Council on the Due Diligence Guidance for Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Sector 12. Recommendation of the Council on the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct Development 13. Recommendation of the Council for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption 14. Declaration on Enhancing Productivity for Inclusive Growth 15. DAC Recommendation on Good Pledging Practice

Education 16. Declaration on Future Educational Policies in the Changing Social and Economic Context 17. Recommendation of the Council concerning Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education Environment 18. Decision of the Council concerning the Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals 19. Decision-Recommendation of the Council on Compliance with Principles of Good Laboratory Practice 20. Recommendation of the Council concerning Information Exchange related to Export of Banned or Severely Restricted Chemicals 21. Recommendation of the Council on the Safety Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials 22. Recommendation of the Council on Establishing and Implementing Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) 23. Declaration on Risk Reduction for Lead 24. Recommendation of the Council on Quality Assurance in Molecular Genetic Testing 25. Recommendation of the Council concerning Safety Considerations for Applications of Recombinant DNA Organisms in Industry, Agriculture and the Environment Finance and Investment 26. Decision of the Council on International Investment Incentives and Disincentives 27. Third Revised Decision of the Council concerning National Treatment 28. Recommendation of the Council on Member Country Measures concerning National Treatment of Foreign-Controlled Enterprises in OECD Member Countries and Based on Considerations of Public Order and Essential Security Interest 29. Recommendation of the Council on Member Country Exceptions to National Treatment and National Treatment related Measures concerning the Services Sector 30. Decision of the Council on Conflicting Requirements being imposed on Multinational Enterprises

ANNEXES . 61


Annexes

31. Recommendation of the Council on Member Country Exceptions to National Treatment and National Treatment related Measures in the Category of Official Aids and Subsidies 32. Recommendation of the Council concerning Member Country Exceptions to National Treatment and National Treatment-related Measures concerning Investment by Established ForeignControlled Enterprises 33. Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises 34. Decision of the Council on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 35. The Bologna Charter on SME Policies 36. Istanbul Ministerial Declaration on Fostering the Growth of Innovative and Internationally Competitive SMEs 37. Sector Understanding on Export Credits for Civil Aircraft 38. Recommendation of the Council on High-Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection 39 Recommendation of the Council on Guidelines on Insurer Governance 40. Recommendation of the Council on Good Practices for Insurance Claim Management 41. Recommendation of the Council on Member Country Exceptions to National Treatment and Related Measures concerning Access to Local Bank Credit and the Capital Market 42. Recommendation of the Council on Budgetary Governance 43. Recommendation of the Council on Financial Literacy 44. Recommendation of the Council on a Policy Framework for Effective and Efficient Financial Regulation 45. Recommendation on Consumer Product Safety 46. Recommendation of the Council on a Policy Framework for Effective and Efficient Financial Regulation

Governance 47. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions 48. Recommendation of the Council Concerning International Co-operation on Competition Investigations and Proceedings 49. Recommendation of the Council on Principles of Corporate Governance 50. Recommendation of the Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement 51. Recommendation of the Council concerning Structural Separation in Regulated Industries 52. Declaration for the Future of the Internet Economy (The Seoul Declaration) 53. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes 54. Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Internet Policy Making 55. Recommendation of the Council on Open Government 56. Recommendation of the Council on Bribery and Officially Supported Export Credits 57. Recommendation of the Council concerning Effective Action against Hard Core Cartels 58. Recommendation of the Council for Enhanced Access and More Effective Use of Public Sector Information 59. Recommendation of the Council on Merger Review 60. Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies 61. Recommendation of the Council on Improving the Quality of Government Regulation 62. Recommendation of the Council on Regulatory Policy and Governance 63. Recommendation of the Council on the Governance of Clinical Trials Industry and Services 64. Declaration on Strengthening SMEs and Entrepreneurship for Productivity and Inclusive Growth 65. Recommendation of the Council on Competition Assessment 66. Multilateral Guidelines (Extract from the Annex to the Decision establishing a Steel Committee)

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ANNEXES

Regional, Rural and Urban Development 67. Declaration on Policies for Building Better Futures for Regions, Cities and Rural Areas 68. Recommendation of the Council on Effective Public Investment Across Levels of Government Science and technology 69. Daejeon Declaration on Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for the Global and Digital Age 70. Recommendation of the Council on Broadband Development 71. Recommendation of the Council on Digital Security of Critical Activities 72. Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence 73. Recommendation of the Council on Consumer Protection in E-commerce 74. Recommendation of the Council concerning a General Framework of Principles for International Co-operation in Science and Technology 75. Declaration on the Digital Economy: Innovation, Growth and Social Prosperity (CancĂşn Declaration) 76. Declaration on International Science and Technology Co-operation for Sustainable Development 77. Recommendation of the Council on Digital Security Risk Management for Economic and Social Prosperity 78. Recommendation of the Council on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws against Spam 79. Recommendation of the Council on International Mobile Roaming Services 80. Recommendation of the Council concerning Principles for Facilitating International Technology Co-operation Involving Enterprises 81. Recommendation of the Council concerning Access to Research Data from Public Funding

Taxation 82. Recommendation of the Council concerning the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Estates and Inheritances and on Gifts 83. Recommendation of the Council on the Granting and Design of Tax Sparing in Tax Conventions 84. Recommendation of the Council on the Use of Tax Identification Numbers in an International Context 85. Recommendation of the Council on Counteracting Harmful Tax Competition 86. Protocol amending the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters 87. Declaration on Automatic Exchange of Information in Tax Matters 88. Recommendation of the Council on Tax Avoidance and Evasion 89. Recommendation of the Council concerning Tax Treaty Override 90. Recommendation of the Council concerning an OECD Model Agreement for the Undertaking of Simultaneous Tax Examinations 91. Recommendation of the Council on Implementing the Proposals contained in the 1998 Report on Harmful Tax Competition 92. Declaration on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Trade 93. Declaration on Better Policies to Achieve a Productive, Sustainable and Resilient Global Food System 94. Declaration on Trade Policy

ANNEXES . 63


Annexes

BRAZIL’S PARTICIPATION IN OECD BODIES With Associate or Member (full right) status: 1. International Energy Agency 2. Development Centre 3. Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes 4. Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) related bodies 5. Steel Committee 6. Competition Committee 7. Recommendation of the Council on Principles of Corporate Governance 8. Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises 9. OECD Network on Fiscal Relations Across Levels of Government 10. Programme for International Student Assessment Governing Board (PISA) 11. Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) 12. Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions 13. Working Party on Indicators of Educational Systems 14. Working Party on Responsible Business Conduct With Participant status (attending non-confidential sessions only): 1. Committee for Agriculture 2. Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy 3. Committee on Digital Economy Policy

4. Committee on Fiscal Affairs 5. Committee on Statistics and Statistical Policy 6. Committee on Consumer Policy 7. Corporate Governance Committee 8. Public Governance Committee 9. Trade Committee 10. International Transport Forum 11. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Governing Board 12. Group on Commodity Markets 13. Advisory Task Force on the Codes of Liberalisation 14. Education Policy Committee 15. Enlarged Investment Committee for work related to the Codes of Liberalisation 16. Programme for the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) Governing Board 17. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts 18. Joint Working Party on Agriculture and Trade 19. Joint Working Party on Trade and the Environment 20. Working Party on Trade 21. Working Party on Agricultural Policies and Markets 22. Working Party on Consumer Product Safety 23. Working Party on Financial Statistics 24. Working Party on Private Pensions 25. Working Party on State Ownership and Privatisation Practices

Discover reports, data and analysis about Brazil alongside the world’s leading economies on OECD iLibrary, the global knowledge base – www.oecd-ilibrary.org For news and information about OECD work and events with Brazil www.oecd.org/brazil

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See more on the OECD-Brazil Co-operation www.oecd.org/ latin-america/ countries/brazil/

ANNEXES . 64


The OECD: A Global Policy Network

EURASIA ACTIVE WITH

MENA ACTIVE WITH

THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

AFRICA ACTIVE WITH

September 2016

CHINA ACTIVE WITH THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF

ACTIVE WITH

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

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SOUTHEAST ASIA

The OECD Member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

Brochure design by baselinearts.co.uk

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation helping governments tackle the economic, social and governance challenges of a globalised economy. It provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

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THE UNITED NATIONS


Global Relations Secretariat OECD, 2 rue AndrĂŠ Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16 France www.oecd.org/globalrelations GRS.contact@oecd.org

December 2020