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Extension agent warns of fire blight By Donald Lambert The Northern Virginia Daily

wounds on stems and branches during pruning or hail and storm damage,” Sutphin said. As spring approaches, fruit tree growers will need to be on the lookout for Trees with fire blight may also develdifferent types of tree-killing bacteria. op reddish water-soaked lesions on its Mark Sutphin, an extension agent for bark. On warm days, these lesions may leak orange-brown liquid. the Virginia Cooperative Extension, said one bacteria causes fire blight.

Fire blight control, like most bacterial diseases, can be difficult and expenAccording to the Virginia Cooperative sive. It is recommended that if fire Extension Pest Management Guide, blight is discovered on a tree, to cut which can be found online at https:// off the infected branches of the tree tinyurl.com/y6zvco6w, fire blight is and burn them to prevent the infeccaused by the bacterium Erwinia tion from spreading. amylovora and is considered one of the most destructive diseases of apple The extension recommends avoiding excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizand pear trees in the United States. ers and excessive pruning of trees. It “Pears are most susceptible, but is also recommended to avoid any apples and other related species can pruning during the blossom period also get it,” Sutphin said. and immediately thereafter. Fire blight gets its name from an Fruit tree farmers need to be also on apple or pear tree being so severely watch for large populations of “suckinfected by the disease that it has the ing” insects, like mites and maggots, appearance of being scorched or that are present in trees during the burned by fire. bloom period. These insects spread Fire blight usually appears in the spring as a blight on a tree blossom, leaf and twig. Infected blossoms suddenly wilt and soon turn light to dark brown. The fire blight bacteria may move down the twig and into branches and limbs, where the infection becomes established. These infected branches and limbs may become entirely girdled with the infection, which spreads upward and downward. “It can also be spread through open

bacteria to blossoms and open wounds on trees. It’s recommended to use effective insecticides following the “bloom” period. Streptomycin sulfate, an antibiotic, is the most effective material for fire blight control. The first application should be completed just before the center blossoms of the tree begin to open. Additional applications should be made at five-day intervals until all petals have fallen and there should only be two or three sprays. The

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Home & Garden 2019

Why it’s smart to have a smart home Devices are everywhere. According to a recent visual networking index forecast from Cisco, by 2021, there will be four networked devices and connections per person across the globe. Those figures are even greater in North America, where Cisco estimates each person will have 13 networked devices and connections by 2021.

average of $98.30 each month.

• Investment: Whether you’re a developer or a single-family homeowner, real estate is an investment. Making a home as appealing to prospective buyers as With all those devices, it’s no surprise that a possible is a greater number of people are embracing the smart home movement. Those who have yet to great way to get a jump on the bandwagon can benefit from better return learning more about smart homes and why on your real it’s intelligent to have a smart home. estate investment. The CNET/ Coldwell What is a smart home? Banker survey found that According to SmartHomeUSA.com, the term 81 percent of buyers would be “smart home” is commonly used to define more likely to buy a home if smart residences in which appliances, lighting, home products were already installed. heating and cooling units, televisions, That can make the market for your home computers, entertainment systems, and more competitive, ultimately earning you security systems are capable of more money at resale. communicating with one another. Each of Smart homes are both the present and the these components can be controlled remotely, future. Homeowners who want to make their typically via a smartphone. homes more livable today and more Why is it smart to have a smart home? The benefits of a smart home are numerous, and will likely only multiply as people utilize more devices. • Time: A recent joint survey from CNET and Coldwell Banker found that 57 percent of Americans say that smart home technology saves them an average of 30 minutes per day. That’s an especially beneficial advantage for busy parents and/or professionals who find it difficult to juggle all of their daily responsibilities. • Money: Another benefit to smart homes is their cost savings. Because devices can be controlled remotely, smart home owners can adjust the temperatures on their heating and cooling units while away from home. That means they can arrive home each night to a comfortable home without having to run their HVAC systems all day while no one was home. In fact, the CNET/Coldwell Banker survey found 45 percent of Americans say that smart home products save them an

marketable tomorrow should consider investing in smart home products.

Items to get you started on creating your smart home Technology has changed the way people live in the 21st century. Once ubiquitous, land lines anchored to kitchen walls have now given way to smartphones that can be taken anywhere. Bulky television sets that required at least two people to move have been replaced with highdefinition offerings so light and thin they can be mounted on living room walls. It’s no great surprise that technology also is changing the physical places we call home. Smart homes are a rapidly growing trend. In a typical smart home, devices such as the thermostat, television and even the refrigerator can be controlled remotely through the internet. Converting an existing home into a smart home can seem intimidating, especially for people who don’t consider themselves tech savvy. But today’s user-friendly technology makes it relatively easy for anyone to turn his or her home into a smarter one. Before you get started, recognize that there are certain must-have items to turn a home into a smart home.upgrades to join the smart home revolution.


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The Northern Virginia Daily

Max Thornberry/Daily

Terry Fogle, co-owner of Fort Valley Nursery in Woodstock, shows off a mid-sized garden fountain.

Water fountains offer sights and sounds for gardens By Max Thornberry The Northern Virginia Daily

WOODSTOCK - As the sun starts to peek through and thaw the long winter, backyard enthusiasts might start thinking about a new centerpiece for their garden.

locating a fountain you don’t want to put it way out in the yard someplace,” Fogle said. “You want to put it someplace proximal to where you spend time.”

There is a wide range of fountains available, Fogle said. Smaller tabletop fountains can be as small as a basketTerry Fogle, retail manager and coball and start at about $100 while owner of Fort Valley Nursery in Woodstock, said a water fountain offers larger, more intricate fountains can approach $2,000. the perfect combination of visual and auditory aesthetics to make a porch or Regardless of what type and size of deck the perfect place to gather. the fountain, most gardens are suit“That’s why many times when you’re

able for one.

Some misconceptions people have, Fogle said, are that fountains need to be hooked up to a water source. In reality, most fountains are self-contained - they are filled once and a submersible pump recycles the water meaning the only necessity is access to electricity.

Most fountains Fort Valley offers are high-quality concrete or basalt rock, which run more expensive than plastic fountains but will last much longer, Fogle said. Recycled water means there are minor expenses there and the pumps, Fogle said, tend to be highly efficient, keeping overall costs low.

Fogle said water will have to be added from time to time due to evaporation and splashing, but for the most part, fountains are low-maintenance features.

“I don’t think the cost is a big factor as far as running them’s concerned,” Fogle said.

Low maintenance means the cost of most water features is all up front.

Besides adding water from time to time, other maintenance will include cleaning the fountain to keep algae


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away. Any time water is exposed to sunlight, Fogle said, algae buildup and other growths are possible. Some chemicals prevent algae growth, or the fountains can be drained and cleaned, he said. Adding water is an occasional chore for maintaining a fountain, but it is vital, Fogle said. “The worst thing you can do with any kind of fountain is let the water level go below the pump level where it’s sucking air,” he said. “When it does that, they can burn out.”

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do well.” Besides requiring more space, ponds have an entire ecosystem built into them to consider. Balancing the plant to animal ratio is important to ensure clear water, Fogle said. Special filters, in conjunction with the ecosystem make sure pond owners can look down and see their fish rather than just green water. Despite their decline, ponds are still available for those with the time and drive to maintain them, Fogle said, and they often include a water fountain of their own, which aerates the water and keeps fish happy.

Fogle has been in the nursery business for 40 years and he said he has seen trends come and go. At one time, Koi ponds, and ponds in general were A newer innovation, often used with common, but he said he has seen their ponds but are more and more common even without them, are disappearing popularity wane recently. fountains, Fogle said. “Anytime you talk about building a “That’s where you have your water pond, that’s a little more involved reserve - you fill it full of rock, so than just plugging in one of these there’s no exposed surface water,” he fountains with water in it,” Fogle said. said. “Which will reduce the amount of “Particularly if you’re talking about a koi pond because koi have a whole dif- algae and things you might get. So it ferent set of requirements for them to reduces the maintenance.”

Max Thornberry/Daily

Garden fountains come in all shapes and sizes, from tabletop fountains like this one to large towers.

Fogle said he doesn’t do many ponds anymore, but Springdale Water Gardens in Greenville has everything a prospective Koi pond owner could need. No matter how big or small someone wants to go, Fogle said there is a water feature that can meet the need.

“There are fountains that have sort of an old, classic look,” he said. “There are more contemporary ones. So there’s all manner to fit your particular personality or garden design look that you want.” Contact Max Thornberry at mthornberry@nvdaily.com


8

The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

Quick and simple ways to make a front door pop Visitors’ impressions of a home are often dictated by the home’s entryway. Must as one may judge a book by its cover, the same can be said about the impression that a front door and entryway can create, regardless of how accurate that impression is. Making certain changes to an entryway can go a long way toward improving curb appeal. Entryways also can set the scene for a home’s interior. Whether one chooses to be classic or bold, modern or traditional, there are various ways to quickly transform a home’s entryway. • Bold front door color: Color can dramatically enhance an entryway. Painting an existing door or replacing it with a more vivid option can do the trick. The DIY Network says certain colors stand out as favorites. These include turquoise, yellow, red, indigo, orange, and black. The door color should complement the other shades of the home, such as those on siding and trim.

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Home & Garden 2019

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Paula Brownlee, a master gardener, poses with two of her rain barrels.

Things to consider when setting up a rain barrel By Max Lee The Northern Virginia Daily

When setting up a rain barrel to collect rainwater, people should make sure to consider how heavy the barrel will be filled with water.

a rain barrel properly set up. To work right, rain barrels need to be above ground level to accommodate hoses or garden pails, Brownlee said. “You fill [a rain barrel] with water, and it’s extremely heavy,” Brownlee said. “And therefore it needs to be on a very firm foundation.”

That’s one of many tips that Paula Brownlee, a master gardener and one of the founding members of the Brownlee said that the two easiest regional environmental group ways to get started with a rain barrel Sustainability Matters, has for getting are to attend rain barrel workshops in

the area or to purchase a premade kit. “That is a pretty skillful thing to do, In the rain barrel workshops, instruc- so it’s quite nice if you can find a place tors can help people get a rain barrel that’s actually offering these workshops,” Brownlee said. set up fairly cheaply. (She estimated that it would cost around $50.) And with luck, she said, volunteers can help set up the faucet at the bottom of the barrel. Getting that faucet set up can be difficult, she said, because it has to be tight enough to prevent water from leaking.

People can also buy rain barrels that have already been set up. However, those can cost a significant amount of money. “In my experience, because I have seen a lot of homeowners that have got them, they are rather on the small


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side,” Brownlee added. For those who want to make rain barrels from start to finish, though, Brownlee said that people need to start with a good, food-grade plastic barrel. In barrels that are not foodgrade, plastics can leach into the water, which can be bad for plants, Brownlee said. At the bottom of the barrel, there needs to be stitching with a closable faucet so the water can be drained. The rain barrel also needs cover to keep out debris and insects. Also, Brownlee said that she likes a diversion device she purchased. That device keeps overflow water from pooling up near the house, by causing new rainwater to go down the downspout once the water in the barrel reaches a certain level. “If the rain barrel fills up to the top and you have no diversion, it’s going to pour over the top of the barrel and maybe slosh all around and sort of make a mess,” Brownlee said. “And sometimes we have a lot of rain at

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once - maybe 2 or 3 inches of rainfall and you can fill those barrels up really fast.”

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Rain barrels do come with a potential downside, Brownlee said: mosquitos. Because rain barrels hold gallons of standing water, they can attract mosquitos, even if the rain barrels have a lid.

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But Brownlee said that using mosquito dunks, a product that kills mosquito larvae but that doesn’t affect plants or other animals, can prevent mosquitos from being a problem near rain barrels. And rain barrels can provide some benefits, Brownlee said. Plants enjoy the natural rainwater more than tap water, and the barrels can save homeowners money on their water bills. “It’s a wonderful, wonderful thing to have a supply of rainwater, which is free of chemicals, free of synthetic chemicals, free of pollutants,” Brownlee said. Contact Max Lee at mlee@nvdaily.com

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When it can be smart to hire a painting pro Few things can revitalize a home more readily than a fresh coat of paint. Thanks in part to the affordability of paint and its ease of application, painting is something that even novice DIYers can typically handle. According to the marketing advice guru Brandon Gaille, it is estimated that residential interior paint only lasts around three years before it needs to be updated. Exterior paint can fade, chip and peel due to various environmental factors. As a result, many homes can likely use a fresh coat of paint in at least one room.

Painting requires skill, patience and a knowledge of how various paints — including finishes for particular applications — will hold up. Novice painters may do more harm than good by dripping paint on expensive carpeting or floors or fail to recognize the nuances that indicate a spoton painting job.

they understand which techniques can improve efficiency. That means a professional job can typically be completed much more quickly than a DIY project.

Even though some people think they’ll save money by painting their own homes, that’s not necessarily true. Professionals already Professional painters have all the have spent hours equipment necessary, upon hours learning unlike novices who the ropes of what may need to make works — and what repeated and does not. Painters potentially costly often understand that trips to the hardware painstaking store for supplies. preparatory work is Plus, if mistakes crucial to getting happen, DIYers have pristine finished to spend additional results. Walls and time and money ceilings must be fixing them. properly repaired and Safety can be a large As DIY-friendly as painting can be, when prepared even before motivator for turning a base coat is applied. painting over to a pro. attempting to paint the interior or Professional painters Navigating exterior exterior of their also have an eye for areas or tall interior homes, homeowners details. And because ceilings can be may learn that some professional painters challenging and may painting projects are make a business out require scaffolding or best left to the of doing interior and tall ladders DIYers do professionals. exterior surfaces, not have. Risk of falls

or other injuries increase with lack of experience. Painting can give a home a facelift, and oftentimes it is smart to turn the work over to professionals to ensure the job is done just right.

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What is the water table, and how does it affect homes? The groundwater table plays a role in home construction, foundation stability and home comfort. Because the groundwater table is so significant, it behooves homeowners to understand how it works.

The water table can fluctuate with the seasons and from year to year because it is affected by climatic variations, as well as how much water may be drawn from underground, advises Encyclopedia Britannica. The water table where one person lives may be several inches or feet below the surface of the ground and follow the topography of the land. For others, it may be much higher, even coming above the surface of the soil.

and become saturated. This can exert significant pressure against the foundation walls, states Rytech, a water damage and mold rehabilitation company.

In areas where a local water table rises near the surface, water can push against the underside of the foundation in a National Geographic defines a condition known as “hydrostatic water table as the boundary pressure.” This may cause water between water-saturated ground to infiltrate through the bottom and unsaturated ground. Well of the foundation — even beneath the ground, at various permeating solid concrete over depths depending on geography, time. If hydrostatic pressure is topography and weather The water table as well as local severe, it could lift certain conditions, pockets of water, soil conditions and drainage can portions of the foundation out of called aquifers, exist. The water impact homes and their the ground, but this is very table marks the boundary foundations. If soil drains unlikely. But it could cause between that available water and efficiently and there is a shifting of foundation walls and the dry surface. relatively low water table, it may structures like fencing and Ground water is impacted by not be problematic. However, if decks. precipitation, irrigation and soil is dense and absorbent and Even if ground water does not ground cover. It also may be the water table is high, the affected by land use and tides. ground around a home may swell cause foundation cracking or

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shifting, it could lead to humidity issues, resulting in rust, bacteria and mold. Wood structures in a home may be compromised by a high level of humidity. The home improvement resource Angie’s List says certain steps may need to be taken to protect against damage from a water table and abundant ground water. Basement and foundation waterproofing professionals can help homeowners develop a plan to mitigate water damage. This can include grading changes and the installation of drains and pumps to move water away from the house. Special paints and sealants also can protect the foundation. Ground water can be a hindrance when it affects the home, but homeowners who learn about it can be in a position to confront any ground water issues.


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5

things to look Did You Know? for when selecting a lawn service

Most people want beautiful, lush lawns and well-maintained landscapes. Not every homeowner has the time or the inclination to do the work, however. Many homeowners rely on a lawn service to help maintain their properties and keep their homes looking great. Lawn companies come in all shapes and sizes — from fly-by-night workers with ill-maintained equipment to franchised companies with thousands of workers across the country to everything in between. Finding the right service for your needs may require some homework and understanding of what sets a quality lawn service company apart from one that’s best avoided. 1. Look to the internet. The internet connects consumers via shared information and reviews. Reading company and product reviews on Yelp and Angie’s List can help homeowners make informed decisions. Homeowners also can seek recommendations via local Facebook group pages. 2. Insist on licensure and insurance. It’s not the standard to be licensed and insured, but it is an essential step for finding a business that stands behind its work and the safety of its employees and customers. If a worker gets injured on your property or if the mower kicks a big rock through your storm door, you’ll be liable if the company isn’t insured. 3. Get a written proposal. Be wary of companies that will quote you an offer over the phone without seeing your property in person. Understand which types of services and treatments will be included in the weekly, monthly or annual plan. Discuss the types of

fertilizers and herbicides used and whether they fit with your lifestyle and environmental consciousness. 4. Ask for a contract in writing When you find a business that offers the type of work you need done at the right price, be sure that a contract is worked up and both parties sign it. This protects you as a homeowner and could help you in the long run if guarantees are not met or work is unsatisfactory. 5. One size fits all. Landscaping is more than just mowing the lawn. However, some lawn companies may only mow lawns and will plant flowers or perform spring and fall cleanup. If a company cannot fill all of your needs, find one that can; otherwise, you may need to hire specialists in each area of yard maintenance. Lawn care companies are something to consider as the weather warms and spring projects begin anew.

Spring cleaning is a ritual in many homes, though some might be forgetting to address an area of their homes that can be especially vulnerable to insect infestations. According to PestWorld.org, kitchen cabinets and pantries used to store spices and baking items, such as flour, can make for inviting hideouts for various types of pests. These unwelcome guests include beetles, Indian meal moths and ants. To remedy this issue or prevent insects from becoming an issue, discard stale spices or dated baking items. Once such items have been removed from the cabinets and pantry and discarded, wipe down the interior of the spaces before installing fresh shelf paper. If the critters didn’t make their presence known in the cabinets, that doesn’t mean they haven’t made your kitchen home over the winter. Some might have opted to spend their winters behind appliances, including the stove and the refrigerator. As a result, it’s best to pull these appliances off the wall each spring, sweeping or vacuuming the dust and crumbs you find before mopping the floors.

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Get ready: Early spring landscaping tips During the cold months of winter, many people stare longingly out of the window dreaming of spring and time spent outdoors. For those with green thumbs, images of tending to the garden and other aspects of their landscapes no doubt dominate such daydreams. Draw inspiration from those budding crocuses and daffodils pushing through the last remnants of snow and employ these tips to prepare for the upcoming gardening season. • One of the first steps is to apply a preemergent weed killer to get a head start knocking out weeds that can plague the lawn during the growing season. Killing weeds at the roots early on can mean far fewer hassles in spring and summer, and may prevent new generations of weeds from cropping up each year. • While it may be tempting to take a prematurely warm day as a sign that spring is in full force and purchase a

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bunch of annuals, it’s better to know the last of the possible frost dates (check “The Farmer’s Almanac”); otherwise, you may waste time and money planting flowers or vegetables only to have them zapped by another frosty day.

tending to the lawn mower and other gardening equipment. Clean all tools and ensure that everything works, repairing parts as needed.

• Lawn and garden experts at The Home Depot suggest filling in bare patches of lawn now by mixing a few shovelfuls of soil with grass seed. Then apply this patch to the bare areas, water, and continue to care for the area until the spot fills in.

want to plant in the landscape this year that will complement any existing shrubbery or perennials. Come up with a theme so that the entire yard is cohesive.

• Give outdoor entertaining spaces a good scrubbing, clearing away dirt and grime that may have accumulated over • Amend the soil so that it is the right the winter. Use a leaf blower to blow away consistency — just crumbling when lifting it. Soil that is too muddy after spring any leftover leaves. thaw can harden, making it difficult for • Check if the front porch, railings or plants to flourish later on. Speak with decking need painting and/or staining. representatives at a local lawn and garden Tackle these projects when the weather is center about which types of amendments you cooler so everything will be ready for those can add to the soil in your particular area to peak spring days. enrich it. • Think about any annuals you might

• Spend a day in the garage or shed

Before homeowners know it, winter is gone and it is time to once again enjoy long days spent outdoors. Get a jump start on spring lawn prep as soon as you can.

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16

The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

Must-haves for an amazing kitchen remodel Kitchen remodels are among the most popular home renovation projects, whether they consist of swapping out cabinet hardware or doing major demolition. Due to the sheer amount of time families spend in the kitchen, not to mention the number of tasks performed in this space, it is easy to see why Remodeling magazine consistently ranks kitchen renovations as projects that will enable homeowners to recoup a high percentage of their investments. In the magazine’s 2018 “Cost vs. Value” report, midrange major kitchen remodels costing an average of $63,829 recouped 59 percent of that investment. When investing in a kitchen project, it is important to incorporate items that are coveted. • Deep, double sinks: Having a double sink enables you to soak dishes in one side and then wash on the other. It also makes it easy to wash and prep produce for meals. • Kitchen island and bar stools: Even though many meals are enjoyed around the table, there’s something to be said for the convenience of a kitchen island and some well-placed bar stools for quick breakfasts or snacks. • Smart kitchen storage: Work with a contractor to include storage solutions built into cabinetry and the pantry. Slide-out shelving, nooks for a paper towel roll and custom-designed areas to store stand mixers and other necessities can make kitchens more functional. • Outdoor access: If possible, design a kitchen so it is easy to access the backyard via sliding doors. This can make outdoor entertaining or even coffee on the deck much easier. • Under-cabinet lighting: Fixtures installed under cabinets provide both ambient lighting and task lighting. Such lighting makes it easier to see what you’re working on as well, as even well-placed overhead lighting can fail to illuminate dark corners and spots on the counters. • Convenient warming drawer: This appliance provides backup to the oven. It’s a slide-out drawer that can keep prepared foods out of the way and warm until they are ready to be served. This is particularly handy for holidays and other entertaining. • Beverage station: Designate one area of the kitchen to beverages, such as coffee and tea. Or make the area an informal bar. This can limit traffic in the kitchen to a single area. Kitchen remodels are exciting to envision, and several choices can make these high-traffic spaces even more coveted.

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Home & Garden 2019

17

Rethink your kitchen layout to maximize efficiency Kitchens are the most popular rooms in many homes. Even though The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics states the average person spends just 68 minutes each weekday consuming food, and around 37 minutes preparing meals, the kitchen is not just a spot for food. It also is a gathering place for conversation, homework and family time.

focal point of a home. Food preparation also is no longer a solitary task. Thanks to larger kitchen footprints and multiple zones set up for meal creation, a greater number of people can hang out in the kitchen and help with meals. You’ll find multiple sinks, large islands and more counter space are key components of modern kitchen layouts.

In recognition that so much time is spent in this heart of the home, many people are embracing some of the more popular trends concerning kitchen layouts to maximize the comfort and efficiency of these rooms.

Dining nooks

Communal zones Unlike the days of yore when the kitchen was utilitarian, today’s home floor plans make kitchens a

Kitchen designs are bringing back banquette seating in a cozy nook. This design is a practical use of space, and can fit in large and small kitchens alike. It also can give a kitchen a high-end look, as built-in banquettes can highlight a bay window or seem custom-made for the space. Banquette seating can fit a number of people

comfortably and provides a sensible and casual dining spot solution. Family table The trend experts at Southern Living magazine indicate that formal dining and living rooms are now used infrequently. As a result, kitchens have evolved to accommodate meal prep and dining. A large family table in the center of the room brings people into the kitchen to get more involved with food, according to San Francisco designer David Kensington. Counter culture Taking a page out of a favorite corner diner or bar, kitchens are increasingly outfitted with a large island flanked by chic counter stools, according to the design pros

at Domino. Family members can pull up a stool and grab a quick snack. It’s also a great place for friends to engage in conversation while a host or hostess prepares cocktails and appetizers for an evening soirÊe. Work zone Many families like to have an area of the kitchen set up as a tech zone where kids can do their homework and even parents can do some work, such as paying bills. Setting aside an area of counter space as a small desk area can be a great idea. Such areas also help parents keep a watchful eye on children while they’re surfing the internet. Kitchens are the hub of the household, and modern design trends cater to a growing need for a multipurpose space.

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Home & Garden 2019

The Northern Virginia Daily

Max Thornberry/Daily

Once compost piles begin to break down, the nutrient-rich soil underneath helps promote soil health.

Composting good for gardens, good for the environment By Max Thornberry The Northern Virginia Daily

STRASBURG - Gardeners looking to cut down on waste and help their plants flourish have billions of opportunities at their fingertips.

and healthy soil,” Livesay said. “If you have that soil life, then that will ultimately produce healthier plants above ground.”

In addition to the compost piles in the Strasburg community garden, Livesay has a pile of his own at home he has Nick Livesay, a conservation specialist been tending. He said his pile is far with the Lord Fairfax Soil and Water from perfect, but tinkering with what Conservation District, said composting he puts in, keeping a balance of is an effective, efficient way to pro“green” and “brown” materials is key mote healthy plants and soil as well for a healthy, effective compost pile. as cut down on space in the local landBrown materials, Livesay said, are fill. carbon-based materials such as leaves, “We’re all about promoting soil biology twigs, sawdust or shredded newspa-

per. Including the proper amount of brown materials will keep compost piles from growing slimy and rotting. To balance out the carbon-based “browns,” composters also need nitrogen-based “green” materials such as grass clippings, fruit and vegetable scraps and manure. If manure is used, Livesay said, it is important it sits out for a while before adding it to the compost pile as fresh manure will harm the decomposition process.

properly, Livesay said. For example, meat and bones are not compostable, and neither are dairy products or anything cooked in oil. Plants that are infested with pests or weeds could also pose long-term problems for compost piles, Livesay said. “If you put in a diseased plant or a plant infested with pests, those pests can harbor in that soil, and then when you spread it to your garden you propagate it again,” Livesay said.

Livesay suggested backyard gardeners While most food items and kitchen find a place on their property that is scraps are safe for composting, there close to the kitchen so taking scraps is are some items that won’t break down


The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

simple; has access to water so the pile can stay damp, and start with space roughly 4 feet by 4 feet. There isn’t any minimum or maximum size for a compost pile, Livesay said, as long as the gardener or farmer can maintain and turn the pile. Turning the pile at least twice a month promotes decomposition and allows for the proper mixing of materials. “It’s really important to layer your materials too,� Livesay said. “Layer your green materials, layer your brown materials, almost like a cake and stack it up. That will really get the mixture right while you’re at it rather than having to turn it and mix it all up.� Allyson Ponn, education and program support specialist for the Water Conservation District, said most gardeners who compost have multiple piles at a time.

19

the garden and another that is being built up and added to, Ponn said. Before diving in, Livesay said it’s important to keep in mind a compost pile won’t produce the nutrient-rich soil overnight. The minimum time for smaller piles to begin to break down is between three and six months, he said. Larger piles could take up to a year before they are suitable for use. “Don’t expect it to turn into this rich, beautiful soil overnight,� Livesay said. “It’s a longer process than that. Some people promote faster compost making by keeping smaller materials. Shredded stuff, grass clippings and sawdust are good because they’re already in small pieces.� Eventually, the pile will start to shrink and the backyard science experiment will be ready to put into action, boosting plants and saving space.

“It’s just an experiment, really just Besides a pile that is “cooking� - a pile seeing what you can use to reduce that is actively decomposing - there is your waste,� Livesay said. I think 30 usually a pile being used for adding to percent of the landfill is food waste. If

we can all do our part to do a little bit that can’t be composted.� of composting, then we’ll really preContact Max Thornberry at serve the space in the landfill for stuff mthornberry@nvdaily.com

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Home & Garden 2019

The Northern Virginia Daily

Outdoor improvements that boost home value Whether home improvement projects are design to improve the interior or exterior of a house, focusing on renovations that make the most financial sense can benefit homeowners in the long run. The right renovations can be assets if and when homeowners decide to sell their homes. So how does one get started? First and foremost, speak to a local real estate agent who is knowledgeable about trends in the community. While a swimming pool may be something coveted in one area, it may impede sales in another. It also helps to study generalized trends and data from various home improvement industry analysts to guide upcoming projects. The following outdoor projects are just a few renovations that tend to add value. Fire pit: A fire pit is a great place to gather most months of the year. Bob Vila and CBS news report that a fire pit realizes a 78

percent return on investment, or ROI. Outdoor kitchen: Many buyers are looking to utilize their yards as an extension of interior living areas. Cooking, dining and even watching TV outdoors is increasingly popular. Outdoor living areas can be custom designed and built. In addition, prefabricated modular units that require a much smaller commitment of time and money are available. Patio: Homeowners who do not already have a patio will find that adding one can increase a home’s value. Patios help a home look neat, add useable space and may help a home to sell quickly. The experts at Space Wise, a division of Extra Space Storage, say that refinishing, repairing and building a new patio offers strong ROI.

Remodeling magazine’s 2018 “Cost vs. Value” report indicates that an $11,000 deck can add about $9,000 in resale value to the home, recouping around 82 percent of the project’s costs.

easy fixes can improve a home’s look instantly.

New landscaping: The National Association of Realtors says an outdoor makeover that includes well-thought out landscaping can net 105 percent ROI. Installing a Door update: Improve curb appeal with a new, high-end front walkway, adding stone planters, mulching, and planting shrubs Deck: Deck can be as valuable as door and garage doors. If that’s are ideas to consider. patios. A deck is another outdoor too expensive, a good cleaning Many different outdoor projects space that can be used for and new coat of paint can make entertaining, dining and more. an old door look brand new. These can add value to a home.


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Home & Garden 2019

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Home & Garden 2019

The Northern Virginia Daily

Master Gardener offers tips on pruning trees and bushes By Donald Lambert The Northern Virginia Daily

Spring signals a time for people to do some landscaping work around the house, including pruning trees and bushes. Lynn Hoffman, a master gardener for the Northern Shenandoah Valley Master Gardeners, offered tips for people pruning or trimming for the first time. “The first rule of thumb is not to prune out more than about a third of the growth,” she said. “With that in mind, a homeowner should probably prune once a year to keep the plant shape and size in check. If not, the bush or tree will not keep the proportions that the homeowner might want on display.” Hoffman said that pruning bushes and small ornamental trees are absolutely something a homeowner can accomplish on their own. “A little bit of reading on how to do it is essential,” she said. “The information you gather will guide you and help in the process of cutting back the limbs and branches. Once you cut, you can’t put it back, so know what you want to accomplish.” Hoffman said homeowners have to Master Gardener Lynn Hoffman prunes a hydrangea bush. take into consideration their own abilities when they tackle their landscape. “You might see a large dead limb and plants you have in your yard is think you can just cut it and the tree extremely important,” she said. “If an ornamental tree is 25 feet high will be fine,” Hoffman said. “Often For more information, contact the and is misshaped and the homeowner there is more going on in the tree that Northern Shenandoah Valley Master can’t safely reach or prune the branchhas caused the limb to die. A specialist Gardeners in Frederick County at es, it’s time to call in an arborist,” she can tell you if the tree is worth saving said. “If you cut a mature tree impropor if it should be removed completely.” erly, this can cause those areas not to seal up and allow disease or fungus or Before you prune, Hoffman said you need to know the type of bush or tree rot to get into the tree. All these and how it is supposed to grow. She things can lead to the early death of said pruning is time and season senthe tree.” sitive. Hoffman recommends tools like hand pruners, large loppers, ladders, chain Hoffman said that classes on pruning are available through the Master saws, and hand saws to help with keeping bushes and trees healthy. She Gardeners and sometimes nurseries will have special classes for homeownsaid that if you don’t have the right tools, or strength to do the work or to ers. have a tree removed, call in a professional.

“Reading and researching is a good place to start and knowing what

Courtesy photo

540-665-5699; in Shenandoah County at 540-459-6140; and in Warren County at 540-635-4549. Contact Donald Lambert at dlambert@nvdaily.com


The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

23

How to control crabgrass before it appears preventing crabgrass from becom- kill crabgrass seedlings as they ing an unsightly blemish that can germinate. While these herbicides are highly effective, they must be harm your lawn in summer. applied at precisely the right A proactive approach to crabgrass time. The right time to apply can save homeowners the them depends on weather patheadaches of dealing with this unwanted guest taking over their terns. For example, Lowes notes that homeowners who live in Crabgrass is a common problem grass. The following tips, courtesy regions that might have experithat appears in summer. of Lowes, can help homeowners enced warmer than usual winters According to Lowes, crabgrass reduce the likelihood of their will probably need to apply the plants produce thousands of lawns being overcome by crabherbicides earlier than usual. seeds between midsummer and grass as summer hits full swing. While the manufacturer instrucearly fall. While the first frosts of Recognize that routine lawn tions should always be followed late-fall or early winter kill the maintenance may not be when applying herbicides, it’s crabgrass plants, the seeds proenough. Even lawns that receive essential to take weather patduced by the plants remain dorsufficient TLC can fall victim to terns into consideration as well. mant throughout winter and then crabgrass. A proactive, crabgrassbegin to grow as the ground temWait until the ground temperspecific approach to lawn mainte- ature rises above 60 F. perature warms up with the nance is the most effective way to Applying herbicides when the spring and summer thaw. As a control the problem before it pops ground temperature is below 60 F result, controlling germination, up. which is the development of a might render the products inefplant from a seed or spore after a Apply a pre-emergent herbifective. Gauging soil temperature period of dormancy, is the key to can be tricky, but Lowes advises cide. Pre-emergent herbicides

Homeowners who enjoy tending to their lawns know that grass is vulnerable to a host of problems, many of which appear at a time of year when lawn enthusiasts want to showcase the fruits of their lawn-and-garden labors.

monitoring shrubs and trees on the property. Once shrubs begin to bloom and trees bud, herbicide can be applied. Wait when treating newly seeded lawns. Pre-emergent herbicides might kill new grass seedlings, so homeowners with newly seeded lawns should wait until they have mowed their lawns three times before applying a herbicide. Emphasize uniform application. If a herbicide is not applied uniformly across the lawn, crabgrass can establish itself and ultimately spread to the rest of the lawn. Do not thatch or aerate after applying a herbicide. Thatching or aerating a lawn after applying a herbicide might break the product’s chemical barrier, thereby rendering it ineffective.

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Home & Garden 2019

24

Time to replace old wiring? Old homes can be charming and contain architectural elements not often seen in many modern housing developments. But what older homes may have in design appeal, they may lack in updated features.

at The Spruce. Furthermore, the home improvement site This Old House advises that the amperage of old wiring may not be able to meet the needs of the devices used in homes — overpowering the circuits. This can cause breaker blowouts and other problems, such While cosmetic changes are not as overheated wires that may necessarily difficult, one area of spark and cause fires from within concern in historic homes — and the wall. sometimes even in houses built 40 or 50 years ago — is archaic Wiring often falls into the “out of wiring. Wiring provides power to sight, out of mind” category. every room of the home. In today’s Homeowners may make electronics-driven society, allowances for inadequate electricity that works is an electrical systems, such as essential component of daily life. running extension cords or using Over time, wiring can be multiplug connectors to increase compromised through simple their wiring capacity. However, aging, pest infiltration, weather, or they may not be diligently keeping other conditions. Deteriorated on top of upgrades needed to stay wiring can present a shock hazard safe. Confirming that a home’s and also a serious fire hazard, electrical system is safe is a warn the home renovation experts necessary part of home

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maintenance. For those who haven’t already done so, schedule an inspection with a licensed electrician to go over the home’s wiring. He or she can determine if any areas pose a safety risk and/or do not conform to local code requirements and the National Electrical Code. Failure to meet code can lead to difficulty obtaining permits to make other home renovations, or difficulty wiring or underinsulated wiring selling a home later on. also may need to be replaced. The electrician can also go over Owners of old homes should improvements that can improve recognize possible electrical safety and function. Additional system dangers that require outlets, including GFCI outlets in attention. Plus, considering kitchens and bathrooms, may be electrical codes change quite part of the plan, as well as frequently, it is always in a rewiring a fuse box or circuit homeowner’s best interest to work panel to allow for better flow of with a qualified electrician to keep power around the house. Frayed wiring inspected and up to date.

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Home & Garden 2019

25

Emerging deck trends Custom-built decks can expand usable outdoor entertaining spaces. Decks can surround pools and create outdoor patio areas that make it easy to establish multitiered living spaces, improving the functionality of outdoor areas.

roof-top decks into their designs, particularly in communities with water views or other impressive vistas. HGTV experts suggest rooftop decks feature light-colored materials and fixtures to help keep the area cool even in direct sunlight.

Certain deck trends have emerged as industry experts’ top picks for the upcoming remodeling and renovation season. For those thinking of revamping an existing deck, or building an entirely new one, these trends are on point.

• Distressed hardwood: Builder and Developer, a management resource for professional homebuilders, says that the trend for using distressed hardwoods at home has migrated outside. Some decking manufacturers have recently introduced low-maintenance composite deck boards that mimic the look and feel of distressed, rustic hardwood flooring. This weathered appearance gives the look of age without the upkeep of real aged wood.

• Established perimeters: “Picture framing” is not a new trend, but one that has taken greater hold in recent years. The term refers to aesthetically appealing designs that conceal the ends of deck boards for a clean finish. Some designs feature contrasting material colors on the ends for even more impact. This helps create refined perimeters for a polished look. • Roof-top decking: Urban areas also can benefit from decking to create usable outdoor spaces. In fact, many new condominium and townhouse communities are incorporating

• Wooden walkways: Decking can be the more traditional design people envision with a patio table or outdoor furniture. But it also can consist of wooden walkways or a lowlaying patio to accentuate the yard. • Mixed materials: Homeowners may be inspired by commercial eateries, breweries and urban markets in their exterior design

choices. Decks featuring composite materials and aluminum railings blend sophistication, urban appeal and comfort. • Personal touches: Homeowners can customize their decks with personal touches. It’s not unheard of to wrap columns in stone or glass tiles for more impact. And a vast array of decking colors now enables fun interpretations for outdoor areas. • Fire pit conversation area: Many decks can incorporate water or fire elements for visual appeal. Gas-fueled fire elements can expand the functionality of decks beyond the warm seasons, or make enjoying them practical on nights when the temperature plummets.

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26

Don’t put off controlling household pests By Max Lee The Northern Virginia Daily

FRONT ROYAL - One of Gary Harris’ customers never allowed to go inside what the customer called his “toy shop,” where he had parked six Corvettes. Until one day. “I get a phone call and he said, …’I need you to go in the toy shop,’” Harris, the owner of Best Exterminating Services, recalled. Mice, Harris was told, had made nests in the car seats. Harris said he has seen mice make nests in cars and has had cases where mice have chewed wires around the engine.

Courtesy photo by Harriet Harris

Chris Markley, a certified applicator

One way to control this, Harris said, is with Best Exterminating Services, to inspect outside the house. inspects the soil on a job for signs For mice, he said homeowners should look at the weather stripping at the bottom of the garage door for signs of animal bites. “If [homeowners would] go there and look at the weather stripping of their garage door, I guarantee you the majority of them are going to find it’s eating away at the bottom of them,” Harris said. “That’s mice.” For insects, people should look around the house and dig into the mulch. Termites, for instance, often stay in mulch near a faucet. “That’s a great place for termites; there’s moisture there,” Harris said. Harris also pointed toward glue

of termites.

boards as a way of monitoring signs of insects and mice. By keeping glue boards outside, homeowners can not only catch mice and insects in their house; they can also figure out where insects are posing the biggest problem. “I’ll put these glue boards in and around things on the inside of the house,” Harris said. “Then, when I go and check them, I’m looking first of all (at) which things have insects on them. If two do and 10 don’t, I’m looking at the two doers over there. This is the problem zone here.” In addition to inspecting their houses, Harris said that homeowners can use

Max Lee/Daily

Gary Harris, the owner of Best Exterminating Services, stands in front of his Front Royal office.

lawn granules around the outside of their houses. Those can kill household pests without harming grass or shrubbery. In general, Harris said, homeowners can do a fair amount of pest control simply by being thorough and following insect trails to find where the insects are coming from. “The main thing that’s the exterminator’s advantage is we’re being paid, so we’re going to be thorough,” Harris said. “You might spray some Black Flag or something and one or two minutes and you’re done with your pest control. I’m going to be there an

hour because I’m going to trace this thing out and figure out what the issue is.” But homeowners need to be sure to address problems as soon as they arise. Insects reproduce rapidly; for instance, roaches go from being babies to adults in six weeks. And females lay around 20 or 25 eggs at a time, he said. “So you can see how (quickly) they multiply,” Harris said. “Once you see something, you need to go ahead and start trying to take care of that. Don’t put it off.” Contact Max Lee at mlee@nvdaily.com

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Home & Garden 2019

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Benefits of freestanding tubs Few home design elements provide the instant wow factor of freestanding tubs. Freestanding tubs have an air of luxury that can help current homeowners relax, and impress buyers when homes go on the market. Freestanding tubs are typically made of cast iron or porcelain. The home improvement website HomeAdvisor notes that cast iron is durable and solid and retains heat well, which is great for those who want to spend more than a little time relaxing in a freestanding tub. However, because cast iron is so heavy, installing a cast iron tub may require structural reinforcement of the flooring, which will add to the overall cost of the project. According to HomeAdvisor, the average cost to install a tub varies widely depending on the type of tub, the materials its made of and other factors, including plumbing and piping. For example, the cost to install a freestanding tub will rise considerably if new plumbing and piping are necessary. Before purchasing a freestanding

tub, homeowners should seek estimates regarding installation, making sure to get them in writing. Contractors will determine if structural reinforcement is necessary and include such costs in their estimates. In addition, make sure to ask contractors to investigate piping and plumbing so no surprises pop up after the tub has been purchased and work has begun. If estimates from contractors aren’t budget busting, homeowners can consider these benefits of freestanding tubs before making their final decisions.

upscale bathroom remodels recouped 56.2 percent of their cost at resale. That was a better return on investment than an upscale kitchen remodel (53.5 percent) and an upscale master suite addition (48.3 percent). The thought of a sizable return on investment can make relaxing in a freestanding tub that much more enjoyable.

• Cleaning: Because they’re detached from other bathroom fixtures and not flush against the wall, freestanding tubs tend to be easier to clean than built-in bathtubs. Freestanding tubs are accessible from all sides, making it • Warmth: Even freestanding easy to reach all those nooks and crannies where grime can build up.

tubs made of materials other than cast iron offer great heat retention. Stone resin bathtubs, for example, provide excellent insulation on cold nights. That’s ideal for people who want to unwind in the tub without having to exit early because the water has become cold. Freestanding tubs can transform regular bathrooms into luxurious oases.

• Return on investment: In its 2018 “Cost vs. Valueâ€? report, Remodeling magazine noted that

Valuable home renovations Each year, Remodeling magazine publishes its “Cost vs. Valueâ€? report to give homeowners a greater understanding of how much popular home projects will cost across the nation, as well as which renovations will offer the greatest return on investment. According to their research, these projects improved in value between 2017 and 2018 and can be smart choices for homeowners looking to add popular features to their properties. Below are the popular projects and the average cost of the renovations. • Midrange bathroom addition: $44,717 • Midrange bathroom remodel: $19,134 • Midrange deck addition (wood): $10,950 • Midrange entry door replacement (steel): $1,471 • Upscale garage door replacement: $3,470 • Midrange manufactured stone veneer: $8,221 • Midrange minor kitchen remodel: $21,198 • Midrange siding replacement: $15,072 • Midrange universal design bathroom: $16,393 • Upscale window replacement (vinyl): $15,955

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The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

29

How tree services can protect your property Cold weather can take its toll on a property, especially in regions of the world where winters are harsh. Most parts of the landscape are vulnerable to damage from winter storms, but trees may be especially susceptible. By the end of winter, many homeowners wonder if their trees would benefit from some professional TLC.

a home’s foundation. Old trees that stretch well into the sky can be captivating, but they also can pose a threat to a home’s foundation. Such trees may have especially large root zones that may extend beneath walkways and even a home. In the latter instance, foundations may crack as roots try to stake their claim to the ground beneath a home. Tree services provide a host of According to the home services. While fall is a popular improvement resource time to remove trees from a HomeAdvisor, homeowners pay an property, doing so in spring is not average of just over $4,000 to unheard of, especially if trees were repair foundation issues, though affected by winter storms and now major problems can cost pose a threat to a home and the considerably more than that. A people who live inside it. professional tree service can Homeowners considering tree remove aging trees that might be services can explore the following beautiful and awe-inspiring but ways that some professional arbor still pose a threat to a home and attention can protect them and the areas surrounding it. their homes. Tree services can improve Tree services can help protect

visibility. Trees that have aged a

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notes that weather-related roof damage, including damage resulting from falling limbs and branches weighed down by snow during the winter months, accounted for more than half of all Travelers property loss claims between 2009 and 2016. According to BNC Insurance and Risk Advisors, homeowners may be liable if a tree they knew posed a threat falls onto a passerby or a neighbor’s property and causes damage or injury. Having all trees properly trimmed each year, but especially those that can fall on your home and your neighbors’ Tree services can help prevent homes, may prevent future future damage. Even if trees damage and legal issues. made it through a recent winter Tree services can ensure trees unscathed, that’s no guarantee maintain their awe-inspiring next winter or even the coming seasons of spring, summer and fall beauty and help homeowners protect their homes and their won’t ultimately prove their undoing. Travelers Insurance belongings. bit since their last trimming might affect the view of a property from inside a home. Overgrown branches can compromise residents’ ability to see and experience the natural beauty just outside their windows. The average homeowner may be able to trim short trees on his or her own, but if views from the second floor of a home or higher have been compromised, it’s much safer to call a professional tree service. Such services have the right tools and experienced personnel necessary to safely trim high branches on tall trees.

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The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

Things to consider before building a greenhouse Avid gardeners may be enticed by the idea of a greenhouse that allows them to explore their passion for plants year-round. While it’s true that greenhouses afford this luxury, there are important things to consider before erecting a greenhouse in your yard.

of the materials needed, and are easiest for someone who is a construction novice. Look for “grower greenhouses,” which are all-purpose options with adjustable shelving and space for growing plants full-term.

The next step is deciding where the greenhouse will be located. The goal is to have a consistent amount of sunlight year-round. A south-facing locale is ideal, and structures should remain north of the greenhouse so they do not cast a shadow on it. The building, cars and technology resource Popular Mechanics advises gardening enthusiasts to take into Start by choosing the size of the consideration the angle of the sun greenhouse. Many experts, like during all seasons before choosing those at the home and garden a location. Doing so ensures that information site The Spruce, sugthe sun is not obscured in the gest getting the largest one you winter or fall. can afford and fit into the yard. It is much easier to fill a large Select a spot that also has ample greenhouse than try drainage, as you will not want to expand on a small one water pooling up along the sides later on. of or underneath the greenhouse. Next, consider whether you want Raise the greenhouse on footings to alleviate flooding concerns. to build the greenhouse from

Greenhouses require ample time to maintain. Greenhouses are not self-managing; they require heat, water, venting, electricity, and maintenance on the part of gardeners. Individuals need to determine how much time they have to devote to a greenhouse and then consider their options.

scratch or utilize a prefabricated kit that can make easier work of the job. Kits typically contain all

Consult with a gardening or agriculture expert about the best way to heat the greenhouse. Options abound with electric-, gas- and propane-powered heating sources. Some systems will require venting. You also will need to know what is available and legal in your area. Check to see if you need a building permit for the greenhouse and any accompanying heating elements. Once the greenhouse is situated, you can begin to add other items, like benches, additional shelving, hooks for tools, and even an automated watering or misting system. Greenhouses take commitment, but the reward is the chance to enjoy gardening all year long.

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The Northern Virginia Daily

Home & Garden 2019

Did you know? Many people may be tempted to discard rusty tools that have gone unused and sat in a garage or shed for a significant period of time. But tools encrusted with rust do not need to be relegated to the trash bin, nor do gardeners have to toil for hours scraping and sanding off the rust. There’s a much easier way to restore rusty tools that relies on a common household ingredient: vinegar. Pour vinegar into a deep enough vessel to submerge the metal part of the tool. Soak the tool overnight. The next day, use a scouring pad to rub off the rust. If the tool is too big to fit into a can or bucket, simply wrap it with a vinegar-soaked rag and cover the whole tool with a tightly secured plastic bag. Follow the same procedure the next day. After all the rust is gone, rinse the tool in cool water and dry thoroughly. Then return it to regular usage.

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Shenandoah County Courthouse By P. Buckley Moss

P. Buckley Moss Signing

Saturday, April 6th 10am - 3pm

GIVE AN INCH. SAVE A YARD. Grasscycling is a simple way to recycle your yard waste AND improve the health of your lawn. Leaving grass clippings on the lawn enhances the natural health of lawns by supplying nutrients as the clippings decompose. This can save one fertilizer application a year! Clippings increase the soil’s ability to retain moisture and nutrients and resist erosion. Grass clippings do not cause thatch so there’s no need to bag and haul green waste. This saves time! To foster a healthy lawn, do not cut more than one third of the blade off, and no more than one inch total at any one mowing. Keep grass at two to three inches.

On sale now discounted 11 cubic yard compost bins, $50; and 55-gallon rain barrels, $60. All instructions and set-up materials included. Stop by the recycling office today in the County Administration Building, 107 N. Kent St. Supplies are limited. No reservations. Payment may be made by cash or check. For more information on ways to reduce yard waste and improve the environment, visit www.fcrecycles.net or call 665-5643, ext. 1 for free resources

at the Historic Shenandoah County Courthouse

103 N. Main Street, Woodstock, VA 9-7/8” X 12-1/4” • Price: $100.00 Original Painting is Available for Purchase We are starting to take orders today! Please call us at the gallery 540-869-9025 to place your order! We will also have a huge selection of other P. Buckley Moss prints with us at the event. ?M_QTTJMW‫ٺ‬MZQVOIOZMI\XZQKMWVK][\WUNZIUQVO

King James Galleries 161 Prosperity Dr., Suite 104, Winchester, VA (540) 869-9025 or toll free 888-217-1865 www.KingJamesGalleries.com Mon.-Fri. 10-6 • Sat. 10-4


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