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Intermediate College Korean ㌠œ∑é ›‹

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œ∑ö kÚ®ì Korea and Neighboring Countries

Intermediate College Korean ㌠œ∑é ›‹

Clare You Eunsu Cho

University of California Press/Berkeley, Los Angeles, London

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England

© 2002 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data You, Clare. Intermediate college Korean = Taehak Han'gugo chunggup / Clare You, Eunsu Cho. p. ; cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-520-22295-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Korean language —Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. 2. Korean language — Study and teaching—English speakers. I. Title: Taehak Han'gugo chunggup. II. Cho, Eunsu, 1958– III. Title. PL913.Y595 2002 495.7'82421—dc21 2001027084

Manufactured in the United States of America 09




07 8






04 4






The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48 -1992 (R 1997) (Permanence of Paper).



Preface ix Acknowledgments xiii Using the Text xv Abbreviations and Symbols Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9


ëfi‡üL On the Airplane


LÌ Seoul


∑≠ The First Day of Class


eB◊kM Part-Time Job


B∂Àf ãL Conversation with Friends


›M Ch’usök


Lˆ≥À √Ârá Kangwön-do and Lady Shin


öŒ ≥¡ ãú Taejön, the City of Science


©ôk «Ï? What Shall I Be?




Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25


Ü‘À f∑ √L Kyöngju and the Foundation Myth of Silla


’∂ ≥¡E °eL Calling on the Port City


∑öf ≥¡ ¢‘ Kwangju, the City of Arts


§‘≥ Cheju Island


R≠ New Year’s Day


Èü yõ Song Contest


›π∂m £k Saint Valentine’s Day


ãÈ« Pd Presidential Election


J‰Ω Hong Kil-dong


\f ò™ ∑Ä Music Concert Reservation


¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞ Meeting a Korean-Chinese Student


úy §Æk çÖ®x Electrical Gadget Goes Wrong


©® W ȮZ Õx Interpreting for a Trading Company


cπÀ ¢W ]ÀüL Computer Information Center


?∑üL ¿ q¬ News from the United States


◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘ Idiot Ondal and Princess Phyönggang



Lesson 26 Lesson 27

Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3: Appendix 4: Appendix 5:


nœü ãÕß About North Korea


¡E GÒÕá Reading Poems


|¥ÂÀ c@ Case Markers and Postpositions


QM‡ ™Ï ¥y˚ Easily Misspelled Words


áé Q‡ Spacing between Words


Ω£ Verb Charts


†r Connectives


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm Patterns and Grammar Notes Index {é Ùm Glossary 305



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Intermediate College Korean is intended to continue the development of the Korean language skills of college students who have had previous training in basic Korean. Through our experience in teaching Korean at all levels, we have found the intermediate level to be the most challenging not only for instructors but also for students. Instructors must adapt to widely varying degrees of language proficiency within a class. Students may under- or overestimate their own linguistic abilities. Some students may speak fluently but be completely unable to read and write in Korean, or vice versa. In contrast to the introductory level, in which students begin knowing nothing and end knowing something, this intermediate-level journey may seem slower and more tedious for both instructors and students because progress is not as immediately apparent. The intermediate level is, however, a transitional journey that students must make if they are to reach an advanced level of proficiency. To assist in that, this textbook challenges students to improve their vocabulary, syntax, and oral fluency as they read, hear, and talk about Korean cultural themes. Of particular importance at this level of study is the expansion of vocabulary, including the idiomatic applications of words and phrases. This component is the single most important one in learning a language, since knowing or not knowing a word can make a critical difference in one’s communicative competence. Acknowledging language to be a fundamental component of culture, we have chosen to incorporate themes of Korea’s physical geography and Korean culture as a contextual setting for each chapter. As the table of contents indicates, the first half of the text includes visits to the major cities, islands, provinces, and historical sites of Korea, while the second




half focuses mainly on Korean culture and customs presented in the form of college students’ dialogues, anecdotes, short essays, and simple poems. In general, each of the twenty-seven lessons has four components. The first component is the main text, which includes a short narrative, an accompanying situation dialogue, and, in many lessons, an optional reading (with its own vocabulary list). Only the later lessons (24, 25, 26, and 27) have no dialogue. The second component deals with the lesson’s vocabulary. The third component, patterns and grammar notes, highlights the newly introduced idiomatic phrases, sentence endings, patterns, and grammatical points, usually accompanied by examples with English translations for ease of comprehension. Avoiding linguistic jargon, this part of the lesson gives simple explanations when necessary. Some aspects or types of sentences are listed more than once because they are important or vary in usage or because they are difficult to master in one setting—for example, forms of reported speech in Lessons 5, 6, 9, and 20. The final lesson component consists of exercises for reading and listening comprehension, vocabulary usage, and pattern application and suggested topics for group discussion. In several lessons, supplementary notes in English provide information on topics, people, and places introduced in the lesson. The approach to learning Korean in this text differs in several ways from that in other textbooks: 1. This text draws on the geographic and cultural setting of Korea by following a Korean-American student’s life in Korea. It introduces students to current social issues and realistic situations. 2. Through readings and dialogue, it introduces students to college- and adult-level words that are ubiquitous in the news and in the professional world, rather than dwelling on daily survival words. The vocabulary ranges from computer-related language to terms from the martial arts. 3. Each lesson presents both the written and the spoken language, which are quite different in Korean. A third of the lessons include optional reading for those who are more advanced and who want an extra challenge. 4. This text provides maps of Seoul and of Korea, including South Korean major highways, that are useful in certain lessons.



5. In the back of the book, helpful reference materials include a glossary, an index to the patterns and grammar notes, a list of case markers and postpositions, tips on spelling and on spacing in Korean words, verb charts, and a list of connectives. 6. An accompanying workbook and weekly homework packet are available from Clare You: and Eunsu Cho: The workbook supplements exercises with additional frequently used vocabulary, classroom activities, and weekly assignments. It includes 100 basic hanja (Sino-Korean characters) for optional learning. Having taught Korean classes using the introductory College Korean book, we understand the need for fresh material to expand on the themes of that beginning-level text while maintaining continuity with it. Since we drafted this new text three years ago, we have successfully used it in intermediate-level courses at the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Michigan.

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The approach in this text originally developed out of our years of experience teaching intermediate Korean language courses. We have tried many of the available textbooks for this level, and we owe much in particular to the ones developed by Korea University, Sogang University, Seoul National University, and Yonsei University. Without them, our task of teaching intermediate Korean would have been even more challenging. Drawing on our use of those books in the classroom, we designed this text for the specific needs of our students. Another important influence, as we shaped the content of this book, was Professor Claire Kramsch of the University of California at Berkeley, especially in her book Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Much credit is also due to ∑¨˚ (Korean Grammar) by Seung-su Seo and to œ∑f êé (The Language of Korea) by IkSeop Lee et al. for our grammatical notes. We offer our deep gratitude to the many people who provided their direct assistance in finalizing this text. We are grateful to Professor Ki-joong Song of Seoul National University for his critical reading and valuable comments. Our special recognition is due to Kyung-hwan Mo and In-taek Han, graduate instructors at the University of California at Berkeley, for their critical comments, revisions, and proofreading after each classroom trial of the text, and to Jee-hyun Park, lecturer at the University of Michigan for the same task and for last-minute proofreading. We wish to thank our graduate instructors at both universities, Seung-joo Lee and Dae-won Lee of the University of California and Yookyong Lee and Chang-yong Choi of the University of Michigan, for assisting us in various stages of the textbook development. Also, we thank Kay Richards, coauthor of the introductory College Korean, for her encouragement and support. Finally, we wish to thank Laura Driussi, Suzanne Knott, Sheila Levine, and Linda Norton of the University of California Press for making this publication possible. xiii

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Using the Text

The following is offered only as helpful suggestions for instructors and students who will be using this text. There are many ways to use this book, depending on the instructor’s creative pedagogy.

1. PACE OF STUDY This text is designed for a course that covers about one lesson a week for two fifteen-week semesters. Although there are twenty-seven lessons in all, we have found that they more than suffice for two semesters. In our experience with the text, only twelve or thirteen lessons are covered each semester because holidays or impromptu classroom activities such as skits, simple debates, or speeches intervene and because some lessons require more than a week of coverage. If the instructor wishes to rearrange the order of the lessons or skip a lesson, there should be little difficulty in doing so because each lesson is a self-contained unit.

2. INTRODUCING EACH LESSON Most lessons begin with a short introductory narrative to set the stage or give background information for a dialogue that follows. This material is followed by the vocabulary needed to comprehend the content of the lesson. We have tried two ways of presenting the vocabulary. Each has worked well. On one hand, the instructor may introduce the vocabulary first, carefully going over the new expressions. This may include even the vocabulary activities in part C of the exercises. After learning




the words, students ďŹ nd the content of the lesson easy to understand and interesting. Some instructors may want to give a vocabulary quiz immediately before getting into the lesson. On the other hand, the instructor may read through the lesson with students for the ďŹ rst hour to introduce the content and to provide the meaning of unfamiliar words and any necessary cultural information. Students are expected to internalize the vocabulary by the next day (when they take a short vocabulary quiz).

3. ORAL PRACTICE The dialogue portion of a lesson is read and practiced by students in pairs (or in groups, according to the number of actors in the dialogue). They do not have to follow the script verbatim as long as they use the newly introduced words, phrases, and/or patterns. In part C of the lesson exercises, students are encouraged to say things in various ways, using as many new and related words as possible. Students may also be assigned to record their dictation of a short passage, the telling of an anecdote, or the reading of an essay, drawing from the suggested conversation topics in part D of the lesson exercises. The audiotapes are reviewed for pronunciation and for grammar and content errors and are returned to students for their review and correction. Students may also present stories or skits they have written or hold discussions or debates on a topic.

4. LISTENING COMPREHENSION In addition to what is given in sections A and B of the exercises and on the accompanying audiotapes (which are available through the University of California at Berkeley Language Laboratory: LL-DUP@socrates. or the University of Michigan Language Laboratory Resource Center: , each student could be assigned to make a true-or-false statement based on the reading and to ask the rest of the class to respond. The instructor may also choose to prepare and read a short script or a narration (per the samples in the workbook) based on the content and vocabulary of the lesson; students listen and are checked for their comprehension. Group discussions, oral presentations, role-



playing, and skits also provide students opportunities to practice their listening skills as well as their speaking skills.

5. WRITING EXERCISE Each lesson has a short writing assignment in the homework packet. It can be a summary of the lesson, an opinion on some topic, a simple description, or a letter incorporating the new words, idioms, and structural patterns from the lesson. Also, students should keep a record of any frequent errors they make in spelling, usage, or grammar on tests, homework, and writing assignments so that they can correct and review any problem areas throughout the semester.

6. USING VIDEOS INTRODUCING KOREAN CULTURE Since the text is about culture, places, and current issues, instructors may be interested in the many informative and relevant videos that are available through the Office of Information at Korean consulates or even at local Korean video shops. Some segments of Korean television news programs, documentaries, or soap operas may be useful, with a careful selection of content and a presentation that is appropriate for the level of the class.

7. SINO-KOREAN CHARACTERS For today’s students of Korean, we have delayed introducing the SinoKorean (Chinese) characters in depth until the advanced level. However, for students who are interested in taking up the additional task, we provide about 100 basic Sino-Korean characters in the workbook appendix for optional work.

8. REVIEW AND TESTS A written test every other week covering two chapters on the fifth day of the second week works nicely for the intermediate level, thus leaving the



fifth day of the first week for presentations, skits, videos, or other related activities. Some instructors may prefer a weekly test after each chapter. A midterm vocabulary review quiz is also useful for reinforcing students’ acquisition of the new words.

These points are merely guides to the users of this book and leave ample room for instructors to alter, improve, and be creative with the lessons.

Abbreviations and Symbols






action verb


descriptive verb


honorific style




verb stem, including both action and descriptive verbs


intransitive verb


transitive verb

1. Superscript numbers in the narratives and dialogues refer to items in the Patterns and Grammar Notes (¨˙ö ¨˚) in each lesson. 2. L3, GN6 refers to Lesson 3, Patterns and Grammar Notes, item 6. 3. In Patterns and Grammar Notes, ( ) means either optional or phonologically alternating features, as in -(W)â, -(W)≈Ã, and -(W)ü‚. 4. In vocabulary lists, [ ] means that the element is a pronunciation, not a spelling. 5. + means “when combined with.” 6. / means “or.” 7. . . . indicates an unfinished sentence.




8. ——— means “connects to the word similar or opposite in meaning or to the appropriate word or sentence ending.” 9. → means “changes to” or “becomes.” 10. - identifies suffixes, dependent nouns, and other bound forms. 11. * refers to additional notes or remarks at the end of a section. 12. = means “same as” or “equal to.” 13. Italic is used for foreign words other than the names of people or places. 14. The romanization in this text follows the modified McCuneReischauer system used in College Korean, with a few changes in the consonants. For personal names and commonly used words, we follow the conventional spelling (e.g., bibimbap).


¡ ya

√ ö

≈ yö

« o

À yo

à u

– yu

— ü

” i

¿ ae

¬ yae

ƒ e

∆ ye

» wa

… wae

? we

Õ wö

œ wi

“ üi


§ n

ß t/d

© r/l

± m

≤ p/b

µ s

∑ ∏ Ø/ng ch/j

∫ ch’

ª kh

º th

Ω ph

æ h

¢ kk

® tt

≥ pp

∂ ss

π tch

§1ö ëfi‡üL LÌà @a ëfi‡a ßç Œöx. ÙÊa y‡ ¿Mü çó hqx. ëfi‡a ê ‡›÷L ÕbZ ≠‡ ¡z›x. †Ÿü Wka ®D Õbö í ∂Fk eFx˙x. ÙÊa ±\Wà œ∑ü @a ‰kx. ßF‰Œkì1 ëfi‡ güa ì yM@ df òöx. ÙÊ æDiüa ûY mmö e‡@ he uöç ‹iüa ›‡ ∞y@ ÇÙE oç uöx. ÙÊa ÅZ yøç ›x.2 ’F e‡@ ̇ ¡z›x. mm:

Œ˚, ?g÷‚. ÍM e‡@ ÌéL ¡î≤Ù‚?


eA. §öe‚. u‡≥ ÑÑÕyé‚.


ÍM u‡@ òœ£ µÅZ ò yL k∂s Xk Í’‚.3

›‡ ∞y:

Œ˚Y ßF‰Œkì œ∑ü @‚?


’. ßfi≥ Õç œ∑é≥ ÊÌ d∑‚.4

›‡ ∞y:

œ∑Y ±\kü‚?


’. œ∑üa ±\kü‚. öa ?∑üL ¿é≥é‚.

›‡ ∞y:

œ∑ZZ e‘ ~Õa£ éÓüL Ê˙é‚?


‘Z œ∑é Œ±ü≥ xnç ãŒüL Ê͇≥ ›é‚. ’Ø£ eı ~ ò÷L ï ÊÙ~ ÷‚.5

›‡ ∞y:

œ∑ü œ n‡ uWâ e‘ ~ Õya£‚.

ëfi‡@ LÌ m≥ ò’ü ≥ò÷L ÙÊa [úZ ÈöÕç ê Núqà Kx. ?∑üL @Ùç ¿ ßfiy ñ£E ÍP Á 1



qW Ù¤Wà ◊Öx. (NQk 1000 ã 1kéL 100,000 ˆZ ‹qx.) ¡¡® M©ˆ Ù∏E ∂øâ Ù¤k »‚Õ‡6 F¨kx.


@Ùç æx df ê ò’ §öx ∂F ‰ ≠x µÅ Œx ÑÑÕx ã ≥òÕx ◊xx Ÿ ‹x ÊÍx Á Wkx -q; }≠ [¸≠] ëfi‡ ì LÌ [ú ¡î≤x ¡zÕx e‡ eA eFÑx e‘ eı

to bring almost, mostly immediately airport to be all right; §öe‚. That’s OK. No problem. cloud way, street; @a ‰ on the way to to fly noon nap to be wide; ŒY wide to be frustrated to, versus; ≥ ã n 1000 : 1 to arrive; ≥ò arrival to change, to exchange outside to receive to learn hundred to be seen; Wx to look at, to watch dollar airplane empty; ëx to be empty city of Seoul customs office to be loud, to be noisy to begin, to start; ¡z beginning, starting baby (u‡ for colloquial) contraction of enæ to be beautiful very still, yet


hx [g˘] ßF ‰Œ ßfi ßfiy ñ£ æDi; ◊Di ‹i ÍP Ìx k∂s y‡ yM ûY [ù∆] ¿M ›‡ òÕx [óJx] †; †¨; NM† ±\ ‡›Õx ßx ∂x ¿é®x ¡¡ ÈöÕx çó »‚Õx Õb œÙ¤ ÙÊ NQ [N[] Núq

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


to sit summer vacation travel traveler’s check right side left side first of all, before other things to cry like this self, one’s own seat, place, room young; ûx to be young seat middle age to be good-natured, to be good-hearted window first; ±\Wà for the first time to start, to depart; ‡› starting, departure to be big, to be large to ride, to get on to be born taxi to pass, to pass through comfortably; çÕx to be comfortable to be needed, to be necessary sky about; œ kÌn about two or three days cash Hyun-bae (man’s name) exchange rate exchange office


N. + (k)ì(L)

“as . . . being,” “since it is,” “because it is”




This connective is similar to -(k)‡ F¨ü or -(k)éL and is used in presenting a cause, condition, or conviction. -(k)ìL is used more colloquially than -(k)‡ F¨ü or -(k)éL.


‚Y ‰Œkì(L) œ@÷‚.

I am not busy these days because I’m on vacation.

ük?a § B∂ì(L) y‘ Ï≠ À‚.

As Amy is my friend, she often comes to see me.

πnk B∂ ˚nkìL PÆZ Â~ √‚.

Because tomorrow is my friend’s birthday, I have to buy a present.

A.V. + (W)øç Õx

“to intend to,” “to plan to,” “going to”

This construction indicates an intention or a plan. (See L17, GN5 in College Korean.)


kˆ Œ‡üa œ∑ZZ òmÕøç œx.

I’m planning to study Korean this semester.

πn ëfi‡ £E Âøç ÷‚.

I plan to buy the airplane ticket tomorrow.

√¨Z oWøç ›a£, »© éøÏ {é@ Xqé‚.

I was going to read the newspaper, but it had too many difficult words.

Sentence ending V. + ’‚

This informal sentence ending indicates that the speaker is making a remark. The speaker is not trying to inform the listener about something or get a response from him or her.


œ∑ü ¿Ù œ }k ≈’‚.

It’s been a month since I came to Korea.

e‡@ eFmÀ k∂s Í’‚.

The baby has been crying since morning.

œ∑ü @â á?uy’‚ ?

Wouldn’t it be fun if you went to Korea?

V. + ©/Z d∑‚

“I think/expect it will . . . ”




This colloquial form of -Z lkü‚ is an intimate statement ending for a future or expected event. Implicit in it is the speaker’s expectation of what can happen or could have happened. Its formal ending is -©/Z knx, and its intimate short ending is -©/Z d~.


‰Œkì eU ˚ü òZ d∑‚.

Since it’s vacation (now), he won’t be home.

‰Œkì ˚ü òöZ d∑‚.

As it was vacation, he must not have been home.

‘ZkìL ‰k XÇ– d∑‚.

Because it’s a weekend, the roads will be crowded.

‘ZkìL ‰k XÇ›Z knx.

Because it was a weekend, the roads must have been crowded.

V. + é/e~ Õx

“must,” “have to,” “should”

V. + é/e~ ≈x

“must,” “have to,” “should”

Both constructions indicate an obligation or a requirement. n Œ‡ Œ˚Y êà ‡óÂü Íe~ ÷‚.

First- year students must live in a dormitory.

fLÕøâ ÕÂü œˆ^ hé~ ÷‚.

To be healthy, one must take a walk daily.

œ∑éE ~ Õøâ, ™æZ To speak Korean well, one has to Xk ÷~ √‚. practice a lot. DÙ iY \¬Z sé~ ›é‚. 6.

I had to eat bland food.

Special use of -k/@ and -Z/E

Attention must be given to the choice of case marker or postposition for some verbs that appear to be transitive but in fact are intransitive in Korean. (A transitive verb is one that requires a direct object, and an intransitive verb is one that does not need a direct object.) a. Some verbs seem to be transitive in English but require the subject marker -k/@ in Korean: »‚Õx “to need,” ≈x “to become,” ux “to have.”



b. Some verbs seem to be intransitive but require the direct object marker Z/E in Korean: @x “to go,” gx “to walk,” ≠x “to fly,” xnx “to attend.” (a) »‚Õx:


⁄∑éE ÊÍa Œ˚Y Âúk »‚Õx.

A student who studies a foreign language needs a dictionary.

≥≠„a ¯fl P˚k ƒx.

Donald had already become a teacher.

ux/òx: ÍM≥ ó@ òé‚. We too have no cars. (b) gx:



ekÁk ‰Z gax.

Children are walking on the road. (ek child)

Û@ ÕbZ ´x.

Birds are flying in the sky.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÙÊa éÓ @a ëfi‡E æænÏ? ÙÊa œ∑ü é ˆ @ bænÏ? ûY mmY ‘ ?gÕxç ›ænÏ? œ∑üL m≥ ò’ü ≥òÕâ éÓE Èö÷~ ”nÏ? ÙÊa Ù¤k ‘ »‚›ænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

æb ‘ k∂s ëfi‡ü Âók XÙ‚? (-kìL) kˆ ßF ‰Œü ©ôZ Õ[‚? (-(W)øç Õx) k ¬á \¬k éZænÏ? (-’‚) œ∑ @a£ é ¡Bk® hø‚? (-©/Z d∑‚) æb æc ©ôZ Õ¡yé‚? (-©/Z d∑‚) πn eFü ©ôZ –d∑‚? (-(é/e)~ Õx) ßfiD F ©ôZ @Ùç @‚? (»‚Õx/»‚ ux/»‚ òx)




C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

jaY mÂE ëì ãLE ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the dialogue with the appropriate adverbs. df, ê, ÍP, ¯fl, ±\

¥ñ: ≥ë: ¥ñ: ≥ë: ¥ñ: ≥ë: 2.

÷Öü ì ¿Mk ò∏‚. e, ö‡ü à yM ué‚. ï øY yM@ ≠ FÏÙ k yMü hÙ‚. (®x to become available) öa k ≥Lúü æa£ e‘ Œç ø’‚. ¥ñ ]≥ kók ±\kü‚? eA, öa xW ˆk® À bé‚. k§ ≥L@ ¡zÕøç ÷‚.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect with the appropriate verb. ∑: ¿Mk a. b. c. d.



®©@ œ∑é@ P˚sk yΩó gk

ûx ßx Œx Øx

x\Y ÙÊ@ æb œ nsnx. jaY ΩÂE öd˙Wà ‘é ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. The following is what Hyun-bae did today. Complete the sentences with the appropriate verb in the past tense. ‡›Õx, ≥òÕx, ÈöÕx, ¡zÕx, ü®x, ◊xx

(?∑¡B) (?∑¡B) (?∑¡B) (?∑¡B)

æc 3¡: æc 6¡: æc 7¡: æc 7¡:

ıøï¡∏y ò’Z öfl¬ÂE s‡ öfl¬Â@ . ≥LE W‡ .

. .



(?∑¡B) (LÌ¡B) (LÌ¡B) (LÌ¡B) 4.

æc 8¡: æc 7¡: æc 7¡ ¤: æc 8¡:

ÅZ y‡ . LÌ m≥ ò’ü LÌ [úZ . NúqüL }≠E

. .

jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate noun. ßfiy ñ£, [ú, NQ, ¿M, ò’, Èö

ßfi– Fa Ù¤Wx @ gúôx. (gúÕx to be safe) b. LÌ ò’ü πMâ üL @‰Z ¥Âôx. (¥ÂÕx to inspect) c. }≠ À ˆLf k 1000 ã 1 k∑‚ (ˆL won currency) d. § Ω˚k Ïúâ·¡ÊZ ›é‚. (Ïúâ·¡Ê driver’s license test) e. é_ üL ëfi‡E æé‚? f. æb ëfi‡ £E ∑Ä›x. †ü @ÏÏ Wà ∑Ä›x. a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1. 2.

ßfi– F ©ôZ @Ùç @yænÏ? ßfiü »‚œ lÁZ õéW»¡æ. ⁄∑ ßfiüL á?uò fa éø˙ò ÜÊZ k~‡÷ W»¡æ. (⁄∑ foreign country, ÜÊ experience)

§2ö LÌ Y≥:



ßW[‚, d‡ Y≥k’ ˚kÙ‚?


’, §@ Y≥m£‚.


Y≥e, ® ÙÊ~.1 ~ uön?


_, ÙÊ∂®. ´ ~ uöé. À LÌ ∂Ü ~ Õç un?


en, ‰≥ ~ êBç œ∑Z≥ Lˆ≠L Dy xn‡@ »© õÁé.


’ü? ’± kˆ ‚‚nü ®Õç Ok xny.


çUÙ. éÓüL é ¡ü W≠Ï?2


»ë ˚k LÌ®Õç @ÏÍnÏ3 d‡üL W®y. LÌ® tWà 12¡ÏÙ Ds.4


LÌ®üL ∞ËÏÙ @a£ ¡Bk ìU® hø? ´ ∞Ëü @ Wç ÀY£.


œ Ì » oã hP d~. Oà uÙ ie.


‚ ë@ Xk æa£, ’ ≠Y ≠]@ øZÏ?


eU §öZ d~. e¢ÕÙ U. ’Mç Xk hé~ ÕnÏ çœ √›Z √ç æa l5≥ wéÙMÙ U.


jqé. ’± ’ ≠ Wy. ~ ué.


’ü, gÂ.




(‚‚n æc) ÙÊ:

Y≥e, gÂ. Xk ‡x∆n?


en, OÃ. LÌY ±Èk »© XÇÕÙ?


_, ÙÕ¥Õç Ù∏@ XeL ©ôZ ∂~ –Ù6 ~ êByé.


ÙÕ¥ ∂a lk øZ d~. üM @y. LÌY ߇ ö‡ü [ lk ∞Öó Xe.


’Ø£ LÌü º≠ fÆk un? ´ Õ®≥ ò bx.


’±. LÌk 600‡ Ωg œ∑f ñ≥≤a£. æbY ∞ËmÀ ∂ÜZ ¡z÷ [Ï?


’ü. øe.


@Ûx Ok [@@] e¢Õx fÆ gx hMx ∞Öó ±È ∂ÜÕx ’ü ’± ‡xMx ≠ ≠] ∞Ë »© -’ xnx ux

to be close, to be near; @ÏÏ near together (with) to worry; e¢ concern, worry building to walk to take (time) very, enormously, wonderfully; ∞ÖÕx to be grand traffic, transportation to see, to sightsee; ∂Ü sightseeing Yes, Sure, It’ll be . . . , I’ll do so.; ’ü? Is that so? Yeah, Sure, Certainly, Of course, If so, Well then to wait (for) day (used only with modifiers, as in ˚n≠ birthday) weather Nam-san Mountain too (much, little) family (of someone); èm’ Hüngbu’s family or home to come and go, to walk around, to go around to be far

êBx OÃ XÇÕx ë üM LÌ® LÛBx



not to know (not) very, (not) much (followed by negative verb) to be complex, to be crowded rain; ë@ æx to rain quickly, hurriedly Seoul Station; ® stop, station to be clumsy, to be unskilled; LÛD ≥é broken English ñ≥ capital city (Sino-Korean, the formal word for a nation’s capital) ¡ã time, age √›; √ shoes eU maybe ߇ ö‡ here and there º≠ [∏≠] ancient times, old days æü≈x to be old, to be a long time (since) æc p.m., afternoon Y≥ Eun-young (woman’s name) wéÙMx to forget (completely); wx to forget [köÙMx] ¢Z really, indeed øx [¥∂] to be good Ù¤ present time, now subway ÙÕ¥ −ã about çœ comfortable; çœ √ comfortable shoes; çÕx to be comfortable −Õç with (colloquial for À/ö) Dy alone, by oneself õÁx to be difficult, to be hard



LÌ Ä≥ Map of Seoul n (ø) Ω (s)

L (C) ∞ (Û) nœË ∑R òˆ

ÜX¡ fl≥


πÀã ¢L¨



k¿ˆ LÌ∂Ù



∑W fÂá

¡Q∆òˆ Å≈º”ÏΩÖ º”©®]∂

ßf≥ 63î˜



LÌ® m≥ ∑§ ò’





çr Ù∏ À?Ã ∑öf úá Ü ç m ≥ r Ã

ñˆ, ãú, mË/¢‘


Kyöngbok Palace

çr Ù∏ À?Ã

Express Bus Terminal

∑W fÂá

The Assembly Hall

m≥ ∑§ ò’

Inchon International Airport


South Gate/Sungnye Gate

∞Ë òˆ

Nam-san Mountain Park


Independence Gate


East Gate/Hongüi Gate


The Blue House (Presidential Residence)

nœË ∑R òˆ

Pukhan-san Mountain National Park


Seoul Station


The City Hall


Han River


LÌ k~‡




LÌY Ùá œ∑f ñ≥x. ¥P ¡ãmÀ Ù¤ÏÙ Ä 600‡ Ωg œ∑f ñ≥≤x. Ù¤ LÌf êæY º≠ö Xk xBÙW eı≥ º≠f eFxÏ êæZ ߇ ö‡üL [ ñ ux. LÌüa ㌱≥ Xk uç, ß≠ @Ù ÿÆúö º≠ fÆ≥ Xk ux. LÌY [àüL nñ ˆOà © ≥¡ç, Ùá LÌü Íç ua Âók ≥W çk œax. LÌf gö Ÿüa eFxÏ Ëk Xk uç œLk LÌf @Ï£E ÖBç ux. œLüa xM@ ∏© Rã ua£ Ù¤≥ àr xME WÁç ux. LÌY ±Èk XÇ÷L ÏúZ ÕâL ∂ÜÕa lk éƒx. ’üL LÌZ ∂Ü– Fa ÏúZ Õa lWx ÙÕ¥k® Ù∏E ∂a lk ï øx. @Ï£ L àr

in the middle (of ) river continuously; àrÕx to continue; àr≈x to be continued œx [œ˘] to exceed, to be more than xBx to be different xM bridge; leg ≥¡ city WÁx to make êæ appearance, figure, look ÿÆú [‰Æú] museum -ˆO rank or position in a series; ∑ ˆO first place; à ˆO second place Ë mountain Íx to live, to be inhabited [à world ∏©(R) twenty (items) Ä approximate, about



éƒx ß≠ @Ù ÏúÕx k~‡ ¥P ≥W œL Ùá ÖBx

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

to be hard, to be difficult different kinds, various kinds to drive (a car) story, tale; k~‡Õx to converse Chosön dynasty (1392–1910) ten million Han River present (time), currently to flow, to run


Nonpolite (intimate or plain) style of speech

In the Korean language, the most important distinction is between the polite style and the nonpolite style of speech. The nonpolite style of speech is also known as intimate style or plain style speech. Nonpolite style speech is used among social equals, by superiors to subordinates, and in intimate relationships. Nonpolite style speech employs different endings, depending on the tense and sentence type, as follows. (See also the intimate style speech chart below.) a.

Statement Present



Ù¤ µk Õ®≥ òé. I have no money now. ®a eı œ∑é@ Lˆ≠.

I’m not yet fluent in Korean.

߇@ L̮k~.

Here is Seoul Station.

é§a µk uöé.

I had money yesterday.

é§a ›˙é.

It was cold yesterday.

πnY ó@ ˚‰ d~.

Tomorrow I’ll have a car.

’ok π‡ü P˚sk « d~.

Next year he will become a teacher.



Intimate style speech chart ¨Ö˙ Sentence Type

ºÅé? Sentence Ending

Ùá Present Tense

öd Past Tense

?ü Future Tense

a. íL¨ Statement

-(é/e). -(k)~.

V. + (é/e). N. + (k)~.

V. + ö /qé. N. + köé. /≤é.

V. + ©/Zd~. N. + ©/nd~.

b. f¨¨ Question

-(é/e)? -n? (-¬?)

V. + (é/e)? N. + (k)~? V. + n? N. + (k)n?

V. + ö/qé? N. + köé?/≤é? V. + ö/qn? N. + kön?/≤n?

V. + ©/Z d~? V. + ©/Z dn?

c. πN¨ “Let’s”


V. + y.

not applicable (N.A.) N.A.

d. 竨 Command

-(é/e). -(é/e)ì. -»ì/-dì.

V. + (é/e). V. + (é/e)ì. V. + »ì/dì



e. G∏¨ Exclamation

-∂®! -x!

V. + (a)∂®! V. + (§/a)x! N. + (k)x!

V. + ö/q∂®! V. + ö/qx! N. + (k)ö/≤x!

V. + y∂®! V. + yx! N. + (k)yx!

b. Question Present



œ∑üL úLÕn?

Are you calling from Korea?

ä@ ’ Ω˚k~?

Is this kid your younger sister/ brother?

Ù¤ ¡B π un?

Do you have time right now?

ê§ “é?

When did you come?

’ok ’ P˚skké?

Was he your teacher?

çÙ Ên?

Did you write the letter?

’s ó§≤n?

Was it the homework?

úL – d~?

Will you call?

úL – dn?

Will you call?


16 c.

“Let’s” Present

y, O®y.

Well, let’s take off / leave.

Œ±ü @y.

Let’s go to school.

d. Command Present


ó§ ÷.

Do your homework.

‚ sé(ì).

Eat your meal.

˚ü nè æ»ì.

Come home early.

Exclamation Present

ö ®© ú üM yìa∂®!

How fast the tree is growing!

¡Bk üM @a∂®! Ah, time goes fast!



¥«÷, ó@ ¿x!

Watch out, a car is coming!

≠]@ øx!

The weather is nice!

klk ◊à π@ °ò lkx!

This is just what I am looking for!

»ëÁ, ¯fl ‚Z sö∂®.

All of you have already finished your meal.

ó§E x ›x. (W[!)

(I) finished all my homework. (Hooray!)

V. +©/ZÏ(‚)?

“would it . . . ?,” “do you think it will . . . ?”

Although this question generally solicits the listener’s opinion, it requires different responses depending on the context of the question. a.

Inviting “yes-no” answer

“would you like to . . . ?,” “shall we . . . ?”

When the subject is we, this question invites the listener’s permission or agreement. klZ Ok fÎ÷ [Ï‚?

Shall we discuss this together?

k˘ ü« ¬ÂE Ok –Ï‚?

Shall we have lunch together later?

’, øe‚. Ok ¬Â”¡x. b. Asking for an opinion



Yes, that’s good. Let’s eat together. “do you think . . . ?”

When the subject of the sentence is a third person (he, she, or they), it asks for the listener’s opinion.


Ê P˚sk Œ±ü æ≈Ï‚?

Do you think Mr. Kim will come to school?

πnY ≠]@ øZÏ‚?

Do you think it will be nice tomorrow?

eU øZ d∑‚.

Probably it will be nice.

Asking for advice

“Which is better . . . ?,” “Shall I do this . . . or that . . . ?”

When the subject is I, the question asks for the listener’s advice.


§@ œ@Ù ß}é [Ï‚?

Shall I ask a question?

§@ ’ oüs úL÷ [Ï‚?

Shall I telephone him?

ò’ü @a£ ò’ Ù∏E πÏ‚, ¡¡E πÏ‚?

I am going to the airport; shall I take an airport bus or a cab?

¡¡a ëÃnÏ ò’ Ù∏E ∂[‚.

Since a taxi is expensive, please take the airport bus.

V. + (W)nÏ

“because,” “since,” “as,” “for”

This causal connective often omits Ï and becomes (W)n. It is used with a question or a “let’s” sentence. ¡Bk òWnÏ üM @y. Since we don’t have much time, let’s go right away. ’ Ωg ´«ó òm ›WnÏ ~ – d∑‚.

Since you have studied hard, you will do well.

¡¡a ëÃnÏ ÙÕ¥Z πÏ‚?

Since taxi fare is expensive, should we take the subway?




ÄZ sWnÏ rM e¿ s òé±x.

Because I took the medicine, I don’t have a headache.

A.V. + ©/Zs(‚)

“I/we will . . . ”

This informal and colloquial ending indicates the speaker’s intention. It may be used to indicate the intention of just the speaker.


§@ ¡BZ ºs(‚).

I will make time.

§@ x\ ‘ü f ¡s(‚).

I will come again next week.

Ù¤ Ä sZs.

I will take the medicine now.

V. + §/Y/a/©/Z l

“—ing,” “to . . . ,” “the fact that . . .”

-§/Y/a/©/Z l is a noun phrase, as shown in different tenses below: ÊÍx

to learn

ÊÍa l

thing(s) being learned

ÊÏ l

thing(s) learned

ÊÌ l

thing(s) to learn

{éE ÊÍa lk Xx.

I am learning a lot of vocabulary.

{éE ÊÏ lk Xx.

I learned a lot of words.

{éE ÊÌ lk Xx.

I have a lot of words to learn.

Note that, in colloquial usage, lk becomes s.


{éE ÊÍa s Xx.

I am learning a lot of vocabulary.

{éE ÊÏ s Xx.

I learned a lot of words.

{éE ÊÌ s Xx.

I have a lot of words to learn.

V. + Ù jx

“to know if/whether”

V. + Ù êBx

“not to know if/whether”

jx and êBx verbs use -Ù to mean “how to” or “if/whether,” as illustrated in the examples below. When a question pronoun, such as ê§, éÓ, ‘, H@, éQ, ©∫, or ©ô, precedes this construction, the speaker is inquiring when, where, why, who, which, what kind, or what, respectively.




Present Tense


Past Tense



Future Tense

With D.V.

V. + §/YÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ìU® ©Ù êBn?

V. + ö/qaÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ìU® faÙ êBn?

V. + ©/ZÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ìU® ™Ù îì.

With A.V.

V. + aÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ©ôZ oaÙ je.

V. + ö/qaÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ©ôZ oöaÙ je.

V. + ©/ZÙ jx/ êBx. Êk ©ôZ oZÙ je.

With N.

N. + §/mÙ jx/ êBx. ˙k Œ˚mÙ îì‚.

N. + (k)öaÙ jx/ êBx. ˙k Œ˚köaÙ îì‚.

N. + ©/nÙ jx/ êBx. ˙k Œ˚nÙ îì‚.

With a descriptive verb ’ ëfi‡@ ìU® ŒYÙ e[‚?

Do you know how wide the airplane is?

éQ PÆk øYÙ îì‚?

Don’t you know which gift is appropriate?

With an action verb ‚ †ñ@ ©∫ £Z oaÙ en?

Do you know what books Changsu is reading?

B∂@ æb ·ü ¡Ù îì‚.

I don’t know whether my friend is coming tonight.

With a noun ’ Âók H∏Ù je‚?

Do you know who the man is?

’ Âók Œ˚mÙ êByé‚.

He may be a student. / I don’t know if he is a student.

In past and future tenses ’ok œ∑üL “aÙ Do you know whether he came je‚? from Korea? ê§mÀ LÌk ñ≥≤aÙ îì‚.

I don’t know how long (from when) Seoul has been the capital.



πn Ü‘@ ’ £Z ÍÙ îì‚.


I don’t know if Kyung-ju is going to buy the book tomorrow.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ÙÊa Dy LÌZ ∂ÜÕa lk ‘ õÁxç ›ænÏ? ‚ LÌf ≠]a éZænÏ? Y≥ka ÙÊüs ‘ çœ √›Z √ç æìç ›ænÏ? LÌY ìUΩg œ∑f ñ≥snÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following sentences using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

‚ éZs Ùπn? (-(é/e)) öflY sön? (-(é/e)) ©∫ ≥LE [Ï? (-y) πn ∑ –dn? (-(W)nÏ) ®Õç Ok ¡Öü D ñ un? (’ü . . . -©/Zs) ⁄∑éE ÊÌ F ©ôk §n õÁé‚? (-l) LÌ®k éÓ uaÙ je? (-Ù êBx)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences using the given pattern and the verb. 8.

-a l, -§/Y l, -©/Z l Y éƒx. (-a l, WÁx) a. \¬Z b. e©≥ ≥¬k@ ’ \¬Z Z îöx. (-§/Y l, WÁx) c. æb – n: √›Z (-©/Z l, Âx) B∂üs (-©/Z l, úLÕx) œ∑ Y∏E (-©/Z l, Êx)

C. {é ™æ 1.

Vocabulary Exercises

jaY |¥ÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate case marker.



-Y/a, -k/@, -Z/E, -À/ö é§ ∞Ëü xfi “x. Y≥k Ok Ù∏E ∂ç ∂ÜÕa£ [ ¡B h∆x. Kx “x. ∞Ë Xk uéL Ù≥ »‚ÕÙ gπÕa Âó Ok @ ‘éL çU˙x. (Ù≥ map) iqx. Y≥k 2.

– l

y≥k@ mñüs ßfiZ ~ Õa ˚Z @B¬¤nx. jaY ΩÂE ‘W»¡æ. Ja-young is telling In-su some “dos” and “don’ts” for traveling. Find an appropriate verb for each of the “dos” and “don’ts.” Dos

∑: Ù∏ ˆBE ~ `~ √.

ÕÙ Z l


∑: Ù∏@ Ù®D F ‰Z f»â g√.


BÿüL ™é~ √.



ßfiy ñ£E √.

b. ú¢ – F Ù¤Z Xk @Ùç @â g√.


çœ √›Z √.



ß≈Z ~ @Ùç ÷.

d. ß≈Z your passport.)


e¡ F »© Xk

∑exq F ÚY ∂ÃE √Wâ g√. g√. (Don’t lose

x\ nZ Dy ÕyænÏ? B∂À Ok ÕyænÏ? øe”nÏ, ∆é”nÏ? Will you work alone or work with your friend? Would you like or dislike to do it?

øx/∆x LÌ¡π ú¢Õ‡

Dy/Ok Y≥kÀ Ok Õyx.

Ïú â· ¡Ê W≠ @‡ ∆éœx. ≥L ∂Ü @‡ 4.


LÌü @â éÓE @ç Àé‚? ’óüL ©ôZ ÕyænÏ?



When you are in Seoul, where would you like to go? What will you do there? Order of preference Activity ∑: ∞Ë

∑ ˆO

hkçJE ∏x

a. ÿÆú b. {LM E


c. ㌱ d. œL xM e. nZ ãÂú

nZ @a ëyE √πœx

(ãÂú embassy) 5.

x\ {éE ÂÈÕß ‘œx’à ü®a ¨ÖZ W„»¡æ. Using the set of vocabulary, make a sentence that ends with the verb œx. ∑: LÌ, ㌱, ñ» R A LÌü ㌱@ ñ» R@ œax. a. ∂Ã, œ b∑, ñ» q b. k ±≈, Œ˚, ñ» ç c. [àf Z, ñÁ @Ù

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

Conversation Topics

y‡@ ea ?∑f ã≥¡E qR÷ W»¡æ. (qRÕx to introduce) y‡@ Íò ≥¡E B∂üs qR÷ W»¡æ.

§3ö 1


æbY ±\Wà LfE Êa ≠kx. ÙÊa eFü ¸ÙE Õç ®L2 ¬áü Kx. ‡ó ¬áüLa Œ˚Ák ‚Z sd®3 B∂Áö k~‡E Õç uöx. Œ˚ÁY LÛD œ∑Zà ãLE ‘ç ‹ç uöx. e¡eÀ n?, N≤, ∞?, B‘üL ßF ‰ŒZ kÈÕß Œ˚Ák Xk “x. ∑ ¡Bk œ∑é WL ¡Bkx. ’üL Lf≈Z °ç ua£ éQ ߌ˚k ‡Ú‡Ú ±≈Z Áßx Wç uöx. ÙÊ:

Ák»Ì B≈k éÙ e[‚?


œ∑é WL Lf≈k‚? ö≥ ’ Lf≈Z °a£‚. k¸ü≥ òç . . . ’± Lf≈Z Ok °Zü‚?4


øe‚. ö≥ k fÆk »© XÇ÷L ~ êByé‚.


ÍM öiWà œ ˆ Ok @ [Ï‚? öa ≥åüL “a£, ≈»ÙW éÓüL ækaÙ Æé `≥ √‚?5


öa ?∑üL “é‚.


œ∑éE ú ~ Õ¡’‚.


enü‚. eı Xk Lˆ≠‚.


ú, é§ RŒ¬ü úMÕké‚? öa é§ iéL ò Ké‚.


’. Köa£ Oà ›‚œ lY òöé‚. ±ñsÁZ êà qRÕç ÍM ™ñ øÃ’£ü ã÷ B{ó qR›é‚.





ñóü 㜠RçY òö®‚?


’, ’Ø RçY òöé‚. e, k Lf≈m l Oe‚.6


B{ó Lf Lf≈ Ox RŒ¬ ±ñ ‡Ú‡Ú ∞±” ix ãL Áßx Wx êà Æé Wx ‚ n±” ¸ÙÕx Rç qRÕx ñó ≈»kx e¡e éÓ -ü ã÷(L) ™ñ N≤ kÈÕx

briefly, simply; B{Õx to be simple lecture lecture hall, classroom to be identical, to be equal; -l Ox it seems, it looks orientation; RŒÕx to begin (semester) professor craning, peeking in; ‡Ú‡ÚÕx to crane, to peek in South America to be late dialogue, conversation to look into, to peek in all, in all, all together to try asking; ≠x to ask cooked rice, meal North America to take a shower explanation; RçÕx to explain to introduce; qR introduction instruction, lessons, class to not follow proper etiquette; ≈»ÙW Excuse me, . . . Asia where about, concerning study and training Europe to utilize, to make use of, to use; -Z/E kÈÕß by utilizing to share, to exchange (literally, to give and take) important; ›‚Õx to be important very; By the way, Say

‘ç ‹x ›‚œ ú


úMÕx ∑-¸ øÃ’£ -B≈ B‘ WL




to attend, to participate; úM attendance first; ∑≠ first day floor; 3 ¸ third floor program room number; 2 B≈ room 2 Australia conversation; WL ¡B conversation class

œ∑ ãŒf ™ñ øÃ’£


œ∑f ß≠ ãŒüa ⁄∑mö ±óÁZ FÕß ßF Œ‡Ωg Lf@ ux. Œ˚ÁY k ‡B Ωg œ∑éa ÆŒ, œ∑f ®ÂÀ ¨Lü ã÷L≥ ÊÏx. Œ˚ÁY WÈ ∑§ Œ˚ ‡óÂü rÆâL ˚Oœx. ’≠® éQ Œ˚ÁY œ∑Z ï ~ je Wøç ÃÿZ œx. ãRa æúü ñóZ üU@ç æcüa Ay@ ß@ ˚OZ Ô‚x. Ay ±ó ∑§

each person, individual, individually Koreans residing abroad, overseas Koreans international; ∑§ Œ˚ ‡ó international student dormitory ‡B time period üU@x [ñU@x] (Vt.) to finish, to complete ãR; ãRa mostly, in general rÆx to stay (from r©Bx) ÆŒ of course ¨L culture Ãÿ homestay; ÃÿÕx to stay with a family WÈ ordinary, common, usual, average ˚OÕx to live, to exist; ˚O life, livelihood je Wx to find out, to look up, to check out leisure ß@ æú a.m., morning ⁄∑m foreigner; ⁄∑ foreign country FÕß for (the sake of )



¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


∑ + N.

“first,” “beginning”

∑-, as a prefix or a modifier meaning “first” or “beginning,” is useful, as shown in these examples:


∑ ˆO: NM@ ∑ ˆO∑‚.

Youlee is in first place.


Œ±ü @a ∑≠ü iöé‚.

On the first day of school, I was late.


∑Jk nè πMâ øyx.

I wish that the first snow would come early.


Êk ®f ∑ Âõköx.

Tom was my first love.


∑O, £Z Xk W[‚.

First, please read many books.

A.V. + ç ®L

“after doing . . . ,” “having done . . . ”

This colloquial connective indicates the completion of an action or an event that is followed by another action or event. Its meaning is close to -§/Y cü. öflZ sç ®L √¨Z oé‚.

After eating dinner, I read newspapers.

oç ®L ó§E ÷‚.

After reading, I do my homework.

ó§E x Õç ®L After doing all the homework, B∂üs úLE hé‚. I call my friend on the phone. 3.


V. + d®

b. N. + (k)®

“either (do this) . . . or (do that) . . . ” “either (this) . . . or (that) . . . ”

-d® indicates two or more events or actions. -(k)® indicates two or more alternatives items. (a) ´Ã¡ü Œ˚ÁY ‚Z sd®

At noon, students were either eating or talking with friends.




B∂Áö Ok k~‡E Õç uöx. ‘Züa B∂E I’ll either get together with my W®d® ≥LE friend or go to the movies this [ d∑‚. weekend. rM@ eød® ´k ≠ F k ÄZ „[‚.

Take this medicine when you have either a headache or a temperature.

I want to learn karate or tae kwon (b) @ì’® ¿≈≥® ”‡≥E ÊÍç do or hapkido. Àé‚.


˚k® ©≈à ™î‘[‚.

Please get in touch with me at home or at my office.

‰Œ Ωg œ∑k® nZü xfi æøç ÷.

During the vacation, I plan to visit Korea or Japan.

A.V. + ©/Zü(‚)?

“Will you . . . ?,” “Are you . . . ?”

A.V. + ©/Zü(‚).

“I will . . . ”

This ending is used in casual and intimate conversation. It is a question when spoken with a rising tone and a statement when spoken with a level tone. πn ®Õç Ok ®@ ‘Ù Won’t you go out with me iZü? tomorrow?


Ëü Ok ¡ì Dü‚?

Will you climb the mountain with me?

Ù¤ ‚ sZü?

Are you going to eat now?

g sZü.

I’m not going to eat.

V. + (é/e)≥ √‚?

“Is it all right if/to . . . ?,” “Is it okay if/to . . . ?”

This construction asks for permission in an informal and casual way. œ∑Zà Æé≥ √‚?

May I ask you in Korean?

’, Æé W[‚.

Yes, go ahead.



Ù¤ ˚ü @≥ √‚?

May I go home now?

@≥ √‚.

Yes, you may.

enæ, @â g √‚.

No, you may not.

ó§E πnÏÙ π≥ √‚? Is it okay to turn in my homework tomorrow? ’, §öe‚./’, øe‚.

Yes, it’s okay.

WçLE ™»Ã fl≥ √‚? May I write my report with a pencil? ™»Ã Qâ g √‚.

You may not write with a pencil.

ÜWà fl~ √‚.

You have to write in ink.

Notice the differences in the positive and negative answers:


-(é/e)≥ √‚?

“Is it all right to . . . ?”

’, . . . -(é/e)≥ √‚

“Yes, it’s all right . . . ”

’, . . . -(é/e)≥ §öe‚/øe‚

“Yes, it is fine.”

enæ, . . . -(W)â g √‚

“No, (one) must not . . . ,” “it should not . . . ”

V. + §/Y/a/©/Z l Ox “it seems/appears . . . ,” “it is/looks as though . . . ”

This sentence ending expresses the speaker’s opinion and often translates into “I think . . . ” in English. π JWÃ Wa l Oqx.

It was like seeing it with my own eyes.

π@ ‚Z »© Xk sY l O∏‚.

I think I ate too much.

ë@ ¿ l Oqé‚.

It looked as though it rained a lot.

ê ë@ ¡ l Oe‚.

It looks as though it’s going to rain soon.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.



‡ó ¬áüL Œ˚ÁY ©ôZ Õç uöænÏ? Œ˚ÁY é_ ®ì Zà k~‡E Õç uöænÏ? ÙÊa ©∫ ñóf Lf≈Z °ç uöænÏ? ÙÊ@ W´ ߌ˚Y ‘ RŒ¬ü úM ò›ænÏ? ’ ߌ˚Y é_ ®ìüL “ænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. ∞∑± Wà ¡zÕa {éa éQ lÁk∑���? (∑-) 2. æb ÕÂΩg éQ nZ –d∑‚? (-ç ®L) 3. ⁄∑ü @â ©ôZ Õyé‚? (-d® -d® Õx) 4. n‚nü ∑ –dn? (-©/Zü) 5. Ù¤ ÿ∑ëú `≥ √‚? (-(é/e)≥ ≈x) 6. æb ≠]@ éF‚? (-l Ox) ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences using the given pattern. 7.

-l Ox a. ≥¬ka Ù´ ‘Zü ’ £Z b. ≥¬ka Ù¤ ’ £Z c. ≥¬ka x\ ‘ü ’ £Z

. . .

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

œ∑é ñó¡Bü Œ˚Ák Ay ¿é´ óü ã÷ qR›ænx. ¯¨ü ãÑZ Õ»¡æ. The following chart shows where the students were born. Answer the questions based on the information.


Ay ¿é´ ó



∑ ˆO Œ˚ à ˆO Œ˚ [ ˆO Œ˚ ’ ˆO Œ˚ xW ˆO Œ˚ ßW ˆO Œ˚

‚Œ‚ ¡uQ Bk@ Y„ ≥å müÈ∏ ek∑∏ ¡„n

nñ ˆO Œ˚

a. k Lf≈ü n?üL ¿é´ Œ˚Y é ç uænÏ? ç b. e¡eüL ¿é´ Œ˚Y é çsnÏ? ç c. ∞?üL ¿é´ Œ˚ ña é çsnÏ? ç d. B‘üL ¿é´ Œ˚Y é çsnÏ? ç


30 2.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. |¥ÂE ‘f÷L W»¡æ. Connect with the appropriate verb. Pay close attention to the case markers. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.


±ñsk œ∑éf ˚Aü ã÷ Œ˚Áö ±ñsÁk RŒ¬ü Ûà ¿ Œ˚ÁY y‡ kFZ ™ñÕøâ {Ì ‰ŒZ †¨Wà Lf≈Z eFü LÌà @a ‰k ßM∏U∏ Fa PÆZ ßfi@L Bÿü ñó¡Bü iéL Lf≈Ã

Rçœx qRœx kÈœx úMœx }øBx Áßx Zx r©Dx ‘ç ‹ax Vôx (to be clogged up)

jaY mÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with an appropriate adverb. Ay, OÃ, êÃ, B{ó, is ™ñ øÃ’£ü ã÷ y[ó Rç›ænÏ? (y[ó in detail) enæ, Rç›ænx. b. ü«¬Âa xD Œ˚Áö Ok êß sænÏ? (xD other) sænx. enæ, c. ÙÊa eFü nè né≥ænÏ? enæ, né≥ænx. d. RŒ¬ü Œ˚Ák x “ænÏ? enæ, g “ænx. e. RŒ¬ü Œ˚Ák Xk úM›ænÏ? ’, Œ˚Ák úM›ænx. a.


jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate noun. Lf≈, ±ñ, RŒ¬, WL, Œ‡, Œ‡




a. ㌱üL @B@a P˚sZ ìç œx. b. ㌱f ±≈Z kìç œx. c. œ∑éà ZÕ‡E ™æÕa ¡BZ œ∑é ¡Bkìç œx. d. ÕmÏa ㌱ n kç v’M„a ㌱ k Œ‡kx. (Œ‡ school year) e. Û Œ‡E ¡zÕa ≠ü Œ˚Áö P˚sÁk êß Z œx. f. œ∑f ㌱üa \ À @Z Œ‡@ ux. (Œ‡ semester) D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

Conversation Topics

Œ˚Y ™ñ øÃ’£ü @bænÏ? @L œ lZ [ @Ù k~‡ ÷W»¡æ. ‰k VÚL D óü ò @d® iY nk uænÏ? ê§, éÓüL, ©∫ nk uöaÙ k~‡÷ W»¡æ.


eB◊kM æbY ñó¡Bü ÂÕ B∂Áö Ok ü«Z s‡Ã ›x.1 ’üL æú ñók ü®yUy2 ±π ¬áWà @L B∂Áö Ok ü«Z söx. ¡Bk ï uWâ B∂Áö ^≈®3 œ { Õç ÀöÙW ¡Bk òéL ®a tö né≥x. L‚nö ë‚nüa eFü [ ¡B ñóZ üU@ç æcüa eB◊kME Õ≠ Bx. WˆÁüs ≥éE @B@a nkx. ’oÁk ≥éE ìU® ´«ó ÊÍaÙ4 @B@a lk á?uç Wóux. æbk [ ˆO ≠kx. ÙÊ:

Ù¤ÏÙa œ∑Zö ≥éE NéL ÊÙW æbmÀa ≥éÃW Õyænx. ±\mÀ üÏÙ ≥éà ZÕ[‚.


(Hy‡ tZ Áç) Õ®≥ ò je ÁWâ œ∑Zà Æé `≥ √‚?


±\ » o ΩgY ò je Áé≥ ˙z÷L Õ»¡æ. êBa lZ ≥éà ¯¨÷ W[‚. ®rÙ »æ o ΩgY e© ®ì Zî ¯¨Z Õ[‚. ÕÙW öa œ∑éÀ ≥éŸü îì‚.5


‹œ nk ué≥6 ≥éÃW ÷~ …nÏ?


‹œ nk ˚‡â Help! Emergency!ìç qM ÙB[‚.


Help! Emergency! ÉÊ ≈Ù≥ …nÏ?


ÕÕ . . . ñó ›üa ùãà ¤™snx.



{é @B@x Hy‡ ±π ¤™ ‹œ [’f] ü ü®x [ñ®x] üU@x [ñU@x] ®rÙ ÉÊ ≈Íx Wóux ÂÀx ˚‡x Nx qM ÙBx t Áx eB◊kM



to teach, to instruct suddenly on campus; ±π ¬á campus cafeteria no smoking urgent; ‹Õx to be urgent end point; üÏÙ to the end (Vi.) to end, to be over; üπx (Vt.) to finish (Vt.) to finish, to complete the rest, the remaining to smoke a cigarette to be rewarding; Wó worthwhile, rewarding to make (a friend) to happen, to occur to mix (with) to yell, to shout to raise a hand student’s part-time job; eB◊kMÕx to work part-time e© any; e© ¯¨ any question je Êx to understand ìU® so (good, bad, hard, or the like), how much ´«ó diligently, hard æú a.m., morning k~‡Õx to have a conversation; k~‡ story, conversation né®x to get up (from seat or bed); to happen, to occur, to break out ùãà [ùFÃ] never, don’t ever, absolutely (not) ü« lunch -› during; ñó › during class ˙zÕx [˙yJx] to guess, to estimate; ˙zWà by guessing ^≈ coffee ÕÙW but Wˆ; ˆ company employee


34 o‡

≥éE @B@a ˚


≥éE @BD F πÈ≥ ›‚ÕÙW õùœ Lf ‰˚≥ e‘ ›‚Õx. œ∑ Œ˚ÁY ≥é ¨˚ ≈¿k øx. ’üL o‡À Q‡a ~ œx. ’≠® Êa lö ZÕa lY õÁé œx. ÙÊ@ @B@a ≥é ¡Bü Œ˚ÁY ≥éE ~ îì≥ ≥éÃW ≠ç ãÑœx. ‘à y‡f ˚Oü ã÷L k~‡œx. k∂s ´«ó òmE Õâ é } cü Œ˚ÁY ≥é ≈¿k e‘ øe¯ lkx. πÈ ¨˚ ‰˚; ˚ ≈¿ õùœ ‘à õÁé Õx

content grammar method, means knowledge; ≥é ≈¿ command of English appropriate; õùÕx to be appropriate mainly, mostly to feel difficult, to have difficulty with

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


A.V. + ‡Ã Õx

“to decide to”

This sentence ending indicates a decision or a plan and is usually used in the past tense. (See L11, GN1 in College Korean.)


öÖsZ W®‡Ã ›x.

I decided to meet the manager.

c[ü œXZ sç @‡Ã ›x.

I decided to wear a Korean dress to the party.

kˆ Œ‡üa ܧŒZ ʇà ›é‚.

I decided to take an economics class this semester.


A.V. + y

b. A.V. + yUy . . .

“as,” “soon after” “as soon as”

-y and -yUy are very close in meaning, but -yUy seems to have more immediacy than -y. -y cannot be used in a command or a “let’s . . .” construction.


(a) LÌü ≥òÕy YfiWÃ Kx.

Shortly after I arrived in Seoul, I went to a bank.

≥L@ ¡zÕy e‡@ ̇ ¡z›x.

As the movie started, a baby started to cry.

(b) ’ q¬Z ÊyUy úLE höx.

As soon as I heard the news, I made a phone call.

ñUE WyUy e‡@ Úöx. 3.


N. + (k)®

The baby smiled as soon as she saw her mother. “just,” “nothing else but . . . ”

This construction has the meaning of “nothing better to do, so (I) will just . . . ” µÅk® ~Ï.

(There’s not much to do.) Maybe I’ll just take a nap.

‰ŒΩg £k® oWøç ÷.

I am just going to read books during the vacation.

««÷L TV® W‡Ã ›x. I was bored, and I decided just to watch TV. 4.


ìU®/éé® D.V. + §/YÙ

“It is so D.V. that . . . ”

ìU®/éé® D.V. + (ö/q)òÙ

“It was so/such D.V. that . . . ”

b. ìU®/éé® (ADV.) A.V. + aÙ ìU®/éé® (ADV.) A.V. + (ö/q) òÙ

“It is such (ADV.) A.V. that . . . ” “It was such (ADV.) A.V. that . . . ”

This construction is used for emphasis. ìU® and éé® are generally interchangeable (a) ®a ìU® ‹œÙ √›≥ ò √ç xé ®Ké‚.

I was in such a hurry that I ran out without wearing shoes.



≠]@ ìU® It was so cold that I nearly died. ›˙òÙ ’Zµ ›é‚. (b) ’ Œ˚Y éé® The student works so hard that he ´«ó doesn’t sleep much. òmÕaÙ Å≥ Xk g y‚. ’ ó@ éé® üM @òÙ ò ˘ìKé‚. 5.


N. + Ÿü êBx

b. V. + §/Y/a lŸü êBx

The car went so fast that I couldn’t follow it. “to know/care about only,” “to know nothing but” “to know nothing but —ing”

-Ÿü êBx has several meanings, depending on the context: “knows only,” “is concerned only about,” “cares only about,” or “being interested only in.” (a) ñˆka £Ÿü îì‚.

Soojin cares only about books.

(b) ö eka òmÕa lŸü îì.

She cares only about studying.

ÍM çáka sa lŸü îì.

Our cat is interested only in food.

“Only” is expressed usually in two ways: with -W or with -Ÿü, which must be followed by a negative (-g, ò, -Ùix, òx, or êBx). N≤üL ’M∏À k¿MŸü ò @ bé‚.

I have been only to Greece and Italy in Europe.

’M∏À k¿MW @ bé‚.

I have been only to Greece and Italy in Europe.

˜‚nüa Œ±Ÿü g ®@‚.

The only place I go on Monday is to school.

˜‚nüa Œ±W ®@‚.

I go only to school on Mondays.

ÙHü 5 qŸü òé‚.

I have only five dollars in my wallet.


öa ë∂à CŸü sÙ ie‚.


I take only vitamin C.

Note that it is incorrect to say öa ë∂à CŸüE sÙ ie‚ or . . . CEŸü sÙ ie‚, but öa ë∂à CWZ sé‚ or Œ˚ êrüW ®@‚ is fine. 6.

V. + (é/e)≥

“even if,” “although,” “even though”

This construction supposes a real or an unreal event/situation and draws a conclusion. When it is used with e©M. . . (é/e)≥, it means “no matter how . . .” ‹œ nk ué≥ úL@ òéL ™î– ñ òé‚.

Even if there’s an emergency, I can’t contact you because I have no phone.

B∂E ÂÀé≥ y‘ W≠ ñ òé‚.

Although I make friends, I can’t meet with them often.

e©M ›Ù≥ ®@~ √‚. No matter how cold it is, you/I have to go out.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÙÊa éÓüL ü«Z söænÏ? ÙÊa L‚nö ë‚n æcü ©ôZ ”nÏ? ÙÊa ‘ ≥éE @B@a lk Wóuxç ›ænÏ? ‹œ nk ˚‡â éZs ÷~ ”nÏ? œ∑ Œ˚Ák ≥éE ÊÌ F ©ôY ~Õç ©ôY õÁé ”nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ßM∏U∏ F ©ôZ –d∑‚? (-‡Ã Õx) LÌü ≥òÕâ ©ôZ Õyé‚? (-y Uy) ˚ü @L ∑ Õ¡yé‚? (-(k)®) Ù¤ oa £k éF‚? (ìU® . . . §/Y/aÙ)


38 5. 6.

œ∑ ≥LÊÍE Xk e[‚? (-Ÿü êBx) OY Œ±ü xna †ñE y‘ W®[‚? (-(é/e)≥)

x\ ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

≥éE @B@a lk õÁé≥ ¡Ê F¨ü e©M ◊ú≥ ÏΩZ Xk ÷≥ ˚ü ∑eæyUy œ∑üL ¿ B∂E W®yUy

. . . . .

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect with the appropriate verb. ∑:œ∑ZZ îìL ©∫ ZmÙ a. b. c. d. e.


ñó¡Bü Û B∂E ±ñsf LfE ‹œ nk Hy‡ ‡óÂü WˆÁf ≥é ≈¿k

˙z›x ò je Áöx rÆç ux øe±x ÂÀöx ˚Öx

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. ¤™, üU@x, Áx, Nx, né®x, õÁx a. b. c. d. e. f.

” Âmk ué‚. ÉÊE ≈ÍÙ U[‚. ö‡ “ êBa lk uWâ tZ [‚. œ∑é ó§E ç ©ôZ –dn? fyüL ≥≥ó [‚. üM â éÙ≠Ù‚. (éÙ≤x to be dizzy) ˆ≠„E WÁ F ß≠ @Ù ~¢E â øe‚. “Œ±ü xnâL eB◊kMÕ‡@ é‚?” “enæ, ™Ù‚.”




x\ ÜÍ éZs ZÕyænÏ? x\ £ÙÁZ ÂÈÕß Z÷ W»¡æ. How would you speak on different occasions? Use the expressions given. ≈»ÙW, …zÕÙW, -(é/e)≥ √‚?, §öe‚? ∑:(‰Z Æé [ F) ≈»ÙW ߇L LÌ®Z éZs @‚? a. b. c. d.


‘éˆ mÂE ÂÈÕß ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions with the given adverbs. a. b. c. d.


(±≈üL nè ®@~ – F) (ãL ›ü ãLE üM üπ~ – F) (∞f úLE fl~ – F) (ÉÊE ≈Íç ÀZ F)

±≈üL ÉÊ ≈Ù≥ √‚? (ùãÃ) ÷Öü ì ¿Mk Xqé‚? (OÃ) ü« ¬ÂÕ≠ Ok ®@¡yé‚? (tö) Œ˚ÁY æcü ©ôZ ”nÏ? (‘Ã)

x\ ¯¨ü ‘®rÙ’E flL ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the following questions using ®rÙ “the remainder.” ÙÊa æb 9¡mÀ 12¡ÏÙ œ∑é ñók uænx. ®rÙ ¡Bü ©ôZ ÕyænÏ? b. ÙÊa NúqüL 100qZ ◊Öænx. ’ › 30qZ Êænx. ®rÙ µWà ©ôZ ÕyænÏ? c. Lf≈ü Œ˚k 8ç uænx. ’ › 5çY ?∑üL “ænx. ®rÙ Œ˚ÁY éÓüL “ænÏ? a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1.


à Âó^ EZ Ùé œ∑é @B@a ∏¥Z WÁé W»¡æ. œ∑é WL ñó¡Bsnx. œ Œ˚Y œ∑é P˚skç xD Œ˚Y œ∑éE ÊÍç uænx. (∏¥ skit) œ∑éE @BD F fa ÊÌ F ©ôk §n ›‚Õxç ˚A”nÏ? ›‚Õxç ˚AÕa lZ [ @Ù Z÷ W»¡æ.

§5ö B∂Àf ãL æb æcü JÑüL fñ˙Z W®‡Ã ›x. fñ˙Y Ù´ ßF ‰Œ Ωg ?∑ü ≥éE ÊÍ≠ “öx. ’F fñ˙Z W≥x. fñ˙Y ?∑üL M } Ωg òmÕç ∑e “a£ @õ ™îk uöx. ˙Y m˜ŒZ úòÕ‡ F¨ü œ∑f ±rü Nó ú«k Xx. π nè ÄrÖqü Ka£ fñ˙k eı g À uöx. π ’kç tüa ûY ∞yÀ ßy@ mêsÁÕç Ok he uöx. ßya ñ¤éÕç ∞ya ü{Z Æx. LÃE ~ êBa l OeL oF‡@ y™∏≤Ù ò›x. ’F ÜŸü ∂lY ì∫k ®∂≥x. N?:

ér! ÙÊ e¬? îì[ µ ›’.1


e, N?∂®! ’@ œ∑ü “xç2 Áöa£ LÌü uaÙ îö’ . . .


_, ˚Y mËm£, áD Ωg LÌ kê ˚ü À ué. À éZs “n? ìU Ωg uZ d~?


n‡ Ωg ±N Œ˚Wà “é.


œ∑ ˚OY á?un?


_, œ∑é≥ ™ÙÙç,3 B∂Á≥ Xk ÂÀç ué.


e, iéL ?g÷. œú ‡x∆Ù?


eA. ÜŸü B∂E W®L k∂s ¤Hs k~‡Õç ué‚. fñ˙kd.4 ߇a ÿN?∂‚.


gÂÕ[‚? W®L ¤Hænx.


B∂Àf ãL




’, gÂÕ[‚? ’Ø£, …zÕÙW ú Ärk uéL tö @ `~yé‚. ÙÊ~, mËü œˆ Ï≠ À. kd π úLˆBnÏ úL÷. ’± tö ≈»Õyænx.


’, gÂó @[‚.


~ @.


’ Bœ B∂n? e‘ ∑ù ◊B∂®. œ∑üL Ùπøâ œ∑ ∑ùZ é @Ù je Ãé~Ù. LÂóÁüsa Zö fiΩZ ¥«÷L ÷~ √. kØ lÁY x éDÁZ ∂Üœxa Ük~. ó ‘¨–ü? π øeÕn?


e©d®5 øe‚. ˙k jeL ¡p ‘[‚.


e©d® §öxç ÕÙ Zç ’@ ¢÷.


˙k éDkç öa ˙Z ∂ÜÕnÏ ˙k Å¢÷ ‘[‚.


ÒÉ≥ ~ Õa£.


ÍÍ, ’± ^≈à –s‚. eÏ § tü ûY ßyÀ ∞y@ mês OY ÂóÁÕç ÀL Ok he uöa£ e‘ Ñú›ÙW π éÙ›é‚. ©∫ nm@‚?6


ÕÕ . . . aP Wa h b∂®. ߇P áó [ ñ ua nk~.


@õ fñ Å¢Õx ú« ±N Œ˚ ’Ø£ ®∂®x ∞y ∂lx [´o˘] ÒÉ

sometimes, once in a while Geon-su (man’s name) to decide, to decide on; Å¢ decision interest; ú« ux to be interested exchange student; ±NÕx to exchange by the way to appear man, male to be familiar with (a face) joke



∑e æøx

to return, to come back; ∑e @x to return, to go back ÜŸü [ÇúQ] unexpectedly Zx not to do; ÕÙ Ze. Don’t do.; @Ù U[‚. Don’t go. aP meeting prospective mate face to face; (a)PWx to meet face to face (for marriage purposes) ¤Hs gladly; ¤Hx (Vi.) to be glad (to see, to hear, or to meet) oF‡ [mT‡] ambience, atmosphere ßx to pull out; ü{Z ßx to act dignified Là mutually, to each other M } three months ñ¤éÕx to feel shy; ñ¤x to be shy [ñ‘ÙÕx] ¡Æx to order (food); to make (a person do); jeL ¡Æx to figure out and order (food); to make (a person do) Är promise, appointment ÑúÕx to be well-mannered, to be poised, to be demure éD adult, older person ér! expression of surprise (usually used by female) éÙÕx to be unfamiliar, to be unnatural, to be awkward ßy woman, female ™î [´î] connection, contact; ™îÕx to get in touch, to contact ∑ù etiquette, manners; ∑ù ◊Bx to have good manners LÂó superior person, elderly person N? Yu-mi (woman’s name) kê mother’s sister; çê father’s sister m˜Œ [n˜Œ] anthropology nè early y™∏≤x to be natural; y™ nature Öq place; ÄrÖq appointment place úòÕx to major in; úò major, specialty ü{Z ßx to put on dignified air ¢Õx to decide on, to choose

B∂Àf ãL

¥«Õx ∂ÜÕx π …zÕx ‘¨Õx ‘n BÕx JÑ Nó [MÆ] ±r œú fiΩ áó

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.



to be careful; ¥« caution, prudence to respect; ∂Ü [ºÜ] respect a little; please to be or feel sorry; …zÕÙW Excuse me, but . . . to order (food) week; k ‘n two weeks to be close to (as a friend) cafe, coffee shop; x‰; û˚ tearoom especially custom for a long while behavior, act; fiΩÕx to behave, to act; Zö fiΩ words and deeds frequently, commonly


(ÕUÀâ) A.V. + ©/Z µÕx

“almost,” “nearly,” “a close call”

When used with ÕUÀâ, this construction intensifies the near occurrence of an event that could have happened.


ò je[ µ›x.

I almost didn’t recognize you.

±óÃüL Âç@ ≠ µ›x.

I nearly had an accident at the crossroads.

ÕUÀâ ëfi‡E ÛD µ›x.

I almost missed the airplane.

ó Âç@ ®L ÕUÀâ ’Z µ›x.

I almost died because of the car accident.

Indirect statements

An indirect statement is one in which the speaker is reporting something that was said by another individual. (This form of speech, called indirect speech, is also referred to as reported speech.) The basic ending for indirect statements, -xç Õx, changes depending on the tense of the statement that is being reported. It also



changes depending on whether a descriptive or an action verb was used in the statement that is being reported. a.


D.V. + xç Õx A.V. + §/axç Õx N. + (k)ìç Õx V. + ö/qxç Õx

b. Past

N. + (k)öxç Õx c.


V. + ©/Z dìç Õx N. + n dìç Õx

(a) ’ eka Æ@ ßxç ÷‚.

They say that the child is tall.

’ ok œ∑ü Bxç œx.

They say that he is going to Korea.

’üL ‚ œ∑ £Z Xk oaxç œx.

They say that, therefore, he is reading many Korean books these days.

¡÷a üB Ùk Nfikìç ÷.

It is said that red is in fashion this year.

h©k ∏Jø≥ m‡ìç ÷.

It is said that floral scarves are popular.

(b) ŒY ’ Í F Æ@ zqxç ÷‚. ’ ok œ∑ü @kxç œx.

They say that Ron was short when he was four years old. They say that he went to Korea.

œ∑ ®Â £Z Xk They say that he read many Korean oöxç œx. history books. z‡ü≥ üB Ùk They say that red was also in Nfiköxç ÷. fashion last year. h©k ∏Jø≥ m‡≤xç ÷. (c) Ù®a Öüü Æ@ ™ dìç ÷‚.

They say that floral scarves were popular, too. They say that Ji-na will be tall in the future.

B∂Àf ãL



’ ok œ∑ü @≈ They say that he will go to Korea. dìç œx. ’ ok £Z Xk oW≈ dìç œx.

They say that he will read many books.

π‡üa Èï Ùk They say that yellow scarves will Nfin dìç ÷. be in fashion next year. (See L6, GN4 for more on indirect speech types—command, question, and “let’s.” See L9, GN5 for a summary of indirect speech endings and L20, GN1 for their short forms.) 3.

D.V. + (é/e)Ùx

“is becoming . . . ,” “is getting . . . ”

b. A.V. + (é/e)Ùx

“is be —ed.” “is (happening) . . . ,”


This helping verb, -(é/e)Ùx, has two main functions. When used with a descriptive verb, it indicates the changes occurring to the state or condition of the subject. When used with an action verb, it turns an active sentence into a passive sentence or indicates that something is happening automatically. (See the helping verb chart in L14, GN7.) Dictionary Form

With (é/e) Examples Ùx

(a) Øx


nk ™Ùˆx. The work is getting easy.



≠]@ ïÙˆx. The weather is getting warm.



ò‡@ ¯ù÷±x. The air has gotten clean.



‰k XÇ÷ˆx. The street is getting crowded.



Õbk üRˆx. The sky is turning red.



ö ßya ûé±x. She is looking younger. (literally “She has become young.”)



(b) Qx



™»k ~ flˆx The pencil writes well.



Ÿ]@ ÙÙ±x. The characters were erased.



®©@ œé±x. The tree has fallen.

Person N. + (k)d or (k)[‚

“This is . . . (HON.)”

The casual and intimate ending -(k)d is the contraction of -(k) ¡é, which means “this is so-and-so (HON.)” or “I present (HON.) . . .”


¿÷ ˙kd.

This is (my) older brother, Seung-joon.

ÍM –eÙÙd.

This is my grandfather.

Expressions for “any” or “every” a.

e© N. + (k)®

b. e©/H∂/©ô/ éÓ/ê§ + (k)®

“any N.” “anyone,” “everyone,” “anything,” “anyplace/everywhere,” “anytime”

When a noun is preceded by e© and followed by -(k)®, it means “any,” as in e© £k® “any book” or e© Ù≥® “any map.” When the particle -(k)® is attached to a question word, e©, H∂, ©ô, éÓ, or ê§, it becomes like a pronoun: e©® “anyone,” H∂® “everyone,” ©ôk® “anything/everything,” éÓ® “anyplace/anywhere,” or ꧮ “anytime/whenever.” (For more on “any” or “every,” see L10, GN4.) (a) ‰ŒΩgü e© During vacation, I’ll do any kind nk® Õyé‚. of work. éQ Ù dıE „PÏ‚?

What color shirt would you like?

e© d® ‘[‚.

Please give me any color.

©∫ ≥L [ü?

What do you want to see?

e© ≥L® [ü.

I’ll watch any movie.

(b) H∂® ¡E T ñ ux.

Anyone can write a poem.

B∂Àf ãL




?∑Y ©ôk® ›}ƒx.

In the United States, everything is developed.

\üa éÓ® hk «x.

In the spring, flowers bloom everywhere.

ꧮ ◊xü @â ÊÁZ [ ñ ux.

Whenever you go to the ocean, you can always see boats.

N. + m@‚?

b. D.V. + §/Y@‚? c.

A.V. + ®‚?


“is it . . . ?” “is it . . . (adjective)?” “is it . . . (action verb)?”

These question endings indicate that the speaker wants a confirmatory (yes or no) answer. Note that ux and òx end in -®‚, as in -u®‚? or -ò®‚? (a) æbk Èa ≠m@‚? kok P˚s m@‚? (b) ≠]@ ›Ï@‚? ˚k ŒY@‚? (c) œ∑éE ÊÍ®‚?


Is today a holiday? Is he a teacher? Is the weather cold? Is the house roomy? Are you learning Korean?

‚ ©∫ £Z o®‚?

What books are you reading these days?

Ω˚k u®‚?

Does he have a younger sibling?


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3.

ÙÊa fñ˙ö éZs js ≈öænÏ? (js ≈x to get to know) ÙÊ@ hY ’kç tüa éQ ÂóÁk uöænÏ? N?a ‘ LÌü À uænÏ?


48 4. 5. 6.

ÙÊa Ù¤ œ∑ü ‘ À uænÏ? N?a ‘ tö ≈»›ænÏ? fñ˙Y ÙÊüs ©ôZ @B¬flænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RŒ¬ü iÙ iqé? (ÕUÀâ -©/Z µÕx) ÙÊa éÓü Íe‚? (-xç Õx) ‚ œ∑é òm@ éF‚? (-(é/e)Ùx ö‡ü à¡a oY H∂[‚? (-(k)d) éQ óE øe÷‚? (e© -(k)®) ’ oÁk aPZ Wa@‚? (-l Ox)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. Change the sentences using the given patterns. 7.

-ìç/xç Õx ∑: æbk RŒ¬ ≠kx. A æbk RŒ¬ ≠kìç œx. a. ‡óÂü Âa Œ˚k Xx. b. LÌY ¥Pf ñ≥≤x. c. ÙÊa ?∑üL “x.

C. {é ™æ 1.

Vocabulary Exercises

jaY mÂE ëì ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions with an appropriate adverb. áó, Nó, œú, ÜŸü a. b. c. d.


æb ‰üL H∂E W≥é‚? ÂóÁY éÓüL aPZ `‚? œ∑éE ÊÌ F ©ôk õÁé‚? is ÀL ?g÷‚. ìU® ‡x∆é‚?

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate verb. éÙÕx, ñ¤éÕx, ∂lx, wéÙMx, ±NÕx, ∂ÜÕx, ¥«Õx

B∂Àf ãL


Ω˚Y œ∑é@ Lˆ≠L, œ∑Zà S çÙ@ π . b. ÍMa Y∏ùü B≤Áö $5 DM PÆZ . (Y∏ù Christmas) c. ^≈ìüL W´ ßya ú . d. é§ ç úLE ò ÷L ?g÷‚. e. § B∂ ≥ea ÑúÕç . . f. e‡ÁZ [ Fa x@Ù is (e‡E Wx to baby-sit, x@x to get hurt) g. öa § mêsZ H∂Wx≥ . (H∂Wx≥ more than anyone) a.


jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. ˆü, ∑ù, ü{, fiΩ, oF‡, m˜Œ, ±r, aP

Wç ÅDÕa Âók Ù¤≥ œ∑üLa Xx. (ÅDÕx to marry) b. ±\üa œ∑f ∑ùö k éÙ÷L õÁöé‚. c. k JÑa @ øe‚. d. Y m˜f ¨LÀ ±rZ òmÕa Œ¨kü‚. (m˜ human, Œ¨ study) e. ≥ëa ÂóÁ tüL Zö k y™∏≠Ù‚. f. LÂó tüL k ué~ √‚. g. W ÂÖsÁY WˆÁ tüL Z ß‚. a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1.

2. 3.

Conversation Topics

œ∑ü @ bænÏ? œ∑f éQ ±rk Nk›ænÏ? Nkœ ±æk® ∑ùZ [ @Ù k~‡÷ W»¡æ. (NkÕx to be unique) œ∑f aP Wa ±rk ?∑f blind dateÀ OænÏ? xBâ éZs xBxç ˚A”nÏ? Œ˚k aPZ Zxâ éOœ ∞y/ßyE W®â øyænÏ?


§6ö ›M œ∑üL @Ö ›‚œ çùY Rö ›Mkx. R≠Y Û÷E akÕa ¢˜ »ÕÂkç ›MY \¿ g˜ »ænkx. \¿Y WÈ á¿Wx œ }k® à }ã iéÙ≈Ã1 ›MY á¿Wà ∂˜k® ¡˜k ∆x. ›M F@ ≈â ©ûò ≠]@ ¡ˆ÷ˆx. Ëüa {±k Áé Ü@≥ eFÑx. sx@ ›ñ@ ü®L é¬ö ön Ïk ±mÕx. ’üL ›MY ?∑f ›ñGÂùö ëøÕxç œx. ó»E Ùπa lY ›Mf ›‚œ fiÂkx. eFü B≤Ák êß ó»E Ùª c Y§E Õ≠ Bx. ’üL k≠Y LÌ dM@ ‘ ëÙW Ù‰Wà πø @a2 çr ≥Ãa j VÚL óÁk cE≥ òœx.3 éQ Fa ó rü heL é ¡BZ Wªx.


kˆ ¤‚nk ›Mkì LIü à√ ©eÙÙQL πø æìç4 Õké. B∂À Ok À≥ øxç Õka£ Ok g Dü?


’ü? LIk ߇L rn?


Lˆ≥ü ua£ n ué. LÌüL ΩiWà xW ¡Bã hPd~.


~ √´x! ’Ø£ ©eÙÙQ ≈»@ g «Ï? ›Müa ©∫ NOœ fiÂ@ un?


®≥ ›MY ±\kéL ~ êByé. ó»@ u®`. ’Mç ◊± Ëü ua –eÙÙ –rn Ëqü≥ Bxç ÷.


zç≥ sy’! ?∑üL ›M F zç sò ˚Ak ´x.





πn ñó ü®ç à ¡ã O®y. ÍM LI @a Êü5 RfËÏÙ Kx ¡Ï? áD Ï≠ Kx À≥ ≈n?


‚ ó§@ XeL π ◊Ÿ çkÙW,6 Kx ÀL Õâ ≈yÙ ∑.

›M≠ àñ®© ÷üL P‰e ña ‚†

Rabbits Making Rice Cake under the Cinnamon Tree

The legend tells us that what we see on the full moon is a couple of busy rabbits. Under a cinnamon tree, they are pounding rice in a wooden mortar to use in preparing for Ch’usök’s rice cake. (àñ®© cinnamon tree, cassia tree; P‰e rice-flour mill; P‰e ñx to pound rice into flour; ñx to pound; ‚† rabbit)





@Z @Ö; §n LI [Lh] dM sx@ Ü@ é¬ ön ◊± cE òÕx j n πø @x iéÙx {±k Áx } Ï O®x -Ux Vóx akÕx çù ©ûx ëøÕx Ëq Û÷ ˚Ak ®x

autumn the most city of Kangnüng in Kangwön Province streets; LÌ dM streets of Seoul in addition, moreover (short form of d‡üx@) scenery grains, food fruit vicinity, nearby place can’t move a bit; cE Õx to budge, to stir fully, tightly quite, rather to go down; ¡ì æx to come up, to rise to become late to change to fall colors month et cetera, and so on to leave each, every (Vi.) to be blocked; Vx (Vt.) to block, to stop to welcome, to face holiday to be humid and hot to be similar, to be alike graves, cemetery (HON.) new year to occur to one, to think of, to remember; ˚A thoughts New Year’s Day Sörak Mountains on the eastern coast to visit grave to pay respect to ancestor rice cake (sweet-filled); P rice cake (any kind) Exciting! Super! Cool!; √´x to be excited western calendar lunar calendar

R; R≠ RfË Y§Õx zç √´x! á¿ [áfl] \¿ [\fl]


-(k)® ¢˜; n˜ ÷ëÕx Ù‰ ó»

»Õ ›M ›ñ ›ñGÂù B≤ ©eÙÙ ‘ ëx NOœ ±mÕx œ à } fiÂ

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.




either-or, and, as well January to get ready, to prepare local area, region, the country memorial service for ancestors on New Year’s Day and Ch’usök; ó» Ùπx to have memorial service on New Year’s Day and Ch’usök; §Â memorial service (in general); §Â Ùπx to have memorial service first day of the month Harvest Festival Day (August 15 on lunar calendar) harvest; ›ñÕx to harvest Thanksgiving relative, family member father’s older brother totally or completely empty special; NOÕx to be special; NOó specially to be plentiful, to be abundant one or two months event


V. + (W)≈Ã

b. N. + (k)≈Ã

“because,” “as,” “for,” “since,” “for being . . . ” “because it is . . . ”

This causal connective (W/k)≈à is rarely used colloquially. Other causal connectives, -(W)nÏ, -‡ F¨ü, -(é/e)L, and -(W)n, are used in spoken language. These causal connectives are not always interchangeable. (a) c¡Ãf ˚nY ˙ ˚nWx à }ã iW≈à 9˜kx.

Since Paolo’s birthday is about two months behind his older brother’s, it’s in September.



@Z ≠]@ øW≈à ú¢Sk Xk ¿x.

Since the fall weather is good, many tourists are coming.

eÙsk ækW≈à ’≠Y nè ˚ü @‡Ã ›x.

Since my father was visiting, I decided to go home early that day.

(b) Âä uxâ Because the holiday starts in three çùk≈à ‰k days, the roads will be jammed. Vö dx.


πnk ›Mk≈à –rn åü @~ œx.

Because tomorrow is Ch’usök, I must go to Grandmother’s house.

πnmÀ }@ k≈à æb nZ üU¬~yx.

Since my vacation begins tomorrow, I have to finish the job today.

πø@x versus ¡ì@x

“to go down” versus “to go up”

When one goes to the capital city of Seoul, it is said that one “goes up” to Seoul, and when one goes from Seoul to another area, it is said one “goes down” to that area. Similarly, one Áé @x “goes into” the city and ®@x “goes out” to a suburb. –rnQ mÂÕ≠ Ù‰ü πø@a ‰kü‚.

I am on my way down to the country to visit my grandmother.

nÕ≠ LÌü ¡ì@a ‰kü‚.

I am going up to Seoul in order to work.

»Z Â≠ ¡πü ÁéKé‚.

I went into the city (downtown) to buy clothes.

‘Zü ¡⁄à „ìkä ®Ké‚.

I went out to the suburbs for a drive over the weekend.



Adverb cE



“a tiny bit (of motion)”

cE is generally used with a negative —for example, g and ò or with the negative ending òx, Zx, or -Ù ix. It may be used positively, however, in a question. (Certain adverbs may be used only in the negative. See L20, GN2 for more on negative adverbs.)


cE≥ g œx.

It does not move, even a little bit.

cE – ñ òx.

I am not able to move at all/even a little bit.

®a ‚ ◊úL cE≥ òœx.

Because I am busy these days, I can’t go out at all.

cE Zeì!

Don’t move!

’ ó rüL cE – ñ un?

Can you move at all in the car?

More on indirect speech types: command, question, and “let’s” (See L9, GN5 for a summary of indirect speech endings.) a.

Indirect commands

“(they) tell/ask/order to do . . . ” “(they) tell/ask/order not to . . . ”

A.V. + (W)ìç Õx A.V. + Ù Zìç Õx An indirect command is one in which the speaker is reporting a directive that is being given by someone else. (See L5, GN2 for indirect statements.) kM æìç œx.

(He) tells (us) to come here.

k £Z oWìç ›é‚.

(He) told (me) to read this book.

߇à æìç ÷L “é‚.

I was told to come here, so I came.

ÿ öÖsZ °Wìç ›é‚.

I was told to find Manager Park.

Œ± cπÀE ÂÈÕÙ (He) tells me not to use the school Zìç ÷‚. computer. à ÂóZ ë±ÕÙ Z¶é‚.

(He) told me not to compare the two people with each other.



When an indirect command ends in -(é/e) ‘x, „Mx (for honorific), or -(é/e) }ìx, the speaker must consider who is commanding whom and the relationships among the speaker, the addressee, and the person spoken of, as in the following contexts: (P˚sk ®üs) Ω˚üs £Z oé ‘ìç Õké‚.

(My teacher told me) to read books to my younger brother.

(P˚sk ®üs) érnœ’ úL hé „Mìç Õ[‚.

My teacher tells (me) to call my mother.

P˚sQL ÃÂüs πn úLE hé }ìç Õké.

Her teacher asked Rosa to call her tomorrow.

eÁk eÙÙüs cπÀE  }ìç ›é.

The son asked his father to buy him a computer.

b. Indirect questions

“(Someone) asks whether/if . . . ”

D.V. + (W)¬ç Õx A.V. + (_)¬ç Õx N. + (k)¬ç Õx Indirect questions are ones in which the speaker is reporting a question that is being asked by another individual. -(W)¬ç Õx is used after descriptive verbs, and -(_)¬ç Õx is used after action verbs. W and _ may be dropped for some verbs. For example, one may say ‰k ∫¬ç œx or ‰k ∫W¬ç œx “(Someone) asks if the road is narrow,” and Ù¤ Jk æ¬ç œx or Ù¤ Jk æ_¬ç œx “(Someone) asks whether it’s snowing now.” ‰k ŒW¬ç ÷‚.

(He) asks if the room is spacious.

ê§ æ¬ç ÷‚.

(He) asks (me) when I will come.

ê§ ‚Z s(_)¬ç ›é‚.

(He) asked when we are eating.

πnk »ÕÂ¬ç ›é‚.

(He) asked whether tomorrow is the first of the month.





é§@ ’»kö¬ç ›é‚.

(He) asked whether yesterday was the end of the month.

Œ±@ ™ d¬ç ÷‚.

(He) asks whether the school is going to be large.

ê§ ¡ d¬ç ÷‚.

(He) asks (me) when I will come.

Indirect “let’s” A.V. + yç Õx

“(they) say, let’s . . . ”

This construction is used only with an action verb. There are no tense changes.


≥L W≠ @yç œx.

(She) says, let’s go to see a movie.

A.V. + §/Y/a Êü

“while one is at it/doing it,” “since/because”

This colloquial expression is used when we say, “while we are at it, we might as well do . . . ,” and use the verbal modifier §/Y or a, depending on the tense.


Yfiü @a Êü Lüü≥ ÁEÏ?

Since we are going to the bank, shall we stop at a bookstore?

Y„ü B Êü yNf ß√ÒZ ∂Ü›x.

While we were in New York City, we toured the Statue of Liberty.

D.V. + §/Y çkx

“to be kind of,” “to be rather,” “to be relatively”

b. A.V. + §/Y/a çkx

“to be kind of,” “to be rather,” “to be relatively”


Used with descriptive verbs, this expression indicates that something is “relatively” or “kind of” øx “good,” ßx “big,” Xx “many,” and so on. For action verbs, it is often accompanied by an adverb or an adverbial phrase that modifies the verb, as in üM oa çkx “to read kind of fast.” (a) e‡@ òœ çm£ ≈è÷L Ù¤ Ïx.

[nm£≥ ëœ çkx.

The baby is usually rather goodnatured, but he is crying now because he is tired. It’s on sale, but it’s still rather expensive.



éøL ÍM H®a Æ@ zY çköx.


My sister was relatively short when she was young.

(b) ñ{Y qéWx ¥éE ~ Õa çkx.

Susan speaks German somewhat better than French.

›Œ± F ®a £Z üM oa çköx.

I read books relatively fast when (I was) in middle school.

’ Âó myü‚? enæ. ò Âa çkü‚.

Is he rich? No, he is fairly poor.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

›MY ê§snÏ? \¿Y á¿Õç éZs xGnÏ? œ∑f ›MY ?∑f ©∫ ≠ö ëø”nÏ? ›Müa éQ ›‚œ fiÂ@ uænÏ? LIY LÌf é_ iü uænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

⁄∑ü @â ‘ tö Núqü @~ ”nÏ? (-(W)≈Ã) ‰k ‘ k∂s VúnÏ? (-(k)≈Ã) ’ yΩóa yM@ Œé‚? (cE) ©eÙÙ@ ∑ìç Õké? (-(W)ìç Õx) ’ Âók ∑E Æé bé? (-¬ç Õx) B∂@ ‘ úL›n? (-yç Õx) ¡Öü @L ©ôZ Í d∑‚? (-§/Y/a Êü) ¡Öü Âók Xqé‚? (-§/Y/a çkx)

x\ ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences.


9. 10. 11.

µk ˚‚ Êü B∂E æüBWü W´ Êü œ∑éE ÊÏ Êü



. . .

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. çù, R≠, ›M, ›ñGÂù, ó», Y§, \¿, á¿ a. b. c. d.


\¿ 8˜ 15nY kx. k≠ eFüa E Ùªx. Ëqü Õ≠ Bx. R≠ö ›MY œ∑f @Ö ›‚œ

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect with the appropriate verb. ∑: @Zk ≈â önö é¬k a. b. c. d. e.




œ∑üLa @Zk ≈â ≠]@ ‰oÕx Ëü {±k Áâ Ü@@ XÇÕx ÂÍÓeìëeüa MN@ eFÑx (ÂÍÓeìëe Saudi Arabia, MN petroleum) Ó◊¡Bü ó@ Xe ‰k ±mÕx k óa ŒéL xW çk ∂‡ü ¡ˆÕx

x\Y ¢≥E ®∂πa mÂsnx. jaY mÂE ëì ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. The following are adverbs indicating the “degree” or “intensity” of verbs. Answer the questions with an appropriate adverb. e‘, n, π, ÄB, úÚ,* OÃ* *A negative verb follows. a. b. c. d. e.

LIk ߇L ìU® ué? é§ Z ≥L@ éMé? RŒ¬ü Œ˚Ák Xk úM›é‚? ’ WˆÁY ≥éE ´«ó ÊÙ‚? œ∑f ßF ≠]@ ©ûÙ‚?


60 4.

e?À B∂a ›M≠ eF LIWà ‡››ænx. jaY {éE ëì ãLE ÕYÕ»¡æ. A-mi and her friend left for Kangnüng on Ch’usök day. Complete the dialogue with the appropriate verbs. ‘ ëx, Vóx, cE≥ ò Õx e?: ‰k ‘ k∂s ? B∂: æbk ›Mkì ¯fl êà ىü πø K® `. b. e?: é§ ìÓæüL çr ≥Ã@ e‘ Xk . B∂: Ù´ ßF ‰Œ F ◊xü @x@ ó rüL ç [ ¡BZ W¿é. c. e?: ó rü heL }@E Wº µ›∏. B∂: ÕÕÕ. a.


»ã– F ∑ìç ÕyænÏ? ‘éˆ {éE flL Z÷ W»¡æ. What would you say if you wanted to invite your friends? Please use the words below.

ÀÆ, PÆ, c[, \flñ, ¬á, öfl, \¬, @µ, ˆ èx (ÀÆ turkey, \flñ drink, \¬ food, @µ family, ˆ èx to take a picture) a. b. c. d. e.

›ñGÂùü ßM∏U∏ F ∑ó¬ F ˚n≠ F ü«Z Ok sWøç – F

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1.


›ñGÂùü ©ôZ ÷ë”nÏ? xW @Ù \¬ kFZ Z÷ W»¡æ. ’ ›ü œ @Ù \¬ W„a ˚Z Rç÷ W»¡æ. ›Mk® ›ñGÂùü ˚ü @L ©ôZ ›ænÏ? fa ©ôZ ÕyænÏ?

§7ö Lˆ≥À √Ârá ÙÊa B∂À “Q B∂f ©eÙÙ åk ua LIü Kx. LI çr Ù∏ À?Ãü ≥òÕnÏ B∂f ©eÙÙQL ¯fl ®ÀL ‡xMç àkx. ©eÙÙQLa à ÂóZ Wç ú ¤@Ù Õkx. B∂ ©eÙÙ:

LIÏÙ “WnÏ RfË≥ @ `~Ù?1 à ¡Bkâ @nÏ. ‚ {±k œ†n ◊£.2


’, ߇ æ‡ úü ÙÊÕç RfËü Ok @yç 䇛é‚.


Ù≥E WnÏ Lˆ≥üa Ëk ¢Z XY@ `‚.3 ’Mç k Ù‰Y Ë≥ eFÑÙW ◊Ö@≥ e‘ eFÑxa ä‡E Xk Áöé‚.

B∂ ©eÙÙ:

’ü. Lˆ≥a y™k eFxÙL ú¢ Ëók ›}›Ù. ßFüa ñ≥Z Õ≠ ◊Ö@ü æa Âók Xç @Züa {±Z W≠ ÂóÁk Xk À.


©eÙÙ, LIüa NOœ lk ∑@ ué‚?

B∂ ©eÙÙ:

ŸË . . .


∑Ÿ Bñ@ ◊à ◊Ö@ü u|e‚. q®©≥ Xç‚. q®© Âkà Bñü }k ~a lk mÒõköé‚.4

B∂ ©eÙÙ:

y™≥ eFÑÙW Nçœ Âó≥ XÙ. √Ârá ±±5 ®ÂõWà Nçœ o≥ uç. eU œ∑ Âókìâ H∂®6 x jç uZ d~. 61



√Ârá √ÂráY Ù¤mÀ Ä æÁ‡ úü (1504–1551) LIüL œ ᤠ˚f ⁄Ω¸Ã ¿é≥x. ’ á¡ ßyÁY ∞y±± yN—s òm– ñ òöx. ’≠® √Âráf mêsY √Ârák é∆Z FmÀ Ÿö ’QZ @Bƒx. √ÂráY Œ¨ü á‘@ uöWá, øY ¡≥ Qç eFxÏ ’Q≥ Xk ’∆x. Nó ó≥À ¨¯∑E ’Ma w]@ xé≥x. √ÂráY mêsüs ^≥Õç ∞çZ ~ ªç ekE ~ ‡D Ùêá±f ê˙kx. œ∑üL Nçœ Œym kQé* k ◊à √Âráf eÁkx. *Yi Yul-gok (1536–1584) was the son of Shin Saimdang and Yi Wön-su, a local official. He was born Yi I, pronounced [e-e]; Yul-gok is his pen name. Yi Hwang (pen name T’oe-gye) and Yi I are considered the finest scholars of the Chosön dynasty; from them came Korea’s later intellectual heritage. Yi I had an illustrious public career; he was revered as a philosopher and a man of practical affairs.


çr Ù∏ ú¢ ’Mx ’Q Ÿ ŸË ‡Bx ®æx ∞ç {± } á¡ -å ªx xé®x ~x ê˙ ◊Ö@; ÷N ◊Ã

express bus tour, tourism; ú¢ Ëó tourist industry to draw, to paint drawing, painting writing Well, Let me see to raise (a child), to grow to come out husband; mm wife fall colors; maple (leaves); {±¥ fall season moon; }k ~x the moon rises at that time house, residence (HON.) to help; ≥ help, aid to be outstanding to rise, to come up, to float model, good example beach just, exactly; ◊à kl exactly this one; ê◊à immediately

Lˆ≥À √Ârá




(Vt.) to be glad, to rejoice; ¤Hx (Vi.) to be glad ›}Õx [›¸Õx] to develop; ›}≈x to be developed; ›} development Âk between, gap; relationship Ëó industry; ñËó marine industry q®© pine tree w] skill (mostly manual skills) ñ≥ swimming; ñ≥Õx to swim ¡ poem, poetry ek child, kid ᤠyangban class, nobility ä‡ story, tale, talk, news (short form of k~‡); ä‡Õx to say é∆Z F when one was young ®ÂõWà historically ∑Ÿ pretty; ∑ÿx to be pretty ⁄Ω¸ only daughter; ⁄ΩeÁ/⁄eÁ only son NçÕx to be famous mÒõ impressive y™ nature yN—s freely; yN freedom; yN—x to be free á‘ talent; á‘@ ux to be talented Ù≥ map -±± like; ∞y±± like a man À?à bus terminal; çr Ù∏ À?à express-bus terminal ó≥ grapes ¨¯∑ plant insect/bug; –¯∑ rice bugs Œ¨ [’¨] learning, study, scholarship, academic studies, academic learning Œy scholar œ†kx to be in the prime of, to be in full (bloom, color) Ùêá± wise mother and good wife Bñ lake ^≥ filial piety



Lá (ÊJ≥ 18[‡)

Old Schoolhouse (by Hong-do Kim, eighteenth century)


RfË ú¢Sk üü bé‚


≥Ω çr ≥à òÂ@ ü®L RfËü ú¢Sk Xk bç ux. RfËY œ∑f @Ö Nçœ ú¢Ù ›f Õ®kÙW, çr ≥Ã@ ∫eL ±Èk qç›x. ßFf }@¥üa LÌüL LIÏÙ çr Ù∏à WÈ ´ ¡B kÒ h∆x.

Lˆ≥À √Ârá



’≠® k òÂà ≥Ω çr ≥Ã@ à ◊üL ’ ◊à béL LÌüL LIÏÙ óà xW ¡Bkâ D ñ ux. ’ Ωg XÇœ ±ÈZ ≈÷L RfËZ g @Z ÂóÁ≥ ¡ @Züa {± ∂Ü Z Õøç RfËWà Xk D l Ox. ò construction work ú¢S tourist ú¢Ù tourist place ’ Ωg in the mean time bx to increase; bMx to widen, to make it increase ≥à (paved) road WÈkx to be usual, to be common qçÕx to be uncomfortable, to be inconvenient ≥Ω çr ≥à Yöngdong Expressway (from Seoul to Kangnüng) -kÒ more than, above, over ∫x to be narrow ◊ lane, line; à ◊ two lanes, two lines -›ü among, between ≈Õx to avoid }@(¥) vacation (season)

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


A.V. + (é/e) `~Ù‚

“should (try) . . . ,” “must (try to) . . . ”

This pattern expresses the speaker’s intention to try to do something. It means “I will certainly try . . . ” or “I should try . . . ” RfËü≥ @ `~Ù‚.

I should (try to) go to the Sörak Mountains.

√Âráf ¡E oé `~Ù.

I must (try to) read Lady Shin Saimdang’s poems.

’Q≥ ∂÷ `~Ù.

I must try to find her paintings.

Note that -(é/e)~Ù expresses the intention of the speaker, as in “I should” or “I must.”



Ù¤ ˚ü @~Ù.

I should go home now.

‚ sé~Ù.

I should eat.

ó§E ÷~Ù.

I should do my homework.

The informal speech ending -Ù(‚) can be either a statement or a question, depending on the intonation and context. ëfi‡£E ÂÙ?

You will buy the airplane ticket, won’t you?

œ∑Y ›M Fü ◊ÿÙ‚. (I’m saying that) they are busy during Ch’usök. 2.

N. + ©/n ◊£(‚)

“I imagine,” “I would think,” “it must be”

b. V. + ©/Z ◊£(‚)

“I imagine,” “I would think,” “it must be”


This short connective form of -Z/n Àm£ indicates the speaker’s expectation or anticipation. It is derived from the verb Àkx “to expect” and the connective -§/a£. (a) Ωmü {±k The fall foliage must be wonderful œ†n ◊£(‚). in the East. æbk Ω˚ ˚nn ◊£ hkßE söaÙ êByx. (b) ≈è– ◊£ yÙ≥ iç £Z Zx. ≠]@ ›Ì ◊£ ¤◊ÙE sç ∑expx.

Today must be my younger sibling’s birthday, but I don’t know whether he/she had a cake. He must be tired, but he reads on without sleeping. The weather should be cold, but he is walking around in shorts.

Note that V. + ©/Z ’n(Ï) means “since/because (it is expected to).” It indicates the speaker’s expectation in regard to an event or an action. This construction comes from the connective (W)nÏ “because” attached to the ©/Z Àkx “is expected” ending. hé@~ – ’n(Ï) çœ √Z √W[‚.

Since we’ll have to walk, please wear comfortable shoes.

Lˆ≥À √Ârá




πnÏÙ x UD ’n(Ï) »© e¢ÕÙ U[‚.

I’ll finish them all by tomorrow, so don’t worry too much.

≠]@ ›Ì ’nÏ ÃGÏ »Z sç ®@[‚.

The weather will be cold, so go out with thick (warm) clothes on.

Ù∏ ∂â iZ ’nÏ ÙÕ¥Z ∂y.

We’ll be late if we take a bus, so let’s go by subway.

D.V. + §/Y@ `‚

“I think it is,” “it seems”

A.V. + ® `‚

“I think it is,” “it seems”

These endings express the speaker’s supposition or guess. In this context, ux and òx are action verbs and they end in -® `‚, as in πn ó§@ u® `‚ “It seems there will be homework due tomorrow,” and ’≠® ¡ÊY ò® `‚ “but it seems there will be no test.” a.

Present D.V. + §/Y@ `(‚)

“I think it is,” “it seems”

A.V. + ® `(‚) N. + §/m@ `(‚) b. Past V. + ö/q® `(‚) c.

“I think it was,” “it seems”

Future V. + ©/Z f@ `‚

“I think it will be,” “it seems”

(a) æb ≠]@ ›Ï@ `‚.

I think the weather is cold today.

Ü@@ øY@ `‚. I think the scenery is beautiful. ’ ok πn œ∑ü @® `‚.

I think he is going to Korea tomorrow.

‚ ’ @ñ@ m‡@ u® `‚.

I think the singer is popular these days.

߇@ Lf≈m@ `.

It seems as though this is the classroom.



(b) B∂@ PÆZ ®`. ñóZ é§a ߇L ›® `. (c) πnY ≠]@ ïÌ f@ `‚. 4.


I think my friend bought a gift. It seems that the class was held here yesterday. It seems as though it’s going to be hot tomorrow.


-õWà makes adverbs from Sino-Korean nouns. It is a two-step process: first, -õ makes an adjective from a noun, as in ®Âõ; second, -Wà is added to make an adverb, as in úÈõWà “traditionally,” ®ÂõWà “historically,” and so on, as illustrated below. Korean nouns are not changed in this manner. For example, the Sino-Korean noun mB can be changed to mBõWà “as a human being,” but the Korean noun Âó cannot be changed to ÂóõWÃ. Noun



®Â history

®Âõ historical

®ÂõWà historically

[à world

[àõ worldwide

[àõWÃ internationally

úÈ tradition

úÈõ traditional

úÈõWÃ traditionally

mÒ impression

mÒõ impressive

mÒõWÃ impressively

ÙM geography

ÙMõ geographical

ÙMõWÃ geographically

‡à machine

‡àõ mechanical

‡àõWà mechanically


N. + (k)(ì)â H∂/ ©ô + (k)®

“if . . . is, then whoever/ whatever . . . ,”/“any (person/ thing) would . . .”

Literally, this expression means “if (one is) . . . , then (he/she does) . . .” Other question words, such as éÓ, ê§, éQ, or H∂, are used with this construction. (See also -ÂÙ in L10, GN4.) œ∑ \¬kìâ ©ôk® ~ sax.

If it’s Korean food, I like it all.

’ ∞ya {LMìâ éÓ® Bx.

If it’s a concert, he will go anywhere. He will go anywhere for a concert.

Lˆ≥À √Ârá




Œ˚kâ H∂® øY YõZ ˆœx.

Any student would want a good grade.

›‡ ∞yìâ H∂® ÏΩk »‚Õx.

Any middle-aged man would need exercise.


N. + ±±

b. V. + §/Y/a l±±

“like” “as,” “as though,” “as well as”

Attached to a noun, -±± means “someone or something is like some other person or thing.” Its meaning is close to -Ok. When used after §/a l, it means “as if” or “like doing.” (a) ’oY Œy±± ™∂W œx.


Like a scholar, he does only research.

ßF±± hk œ†kx.

It’s like summer; the flowers are in full bloom.

ên±± Ω˚≥ qéE ~ ÷‚.

The younger sister speaks French as well as her older sister.

(b) ¡E ~ Qa l±± ’Q≥ ~ ’Ox.

He paints as well as he writes poems.

œ∑éE ~ Õa l±± ≥é≥ ~ œx.

She speaks English as well as she speaks Korean.

Y|k øY l±± á‘≥ ux.

He is as talented as he is good-natured.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4.

©eÙÙQLa éÓüL ‡xMç àkænÏ? LIüL ©ôk mÒõköænÏ? Lˆ≥üa ‘ ú¢ Ëók ›}ƒænÏ? √ÂráY ‘ Nç”nÏ?



B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

LÌü @â π –dn? (-(é/e)`~Ù) RfËü D F ©ì @Ùç DÏ‚? (-©/Z ’n) RŒ¬ü 10¡ÏÙ æâ ≈®‚? (-©/Z ◊£‚.) e‡@ ‘ Úé‚? (-§/Y@ `‚) ö ÂóY ‘ ŸüL Lué‚? (-® `‚) ’ Œ˚Y ‘ ëfi‡ £E ‚? (-©/Z f@`‚) ’ ÊÍ@ ìU® Nç÷‚? (-(k)ìâ H∂®) éQ Âóö £kMÕç Àn? (-±±)

‘éˆ ¨˙ö ΩÂE ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences using the given patterns and verbs. 9.

-§/Y@ `‚, -® `‚, -m@ `‚ a. b. c. d. e.

. (kx) ’ ok ±ñs NMa ‘Zü RfËü . (@x) ≥¬kf ßy B∂a Æ@ . (ßx) ÙÊa ‚ . (nÕx) LIüa ú¢Sk . (òx)

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. yN—x, y™∏≤x, éÙÕx, XÇÕx, Úx, Œx ∑: ’ Bña ◊x±± Œx. . a. ®a ÕbZ ®a Û±± b. √Âráf ’Qü ®æa ¨¯∑a Íe ua l±± . c. ú¢Ùü ua ’ ¬áY ∞㨠¡Ö±± . (∞㨠¡Ö Namdaemun Market) d. ’ fÆY üB∑∏M ˱± . (üB∑∏M Mount Everest) e. oF‡@ PWa l±± .

Lˆ≥À √Ârá



jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect with an appropriate verb. ∑: á‘@ a. b. c. d. e. f.



ú¢ók }k ekE B∂E ’QZ Fã@ (Fã bed)

xé®x ’Mx qçÕx ~x ‡Bx ªx ›}Õx

¯¨ü B{ó ãÑÕ»¡æ. Give a short response to the questions. ?∑f Nçœ ú¢Ùa éÓsnÏ? [ óZ Z÷W[‚. b. ‚ ?∑üLa éQ Ëók ›}Õç uænÏ? c. ?∑f Ωm/Lmf Ù≥üL ©ôZ Xk [ ñ uænÏ?



jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. éøL, Œy, yN, ^≥, ⁄Ω¸, ◊Ö@, Ù∏ À?à a. LI @a çr Ù∏a 10 ¡ü Z ‡››x. b. ˙§@ òk Dym ßyekE kìç œx. c. Œ¨Z øeÕç ´«ó ™∂Õa ÂóZ ìç œx. d. ü @â ñíPZ [ ñ ux. (ñíP horizon) e. ΩáüLa úÈõWà mêüs Õa lZ ›‚Õs ˚Aœx. f. »’QÁY º±f E °eL ?∑Wà “x. (»’Q pilgrim, º± religion) g. êóBMa mÀ \fü á‘@ xé≥x. (êóBM Mozart)


72 5.

jaY “ -õ” {éE ëì ‘W»¡æ. Complete the sentences with one of the -õ adjectives. [àõ, ®Âõ, mÒõ, Rmõ (personally)

a. b. c. d.

?öúüL Z ’Qk köx. mBk }ü Kxa lY nkx. Wà NçÕx. œ∑f úy ËóY ’ Âóöa WÂüL≥ jÙW WÃ≥ ea Âkkx.

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1. 2. 3.

y‡@ Âa ‘üa ©∫ Ëók ›}≈öænÏ? (‘ state) Ùãf √Ârá OY ÂóZ H∂ìç ˚AÕaÙ k~‡÷ W»¡æ. (Ùã the present day) y‡üs mÒõm ßy/∞ya éQ ÂósnÏ?

œ∑f ≥, ‘‚ ≥¡, L, Ëö çr≥Ã

Provinces, Major Cities, Rivers, Mountains, and Expressways







“Ü∞≥ ígn≥


íg íá



¤LË Q÷≥ Lˆ≥



≥à Ωçr


r≥ Ã

≥ mß



‰ π



r≥à ›mç




úìn≥ ç ∞

çr ≥Ã

B ÜÒ∞≥ ¢‘ ∞÷çr≥à úì∞≥

§‘¡ œìË


ÜÒn≥ ã∂ Ü‘

§8ö öŒ ≥¡ ãú nZüL ¿ txÃa úy òŒk úòkx. ’üL ãúü ua ãñ öŒ ™∂ {Ùü @ Wç Àé›x.1 œ∑ü ¿ Ù2 é }k ≈öÙW LÌüL ∞iWà πø@ Wa lY ±\kx. ’üL ãúü @a Êü ãúüL @ÏÏ mßü≥ @ W‡Ã ›x. mßa º≠ Á§f ñ≥m£ ß≠ @Ù ∂Ü– lk XZ l Oqx. ÍMa ãúüL kQ yç, mßüL ÕÂE Wπøç œx. LÌüL ãúÏÙa ‡óà @ç ãúüL mßÏÙa çr Ù∏E ∂ç @‡Ã ›x. (LÌ®üL) ÙÊ:

ãú ”X£ Ã Ö ‘[‚.


é ¡ óE ∂≈ knÏ? ´ ¡, ´ Ã ¡, [ ¡ ‡ó@ ua£ ´ ¡a dˆsnx.


’± ´ Ã ¡ óÃ ‘[‚.


߇L ´ à ¡ÏÙ ÙÂ÷L éZs ‡xMÙ?


‡ó ¡BÏÙ Ã ¡Bã ∞qWnÏ £‰ü® @â éF?3


’ü, øY ˚Ak~.

(‡ó güL) ÙÊ:


k £ π `. GöŒö ÍM ˚OH kìa £m£ ?üüa öŒf ›}ü ˘ì ÍMf ܧ ˚Ok ∞Öó }ìˆã.

öŒ ≥¡ ãú




®≥ ’ iü ú«k Xe. ’üL ܧŒö «MŒ≥ òmÕç ué.


’ü? cπÀWk enç?


cπÀüW ú«k ua s enì,4 cπÀE ÍM ˚Oü éZs kÈÕa Ùü ï ú«k ué.


’± ∑óÕç π –dn?


Ûy WÂü è?@ ué. ’Ø WÂü ÈıÕøç ¢çE °e Wa ›k~.5


’Ø WÂa ˜‹≥ Xk ‘ç ◊© ¡B≥ IÙ? ’Ø£ π PÊ œ oY ‘¬Z ÂL µZ Xk ¯öxç yõÕò£.


_, Ûy WÂa ’Ø ÂóÁÕç Xk Òã÷. ’üL ’Ø WÂüL n Õøâ Âóf «ME ~ je~ œxç ’ü.6

{é öŒ ¢ç ◊© ¡B ∞x {Ù


science advertisement; ¢çÕx to advertise work hour to be left over complex, compound; UË òó {Ù Masan Industrial Park ãñ city of Taedök (south of Seoul and next to Taejön); ãñ öŒ ™∂ {Ù Taedök Science Town ãú city of Taejön (south of Seoul) ≥¡ city µ money ae. [Uy] You are right. dˆkx; dˆ≈x to be sold out; dˆ sold-out d£ˆ ticket agent; d£∂ ticket window; d£q box office ?ü future



Á§ ¯x Wπx mß ÒãÕx PÊ «MŒ ™∂ ”X£ ˜‹ kQ yõ úy òŒ ∑óÕx ‘¬; ‘ ÙÂÕx Ix [H˘] °e Wx ÈıÕx Ûy £ Õ è?


Paekche (one of the Three Kingdoms) to earn; µZ ¯x to make money to spend (time) city of Puyö to deal with senior classmate; cÊ junior classmate psychology; «M state of mind, mentality research; ™∂ {Ù research complex round-trip ticket monthly salary two days pride, boast, self-conceit; yõÕx to be proud of, to show off electronic engineering to graduate stock; ‘@ [‘Ï] stock price to be boring, to be tedious to be short to find, to look for, to search to get a job; Èı getting a job investment; Ûy WÂ investment company ticket one day interest; è? ux to be interested, to be interesting

ãúü ãÕß


ãúY ?∑f ≈M{ ÈMÀ ëøœ Õk’ß ≥¡x. @ÏÏ ãñü öŒ ™∂ {Ù@ uWá, öŒ ‡ö ãŒ≥ kóü ux. öŒ ‡ö ãŒö ß≠ ™∂q@ uWnÏ kü ˘D úy, ¢W ËóÁk kóü Xk êß ux. kóY f ãú †∏ó@ ´O ók‡≥ Õx. fœ ãúY ±Èf ›«Ùkx. œ∑üL @Ö ›‚œ çr ≥à à R@ kóüL W´x. LÌüL @Ûç Ûà W ≥¡ß L ê lk çMÕx.

öŒ ≥¡ ãú




technology, skill; öŒ ‡ö ㌠institute or college of science and technology ˘ìL therefore Ûà newly ≈M{ ÈM Silicon Valley †∏ó exposition ™∂q research institute ´Mx to be held ¢W information ›«Ù central region, core area çMÕx to be convenient Õk’ß high-tech

¨˙ö 1.



D.V. + (é/e)Õx

“to feel . . . ”

Most descriptive verbs of emotion are turned into action verbs by attaching -(é/e)Õx, thereby changing intransitive (adjective) verbs to transitive verbs. ‡ÿx ªøx ©—x á?ux øx ∆x Ôkx -ç Àx

“to be happy” “to be sad” “to be distressed” “to be fun” “to be good” “to dislike” “to be joyful” “to wish/want”

‡≥Õx ªzÕx ©ÃÙÕx á?uéÕx øeÕx ∆éÕx ÔdÙÕx -ç ÀéÕx

“to feel happy” “to mourn” “to suffer” “to enjoy” “to like” “to dislike” “to enjoy” “to wish/want to”

B∂ W®a lk ÔdÙ‚. I enjoy meeting with my friend. UMe@ B∂ W®a lZ ÔdÙ÷‚.

Maria enjoys meeting with her friend.

mêsZ ò Wa lk ªøx.

I am sad about not seeing my parents.

mêsZ ò Wa lZ ªz÷‚.

He moans/is sad about not being able to see his parents.




®a k £k ö £Wx øx.

I like this book better than that book.

®a k £Z ö £Wx øeœx.

I like this book better than that book.

®a ≥L@ Wç Àx.

I want to see a movie.

j∏∏≥ ≥LE Wç Àéœx.

Alex also wants to see a movie.

A.V. + §/Y Ù(@) . . . ≈x

“it’s been . . . since . . . ”

This pattern is used to indicate that a period of time has elapsed since the action or the event.


œ∑ü ¿ Ù(@) 10 ‡ ƒé‚.

It’s been ten years since I came to Korea.

‚ sY Ù(@) 3 ¡B ƒé‚.

It’s been three hours since I had my meal.

B∂E W´ Ù æü ƒé‚.

It’s been awhile since I saw my friend.

çr≥Ã@ ˚‚ Ù ìU® ƒé‚?

How long has it been since the highway was built?

Polite suggestions: -(W)â éF‚?

“How about . . . ?”

Politeness is an important aspect of the Korean language. The following list indicates the increasing degrees of politeness. -(W)â éF?

“How about it?” (nonpolite)

-(W)â éF‚?

“How about it, please?” (polite but informal)

-(W)â éRÏ‚?

“Would it be all right to . . . ?” (more polite)

-(W)â éZyænÏ?

“Would you mind if . . . ?” (polite and formal)

-(W)â éO¡yænÏ?

“Would you mind if . . . ?” (polite, formal, and honorific)

”X£E Ââ éF(‚)?

How about buying a round-trip ticket?

öŒ ≥¡ ãú




10 ¡ÏÙ ‡xMâ éRÏ‚?

Would you mind waiting until ten o’clock?

ãúüL ‘©¡â éO¡yænÏ?

Would you mind staying over in Taejön?


V. + §/Y/a + lk enì

b. N. + k/@ enì

“it is not (the fact) that,” “not . . . but . . . ” “it is not N. but . . . ,” “not N. but . . .”

This expression amends a first action, event, or noun by a second. (a) çr Ù∏E ∂a lk enì ‡óE π d∑‚. ߇a ≠]W øY s enì ÂóÁ≥ Bù÷‚.

We are not taking an express bus but will take a train.

Not only is the weather nice here, but the people are also nice.

(b) Ã∏°ß∑∏@ He arrived in Seattle, not Los enì ¡uQü Angeles. ≥ò›é‚. IÆ P˚sk enì dH@ È®Z ›é‚. 5.


A.V. + a ›(ü)

b. N. + ›(ü) (a) ¡ÊZ ÷ëÕa ›k~.

Not Mr. Wilkey but Matthew interpreted (it). “in the middle/midst of doing . . . ” “among,” “in the midst of . . . ” I am in the midst of preparing for an exam.

öfl ¬ÂÕ¡a ›ü …z”nx.

I am sorry (to bother you) in the middle of your dinner.

´«ó nZ Õa ›ü úL@ “x.

While I was working hard, the telephone rang.

(b) ¡Ê ›ü úL@ “x.

During the exam, a telephone rang.




ÿ∑ëú ‰z ›ü e‡@ ̇ ¡z›x.

During the television show, the baby started crying.

Œ˚Á ›ü ®∂¸@ §n m‡x.

Among the students, Natasha is the most popular.

-xç / ìç ’ü(‚)

“it’s said (so),” “it is called . . . ”

This sentence ending is a colloquial expression similar to the indirect speech forms -ç ÷(‚) and -ü(‚). (See also L5, GN2.) mËü Ëxç g ’¶n?

Didn’t you say you live in Pusan?

ö fÆ kFk ∑n?

What’s the name of that building?

¥R ‡‚úkìç ’ü.

They say it’s Independence Hall.

-ç ’ü(‚) is not to be confused with ’ü(‚), which has various meanings depending on the context, as shown in these examples: ‚ ‰Œkn? ’ü.

Are you on vacation now? Yeah.

πn êrü ®¡ü‚?

Will you come to the meeting tomorrow? Yes, I will.


‚ ÆfIk »© ëÂ. The prices are too expensive these days. ’ü‚. You are right./I agree.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4.

txÃa ‘ ãúü @Wç Àé”nÏ? ÙÊÀ txÃa ‘ £‰ü @øç ”nÏ? txÃa ∑óÕyUy ©ôZ – lsnÏ? ÙÊf PÊa éZs µZ ¯öænÏ?

öŒ ≥¡ ãú



B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. Respond to the following questions using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

œ∑éE ê§ Ê͇ ¡z›é‚? (-§/Y Ù) ÂóZ Õâ H∂® my@ ≈®‚? (-lk enì) Ù¤ ˚üL ∑ Õç ué‚? (-a ›) ö • kFk ∑n? (-ìç ’ü) ‘ txÃa ‚ ’∂s ◊ÿn? (-xç Õx)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. Change the sentences using the given patterns. 6.

-(é/e) Õx ∑: (†ñ) ÈüÕ‡ ∆é‚. A †ña ÈüÕ‡ ∆é÷‚. a. (ÙÊ) érn@ Wç Àé‚. b. (N?) œ∑é òm@ á?ué. c. (Pë) W®L ¤@Ù‚.


-â éF(‚)? ∑: πn nè H¡x. A πn nè @â éF‚? a. ≥Lúü @L ó§ Ok Õy. b. P˚sQ ’ ¨§E ßÖ[Ï‚? c. ÂóZ Ok ÷ [ü?

à ¨ÖZ ծà W„»¡æ. Combine the two sentences into one. 8.

-§/Y/a lk enì ∑: ~¡yü Kx, R®xü Kx. A ~¡yü B lk enì R®xü Kx. a. nZY ’Ò ‡c@ ˘ÜÕx, {Ìkâ ‚x. b. eÙsQL ‘¬Z Âkx, ‘¬Z ckx. c. é§ £Z oöx, ëÓæE bx.

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

x\ ∑ZÁY Là ¤ãf ÜZ @Ùç uænx. jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ.



These are pairs of antonyms. Complete the sentences with the appropriate pair. bx/◊x, ‰x/Ix, Œx/∫x, Úx/µx, ßx/zx, Xx/õx, lóÕx/LÛBx, Úx/Îx, úBx/ix (lóÕx to be familiar with) â, RfËüa §‘≥ü ú¢Sk . ú¢Sk b. œ∑f ®Âa ÙW, ?∑f ®Âa c. óE ∂â ç, hé @â . . d. ËY ç, ◊xa e. ㌱a ç, N@ˆY . (N@ˆ kindergarten) f. LÌf m∂a ç, §‘≥f m∂a g. ÙÊa œ∑ \¬üa ÙW, œ∑f ±rüa . . h. çr ≥Ãa ç, ëë‰Y (ëë‰ alley) a.



ß≠ok ÈıÕøç ”nx. ©ôk @Ö ›‚Õxç ˚A”nÏ? @Ö ›‚œ lmÀ 1, 2, 3, ˆBE Qç ‘ ’ØÙ Z÷W»¡æ. You are looking for a job. Which do you think is the most important item in the list below? Number the items in order of importance from 1 through 6, and then explain your order. a. b. c. d. e. f.



y‡f ©≈k ux ◊© ¡Bk Ix ˜‹Z Xk ‹ax lóœ nkx ü« ¡Bk ‰x y‡@ øeÕa nkx

jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate noun. PÊ, öŒ, ‡ö, ¢ç, ‘¬

öŒ ≥¡ ãú



a. WÂE WÁâ Z fx. b. †ñÀ öa OY ㌱E ∑ó›é‚. †ña öWx ®k@ õWnÏ †ña § cÊkç, öa †ñf @ …nx. c. ñŒ öëZ ~ Õâ ≥ ~ – ñ u®‚? (öë subject) d. È}kME ∂Õøâ éZs ÷~√‚? √¨ü E π[‚. e. π B∂ †ña ‡àE ~ ç@a k ux. 4.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect with an appropriate verb. ∑: ’ ≥L@ a. b. c. d.

BÿZ ëfi‡ £@ ’ ˚Z √¨ü œ∑ ±rü

ÙÂÕx LÛBx ¢çœx dˆƒx ∑Äœx

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1. 2. 3.

éQ WÂüL nÕç ÀænÏ? ‘ ’ WÂüL nÕç ÀænÏ? ß≠oY µZ ¯â ©ôZ Õç ÀænÏ? ≈M{ ÈMa ‘ NçœÙ je W»¡æ.

§9ö ©ôk «Ï? ®a çÏŒ±E ∑óÕâ ãŒü ˆŒÕa lk á™Õxç ˚A›x. ’Mç ãŒü @â ê úòZ ¢– dìç ˚A›x. ’≠® n‡ Ωg ãŒZ x‰ÙW eı≥ Öüü 㜠àXk p≈ÕÙ ix. éøLmÀ ®f }k yx NÕ‡ F¨kx. »ÏŒ± Fa ÂóÁZ ≥À ‘‡ F÷L1 Üõúk ≈ç Àöx. ’Mç ›Œ± Fa M±äZ ~ ma \f@@ ≈yxç ˚A›x. ’üL ¬∂Ák ∆é– W´2 dn ¡î≤s M±ä ma ™æZ ›x. ’Ø£ çÏŒ±ü @nÏ cπÀ@ á?uöx. cπÀ tü hWâ ¡B @a Ù îöx. f Œ±üL Õa ™÷ü È?E xß ÊÍ@ « µ≥ ›x. ’≠® ãŒü ÀL eı õYü aa úòZ °Ù ò›x. ±OŒ, fŒ, ˚Œ, Ü≥Œ Ï ß≠ o~E ˚AÕâ ˚A–ñÕ3 éQ o~@ πs ï aaÙ êByx. ’üL ®a œ∑ü n‡ Ωg NŒZ “x. œ∑üL òmÕâL ®f Öüü ã÷ ˚A÷ Wøç œx. Âì:

ÙÊ~, » ®›ü π –dn?


eı ~ êByé. üM ¢÷~ – ◊£.


e‘ yua h – êákÙ?4


e¬. ’« Õç ÀY s »© Xe. »a π –dn?


®a ˚ãü @øç ÷. @Zü ?∑ü ∑e @â ê ¢ B ¡ÊZ [ d~. N?≥ ’ ¡ÊZ Wç Àã.5


¯fl ’@ ZÕa êæk NB Ox. ’Ø£ ’@ ˚úk ≈â e‡a H@ ‡BÙ?


ÆŒ ∞çÕç Ok ‰≠~Ù. ∞fi íÏ jÙ?


©ôk «Ï?



®a ıó ßY Wxa √Ârá OY6 ßy@ øe.


√Ârá! ’ok Ù¤ Íe à¡xâ fAœ ıó ßYk≈ d~.

{é Ü≥Œ



study of business administration; Ü≥ business administration Üõú police officer àX plan çÏŒ± high school ±OŒ [±NK] study of education; ±O education ’« for no reason, as it is, as it stands } dream; }xx to dream ∞fi íÏ gender equality, women’s equality á™Õx to be expected, natural; á™ó naturally, justly p≈Õx [pø∂x] to be clear, to be sure -W´ to the extent, as much as, as well as ax to fit, to be suitable, to be correct dn everyday ÊÍ actor or actress ˚ú judge ˚ã law school ˚Œ [Ùd] study of law NÕx to change, to become different, to turn into NB lawyer o~ [m¬] field qx (Vt.) to blow (trumpet, bugle), to play on (flute); (Vi.) to blow; ◊ók qx The wind blows. xkx [m@x] to acquire, to glue; È?E xkx to find pleasure in Âì Sarah Íe à¡x to be alive (HON.) ¬∂ immediate family member éMx to be very young, to be immature; éøLmÀ from the time of youth



¢B ßY ™÷ NŒ æx \f fŒ y‘ Öü õY ›Œ± ıó [Ùk] ˆŒÕx °x »ÏŒ± È? M±ä íÏ fAœ


LSAT female; ∞Y male drama, play to come to study abroad; NŒÕx to study abroad music; \f@ musician medical study, medicine frequently, many times future aptitude middle school profession, occupation; ıó ßY professional woman to move on (to next level of school) to find elementary school (formerly ∑ÃŒ±) interest, hobby trumpet equality great; fAÕx to be great

Ùã ÂWÀ ∞fi íÏ


∞fi qíÏY é_ ÂWü® ux. œ∑ ÂW≥ ∑⁄@ enx. ßyE óOÕa úæk ÂWü eı≥ Xk ∞e ux. ∑E Áâ XY ÂóÁk ßya ıóZ @Ùa lWx ÅD÷L @µZ ~ ∑Wa lk ï ›‚Õxç ˚Aœx. ’üL ßyÁY ∞yÁ Wx øY ıóZ ∂– ñ ua ‡W@ õx. f ÅDœ cü ıÖZ ’WÃé~ Õa ÜÍ≥ ux. ’≠® ÂWa üM NÕç uWá k≠œ ˚AÁ≥ Xk òéÙç ux. ’lY a¯k mm@ üü bç ua lZ `≥ j ñ ux. @µ ÅDÕx ÜÍ úæ ∂Õx ’WÃx

family to marry occasion, case custom, usual practice to look for, to seek to quit

©ôk «Ï? ‡W ∞e ux ∑Wx a¯k mm qíÏ ÂW òéÙx ∑ ∑⁄ õx üü ıÖ óOÕx Ùã

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.



opportunity, chance to still exist, to remain to look after working couple inequality society to disappear, to vanish example; ∑E Áâ for example exception to be few (in number), to be little (in quantity) gradually job, employment, workplace to discriminate against present age, modern times


V. + ‡ F÷(L)/‡ FÕß

“for,” “for the sake of,” “in order to”

N. + Z/E F÷(L)/FÕß

“for,” “for the benefit of”

˚úk ≈‡ F÷L ¡Ê ÷ëE Õç ué‚.

I am preparing for my exams to become a lawyer.

–eÙsZ j‡ FÕß ›∑ü Ké‚.

I went to China to see my grandfather.

qéÙO óE °‡ F÷ I made arrangements to meet with ÜõúZ W®‡Ã ›x. the police to find my stolen car. 2.


N. + W´

b. V. + §/Y/a/©/Z + W´

“(almost) as much as,” “as well as” “do as much as,” “is enough to . . . ”

(a) W´ indicates that the subject noun is or does almost as well as the noun it is compared with in the sentence. Ω˚k ˙W´ Æ@ ßx.

The younger brother is as tall as his older brother.



]uQY ÓMÃkMW´ ‚Ù ix.

Seattle is not as cold as Detroit.

(b) The verbal modifiers are -a for present, -§/Y for past, and -©/Z for future tense. B∂@ µZ îø }ìa W´ îø flx.

I lent my friend as much money as he wanted to borrow.

òmœ W´ ÊÌ dx.

You will learn as much as you study.

’ £Y µ ‘ç Í W´ á?uÙ ix.

The book is not interesting enough for me to buy it.

’ ÆfY ëœ W´ The stuff is not worth what it costs. øÙ ix. 3.


V. + ©/ZñÕ

b. V. + (W)â V. + ©/ZñÕ

“the more one does . . . , the more . . . ” “the more one does . . . , the more . . . ” (emphasis)

Both constructions are close in meaning, but the second has a stronger emphasis. (a) ˚A–ñÕ ï êByx.

The more I think about it, the more confused I am.

k £Y oZñÕ ï The more I read, the more interestá?ux. ing this book becomes. µZ Xk ¯ñÕ ï The more money you make, the ◊ú¨‚. busier you get. (b) D ‰k uâ uñÕ nè O®~ œx. ÆZ ‘â ◊ñÕ ®©@ üM yöx.

The farther you have to travel, the earlier you must leave. The more I watered the tree, the faster it grew.

©ôk «Ï?


V. + §/Y/a/©/Z êá kx.



“it looks . . . ,” “it seems . . . ,” “it appears . . .”

This pattern expresses the speaker’s opinion of an action or an event. ’ £k á?ua êákx. It seems that the book is interesting (to him).


Âók Xk ¿ êákx.

It looks as though many people came.

H@ úLE f êákx.

It looks as though someone called.

æcü ë@ ¡ êákx.

It appears that it is going to rain this afternoon.

Indirect speech: polite informal forms

“they say . . . ,” “someone says . . . ”

-ã‚, -ü‚, -(W)ü‚, -C‚, and -á‚ are the colloquial short forms of -xç ÷‚/”nx, -ìç ÷‚/”nx, -yç ÷‚/”nx, and -¬ç ÷‚/”nx, as illustrated below. (See L5, GN2 and the indirect speech endings chart below.) Polite formal short forms of -Ñnx, -ònx, -(W)ònx, -Dnx, and -Çnx are explained in L20, GN1. –rnQL πn ?∑ü æ√ã.

(They say that) Grandma is coming to the United States tomorrow.

πn≥ f ë@ ¿ã.

(They say that) it will rain again tomorrow.

’ Âók @ñü.

(They say that) he is a singer.

k Æfk ’ WÂf ñ‡Ækü.

(It’s said that) this is the company’s export item.

B∂@ ®üs Ù¤ ®æü.

My friend tells me to come out now.

úLE üM ‹Wü.

(Someone) says to answer the phone.

B∂@ òˆü Ï≠ @ü.

My friend tells us to go to the park to play.

‚ ‡ok éOC‚.

(He/She asks) how I/you feel.

≠]@ øC‚.

(They ask) whether the weather is nice.

Indirect speech endings chart Sentence Type

Plain Form

Polite Informal Short Form

Polite Formal Short Form



V. + xç Õx V. + ö/qxç Õx V. + ©/Z d ìç Õx

-ã‚ -ö/qã‚ -©/Z dü‚

-Ñnx -ö/qÑnx -Z dònx

it is said that . . . (present) it is said that . . . (past) it is said that . . . (future)


N. + (k)ìç Õx N. + (k)öxç Õx N. + n dìç Õx

-(k)ü‚ -(k)öã‚ -n dü‚

-(k)ònx -(k)öÑnx -n dònx

they say that . . . is . . . they say that . . . was . . . they say that . . . will be . . .


V. + (W)ìç Õx



they tell us to do . . .


D.V. + (W)¬ç Õx A.V. + (_)¬ç Õx N. + (k)¬ç Õx V. + ö/q¬ç Õx N. + (k)ö¬ç Õx V. + ©/Z d¬ç Õx N. + n d¬ç Õx

-(_)C‚ -(_)C‚ -(k)C‚ -ö/qC‚ -≤C‚ -©/Z dC‚ -n dC‚

-D nx -D nx -(k)D nx -ö/qD nx -(k)öD nx -©/Z dD nx -ndD nx

ask whether/if . . . (present) ask whether/if . . . (present) ask whether/if . . . (present) ask whether/if . . . (past) ask whether/if . . . (past) ask whether/if . . . (future) ask whether/if . . . (future)


V. + yç Õx



they ask/invite to do . . .

©ôk «Ï?




ó§Õ≠ ≥Lúü @á.

He/She invites us to go to the library.

N. + OY

“like,” “same as”

√Ârá OY ßy

a woman like Lady Shin Saimdang

érn OY ên

my sister, who is like Mother

≥ OY U\

a heart like an angel



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions based on the reading. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÙÊa »ÏŒ± F ©ôk ≈ç Àé›ænÏ? Ù¤Y ©ôk ≈ç Àé”nÏ? ‘ ÙÊa œ∑ü NŒZ KænÏ? Âìa Öüü ©ôk ≈øç ”nÏ? ÙÊa éQ ßy@ øxç ”nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß _ÑÕ»¡æ. (_Ñ response) Respond to the following questions and statement using the given patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

’ Èü@ ìU® Nç÷‚? (-©/Z W´) ’ ’QZ øeÕ[‚? (-(W)â . . . -Z ñÕ) ‚ ÂìE W®‡@ õÁé‚. (-a êákx) ö Æ@ © ok H∂∑‚? (-ü‚) πn ≠]@ éZã‚? (-ã‚) éQ Âóö £kMÕç Àé‚? (-OY)

x\ ¨ÖZ B†¨Wà ◊x»¡æ. (B†¨ indirect speech) Change the following sentences into indirect speech endings. 7.

Statement ∑: öa ?∑üL “é‚. A ’ oY ?∑üL “ã‚. a. öa ãŒ˚kü‚. b. öa π‡ü ?∑Wà ∑e@‚.


92 8.

Question ∑: ≥Lúü ê§ @n? A ≥Lúü ê§ @C‚. a. é ¡ü W≠ü? b. ó§a x ›n?


Command ∑: kM À ‘[‚. A kM À }ü‚. a. Æ π ‘[‚. b. úL π hé ‘[‚.


“Let’s” ∑: ¬áü @y. A ¬áü @á‚. a. üM ‚ s]¡x. b. ìÓæE Á]¡x.

C. {é ™æ Vocabulary Exercises 1.

x\ ÂóÁY Öüü ©ôk «Ï‚? ìLZ ¢Ù ‘W»¡æ. What will the following persons become in the future? Fill in the blanks. a. Âì: ˚ãE ∑óœ c k/@ ≈yx. b. fñ˙: m˜ŒZ úòÕß ãŒ±üL @ « lkx. @B@a c. N?: ÜõŒ±E ®À k ≈a lk }kx. d. txÃ: Z úòÕß °Ùné@ « àXkx. e. Yë: E ∑óÕç ®L fÂà n– lkx. f. ñ{: \ãE ®À @ ≈ç Àéœx. g. ≥≈: ±OŒöE ∑óœ c k ≈é çÏŒ±üL @B@‡E ë`œx. h. †ñ: ™÷Z òmÕß ™÷ @ ≈ç Àéœx.


Œ˚f Ùá fa ?üf úòZ çB»¡æ. ú« ua o~E à @Ù ï ëì W»¡æ. Find your present or future major from the list. Choose two more areas of your interest.

©ôk «Ï?



Ü≥Œ, ±OŒ, fŒ, ˚Œ, ñŒ, úy òŒ, m˜Œ, ≥¨Œ, êéŒ, ÂWŒ, ¥Œ 3.

ùB rü ua {éa ¤ãf ÜZ @Ùç uænx. jaY lZ ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. The pair of words in parentheses are antonyms. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word for each blank. ò’Y ç, ≥LúY . (¡î≤x/¥ÈÕx) b. ëfi‡E æïn »ÏŒ± n Œ‡Wà Wka ekÀ k»ãà Wka ∞yÀ –rn@ µ ¿Mü hqx. (éMx/ûx) c. º≠ ÂWüLa ∞yÀ ßy@ ›ÙW Ùã ÂWüLa üü ________Õs ≈ç ux. (íÏ/qíÏ) d. Âìa xnò ıÖZ ç xD ıÖü xn‡ . (¡zÕx/’WÃx to quit) a.


¯¨ü Is ãÑÕ»¡æ. Give a short answer to each question. a. b. c. d. e.


‘éˆ mÂE flL ãÑÕ»¡æ. Answer the questions using the given adverbs. a. b. c. d. e.


éQ ıók y‡f õYü axç ˚A”nÏ? ㌱üL ©ôZ úòÕç uænÏ? Öüü ©∫ o~üL nÕ‡E ˆ”nÏ? ß≠of È?a ©ôsnÏ? ‚ Z è? ua ≥L® £ü ãÕß Z÷ W»¡æ?

‚ ©∫ ™∂E Õç à[‚? (Ùá) √¨ü ©∫ Y∏@ ≥é‚? (‘◊) ê§ nZ ¡zÕ¡yé‚? (Ù¤) ê§ ëfi‡@ ‡›÷‚? (ê) ê§ ÏΩÕ[‚? (dn öfl)

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences with the appropriate verb.



µ›x, fAÕx, á™Õx, ax, p≈Õx, ¢Õx, °x a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

ëfi‡ £@ dˆ√L ÕUÀâ œ∑ü ò D . Âìa Öüü 㜠àXk . \fü á‘@ uWnÏ \f@@ ≈a lk . ㌱üL ©ôZ úò– Ùa ea£, é_ Œ±ü . DÙa eı ò öa ±OŒZ úò÷L œ P˚sk ≈ç Àé‚. . »© ze‚. k √›Y §s g [∑qü @L »Z °e “x. ’ » rüL qéÙO ¤ÙE . ([∑q laundry)

D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1. 2.

∞yÀ ßya ê âüL íÏÕxç ˚A”nÏ? ôYö ¤ãf kNE ÁéW»¡æ. (ôYö ¤ã pros and cons) é∆Z F ©ôk ≈ç ÀöænÏ? Ù¤≥ ’FÀ OænÏ?

§ 10 ö Ü‘À f∑ √L œ∑Y Ì∑ ¡ãmÀ çø ¡ãÏÙ q± ∑@≤‡ F¨ü q± ¨L@ eı≥ Xk ∞e ux. Ü‘a Ì∑ ¡ã √ìf ñ≥≤Wá, ≥¡ óóüL eFxÏ q± ¨LE Xk °e [ ñ ux. fœ ”f ©ùZ ”Ikìç Õa£ Ü‘üa ߇ ö‡ü ”Ik Xk ux. ”IY WÈ ©ùWx m_ ^L zY êñ±± Wmx. Ü‘üL _ @ `~ – óY q∑ÂÀ M∫nkx. q∑Âa 535‡ü [Ùˆ ùm£ eFxÏ MºWà NçÕx.1 M∫nY © qÒZ êd ÛY ∫kx. ’ m±sf ?q@ U@ Íe ua l OeL ©≤ eFÑx. ÙÊ:

Ü‘a e‘ ¯ùÕç ¢µk ~ ∆ ≥¡∂®.


_, ®ÂõWà Nçœ l≥ Xk uç.


é§ ∑R ÿÆúüL º≠ r¤sÁf ”ú, ·Må, √›, MÁZ WnÏ, π@ U@ √ì ¡ãü ¿ l Oïì.2


”ëf ¤¤Ù, Àhk≥ ú ~ WÁöÙ? ’Ø£ ú ©d˙yïì.


’ü, ’Mç ≥‡k œöa£ eı≥ ú yuÙ? ’üL “√ì”ìa3 ZZ Ù¤≥ Xk Q® `. éÓLÂÙ4 √ì Bÿ, √ì x‰, √ì •˚ OY kFZ y‘ [ ñ u|e. ’Ø£ √ì@ éZs [Ù±Ù?


ÿ Ûd[ìa Âók [˙|e.5 ñó ¡Bü Ê˙a£ ‡è g ®? 95


§ 10 ö

M∫nf qÒ (√ì 8 [‡) Buddha Statue in Sökkuram Grotto (Silla, eighth century)

√ì f∑ √L √ì ∑ r¤f YY ‘ÿ’ kç kFY ‘Ûd[’ kx. ‡ˆú 1[‡ü Ü‘ Ù‰ é_ UZf ?Ök ÕÂa ° rüL Ìç ua í ZZ Wqx. @Ïk @ Wn ZY Õbà ≠e@ç d‡ü ^xï jk uöx. ?Ök jZ ¯ Wn ’ gü éO Âπek@ uöx. ?ÖY ’ ekE ˚ü £øx@6 ‰¥x. ’Mç ’ ekf kFZ “ÿ Ûd[” ìç Ùöx. ìU c ek@ ^L ÈGœ Öñ@ ≈öa£ ’ Ù‰ ÂóÁk ’E r¤sWÃ

Ü‘À f∑ √L



êkx. √ìa ’ c Ä 1≥‡f ‚ ®ÂE @ˆ ∑@à ›úÕ≤x.

{é f∑ Ü‘ çø ∑@ ∑R [¡t] ∫ Àhk ¤¤Ù ‡è®x ‡ˆ ú ¯ùÕx ¯x


founding a nation; f∑Õx to found a nation city of Kyöngju (Silla’s capital city) Koryö dynasty (918–1392) state, nation national, government-established grotto, cave earring; ëhk necklace gold ring to recall, to remind; ‡è memory b.c.; ‡ˆ c a.d. to be clean (Vt.) to break; (Vi.) to wake up; ¯Íx (Vt.) to wake up _ for sure x‰ tearoom £øx@ having brought UZ village U@ as if, just as Z horse yux [r¡˘] to be stylish, to be cool, to be chic êd Ûx to set up, to place (respectfully); ê¡x to serve ©kx to be heavy; @Px to be light ©ù grave, tomb ©≤ very, immensely, highly ¨L culture ?q smile ›úÕx to make progress; ›ú progress, advancement WÈ ordinary, common, usual, average m±s the Buddha (HON.) q± Buddhism q∑ Pulguk-sa temple in Kyöngju qÒ Buddha statue •˚; §öü bakery

§ 10 ö


Âπ Ì∑ M∫n Mº Y(ì) [‡ [Íx ° √ì [≈ì] √L j êñ ®Â ”ú ”I [”h] ”ë ÈGÕx kF r¤s Öñ ù ¢µ ?Ö M ^xï ·Må m_

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

man; Âπ ek boy Three Kingdoms (Silla, Koguryö, Paekche) Sökkuram Grotto (where stone Buddha was built) stone pagoda; º tower; ¡àº clock tower last name century; 2 [‡ second century to erect, to build, to found forest Silla dynasty myth, mythology egg hill history (royal) crown king’s grave queen to be brave name king warrior, general Buddhist temple order, proper arrangement; ¢µ≈x to be put in order village chief sword, knife large, big, gigantic; ^xûx to be large, to be gigantic waistband, belt much more, by far


N. + (W)Ã NçÕx

“is famous for”

V. + §/Y lWÃ NçÕx

“is famous for —ing . . . ”

V. + ‡Ã NçÕx

“is famous for —ing . . . ”

Ü‘À f∑ √L



-‡Ã NçÕx is often used with a descriptive verb, such as øx, Xx, ßx, or Œx.


M∫nY eFxÏ qÒWà Nç÷‚.

Sökkuram is famous for its beautiful Buddha statute.

k ¬áY qç‡Ã Nç”nx.

This restaurant is famous for its bulgogi.

’ WÂa cπÀE ~ W„a lWà Nç÷‚.

The company is famous for making good computers.

RfËY Ü@@ ø‡Ã Nç÷‚.

The Sörak Mountains are famous for having beautiful scenery.

N≤Y æü∆ ±W@ X‡Ã NçÕx.

Europe is famous for having many old churches.

V. + ïì

“I’d say . . . ,” “(I remember) something . . . ”

This intimate and casual sentence ending is made up of the retrospective particle ï plus ì and reports the speaker’s experience or firsthand information. The speaker must be addressing a person of equal or lower rank and of close relationship. The polite way of saying this ending is -ò£‚, as in ’ ¬á øò£‚.


®a ï u‡@ ∆ïì.

I didn’t want to stay longer.

œ∏@ ˚ü @ïì.

(I remember seeing that) Hans was going home.

Lf≈ü Kïn iöïì.

When I got to the classroom, I was late.

≥Lúü Kïn sk^@ π ´«ó oç uïì.

(I remember seeing that) Keiko was reading something attentively when I went to the library.

‚ aa ◊Ÿ l Oïì.

He seems to be busy these days.

N. + (k)ìa

“(so) called . . . ,” “known as . . . ”

-(k)ìa is a short way of saying -(k)ìç Õa and means “known as.”

§ 10 ö


≥¬kìa Œ˚Z je‚?

Do you know a student named Young-sik?

LÌ˚kìa ¬ák e‘ _uænx.

The restaurant called Seoul House has very good food.

¢£kìa WÂ@ ߇üL I heard that the company known §n ßã‚. as LM is the biggest around here. 4.


Question word + (k)ÂÙ “whoever / whatever/ whenever/ wherever . . . ”

b. Question word V. + ÂÙ

“whoever/ whatever/ whenever/ wherever . . . (verb)”

When question words, such as H∂ “who,” ©ô “what,” and ê§ “when,” are combined with ÂÙ, the result is H∂ÂÙ “whoever,” ©ôkòÙ “whatever,” and ê§ÂÙ “whenever,” respectively. The particle -(k)ÂÙ is interchangeable with -(k)®. (See L5, GN5.) (a) H∂ÂÙ

“whoever, anyone, everyone”


“whatever, anything”


“wherever, anywhere”


“whenever, any time”


“any amount, as much as”


“no matter how”

H∂ÂÙ ’ oZ øe÷‚.

Everyone likes him.

Ω˚Y ©ôkÂÙ ~ sænx.

My little brother likes to eat anything.

ê§ÂÙ °eæ[‚.

Please come to see me any time.

k ≥¡a éÓÂÙ ¯ù÷‚.

This city is clean everywhere.

(b) H@ æÂÙ

“whoever comes”


“whatever (you) see”

éÓü @ÂÙ

“wherever (you) go”

Ü‘À f∑ √L



ê§ “ÂÙ

“whenever (you) came”

ìU® ëÃÂÙ

“however expensive it is”


“no matter how (you) say (it)”

H∂E W®ÂÙ ∑ùZ ~ ÙÆ[‚.

Whomever you meet, be courteous.

©ôZ ÊÍÂÙ ´«ó ÷~ √.

Work hard at whatever you study.

érna ê§ Whenever she comes, Mother æ¡ÂÙ c¬Z brings desserts. @Ùç æ√x. π B∂a éÓE ∂ÜÕÂÙ _ ˆZ èax. 5.


A friend of mine takes photos without fail wherever he travels.

V. + |e(‚)?

“right?,” “doesn’t it?”

V. + (ö/q)|e(‚)?

“right?,” “didn’t it?”

b. N. + (k)|e(‚)? N. + (k)ö|e(‚)?

“isn’t it?” “wasn’t it?”

This informal ending is a short form of -Ù ie(‚) and is often like a tag question. The listener may respond with ’ü(‚) “That’s right,” ae(‚) “You’re right,” ŸË(‚) “Maybe,” or en(æ) “Not really.” The listener may also respond with ’ü(‚)? “Really?/Is that right?” or ‘‚? “Why?” (a) Ãñ@ nZ g œã|e. (‘‚?)

They say Min-su quit her job, you know. (Why?)

√ìa ÿ Ûd[ìa Âók [˙|e. (’ü‚?)

Silla was founded by a man called Pak Hyökköse, you know. (Really?)

(b) ö ≥La Ù´ˆü

That’s the movie we saw together,

§ 10 ö


Ok Z ≥L|e. (’ü.) ’f ∑ù òa fiΩk|e. (ŸË‚.) 6.


N. + Z/E £øx@

b. N. + (Z/E)£Mç

right? (Right.)

That’s poor manners, isn’t it? (Maybe.) “after bringing” “bringing/taking with”

£øx is never used by itself as a verb. It has to be used with a connective, such as -x@ and -ç. £øx@ means “after bringing (someone),” £Mç @x “to take (someone) along,” and £Mç æx “to bring (someone).” The honorific form of £øx@ is êdx@ “after accompanying (someone),” and the honorific form of £Mç is ê¡ç “accompanying.” £øx@ and £Mç are not used for bringing or taking an inanimate object, such as a book, a lunch, or a car. @¨x@ and @Ùç are used for inanimate objects, as in ü«Z @Ùç æ[‚ “Please bring your lunch.” (a) LeÙE £øx@ After bringing the puppy home, ‰¥a£ Ù¤Y I raised it, and it is now © Rà N›x. a big dog. çùü B∂E ˚ü £øx@ œ∑ \¬Z WÁé flx. (b) Ω˚ £Mç À.

After bringing my friend home, I treated her to Korean food.

Bring your younger brother with you.

ãúü B∂E £Mç Ké‚.

I took my friend with me to Taejön.

Ukßa eÙÙE ê¡ç Ü‘ü Kx.

Mike took his father with him to Kyöngju.

eÁk mêsZ ê¡ç c[ü ®“é‚.

The son brought his parents with him to the party.

Ü‘À f∑ √L





A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ü‘üa éQ ¨L@ Xk ∞e uænÏ? ”Ikï ©ôsnÏ? q∑Âa ©ôWà Nç”nÏ? Ü‘ ÿÆúü @â ©ôZ [ ñ uænÏ? ÿ Ûd[a éÓüL ®“ænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

B‘a ∑@ øe‚? (-(W)à NçÕx) ßfiZ Xk ÷ Wké‚? éÓ@ §n øe‚? (-ò£‚) æb ÙÊ bn? (-ïì) ‘ ÙÊa ‚ ’∂s ◊ÿã? (-xç Õïì) éQ ≥LE bé‚? (-(k)ìa) n‚nü ©ôZ Ok –Ï‚? (©∫/©ô . . . -ÂÙ) æbk ©∫ ‚nkü‚? (-|e‚) H∂À Ok ßfiZ @yé‚? (£Mç @x) œ∑üL Dy “n? (ê¡ç æx)

C. {é ™æ 1.

Vocabulary Exercises

ùB rü ua {éa ¤ãf ÜZ @Ùç uænx. jaY lZ ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ≥¡f ò‡a ç ° rf ò‡a x. (¯ùÕx/ï≤x) (ò‡ air) b. éDÁY ÍËZ Qç ekÁY ÍËZ Sx. (ßx/zx) c. ë@ æa ≠Y ≠]@ , ë@ æç ®â Õbk ˆx. ([x/ÖMx) (ÖMx to be cloudy) d. m±sY 6 [‡ü m≥üL ¿é≥x. q± a 4 [‡ü œ∑ü ú÷±x. (‡ˆú/‡ˆc) (m≥ India) e. ºkà W ¤Ùa ç ¤Wà W ¤Ùa x. (@Px/©kx) (ºk paper) a.


jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ.

§ 10 ö


˚A®x, ‡è®x, ÈGÕx, ¯x, [Íx ∑: á D úü Z ≥L kFk ˚A®Ù iax. a. ’ ≥Lü ®¿ ≥L ÊÍ kFk . b. ’ oY éøÏ Œ˚ÁZ ≥À ‘ç Œ±E Xk . c. é§ · á?ua }Z xx@ © qM@ ®L . ÅüL d. ’ Öña Dy õ∑f ”Z W®≠ D W´ (õ∑ enemy state) 3.

jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ∑R, Öñ, ”I, f∑ √L, Ì∑ ¡ã

a. b. c. d. e. 4.

”f ©ùZ (k)ìç œx. ®ì@ [Ùˆ k~‡E (k)ìç œx. ∑@üL [Ï ≥LúZ ≥Lúkìç œx. õ] ÂóZ (k)ìç œx. (õ] strong) √ì, ç∂ø, Á§ [ ®ì@ [Ù¨ uò ¡ãE (k)ìç œx.

ΩÆ kFZ jeWç jaY ΩÆZ ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. (ΩÆ animal) q, Z, á, Bõk, Ây, ï, Í, Û, ÿ·, ·, Æç‡, çü

a. b. c. d. e. f. 5.

êñ Fü ° rü UZ ◊±ü ∫ rü ◊x rü Ë rü

k/@ ué‚. k/@ ué‚. k/@ Íe‚. k/@ Íe‚. k/@ Íe‚. k/@ ué‚.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ.


Ü‘À f∑ √L



m_, ~, U@, ?q, √L a. ”IY WÈ ©ùWx ßx. b. ÿÆúü @L r¤sf ”úZ Wç æyé‚. c. ê®Myf a NçÕx. (ê®My Mona Lisa) d. ê®Myf ’Qk Íeua l Oqé‚. e. Íì™∑∏a ’M∏f ü ®æa Öñkx. (Íì™∑∏ Hercules) D. k~‡Õ‡ Conversation Topics 1. 2.

?∑ü≥ f∑ √L@ uænÏ? ?∑k [Ùˆ k~‡E ÷ W»¡æ. y‡@ øeÕa º≠ k~‡a ©ôsnÏ? k~‡f ◊dME Z÷ W»¡æ. (◊dM outline, plot)

§ 11 ö ’∂ ≥¡E °eL mËY œ∑üL à ˆOà © ≥¡ÃL1 m∂@ df  ÁWk® ∆x. mË ’∂üa §‘≥À nZZ ”XÕa çr ÑM@ óròk2 „®Âx. f ≠¡e, ?∑, ›∑ Ï ß≠ ®ìüL æa © ‡PÁ≥ Xx. mË ’∂üLa © ‡PÁ—W enì ç‡E Ça zY éPÁ≥ Xk [ ñ ux. ÙÊa N?E ˘ì ÛMü mË é¡Ö ∂ÜZ Kx. ◊Ö@ü ua © é¡ÖZ Wa òB3 ÙÊa ÚE Ïöx. ÙÊa ß≠ @Ù ÷ËÆk ’∂s Xk ua lZ Z õk4 òöx. ˚Pf º˜a e‘ Xqç êà x ??÷L ÙÊa e‘ ÏìÙ iZ ñ òöx.5 éPk ’∂ü ä‡@ ©Vs6 ˚PÁZ k é¡ÖWà @Ùç æ‡ F¨ü ??Õxç œx. ÙÊ:

??œ ˚PÁk k∂s Xk ua lZ Wa lY ±\k~.


’ü? ’± e‘ øY ∂ÜZ ›∂®.


’Ø£ k XY ˚PZ mË ÂóÁk éZs x sÙ?


k ˚PÁY ú∑Wà Wπ¨. é¡ÖZ ÛMü ¡zÕa l≥ üM xD Ù‰Wà ˚PZ Wπøç Õ‡ F¨k~.


_, œ∑ ÂóÁY ¢Z mÙØÕx. dn ÛMmÀ k∂s ◊ÿ¬?


’±, éÓ @® k∂s ◊ú. Œ˚Á≥ eFmÀ æc isÏÙ Œ±ü ux@ öfl F f Œˆü @. úòLüLa ‚‚nü≥ œ ¡ÏÙ nÕ|e.


œ∑k ‘ k∂s üM ›ú›aÙ jyé. òÖüL≥,




ÎÂüL≥, WÂüL≥ k∂s ´«ó nÕn ›úk g ≈yn? N?:

y, ’± k§ eFZ sW≠ DÏ?


ç‡; Æç‡ çr ÑM úòL ‡P óròk ΠÏìx äx „®Áx ≠¡e ©Vs

fish; ç‡ Çx to fish high-speed ferry government or public office liner, large ship, steamship endlessly; óx to sever, to cut off rice paddy and fields; Î rice paddy;  field, farm to be surprised, to be startled to arrive at, to reach to go in and out Russia awfully; ©Vx to be awful, to be fearful, to be terrible; ä‡@ ©Vs as soon as it arrives to send to be diligent dawn, early in the morning (caught food) fish; Æç‡ live fish boat, ship moment, instant to be fresh wherever one goes fishing boat fish market round-trip; ”XÕx to make a round trip population city of Inch’ön the whole country (nation) kind, sort, variety China in search of; °x to search for tutoring school port; ’∂ ≥¡ port city seafood, marine product

Wπx mÙØÕx ÛM ˚P Pÿ òB ??Õx éÓ @® éP é¡Ö ”X m∂ m≥ ú∑ º˜ [ºY] ›∑ °eL Œˆ ’∂ ÷ËÆ


§ 11 ö

o‡ mËü ãÕß


LÌüL mËÏÙa Üm çr ≥Ãà ãßW ¡B hOx. mËY ◊Ö@ü ua ≥¡ìL JÅk® ?@óB OY mÒZ ÷x. mËY œ∑ ‘ãf ’∂≥¡ÃL ãmof ñ‡Æö ñsÆk k óZ È÷L Áéæç ®Bx. ß≠@Ù Ëó≥ ›}ƒa£ Nó √›óö ñËó, ¥Pó Ïk NçÕx. f ßFüa ÷Ïã ÷ñ„Öü ≈LSÁk Xk ¿x. Üm çr ≥à ãmo ãßW

ñËó ñsÆ ñ‡Æ √›ó mÒ ¥Pó ‘ã È÷L ≈LS ÷ñ„Ö ÷Ïã

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

Seoul-Pusan Expressway almost all, for the most part, mostly about five or six; œÃ ¡B a couple of hours; Ã[ ç two or three persons; L» ˚ three or four houses marine industry import (trade goods) export (trade goods) shoe industry impression; mÒZ ‘x to give an impression shipbuilding industry biggest, largest, most by way of, through; ÈÕx to pass through summer visitor, summer tourist beach (swimming area) Haeundae Beach in Pusan


N. + (W)Ã(L)

“as,” “for,” “being (in the position of )”

This postposition indicates the qualification or status of the noun. Y„Y ’∂≥¡ÃL, ©®k ›}ƒx.

As a port city, New York is advanced in the commercial trades.

k ÄY ÛÃ ®¿ G‡ ÄWÃL Nó ‡Fü øænx.

This medicine is a newly made cold medicine that is especially good for a cough.

’∂ ≥¡E °eL CALLING ON THE PORT CITY ãÈ«WÃL ’Ø ZZ Õâ g ∆x. 2.


N. + (k/@) òk

b. V. + §/Y/a/©/ Z l òk c.

As the president, he should not say so. “without (something/someone)” “without —ing . . . ”

V. + ±/\ òk

“without —ing . . . ”

(a) úL òk Íç ué‚.

I live without a telephone.

cπÀ òk(a) ó§E – ñ òé‚.


We cannot do homework without a computer.

(b) Õa n òk ¡BZ I spend time without doing anyWªx. thing. œ n òk ÕÂ@ Ù≥x. (c) ór òk Ê@ Áé¿x.

A day has gone by without my doing anything. Boats come in constantly.

e© ≥ òk Yò›x.

He succeeded without any help.

’ oY Võ òk Z›x.

The man spoke without hesitation.

Note: Nominalizer ±/\ “to do/be,” “—ing” This construction makes a verb into a noun, as a gerund (“—ing”) does in English. For example, ÃÍx “to fight” becomes Ã “fighting,” and ü®x “to finish” becomes ü∞ “the ending.” These nouns are used only in certain contexts, however. They are used as the subject of intransitive verbs, such as »‚Õx “to need,” ›‚Õx “to be important,” ux “to exist,” and òx “to not exist.” They also are used as the direct object of transitive verbs, as Wx “to see,” °x “to find,” jx “to know,” and ˚AÕx “to think.” (See L15, GN1 for a comparison with the nominalizer -‡.) Note that some verb-derived words have become regular nouns, such as Å “sleep,” · “dance,” ‡¤ “joy,” and eFx “beauty.”


§ 11 ö

As a subject ¡Ê ‘üa Åk êyì‚. I lack sleep during exam week. œ∑é £Z oa £ü éøk òx.

I have no difficulty reading Korean books.

As a direct object


’ oY m˚f ÔdZ jç Âa l Ox.

He seems to live knowing the joy of life.

®ì òa Âóf ª¬Z gx.

We understand the sorrow of a man without a country.

A.V. + §/Y/a òB

“the moment,” “at the moment of”

òB expresses the exact moment of an action, the instant that something happens. © é¡ÖZ Wa òB ®a I was so surprised the moment I saw ÚE Ïöx. the big fish market.


’ ÂóZ ±\ W´ òB ®a Âõü ú±x.

The moment I met the man, I fell in love with him.

’ q¬Z Êa òB ‡≥L xöx.

When I heard the news, I jumped with joy.

V. + §/Y õk ux/òx

“there has/has never been,” “to have/have never done”

V. + é/eZ õk ux/òx

“there has/has never been,” “to have/have never done”

õ “occasion” indicates an experience and is often used with (é/ e) Wx as in d‡ü @ Z õk ux “I’ve been there.” Another way of saying it is d‡ü @ Z nk ux. ®a ?∑üL≥ é¡ÖZ Z õk ux.

I have seen a fish market in the United States, too.

÷Ì, ?®Z sé Z/sY õk òx.

I have never eaten sea cucumber and seaweed.

œ›ÕZ oé Z õk ué‚?

Have you read The Memoir of Lady Hong?

k˜ü ≠]@ k∂s ˘Üœ õk òx.

It has never been this warm in February.


V. + Ù iZ ñ òx


“could not help but,” “there is no way but”

There is a sense of involuntary and obligatory action in this expression.


ÏìÙ iZ ñ òöx.

There was no way that I could not have been surprised.

õ∏a ≠¡eü ÂnÏ ≠¡eéE ÊÍÙ iZ ñ òx.

Since Charles lives in Russia, he can’t help but learn Russian.

B∂f ÅD¬kì @Ù iZ ñ òx.

Because it’s my friend’s wedding, I can’t miss it.

ßFk ƒWn ≠]@ ûÙ iZ ñ òÙ.

Summer has come, so there is no way that the weather will not be hot.

A.V. + ‡(@) ©Vs

“as soon as,” “immediately (after)”

This idiomatic expression gives a vivid image of something happening immediately after the act or the event in the first clause. Ê@ mÃü ä‡@ ©Vs PˆÁk πø “x.

Immediately after the ship reached the pier, the crew got off (the ship).

˚Z ¸‡@ ©Vs k– lkx.

As soon as they finish the house, they will move in.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

mËY éQ ≥¡snÏ? ÙÊa mËf é¡Öü @L ‘ ÚE ÏöænÏ? mË ’∂üa éQ ÊÁk „®ÍnÏ? ÙÊa œ∑k üM ›úœ kN@ ©ôkìç ˚A”nÏ? ˚P ¡ÖY ‘ ÛMü ¡zÕa l OænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1.

œ∑éE ÊÍa Œ˚WÃL ©ôk @Ö éøÙ‚? (-a l)

§ 11 ö

112 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B∂À Ok “é‚? (-òk) ‘ ’ ÂóZ Wç ’∂s Ïöé‚? (-a òB) Uku? ÷ñ„Öü @ bé‚? (§/Y õk ux/òx) (Uku? Miami) ‘Zü Œ±ü ®@~ √‚? (-Ù iZ ñ òx) é§ ñók ü®‡@ ©Vs éÓ @ké‚? (-Ù iZ ñ òöx)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. 7.

-òk a. ’∂ü Ê@ b. ≥ëa ⁄∑üL c. ≥¬ka mêf œx.

„®Âx. ~ Ùπç uxç œx. Dy ÂóZ ¡z›xç

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ’∂, ‡P, éP, çr ÑM, òÖ, ⁄∑ yΩóE W„a lZ Wøâ yΩó ü Œ˚ÁZ £Mç @[‚. b. ü @â éP, ‡P Ï Aº ÊE [ ñ ux. kìç œx. c. ˚PZ Çeæa ÊE d. tsö ˙Z ƒç úD r≥à @a ÊE ìç œx. (ƒx to load, ˙ load) e. ?¡¡≈ Lü ú¢SZ ¿Íç xna k NçÕx. f. ü @øâ ß≈k »‚Õx. a.


jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: ≥”qMü (≥” thunder) a. ∞Ëü ua ºY b. R?ÁY (R? ant) c. é¡Öf ˚Pk d. ßM∏U∏ F ÁLük

ÚE Ïìx mÙØÕx Úx ??Õx XÇÕx



úàòa {é Õ®E çB»¡æ. Choose a word that is not related to the rest of the words. a. ‡P, Pÿ, éP, ◊x, çr ÑM b. ÷ËÆ, Õb, é¡Ö, ˚P, éP c. „®Áx, ”XÕx, Áéæx, ??Õx


jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Wπx, Ïìx, äx, øx éPk mÃü â Dd‡Ák êßÂx (Dd‡ seagull) b. érnQ ßM∏U∏ PÆö J„E . c. ®a √Âráf ’Qk L XÂZZ Õ® é. (XÂZ a copy) d. Ê@ ÁéænÏ Dd‡@ L ≠eKx.



x\ ≥¡® ‘À ’óüL ›}œ Ëóf kFö ’ ËóüL nÕa ÂóZ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. Connect the three most related items, as shown in the example. Ëó

nÕa Âó


ém (fisherman)

ugü@g Ù®


¢m (miner)






Òm (farmer)

≥¡/‘ ∑: ì∏B@∏

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1.

2. 3.

é¡Öü @ Z õk uænÏ? é¡Öü @â ©ôZ [ ñ uænÏ? xD ¡Ö, ∑E Áé ön¡Ök® LÊ¡Öü @ Z õk uænÏ? (LÊ¡Ö flea market) LÊ¡ÖY ©ôZ ca £snÏ? LÊ¡Öüa ‘ HnÏ? ?∑f Nçœ ’∂≥¡Ã éQ ≥¡Ák uænÏ? ◊Ö@üL – ñ ua nZ k~‡÷ W»¡æ.

§ 12 ö ∑öf ≥¡ ¢‘ ®a ¢‘à ßfiZ O®‡Ã ›x. ¢‘üa ?∑ü ±N ±ñà @ àkò t ±ñsk Â√x. ’ ±ñsQL ¢‘ü œ ˆ À Wìç »ã÷ ‘kx. ßfi≥ Õç ±ñs≥ eøç ¢‘à O≥x. ®a çr Ù∏E ∂‡Ã ›x. Ù∏a à ˆ }sqü Á≠ Ì »o ã ™öx. }sqü ua ‘NqüL ‡F≥ ‘öx. Ù∏ † ŸWà Wka Ü@@ ìU® eFxÏÙ, Ü@E ÛDÏ `1 Å≥ g yç †ŸW πxWqx. ≥ÃüL uÙ iY óü ËÁk ÉÉk Wkç, Ë µWÃa Îö Âk ~ ¢µ≈é uöx.2 ÂüL nÕa ÒmÁ≥ @õ W≤x. y™Z W_ìç3 ¢‘ü ≥ò– FÏÙ ÙÂÕÙ iqx. ¢‘ü ≥ò÷L t ±ñsö x‰üL W≥x. t ±ñ:

¢‘ü ¿ ‡ok éF?


íL∏≠Ï ≥¡ Oe‚. ’Ø£ ±ñs, ¢‘@ ¨Lf ≥¡ìç Õò£‚?

t ±ñ:

’Ø lÏÙ je? ’± ‘ ’Ø kFk ˚ÖaÙ jç u®?


ŸË‚. ’lÏÙa eı êBya£‚.

t ±ñ:

WÈ ¢‘À úì≥E ßça4 œ∑f ∑öZ Z– ñ òxç ÕÙ.


’ ¢≥m@‚?

t ±ñ:

ÍP XY ∑ö@Ák kó ‡√k~. Nçœ L@, Yf@, qR@, ¡mÁ ›üL k ó ‡√Ák ^ ñ òk Xe.





ÂóÁk ∑öZ ÂõÕç Ô‡a oF‡m@ `‚. k x‰≥ e‘ ∑öõk|e‚?

t ±ñ:

’üL ˚˚ Ux ΩáL œ ü òa ˚k òç, Âó Ux fqM œ @î ò mBa Âók òxç œ{x.5


k¿Mü @â ¡¡ ÏúÂ≥ æÑìE mE ◊ gxa lö O’‚.

t ±ñ:

á?ua ë±m£. ú, ¡Ö– ◊£ öfl sWø ®@~Ù.


e, ¯fl ¡Bk ’∂s ƒ®‚? ’Ø£ úì≥ \¬k ’∂s _uxâL‚?6

t ±ñ:

‘\¬ ¨L’ ìa Zk uÙ? ◊à ߇E ZÕa d~.


œ Òü ¤ôk LD@Ù≥ œs ®¿xâL‚?

t ±ñ:

’f WÈk~. π@ _ua öfl Â◊s. ÍM π uÙW ÷∞ü @ [Ï? d‡ü œ¢¬Wà Nçœ ¬ák ué.


ÆŒ, øÙ‚.


@î ÉÉk ±N ±ñ ‡F ‡o πxWx Òm Û@x ã√

tune, melody, song (archaic expression of é) in many layers (of mountains, fabric, clothes) exchange professor gas, oil feeling, mood to look out from farmer to miss, to fail to catch instead of, substitution, substitute; ã√Õx to take the place of, to replace road Oriental painting; Ωá the Orient, Oriental to drop by, to stop by comparison; ë±Õx to compare

≥à ΩáL ÁBx ë±


§ 12 ö

ÂõÕx Ò Yf@ ^ ñ òk qR@ ¡m ¡ÖÕx ∑ö æÑì -Z/E ßç \¬ úì≥ úÈ -ü ¢≥ ‘Nq Ô‡x »ãÕx ‡√ fqM íL∏≠Ï œ¢¬ ÷∞ L@ }sq

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

to love table concert singer innumerably, countlessly novelist, fiction writer poet to be hungry (HON.); Ê@ çøx to be hungry (plain) art; ∑öõ artistic opera without, except, leaving out; ßx to take out, to leave out (cooked) food; \¬ w] cooking skill Chölla Provinces tradition piece (of artwork); ’Q œ ü one painting extent, degree gas station to enjoy, to have fun to invite; »ã invitation origin, birth; graduate; ‡√kx to come from; to be a graduate of pansori (traditional Korean song) peaceful; íL∏≤x to be peaceful; íL peace Korean full-course meal city of Haenam in South Chölla Province painter, artist rest area


V. + ©/ZÏ `

“(because) . . . afraid that,” “in anticipation of”

This connective explains the reason for the action or the event in the main clause. Ü@E ÛDÏ ` Å≥ gyç † ŸZ πx Wqx.

Afraid that I might miss the scenery, I looked out the window without sleeping.




k˘@ ë@ ¡Ï ` ÍËZ @Ùç “x.

Afraid that it might rain later, I brought an umbrella.

êna ≈ñ–Ï ` ¥«÷L Z›x.

Afraid that she might make a mistake, my sister spoke carefully.

ÏΩÕç ®L Êç¡Ï ` ≥¡îZ Xk Óx.

Afraid that I might get hungry after exercising, I brought a lot for lunch.

A.V. + (é/e) ux

“to be in the state/place of,” “to be still . . . ”

This construction describes the state of being and is usually used with æx, @x, hx, Lx, ∞x, ëx, xx, ’kx, and ~x verbs, as in @ ux, L ux, xé ux, ’ß ux, and O ux. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7.)


±NŒ˚Wà œ∑ü À uWâL ≥é≥ @BBx.

While I am here as an exchange student, I also teach English.

ëL yM@ eı ëé uön?

Is the secretarial position still vacant?

q± ¨L@ Ü‘ü ∞e ux.

Buddhist culture still exists in Kyöngju.

JÑü Áé@n cgk fyü he uöx.

When I came into the cafe, Juan was sitting in a chair.

A.V. + _ì(ç)

“for doing . . . ,” “(in order) to do . . . ”

This connective is used to indicate the reason for or purpose of an action. W nZ Õ_ìç ◊§x. I was busy working on company business. ‹Õs ®æ_ìç ó§E Ûç “é‚.

Because I left home in a hurry, I left the assignment behind. (Literally, “In order to leave in a hurry, I left the assignment at home.”)


§ 12 ö ∑ Õ_ìç Å≥ ò Ñn?


Why couldn’t you sleep? (Literally, “What were you doing that you could not sleep?”)

Idiomatic use of Z/E ßç “without”

-Z/E ßç literally means “subtracting” or “taking out” but translates to “without” in English.


ëñ‚ü ç‡E ßç ‘[‚.

Please make my bibimbap without meat.

»E ßç ÍM@ Ï≠ D ñ uyn?

How can we go and have fun without you?

V. + §/a/ö/q{x

“(I am telling you) . . . ,” “(I say) . . . ”

This intimate ending indicates that the speaker is informing the listener about what is going on or about what the facts are. It is the equivalent of saying “you know” or “I am telling you” in American colloquial style. œ∑úèüL ÂóÁk Xk Many people were killed in the ’ö{x. Korean War, you know.


úì∞≥À n≥E B∞ Ù‰kìç œ{x.

The South and North Chölla Provinces are known as the Honam region, you know.

á?ua º≠ k~‡ÁZ Xk jç à√{x.

(I am telling you) he knows many interesting stories.

N. + (k)ìâL‚?

“is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?”

D.V. + xâL‚?

“is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?”

A.V. + §/axâL‚?

“is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?”

This casual question ending asks for a confirmation of what the speaker heard or was told. ¢‘@ ¨L ≥¡ìâL‚?

Is it true that Kwangju is a cultural city?




’ ok P˚skìâL‚?

Is it true that he is a teacher?

‚ Ωmf ≠]@ ‚xâL‚?

Is it true that it is cold in the East?

z‡ü ï ›˙xâL‚?

Is it true that it was even colder last year?

’ ok nZü @√xâL‚?

Is it true he is going to Japan?

‚ óÃ[@ œ∑ qR £Z oaxâL‚?

Is it true that Hirose reads Korean fiction?

Ù´ }üa œ∑ ¡E oöxâL‚?

Is it true that he read Korean poems last month?

Reading mathematical terms

The basic mathematical terms related to addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and fractions are read in the following ways: ïÕ‡


2+3=5 ߇

k ïÕ‡ ÌY æ. (k ¡≠∏ ÌY æ.)


10 − 4 = 6

» ߇ Âa O. (» Uk»∏ Âa O)

ñÕ‡ multiplication 6 × 10 = 60

O ñÕ‡ »Y O».

®H‡ division 100 ÷ 20 = 5 oñ

common fraction

1/ 3 1 2/5

Á ®H‡ k»Y æ. Ìof n nö æof k

decimal fraction


kü ÌÂ


≥ü æ

even number

odd number

§ 12 ö


»ü æE ïÕâ ìU∑‚? What is 10 plus 5? »ö æE ”Õâ ìU∑‚? What is 10 plus 5? k»üL »Z ßâ ìU∑‚?

What is 20 minus 10?

kof nö Ìof kE ”Õâ ìU∑‚?

What is 1/2 plus 2/3 ?

ÁZ aWÃ ®Hâ ékü‚?

What is 100 divided by 3?

Dü OZ ñÕâ ìU∑‚?

What is 7 times 6?



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ÙÊa ‘ ¢‘ü πø KænÏ? çr Ù∏a éˆ ™öænÏ? ÙÊa ‘ ‚ Ù∏ ßfiüL≥ ÙÂÕÙ iqænÏ? ‘ úì≥E œ∑ ¨Lf ›«Ùìç ”nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Ù¤ éÓü @ un? (-(é/e) ux) ‘ ÍËZ @Ùç æké‚? (-©/ZÏ `) é§ ‘ Œ±ü g “é‚? (-_ìç) 12ö ™æ ¨§E x ÷~ √‚? (-Z/E ßç) ëñ‚Z éZs WÁé „PÏ‚? (-Z/E ‘ç) érn, z‡ü eÙÙ éÓ àké‚? (§/a/ö/q{x) ’ ok fqM @ñìâL‚? (-(k)ü‚) (@ñ singer) ’ êrü Âók Xk “xâL‚? (-ã‚)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. Ük éZs }ì˚nÏ? 9.

-(é/e)ux ∑: ÙÊa ëfi‡ gü hqx. A ÙÊa ëfi‡ gü he ux.



çr Ù∏E ∂øç Xx. fña ?∑ü m˜ŒZ ™∂Õ≠ “x. Jk ÀL ’≤x. (’kx to pile up)

a. b. c.

C. {é ™æ 1.

mçka çr Ù∏E ∂ç @âL † ŸZ πxWç uænx. ©ôk WnÏ‚? úà ua l†M ™ÅÕ»¡æ.

Òm, ëfi‡, çr Ù∏, éP, xM, ®©, L (rice)

Ë, ◊x, L, Î, Â, Õb, ≥Ã


jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. |¥ÂE ‘f÷L W»¡æ. çr ≥Ãü ua }sqüL Ÿü Wka Ü@@ }Ma óüL † ŸZ @a ‰ü ‘NqüL ‡FZ ®Â ¡Bü ¨LÀ úÈZ ¡BZ îìL Ù∏E

a. b. c. d. e. f. 3.

πxZx ‘yx ™öx ÊÏx íL∏≤x Ûƒx

jaY £ÙZ ëì ‘W»¡æ. uÙ iY, õÙ iY, ÚÙ iY, ûÙ iY, ØÙ iY

q∑ÂüL óü M∫nk uöx. ’∂s ËZ ¡ì @nÏ ◊à d‡ü uöx. ≠]ìL ¡ì @‡@ øqx. M∫nü Áé @ Wn ú¢Sk ¯fl ÀL ∂ÜÕç uöx. @Ï£ m±sö MZ œ≠Ãç ua ¥Ak e‘ mÒõköx. ’ á¡ M∫nZ W„a lY nköZ lkx. (M wall, ¥A sculpture) 4.

jaY o˜ÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. (o˜Â classifier) ∑: a. b. c. d.

ºk ’ ’Q œ ó à ˚ [ Èü Ã

ü ’H R Ö ç

§ 12 ö


e. f. g. h. 5.

¢ é { ã

‘éˆ mÂE ÂÈÕß ãLE ÕYÕ»¡æ. a. b. c.


^≈ œ Âö œ Œ˚ ´ ëñ‚ xW

ñÙ: £ë: ñÙ: £ë: ñÙ: £ë:

‚ Æ∏E y‘ Wn? (@õ) ’úüa dn W®ïn, ©∫ nk uön? (LÃ) ÃÍa kN@ ∑n? (yx)

aa £Ùü Ω’ì?E @»¡æ. a. ên@ aPZ (WÃ, W≠) œ¬˚ü Ké‚. b. WˆÁüs “êBa lk uWâ tZ („≠‚, Áé‚)” ìç ›é‚. c. kFk ∑¬ç (Æ, ≠)öé‚. d. ±N Œ˚Y œ∑ü @L (ÏÙ, ÈÙ) iç òmW ÷‚. e. “Emergency!” ìç ßs qME (¯¥, Ù¥)é‚. f. L∞üL çΩü @(øâ, ≠â) ‚ xME f»~ (√, ≈)‚. g. ñó cü Œ±üL (ÈB, Ï, ÏW)øâ P˚sf ·@E ‹W[‚. (·@ permission) h. k˘ B∂@ úLÕâ }¡ÙE (‹Yx, ‹e ‘[‚) i. ≥ë~, ±Èk XÇ– F (¥«œx, ¥«÷ì) j. ≥ëa ¥ñ (W´, W) ∑ùk ué‚. k. Œ± ÏΩÖüL x(≠, øç) ÏΩLE √öé‚. l. π‡ ßFü ∑ó(Õ≠, Õøç) ñóZ Xk Áé‚. m. m˜ŒZ òm(Õ≠, Õøç) £Z é‚. n. B∂a µZ ¯(≠, øç) ´«ó nZ ÷‚. o. B∂a µZ ¯(≠, ø) ÂÍÓü Ké‚. p. z‡ü ≥¬k@ œ∑éE éÓüL (@B@aÙ, @Bƒa Ù) e[‚? q. Ω˚Y êrüL ñ¤é(œx, Õx). ’Mç ꧮ Ñú(œx, Õx)

∑öf ≥¡ ¢‘ KWANGJU, THE CITY OF ARTS r. s.

’ ÂóY fiΩk éÙ(œx, Õx). ñó¡BZ (wé, qé) ÙMç g Kx.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

fqME ÁéWç GÒZ k~‡÷ W»¡æ. øeÕa \fk ©ôsnÏ? ‘ ’ \fk øYÙ k~‡÷ W»¡æ.


§ 13 ö §‘≥ ÙÊa B∂ à çö Ok §‘≥E ßfiՇà ›x. œ∑ ÂóÁY §‘≥à √DßfiZ Xk Bx. ’üL y‡ÁY ÅD g œ ±fi, œAÁkÙW ?M @L ` Ãyç1 ÕâL Úé íx.2 §‘≥E ¯fl xfi¿ œ B∂f Zü fÕâ œìËü ¡ì @a l≥ øY ÜÊkìç ›x. ∂ˆ˙Wà ˚‚ k Uf œ@Ï£üa LËköò3 œìËk ux. Eà OÙüL uM Ré¨ ua Uk‡ F¨ü Z‚À Xk xBx. y™ö ¬Æk xE —W enì4 êéÀ ˚O ‰¬≥ xBx. ÙÊ, txÃ, N?a ÛÃÏ ÜÊZ Õ≠ §‘≥à O≥x. LÌüL §‘≥à @a ıfi£a dˆ≈é – ñ òk5 mËZ ÜN÷L §‘¡ü @a ëfi‡E ∂s ƒx.6 ®D c≥ü œ≠ Ãm UZ ÕbüL [ ñ uöx. N?:

§‘≥ü Nçœ lk [ @Ù uxa£ ∑Ù?


ßyÀ ∑ö . . . å . . . Zm@?


Zk enç ◊ók~. ’Ø£ §‘≥ü éZs ZÁk Áé“Ù?


13[‡ çø¡ãü ôç∏k F©›Z F §‘≥ÏÙ “xa£ D F ZÁZ Ûç ∑eKã.


ôç∏k ߇ÏÙ ∑Õ≠ “a£?


nZZ ¢XÕ≠ “öã. ’Ø£ ∑Y ‘ XÙ?


ôM ◊Ï? œìËk º≠ü LËkö|e. º≠ü ÍM@ ߇L ÍqWâ π@ ◊xü @L ÷ËÆZ ˘æç »ëÁY ˚üL u‡ ‡Bç ‚Õç ˚g nZ ›Z d~.





¢Z ∞fi íÏm£. ~ . . . ®a ‚Û ¿é´ lk xfikx! ‚Ûa g ’≠yÙ?


‚Y ûY ßy ÷fi@ Oà òã. xÁ Ùã ıóßYÁk~.




through, by way of; ÜNÕx to pass through, to go by way of experience; ÜÊÕx to experience to be fortunate stone, rock to surround, to wrap around to pick off (a tree) and bring; ˘x to pick off Mongolian army; ôç Mongolia for what ahead, in advance wind; ◊ók qx wind blows to cook way, method, manner; ˚O ‰¬ way of life mainland to inspect, to see ahead not only; — only new; Û—x to be new, to be fresh island plants honeymoon language according to; fÕx to be based on by means of, in accordance with to travel these days land, shore already point, issue; xD ü different point; øY ü good point to conquer

ÜÊ xfikx ∑ œ≠Ãx ˘æx ôç∏ ∑Õ≠ ?M ◊ó ‚Õx ‰¬ Z‚ ` Ãx —W enì ÛÃÏ U ¬Æ [?Æ] √Dßfi êé -ü fÕâ -ü f÷L ßfiÕx ‚Û; ‚ OÙ k? ü ¢XÕx

§ 13 ö

126 §‘≥

Cheju Island (south of Korean Peninsula), Cheju Province §‘¡ city of Cheju (on Cheju Island) ıfi [ÙZ] direct route, nonstop route; ıfi £ express ticket, nonstop ticket ˚g n housework ±fi maiden, virgin œA bachelor, single man F©Õx [F√Õx] to invade ∂ˆ˙ oval shape; ”Ÿx to be round NkÕx to be unique, to be peculiar c≥ waves ®D blue, azure; ®Bx to be blue, to be azure œright; œ@Ï£ right in the middle of œìË [–ìË] Mount Halla – ñ òk having no choice, without any other choice; – ñ òx can’t help it ÷fi woman sea diver Eà alone LË volcano (volcanic mountain) ôM hint

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


A.V. + (é/e) Ãx

“ . . . and keep”

Like other helping verbs, such as -Wx, -ÙMx, and -Ûx, -(é/ e)Ãx “to keep/put away” is combined with another verb to indicate the “preservation” of the result of the main verb action, often for a future use. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7.) ` Ãx

“to see and keep the knowledge (for future use)”


“to learn and keep the skill (for future use)”

sé Ãx

“to eat (in anticipation of . . . )”


“to buy and keep”




kÂD ecME ` Ãé~yx.

I must go and see the apartment that I’ll be moving to (to prepare it).

Ê@ g çlÙW ‚Z sé ’x.

I wasn’t hungry, but I ate a meal (so I would not be hungry later on).

‘Nqü @L óü ‡FZ Xk ‘é Ãöx.

I went to a gas station and filled up the tank (so I would not run out of gas).

ç∂UE Xk «é Ãöx. They planted a great many yams (to harvest later).


ßfiZ @øç µZ êe ’x.

I saved money to make a trip.

B∂ ˚nü ‘øç PÆZ Â ’x.

I bought a gift (and saved it) for my friend’s birthday.

A.V. + (é/e) ãx

“to keep on doing,” “to do repeatedly”

This helping verb indicates a continuing or repeated action. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7.)


ÒÉZ Õç Úé çx.

They joked and kept laughing.

ÂóÁk OÁé íx.

The people talked loudly on and on.

ekÁk ∏Æ @yç ∑ì íx.

The children begged on and on to go skiing.


V. + ö/qò

b. N. + (k)öò

“used to do,” “was doing . . . ” “used to be”

This verbal modifier indicates an activity that was performed habitually in the past or was uncompleted. (a) π@ ˚A›ò ¨§@ ÷Ńx. π@ x‰ò »Ï Œ±@ ¨Z |qx.

The problem I was thinking about was solved. The primary school I used to attend is closed.

§ 13 ö


é∆Z F oöò £Z x¡ oöx. (b) LËköò ËY Ù¤≥ @õ ™‡@ ´x.

I read again the book I used to read when I was young. Former volcanic mountains still make smoke sometimes.

ãÈ«köò Âók The one who used to be the Ù¤Y Òm@ president is now a farmer. ƒx.



÷fi≤ò ßyk‡ F¨ü ñ≥Z ~ œx.

Because she used to be a sea diver, she is very good at swimming.

V. + ©/Z —W enì

“not only . . . but also,” “as well as”

b. N. + —W enì N. + ≥

“not only N. but also N. . . .” “not only N. but also N. . . .”

This pattern indicates that both nouns or noun phrases of the sentence are of equal importance. (a) k ®ìa ¬Æk xE —W enì ΩÆ≥ xBx. qRZ oZ —W enì WL£≥ øeœx. (b) Œ˚—W enì P˚s≥ ÄrZ Úù wöx. §‘≥—W enì ÕÀk≥ @bx.

Not only the plants but also the animals are different in this country. She not only reads novels but also likes comic books.

Not only the student but the teacher also forgot the appointment. I have been not only to Cheju Island but also to Hawaii.




– ñ òk . . .

b. – ñ òx



“having no choice,” “without an alternative” “can’t help it,” “can’t do”

This expression is usually preceded by a clause with -(é/e)L, -ÙW, -(W)≈Ã, or é/e≥. When it has no connected clause, it is preceded by ’üL “so,” “therefore.” (a) ˚ü sZs Õ®≥ òéL – ñ òk ìâZ öß söé‚. ëfi‡£@ dˆ≈é – ñ òk ‡óà @~ ›x.

Because there was nothing else to eat in the house, I had no choice but to boil and eat noodles. Since the plane tickets were sold out, I had no choice but to take the train.

é§ ó@ çÖ≥x. The car broke down yesterday. Therefore I had no choice ’üL – ñ òk ˚üÏÙ but to walk home. hé Kx. (b) ≥À „Mça ÀÙW Ù¤Y »© ◊úL – ñ òyé‚. √DßfiZ ò @≥ – ñ òé‚. 6.

V. + s ≈x

I would like to help you, but I am so busy that I cannot.

If we are not able to go on a honeymoon, we cannot help it. “it turns out that,” “it happens that,” “it becomes that”

This expression indicates that an action or an event takes place without the actor’s or subject’s volition. It is often preceded by an explanatory or causal clause -(é/e)L, -‡ F¨ü, as shown in these examples: ıfi £@ dˆ √L mËZ Since the nonstop tickets were sold ÜN÷L §‘≥ü @s out, it turned out that we had ƒx. to go to Cheju via Pusan. §‘≥ü Kx@ q≈E W®s ƒx.

I happened to meet Sophie while in Cheju.

§ 13 ö


B∂E È÷ A}kE js ƒx.

I’ve gotten to know Shanmei through a friend.

qéÙO ÙHZ °s ƒx. I have gotten my purse back. µZ îø óE Âs ƒx.


It turned out that I can borrow money and buy a car.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ÙÊa ‘ mËZ ÜN÷L §‘≥ü KænÏ? §‘≥a éZs ˚ÖænÏ? œìËüa ©ôk XænÏ? §‘≥f [ @Ù Nçœ lÁY ©ôsnÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

‘ ’∂s ¬ÂE Xk Õ[‚? (-(é/e) Ãx) ‘ ¥Èó Õìç ›é‚? (-(é/e) ãx) §‘≥a éQ Ukü‚? (-öò) ’ ¬ák éF‚? (-©/Z —W enì) ‘ §‘≥ü g @ké‚? (-(é/e)L – ñ òk) ’ oö éZs e[‚? (js ≈x)

C. {é ™æ 1.

x\ ÆfÁ › ’ê (square) ´ lY ~, [ê (triangle) ´ lY {, Ω’ï (round) lY , ∂ˆ˙ (oval) Y } £E Õ»¡æ. Draw the appropriate shape over the nouns. Âö, Ë, £, }, Òy, }^ (egg)


jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. a. b. c. d.

z‡ü §‘≥ü @a ‰ü mËü ’a ꧮ Lü @L ç‡E j∏Ëï ã”Y m≥E œ∑ü “x@ π‡ü ?∑WÃ

Çax. Á¥x. ¢X›x. œ≠Ãß ux.


e. f. 3.


mËY LÌüL uM ’ ≥L ÊÍa qüs


∑e Bx. Ré¨ ux.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. LË, ∑, U, ¬Æ, ÜÊ, ôM, c≥ §‘≥üa Dü k Xç ◊ók Xk ox. (D ground, earth) b. ΩÆü ã÷ ™∂Õa ŒyE ΩÆŒyìç Õç hk® ®© ÏZ ™∂Õa ŒyE Œyìç œx. c. ÑZ ~ êByé‚. E ‘[‚. d. §‘≥E ßfiÕx@ mÒõm Z Xk ›x. e. §‘≥—W enì ÌI≥≥ œ∑f Nçœ kü‚. ú¢SÁk Xk æÙ‚. f. ◊ók Xk mn ◊xü @ Xk ¬‚. g. ÕÀküa eı≥ k ÍeuéL @õ ò›œã‚. (Íeux to be alive, ò›Õx to explode) a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3. 4.

?∑f ΩmÀ Lmf y™k éZs xGnÏ? xD üZ à @Ù Z÷ W»¡æ. ∞mÀ nmf xD üZ à @Ù Z÷ W»¡æ. ΩmÀ Lmf ®©ÁY éZs xGnÏ? ?∑f ∞mÀ nma êéÀ ±æk éZs xGnÏ?

§ 14 ö R≠ æbY Û÷@ ¡z≈a ¢˜ »ÕÂx. ÙÊa eF nè né® n‡ Ωgf àXZ Q‡Ã ›x. éøLmÀ d‡ Û÷ eFü klZ Qa lk ÙÊf æúkx. 1. fLœ U\ö OOœ ñZ @¯ l1 2. mêsö B∂Áüs ï y‘ ™î– l 3. ’≠ – nZ x\≠à ?ÂÙ Z l ÙÊa àXZ Qx@ ?∑Wà ∑§ úLE höx. ¡Bk »© i‡ úü mêsQ Û÷ mÂE „ø~yxç ˚A›‡ F¨kx. (úL) ÙÊ:

ßW[‚. ñU? ÷≈ Yké! en, Û÷ X Xk ‹W[‚.


e, ÙÊ∂®. ~ uön? ’Ø£ ß‚ eı Û÷@ enì ’»≠k~.


eó, ¡ó@ uxa lZ Úù wé Ù∆é‚.2


P∑Y sön?


eı g söé‚. Ù¤ √‡ àXZ Qx@ ¡Bk ié¯Ï ` úLE höé‚.


úLœ Êü eÙÙQ≥ Û÷ m „øì. eÙÙ ◊É ◊s.


Ùʬ? ’ Ωg O n òn?






’, ~ ué‚. eÙÙ, Û÷ X Xk ‹W[‚.


’ü, »≥ X Xk ‹eì. œ∑ ˚OY – WÕn?3


’, k§ œ∑Z≥ AW´ – ñ ué‚. ’Mç À∑Õâ Ü≥ŒZ úòՇà ū›é‚. œ∑ö nÕa WÂü ÈıÕøç ÷‚.


œ∑ü B Wók ua£. úòÏÙ ¢Õç . . . ’Ø£ R≠ Dy TTó Ùπˆ iyÙ?


enæ. eFüa ©eÙÙ åü [Ê @ç, ü«Fa ßy B∂À ü« s‡Ã ›é‚. ’Mç öflüa f ©eÙÙ åüL Â?Ákõ4 VÏk Շà ›é‚.


á? usÁ5 Ïeì.


ßyB∂@ ˚Öé? ÅD– Âókn?


enü‚. ’« B∂ü‚.


fLœ Å«Õx ∑§ úL À∑Õx ’»≠ Úù ãL P∑ U\ d‡; d÷ ñ ?Âx ◊É ‘x

healthy; fLÕx to be healthy; fL health to determine; Å« determination international phone call to return to one’s home country the last day of the month momentarily, in an instant of time roughly, generally rice-cake soup heart, mind, thought every year body to postpone, to put off to change (for someone); úLE ◊É ‘x to put (someone) on the phone strange event, unexpected thing; O- strange, unexpected to be blessed; X blessing cousin

O n X ‹x Â?


§ 14 ö

sebae (formal bow of respect to elders on New Year’s Day); [Ê @x to pay visit of respect on New Year’s Day; [Ê „Mx; [ÊÕx to perform sebae æú habit, custom ¡ó time difference √‡ àX New Year’s plan TTó lonely; TTÕx to be lonely eó Oops! ™îÕx to contact, to get in touch with; ™î contact AW´ tolerably, acceptably; AWÕx to be at an acceptable level VÏkÕx to play yut game; VÏk yut game, Four-Stick Game k§; m§ by now, now m greeting; Û÷ m New Year’s greeting; mÂÕx to greet OOœ strong, healthy; OOÕx to be strong, to be healthy


R≠ Ùπ‡


R≠Y ›Mö “Q œ∑üL @Ö ›‚œ çùkx. R≠Z Ùπa lZ “R âx”ç œx. R ÷ëa ΩÙ FmÀ ¡z∆x. Ω¸≠6Y ‘zY R’ kìç≥ Õá k≠ ˚˚Ux n’Z WÁé sax. R≠k @ÏÙ æâ ßyÁY RñZ ÷ëÕç R≠ü sZ \¬Z WÂx. Q} ’»≠ ·ü ÅZ yâ JÂk Õäˆxç ÷L ekÁY ∑O lZ úç ·Z ÛÏx. ekÁk Úù Åk Áâ JÂü Œ@ÂE œø eFü ÚE Ïìs ÷ ÷x. eFü ekÁY RñWà De sç éDÁüs [ÊE „Ox. f R≠ü P∑Z sé~ ®kE œ Í ï saxç œx. ·üa @µk xOk êß VÏkE Õá Ô‚x. De sx J ΩÙ Œ@ -Í sx œMx

to change clothes eyebrows winter solstice flour to get to be . . . years old (colloquial) to scatter


ÛÍx Q} ’»≠ R àx Rñ ∑Mx n’ ÕäÙx “Q

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.



to stay up; ·Z ÛÍx to stay up all night the year’s last month’s last day, New Year’s Eve to celebrate New Year’s Day New Year’s Day attire to be sleepy; ∑x to doze off red bean porridge to turn white; ÏdÙx to turn black or dark together


V. + ©/Z l

“one should/must (do)”

This ending is used for writing memos, short instructions, and to-do lists. It indicates an order or an imperative voice. æb ‰ πq – l.

Clean my room today.

10 ¡ü œ∑ü úL– l.

Call Korea at ten o’clock.

πn ñóü ÙAÕÙ Z

Don’t be late to class tomorrow.

‡Zl. ¡Êü àˇ Mç Bring a calculator to the final ¡ l. exam. 2.

V. + (é/e) ÙMx

“to end up doing . . . ,” “to do . . . (completely)”

Attached to the main verb, this helping verb is used for emphasis. It indicates that an action was “completely” finished or that the subject “ended up doing” it. There are a number of helping verbs that indicate modals and aspects, as shown in the chart in item 7 below. e©≥ g séL π@ ‚ œ ’HZ x sé Ù∆x.

Because no one ate any rice, I ended up eating the whole bowl.

á?uéL £Z x oé Ù∆x.

Because the book was so good, I finished it up.

úL‚¤k »© ëÃL úLE óé Ù∆x.

Because the bill was so high, I canceled my telephone service.

136 3.


§ 14 ö

A.V. + ©/Z WÕx

“it is worth doing,” “it is doable,” “to be deserving”

œ∑éa ÊÌ WÕn?

Is Korean learnable?/Can you learn Korean?

’ qRY oZ W÷.

The fiction is worth reading.

‚ [ Wœ ≥L@ ∑ uZÏ?

Which movies are worth watching nowadays?

’ Œ˚Y ÒZ ‹Z WÕx.

The student deserves an award.

N. + (k)õ

“and,” “with”

This colloquial and dialectal expression for “together with,” “and,” or “with” appears after nouns. Similar expressions are -À/ö, used more in writing, and -Õç, used more colloquially.


ênõ Ω˚kõ B≤˚ü Ï≠ Ké‚.

I went with my sisters to visit my relatives.

®õ Ok Ïy.

Play with me.

˚ü Âöõ Êõ Xx.

We have lots of apples and pears at home.

Plural marker -Á

Korean nouns, unlike English nouns, do not always require that their number be marked. When appropriate, however, -Á can be attached to adverbs and some connectives to indicate the plurality of the subject noun. á?usÁ Ïeì.

Have a good time!

§‘≥ü √D ßfiZ XkÁ @‚.

Many people go to Cheju Island on their honeymoon.

’ \¬Z OÃÁ øeÕÙ ie‚.

Not many people like the dish.

߇LÁ ‡xM[‚.

Please (you all) wait here.

fÎZ ÕçÁ ®Ké‚.

After discussing (something), they left.

æyxçÁ ÕÙW ¡Ù êByé‚.

They say they’ll come, but I am not sure if they will.




ÈüE mBâLÁ Ù®Ké‚.

They passed by (us) singing.

Epenthetic µ: Ât ¡»

“—’s,” “of”


Many compound nouns (two nouns put together) take µ after the first noun, indicating their possessive (genitive) relationship, much like “of” or “’s” in English. Ω¸≠ (from ΩÙ + µ + ≠) winter solstice + ’s + day òÆ











train track

Not all compound nouns in a possessive (genitive) relationship take µ. rMZ

preface (not rSZ)


fishing place


tobacco hornworm

7. Helping verbs chart Main Verb

Verb Base

Helping Verb








oé ÙMx sé ÙMx

to finish reading to finish eating




willful action

‹e πx Œé πx

to end up collecting to push off and drive out





né ®x Íe ®x

to get up to come alive



‘x „Mx

benefactive ` ‘x (for someone)  ‘x ≥À „Mx





sé Wx fl Wx

to watch for to buy for to help someone (HON.) to try on (clothes) to try writing

§ 14 ö


Helping verbs chart (continued) Main Verb

Verb Base

Helping Verb








Úé ãx ∑ì ãx

to keep laughing to keep begging




accumulation fl Ãx êe Ãx




placing into

†é ‘x  ‘x

to fold and put away to buy and put away




placing/ keeping

‘é Ûx  Ûx

to place into/put away to buy and keep





˚é @Ùx  @Ùx

to pick up and keep to buy and keep


change of state automatically/ by itself

^Ùx ûéÙx flÙx ´øÙx

to grow big to get younger to be written to open by itself



@¨ @x  @x

to take (away from speaker) to buy and take

D.V. é/e & A.V. (some) A.V.


to write and keep to gather and keep





@¨ æx Çe æx à æx

to bring (to speaker) to catch and bring to wrap and bring




“is about to”

x÷ @x ü® @x

to be almost done to be about to finish




“in the state, of” (sitting, placed)

he ux Ûß ux

is sitting (position) is placed





@ç ux jç ux

is going to know (already)





Wç Àx Ïç Àx

to want to see to want to play

Õx WÁx

“cause to”

fis Õx æs WÁx

to make it bright to make (him/her) come

supposition/ guessing

›Ï@ Wx. I think it’s cold. ‚Ù iY@ Àx. I think it may be cold. ë@ æa@ Wx. It seems to be raining.

D.V. s & A.V. D.V. A.V.

§/Y@ Wx/ Àx a@ Wx/ Àx ©/ZÏ Àx ® Wx

ë@ ¡Ï Àx. ë@ æ® Wx.

(I’m afraid) it may rain, It seems to be raining.






A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.


éQ æúk uænÏ? ‘ àXZ Qx@ ∑§ úLE höænÏ? À∑œ cü ©ôZ úòՇà ›ænÏ? æb öflü ©ôZ – àXsnÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

æb ÷~ – nÁk ∏Ù ºkü fl W[‚. (-©/Z l) ¤‚nü≥ ≥Lúü Œ˚Ák Xqn? (ADV. + Á) é§ Èµ ‹qxâL? (fl ÙMx) ‘ êrü g ®“n? (wé ÙMx) é§ Z ≥L@ éMé‚? (-©/Z WÕx) H∂Õç ¡Öü Köé‚? (-(k)õ)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-©/Z l ∑: mêsQ [ÊÕx. A mêsQ [Ê– l a. ñóü nè @x. b. cπÀE Âx.


-(k)õ ∑: Â?˙, Â?Ω˚, –rnQ [Ê @x A Â?˙kõ Â? Ω˚k –rnQ [Ê Kx. a. Y‘, Ùˆ, ÷Öü @x. b. R≠, ›M, øeÕx.

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY mÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Úù, ÚE, »©, y‘, TTó



}¿Z Wx@ ‘ ’∂s (}¿ calendar)


§ 14 ö


ÙÊ: b. ÷ë: ÙÊ: c. ÷ë: ÙÊ: 2.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: ÙHZ a. b. c. d. e. f. g.


é§@ érn ˚nk|e? wéÙ∆’. Dy Ùπky∂®. °e@ jÙ≥ ò›a£ . . . ‚ rÒ÷ ÕÙU. ◊úL ’∂xç ˚AÕ≈ d~. ’≠kWâ xfikyx.

ÄrZ »Z ·Z WÂü úòZ ®kE @µk

qéÙMx wéÙMx sx êkx ¢Õx ÈıÕx Desx ÛÍx

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ãL, U\, æú, OOÕx, ?Âx, ¢Õx ›‚œ lY y[ó oÙW ›‚ÕÙ iY lY oænx. b. ê§ÏÙ ?∑ü ∑e@~ ”nÏ? eı ≠DE . ò c. ÙÊa dn ÏΩZ ÷L ñk e‘ . d. ®a eFü 5 ¡ü né®a lk k ƒænx. e. é_ Œ±ü Ùˆ–٠Ţ›n? ï Ù Zç üM ¢÷. (ÙˆÕx to apply) f. érn@ ˚√ü Dy à≈ ˚AZ Õn çgÕÙ iænx. a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

?∑üLa R≠ü ©ôZ ”nÏ? tWà n‡ Ωgü àXZ k~‡÷ W»¡æ. (Use -‡Ã Õx, -Z/E àXÕx, -Z/E Å«Õx, -øç Õx.)


§ 15 ö Èü yõ œ∑ ÂóÁk Èü mB‡1E øeœxa lY ÙÊ≥ jç uöx. ?∑üL≥ œ∑mÁf êrü @â Ok ÈüE mBç f xD Âóüs≥ ÈüE Xk ¡Æ‡ F¨kx. œ∑ü æ‡ úü B∂ÃmÀ œ∑ü @øâ √ ¸‡ ™æZ Õç œ∑ ÈüE Õ® ÊÙ @Ùç2 @ìa ‰çE Áöx. ’≠® ÙÊa ’∞ ‡W@ òöx. æbY Œ±üL Èü yõ ãW@ uöx. A ¤Ux ”†ö ¥†Z ›£Õ‡Ã ›x. à ‘n Ωg ñó cü S ≠ F Ux3 ”† ™æZ ›x. ñˆk@ ≈eÈ ¤‘E bç †ña ÙuE bqx. ’Mç P˚sÁk «Â Fˆk ƒx. ¡”üL mE Èüa Œ˚Ák Û£÷L xñÅà ¢›a£ ÙÊ ¤üLa “ç‡f \” k ?˘x.4 ’ Èüa œ∑üL H∂® mE ◊ ea5 Èükx. ÙÊ≥ k ‡Wü œ∑ ÈüE œ é ~ ÊÙ Ãøç @ÂE ´«ó ⁄˙x. ç‡f \ z kˆñ zé J´c ®f Íò ç‡Y h ≈a Ëë Xûe h Í∂ h e‡ ˆ}ü Ì›q› h ã∆ óMm Ω’ ’ rüL Ïò F@ ’Rænx. B∂ txÃf ¤üLa “ÍMf qˆ” ö “@çc” à Èü@ @Ö m‡ ua cW éWà ?˘x. ’ ›üL Œ˚ÁY “ÍMf qˆ” Z mB‡Ã Å¢›x. “@çc”a ÙÊ mêsÁQL ~



§ 15 ö

mB¡ò Èüì Xk Áé bÙW “ÍMf qˆ”Y Áé WÙ òœ Èü≤x. ÙÊ:

fiÕœx, txÃ. »ë ¤Y ÈüE ~ q≠L π›Áf ÿñ@ ∞ÖÕò£.


ŸË Z~. ®a ÍM@ n Ï –dìça ˚A g ›a£. »ë ¤≥ ÍM ¤ òÙ is6 ~ ›|e.


ÍM ¤Y ÒY ò ‹qÙW Èüa ú ~ Ê˙é. ꧮ k‚ çk œÃ π~ Õa£ œÃ g º d~?


’ü, ßs œÃ ºs. éÓà DÏ? ÍMf qˆ z g M‘ zé g Sˆ ÍMf qˆY Èn }ü≥ qˆY Èn k ¢Y x÷L Èn ÈnZ kÂy k {∑ ÍMa Èn k ®ì ÍMa Èn Ènkß éL æì Ènkß æì


@çc @ A; AA é ‡W Èüyõ xñÅ ãW ¥†

“Longing to Go” (song title) lyrics each tune, piece (of music) opportunity, chance song contest majority decision; xñ majority meeting, conference, competition solo (singing)

Èü yõ

-Ï bx êr -òÙ is ÿñ ¤ ¤‘ ›£Õx ¸‡ ?óx [≈≈x] Ò ¡” «Â Fˆ ™æ ⁄Íx k‡x m‡kx; m‡@ ux zé z Ùu π› ‰ç ßs Û£Õx S ®x -ç ≈eÈ œÃ πx ”† cW



place (in contest); n Ï first place; k Ï second place to be in charge of, to take on (responsibility) meeting, gathering as good as applause; ÿñ @x to applaud class accompaniment (in music); ¤‘Õx to accompany (in music); ¤‘y accompanist to present, to announce; ›£ presentation, announcement taking off; ¸x to take off; »Z ¸x to take off clothes (Vi.) to be selected; ?x (Vt.) to select prize, award; ÒZ ‹x to win a prize competition, match judge (for contest); «ÂÕx to judge, to assess exercise, practice; ™æÕx to practice to memorize, to recite to win to be popular; m‡ [m†] popularity composition (music), composed by; zé Õx to compose writing lyrics, lyrics by; zÂÕx to write lyrics direction (music); ÙuÕx to conduct (in music); Ùuy conductor audience advice; ‰çÕx to advise largely, remarkably, loudly to vote, to take a ballot; Û£ voting, balloting, a vote to have spare time; S spare time side, party; ÍM ç our side piano; ≈eÈE @x to play piano to treat (to a meal); œÃ a treat (colloquial) chorus, choir; ”†Õx to sing in a choir candidate

ç‡f \

Spring in My Hometown G¢Z ‘éL

kˆñ z J´c zé

1. ® f Í —ò 2. h — Ω —’

X û e h c — ï Á

Ì › q › ø — @ ü

’ r ü L

ç ‡ Y Û Ω ’

h ≈ a Ë— ë ® f º ç— ‡

Í ∂— h — ∞ i —ü L

e ‡ ˆ }— ü ◊ ó k q— â

h — ã ∆ ñ á Ù Á

ó M m Ω— ’ · › a Ω— ’

Ï ò—F @

’ R æ n— x

ç‡f \ ç‡ ’Rx ã∆ Ω’ Xûeh Ëë [Ëb] Í∂h e‡ˆ}ü Ì›q› óMm; óO

hometown to long for, to miss palace village, town peach blossom; Xûe peach mountain valley, mountain village apricot blossom; Í∂ apricot fresh spring azalea colorful, variegated decorated with, equipped with; óMx to prepare (meal); to arrange, to decorate

ÍMf qˆ

Our Wish WÈ _Ms


gM‘ z gSˆ zé



} ü≥ qˆY

Y x÷ L È


È n Zk

k { ∑Í M a È


k ®ìÍM a È


È n kß æ




f qˆY

È n kßéL



È —n




ÍMf qˆ {∑ ÍMx qˆ kÂx ¢Y Èn

(nation’s) people to revive, to save, to let live; Íx to live wish to establish, to achieve devotion, care, sincerity; ¢YZ xÕx to devote all strength to unification; Èn≈x to be unified

146 o‡

§ 15 ö



π ç‡ ∞i◊x ’ cï Æ Jü Wk’ }°Á wWMæ ’ {{œ ç‡◊x Ù¤≥ ’ ÆÛÁ ≠WM- @çcì @çc éP F Ok Ïò ’ Ω©Á ’MÙì éÓ BÁ wWMæ ’ xÏò ç‡Ω© æbY x ©ì Õaç Wçcì Wçc ’ ÆÛ ’ Ω©Á ç‡ü x ua£ ®a ‘ ék∂@ O® Ís ≈öaç ¿M l x œM@ç ∑eDÏ ∑e@ @L œ£ ìø º≠Ok Íç Ùç π U\ ÙΩ» sÚ Úç Ùπçö ’ ≠ ’ JÆ òò FE °e@y °e @ ’MÙì }°Á ≠WM ∞i ◊x Ω© xÏò ÆÛ Wçcì œM@x Íç Ùç éÓ BÁ ék∂@ ìMx ¿M wWMæ {{œ œ£

(I) miss, (I) long for even in (my) dreams (I imagine/fancy it will) fly southern sea friend, chum used to romp/frolic water bird (I) wish to see, (I) miss seeing to shake off, to leave live and die wherever (I) go why, what (went wrong) (short form of éé Õx@) to join, to mingle (short form of éÌMx) all kinds how (can I) forget calm, tranquil one place

Èü yõ

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.




Nominalization with -‡ versus -±/\ (and -a l)

To make a noun from a verb, -‡ or -±/\ is used but with different restrictions. Although -‡ is attached directly to a verb stem and indicates the act of doing -±/\ is attached to a verb stem or its tense marker to indicate the fact of doing or the state of being. -‡ is often used, but -±/\ is limited in use. Their different uses are shown in the following examples: ΩÂ



(√) ¸x to take off

√ ¸\ shoes off *‰üL √ ¸\ Shoes off in the room

√ ¸‡ to take off/taking off shoes ‰üL √ ¸‡ Taking shoes off in a room

yx to sleep

Å sleep ®a Åk òx. I am a light sleeper.

y‡ to sleep nè y‡ ∆x. I don’t like to go to bed early.

Õx to believe

Õ\ faith Õ\k »‚Õx. (We) need a faith.

Õ‡ to believe ’lY Õ‡ õÁx. That is hard to believe.

êkx to gather

êr meeting x\ êrk ê§∑‚? When is the next meeting?

êk‡ to meet or gather x êk‡@ éƒx. It’s difficult to get everyone together.

ûx to be young (ûéÙx to get young)

û\ youth û\Z ôáœx. They worship youth.

ûéÙ‡ to get young ûéÙ‡ F÷L ÏΩZ œx. (He) exercises to be young.

*Although √ ¸\ is a verbal noun, the rest of the nouns in the examples—Å, Õ\, êr, and û\—are “frozen” nouns, which have entered dictionaries as regular nouns.

a. A.V. + ‡ indicates an action or “doing.” It also indicates the process or the method of the act. It is often used with verbs like øx, á?ux, ∆x, ®ÿx, Øx, éƒx, çÕx, or qçÕx. o‡


œŸY o‡ ™Ù‚.

It’s easy to read hangul.


taking off

k √Y ¸‡ éøÙ‚.

These shoes are difficult to take off.



߇üL Ù∏@ ∂‡ øe‚.

It’s convenient/nice to take a bus here.


§ 15 ö

The verbal nouns with -‡ can be changed to the -a l clause, but the meaning may also change. -a l indicates the fact of doing/ being something. œŸY oa lk ™Ù‚.

It is easy to read hangul.

k √Y √a lk éøÙ‚.

These shoes are difficult to put on.

Ù∏ ∂a lk øe‚.

I like / enjoy riding a bus / it is better to take a bus.

b. V. + ±/\ indicates an abstraction of the verb from which the verbal noun is derived. In addition to making a verbal noun, this form is used in a note or in a cryptic statement, as in these examples: æb ñó¡Bü § 15 öE Ê˙\.

Today I/we learned Lesson 15.

πn eF ” P˚sk ΩÜWà ‡›Õ«.

Mr./Ms. Wang leaves for Tokyo tomorrow morning.

Some ±/\ verbal nouns are “frozen” as permanent nouns, as in Ú\ “laugh,” Ì\ “cry,” ‡¤ “joy,” ª¬ “sadness,” · “dance,” Å “sleep,” } “dream,” ≥ “help,” and é– “darkness.” When a frozen noun ends with its verbal noun, we have sentences like these examples, usually written in journal notes:


10¡ü ÅZ Å.

(I) went to bed at ten o’clock.

Œ±üL à ¡B ’QZ ’Q.

(I) paint two hours at school.

A.V. + (é/e) @Ùç

“having done . . . ,” “after doing . . .”

This colloquial expression of “having done something” is similar to -§/Y cü or -(é/e)L. YfiüL µZ °e @Ùç ®@yé‚.

After withdrawing money from the bank, I will go out.

œ∑éE ÊÙ @Ùç œ∑ WÂü ÈıÕyé‚.

After learning Korean, I will get a job in a Korean company.

òmE ÷ @Ùç À.

Come after you study.

Èü yõ


V. + ©/Z FUx



“whenever,” “every time”

Regardless of the tense, ©/Z always precedes FUx.


¡Bk uZ FUx Èü ™æZ ÷‚.

Whenever I have time, I practice singing.

œ∑ü D FUx PÆZ  @Ùç Ké‚.

Whenever I went to Korea, I took gifts.

–eÙÙQLa [Ê – FUx [Ê µZ ‘[‚.

Every time I bow on New Year’s Day, Grandpa gives me money.

¡Öü D FUx önZ ‚.

Whenever I go to the grocery store, I buy fruit.

Making passive verbs with k, ó, M, and ‡

About 150 transitive verbs (which require a direct object) are made into their passive form using the four suffixes k, ó, M, and ‡. Some of the most frequently used of these verbs are presented in the passive verbs chart below. Note that another way of making a passive statement is using the A.V. + (é/e)Ùx construction discussed in L5, GN3. Passive verbs chart k

ΩÂ Wx ®Hx ¢x Nx ’x bx @x

to see to divide to cover to mix to pile to chew to run over

to be seen to be divided to be covered to be mixed to be piled to be chewed to be run over


ΩÂ ?x Çx ÿx |x ‡x bx ox

Wkx ®Tx ¢kx Nkx ’kx bóx @(k)x

to select to catch to peg to close to step on to chew to read

?óx Çóx ÿóx |óx ‡óx bóx oóx

to be selected to be caught to be pegged to be closed to be stepped on to be chewed to be read

§ 15 ö


Passive verbs chart (continued) M

ΩÂ òx Êx Œx ´x HBx

to pull to listen to push to open to press down

òMx ÁMx ŒMx ´Mx LMx

to be pulled to be heard to be pushed to be open to be pressed

ΩÂ Gx óx ßpx gx px

to wind to cut to deprive to hold to chase

G‡x ó‡x ßp‡x g‡x p‡x

to be wound to be cut to be deprived to be held (in the arms) to be chased

Note that these suffixes overlap with the causatives in some verbs. (See L17, GN3 and 7.)


A.V. + ©/Z ◊ jx

“to know,” “to know how”

A.V. + ©/Z ◊ êBx

“not to know,” “not to know how”

This expression is used to indicate “knowing or not knowing how to do things.”


≈eÈE D ◊ e[‚?

Do you know how to play piano?

œ∑é £Z oZ ◊ onx.

I know how to read Korean books.

cπÀ çD ◊ je?

Don’t you know how to fix a computer?

N. òÙ is

“as good/well as,” “(even) better/more than”

This construction indicates that the subject noun is as good as (or better than) or does as well as (or better than) the noun it is compared with. The noun followed by òÙ is is the noun it is compared with. (See also -W´ in L9, GN2.) k ó≥‘a Pú òÙ is This wine is as good as the ads say _≥ øx. (maybe even better). Óüça œ∑ Âó òÙ is œ∑ ZZ ~œx.

Diego can speak Korean as well as a Korean does.

Èü yõ

ˆ P˚s òÙ is t P˚s≥ m‡@ uöx.




Mr. / Ms. Sohn was as popular as Mr. / Ms. Chin.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

œ∑ ÂóÁY ©ôZ øe”nÏ? ÙÊ B∂a ÙÊüs ∑ìç ‰ç›ænÏ? ÙÊa ‘ ”† ™æZ ”nÏ? txÃa ‘ œÃ πyxç ›ænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


§n øeÕa nk ∑n? (-‡ or -l) œ∑éE ÊÙL ©ôZ Õç Àé‚? (-(é/e) @Ùç) ê§ Èü ™æZ ÷‚? (-©/Z F Ux) úL@ ~ Áø‚? (Use the passive verb with k, ó, M, ‡.) ©∫ f‡E ™‘– ◊ e[‚? (©/Z ◊ jx/êBx ) (f‡ musical instrument, ™‘Õx to play a musical instrument) ’ ok ÈüE ìU® ~ Õ®‚? (-òÙ is)

‘éˆ ¨˙Wà ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-(é/e) @Ùç ∑: ®a Èü™æZ ›x, A ®a Èü™æZ ÷ ¡”ü ®Kx. @Ùç ¡”ü ®Kx. a. b. c. d.


çÙE Sx, B∂üs Wªx. ÃmE Ëx, éRE WÂx. (Ãm tofu, éR stew) òmE ´«ó Õx, ¡ÊZ ~ Wyx. é§ ÅZ ò Ñx, æb ≈èÕx.

x\ ¨ÖZ “k, ó, M, ‡”E ÂÈÕß ñΩ¨Wà ◊x»¡æ. (ñΩ¨ passive sentence) ∑: ∞ËüL œLZ Zx. (k) A ∞ËüL œLk Wmx.

§ 15 ö


a. Jk ËZ ¢öé‚. (k) A Ëk Jü . b. Œ˚Ák ’ £Z Xk A ’ £k Œ˚Áüs oé‚. (ó) Xk . c. ã¨Z |qé‚. (ó) A ã¨k . d. Ù¤ \fZ Áé‚. (M) A Ù¤ \fk . e. †¨Z ´öé‚. (M) A †¨k . f. úLE óöé‚. (‡) A úL@ . g. £ë@ çákE A çák@ £ëüs . gqé‚(‡). C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ¥†, ”†, ãW, ‡W, Ùuy, ¤‘y, π›, ›£Õx, Û£Õx

ß≠ Âók Ok êß Èü mBa lZ kì Õç Dy mBa lZ kìç œx. b. ÂóÁk Xk êß k‡a _Z Å¢Õa lZ ìç œx. c. {LMf a ≥Lf G¥ö Ox. d. ’ Ωg @ òéL m ò „∆é‚. §@ Ê≥¬kü‚. ≥ ›‚Õx. e. ”†üLa Ùuyü òÙ is f. πn ±ñsÁ tüL ΨZ øç ™æÕç ué‚. (Ψ thesis) g. ®a ¢@ü ú« òé. ≠ g D d~. (¢@ politics) h. kï L™k® \fWE ÁW≠ ¿ ÂóZ Zœx. (L™ speech, lecture) a.


“A -”ö “Ay” ›üL ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Complete the sentences by choosing either A “each” (ADJ.) or Ay “each person” (N.) or “individually” (ADV.).

Èü yõ



q± gπ πnY LÌ ¡π ãŒf m˜Œö Œ˚Ák êß @ ≥¡îZ @Z q±Z Hnx. q±D Fa @Ùç À~ ”nx. q± Öqü @L Œ±†M êß Œ±üL ü«Z syænx. ü« ¬Â@ ü®â PñÁk ®À Ò∂ ãWE Õyænx. PñÁY NnÆZ @Ùç 满æ. Ò∂ ãW@ ü®â PñÁüs PÆZ ‘yænx. ÍM Œ±a Œ± tüL êß Ok ‡›Õyænx. wÙ Zç 9¡ÏÙ Œ± Ù∏ ∂a óWà 满æ. 3.

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. zé, Ùu, π›, ãW, mBx, ?óx, ÿñ(@x), ™æ(Õx), ˚A(Õx) ÙÊf n‡: Èüyõ ãW ÍM ¤k Èüyõ ü ®@‡Ã ›x. ©∫ ÈüE ٠ۣà Ţ›x. k ˆñ zÂ, J ´c f ç‡f \Z mB‡Ã ›x. H@ E bç H@ ¤‘E bZ ٠Ţ›x. ñó cü êß Xk ›x. ›£Õa ≠ Ák Xk “x. ÍMÁk ÈüE mBy π›Ák E Xk ƒx. A ¤f ›£@ x ü´ c «ÂFˆÁk œúΩg . Ïòs≥ ÍM ¤k nÏWà .

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

?∑Wà æa NŒ˚üs ©ôZ ÊÙ @Ùç æìç ÕyænÏ? ‘ ’≠yænÏ? ⁄∑ Œ˚üs éQ ?∑ ÈüE @B¬ ‘ç ÀænÏ? ‚ m‡ ua Èüa ©ôsnÏ? ’Mç m‡ ua @ña H∂snÏ? m‡ ua kNE k~‡ ÷ W»¡æ.

§ 16 ö

›π∂m £k æb ÙÊa ÁLüü Kx. ?∑ü à√ érn ˚√ü „P zY PÆZ Âç Àöx. ¡Öü @L ¡BZ Wπ_n1 IY π ëÃÙW ÁLüü @L Âa lk çMÕx. ’Ø£ ÁLüY íqÀ }M2 m_ ï tRx. ÙÊ ®k füf ûY ãŒ˚ çSk XY lk Nk›x. ÙÊa ¡¤÷L ÁLü üˆüs æb ‘ k∂s ÁLük tëa Ù Æébx. (ÁLüüL) ÙÊ:

érnQ „P ˚n PÆZ °a£‚, ©ôk øZÏ‚?


‚ h©k ∏Jø@ Nfim£ œˆ W¡yé‚?


’, Wß ‘[‚. ’Ø£ æb ÁLüü ‘ k∂s Âók X–? Nó ûY tsÁk X∏‚. ©∫ NOœ ≠k@ `‚?


πn ê∑@ ›π∂m £k|e‚.


›π∂m £kâ k∂s Âók XY@‚?


tsY eı ßy B∂@ òW√@ W–? BBB . . .


’± ߇ ¿ ßy tsÁk úm ∞y B∂ PÆZ Â≠ “xa Zkü‚?3


’ —m@‚? ßy B∂ PÆZ Â≠æa ∞y tsÁ≥ Xe‚.


›π∂m £ka Láf çùm£ ߇L≥ ∞ÖÕ’‚.




(Œ±üL) ÙÊ:

Y‘~, »œ’ ◊ PÆk ué.


PÆ? π ˚nY eı≥ uöa£.


’öQ ÁLüü Köa£ ›π∂m £knÏ PÆZ ÷~ ∆xç Õò£? ÂóÁk »≥®≥ PÆZ Âa ◊óü4 ®≥ Õ® Ù.


›π∂m £küa umüsW PÆZ ‘a d e¬?


π@ ≈ñ›®? umY enì≥ PÆZ ‘a f øY d |e.


’∂ÙW µZ ¥ëÕa d enn? êÃ@ kN òk ∞k Õa ãÃ5 ’ãÃ6 ˘ì@a l Oe.


’üL ÂóÁk Øs ⁄∑ ±æü zTMè Õ®7 `.

{é çS ¡¤Õx ’ãà ’öQ -†M


customer to be curious about as it is the day before yesterday together with, in a group, by themselves; ÍM†M by ourselves ∞ others, other person, stranger ¥ëÕx to waste; ¥ë waste »≥®≥ everyone ˘ì@x to follow, to go with, to accompany, to follow in one’s steps fü of the same age group, of the peer group ê∑ the day after tomorrow ©k pattern, figure; h©k floral pattern ◊óü as the result of, because of ›π∂m £k* Saint Valentine’s Day ÁLü [ÊÇü] department store tëx to be crowded ˚√ birthday (HON.); ˚n birthday (plain)


§ 16 ö

Lá PÆ ts Øs ∏Jø ≈ñÕx um Nfi kN òk üˆ fdˆ çMÕx íq ±æ -œ’ zTMx

occidental, the Occident, Western world; Ωá Orient gift, present customer easily scarf to make a mistake; ≈ñ mistake, blunder girlfriend or boyfriend, lover trend, fashion; Nfikx/NfiÕx to be trendy, to be in fashion without reason; kN reason shop clerk salesperson to be convenient ordinary times; íqü usually, ordinarily custom, practices to (a person) (indirect object marker in colloquial and intimate speech) to be swept up, to be seized, to be overrun; zTx to sweep, to seize, to overrun

*In the current Korean custom, young people of each sex have a different day for expressing their affection and fondness. Valentine’s Day, February 14, is for women to give gifts to men, while March 14, known as White Day, is set aside for men to give gifts to women.


√[ã k~‡


œ∑üLa 70‡ãf ܧ YÖ kcü ¿é´ ûY [ãE ‘√[ã’ìç mDx. √[ã ûYkÁY é∆Z F ܧõ éø òk yö‡ F¨ü éDÁö Xk xBx. kÁf yNÃÏ ˚Aö fiΩY ®k  ÂóÁZ Ïìs Õè œx. ’ÁY Nkœ Nr GAWà ÛÃÏ ∑Zö êéE WÁé ªx. GA ܧõ ®k  ∑Z [´Z] YÖ

sense; Nr GA sense of humor economical old; ®k Áx to mature or get old word, vocabulary growth; YÖÕx to grow, to expand; economic growth

ܧ YÖ


√[ã éø Nr kc yìx

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


new generation difficulty, hardship humor; Nr(@) ux to be humorous after this (point), since to grow up, to be raised


A.V. + _n (óìM)

“(I) would rather,” “it is better to . . . ”

-_n is often used with óìM for emphasis. It is also often followed by -as ≤x to mean that something is preferable to something else, as in, “It is better to do . . . than . . . ” óìM adds emphasis to “rather.” ¡Öü @L Â_n ëÃÙW ÁLüüL Â~yx.

I’d rather buy it at a department store than in a market even though it will be more expensive.

@ÏÏ óY ÏúÕ_n (óìM) ga s ≤x.

I would rather walk than drive if it’s close.

‚‚nü ˚ü u_n n @yx.

I’d go to work rather than stay home on Saturday.

These are two popular sayings using -_n:


m_n ’ax.

I would rather die than be sick (to suffer from illness).

¡Æ_n π@ œx.

I would rather do it myself than have someone else do it.

N. + À/ö(a) }M

“unlike,” “different from”

V. + §/Y/a lö(a) }M

“being unlike,” “different from that”

ÃñÀ(a) }M Ùña Dy u‡E øeœx.

Unlike Min-su, Chi-su likes to be alone.

Êò lö }M ’ P˚sY Unlike what I used to hear, he øY okx. is a good teacher.

§ 16 ö


Púöa }M ’ ÆfY úÚ ÃÙ iqx.

Unlike what the ads said, the items were not cheap at all.

Note that some Korean verbs use -À/ö or -Õç in the English sense of “from,” “with,” or “to” or as a direct object, as in the following verbs:

æπÙa ‘ö xBx.

An orange is different from a mandarin.

æπÙa ‘Õç xBx.

An orange is different from a mandarin.


Aa BÀ Ox.

A equals B (A = B).


k¿Ma œ∑ö/ Õç Ù˙k ëøÕx.

Italy is geographically similar to Korea.


kÂFìa ÃF‚À Isabella will marry Roberto. ÅDœx.


kÂFìa ÃF‚À Isabella is engaged to Roberto. ÄD›x.


˙Y ñ{Õç ÂÕx.

Jim goes out with Susan.


∞œk nœö Ã˙x.

South Korea fought against North Korea.

∞œö nœk Ã˙x.

South Korea and North Korea fought.

P˚sö W≥x.

I met with my teacher.



(or P˚sZ W≥x.) 3. - Zkü‚ as a question and a statement

“do you mean . . . ?,” “I mean”

This ending is used colloquially. The intonation of this sentence ending tells whether the sentence is a question (rising) or a statement (level or falling). Usually, -(k)ìa Zkü‚ is shortened to -(k)ï Zkü‚, and -xa Zkü‚ is shortened to -{ Zkü‚. a.

N. + Zkü‚?

“Do you mean . . . ?”


N. + (k)ìa Zkü‚?

“Do you mean that it is . . . ?”

V. + xa Zkü‚?

“Do you mean that . . . ?”

b. N. + Zkü‚.

“I mean . . . ”

N. + (k)ìa Zkü‚.

“I mean that it is . . . ,” “I am saying that it is . . . ”

V. + xa Zkü‚.

“I mean that . . . ,” “I am saying . . . ”

(a) ’ Lf≈ Zkü‚?

Do you mean the classroom?

’ Âók ⁄∑mkï/ kìa Zkü‚?

Do you mean that he’s a foreigner?

iÅZ Ñxa Zkü‚?

Do you mean that you slept late?

N≤ü @ b{/ bxa Zkü‚?

Do you mean that you’ve been to Europe?

(b) kl Zkü‚.


I mean this one.

ö Âók ◊à I’m saying that he is the very é§ W´ ’ person I met yesterday. Âókï/kìa Zkü‚. §@ g ’¶{/ ’¶xa

I mean that I didn’t do/say that.

Zkü‚. 4.

A.V. + a ◊óü

“as the result of,” “because of”

Literally, this idiomatic expression says “in the midst of the (whirl) wind,” meaning “because / as a result (of a confusion).” It is usually used in a negative context. is ≥òÕa ◊óü RŒ¬ü ò Kx.

I couldn’t go to the school orientation because of my arriving late.

§ 16 ö



ekÁk O„a ◊óü Bx.

Because the children were being loud, I woke up.

é§ ·ü © qM@ ®a ◊óü Bx.

I woke up last night because there was a loud noise.

Many uses of -ãÃ

These constructions have various meanings, depending on the context. a.

N. + ãÃ

b. V. + §/Y/a/ ©/Z ãà c.

“as is,” “as (someone) does/says”

A.V. + a ãÃ

“as soon as”

(a) kãà Q[‚.

Please write like this. / Please copy this.

®a ®ãà Ds.

I’ll go on my own/separately.

P˚s U\ãà ¢Õ[‚.

Please choose as you like.

(b) ‚M£ü Qm ãà Ê@ É’[‚.


Please make kimchi as the cookbook says.

ekÁY Wa ãà ˘ìœx.

Children imitate what they see.

˙k ¡Æa ãà ÷ì.

Do as your older brother tells you.

(c) LÌü @a ãà çÙ–s.


“as is,” “as (someone) does/says”

I’ll write to you as soon as I get to Seoul.

»Z De sa ãà ®@y.

Let’s go out as soon as you change.

p∏E ‹a ãà jø ‘»¡æ.

Please let me know as soon as you get the fax. “as (it) is,” “the way (it) is”

This expression means “the way it is” or “the way it has been” and is frequently used in a request or a command. (See L16, GN5 for the -ãà connective.)




’ãà Ã[‚.

Please leave it alone.

’ãà æ[‚.

Please come as you are.

’ãà Q[‚.

Please use it as it is. / Please keep writing in the same way you have been.

A.V. + è Õx

“from time to time, it does,” “now and then”

A.V. + è ›x

“used to”

This pattern indicates a repeated action. It means “from time to time” or “now and then” when it ends in the present tense, and it means “used to” when it ends in the past tense. UMóneüLa @õ Ùˆk ®L ÂóÁZ Ïìs Õè œx.

From time to time in California, there is an earthquake and it shocks people.

B∂@ @õ ÁBè œx.

My friend stops by now and then.

∞Á ˘ìL ⁄∑ ±æü ~ zTMè ›x.

I used to follow foreign custom blindly.

·kâ e‡@ Ìè ›x.

The baby used to cry at night.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÙÊa ‘ ÁLüü KænÏ? ‚ ©ôk NfisnÏ? ›π∂m £kü ‘ ÁLük tónÏ? Ik ëÃ≥ ‘ ÁLüü éÃÕ≠ HnÏ? Y‘a ›π∂m £kü ÂóÁk PÆ Âa lZ éZs ˚A”nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß _ÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3.

πn PÆ Â≠ ÁLüü Ok Dü? (-_n) œ∑f ›Mö ?∑f ›ñGÂùY éZs }ì‚? (-À/ö(a) }M) ߇ » ‘øç ∏Jø “é. (-xa Zk~?)

§ 16 ö

162 4. 5. 6. 7.

eFü ‘ Œ±ü is “é‚? (-a ◊óü) nZéà “gÂÕ[‚”E éZs Z÷‚? (-a ãà ˘ìÕx) PÆZ ºkü à „PÏ‚? (’ãÃ) ‚≥ ’ B∂E y‘ W®[‚? (-è Õx)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 8.

-a ãà ∑: érn@ Èüœx, A érn@ ÈüÕa e‡@ Èüœx. ãà e‡@ Èü÷‚. ∑: ¡Bk ux, A ¡Bk ua ãà ≥éE ™æœx. ≥é ™æœx. a. b. c. d.

˙k ·›x, Ω˚k ·›x. (·›x to dance) P˚sk œyE Q√x, Œ˚k Sx. ˚ü ≥òœx, ®üs úL÷. ñók ü®x, ¬áü Kx.

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY ¥Â -k/@, -Z/E fa -À/öE ‘W»¡æ. Ñk œ @Ù kÒn ñ≥ uænx. a. JÑf oF‡@ íq xBx. b. üˆö fdˆ ëøœ Zkx. c. êOY ên √› ÂkÏ@ Ox (ÂkÏ size). d. Y∏ü Wâ eı≥ òLák Ñá ÃÍç ux. (òLá Republican Party, Ñá Democratic Party) e. ®a @Zü ÏÕ¤ 5000 q »‚Õx. (ÏÕ¤ tuition) f. ≤züL ÜŸü Y‘ W≥x. (≤z supermarket) g. ¢πY B∂ Ok ü«Z sç uöx. h. ç P˚sk k P˚s ê ÅDœxç œx. i. Ãña ’∑ ÂÕxç œx.


jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ.



∑: cï dıü Èï ÷∂kE da lk


a. §‘≥ü ‘ ∑k XYÙ b. ›M F ¡ÖY ÂóÁà (¡Ö market) c. ¡÷a ßM∏U∏ PÆà úy srk d. ’ ®ìf ±æZ ~ êBâ ±\ü @L e. §‘≥f ∑ö Zk XY lk

NkÕx. ¡¤Õx.


tìx. m‡x. ≈ñÕ‡ Øx.

jaY {éE ëì ãLE ÕYÕ»¡æ. ’Mç B∂À ’ ãLE ÷ W»¡æ. a.

B∂Áöf ãL kN, éZs, k∂s, ’∂s †ñ: ñˆ: YB: ñˆ: †ñ: YB:

æb Õbk ‘ ÖMÙ? é§≥ Õbk ÖMïì. YB~, À ’ E en? ›∑üL tÙ ◊ók qéÀL ’∂ã. (tÙ dust) À ú ea l≥ Xx. ›∑ tÙ@ œ∑ÏÙ ≠e¡ ñ un? ›∑k œ∑üL t l OÙW, ◊à µü xé udÂ.

b. ëfi‡üL Øs, ux, °x, „Mx ëfi‡ ¿©ˆ:

fdˆ: ¿ˆ:

gπ ZW „Myænx. Ù¤mÀ â[ÆZ gyænx. (¿©ˆ flight attendant, â[Æ duty-free goods) π ? k ‡ña ìUü‚? (‡ñ perfume)

§ 16 ö


fdˆ: ÜN:

20 qsnx. H∂üs ‘øç ‡ñE çBn? (çBx to select) érnQ øç. érn ˚nk uÙ iq|e. ’∂∂®, kˆ PÆY ëöa£. ÙÊ ˚nY ê§Ù? eı öé. ßM∏U∏ x\ ≠mh.

¿ˆ: ÜN: ¿ˆ: ÜN: 4.

ÙÊf }¿Z Wç jaY ≠Z ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. (≠ day, date) ÙÊf }¿:

2 2 2 2

˜ ˜ ˜ ˜

12 13 14 15

n n n n

2 ˜ 16 n 2 ˜ 17 n

ÁLü @‡ ”† ™æ ›π∂m £k ÌË òÖ ‰¨ (òÖ factory) LÌ ≥ò ”† ãW

’öQ, é§, æb, πn, ê∑, Ÿ≈ (two days after tomorrow) ∑: æbY ›π∂m £kìL YëE W® öflZ Ok söx. a. ÙÊa ÁLüü xfi“x. b. a ”† ™æk uéL eB◊kMÕ≠ ò Kx. c. Y ÌË yΩó òÖZ W≠ @a ≠kx. d. Õ ’óüL yç, eFü ‡›÷L LÌü öflÏÙa ≥ò– ñ uZ l Ox. e. üa ”† ãW@ uéL e©ü≥ ‡óÂü is Áé¡ l Ox. D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

›π∂m £küa umüsW PÆZ ¤nÏ? kˆ ›π∂m £kü H∂üs J„E ‘yænÏ? ’Mç ©ôZ ÕyænÏ?

§ 17 ö ãÈ« Pd ¡÷a œ∑ü ãÈ« Pd@ ux. ’üL ‚ œ∑ ÂóÁf ú«Y ¿È ãÈ« Pdü ˚›≈é ux. dMUx ãÈ« cWÁf ˆk xé uç ߇ ö‡üL Pd ÏΩZ Õa ÂóÁ≥ Xk Wmx. ÙÊa W®a ÂóÁUx ãÈ« Pdü úœ k~‡E Õ‡ F¨ü H@ ãÈ«k « Ù e‘ ¡¤÷±x. æbY æüBWü ÜNk ˙Z W®L ≥LE W‡Ã ›a£ ˙üs Pdü ú÷L1 Æé Wøç œx. ’üL ãÈ« cWf ¢ç≥ @¨ Bx.2 ÜN ˙:

æüBWk∂®, ÙÊ~. ’ Ωg ~ uön?


’, ~ uöé‚. ˙Y ’ Ωg éZs Ùπké‚?

ÜN ˙:

_, ®≥ ~ Ù¿é. œ∑Z òma ~ √ @n?


±\Wxa øe±ÙW eı≥ éøÏ ZY ~ îì‚. Nó ‚ Pdü úœ k~‡E y‘ Ês ≈a£ éøÏ {é@ XeL k÷E ~ òÕyé‚.

ÜN ˙:

ÙÊ≥ Pdü ú«k un?


’, Û£ ≠k x@¡ñÕ H@ ãÈ«k « Ù ¡¤÷¨‚. ˙Y éQ cWyE ?Z d∑‚?

ÜN ˙:

ŸË, ’f eı ãÑÕ‡ è. ®ìE b‰3 ÂóZ ?a dnÏ √›Õs ˚AZ ÷L Å¢Z Õøç ÷.


’± ˙k W‡üa4 H@ áP« @hYk XY l Oe‚?



§ 17 ö

ÜN ˙:

’l≥ ãÑÕ‡ éøÏ ¯¨m£. æbY ÙÊ@ àr éøÏ lW Æé Wa∂®.


æb ˙Õç ua ΩgY5 §@ ¯¨Z Xk – d∑‚. ãÈ« Pd—W enì œ∑f ¢@ü ã÷L≥ ¡¤œ s XWnÏ‚.

ÜN ˙:

ek∂, kd ©n ≥a£. ’± ®≥ ?∑f Òˆ fˆö Õˆ fˆü úœ l π é @Ù Æé [Ï? œ∑f ∑W fˆÕç éZs xDÙ jç Àöa£. ’Mç ?∑La ãÈ«Z éZs ?aÙ≥ ¡¤Õç.


’± ~ ƒ’‚. æbY ≥LE Wa ã√6 ¢@ k~‡E Õâ ≈y’‚.


@hY èïÕx [ëï] -ü úœ ∑W fˆ x@æx áP≈x ãÈ« b‡x xé ux ?x ˆ Òˆ fˆ Pd √›Õs ek∂ æüBWü ¿È ¡÷; ¤‡ k÷Õx ¢@

possibility to be difficult, to be hard, to be tough regarding, concerning, about member of the Korean National Assembly to approach, to near to be elected, to win election president to entrust, to charge with a duty to be stuck on, to be fastened to, to be posted to choose, to select, to elect photo senator election; Pd ÏΩ election campaign prudently, cautiously, discreetly My goodness! Oh my! after a long time all, entirely, altogether this year to understand; k÷ understanding politics

ãÈ« Pd

˚›≈x Õˆ fˆ cW; cWy

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.




to be focused; ˚›Õx to concentrate congressman, congresswoman candidate


N. + ü ú÷(L)/úÕß “about,” “concerning”

b. N. + ü úœ

“about,” “on”

The adverbial phrase -ü ú÷(L) or the alternative form -ü ú Õß is followed by a verbal clause. The noun modifier -ü úœ is followed by a noun or a noun phrase. (a) ∑óœ c ©ôZ – Ù, Öüü ú÷L ˚A÷ bé‚? ?∑ ¢@ü ú÷ òmÕç ué‚.

I am studying about Korean culture.

œ∑f ®Âü ú÷L ΨZ Qç ué‚.

I am writing a paper on Korean history.

(b) œ∑f ¨Lü úœ ΨZ Qç ué‚.


Have you thought about what you are going to do after graduation?

I am writing about Korean culture.

B∂ü úœ ¨§Ã fÎÕç Àé.

I’d like to talk about my friend.

ÉÊü úœ £Z °e `~Ù.

I’d better look for a book on cigarettes.

Verbs with @x and æx V. + (é/e) æx

“to do . . . and bring”

V. + (é/e) @x

“to do . . . and take,” “to progress/go . . . (ADV.)”


§ 17 ö

-é/e æx and -é/e @x are useful helping verbs to indicate the direction of the main verb. There is no one-word verb for “to take” or “to bring” in Korean, but their equivalent expressions are @¨ @x “to have and go” and @¨ æx “to have and come.” Similarly, Korean has  æx for “to buy and bring,” R æx for “to dig up and bring,” and so on. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7.) ~ ÷ æx

to do well and bring

‚Ä÷ æx

to summarize and bring

@¨ æx

to bring, to fetch


to buy and bring

Æé æx

to bring by mouth (of dog, cat, and so on)

je æx

to bring back findings

˚é æx

to pick up and bring

cé æx

to wash and bring

à æx

to bring wrapped

°e æx

to come to visit

òé æx

to bring by dragging

~ ÷ @x

to make well and take

‚Ä÷ @x

to summize and take

@¨ @x

to take away


to buy and take

Æé @x

to carry away by mouth

je @x

to take back findings

˚é @x

to pick up by hand and take away

cé @x

to wash and take away

à @x

to take wrapped

°e @x

to go to visit

òé @x

to drag away

For some verbs, -é/e @x indicates that the action or event is “progressing (well/slowly/fast),” as in ~ ≈é Bx “it is going well” or

ãÈ« Pd



“it is coming to (an end)” and as in nk ü® Bx “the job is coming to an end.” 3.

Causative suffixes k, ó, M, ‡, Í, ∂, and ›

These are suffixes to “cause” or “make” the actions happen; they turn certain verbs into causative verbs. Other ways to make the actions happen, although the meanings may differ, are to use -s Õx “make (someone) do . . . ” for all verbs, as shown in L25, GN2, and ¡Æx for some verbs, as shown in L22, GN6. ãÈ«üs ®ìE b‚x.

The president is entrusted with the nation.

Œ˚üs £Z o˘x.

(I) made the students read books.

mêsk áËZ bMkx.

My parents increased their assets.

Ω˚üs «mFZ ¡vx.

(I) sent my little brother on an errand.

There are approximately 132 verbs that can be made into a causative verb using the suffixes k, ó, M, ‡, Í, and ›. The 40 most common of these verbs are listed in the causative verbs chart in item 7 below. (Note that the suffixes k, ó, M, and ‡ are also passive suffixes, as described in L15, GN4.) 4.

A.V. + ‡ü(a)

“as,” “as for”

Wx, Êx, jx, and ˚AÕx are frequently used verbs in this construction. It expresses the speaker’s experience or opinion. §@ W‡üa k £Y Œ˚Áüs øY l Oe‚.

In my view, this book seems to be good for the students.

érnQL ʇüa ˆ]f As my mother understands it, Mr. fLk øe±ã‚. Chin’s health has gotten better. §@ j‡üa π‡mÀa As far as I know, there will be no ㌠¡Êk òéˆxç college entrance exam, begin”nx. ning next year. §@ ˚AÕ‡üa ãÈ«f In my opinion, it will be good to go àXZ ˘Ba lk along with the president’s plan. øyé‚.

§ 17 ö

170 5.

A.V. + a Ωg(ü)

“while,” “during,” “when”

This construction indicates a duration of time in which an action or an event occurs. œ∑üL Âa Ωg I made many friends while I was B∂E Xk ÂÀöé‚. living in Korea. ‡xM¡a Ωg k ÇÙE oW¡yé‚?

Would you like to read this magazine while you wait?

π@ ya Ωgü Jk Xk While I was sleeping, a heavy snow π∆é. fell. π@ Œ±ü B Ωgü B∂@ “öx. 6.


V. + §/Y/a ã√(ü)

b. N. + ã√(ü)

While I was at school, a friend of mine came. “in place of,” “instead of,” “but” “instead of,” “as a replacement”

ã√ literally means “substitution,” “proxy,” or “surrogate,” but it also means “in exchange for” or “as a trade-off,” as shown in these examples: (a) ’ ÆfY ëœ ã√ OO÷‚.

That item is expensive but sturdy.

≠]@ [Y ã√ ›Ù‚.

The weather is beautiful, but it’s cold.

úLE da ã√ çÙE Q‡Ã ›x.

Instead of calling, I will write a letter.

(b) Wfü ö ã√ π @ ‘¡yé‚?

Would you mind going to the meeting in my place?

PÆÃ £ ã√ ∏JøE é.

As a gift, I bought a scarf instead of a book.

B∂üs úL ã√ çÙE ›é‚.

I wrote my friend a letter rather than calling him.

ãÈ« Pd




Causative verbs chart

Suffix Verb Base

Causative Verb

Example and Gloss


sx to eat

skx to feed

Wx to see

Wkx to show

’x to die

’kx to kill

rx to be cheated ◊x to shrink, to decrease Úx to be high

rkx to cheat, to fool ◊kx to shrink, to reduce Úkx to raise, to make tall

Íx to melt

Íkx to melt

öa 8 ¡ü e‡üs ÍNE sß‚. I feed my baby milk at eight o’clock. gπÕa ıˆüs √oÛZ Wk[‚. Please show the attendant your ID. R?≥ ’kÙ U[‚. Please don’t kill even an ant. ÂóÁZ ꧮ rn ñ òé‚. You can’t fool the people all the time. ◊ÙE ◊ß~ ÷‚. I have to shorten a pair of pants. ö fÆZ ï Úmã‚? Are they going to make the building higher? JZ ÍßL ÆZ Êé‚. I melted the snow to use as water.

ox to read

P˚sQL öüs £Z oóké‚. My teacher had me read the book. ’ fyü e‡E Dy hóÙ U[‚. Please don’t let the baby sit on the chair alone. sóx to dress, to eFü Ω˚üs yME sÚ flé‚. put on (someone) I put the coat on my little sister in the morning. Œóx to widen k ‰Y ŒÚ~ ÷‚. This road has to be widened. lóx to cook, ~¢a »© lóâ _k òé‚. to make done/ripe Vegetables do not taste good when overcooked. ¬óx to cool it off »© ~dÍâ ¬ó[‚. If it is too hot, please cool it off.


oóx to make read hx to sit down hóx to seat

sx to put on (clothes) Œx to be wide lx to be cooked, to become ripe ¬x to cool off M

jx to know Ìx to cry, to weep Íx to live ∑x to go around bx to increase

Úx to laugh bx to keep

jMx to let be known ÌMx to make (someone) cry ÍMx to make one live, to save ∑Mx to turn bMx to increase Ú‡x to make laugh b‡x to entrust, to check

≥ò¡BZ jø ‘[‚. Please let me know the arrival time. ’ ≥L@ ÂóÁZ Ì∆é‚. The movie made people weep. ö R@ éOkE Í∆é‚. The dog saved a child. ¨Z ´øâ ÿÁZ ∑M[‚. To open the door, turn the handle. ñ‡Z »z]M b∆x. We increased exports by 10 percent. ’ oY ÂóÁZ ~ Ú{‚. He makes people laugh a lot. H∂üs k £rZ b‰Ï‚? To whom shall I give this responsibility?

§ 17 ö


Causative Verbs Chart (continued) Suffix Verb Base

Causative Verb

Example and Gloss

cx to wash

¸‡x to undress, to strip √‡x to put on (shoes) õ‡x to hide, to conceal c‡x to let wash

òx to comb

ò‡x to comb

§@ e‡ √›Z ¸Öé‚. I took off the baby’s shoes. e‡ √›Z x¡ √‰Ï‚? Shall I put the shoes back on the baby? ®a »üs õ‡a lk òé. I have nothing to hide from you. ≥Ã@ ëü ¯ùk c‡öx. The road was washed clean by the rain. rME ò{ ◊Ï? Shall I comb your hair?

¸x to take off √x to put on (shoes) õx to hide


yx to sleep

áÍx to put to bed ¯x to be awake ¯Íx to wake

ñU@ e‡E áÍç ué‚. Mother is putting the baby to sleep. eF 7 ¡ü π ¯Ù ‘[‚? Would you wake me up at 7:00 a.m.? ñU@ ekE Œ± Ù∏ü ¿˙é‚. Mother put her child on the school bus. óE ‡ó® tüL [Ù‘[‚. Please stop the car in front of the train station. Q∑‡ÈZ π ëÙ ‘¡yé‚? Would you empty the wastebasket?

∂x to get on, to ride Lx to stand, to stop

¿Íx to load, to put on (a vehicle) [Íx to stop, to erect

ëx to be empty

ëÍx to vacate, to empty

∂x to rise, to sprout

∂∂x to enhance

ÏΩY ‚_Z ∂∂é ÷x. Exercise enhances one’s appetite.

µx to be low

µ›x to lower

ix to be late

i›x to extend, to defer

ax to fit, to be correct

a›x to set, to match

\f qME µ›é ‘¡yé‚? Would you lower the volume of the music? œ }Y »© IWn ‡BZ π i‚¡x. One month is too short; let’s extend it. ñü a›é »Z bÖé‚. I ordered a dress made to fit (my body).



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.


ÜNk ˙Z ‚ ©ôü ˙Y éZs ˙Y ©ôk

W®L ©ôZ – àXköænÏ? ú«k uænÏ? Û£– ÂóZ Å¢Õyxç ›ænÏ? ¡¤›ænÏ?

ãÈ« Pd



B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

©∫ ΨZ Qç à[‚? (-ü ú÷, úœ) πn ó§@ ©ôkü‚? (-(é/e) æx) ◊ÙE éZs ç¬ „PÏ‚? (◊kx) ‚ Pd@ éZs ≈ç ué‚? (-‡üa) ê§ Î¨Z x Qké‚? (-a Ωgü) æb≥ ≥LúüL òm– d∑‚? (-a ã√ü)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-a Ωg ∑: érn@ ◊ÙE çƒx, A érn@ ◊ÙE ç@a ®a ÿ∑ëúZ çƒx Ωg ®a ÿ∑ëúZ çƒx. a. z‡ü œ∑ü uöx, œ∑éE Ê˙x b. ëfi‡E ∂ç œ∑ü @x, ÅZ yx c. B∂a \fZ Êx, ®a ¬Â ÷ëE Õx

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: B∂üs érn ˆZ


e‡üs ÄZ e‡üs »Z e‡E fyü ÒÉWà B∂ÁZ e‡üs √Z

smx. Ú‚x. √‚x sôx. hôx.

a. b. c. d. e. 2.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: H@ áP« Ù a. b. c. d.


’ nY üü @hYk B∂ ˚n≠k ?∑f ¢@ü ã÷ PdüL 2ˆ cWyüs

¡¤Õx. x@æx. jeWx. Û£›x. ÚeÙx.

jaY ¥Â -k/@, -Z/E, -À/ö, -ü, -üsE ‘ç, ’ ¨Öf ÜZ jeW»¡æ. (¥Â particle, case marker)

§ 17 ö


‚ ÂóÁf ú«k Pd ˚›≈é ux. PdE È÷ ∑W fˆ ?ax. cWyÁY Pd ÏΩü ˚›Õç ux. cWyÁf ˆ ߇ ö‡L Wkç, ÿ∑ëúZ Qâ ¢ç@ óròk ®¿x. kˆ PdüLa Òˆ fˆf Ìof nZ ?s ∆x. H k óf Òˆ fˆWà áP«Ù ê Âók @Ùç ux. ®a Ù¤ éQ ú« cWy Û£– Ù √›Õs ˚AÕç ux. 4.

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ¯¨Õx, k÷Õx, √›Õx, ˚›Õx, Å¢Õx, b‡x ∑: eFü eÙÙQ æb √¨f Y∏ü ã÷ ¯¨›x. a. ’ok ’∂s L@ ´ lZ – ñ òé‚. b. öa ‘¬ Ûy@ úòkü‚. §s ÛyE ‘[‚. c. úòZ Õ‡ úü x¡ œˆ ~ ˚A÷ Wìç P˚sQL ZWÕkx. d. \fZ ÁWâL òmü – ñ ué‚? ae‚, ˚›k ~ g√L \fZ îøç ›é‚. e. üM Å¢– »‚a òænx. s Å¢Õ[‚.


x\ ΩÂÁY ¤ãf ÜZ @Ùç uænx. x\ ¨Öü jaY ˙¿Ã ◊É ‘W»¡æ. ç {Ìüa œ∑f ≠]a ßFüa . (ûx/‚x) b. ^≈a £ ek∏ßQY . (~kx/ óx) c. {Ìk ≈â µk Ùç ·k ˆx. (IéÙx/‰éÙx) d. ËY ç ◊xa x. (Úx/µx) e. k ÆfY @|k »© nÏ [n÷L @|k ¯ FÏÙ ‡xø~yx. (ëÃx/Ãx) f. üˆY ÆfZ ç tsY ÆfZ x. (gx/Âx) g. MN @|k â Æ@@ ëÃÙç, MN a.

ãÈ« Pd


@|k â Æ@@ Èx. (æBx/πMx) (MN petroleum, Æ@ price of goods) h. ’ ÂóY ‘¬ Ik πP F ‘¬Z ç x¡ Ik æE F eL µZ ¯öx. (gx/Âx) i. PÆZ l Wx lk ï ‡ÿx. (‘x/‹x) j. k ˆ≈∏a qd ‰kE ç @U ‰ka ß~ œx. (bkx/ ◊kx) (ˆ≈∏ a dress, qd sleeve) D. k~‡Õ‡ 1.


?∑f ãÈ« Pdü ã÷L k~‡÷ ]¡x. éQ cWyÁk uænÏ? H@ ãÈ«k « @hYk @Ö Úxç ˚A”nÏ? Û£E œ õk uænÏ? Û£E – F éZs Û£– cWyE Å¢›ænÏ?


§ 18 ö J‰Ω ÙÊa ¡πü ®@L Ûà ®¿ £≥ [ Ç1 Lüü Á¥x. ÙÕ¥Z ∂ç @L ¢L¨ ®üL π∆x. ÍP LÌ ¨çü Áé@ ß≠ @Ù £ÁZ œ≠Wç WL£ œ ≈Z “x. ÙÊ:

÷ë~, »≥GJ‰ΩúHoé bn?


_,GJ‰ΩúHY Hy‡ ‘?


æb LÌ ¨çü Kïn2 WLGJ‰ΩúHk B∏M ^≠ìç Õïì. ’üL ®≥ œ ≈ “a£ ¢Z á?ué.


GJ‰ΩúHY ÍM ®ì çú qRk~. J‰ΩY œ∑f Ãìikìç – WÕÙ.


Ãìi k~‡±± πÈ≥ á?uç vfk XeL √®ïì.


J‰Ωf ©ök xé®L ekÁY H∂® øe÷. ≥L≥ ®“|e.


©ökìâ ®≥ ú«k XY£, ’üL ’ØÙ3 ï á?uöé.


’@ ©öü ú«k ua ◊Y îöa£? ’∂xâ æb ¡~ ΩeMüL ¡˙ ܇@ uxa£ Ok @ [ü?


¡~kìç? ¿≈≥@ enç?


œ x œ∑f úÈ ©ök‡a ÕÙW4 ¡~ö ¿≈≥a π }ì. ¿≈≥a ¿ ñZ QÙW ¡~Y ‘à ›Z ÂÈÕa ©ök~.






œ∑ ÂóY H∂® ¿≈≥W œxç ˚A›a£ ’s ep@ `.


œ∑f úÈ ©öY ñ» @Ù≥ œé. XY º˜@ Âì±ÙW ‚Y úÈ ©öZ ÊÍa ûYkÁk üü bç ué.


úüa ©öÕa Âók „¨ l Oqa£ ‚ ©ök ‘ ’∂s m‡Ù?


nºf ∏óıà Õa dÙ ∑.5 ’∂ÙW Ωáf ©öüLa ÏΩW ÊÍa lY en~. Ωá ©öüLa ¢√ ñáZ Nó L¥ÕdÂ.6 ®≥ ±\üa B‡«üL ¿≈≥E Ê͇ ¡z›a£ mπ«ö ∑ù≥ Xk ÊÍs ≈ïì.

ç∂ø ço ML “«Õa ©Â” (6 [‡)

“Hunting Scene” from a tomb mural of the Koguryö kingdom (sixth century)


§ 18 ö


L¥Õx ܇ çú ¢L¨ ® ≈ ’üL ’ØÙ ΩeM œ≠Wx „¨ Ãìi WL ©ö -¨ç B∏M^≠ ÂìÙx Lü qR ñá ∏óı ¡π ¡˙

to emphasize, to stress; L¥ emphasis (sports) game, tournament classics, classical literature Kwang-hwa-mun stop or station volume (book) maybe that is why club, group to look around, to make a survey scarce, rare, unusual; „Æx to be scarce, to be rare Robin Hood cartoon, comics martial arts bookstore; LÌ ¨ç Seoul Bookstore best-seller to disappear bookstore fiction, novel mind cultivation; ñáÕx to train one’s mind sports downtown, within city limits example, demonstration; ¡˙ ܇ exhibition game or match to be exciting patient mind, endurance; mπ patience a kind of, a sort of; nº a kind, a sort gradually mind, consciousness, mentality tae kwon do form of Korean martial art curiosity The Tale of Hong Kil-dong

√®x mπ« nºf üü ¢√ ¿≈≥ ¡~ B‡« GJ‰ΩúH


J‰Ωú* (ÒÃzé)


J‰ΩY ÚY úMf eÁà ¿é≥a£ Œ¨Z ~Õç á‘@ XqWá, ©ök Nó xé≥x. ’≠® ∂üsL ¿é´ eÁk‡




F¨ü ÂWÃmÀ ≥ãE ‹qx. éøLmÀ klü qWZ Æç uò J‰ΩY ˚Z O®s ≈öWá, ’≠x@ ≥ÕÁf ÍÃrM@ ≈öx. Láf Ãìi Ok fÃÏ ≥õk ≈é, ¿ ®ìE ∑exnâL úMÁk ≈Ù òÕs êe Œ áËZ ßpe @´œ ÂóÁüs ®Hé ‘öx. ’Mç ®Ÿ úMÁZ Dπ ‘öx. ”Y J‰ΩZ ÇWìç ç«Z π∆x. ’≠® J‰ΩY ÇóÙ iqx. Å∑ ”Y J‰Ωüs ®ìZ ~ x∏Myxç ÄrÕç ’üs úıZ ‘öx. ’≠® J‰ΩY ’lZ dùÕç y‡E ˘Ba ÂóÁZ £Mç t óü ua UWà @L ’óü ÛÃÏ ®ìE [˙x. *There were frequent invasions from the north and from the south during the 1590s, but the ruling nobility held their power under which corrupt government officials neglected the welfare of the people. It was in this period that Hö Kyun (c. 1569–1618) wrote The Tale of Hong Kil-dong, a social satire criticizing the social conditions through the story of Hong Kil-dong, an illegitimate son of a yangban. Although there were many illegitimate sons who were reared and educated in the traditional nobility class, few were allowed to enter government service, thus creating a class of young men frustrated and discontent who resorted to civil disobedience. Revealing the despotic rule of the time, the authorities executed Hö Kyun for his critical view of society, on the grounds of real or fabricated offenses. Hö Kyun came from the Confucian scholarly family whose sons were eminent scholars and whose daughter was the famous poet Hö Nansölhön.

@´Õx dùÕx Å∑ úM [ùM] úı ’≠x@ ®Hé ‘x ®Ÿ x∏Mx £Mç ≥Õ; ≥õ ç« [çÂ] êe Ãx qW

to be poor to refuse finally, in the end bureaucrat, government official government position while doing so, meanwhile to distribute bad, wicked; ®ÿx to be bad, to be wicked to govern, to rule accompanying thief, burglar; ≥Õ¯Õx to steal order, command; ç«Z πMx to order, to command to accumulate discontent; qWZ Æx to be discontent, to have a grudge

§ 18 ö

180 ßpx ¿

≈x [¡∂] ÍÃrM fÃÏ áË ≥ã ∂ Æx Œ¨ Dπ ‘x

to snatch, to take away all, entire; ¿ ®ì all over the country; ¿ ˚g entire family/home to be right, to be correct head, leader, chief righteous; f—x to be righteous property, asset mistreatment, ill-treatment; ≥ãE ‹x to be mistreated concubine to bear in mind, to harbor scholarship, academic knowledge to reprimand, to teach a lesson (colloquial)

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


A.V. + ©/Z Ç

“while doing . . . ”

This construction indicates that the second action has a dual purpose. Taking advantage of the situation, you do one thing while doing something else at the same time.


P˚s≥ h Ç Œ±ü Kx.

I went to school and at the same time visited my teacher.

B∂≥ ÂŒ Ç œ∑ Œ˚Wü ®Kx.

I went to attend the Korean students’ meeting and also to make friends (there).

ü«≥ sZ Ç ˚ü Kx.

I went home and also had lunch.


V. + ïn

b. V. + ö/qïn

“and then,” “since,” “but” “since,” “because,” “so,” “as,” “when”

-ïn is not used with I or we. This restriction does not apply to -ö/ qïn. (a) ñ{k œ∑ü @ïn q¬k ò’.

Since Susan went to Korea, there has been no news.




m˜ŒZ òmÕïn She was studying anthropology, and Ù¤Y ÂWŒZ now she has changed to òmœx. sociology. (b) eF nè Œ±ü Kïn ±≈k ‘ ëé uöx.

Because I went to school early in the morning, the classroom was completely empty.

úLE ›ïn B∂a ¯fl ®@ç òöx.

I called a friend, but he was already out.

‚Z Xk söïn Ê@ eøx.

I ate too much and have a stomachache.

ÍM@ òmE ´«ó ›ïn ¡ÊZ ~ bé‚.

Because we studied hard, we did well on the test.

Note that the subjects of the -ö/qï connective are usually not the same. For example, ÊY £‰ü Kïn £Z x is not correct, but ÊY £‰ü @ïn £Z x or Êk £‰ü Kïn Ãñ@ À uöx is fine. 3.

V. + (é/e)L ’ØÙ

“maybe because,” “it could be because”

This expression indicates the speaker’s conjecture or reasoning. ◊úL ’ØÙ “Y ©öü ú«k òx.

Maybe because he is busy, John is not interested in the martial arts.

ÅZ ò yL ’ØÙ rM@ eøx.

It could be that because I didn’t sleep, I have a headache.

Œ˚k Xk böx. ’üL The number of students has increased. Maybe that’s ’ØÙ ±≈k êyïx. why there aren’t enough classrooms. 4.


V. + ‡a V. + ÙW

b. N. + (k)‡a ÕÙW

“it is true that . . . , but” “it is true that . . . , but,” “although it is . . . ”


§ 18 ö

This construction indicates that the speaker recognizes the fact. (a) ëfi‡@ úB‡a ÕÙW ëÃx. £kë„@ ‚ME _us Õ‡a ÕÙW ¡Bk òéL ~ ÕÙ iax. (b) úÈ ©ök‡a ÕÙW ~ îì‚. øY PÆk‡a ÕÙW öa ò ‹yé‚. 5.

It is true that airplanes are fast, but they are expensive. It is true that David is a good cook, but he doesn’t cook because he doesn’t have time.

It is a traditional martial art, but I don’t know it well. Although it is a nice gift, I cannot accept it.

Ending expression ∑

There is no equivalent expression in English for ∑. It is a colloquial sentence-ending expression meaning something like “what else?” in ® Œ±ü KÙ ∑ “I went to school, what else?” or “I went to school, you know.” It is used only in intimate and informal conversation and follows the -Ù(‚) or -®(‚) sentence ending.


nºf ∏óıÃ Õa dÙ ∑.

They are doing it as a kind of sport, nothing more.

æb g æø® WÙ ∑.

I guess he’s not coming today, you know.

Œ±ü® @Ù‚ ∑.

I’ll just go to school, nowhere else.

§@ éÓ @®‚ ∑.

I don’t go anywhere, you know.

V. + dÂ(‚)

“you know”

This intimate or polite sentence ending says something like “you know,” as in “I saw the movie, you know.” ©öY fLü ødÂ.

You know, martial arts are good for your health.

πnY }nkdÂ.

Tomorrow is a holiday, you know.

This is set italic.


^U Ω˚ ¢Øk@ ó§E ïöd‚.




My baby brother Jung-yup ripped my homework, you know.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. ÙÊa LÌ ¨çÏÙ éZs KænÏ? 2. ÙÊa ‘ WLGJ‰ΩúH Z ænÏ? 3. GJ‰ΩúH Y éQ qRsnÏ? 4. ekÁY ‘ J‰ΩZ øe”nÏ? 5. Ωá ©öüLa ©ôZ L¥”nÏ? B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

‘ ¢‘ü πø Kn? (-©/Z Ç) eÙÙQL ßfiüL ‘ üM ∑eæké‚? (-ïn) eB◊kME ÷ WnÏ éF‚? (-q/öïn) ΩeM êrü Âók Xk “é‚? (-(é/e)L ’ØÙ) ≈eÈ ~ @n? (-Ù ∑) ¿≈≥a ‘ ÊÍ[‚? (-d‚)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-(k)‡a ÕÙW or -‡a V. + ÙW ∑: J‰ΩY ©öZ ~ œx. A J‰ΩY ©öZ ~ Õ‡a ÕÙW ‡ök ï »‚Õx. a. Ü‘a ¯ùœ ≥¡kx. b. æb ≠]@ ûx. c. ¡~Y ßYõm ©ökx.


-dÂ(‚) ∑: ûYkÁY ©öü ú«k Xx. A ûYkÁY ©öü ú«k XdÂ. a. Ωá©öY ¢√ñáü øx. b. Ußa ¡~Z Ê͇à ›x. c. fqM@ m‡kx.

§ 18 ö


C. {é ™æ 1.

x\ {éÁY ¤ãf ÜZ @Ùç uænx. ¨Ö rü jaa ˙¿Ã ◊É ‘W»¡æ. “‚ éF? ◊ÿÙ?” “en, ‡a^ Õ ºn .” (◊ÿx, œ@Õx) ç m‡ òa ÊÍÁY b. óròk Û ÊÍÁk . (®∂®x, ÂìÙx) c. qç‡E sa ÂóY ç ~ç‡E sa x. (◊x, bx) ÂóY d. ŸüL © qM@ ®x@ qM@ ’ƒx. (üü, Hy‡) a.


jaY {éE ëì ‘W»¡æ. ߇ ö‡, ß≠ @Ù, k Âó ö Âó, ¡”, ܇

a. b. c. d. e. 3.

¡πE ‡ó B∂E £ÁZ ¡”ö æb fi∂ l Oe‚.

∑e xpx. W® Zx. °e Zx. a ëøœ Zkx. k uéL ˚ü is Áé¡

{éf ÜZ jeWç jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ »¡æ. B‡«, mπ«, ¤’«, ¯Û«, Ω¢«

Z _¢x. a. √‡œ lZ Wâ jç Àxa b. ñU@ Ω˚Z ï ÂõÕa l OZ F ˙k Z _¢x. c. yN@ òZ F Z _¢x. d. B∂E qY ÂóZ [ F Z _¢x. e. õ nZ úç üÏÙ Õ‡ F÷ k »‚Õx.




x\ {éf ÜZ °eWç, tk »‚œ ΩÂ, ›k »‚œ ΩÂ, fa t›k »‚œ ΩÂE °eW»¡æ. ‡x, gx, œéÙx, ∂Bx, óx, ‡x, Œx, Œ@x, @x, ‹x, FMx, Ix, ^˚x, QxÈx, éÂWÙx, ⁄x

a. tk »‚œ ΩÂ: b. ›k »‚œ ΩÂ: c. t›k »‚œ ΩÂ: D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

Ãìi k~‡f ◊dME Z÷ W»¡æ. y√k øeÕa ∏óıü ãÕß k~‡÷ W»¡æ. øeÕa kNE k~‡÷ W»¡æ. é∆Z F éQ WLE á?us oöænÏ?


§ 19 ö \f ò™ ∑Ä úLF qM F¨ü ÅÔ µÅk Áöò1 ÙÊa ÚE Ïì Bx. N?üs úLE Õyxç ÄrÕç Úù wé Ù∆ïn N?@ úLE œ d≤x. eFü N?E W≥Z F kˆ ‘Zü π –Ï fÎՇà ›öx. N?:

ÙÊ~, kˆ ‘Zü ¿Ùb Wâ éRÏ?


¿Ùb? œ∑ü äĸk ¿Ùbk Áé “n?


en, äĸk@ enç œ∑ úÈ \fk~.




GJ‰ΩúHŸü êB’ . . . klYGèmúHkìa fqME ¿Ùbà ÙãLœ d~.


Âõ k~‡n? éÓP@ Áé Z kFkx.


en. Âõk enì „«Ök ˙ö U\] òœ Ω˚ Âkü né´ nk~. ÈüÀ ™‡@ e‘ øã.


’± Y‘≥ “Q £Mç @y.


øe. Y‘@ \f qkìÙ?2 é§ Œ±üL W≥öa£ ’F Ok @yç – h ’¶x.3


Ù¤kì≥ ˚ü úL÷L Ok @yç Æé [Ï?


Ù¤ úL÷ by4 òZ h. W®U®5 Œ±ü uZ d~. ê ?öúk uéL ‚ eQMüüL dn ’QW ’Oã.


\f ò™ ∑Ä


(∑d±üL) ÙÊ:

‘èmú’Z [ Ö ∑dÕøç Õa£‚.


é n £Ã „PÏ‚? ‘Z £a x dˆƒç ˜‚nö L‚n £@ uænx.


˜‚n 7 ¡ lWà ‘[‚.


SM, AM, BM [ º˜@ ua£ éQ lWà աyænÏ?


BMWÃ ‘[‚. @hÕâ @Ï£ tyMÃ ‘¡â ç^yænx.


2¸≥ §öyé‚? 1¸üa [ yM@ ®ïó ì £@ ò’‚.


1¸k øÙW – ñ òÙ‚ ∑. 2¸ yMÃ ‘[‚.


IY [ Öü 45,000ˆsnx.


J„Ã Ùq÷≥ ≈yÙ‚?




éN, x ƒWâ üM @y. ≠]@ éé® ïÏÙ ’Z ÙÜk~.6


’ü. éÓ @L ¡^≈ì≥ œ { U¡y.

{é @hÕx ò™ ®ïó ¡^≈ £Mç @x U\]

¿Ùb ?öú -M eQMü

VOCABULARY to be possible; @hÕâ if possible performance (music, drama, or dance) side by side, in line, in a row iced coffee; ¡ñ iced water to take along; £Mç æx to bring together mind, heart; U\] òœ good-hearted, good-natured a musical art exhibition seat (for tickets); AM A-class ticket atelier, studio



§ 19 ö

tyM Är ™‡ ∑d± ∑dÕx „«Ök fÎÕx -{ Åk Áx -Ö ’x ÙÜkx ÙqÕx òœ [óL]

J„ q ÙãLÕx èmú


front seat; yM seat promise, appointment; ÄrÕx to promise performance, acting; ™‡Õx to act booth for advance sales to sell/buy in advance greedy person to discuss; fÎ discussion cup (of ); ^≈ œ{ cup of coffee to fall asleep piece; [ Ö three pieces; £ MÖ three (pieces of ) tickets to die to be at the point of; ’Z ÙÜkx to almost die to pay; Ùq payment good-hearted, good-natured; òÕx to be goodhearted credit card fan, admirer to modernize; ÙãL modernization The Tale of Hüngbu

fqM èmú


˙ ÏmÀ Ω˚ èmBf DÏö L÷@ k k~‡f ◊dMsnx. é_ UZü my@ Íç uöænx. ’ myüsa eÁ ˙§@ uöa£, “äÁe, ˙§Bü Íu us Ùπ~ œx”ìa NêZ ∞‡ç ’öænx. ’≠y «öèkkç „«èkm ˙ Ïma Ω˚ èm’ ¬∂ÁZ ≥ãÕ‡ ¡z›ænx. U\] òœ èma qí≥ òk nW ›ænx. é_ ≠ Ïma èmE mBïn, “k¶ »ëÁ b≥ W‡ ∆x. áÖ k ˚üL ®@dì” Õç èmE πpqænx. ’üL èmÀ ¬∂ÁY t óü @L æÃV˚Z ¸ç Íqænx. ˚k »© zeL HÍâ ›k ŸWà E ®æç, néLâ rM@ ≥ÖZ tç ®“ænx. ’≠® èma qí≥ e¢≥ ÕÙ iqænx. {Ìk @ç \k “ænx. ∞iü Kò §ëÁk ∑eÀ èm’ »@˚ Ùwü ”ÙE WÁç Íqænx. ÕÂa èm@ tUáüL nZ Õç ua£, Û† §ëÁk ÌmAa qM@

\f ò™ ∑Ä



Á∆ænx. çRE ∑øWn ^xï ∂µk@ §ë”Ùà Áé@ç uöænx. §ë œ UM@ Dü Ré¨ xM@ m≠Ùç Zqænx. èma ∂µkE πpç §ëE ¢YN @fl÷ ‘öænx. ’≠x@ @Zk ≈y §ëÁY ∞iWà O≥ænx. x¡ \k °e “ænx. èm@ Âü ®@ nZ Õç uöa£, §ëÁk ≠eÀ èm tü ]p œ RE Ré~∆ænx. ’lZ ‘ÙL «öïn @Zk ≈y © ÿk ‘µ‘µ ´∆ænx. èmÀ mmY Õ≥ Ê@ çcL ÿkì≥ sWøç ÿZ ˘x@ ÁWà ‚öænx. ’Ø£ ks AnsnÏ! ÿ rüa ÿ ]@ enì ¤ Y WÆÁk @‰ ó uöænx. f xD ÿZ ˘L Á¯Z ›ænx. d‡üL≥ ®¡ Jm√ WMÁk Ôe¨ ®“ænx. ’cü èmÀ Ïma éZs ≈öZÏ‚? @‰ -B DÏ çR ∂µk b W‡ ∆x πpx áÖ ”Ù ˘x D Ré~Mx tx [s∂] ÿ WÆ WM m≠Ùx my qí Û† «x «öèk

full, fully between conflict, tension; DÏ(k) ux to have conflict or tension neck boa, large snake hate to see (the face of a person) to expel, to chase out immediately, right now nest to pick earth, land, ground (Vt.) to drop; RéÙx (Vi.) to drop to make a hole gourd; ÿ ] gourd seed; ÿ h gourd flower treasure, valuables jewel, gem, precious stone (Vi.) to break; m≠~Mx (Vt.) to break rich person complaint; qíÕx to complain chick, baby (animal) to plant grouch, ill-tempered person


§ 19 ö

ÔeÙx [ÏxÙx] ]p; ] tUá [nUá] æÃV˚ Íu ÌmAa [Ìmˆa] Nê ¢YN §ë ‘µ‘µ ◊dM ¤x Ùw óx ≥ãÕx ≥Ö »@˚ @flÕx Õ≥ L÷

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

to pour out, to gush out seed front yard hut brotherly or friendly love crying; ÌmAx to cry out last words, dying wish; NêÕx to express dying wish with care, with devotion swallow (bird) (hanging) in clusters outline, plot; stalk, stem; k~‡ ◊dM main plot of story to pick up (from the ground) roof (Vi) to fill up; (Vt) ¢Íx to fill up to mistreat, to treat with contempt ceiling thatched house to treat (a patient), to give medical treatment too (much), very reconciliation; L÷Õx to reconcile


Verbs for involuntary action: Áx, hMx, and ®x

Many body-related functions are treated as involuntary or noncontrollable acts and are expressed by Áx “come under,” ®x “arise,” or hMx “be caught.”




Åk Áx to fall asleep

´k ®x to have a fever

G‡ü hMx to catch a cold

G‡@ Áx to catch a cold

Sk ®x to get sick

Sü hMx to get sick

Sk Áx to get sick

L@ ®x to get upset

\f ò™ ∑Ä







Æk Áx to be influenced (literally, to be colored)

@k ®x to perspire

òÜüs hMx to be caught by a cop

Question ending -xÙ‚?

“isn’t it . . . ?”

As an indirect question ending, -xÙ‚ expresses something close to “don’t I hear/don’t they say . . . ?,” as in Ù¤ Y„ü ë@ ¿xÙ‚? “Don’t they say it’s raining now in New York City?” a.

V. + xÙ(‚)?

“don’t/didn’t I hear . . . ?”

V. + ö/qxÙ(‚)?

“don’t/didn’t I hear . . . ?”

b. N. + (k)ìÙ(‚)? N. + (k)öxÙ(‚)?

“don’t/didn’t I hear that it was . . . ?”

(a) ’ oY æÑìE øeœxÙ‚?

Don’t they say that he likes opera?

»a ¯fl £E xÙ?

Didn’t I hear you bought the ticket already?

’ ok ãÈ«ü áPƒxÙ?

Didn’t I hear that he was elected president?

(b) πnk ¥R ‡‚nkìÙ‚?


“don’t/didn’t I hear that it’s . . . ?”

Don’t they say it’s Independence Day tomorrow?

Y‘@ æÑì qkìÙ‚?

Don’t I hear Eun-ju is an opera fan?

’ £k m‡≤xÙ‚?

Didn’t I hear that the book was popular?

A. V. + ©/Z h ’¶x

“should have . . . ”

This short form of -©/Z lZ ’¶x indicates mild regret, as in “I should have done . . . ” Ok @yç – h ’¶x.

I should have asked her/him to go with me.

ü«Z ?M sZ h ’¶x.

I should have eaten lunch earlier.



§ 19 ö

P∑Z ön h ’¶x.

I should have cooked (boiled) the rice-cake soup.

V. + (é/e) by/Wqy

“even if (I try) doing . . . ,” “even if (something) is . . . ”

This connective indicates the speaker’s supposition of the fact or the event. Ù¤ cW÷ by qÈòé. Even if you are remorseful now, it is of no use. / There is no point in being remorseful now.


xé by Ù∏E LJa õÁh.

It’ll be hard to catch the bus even if you run.

H∂üs fÎ÷ Wqy xD øY ñ@ òZ l Ox.

Even if you discuss it with someone, there won’t be any good solution.

Âók Æ@ ^ by 7 ≈M≥ g « dx.

Even if a man is tall, he is probably less than seven feet.

A.V. + (W)® U®

“no use,” “no point doing,” “not worth doing”

This pattern indicates a futile attempt or uselessness, meaning literally “whether to do it or not.”


@® U® ÍMa iéL ’ ≥La ò `.

There is no use going; we can’t see the movie because we’re late.

’ ÄY sW® U®≤x.

The medicine was no use. It didn’t help.

Ü‘üs Z÷W® U® g Bxç – d~.

There is no point asking Kyungju; she’ll say she won’t go.

A.V. + ©/Z ÙÜkx

“to/at the point of . . . ,” “almost,” “nearly”

This expression is often preceded by a verb of hardship, such as ó‡Õx, Q≠Ùx, ’x, Ìx, IéÙx, or œé Ùx. ¡Êk »© éøÙ Ì ÙÜköx.

The exam was so difficult that I almost cried.

≈è÷L Q≠¯ ÙÜkx.

I am so tired that I’m about to collapse.

\f ò™ ∑Ä


ëk ZìL ’Z ÙÜköx.


I almost died of thirst.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. ÙÊa ©ôZ wéÙMç uöænÏ? 2. GèmúH Y ©ôü 㜠k~‡snÏ? 3. Y‘a ‘ Œ±üL ’QW ’RnÏ? 4. ÙÊa ‘ 2¸ü ua yMf £E ænÏ? B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

‘ ‡FZ Õ[‚? (høL) üM @â Ù∏E π ñ uZÏ? (-(é/e) Wqy) Y‘üs úL÷ Wâ éRÏ? (-(W)® U®) nk eı≥ Xn? (-©/Z ÙÜkx)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 5.

-©/Z h ’¶x ∑: Y‘üs úLE hx. A Y‘üs úLE h h ’¶x. a. ©öZ ÊÍx. b. B∂üs ◊ PÆZ Âx. c. B∂E £Mç @x.


-ì/xÙ‚? ∑: Nçœ fqMkx. A Nçœ fqMìÙ‚? a. ÷ë@ ?∑ü ∑eKx. b. Y‘a ’QZ ’Ox. c. æÑì £@ ëÃx.

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY mÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. OY mÂE œˆ kÒ T ñ uænx. ÅÔ(W), Úù, ÚE


§ 19 ö


a. b. c. d. e. f. 2.

Kx ¡s. ’@ Hy‡ ÁéÀL Ïöé. Åk Áöö®`. T ñ uZÏ‚? úL π πnk ’ ˚nm lZ wéÙ∆’. ߇ À W¡yé‚?

jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ™‡, @ñ, ÊÍ, fqM, ©ã

¿Ùb @ñÁY Èü—W enì ≥ ~ ÷~œx. b. ¿ÙbüLa @ñ@ ™‡≥ Õ‡ F¨ü ߇ö‡ ∑exnÙW üLa ÈüÕa Âók ©ãü @Wó LL ÈüE mDx. c. ÈüE mBa ÂóZ ìç œx. a.



jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ∑dÕx, dˆ≈x, ÙqÕx, Âx Ù‘: N?: b. Ù‘: N?: c. Ù‘: a.

N?: d. Ù‘: N?: 4.

πn æÑì ∂Ü Dü? £E ? g ›é. eı tyM@ uZÏ? ®a ‹yMì≥ øWnÏ £® ≈Ù iqWâ øyé. π £ IY Ù¤Wà ◊Ï? π@ ÍP ß∑ÓM J„à ’ü.


jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ÙãL(≈/Õx), ¬ÃÙL(≈/Õx), L∂L(≈/Õx) a. ‚ œ∑ ÂóÁY œXZ ÷L Xk sax. b. »∂ [‡ü XY eøMJ ®ìÁk ≈öx. c. œ∑ ÂWa Xk ≈öx.

\f ò™ ∑Ä



D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

Œ˚k øeÕa ¿ÙbY éQ lsnÏ? ’ ¿Ùbf ◊dME Z÷ W»¡æ. ß≠ok jç ua ≥L ›üL Âõ k~‡® Í¢ k~‡ fa úè k~‡E AA œ @Ù^ ÁéW»¡æ. ™÷k® ≥L ∂ÜZ @‡ F÷ úLà ∑ÄZ Õøç ”nx. B∂À Ok ∑ÄÕa ãLE WÁé W»¡æ.

§ 20 ö ¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞ ÙÊa B∂ ÷ëE È÷ ¥Pµ Œ˚Z W®s ≈öx. ¥Pµkï ›∑ü Íç ua œ∑mZ mE F Qa Zkx. [ ÂóY Œ± tf JÑüL W≥x. ÷ë:

mÂÕ[‚, k iY ÿ ÙÊm£ ?∑üL ‰ŒZ kÈ÷L œ∑ü òmÕøç À uÙ‚. k iY ›∑ nÜ ãŒüL ¿ Ê W¥kü‚. ›∑ü Âa ¥Pµkònx.1


gÂÕ[‚. ¥PµY ›∑ ±ókÙ‚?


’∂Ù‚. öa ±N Œ˚Wà ÀL ®ÂE òmÕç ué‚.


ÍM ZZ e‘ ~ Õ¡’‚. ›∑üL≥ œ∑ ZZ Xk Q®‚?


Œ±üLa ¥P ZZ T ‡W@ úÚ2 òé‚. ’≠® § ç‡ ™NüLa ¥P ZZ Xk fl‚. yñ F ˚üLa ¥P ZW ÂÈ›é‚. ?∑ ±óÁY éF‚?


éÓü Âa Ùü ˘ì xBxç – ñ ué‚. öa œ∑mk „¨ óüL ÍxWn3 œ∑éE ÊÌ ‡W@ õöé‚.


›∑üL Qa œ∑é, en ¥P ZY nœ Zü ï @ÏÙ‚?


∑, LÌ Zöa }ì‚. v]M@ Nó xBÙ‚.


§@ nœ ZZ ÁWâ úÚ ò je ÁZÏ‚?


¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞




úÚ ò je ÁZ ¢≥a4 eq d∑‚. ’Ø£ LÌü À Wn L∂üL Áé¿ ⁄üé@ Nó X∏‚. ±\ü ¢MBkÀ, üé{ Ïk ©∫ qOÙ îìL éM”ù›öé‚.5


’f ö≥ Uô@Ù∑‚.6 œ∑üL ÂÈÕa ≥é ⁄üéa ›\k ≥ }ìL jeʇ@ ØÙ iqé‚.


∑ „¡yé‚? ^≈, |ì, Ë∏?


⁄üé Õ® f Ê˙’‚.




^≈ à {Õç æπÙ Ë∏ œ{ ‘[‚. üM‚.


ÕÕ, œ∑Y ¢Z ◊Ÿ ®ìm@ `‚. ⁄∑mÁk @Ö tö ÊÍa œ∑ Zk ©ômÙ e[‚? ◊à ‘üM, üM’ ònx. ÕÕ.




’∂ÙW ’ ‘üM üM’ ñ¡ü7 œ∑k k∂s üM YÖ– ñ uö|e?


±ó -ñ¡ü Uô@Ùkx W¥ ›\ nÜ nœ ÂÈÕx L∂

Koreans residing abroad, overseas Koreans owing to, thanks to to be the same, to be similar Man-chul (man’s name) pronunciation; ›\Õx to pronounce Beijing North Korea to use western Europe; Lá the West; Ω∂ eastern Europe to grow; YÖ growth sound, word; ©∫ qM~? What’s this sound? What do you mean?



§ 20 ö

v]M éM”ùÕx üé{; ¡‰‡ ¢MBkÀ; ¿L‡ ™N ≥ ⁄üé yìx úÚ ¢≥ ¥Pµ ‘¨Õx ÷ë


accent to feel confused, to be bewildered or at a loss air conditioner elevator Yönbyön (northeastern region in China near North Korean border) completely, not at all word of foreign origin, loanword to grow up, to be raised entirely (not), completely (not) extent, degree Chosön nationals, Korean-Chinese to order; ‘¨ an order, ordering Jun-hie (woman’s name)

¥Pµ* k~‡


›∑f ¥PµÁY ‘à oÕL ◊±ü Íç ux. Ùáf ›∑ö œ∑ Âkf ∑ÜPY ¥P ¡ãü ¢÷±ÙW, ’ kúmÀ≥ õÙ iY œ∑ ÂóÁk ∑ÜP geü êß Íç uöx. Nó n§ ¡ãü XY œ∑mÁk ∑ÜZ œé ›∑Wà k‘›x. ’Fa kók ¥R ÏΩf ›«Ù@ ≈‡≥ ›x. k Ù®ü Íç ua ¥PµÁY õü 㜠ym«k ÚeL y√f êéÀ ¨LE ÙÆøç XY È¿Z ÷ “x. k≠œ È¿f ñ¡Wà ¥PµY y@∂E @Ùç ux. ›∑üa ¥Pµ k⁄ü≥ æ» ß qñ õk ux. *Chosön-jok (¥Pµ; literally, “Chosön nationality/ethnicity”), the term used by the Chinese to refer to the Korean-Chinese, is relatively new in South Korea because there was little communication between South Korea and North Korea or the People’s Republic of China from the mid-1940s to the early 1990s. The majority of the 1.5 million Korean-Chinese live in the Yönbyön (Yanbien in Chinese) area, which borders the northwestern part of North Korea. Ethnic Koreans of different countries have different names. Korean-Chinese are called ¥Pµ by the Chinese, and Korean-Americans are called á? ±ó and Korean-Japanese called án ±ó by the South Koreans. Korean-Russians are called çøm by the North Koreans. There are more than 1 million Korean-Americans; the majority of them live in the Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York City areas and in Hawaii. Korean-Russians in the former Soviet Union number about a half million, but

¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞



currently they are largely in the Almaty area of Kazakhstan and the Tashkent area of Uzbekistan. There are also pockets of Korean residents in Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and various European countries.

∑ÜP È¿Õx ¥R [Ωt]

national border line; ∑Ü national border to make an effort; È¿ effort, endeavor independence; ¥R ÏΩ independence movement õ ethnic group, race, (ethnically identical) people qñ minority; xñ majority; qñ õ ethnic minority geü [gcQ] in the inside and outside; ge the inside and the outside oÕL Apnok River (also known as Yalu River) -ß more than; » ß Rf ¬á more than ten restaurants k⁄ü≥ additionally, besides; k⁄ others kú (from) the previous, before; kc after this k‘Õx to move, to immigrate; k‘ moving, immigration n§¡ã [nd¡ã] Japanese occupation period -y√ self; y√f of one’s own ym« pride y@∂ self-governing region õÙ iY not a few; õx to be few ¢÷Ùx (Vi.) to be set, to be decided; ¢Õx (Vt.) to decide on, to choose Ù® region ÙÆx to keep, to preserve, to guard

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


Indirect speech: formal short forms

“they say . . . ,” “someone says . . . ”

Below are the short forms of formal indirect speech endings. (For the informal short endings -ã‚, -(k)ü‚, -(W)ü‚, -C‚, and -á‚, see L9, GN5.)

§ 20 ö

200 a.

Statement V. + Ñnx Statement N. + (k)ònx

“they say” “they say that it is”

b. Command V. + (W)ònx c.

“they tell/ask/order”

Question V. + D nx

“they ask/say”

d. “Let’s” V. + Çnx

“they ask/invite to do”

(a) W¥ka ›∑ü Âa ¥Pµ kònx.

(They say) Man-chül is a Korean who lives in China.

’ oY ÏΩPñ ònx.

(They say that) he is an athlete.

(b) úLE ‹Wònx.

(They tell you) to answer the phone.

úLE ‹e }ònx.


(They ask you) to answer the phone (for someone).

(c) πn ◊ÿDnx.

(They ask) whether you are busy tomorrow.

(d) πn ÁLüü Ok @Çnx.

(They invite you) to go to the department store with them tomorrow.

Adverb with negative

Certain adverbs are followed by a negative, such as g or ò, or a negative ending, such as òx, enx, -Ù ix, -Ù ò Õx, -Ù Zx, êBx, or U[‚. Some examples of these follow: úÚ completely, never at all

˚üLa úÚ ÏΩZ – ‡W@ òx. I have no time to exercise at home.

≥©Ù not at all

LÌf ‰Z ≥©Ù êByx. I don’t know the streets of Seoul at all.

≥ not at all, none

Jπœ’L ≥ q¬k òx. There is no news at all from Karen.

¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞



Åy by no means, never

ÍMa Åy nZ ò üπyx. By no means will we be able to finish the job.

cE not even a tiny bit (of motion)

cE Zç ué! (See L6, GN3.) Stay still!/Don’t move!

≥öó not possibly

®a ≥öó ßú ¡ÏÙ ò @‚. I can’t possibly make it by eight o’clock.

π±± hardly, not often

çÏŒ± B∂ÁZ π±± ò W®‚. I hardly see my high school friends.

È at all

‚ ¡πü È g ®Ké‚. Lately, I haven’t been to the city at all.

’M not so (much, long, big, good, or the like)

¤LËY ∞œüL ’M uÙ ix. The Kümgang Mountains are not so far from South Korea.

öó not very

’ nY öó éƒÙ ie‚. The work is not very difficult.

OÃ not especially

é§a Oà ◊ÿÙ iqé‚. I was not especially busy yesterday.

ùãà never, ever

ëŒZ ùãà ZÕÙ U[‚. Never talk about our secret.


V. + x Wn

“while (doing/being),” “as . . . (is doing),” “as,” “since”

This pattern indicates that one becomes aware that while something is happening, something else has also happened. The pattern can also indicate the cause for the next action or event. yx Wn ‡ó@ Y„ü ≥ò›x.

(I woke up and became aware that) while I slept, the train had arrived in New York City.

B∂À ä‡ÕâL gx Wn ¯fl Œ±ü “x.

(I realized that) we’d already arrived at the school as we walked while talking.

Ik ëÃx Wn e©≥ Â@a Âók òx.

As the price was so high, nobody was buying it.



§ 20 ö

≠]@ ®ÿx Wn êrü Âók e©≥ g ®“x.

Nobody came to the meeting since the weather has been bad.

V. + ©/Z ¢≥Ã

“(so) . . . to the extent that,” “(so) . . . to the point that”

This pattern expresses a hypothetical or real degree, limit, or extent of the performance, action, or behavior.


né®Ù≥ ò – ¢≥à ≈èÕx.

I am so tired (to the point) that I can’t get up.

õZ ™Ù≥ ò – ¢≥à Xk söx.

I ate so much (to the extent) that I can’t breathe.

héxn‡@ õÁ ¢≥à ë@ Xk “x.

It rained so much that it was difficult to walk around.

V. + ö/qöx

“it has/had been,” “it has/had had” (double past)

This construction means that something has/had happened or has/had not happened at a specific moment in the past. The simple past tense ö/q indicates the completion of an action or an action in the past. If an action is completed, it is in the past tense, as in hqx, which means “I sat down” (but it may also mean “I am in a sitting position”). The double past tense marker ö/qö indicates either an action that was completed in the past (and then some other action came after it) or a simple experience, as in the following examples: ©∫ qOÙ îìL éM”ù›öé‚.

Without knowing what it meant, I was confused (but not anymore).

kê kFZ wööx. ’Ø£ Ù¤Y ˚Ak ´x.

I had forgotten my aunt’s name. But now I remember.

π@ œ∑ü @‡ úü t ±ñsZ œˆ W≥öx.

Before I went to Korea, I had met Professor Sohn once.

’≠Y ≠]@ ©≤ ›˙öx.

It was/had been so cold that day.

ÕÂ^@ Y„ü Köx.

Haruko has been to New York.

¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞



Many uses of Uô@Ù


“same thing,” “similar thing”

This term has many possible combinations with connectives, sentence endings, verbal modifiers, and particles, as shown in these examples:



It is the same (thing).


Is it the same?


similarly, in the same manner, same as


the same kind of


if it’s the same


although it’s the same

»Ï Œ˚Á≥ ãŒ˚ö Uô@Ùà cπÀ@ òWâ g ∆x.

Like college students, students in elementary school must have/ can’t do without computers.

@® g @® Uô@ÙÙW @yx.

Whether I go or not is all the same to me, but I’ll go.

Ù∏® Ik Uô@Ùâ ‡óÃ @y.

If the fare is the same as for the bus, let’s take the train.


N. + ñ¡ü or ñoü

b. V. + §/Y/a ñ¡ü or ñoü

“thanks to (you) . . . ” “due to (your) generosity,” “thanks to you”

This polite acknowledgment of a favor or generosity is another way of saying “thank you.” It is used liberally even when there is no favor or generosity received, as in ñ¡ü ~ Ùænx in response to ‚ é O[‚? (a) ∂ P˚s, ñ¡ü œ∑éE Xk Ê˙é‚. èm ñoü §ë@ ëõZ ∂›x. (b) eÙsQL ´«ó nÕ√ ñoü öa ãŒZ éƒÙ is x‰é‚.

Thanks to you, Mr./Ms. Koo, I learned a great deal of Korean. Thanks to Hüngbu’s help, the swallow survived. Thanks to my father’s hard work, I went to college without hardship.

§ 20 ö


œ∑ B∂E ÂÕ Thanks to having a Korean ñ¡ü NAY friend, Yu-wen learned Korean œ∑ZZ ~ Ê˙x. well. ’óü B∂@ ua ñoü ßfiZ çÕs ›x.


Thanks to my friend who was there, I had a comfortable trip.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

“¥Pµ”kï H∂E Z”nÏ? W¥kìa Œ˚Y ‘ œ∑ü À uænÏ? ›∑ ±óf ¥P Zö œ∑ Zk éZs xGnÏ? ⁄∑mk @Ö tö ÊÍa œ∑Zk ©ôkìç ˚A›ænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß _ÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ëfi‡ güL ÅZ ~ Ñé‚? (úÚ) ›∑ü B B∂À ™îk ué‚? (df) ‘ k∂s is “é‚? (-x Wn) e‡@ ìU® ¡î≤s Ìöé‚? (-©/Z ¢≥Ã) ö cπÀa k cπÀWx ëÂ? (Uô@Ù) é§ éÓ Kön? (-ö/qöx) Uk™ ]a œ∑éE ú ~ Õ¡’‚. (ñoü) kÂE üπké‚? (-§/Y/a ñoü)

x\ ¨ÖÁZ üU@»¡æ. ’Mç ’ ÜZ Z÷ W»¡æ. 9. 10. 11.

eFü iÅZ yxWn ©öZ ÊÍxWn ÏΩZ Xk ÕxWn

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 12.

-(k)ònx ∑: ^≈a ⁄üékx. A ^≈a ⁄üéònx. a.

öa ç‡k Ü‘snx.

. . .

¥Pµ Œ˚öf W∞



b. k oY Ùuykx. c. klk § érn ˆkx. C. {é ™æ 1.

x\ ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. a ⁄∑üL Áé¿ ZZ mE F Qa

a. Zkx.

a ⁄∑ü Âa y‡ ®ì ÂóZ mE F Qa Zkx. a ~ gMa £Z mE F Qa Zkx. c. d. æÑìï . e. ¿Ùbkï . f. ΩeMï . b.


jaY ΩÂE ëì ‘W»¡æ. ÂÈÕx versus kÈÕx a. b. c. d. e.


x\ ¯¨ü “Xx,” “õx,” “„Æx,” “ux” fa “òx” E ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. a. b. c. d. e.


‰ŒZ œ∑ü xfi“x. úLE ÅÔ ≥ §öyænÏ? ∑§ WfüL ≥éÀ œ∑éE ›x. œ∑ @a ‡WE œ∑Z ≈¿Z bMyx. B∂E µZ ¯yxç?

?∑üL œ∑ZZ ÊÌ ‡W@ XænÏ? ㌱üL ßy/∞y B∂E ÂŒ ‡W@ XænÏ? ‰Œ F µZ ¯ ‡W@ XqænÏ? Œ‡ ›ü ò™Z W≠ D ‡W@ uöænÏ? Œ±üL çú \fZ Áé[ ‡W@ uænÏ?

B∂® ÚéDÁZ qRÕøç ”nx. éZs ZÕyænÏ? (ÚéD elder, superior) k iY . . . k iY . . . ; k oY . . . k oY . . .

§ 20 ö


∑: (YÊÀ ª¡) k iY ™ñÕ≠ Àua YÊç, k iY ®ÂŒöü xna ª¡~. a. (ˆñÀ ≥ˆ) b. (B∂f eÙsö ÍM érs) c. (‚¡À M´„) D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

≥éE @BD F ©∫ ZZ §n tö @B@yænÏ? ‘ ’≠yænÏ? œ∑éü Xk ÂÈ≈ç ua ⁄üéf ∑E ÁéW»¡æ. ⁄üé@ ‘ Xk QsnÏ? ?∑üL Xk Qka ⁄üéa ©ôk uænÏ?

§ 21 ö úy §Æk çÖ®x ÙÊa ]Ó ¡∑kéE Âøç kêÀ “Q ÈË úy Ò@ü Kx. úy Ò@üa XY º˜f úy §ÆÁk xáÕs1 ú¡≈é uöx. kóüL ~ çBâ ‘√ §ÆZ ÁLüWx œ @|ü Í ñ ux. ÙÊa √˙ ]Ó ¡∑kéE ¢@Wx 30% ¢≥ Ãs ∂s– ñ uöx. ÙÊÀ kêa ˚ü ∑eæyUy Ûà ¿ ]ÓE ÿ∏üL Gπ \fZ √®s Áöx. ÙÊ:

œ∑§ æÓæf Ưk e‘ ø’‚.


∑Ë úy §ÆY x jefi.


øY PÆZ  ‘dL ç^ænx. ?∑ü @L≥ ~ Qyé‚.


’Ø£ éêÀ@ »‚– h. ߇La 220 [ME Qa£ ?∑Y 110 [ME SxÙ? ?∑üL Q‡a qçÕyx. éêÀ≥ uWâ øqya£.2


éêÀ≥ Õ® – ∑. ÈË úy Ò@üLa ꧮ Ãs Í ñ u®‚?


WÈ ÁLü @|Wx 4of 1Y œ l Oe. ’Ø£ ÍMa ’lWx ï Ãs Ë _k~.3


é! kÒÕx. \f qM@ üü ◊é„’‚.


®≥ ’Ø l Ox. Ox@4 x¡ p Wâ éRÏ?


’ü≥ f qM@ zeÙ’‚. ∑@ ~ ò ƒ®`‚. eÏ π Ré~∆a£ çÖ´ f eny–?


© çÖY eq d~. Lë∏ ]Àü úL÷ `ì. 207


§ 21 ö

(úL) ıˆ:

¤Y Lë∏ ]—nx.


æb ]Ó ¡∑kéE ∂s›a£‚. ±\üa §öx@ üü qM@ ze¨‚.


e ’≠[‚. C¡ Ré~MÙa iWk®‚?


ÒyE Çx@ π Ré~∆é‚. çD ñ ua Ù e¢k ≈’‚.


çD ñ uç Zç‚.5 ç¬ „P ’n Æø U[‚.


π üM »‚œ£ n ‘n gü @h–Ï‚?


ÆŒkÙ‚. πn @¨æ¡â ÖÛ gWÃ ç¬ „M≥Õ6 Õyænx.


ëÈY ìU® ÁÏ‚? §@ π~ Õ®‚?


ëÈY e¢ U»¡æ. Ûà Â√ §Ækì ©flÃ ç¬ „Rnx. ’Ø£ Lë∏ ‡Bk Ù®â qëy@ ëÈZ mÉ÷~ ”nx.


ç^ænx. ’± πn jyænx. gÂó ໡æ.


@| @hÕx çBx çÖ ç@x ∂sÕx ∑Ë

price to be possible, it’s possible to select, to choose breakdown; çÖ®x to be out of order to repair, to fix to purchase; ∂s purchase, buying domestic, made in Korea; ∑ËÆ Korean/ domestic product Kümsöng, Gold Star (name of company) to take out (of box, envelope, or the like) to switch off, to turn off, to extinguish variously; xáÕx to be various five days; ÖÛ gü within five days (Vt.) to drop; RéÙx (Vi.) to drop

¤Y Gπx îx xáÕs ÖÛ Ré~Mx


Çx ©fl(Ã) [M mÉÕx qçÕx ëÈ Òy Lë∏ ]À -_kx qëy √®s √˙ ]Ó ¡∑ké je ‘x éêÀ ÆøÕx [Æfi] æÓæ ÈË kÒÕx ~òÕx ú¡≈x úy Ò@ úy §Æ ¢@ [¢Ï] -§ §Æ ◊x ‘√ px Ư C¡



to take apart, to tear apart (and open) free (with no charge) volt to pay, to bear the expense; mÉk ßx to cost a lot to be uncomfortable, to be inconvenient expense box service center it is as though consumer; qëÕx to consume happily, elatedly, excitedly; √®x to be excited new style CD player; ]Ó CD to recognize, to appreciate adapter to worry; ÆøÕÙ U[‚. Don’t worry. audio system, stereo set Yongsan (district in Seoul) to be odd or strange (something) goes wrong to be exhibited; ú¡Õx to exhibit; ú¡ exhibition mall of electronics stores electrical or electronic item regular price, sticker price made in or by; ¥n§ made in Germany product, goods to decrease; ◊éÁx to (gradually) decrease the newest to switch on quality (of item or merchandise) by any chance

NÜ ¨§À ü»Ù ùÄ


[àõWà ü»Ù yˆk üü ◊éÁç ux. ñ¿ ›ú—W enì L¿, ˆy¿ fa ¿ák® ◊óf õÏÙ kÈÕß

§ 21 ö


ú‡E WÁç ux. ’ü≥ üé{, ¡Öç, cπÀ OY úy §Æf ÂÈk ÷Ux bç uéL ú‡@ üü êyïx. œ∑üLa H∂® ú‡E ùÄÕ‡ F÷ È¿œx. @õ ûYkÁk ˚A òk ú‡E ¥ëÕa lZ Wç éDÁY xÙóZ œx. úoZ 110 [MüL 220 [Mà ¡Ma kN≥ ú‡E ùÄÕ‡ F÷Lx. ’Mç ü»Ù ùÄ—W enì ÍM@ Íç ua NÜZ ˚AÕa l≥ ›‚œ nkx. yˆZ Xk ÂÈ–ñÕ, ’Mç që@ bñÕ NÜY üü ï æÆ≈‡ F¨kx. ‡à xÙó ¥ëÕx êyìx ÂÈ ˚A òk [àõWà që ñ¿ ›ú [›]] æÆ≈x ¡Mx ˆy¿ yˆ ú‡ úo [ö±] ùÄÕx [ö®Jx] ¿á; ÷ L¿ NÜ

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

machine, machinery scolding, rebuke; xÙóÕx to scold; xÙó Êx to be scolded to waste; ¥ë waste to lack, to be insufficient use; ÂÈÕx to use without thinking internationally, worldwide consumption; qëÕx to consume hydroelectric power generation to be polluted to raise nuclear power resources electricity voltage to save, to be thrifty sun thermal power environment; NÜ æÆ environmental pollution


Various uses of V. + s

-s is used to make an adverb from a descriptive verb, as in Øs “easily,” or to connect two verbs to indicate a certain aspect of the sentence,



as in -s ≈x, -s Õx, -s U¡kx, and -s ¡Æx. (See L23, GN2 and L25, GN2.) a.

D.V. + s

b. V. + s ≈x c.

V. + s Õx/WÁx

d. V. + s U¡kx (a) úy §Æk xáÕs ú¡ƒx.

“-ly” (adverb) “to turn out,” “to become,” “to get to” “to make (someone) do (something)” “it’s expected,” “it’s (only) natural” Electrical items were displayed variously.

’ ek@ ÀØs Úax.

He has a cute smile. (Literally: He smiles cutely.)

ò‘a ªøs Ìöx.

The princess wept sadly.

Some other examples are k∂s, éZs, Ãs, ¤Hs, ©Vs, ‹Õs, and òÙ is. (b) ’ B∂E js ≈öx.

I got to know him / her.

®a mËü @s ≈öx.

(It turned out that) I went to Pusan.

ekÁZ F÷L ’ fÆZ [Ís ≈öx.

(It turned out that) the building will be built for children.

(c) ’a ÂóÁZ Ïìs œx.

He/she surprises people.

Œ˚Áüs ≥éà ãÑÕs œx.

I make students respond in Korean.

‡xMs ÷L …z÷‚.

I am sorry that I made you wait.

(d) k‚ Âók œ à πs U¡k~.

The winner is supposed to treat.

§ 21 ö


µk uWâ Qs U¡kx.

It’s only natural to spend money if one has some.

Note that there is another frequently used -s, which is a colloquial form of -lk in the §/a/©/Z + lk or the k/’/ö + lk expression. ’s enü‚.

I don’t mean that.

– s Xe‚.

I’ve a great deal to do.

ga s ≤x.

It’s better to walk.

klãY jeÃa s øe. It’s good to know at least this. ô d U≈ s òé‚. 2.

There isn’t anything cold to drink.

Supposition, guess, and intention -y

-y not only indicates a future action but also indicates a supposition, guess, or intention. In many cases, it closely resembles -Z/E lkx. æc 2 ¡nÏ çÙ@ “yx.

Since it’s 2:00 p.m., the mail must have arrived. (guess)

®a πn ?∑WÃ O®yx.

I will leave for the United States tomorrow. (intention)

-y is often used with -(W)â to indicate a wish or a hope, as in -(W)â øyx “it would be nice if . . . ” or “I wish it would/were . . . ” and in -(W)â øqyx “it would have been nice if . . . ”


ë@ Xk “Wâ øyx.

I wish it would rain a lot.

éêÀ@ ˘ì“Wâ øqyx.

It would’ve been nice if an adapter had come with it.

π ó@ çÖk g ≥öWâ øqya£.

It would’ve been nice if my car hadn’t broken down.

π øOÀ@ çÖk g ®â øyx.

I wish my printer wouldn’t break down.


V. + §/Y/a _kx

b. A.V. + ©/Z _kx

“it is (almost) as though,” “I would say . . . ” “(one) plans to,” “(one) intends to”

-§/Y/a _kx indicates a calculated result and is a colloquial expression. -©/Z _kx indicates an intention or a plan.


(a) ëÃs Ë _kx.

(It’s almost as though) we paid too much.

k ecMa Iü ë÷ ŒY _kx.

(I’d say) this apartment is large, considering the price.

dn Œ±ü @a _kx.

It’s almost as though I go to school every day.

(b) ®a æú ›ü ∑e ¡ _köx.



I was planning on coming back before noon.

» tWÃ éZs – _k~?

What are you planning to do from now on?

®E ◊W WÁ _k¬?

Are you going to make a fool of me?

Construction with -x@ a.

V. + x@

b. V. + ö/qx@

“while doing,” “as (something) is going on” “while/when,” “and then”

These connectives indicate an interrupted action followed by another action. The actor of both actions is usually the same. There are some exceptions—for example, ë@ æx@ ÷@ ≥x “It was raining, and then the sun came out.” (a) ‰Z @x@ B∂E W≥é‚.

On my way, I met a friend.

k ‰Ã g◊à Go straight this way, and then @x@ ‹iWà go left. @[‚. (b) Ox@ x¡ pWâ éRÏ‚?

How about turning it off and then turning it on?

»Z söx@ xD »WÃ Desöé‚.

I wore one set of clothes and then changed into another set.

214 5.

§ 21 ö

V. + ç Zç(‚)

“of course, . . . will be/do,” “it goes without saying”

This sentence ending indicates the speaker’s willingness to do or his or her complete agreement with a fact. It is used in a casual or an intimate context.


æb ≠]@ ‚ç Zç.

It surely is cold today.

?∑ü ≥òÕâ çÙE Qç Zç‚.

Of course I’ll write to you when I get to the United States.

JEÃ∏∏Y Âók mÙØÕç Zç.

Carlos surely is a diligent fellow.

A.V. + ≥Õ Õx

“to try to make,” “to have someone do”

This pattern indicates an effort “to make something happen” or “to have someone do something.” kQ πü ç¬ „M≥Õ Õyænx.

I’ll try to repair it within two days.

kQ πü H@ ç¬ „M≥Õ ÕÙ‚.

I’ll have someone repair it in two days.

ú‡E eW Q≥Õ Õyænx.

I’ll try to save electricity.

ÂóÁüs ú‡E eW Q≥Õ Õyænx.

I’ll make people thrifty with electricity.

‘√ §ÆÁZ ú¡Õ≥Õ ›ænx.

I tried to display the latest products.

ˆk §ÆÁZ ú¡Õ≥Õ ›ænx.

I had an employee display the items.

RçLE x o≥Õ Õyænx.

I’ll try to read all the instructions.

Œ˚Ák RçLE o≥Õ Õyænx.

I’ll try to have the students read the instructions.





A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ÙÊÀ kêa æb ‘ ÈË úy Ò@ü KænÏ? ÂóÁY ‘ úy Ò@üL ÆfZ ∂s”nÏ? ÙÊf Û ]Ó ¡∑kéa ‘ çÖk ≥ænÏ? éêÀ@ »‚œ kNa ©ôsnÏ? Lë∏ ]Àa ©ôZ Õa £snÏ? Lë∏ ]ÀüLa ‘ ©flà ]Ó ¡∑kéE 笤nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

óZ ìU ‘ç Âké‚? (-§/Y/a _kx.) éZs ’ B∂E js ≈öé‚? (-x@) ¥nü @¡â ™îÕ¡yÙ‚? (-ç Zç‚.) k˘ œ¡ÏÙ ¡ ñ ué‚? (-≥Õ) Û ¡Öç@ çÖ≥a£ ©flÃ ç¬ ‘¡yé‚? (-≥Õ) (¡Öç refrigerator)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 6.

-q/öyx ∑: ÊY çÖ´ óE çBx. A ÊY çÖ´ óE çƒyx. a. ≥ëa fqM “èmú”Z ∂Üœx. b. Ω˚k “èmú” £E ∂sœx.


-§/Y/a _kx ∑: π@ B∂ cπÀE çÖ¿x. A π@ B∂ cπÀE çÖª _kx. a. J‰ΩY œ∑f Ãìikx. b. œ∑f fqMa Láf ¿Ùbö Ox.

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY “-s” mÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Ãs, @Ps, Is, √®s, ‹Õs

§ 21 ö


a. √¨ ‡ÂE T Füa Q[‚. b. ßfi– F ˙Z Ã[‚. c. Œ‡Z ¡Êk ü®L Ïqé‚. (Œ‡Z ¡Ê final exam) xéKé‚. d. Är ¡Bü iéL e. [n ›ü ÙßfZ Õ® é‚. 2.

jaY ΩÂE ëì ‘W»¡æ. îx versus px ∑: ÿ∑ëúZ Oïn ˚gk ¥ÈÕx. ïn ìÓæ≥ Ok p±x. yΩó ¡ΩZ (¡Ω engine start) b. ÿ∑ëúZ ç £Z o‡ ¡z›x. c. qZ L é—s Õç æÓæE â oF‡@ éF? (q light) d. cπÀE g T Fa . ú‡E eW~Ù. e. qZ a ÂóZ q‰ñìç mDx. (q fire, q‰ñ firefighter) a.


ëøœ Üf {éE °eL fl ‘W»¡æ. çÖ®x, ≈x, ÙqÕx, @|, Âx, ñMÕx, µ a. b. c. d. e. f. g.


k ‡à@ `@±é‚. WçLü óE ∂s›xç Êx. (WçL report) kˆ ãWE ÷ëÕa£ ëÈk Xk Áöænx. k ÷∂ka Ik ìUÙ‚? µZ J„à ºÏ? πnÏÙ Ê}k @h”nx. (Ê} delivery) ‡Â@ óE çƒxç ÷‚. (‡Â driver)

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ öd˙Wà ÕYÕ»¡æ. OY ΩÂ@ œ ˆ kÒ Qn ñ uænx. (öd˙ past tense)



Çx, ´x, Gπx, ‘x, çBx a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. 5.

Ûà ¿ æÓæ ÿ∏E . L üˆüs ‘öx. µZ . ÁLüüL U\ü „a ÙHZ Õ® @‰Z ç rüL £Z œ ≈ G¿x. £Z oç ®L x¡ @‰ rü . ≤zUnü @L \flñE . (\flñ drink) öyE Õ® ÂL _ÙE . (_Ù bag) öy _Ù rüL öyE Õ® . |ì pPZ . (pP lid, cap) ´àà †¨Z .

jaY {éE ëìL ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ‘√, º˜, ‡B, ¥n§, ?§, ú¡ ΩÆZ ™∂Õ√xâL‚? éQ f ΩÆZ ™ ∂Õ¡a£‚? b. æb ?öú¡Öü Ok Dü? Y‘f ’Qk ≈é uã. c. ö‡ ö cπÀ éOn? ‡öà WÁöã. (‡ö skill, technology) d. yΩóa E je ‘Ù. ?∑L W Wx≥ øxç ÷. e. üM ÁLüü @Wy. ™Z [n k πnÏÙü. a.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

§Æ RçLE @Ùç ÀL oç Rç÷ W»¡æ. ú‡ ü»Ù ùÄY éZs ÕyænÏ? n‡ Ωg S ¡Öç@ çÖk ®L uøÀ Lë∏E ‹‡ F÷ Lë∏ ]Àü úLE ›ænx. B∂À ãLE WÁé W»¡æ.

§ 22 ö ©® W ȮZ Õx B∂ eÙÙ@ Ï≥Õ¡a WÂà ?∑m ◊ké@ °e “x. íqü È®Z Õò ıˆüs ‹œ nk ˚‡a ◊óü ã√ È®– Âók »‚Õs ƒx. ’üL B∂f m∑Z ‹ç ÙÊ@ Õ Ωg È®Z ã√ Շà ›x. ú¨ ÈéE ~ îìL Âá–Ï Õx@1 œ ˆ ÷W‡Ã ›x. (W Ùú) gπ:

éL 满æ. éZs ækænÏ?


’, Ê öÖsZ e≠ “a£‚.


ÅÔW @xM[‚. Ê ‡ñ öÖsY 102 B≈ü à»nx. ö≥ öÖsQ UF L˜E ú÷ „M≠ @ò úkn2 Ok @¡–.



(©≈) Ê öÖ:

éL æ[‚. ÿ ÙÊ ∏ aÙ‚? W®L ¤Hænx.


gÂÕ[‚. iÙ iqaÙ êByænx.

Ê öÖ:

eA, ¡Bü ~ a ækænx. k iWà hW»¡æ. æb – nZ B{ó Rç÷ „Ps‚. Ü≥ŒZ òmœxn ©®ü ã÷L≥ ~ jy∏‚.


≥éÃa jÙW ú¨ ÈéE œ∑Zà ~ îìL ~ – ñ uZ Ù êByænx.


©® W ȮZ Õx



Ê öÖ:

ñ‡ö ñsü 㜠ZW ~ jç uWâ ≈nÏ »© e¢ U[‚.


’Ø£, öÖs WÂa úy §ÆZ Xk ñ‡Õ√xç Áöa£ ‘à é_ ®ìà ñ‡Õ[‚?

Ê öÖ:

ÍM W ˚ËÆf Ä 60 z]M ¢≥@ ñ‡≈a£ eU [àü g @a ók òa l Oe‚. ü®ç ®L Ok ÍM òÖZ œ≠ W≈Ï‚?


‚ ?∑ ÂóÁk œ∑ ܧü 㜠ú«k ©£ œ∑ ©®Y ‚ éQ@‚?

Ê öÖ:

ñ‡≥ XY£x@3 ñs≥ Xe¨L ‚ ©®k O›÷±é‚.


æb àÄZ Õs ≈®‚?

Ê öÖ:

’, ’≠‡E ◊ònx.4 xD ¨§a òa£ ’ iüL ˆÕa ≠D@ »© ‹÷L @|Z Ún ñŸü òöé‚.5 ’ üZ ~ k÷¡p6 ‘[‚.


‘PZ x÷ Wyænx.


ܧ àÄ òÖ öÖs

economy contract factory department head (HON.); öÖ manager, section chief Mr. — (to young man by superior) hoping it would turn out so to be in a hurry, to have an emergency; ‹ó in a hurry, urgently (due) date; ≠D@ ‹Õx to be in a rush, time is running out to raise to exhaust; ‘PZ xÕx to do one’s best just at the right time, just at the right moment

-∏ ’≠‡E; ’∂s ≈‡E ‹Õx ≠D Úkx xÕx UF


§ 22 ö

©® ¨§ ◊ìx ◊ké m∑ ÂáÕx ˚ËÆ L˜ ñs ñ‡ gπ Ï≥Õx ˆÕx k÷¡Æx ÅÔW ú¨ Èé ú÷ „Mx ‘à ıˆ -i ‘P È®Õx z]M íqü O›Õx Ùú


trade, import and export problem; ¨§ òx No problem. to wish, to hope buyer request, favor; m∑Õx to request, to ask a favor to decline, to turn down (politely) products, manufactured; ‘PZ xÕx to make one’s best goods document, paper import export guide, information to manage, to administer; Ï≥ management, administration to want, to wish to make someone understand; k÷ understanding just a moment, a little while technical terms to relay (for someone) (HON.) mainly, mostly company employee side, way; k i this way; ö i that way (one’s) best; ‘PZ xÕx to do one’s best to interpret; È® interpretation percentage (øà for colloquial) usually, ordinarily; íq ordinary times to be active, to be lively front entrance

œ∑f ©®ü ãÕß


œ∑f ܧa ©®k ›«kx. Dk zç ≥™ yˆk mµÕÙW m¿ yˆY XY çkx. ’üL ⁄∑üL áflE ñsÕß œ∑üL §ÆZ W c x¡ ñ‡Õa Ëók ›}Õs ≈öx.

©® W ȮZ Õx



œ∑ ܧa ©®ü ßs f∂Õ‡ F¨ü ÷⁄ ܇À }≠ NQü XY ≥‡Z ‹s ∆x. úüa fXk® √› ÏZ ‘à ñ‡›a£ ‚Y ¤≥∫À yΩó, ’Mç ¥L ÏZ Xk ñ‡Õç ux. ’≠® üó ˚O ñ÷k ÚeÙç r¤k ëÃ˙ü ˘ì ˚Ëë@ ÚeÙs ≈a lk ¨§ük ≈ç ux. k≠œ ¨§E ÷ÅÕç, f ÛÃÏ ñ‡ ÒÆZ R›Õ‡ F÷L œ∑üLa XY ™∂E Õç ux. R›Õx to develop ܇ state of economy, business conditions ……Õx [”»Jx] to be sufficient, to have enough (time, space, or money) ï∏x® furthermore ¤≥∫ semiconductor ÒÆ merchandise ˚Ëë production cost ñ÷ level; ˚O ñ÷ living standard ≥‡ influence F÷L for, for the sake of fX clothes m¿ [n¿] human power; m¿yˆ human resources r¤ wages áfl material gradually üó ›« center, core ≥™ [±‡] natural; ≥™ yˆ natural resources ¥L steel ÷ÅÕx to solve ÷⁄ abroad, overseas

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


A.V. + ©/ZÏ Õx@

“considered doing . . . but . . . ,” “was going to . . . then . . . ”

-©/ZÏ Õx@ is the combination of -©/ZÏ “consider doing” and -Õx@ (interrupted action) and indicates that one considers doing one thing then changes to doing something else.

§ 22 ö



Âá–Ï Õx@ ÷ W‡Ã ›x.

I was going to decline but decided to try.

œ∑ \¬Z ¡±Ï Õx@ ›∑ \¬Z ¡vx.

I was going to order Korean food but then ordered Chinese.

ëfi‡E πÏ Õx@ ‡ó çZ kÈՇà ›x.

I was considering the airplane but decided to take the train.

rM@ ecL ˚üL ≠Ï Õx@ ≥Lúü “x.

I was going to rest at home because of my headache but came to the library.


A.V. + ò úkx/ ókx

b. A.V. + ò úü

“(I am) in the middle of doing/ being . . . ” “in the middle of doing”

As a colloquial expression, -ò úkx indicates that “I am in the middle of an action” and that usually some other action follows. -ò úü indicates that, in addition to “in the middle of an action,” it is an opportune moment. (a) Ù¤ ∑Õn?

What are you doing?

ˆ®Õò ú~.

I am (in the middle of) translating.

éÓ @‚?

Where are you going?

öÖsQ L˜E ú÷ „M≠ @ò úkü‚.

I was just on my way to deliver the paper to the manager.

(b) Êçøò úü ~ ƒx. sW≠ @y. öÖsQ L˜E ú÷ „M≠ @ò úü öÖsZ X≥üL W≥x.

Great! I am (in the middle of being) hungry. Let’s go eat. On my way to deliver the paper to the manager, I ran into her in the hallway.

A more often used pattern is -øò úkx or -øò úü, which indicates that one is just about to do one thing when something else happens.

©® W ȮZ Õx




Ù∏E ∂øò úü ’E W≥x.

As I was just about to get on the bus, I met him.

g ’ü≥ úLÕøò úköé.

I was just about to call you anyway.

V. + §/Y/a £x@

“in addition to,” “not only . . . but also,” “and also”

This connective is composed of the -a£ connective followed by -x@.


Æ@@ æD £x@ NQ≥ ¡öx.

The prices have gone up, and the exchange rate has also gone up.

£≥ Xk oa £x@ ÏΩ≥ ´«ó œx.

Not only does she read many books, but she exercises diligently.

á‘≥ XY £x@ Y|≥ øx.

Not only is he talented, but he has a good personality.

V. + ‡E ◊ìx

“to wish,” “to pray for,” “to hope for”

This expression indicates a simple wish, desire, or hope. ’, ’≠‡E ◊ònx.

Yes, I wish it would be so.

Âók ~ ≈‡E ◊ü‚.

I pray your business will do well.

’ B∂À ~ Ùπ‡E ◊ü.

I hope you get along well with your friend.

PÆÃ Â ÷ £Z á?us I hope you will enjoy the book o‡E ◊ònx. given to you as a gift. 5.

V. + ©/Z ñŸü òx

“there is no way/choice but to . . . ,” “have to”

@|Z Ún ñŸü òx.

There is no way but to raise the price.

– s »© XeL ·Z ÛÌ ñŸü òyé‚.

There is so much to do, I have no choice but to stay up all night.

µZ ùÄ– ñŸü òöx. I had to be frugal with money. ∆ÙW @öü @a ñŸü òx.

I hate it, but there’s no way but to go to a dentist.

§ 22 ö

224 6.

N. phrase or clause + Z/E ¡Æx

“to make (someone) do . . . ,” “to order”

The verb ¡Æx is used in two ways: as a causative verb, it makes someone do something, and as a verb, it means “to order” in a restaurant. In the former sense, it is generally used with verbs that end in -Õx, as in k÷(E) Õx, òm(E) Õx, sŒ(Z) Õx, ó§(E) Õx, πq(E) Õx, or e¢(Z) Õx. Not all -Õx verbs can be used with ¡Æx—for example, NÕx or `Õx. a.

“to make someone do something” ¨§E k÷¡vx.

I made him understand the problem.

Ω˚Z ¡pL ≥LúüL £Z îø “x.

I borrowed books by sending my younger brother to the library.

Ω˚üs «mFZ ¡vx.

I sent him on an errand.

±≈üL Z ¡ÆÙ U.

Don’t make me talk in the classroom.

b. “to order”


®a ¡^≈E ¡vx.

I ordered an iced coffee.

≈y n moÕç ∏cs[ k moZ ¡Æy.

Let’s order pizza for one and spaghetti for two.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ÙÊa éZs È®Z Õs ƒænÏ? ÙÊa ‘ È®Õa lZ e¢›ænÏ? gπÕa ÂóY ÙÊüs H∂E W®ìç ›ænÏ? ©® WÂüLa ‘ @|Z ¡P ñŸü òöænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1.

é§ ‘ úLE g ›é? (-©/ZÏ Õx@)

©® W ȮZ Õx

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


ü« „ké‚? (-ò úkx) ’ WÂa nÕ‡@ éF‚? (-§/Y/a £x@) ©ôZ úòÕç Àé‚? (-‡E ◊ìx) ‘ Hy‡ \¬ IZ ¡Mké‚? (-©/Z ñŸü òx.) çÙE m¬~ya£ ◊úL ò @y’‚. (-Z/E ¡Æx)

x\ ¨ÖÁZ ∑À Ok ‘éˆ ¨˙Wà ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-©/ZÏ Õx@ ∑: ܧŒZ úòÕx, A ܧŒZ úò–Ï Õx@ Ü≥ŒZ úòÕx. Ü≥ŒZ úò›x. a. cπÀE Â≠ ÁLüü @x, úy Ò@ü @x. b. ‰ŒΩg ∏ÆE ∂≠ @x, ÕÀkü ßfi@x. c. qR@@ ≈x, ≥L G¥k ≈x.


-§/Y/a £x@ . . . ÏÙ ∑: ë@ æx, Jk æx. A ë@ æa £x@ JÏÙ ¿x. a. @|k ëÃx, Ưk ®ÿx. b. Æ@@ æBx, ñ‡k g≈x. c. ©® ÈéE Ê˙x, µZ ¯öx.


-‡E ◊ìx. ∑: È®ü ≈ñE ÕÙ ix. A È®ü ≈ñE ÕÙ i‡E ◊ü‚. a. b. c. d.

Ärü iÙ ix. ¡ÊZ ~ @x. ú¨ ÈéE ~ k÷¡Æx. ÙÊ@ ‘PZ xÕx.

C. {é ™æ 1.


jaY ΩÂE ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: È®Z a. b. c. d.


bx mx ÂáÕx Ï≥Õx xÕx

§ 22 ö

226 2.

jaY {éE ëì ‘W»¡æ. Ñk Õ® kÒ uZ ñ≥ uænx. B{Õs, y[Õs, as, QMs ãÑÕ[‚. a. ¯¨ü Rç÷ ‘[‚. b. ?∑f ±È˚Z Øç (˚ law) c. ’ L˜E oé WnÏ QO lk Xk uöx. Z÷ ‘a ◊óü Ärü d. ’ ok ¡BZ iöx.


jaY çÂE ëì ‘W»¡æ. àÄ, NQ, @|, Ư a. ñs WÂa k ÚeÙâ Ï≥k éøÙˆx. b. Æf IZ ìç œx. c. ’ ÊÍa ÿ∑ëú ≥Lü ®æa Z möx. (mx to close, to conclude) d. ÒÆk ~ gMøâ ÍP k øe~ œx. (ÒÆ merchandise)

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

ñ‡Æ Ik ëÃÙa kNE jeWç k~‡÷ W»¡æ. ‰zk® ÿ∑ëúZ È÷ ©∫ fd ¢çE ÁöænÏ? ‰zZ Êç fl 满æ. ß≠oY È®Z ÷ Z õk uænÏ? ©ôk §n éø˙ænÏ?

§ 23 ö

cπÀ ¢W ]ÀüL ÙÊa mÀ¤Z ÂÈÕ‡ F÷ Œ±f cπÀ ¢W ]Àü °e Kx. ‡Z WçL zYZ Õøâ mÀ¤Z È÷1 yflE °e~ Õ‡ F¨kx. Œ±ü B Êü cπÀ dÖü≥ @ W‡Ã ›x. (cπÀ ¢W ]ÀüL) ÙÊ:

gÂÕ[‚? mÀ¤Z ÂÈÕøç “a£‚.


Œ˚Û @¨ æké‚?


߇ uænx. öa Ù¤ ±N Œ˚Wà À ua£ Œ± cπÀE ÂÈÕøâ éZs ÷~ ≈Ù‚?


k √πLE zY÷ ‘[‚.


…zÕÙW § œ∑é@ Lˆ≠L k √πLü ua ZZ ~ êBya£ π @B¬ ‘¡yé‚?


’, ≥À „Ps‚. éÓ® √πLüa éøÏ Zk X‡ U¡kÙ‚.2


G”nx. œ∑ü ¿ Ù æüƒÙW eı √πL a ~ ò Qyé‚.


@Ùç à√ RmÈ cπÀü 㜠πÈZ ߇ü y[ó õé ‘[‚.


Ù¤Y B∂ lZ îøQç ua£ ’lü ã÷ fl≥ §öZÏ‚?


’± ’ moY ë٠áç ߇ ÂÈy kFö ëŒ ˆBW õé ‘[‚. 227


§ 23 ö


’Ø£ Œ±üL cπÀE Í ñ u®‚?


Œ˚ Wú ∂π dÖü @â Â≈ ñ ué‚. I≥ –m @|kì ¡› @|Wx – d∑‚.

(Œ˚ Wú ∂π dÖüL) ÙÊ:

cπÀE Âç ÀéL “a£‚.

dü ıˆ:

k iü Ûà ®¿ cπÀ@ é º˜ uænx. ‘à éQ ëõWà ÂÈÕ≈ f£‚?


£kÀ Bk∏À Èà øÃ’£Z ‘à ÂÈ÷~ √‚. mÀ¤≥ y‘ ÂÈÕç‚.

dü ıˆ:

’± k cπÀE œˆ W¡–. Yhü ë÷3 @|k e‘ œ çkü‚.


Õ„ Ó∏ß È¨k π z∏‚. π © lWà ◊{ ñ uZÏ‚?

dü ıˆ:

e¡x¡≈4 ‡Z «fZ ◊x¡øâ ëÈk ï Ínx.


uøÀ Lë∏a éZs …nÏ?5

dü ıˆ:

3‡ Ωgsnx. cπÀE @¨æ¡‡W Õâ6 ◊Ã ç¬ „Rnx.


G”nx. ˚A÷ Wç x¡ æyænx.



personal use, private use; RmÈ cπÀ personal computer school store, campus store end-of-term; ‡Z WçL term paper; ‡Z ¡Ê final exam basic; ‡Z «f basic option content person in charge; ÉáÕx to be in charge data database

∂π dÖ ‡Z; Œ‡Z ‡Z πÈ Éáy £kÀ; yfl £kÀBk∏


dÖ ëõ WçL; MóM mo ëŒ ˆB ëÙ Ãx îø Qx ÂÈy Yh ]À ¡› @| √πL uøÀ Lë∏ Ȩ mÀ¤ zYÕx õé ‘x ¢W °e @x Èà Õ„ Ó∏ß Œ˚Û Œ˚Wú –m [ÕO]



sales floor purpose, objective, goal report, paper; WçÕx to report part; nmo one part of password, secret number to leave empty/blank; ëÍx to empty to borrow and use; îMx to borrow user performance, capability center; ¢W ]À information center market price application form; √πÕx to apply (for) service under warranty capacity Internet to prepare (document), to draw up, to fill in; zY drawing up to write and submit; õx to write down, to jot down information to visit statistical data, statistics hard disk student identification card student hall discount; –mÕx to give a discount

cπÀ √[ãÀ È√ ¨L


cπÀÀ úy Íç, ’Mç mÀ¤Y ûY [ãE Ò@œx. mÀ¤ ÂÈyÁk ‹ró bç uç, ÕÂì≥ È√Z ÕÙ òÕâ Sk ®a È√ √„–≥ ®∂≥x. mÀ¤Z È÷ B∂≥ ÂÀç »‚œ ¢W≥ ±Nœx. ¥Nœ £Ù ‰¬ö êéÁZ fl @á y√ÁWf [àE WÂx. mÀ¤Z È÷ qRk® WLE ›£Õa z@Ák ®À ßs YòÕ‡≥ œx. cπÀ È√`Y √[ãÁf ߌZ kòé @a @Ö ›‚œ d∫@ ≈ç ux. ú« ua Âfü ã÷L ´¬œ ‚Œk ’@Ù iax.


§ 23 ö

±NÕx ’@x ‹ró [‹ÏÆ] ¥Nœ [¥ML] d∫ S Âf [ÂJ] Ò@Õx YòÕx [ã ߌ ´¬œ kòé @x z@ úy Íç; k}n ‚ŒÕx È√ ¨L È√` £Ù ‰¬ ÕÂì≥

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

to exchange; ±N exchange to cease, to stop; ë@ ’@x to stop raining quickly, rapidly unique, peculiar; ¥NÕx to be unique, to be peculiar medium, intermediary disease, illness; Sk ®x/Áx to get sick event to symbolize to be successful; Yò success generation, era public opinion passionate; ´¬Õx to be passionate to lead; kòx to pull, to draw author e-mail to debate, to discuss; ‚Œ debate, discussion culture of communication communication network form of expression for even one day


N. + Z/E ÈÕß(L)

“by way of,” “through”

-Z/E ÈÕß(L) or -Z/E È÷(L) indicates a conduit or a medium that can be either abstract or concrete. Abstract œ∑ úèZ È÷ ÂóÁY íLf q›“Z js ≈öx.

People learned the value of peace through the Korean War.

‡ó ˚OZ È÷ B∂E Xk W®s ≈öx.

I made many friends through living in the dormitory.

Concrete mËZ È÷ ñ‡sÆÁk Áéæç ®Bx.

Imports and exports are coming in and going out through Pusan.




B∂E È÷ ’ ÂóZ qR‹qx.

He was introduced to me by my friend.

WçL zYZ Õøâ mÀ¤Z È÷ yflE °e~ œx.

To make a report, we have to find the material through the Internet.

V. + ‡/s U¡kx

“it is expected,” “it is only natural that . . . ”

-‡ U¡kx and -s U¡kx are used interchangeably, although -s U¡kx is considered to be the standard form. k‚ Âók œÃ π‡ U¡kx.

The winner is expected to treat (others).

¤‚nüa ±Èk XÇÕs It’s expected that the traffic will U¡kx. be congested on Fridays.


Œ˚Y ¡Bk ò‡ U¡k~.

Students are expected to be busy.

N. + ü ë÷(L) . . . (V. + §/Y/a çkx)

“compared with . . . , (it is on the side of ) . . . ”

This comparative construction indicates that something is “somewhat better / worse / more / less than . . . ,” and -çkx indicates a small degree of difference.


‡ó£a ëfi‡£ü ë÷ Ik œ çkx.

Train tickets are somewhat cheaper than airplane tickets.

nZü ë÷ ?∑Y Æ@@ Â.

Compared with those in Japan, the prices are cheaper in the United States.

k cπÀa @|ü ë÷ Yhk øY çsnx.

Considering the price, this computer performs relatively well.

ÏMa ®kü ë÷ éø Wß.

Henry looks young for his age.

V. + x¡≈

“as you (know, see, hear)”

-x¡≈ means “as things are” or “as (the way it is)” and is most often used in the following expressions:


§ 23 ö


“as you know”


“as you know” (HON.)


“as you can see”


“as you can hear”


“as you heard”

»≥ jx¡≈ πnk Uk~f ˚nk~.

As you know, tomorrow is Maya’s birthday.

P˚sQL≥ e¡x¡≈ ‚ dM@ XÇ÷‚.

As you (HON.) know, the streets are crowded these days.

»≥ Wx¡≈ ߇a fy@ òÙ in.

As you can see, there are no chairs here.

»≥ Áöx¡≈ üNk πn ¿ã.

As you heard, (they say) Eric is coming tomorrow.

Note that when -x¡≈ is used with -Õx, the -x¡≈Õx expression has the idiomatic meaning of “almost” or “nearly.” æb ◊úL ºx¡≈ ›é. I was so busy today I almost starved.


iZ Ï` Œ±ÏÙ xx¡≈ ÷L Ké.

Afraid that I might be late, I almost ran all the way to school.

éZs …nÏ? or éZs ≈Ù‚?

“how is . . . ?,” “what is . . . ?”

éZs and ©ô are generally translated as “how” and “what” in English, but they do not always correspond to their respective translations. Y“k éZs ≈[‚?

What is your name? (HON.)

æb NQY éZs ≈Ù‚?

What is today’s exchange rate?

k cπÀa @|k éZs ≈Ù‚? (or ìU® ÕÙ‚? éZs ÕÙ‚?)

How much is this computer?

æb ?∑fi ëfi‡ ∏h◊k éZs ≈®‚?

What’s today’s airplane schedule to America like?




eÙsY ™[@ éZs ≈[‚?

How old is your father?

V. + ‡W Õâ

“whenever,” “every time,” “only if”

This connective has two meanings. One indicates that “whenever” one does something, something else invariably happens; it is similar to -©/Z FUx. The other indicates the conditional “only if.” a.

“whenever” B∂a öZ U¡‡W Õâ ∑e‚.

Whenever he drinks, my friend falls asleep.

®a óE ∂‡W Õâ Åk À‚.

Whenever I am in a car, I get sleepy.

b. “only if”


µZ ¯‡W Õâ cπÀE Õ® Í d~.

Only if I make money will I buy a computer.

cπÀf ȨZ bM‡W Õâ œŸ qøM¸éE T ñ ux.

Only if I add more memory to the computer can I use the Korean software.


A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

cπÀ ¢W]Àa ©ôZ Õa ®nÏ? √πLüa ©ôZ fl~ …nÏ? éZs ÷~ Õ„ Ó∏ßf ȨZ bP ñ uænÏ? cπÀ@ çÖk ®â éZs ”nÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

’ ˚Z éZs js ≈öé‚? (-È÷) ÛÃ Ë »k éF‚? (-ë÷ -§/Y/a çkx) ‘ ú‡ yΩóE Âké‚? (-x¡≈) Y“k éZs ≈»nÏ? ‘qa‚? æb ≠D@ éZs ≈Ù‚? (§ kFY, § ‘qa, æbY)

§ 23 ö

234 5.

k §ÆY çÖ®â uøÀ Lë∏E ‹Z ñ uænÏ? (-‡W Õâ)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 6.

-‡/s U¡kx ∑: ßFüa ë@ ¿x. A ßFüa ë@ æ‡ U¡kx. a. {Ìüa ÷@ Ix. b. ¨ÖZ ß≠ ˆ oWâ ⁄Ì ñ ux. c. ñ‡k bâ ܇@ øeˆx.

7. -ë÷ -§/Y/a çkx ∑: ÙÊa Y‘ü ë÷ A ÙÊa Y‘ü Æ@ ßx. ë÷ Æ@ © çkx. a. Ù‰Y LÌü ë÷ ˚Oë@ Ãx. b. k cπÀa ö ÈMnü ë÷ Yhk øx. c. ≥¬k@ ≥ëWx ‚Z üM sax. C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY {éE ëì ‘W»¡æ. ëŒ ˆB, Œ˚Û, Èà, ëõ, yfl, –m E jç ué~ œx. a. YfiüL µY °Wøâ b. Ïú â·Ûk òWâ kì≥ Wß ‘[‚. (Ïú â·Û driver’s license) c. kˆ ßfif Y §‘≥f ¬ÆZ ™∂Õøa lkx. (¬Æ plants) d. ÍM WÂüL 1má ºkE ìU® ÂÈÕaÙ E π ‘[‚. (-á per) e. ÈàŒy@ ™∂E Õ‡ F÷La @ »‚Õx. f. ‚ [nkn ÷ „Ps‚.




jaY ΩÂE ëì ‘W»¡æ. zYÕx, îøQx, ëÙÃx

a. B∂@ is ¡ ’n ’ yMa y. b. ’ ÂóY YfiüL µZ Xk xç œx. ›x. c. ’ öŒya yflE oMœ c WçLE D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

y‡@ Mç ua cπÀü ã÷L y[ó Rç÷ W»¡æ. cπÀ ÂÈf Öü(øY ü)ö {ü(®Ÿ ü)Z flW»¡æ. tWà cπÀE kÈÕß ©ôZ – ñ uWâ øyænÏ?

§ 24 ö ?∑üL ¿ q¬ ˚ü À Wn ÙÊ tWà çÙ@ œ È À uöx. Jü lY1 Ÿ]ìL Wn érnQL Wπ ‘√ lköx. ÙÊa ¡¤÷L √›≥ ¸a ” Ua ” ÕâL2 çÙ _ÛE Çé bx. érna gm çÙÀ “Q á?ua √¨ ‡ÂE Ok Wπ ‘kx. érna @õ ?∑ √¨ ›üL è? ua ‡Â@ uWâ Wπ ‘¡è œx. kˆ ‡Âa kÃü úœ ‡Â≤x. ?∑Y kÃyÁü f÷L [Ùˆ ®ìkx. œ∑—W enì [à óóüL XY ÂóÁk ?∑Wà kÃZ “x. ’≠® x\ ‡ÂE oéWâ k§a ?∑üL xD ®ìà kÃZ @a ÂóÁ≥ Xxa lZ j ñ ux. “~¡yü Âa ?∑m 1ÁW ç” ?∑ ÂóÁk @Ö Xk Íç ua ⁄∑Y éÓnÏ? ¢ÑY ~¡ykx. ~¡y ÂóÁW ?∑Wà kà æa lk enì ?∑ ÂóÁ≥ 1ÁW ç kÒk ~¡yà Kx. ‘◊ ®¿ ÇÙ G~¡yüL Øs Âa ˚Hü ˘Bâ3 XY ?∑mÁk YÓœ4 cü ~¡yüL çÕs Í àXZ Õç uxç œx. ’∂xâ ‘ XY ?∑mÁk ~¡yà @øa Ù ’ kNE jeWy. ∑O, ˚Oë@ õs Âx. ‘◊ ~¡y ÑqLf @@@ Ré¨L [àõWà [ F ~¡ya ˚Oë@ @Ö õs „a ®ì ›f Õ®x. }≠f @@@ Úe˙ü ˘ì ?∑mÁk ~¡yüL ͇@ ï ™Ù±x. œO, ‡c@ øx. ~¡ya n‡ ππ ≠]@ ˘ÜÕx. Nó ¯ùœ Æö eFxÏ y™, ’Mç √Pœ ò‡@ ?∑mÁf ú«Z ñx.


?∑üL ¿ q¬



aO, ÙMõWà ?∑ö @Ûx. ëÕ ~¡yü Íç ux Õïì≥5 à ¡Bkâ UMóne® ÷Â∏ OY óü D ñ ux. f ?∑mÁ†M6 Íç ua UZ≥ ua£ ?∑ö Oà xD lk òx. k ÇÙa “õY ˚OëÃ, ñ≥Ök ua ŒY ˚üL, ‚MÂ@ WÁé ‘a _ua \¬Z sç, ¢ˆÂ@ @z ¢ˆüL ¨x. ’Mç Üëˆk á√f gúZ £r¨ ÷x”ç PúZ œx. k ‡ÂE oWâL ÙÊa œ∑üL ?∑Wà @a kÃk® ?∑üL ~¡yà @a kÃk®, OY kÃkÙW ’Áf Ω‡À ëõk ≥Ùók7ìç ˚A›x.

{é @xx @@ Üëˆ óó ‡c ‡Â


to take care of (plants) value security personnel, guard here and there, everywhere climate news item; √¨ ‡Â newspaper account, newspaper article òx to draw; ú«Z òx to draw interest ππ throughout a time period; n‡ ππ all through the year Ω‡ motive Áx to cost; Œë@ Ãs Âx. Tuition costs little. ˘ÜÕx [˘~∂x] to be warm RéÙx to fall, to go down Çé Wx [~ïWx] to open to see or read; Çx to tear off ÁW million _Û envelope ëÕ even if ˚Oë living expenses PúÕx to advertise ñ≥Ö swimming pool ™x to take a rest; ™âL while relaxing √Pœ refreshing, fresh; √PÕx to be refreshing, to be fresh

§ 24 ö


gm çÙ gú tWà [eøÃ] -ü ˘Bâ ‚M YÓÕx kà kà æx kÒ lx ¢Ñ ¢ˆ ÙMõ £rÙx ≥Ùók ‘◊ È


¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.

letter to find out if one is well safety, security; gúÕx to be safe or secure for, named to according to; ˘Bx to follow a cook; ‚M cooking; ‚MÕx to cook to retire; YÓ retirement immigration; kÃy immigrant to immigrate; kà @x to emigrate more than, above, over to be familiar, to be accustomed to correct answer garden; ¢ˆÂ gardener geographic; ÙMõWà geographically; ÙM geography to take responsibility, to be responsible; £r responsibility big difference (as if between heaven and earth); ≥Ùókkx to be worlds apart recent classifier for letters and documents; çÙ œ È one letter; k¿L Ã È two copies of resume (Mexican) peso currency


Idiomatic use of -ü lx or -k lx

“to be familiar with”

While lx means “to ripen” or “to be well done,” its idiomatic use means “to be familiar with” and is used with ∂ “face,” J “eye,” À “ear,” or t “hand.” k Èüa Àü lx.

This song sounds familiar.

’ Âóf ì∫k Jü lx.

His face looks familiar.

ö ∞ya ∂k lY Âókx.

The man has a familiar face.

?∑üL ¿ q¬




nk tü löx.

I am familiar with the work. / I’m used to the job.

V. + a ” Ua ” (Õç)

“hurriedly,” “haphazardly,” “barely,” “hardly”

This expression describes the subject’s hurried action or motion in doing things incompletely or haphazardly. It is often used with -Õç to connect two sentences, but, colloquially, -Õç is frequently dropped.


¸ÙE Õa ” Ua ” (Õç) xé ®Kx.

I hurriedly took a shower and ran out.

eFZ sa ” Ua ” (Õç) Œ±ü “x.

I hardly ate breakfast and then came to school.

ÅZ ya ” Ua ” (Õç) né≥x.

I had barely slept when I woke up.

Ärk uéL mÂE Õa ” Ua ”Õç eö] ˚Z ®“x.

Because I had an appointment, I left my uncle’s house in a hurry, barely saying good-bye.

N. + ü ˘Bâ

“according to,” “on the basis of”

This construction is from the verb ˘Bx “to follow” and literally means “if (you) follow,” but it is translated as “according to” or “based on.” ‘◊ ®¿ ÇÙü ˘Bâ According to the latest magazine, XY ?∑mÁk YÓœ many Americans move to cü ~¡yà Bx. Mexico after their retirement. ’ ™∂ü ˘Bâ œ∑ ÂóY æü Âa ÂóÁ ›f Õ®ìç Õyx. 4.

On the basis of the research, we can say that Koreans are among those who live long.

Verbs with -Õx and -≈x

Sino-Korean nouns are made into verbs usually ending in -Õx or -≈x, with each ending having a different meaning. -Õx turns a noun into a transitive action verb; -≈x makes the action verb intransitive/passive or indicates that something is done, happens, or operates “automatically.” The descriptive verb endings for the plain present form remain unchanged—for example, ’ oY ꧮ fiXÕx, not ’ oY ꧮ fiXœx.


§ 24 ö

Descriptive Verbs

Action Verbs

(-Õx only)




to be crowded


to study



to be plenty


to build



to be calm, composed


to research



to be happy


to arrive



to be unhappy


to have hardship


100ˆkâ ‰o÷‚.

100 won is enough.

© ≥¡a é_ ®ì® XÇ÷‚.

A big city in any country is crowded.

Ω˚k òmE ´«ó ÷‚. My younger brother is studying very hard. eFü òm@ ~ √‚.

Studies go well in the morning (automatically)./I can study well in the morning.

§‘≥ü Û ò’Z fR›é‚.

We built a new airport on Cheju Island.

’ WÂf ≥WÃ Û Wúk fR√‚.

The conference hall is being built with company assistance.

nü ãÕß/nZ ™∂÷‚. I am doing research on cancer.


AIDS@ Xk ™∂≈ç ué‚.

A lot of research is being done on AIDS.

V. + (§/a)x Õïì≥

“even if,” “although,” “no matter (what, who, and so on)”

This connective indicates a hypothetical or factual supposition. ?∑ö ÙMõWà @Ûx Õïì≥ ~¡ya ܧõWà ók@ Xk ´x.

Although Mexico is close to the United States, they are quite different economically.

OY ?∑ü Íç ux

Even if we both live in the United

?∑üL ¿ q¬


Õïì≥ uM Ré¨ Íâ y‘ W≠ ñ@ òÙ‚.



States, if we’re far apart, we can’t see each other often.

œ∑Wà Bx Õïì≥ »E wÙ iZs.

Even if you go to Korea, I’ll not forget you.

ë∂ÃZ sax Õïì≥ ¬Âa ~ ÷~ √‚.

Even if you take vitamins, you should eat well.

Animate N. + (Á)†M

“among/by themselves”

Attached to a human or an animal noun, this expression indicates exclusiveness in a group activity or gathering. ÍM†M

“among us,” “by ourselves”


“(only) with friends”


“among the birds by themselves”

OY mºÁ†MW êß Ëxâ xD ¨LE ÊÌ ñ òé‚.

If we live only among the same race, we can’t learn about other cultures.

¡ÃMxü @â ÈmÁ†M If you go to Florida, there is a town Âa Ω’@ ux. where older people live by themselves.


c[ü @L ea B∂ †MW Ïâ á?òé.

It’s no fun to be only with your friends at a party.

≥Ùók(ìç ˚AÕx)

“(I think) it’s a world apart”

There are many four-syllable words of Sino-Korean origin with specific idiomatic meanings. Their literal translation does not always indicate their true meaning. ≥Ùók(WA™U) means literally “the difference between heaven and earth.” Ènü 㜠∞œö nœf f~Y ≥Ùókü‚.

The opinions of the South and North Koreans on unification are a world apart.

öë –rnQLa ßyÀ ∞ya ≥Ùókìç ˚AÕ[‚.

My grandmother thinks the difference between men and women is huge.

§ 24 ö


√[ãÀ éDÁf ˚AY ≥Ùóksnx.

The new generation and the older generation think quite differently.

Some commonly used expressions are these: nMk¥ (âSBà)

“one stone, two birds”

WÖn@ (Z‹âg)


»›g∂ (GÁAö)

“eight or nine out of ten,” “most likely”

Á›Á› (¤ü¤Á)

“a hundred hits to a hundred shots”

¤¡»¨ (pøòC)

“hearing it for the first time”



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

@õ érnQL ÙÊüs ©ôZ Wπ‘»nÏ? ?∑Y éQ ÂóÁü f÷L [Ù±ænÏ? XY ?∑ ÂóÁk ~¡yü @L Âa kN [ @Ù@ ©ôsnÏ? ~¡yüLa ‘ ˚Oë@ õs ÍnÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

’ oZ e[‚? (-ü lx) é§ ~ Ñé‚? (-a ” Ua ”) ãÈ« Pda éZs ƒé‚? (-ü ˘Bâ) ‚ cπÀ Ik π∆xa£ Õ® ¡ق? (-x Õïì≥) ≥¬k æúÕç ≥L∂Ü g Kn? (-Á†M) ≥¬kÀ ≥ëa Èü ≈¿k ëøÕn? (≥Ùók)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-x Õïì≥ ∑: œ∑Y ?∑üL A œ∑k ?∑üL ÙMõWà ÙMõWà ux, ux Õïì≥ ëfi‡Ã ëfi‡Ã 12 ¡B 12 ¡B Ÿü g hOx. Ÿü g hOx.

?∑üL ¿ q¬



a. ‚ ◊ÿx, B∂üs çÙE Qx. b. Y„Y ˚Oë@ ëÃx, Y„Y √®a ≥¡kx. c. œy@ éƒx, ®a _ ÊÍç Àx. C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: Ÿ]@ Jü a. b. c. d.



ëÈk √¨ ‡Âü B∂@ ®ì@ £rZ

jaY “-Ùx” ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ’Mç ’ ÜZ Z÷ W»¡æ. ∑: ¿≥@ (temperature) a. b. c. d.


ˆx. Âx. [Ù±x. ®“x.

WÂ@ œ∑é@ Ik ÊÍ@

ÚeÙx ÃÙx Nç÷Ùx [ÙÙx ™ÙÙx

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ¯ùÕx, √PÕx, je Wx, PúÕx, Áx

kóY ˚Oë@ ëÃL µk õs a ≥¡Ã kÂ@~yx. b. ÖŒ¤Z √πÕa ‡Bk ê§mÙ e ‘¡yé‚? c. ’ ÆfZ ©flà ÷xç a ¢çE bé‚. d. ¢ˆüL ‰≠L sa ~¢a ꧮ . e. ÛÃ Ë [∑‡Ã »Z s üe söx. ([∑‡ washing machine) a.


jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Ω‡, @@, Ñ, ¢Ñ, gú, YÓ

§ 24 ö


’ Âók œ∑éE ÊÍs ∆ @ ©ômÙ ¡¤Õx. b. eÙÙQLa cü œ∑ü ∑e@dL Â≈ àXkx. k ß≠ R uZ ñ uænx. c. k ¨§üa ’≠® Y Õ® —snx. ua d. ®a éDk ≈â ÂWü ≥k ≈a nZ Õç Àx. e. n‰ Èfi ÂmZ g Wç xnâ © Âç@ ≠ ñ ü ‘f÷~ œx. (Âç ux. ꧮ ±È accident) a.


jaY mÂE ëì ãLE ÕYÕ»¡æ. ’Mç k ãLE ÷W»¡æ. @õ, ππ/àr, ï, Ÿü

ª¡: ˙: ª¡: ˙: ª¡: ˙: ª¡: ˙: ª¡: ˙:

Œ±üL ˚ÏÙ ué‚? enæ, héL 10 o g hø‚. ßFüa nk π œ@Õ[‚? enæ, n‡ ◊ú‚. B∂ÁY ‚ y‘ W®[‚? enæ, W®‚. ◊úL ÏΩÕa lk k§a éƒyé‚. Øç enæ, ÏΩY Õâ – ñÕ á?ué‚. ˙Y “enæ” Ÿü êB[‚? enæ, “’”≥ je‚.

D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2. 3.

kà ¿ B∂® B≤üs kà ¿ Ω‡E jeW»¡æ. Œ˚k xD ®ìà kà Bxâ é_ ®ìE P¡ÕyænÏ? ’ kNE Z÷ W»¡æ. ß≠ ®ìüL XY ÂóÁk ?∑Wà kÃZ ÀL øY ük uxç ˚A”nÏ? øY ük ©ômÙ k~‡ ÷W»¡æ.

§ 25 ö ◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘ ‡óÂ È }kM@ ¥J ˚nü ©∫ PÆZ Ââ øy¬ç Æé bx. ÙÊa é∆Z F ΩL£Z á?us oò ˚Ak ®L œ∑ ΩL£Z œ≈ ‘ìç ›x. B∂À Ok Lüü @ Wn k~‡ £Ák »© XeL ¢Õ‡@ õÁöÙW, ’ ›üLG◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘H E ëöx. º≠ Ì∑ ¡ã ç∂øü íL”kìa ”k uöænx. ’ ”üsa ∑ÿç éO íL ò‘@ uöænx. ’Ø£ k ò‘a »© Xk ÌéL ÂóÁk e¢Z ›ænx. eÙÙ íL”Y ò‘@ Ì Fâ,1 “’∂s yx Ìâ x\ü ^L ◊W ¿}üs ¡˚@s Õyx” 2ç Ï∆ænx. ◊W ¿}Y ’ ®ìüL »©® Nçœ ◊WìL êBa Âók òöænx. ¿}Y érnÀ Ok Âa£ ˚k »© @´÷L Réˆ »Z sç Réˆ √›Z √öænx. ’Ø£ ¿}Y ÂóÁk ‘◊W ¿}’kìç Ïø≥ ’Ò Úç x‰ænx. ¡Bk Ù®L íL ò‘@ ´ ßW Ík ≈y ”Y ò‘E ¡˚ Wπøç fAœ ÂLGZ3 °‡ ¡z›ænx. ’≠® íL ò‘a øY √õG k~‡E ÁZ FUx ú«Z Wk‡a ^Â4 “eÙÙQL öüs ◊W ¿}üs ¡˚Wªxç ÕkWn öa ◊W ¿}üs ¡˚Z @yé‚” ìç ›ænx. ”Y ÏìL “’f ÒÉköÙ. ’@ ’ ZZ ¢Zkìç ˚A– ◊ ®a îöx” 5 ìç RçZ ›ænx. ÕÙW ò‘a “”k d¸ZZ Õâ g …nx”ç ãÑ›ænx. ”Y ç˚Z mMa ò‘üs »© L@ ®L ò‘E pe¿ænx. ’≠y ò‘a ¡úZ ®ÀL ◊W ¿}f ˚Z °e Kænx. ¿}Y e‘ ÏöÙW ò‘f ¢Z Êç ò‘À ÅDZ ›ænx.



§ 25 ö

ò‘a @Ùç ¿ oÆà øY ZZ ÂL ¿}üs flænx. ’Mç ≠Ux ¿}üs Ÿo‡E @B¬ ‘öænx. ¿}Y mmf ¢Yü GΩ÷L dn ´«ó òmÕç Z ∂a ™æZ ›ænx. ÷Ux \ 3˜ 3nü ¿ ®ìf ∑ÃÁZ êe Ûç ”k ©ö ãWE ´öænx. ¿}≥ ’ ãWü ®Ka£ e©≥ ¿}Wx ©öZ ~ Õa Âók òöænx. ”Y ¿}üs “fAœ ©ök∂®. ’ãf kFY ©ôm@?” Õç Æöænx. “’, § kFY ¿}snx.” ãÑZ ÁY ”Y ÚE Ïöænx. ”Y ‡≥Õá ¿}üs LªZ ‘öænx. ’ c ®ìü úèk uZ FUx ¿}Y úèü ®@ ÈGÕs Ã˙ænx. é ‡ cü √ì@ ç∂øü ¬Áé“ænx. kˆü≥ ¿}Y §n tü ®@L Ã˙ænx. ’≠® ¿}Y ÈGÕs ÃÍx@ õf LÍü ae ’s ≈öænx. ’Y ¿}f ñZ ‘Y úZ √‡øç Õa£ ¿}f úY cE≥ ÕÙ iqænx. k q¬Z Êç íL ò‘a Ìá úèÀà }ø“ænx. ò‘@ ¿}f úZ ÇY ¢,6 k∂s Z›ænx. “˚Â@ k? Å¢≈ç úèk ü≥Wn ∑eH¡x. §@ ê¡ç @yé‚.” ’≠y cE≥ g Õò úk ık‡ ¡z›ænx. klZ Wç uò ÂóÁ≥ êà Ok ªøs JÆZ ä∆ænx.



impression, excitement, emotion; GΩÕx/≈x to be moved, to be impressed by to be decided; Å¢Õx to decide Koguryö (37 b.c.–668 a.d., one of the Three Kingdoms) stubbornness, obstinacy; ç˚ mMx to be stubborn princess coffin people of the country palace, royal residence you, thou (used in poems and letters) and then, when it’s done, as soon as (something) happens/is done reading and studying (classics) to tease; ÏQ teasing, making fun of

Å¢≈x ç∂ø ç˚ ò‘ ú ∑à ¡ú ’ã ’≠y Ÿo‡ ÏMx

◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘



JÆ äMx }øæx ΩL£ Réˆ

to shed tears to come running children’s storybook worn-out; Réˆ √ worn-out shoes; RéÙx to be worn out, to fall off ax to get hit; LÍZ ax to be shot by an arrow êWx to gather, to collect ◊W idiot, stupid person Lª government position, official rank ÂLG prospective son-in-law ¢ circumstances, the state of things ˚ life and death q¬ news ªøs sadly; ªøx to be sad ¡˚ Wπx to marry off (woman); ¡˚ marriage (for woman); in-law’s house (literally); ¡˚@x to get married √õ [≈õ] groom; √õG prospective groom ÃÍx to fight √‡x to move to to move ıkx yx repeatedly, frequently õ enemy úè war; úèÀ battlefield ¥J nephew and niece pe πx to drive off ¬Áé æx to invade, to attack oÆ jewelry íL” King Phyönggang ÷Ux; d‡ every year L®x to be mad, to be angry LÍ arrow

¨˙ö ¨˚ 1.


V. + ©/Z Fâ

“when,” “whenever,” “by the time”

ò‘@ Ì Fâ ”Y ÒÉZ ›x.

When the princess cried, the king teased her.

§ 25 ö


ˆ}ühk » Fâ ç‡Z ˚Aœx.

Whenever azaleas bloom, I think of my hometown.

π‡ü x¡ W≠ Fâ »a By the time I see you again, you ãŒ˚k ≈é uyÙ? will be a college student, won’t you? 2.

V. + s Õx

“make (someone) do,” “cause something to happen”

This causative construction makes or causes someone to do something or makes something happen. (See L17, GN3 and 7.) Œ˚Áüs œ∑éW ZÕs ÷‚.

I make the students speak only in Korean.

üÓ∫Y úËqZ ›ç÷ Edison surprised people by ÂóÁZ Ïìs ›é‚. inventing the light bulb.


fÂÁY áAS Nyüs ÂøZ ò ss œx.

Doctors make diabetic patients stop eating candy.

N. + G

“prospective (person noun)”

G literally means “material,” but when used idiomatically, it means a “prospective” personal position, either a kinship or an occupational position. It comes from the original meaning of “material,” as in kqG, áXG, ¤ôG, and the like.



“prospective son-in-law”


“prospective daughter-in-law”


“prospective bridegroom”


“(suitable for) a future president”


V. + ‡a ^Â

b. N. + Y/a ^Â . . . ≥

“far from doing . . .” “not even . . . , let alone”

(a) xD ∞yüs Far from showing interest in other ú«Z Wk‡a men, she said she would marry ^ ¿}üs only Ondal. ¡˚Bxç ›é‚.

◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘



eÙsY ÈÕ¡‡a Far from being angry, my father ^ Iô÷ praised me. ‘kx. üU@‡a ^ ¡z≥ g ›x. (b) W ˆY ^ » ˆ≥ òé‚. ⁄∑éa ^ ≥é≥ ~ ò÷‚. 5.

Far from finishing it, I haven’t even started. I have not even 10 won, let alone 10,000 won. I don’t speak even English well, let alone a foreign language.

V. + § / Y / a / © / Z ◊ jqx

“expected that,” “knew that”

V. + § / Y/a / © / Z ◊ îöx

“did not expect that,” “did not know that”

This construction in the past tense is used to indicate “did or did not expect something would happen.” (Compare with -©/Z ◊ jx “being capable of” in L15, GN5.) ◊ jqx is also used to confirm a fact or an event, as in ÃÍ@ nÏZ – ◊ jqx “I knew Min-wu would take first place.” ◊ îöx indicates it is contrary to the speaker’s expectations.


√L@ ’∂s á?ua ◊ îöé‚.

I didn’t expect mythology would be so interesting.

·ü ë@ k∂s Xk ¿ ◊ îöé‚.

I didn’t know it rained so much last night.

æb ë@ ¡ ◊ îöé‚.

I didn’t know it would rain today.

¡Êk ™Ì ◊ jqé‚. (’Ø£ éø˙é‚.)

I expected the exam would be easy. (But it was difficult.)

A.V. + §/Y ¢(Ã)

“just as it is,” “(while) doing,” “being in the state of”

This construction indicates a state or a condition in which an action occurs. gÜZ S ¢ ë„øü ÁéKx.

I got into the bathtub with my glasses on.

§ 25 ö


ó rü hY ¢Ã 3 ¡BZ W¿x.

I spent three hours (while) sitting in the car.

√›Z √Y ¢Ã ‰ü Áé@Ù U.

Don’t enter the room with shoes on.

ÍM –rna √õ ì∫≥ êD ¢ ÅD›ã‚.

My grandmother said she got married to the bridegroom without having seen him beforehand.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

íL”Y ò‘@ Ì FUx ∑ìç Z›ænÏ? íL”Y ‘ ò‘E pe¿ænÏ? ò‘a ∞çüs ©ôZ @BƒænÏ? ¿}Y éZs ’öænÏ? ¿} Ö∏f úY éZs ÷L ıks ƒænÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ë@ ¡ F ©ôk ˚A®[‚? (-©/Z Fâ) ÍM ek@ yx òma gÕç Å W yL e¢kü‚. (-s Õx) x\ Pdüa H@ ãÈ«ü ®¡Ï‚? (-Gk Xx) §‘≥ ßfi á?us ›é‚? (-‡a ^Â) ‘¬Z ÂL µZ Xk ¯öé‚? (-‡a ^Â) ‘ G‡ü h∆é‚? (-§/Y/a ¢Ã)

‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ¨ÖZ ◊x»¡æ. 7.

-◊ jqx/îöx ∑: ‘¬ Ik ¡öé‚. A ‘¬ Ik æE ◊ jqé‚ / îöé‚. a. ñ‡k böx. b. ò‘a eÙÙ ZZ g Áöx. c. ◊W ¿}Y Â≈Y ◊W@ enx.

◊W ¿}ö íL ò‘



C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: ¢Z a. b. c. d. e. f.


LªZ ú«Z ç˚Z ¡˚Z JÆk LÍü

Êx ÖBx mMx @x Wkx ax ‘x

jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ax, Çx, peπx, }øæx, kòx, ıkx, GΩÕx

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 3.

Ïm@ èmE L èma ˚Z ®Kx. èma ˚Z ®@âL ã¨Z ç Ìöænx. ’ of ¢Yü ê Âók x. ’ Ö∏Y úèüL LÍZ x. ãÈ«Y ®ìE a Âókx. ¡ΩZ va£≥ yΩó@ Ù iax. B∂üs úLE hyUy B∂@ ÍM ˚Wà x.

jaY mÂE ëìL ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ‡ÿs, ªøs, ‹Õs, ÈGÕs, ¢Y∏≤s

XY π› tüL R∆ÙW ©ãà ®Kx. (RMx to shake) b. ‚ érn@ çöW¡xç B∂@ Z›x. c. æüBWü W®a tsZ aqx. d. Är ¡Bü iéL xé “x. e. érs ˚√ü _ua \¬Z WÁé „∆x. a.

§ 25 ö

252 4.

jaY {éE ëì ‘-s Õx’Ã üU@»¡æ. ’Mç ’ ÜZ Z÷ W»¡æ. ªøx, ‡ÿx, Úx, Ïìx, òmÕx, k‡x

a. b. c. d. e. f. 5.

ek@ òœ nZ ÷L mêsZ s ›x. ek@ d¸ZZ ÷L mêsZ s ›x. s ›x. P˚sk ¡ÊZ F÷L Œ˚Z ¿}Z úèü WπL s Õx. ’ B∂@ Hy‡ úLE héL ÍMÁZ s ›x. ’ ÂóY ÒÉZ ~ ÷L ÂóÁZ s œx.

x\ {éf ÜZ jeWç jaY {éE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. ”ë, ò‘, ”y, r¤s, ”≈

”f mmZ ìç œx. ¸Y , eÁY ìç œx. ”Z mE F kìç œx. ”f @µö ¬∂ÁZ kìç œx. D. k~‡Õ‡ 1. 2.

eÙÙ® érnüsL ÁY ÒÉZ k~‡÷ W»¡æ. ê§, ‘ ’Ø ÒÉZ ÁöænÏ? J‰Ω k~‡À ¿} k~‡E ë±÷ W»¡æ.

§ 26 ö nœü ãÕß ÙÊ@ ±N Œ˚Wà ¿ Ù ¯fl n‡k x ≈öx. ÙÊ@ Êa œ∑ ¡BüLa ‡Z ¡ÊZ D —W enì WçL≥ π~ œx. ÙÊa “nœü ã÷L”ìa §ëWà WçLE Êx. Ùá œ¤≥a ∞œö nœWà ®Té¨ ux.1 à ®ìà ®T‡ úü œ∑Y ¥Pkìa kFZ @ˆ œ ®ì≤x. ’≠x@ 1910 ‡mÀ nZf ÙÊE ‹s ≈öWá 1945‡ü kó [à ãúk ü®âL nZWÃmÀ ¥RZ ›x. ’≠® œ¤≥f F@E ›‚Õs ˚Aœ q¡ö ?∑k œ¤≥E óÙÕçy ›x.2 ’ Åö ÌgPZ Üàà niY q¡k ∞iY ?∑k úMÕs ≈öx. ’üL ∞iüa yZ‘f ∑@m ‘ãœÃ∑’k [ÙÙç, niüa ‘¥P Ñ‘f mÃòL∑’kìa òË‘f ∑@@ [ÙÙs ≈öx. ’ c 1950 ‡ü œ∑ úèk né≥x. k úèY 6 ˜ 25 nü né≥‡ F¨ü ‘O kæ’ìç qM‡≥ œx.3 k úèWà ∏mZ ë“Õß4 ∞ö nf XY ÂóÁk ëõZ qöx. k úèY Ì ‡ Ωg àr≈x@ N°∏ü f÷L5 }úZ Õs ≈öx. œ∑ úè kcà }úPY ∞œö nœZ ®Ha Üà@ ≈öx. ÙMõWà nœüa Ëk Xx. u∑@ü ®æa ÁÃËk® ’ êæk eFчà Nçœ ¤LË≥ nœü ux. œ∑ö ›∑f Üà Ù®ü ua ÁÃËY ®Âõ úRk XY Ëkx. oÕL≥ k ËüL ¡zÕß ÖB‡ ¡zÕß L÷à ÁéBx. nœf ñ≥a íákx. O kæ F mL±ò fÆÁY x X∂≈é Ù¤Y Ùãõ ã≥¡@ ≈öx. íá ¡πE Ù®@a ãΩLY ®ÂõWî ܧõWà ›‚œ LWà LÌf œLü ëN– ñ ux.



§ 26 ö

nœf êéa ∑Z ÂÈk® ›\ ÏüL ∞œf Zö π xBÙW Là je ʇü Oà éøk òx. ∞œüLa ⁄∑üL Áé¿ ⁄üé@ Xç œŸö “Q œy≥ ÂÈœx. ÕÙW nœüLa œyE úÚ QÙ iç ê £Z œŸÃW mÇœxa lk xD ükx. œ õk à ®ìà ®Té uxa lY ª¿ nk eq ñ òx.6 ’üL œ∑ ∑ÃÁY ∞œö nœk ծà Èn≈a ≠Z ‡xMç ux.


OY same; Ox to be the same Åö result Üà border, boundary òË‘f communism; òË‘fy communist úMÕx [ùMÕx] to control, to manage, to be in charge of ∏m soldier, military ¤LË Kümgang Mountains ®Tx to be divided; ®Hx to divide ∞œ South Korea ¥RÕx [ΩtÕx] to become independent; ¥R independence Êx to take (course) ëõ life, breath of life; ëõZ qx to be dead or killed õ ethnic group, race, (ethnically identical) people Ñ‘f democracy; Ñ‘f(f) democratic ÁÃË Paektu Mountain X∂≈x to be reconstructed, to be restored; X∂Õx to reconstruct, to restore; X∂ reconstruction, restoration to be destroyed, to be demolished, to be mLÙx broken; mñx to destroy, to demolish, to break qMx to be called -Z/E ë“Õß including, beginning with, along with ÌgP; Ì»g≥P thirty-eight degrees north latitude (literally), thirty-eighth parallel (dividing Korea)

nœü ãÕß

L÷ [ÙÙx

F@ N°∏ O kæ (6 . 25) kó [à ãú mÇÕx qx [n∂] yZ‘f úR §ë ÙÊ óÙÕx @x Èn≈x ծà œ∑Â; ∑ œ¤≥ }úP



West Sea (also known as Yellow Sea) (Vi.) to be founded; [Íx (Vt.) to found, to set up Russia (former Soviet Union) Korean national anthem; ∑@ national anthem location U.N. troops Korean War (began June 25, 1950) World War II; nó [à ãú World War I to print; mÇ printing to lose capitalism legend; úRõ(m) legendary title ruling; ÙÊÕx to rule, to govern to occupy to take (test); to hit to become unified; ÈnÕx to unify; Èn unification as one (entity) Korean history Korean Peninsula truce line; }úÕx to make a truce; }ú truce, armistice

q¡ u∑@

¨˙ö ¨˚



V. + (é/e)¨ ux

“being in (changed state or position of )”

This helping verb describes the changed state of an object or an event. All verbs that end in -(é/e)Ùx can have this construction, but not all verbs can end in -(é/e)¨ ux. (See L5, GN3 and L12, GN2.) ®Hé¨ ux

“something was divided and is still divided”


§ 26 ö

[Ù¨ ux

“something was established and is still established”

Ré¨ ux

“something was separated and is still separated”

œé¨ ux

“something fell down and is in the down position”

ûé¨ ux

“something fell and is flat on its face”

mL¨ ux

“something is broken”

ú¨ ux

“something came off and is still off”

Note the differences between ±x and ¨ ux:



¨ ux

®©@ œé±x. A tree fell.

®©@ œé¨ ux. A tree has fallen (and is still there).

úè F œLã±@ mL±x. During the war, the Han River Bridge was destroyed.

’ xM@ eı≥ mL¨ ux. The bridge remains destroyed.

®Â@ ú±x. The screw came off.

®Â@ ú¨ ux. The screw is off.

‰k ∫e±x. The road became narrow.

‰k ∫e¨ ux. The road got narrow (and is still narrow).

A.V. + çy Õx

“to try to,” “to plan to,” “would like to”

This expression is used in a more formal context than -(W)øç Õx. xÁ œ¤≥E @Wçy œx.

Everyone tries to visit the Korean Peninsula.

æbY ß≠of f~Z Êçy ”nx.

I would like to hear your opinions today.

’ ∑W fˆY ˚Z ç¬L The congressman tried to change

nœü ãÕß

íÏœ ÂWE WÁçy ›ænx.





the law and make a fair society.

πnmÀa öfl s‡ úü _ ÏΩZ Õçy œx.

I plan to exercise before dinner, starting tomorrow for sure.

V. + ‡≥ Õx

“it is also . . . ”

œ∑ úèY ‘O kæ’ ìç qM‡≥ œx.

The Korean War is also known as (the war of ) “June twenty-fifth.”

ßFü WÈ ûÙW @õ ‚‡≥ Õx.

It is usually warm, but sometimes it is cold in the summer.

’ ¤≥a ©®ü ›‚œ F@k‡≥ Õx.

The peninsula is also an important location for commercial transportation.

N. + Z/E ë“Õß

“including,” “beginning with”

This pattern is often followed by -ÏÙ(≥) and expresses the inclusion of “even that item.” ’oY £o‡E øe÷L qR£Z ë“Õß WL£ÏÙ x oé‚.

Because she/he loves to read, she/he reads all kinds of books from novels to comics.

ãúö mßE ë“Õß We toured all of the South ‰π∞≥E x œ≠bx. Ch’ungch’öng Province, including Taejön and Puyö. nœüa ¤LËZ ë“Õß There are many beautiful eFxÏ ËÁk Xk mountains in North Korea, ux. including the Kümgang Mountains. 5.

N. + ü f÷(L)

“by,” “in accordance with”

˚ü f÷L ∞fi íÏk WÖ≈é ux.

In accordance with the law, malefemale equality is guaranteed.

õ∏ü f÷ úèk ¡z≈öx.

The war was started by the enemy.

Pdü f÷ Û ãÈ«k ?˘x.

The president was elected by voting.

§ 26 ö

258 6.

N. + k/@ eq ñ òx

“it cannot be anything but,” “it is such a . . . ”

à ®ìà ®Té uxa lY ë÷k eq ñ òx.

Having a country divided cannot be anything but a tragedy.

’ F ’ ÆfZ g Ë lY ~òk eq ñ òé‚.

Not buying the item at the time was such a mistake.

¿≈≥a œ∑f ã£õ ©ök eq ñ òÙ.

Tae kwon do can’t be anything but a representative Korean martial art.



A. Z¨Z oç ¯¨ü ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

œ∑Y Ù¤ éZs ®Hé¨ uænÏ? 1950 ‡ 6 ˜ 25 nü œ¤≥ü ©∫ nk uöænÏ? Ùá ∞œö nœf Üàa éÓsnÏ? nœf ñ≥a éÓsnÏ? [àüL œ õk ®Té ua ®ìa éÓsnÏ?

B. ‘éˆ ¨˙Z ÂÈÕß ãÑÕ»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

†Ÿü uò ÈnZ F÷ ⁄∑ü ua é_ ®ìE

®©@ g Wk’. (-(é/e)¨ ux.) éQ nZ Õç Àé‚? (-çy œx) B∂Áüs çÙÃW ™î÷‚? (-‡≥ œx) ßfi÷ Wké‚? (-Z/E ë“Õß)

C. {é ™æ 1.

jaY ΩÂÀ ™ÅÕ»¡æ. ∑: [à@ ?∑f ¢@ü a. b. c. d.

’ úèY O kæìç ’ oY WÂE 1948 ‡ü ∞œk úèüL ∏mÁk

‘ëœx ëõZ qöx [Ù±x úMœx qOx

nœü ãÕß




jaY ΩÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. úMÕx, ‘ëÕx, ®Tx, ÙÊÕx, óÙÕx, ¥RÕx, àr≈x

œ∑k ∞œö nœWà ®Té ˆ lY 1950 ‡ü né´ œ∑ úèö ’ kcf }úP F¨kÙW ’ kúü ÌgPW�� ∞ö nk é uöx. b. ÍM Õó˚üa ‰k [ R ua£ @Ö © ‰Y ’ PÊ@ ç ux. c. kó [à ãúY  ‡ Ωg öé‚. d. ’ ok k ecM {ÙE Õa okx. e. öa ㌱ü Áé@â eB◊kME ÷L mêsWà mÀ ܧõWà øç ÷‚. f. õ ] ®ì@ õk Äœ ®ìf DZ óÙÕç ’ ®ìE Õa lY ≈Ù ix. g. é_ _k kˆ ܇üL k‰Ù ê Âók ç ué‚. a.


x\ £E Wç, A ®ìf NYZ £¡Õ»¡æ.

¥PÑ‘f ≠¡e ãœÃ∑ mÃòL∑ nZ ›∑ ?∑ (q¡) yZ‘f ∑@kx

òË‘f ∑@kx ”k ux ãÈ«k ux

kóãú F úèZ ›x œ õk Âa ®ìkx


jaY çÂE ëì ¨ÖZ ÕYÕ»¡æ. Åö, Üà, F@, ¥R, ›\, mÇ

§ 26 ö


a. é§ ¡ÊZ ba£ éQ @ ®¡ Ù ¡¤÷. b. nó ãúö kó ãú kc XY qñ õÁk Z kÂöx. à ®Té¨ un? c. ∞œö nœY ©ôZ d. œ∑éE ´«ó òm›ïn œ∑é k ¢M÷±x. (¢MÕx to be accurate) e. Ù¤ à√ E jø ‘¡â ê U› ®@yé‚. f. Ûà ®¿ §ÆZ ¢çÕøç Õa£‚, éÓüL E Õâ øZÏ‚? D. k~‡Õ‡: x\ §ëü ãÕß Z÷ W»¡æ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

œ¤≥@ ∞ö nWà Dìˆ kN œ¤≥f ÙMõ ¥f (¥f condition, circumstances) ∞œö nœf êéf xD ü ‚ Y∏üL ÁY nœü 㜠q¬

§ 27 ö ¡E GÒÕá ˆ}ü h Êq˜ ® W‡@ ®{Ù @≈ Füa Zòk çk Wπ „MÍMx. ≥Nü ÄË ˆ}üh eF ˘ì @≈ ‰ü œMÍMx. @¡a h\h\ Ûm ’ hZ —ó Ïø ‡ç @¡«qL. ® W‡@ ®{Ù @≈ Füa ’é≥ en JÆ äMÍMx.

Zd ç Y B‘ D ü«œ ≥∑mÁk ˆ‘Ãï≠ ö P‰dMa ˙¿k ∑¬ç Æöïn ˆ‘à Zà êDx ›x êDxa Z Zd 261


§ 27 ö

’lk kFk ≈é Ù∆x. e, ea lWx êBa lf dÊ“kß

π@ hkìâ Lø∂ π@ hkìâ B°œ Ëë k†Ã ¢m ◊F áü uxWà @MÙˆ kF êE ÁhWà ≈é ◊éOY ⁄ÃÏ ®’’f J‰Z êWç Àx.

}wk Ê܇ }wka Ω’ï ˚Z Ïü Ùç ‰~Õç Ƶœ, ¿ñZ ıß ‰@ü ññœ ∫v(óõ)Wà óé ¯ Î Z Î @_xï P(i)Z ’é Ûax. ’@ Ù®B yÎZ.


{é ˆ}ü h h\ çk; ñs œMx —ó -(¡)«qL en; g eF ÄË ®Éx ≥N -(W)æMx Ïø ‡x ˆ}üh äMx

Zd dÊ“ P‰dMa -ï≠ ˆ‘à ü«Õx[üÂ] ˙¿ Zd π@ hkìâ @MÙˆ

®’’ J‰



step, walking beautifully, delicately to scatter lightly (in steps or motion) I pray . . . (HON.) not armful, bundle place in Yöngbyön region that is famous for azaleas to feel disgusted place in North Pyöngan Province (North Korea) old humble future ending of -yx to step on carefully, to step lightly azalea flower to shed (tears); JÆ äMx to shed tears, to weep

holiness, greatness; dÊÕx to be holy, to be great jumping; P‰dMx to jump up and down to (a person) (colloquial) natives to occupy beast, animal kangaroo

concealed, hidden; @MÙÙx to get concealed; @Mx to conceal, to hide wanderer line of vision; attention


§ 27 ö


¢m [ï«] Áh ◊é ◊F ux ⁄ÃÏ k† B°œ

}wk @_xï ’éÛx ‰~Õx ññœ óéÙx [î»Ùx] }wk Ïü Ùx Ƶœ P(i) yÎ; y∑ Ù®@x ∫v(óõ)

™æ 1.

covered; ¢kx to be covered; ¢x to cover wildflower Basho (sixteenth-century Japanese haiku master) rock, boulder pine needles lonely; ⁄—x to be lonely moss lonely, desolate; B°Õx to be lonely, to be desolate

slender, very thin; @_xûx to be slender, to be very thin to draw or mark to leave (a line); ›x to draw (a line) to be longish; ‰~œ longish sticky, gluey; ññÕx to be sticky, to be gluey to break, to be cut, to come to an end snail to carry on the back soft and squishy; ƵÕx to be soft and squishy line trace to pass by body fluid


“ˆ}ü h” Z oç k ¡mY sk O®@â éZs Õyxç ”nÏ? (¡m poet, s love, lover) b. ˆ}ühY é_ àùü ?nÏ? ÙY éZænÏ?





c. “ˆ}ü h”Z Øç B{Õs k~‡Ã fl W»¡æ. d. k ¡® y‡@ øeÕa ¡E ⁄٠满æ. 2.

“Zd” E oç ZdÂü ãÕß Áö Âúü RçZ Qøç ”nx. éZs QyænÏ? (Áö Âú encyclopedia) b. ZdÂÀ ëøÕs ˚‚ ≥éf ∑ZÁf ∑E °e W»¡æ. c. “ea lWx êBa lf dÊ“”kï ©∫ Ükìç ˚A”nÏ?



“π@ hkìâ”Z oç a. k ¡ü ®æa hZ ÒÒÕß ’øW»¡æ. b. k ¡E oç éQ G¢Z _[aÙ ¥cGZ fl W»¡æ. (G¢ emotions, ¥cG one’s impressions of a book, reading appreciation) kìâ”Wà IY ŸZ fl W»¡æ. c. “π@


“}wk” E oç }wkE œ ˆ≥ ò Z Âóüs }wkE éZs Rç÷ ‘yænÏ? ˚‚ êáY éZænÏ? (Ù color, ߇ size, êá shape ‡∂) b. ∑exna ΩzY éZænÏ? c. ¬YY éZænÏ? (¬Y preference in food) d. }wkE Xk [ ñ ua óY éÓsnÏ? e. }wkf kÈ @@a ©ôsnÏ? (kÈ @@ usefulness) f. }wk@ y™ü ‘a klk® ÷a ©ôsnÏ? (kl profitability, advantage, ÷ damage, harm)


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Appendix 1: Case Markers and Postpositions |¥ÂÀ c@Â

Case markers, postpositions, or particles indicate the grammatical relationships of the words in a sentence and often come in pairs, one for after the consonant-ending nouns and the other for after the vowel-ending nouns. Some come in honorific forms as well. The following list gives most of the markers that are found in everyday speech. k/@/QL -k

comes after a consonant

£k, Œ˚k, ±ñsk


comes after a vowel

±ó@, Lf@, ¨L@


honorific subject marker

P˚sQL, érnQL, Õ®sQL


This topic marker indicates the topic of a sentence.


comes after a consonant

£ πÈY øx.


comes after a vowel

Lfa á?ux.


This subject marker indicates the subject of a sentence.

This form is a direct object marker.


comes after a consonant

≥ÂúZ °qx.


comes after a vowel

LÌ @a çr≥ÃE wé Ù∆x.

a. This marker indicates “at,” “in,” or “on” (time and space).

Œ±ü ux. £ÒFü ux. 9 ˜ü RŒœx. 1 ¡ü “x.

b. It indicates “to” (direction or destination).

Œ±ü Bx.





a. This marker indicates “at,” “in,” or “on” for an action verb.

˚üL £Z oax. LÌüL «πú ≥LE bx.

b. It means “from” a place or a time.

œ∑üL ¿x. 1¡üL 2¡ÏÙ ™∂≈ü uöx.

üs/Q/œ’ tive marker).

This marker indicates “to” a person (indirect object, da-


means “to (a person)”

B∂üs £Z ‘öx.


honorific form of üs

eÙÙQ £Z „∆x.


(colloquial) means “to (a person)”

P˚sœ’ Æébx.


(colloquial) means “to (a person)”

®ï≠ æìç ’¶x.

üsL/œ’L/(W)à mÀ (ablative).

This marker indicates “from” a person

-üsL means “from (a person)”

öÖsüsL PÆZ ‹qx.

-œ’L (colloquial) means “from (a person)”

B∂œ’L úL@ “x.

-(W)ÃmÀ (W)Ã

means “from”

†ñÃmÀ qó@ “x.

a. This marker indicates “with (something).” b. It indicates “by means of.”

™»Ã çÙE Êx. `@à òZ ÿax. óà ¡ëü πøKx. ëfi‡Ã ¿x.

c. It indicates “by way of.”

ÕÀkà ÷L LÌü Bx.

d. It indicates “as.”

NŒ˚Wà ?∑ü “x.

e. It indicates “in the direction of.”

öiWà @[‚. Œ± µWà Hnx.

À/ö This marker means “and” and connects two nouns. It must be remembered that this pair does not follow the rule of “consonant after a vowel and vowel after a consonant.” Instead, the vowel À comes after a vowel, and the consonant ö comes after a consonant.

|¥ÂÀ C@Â


comes after a vowel

±ñÀ Œ˚

comes after a consonant

RŒ¬ö ∑ó¬


means “and, with, together” ñˆka †ñÕç ˚ü Kx.

-(k)õ (colloquial) means “and”


Ω˚kõ ênõ Ok Ïqx.

f This marker is pronounced [ü] when used as a possessive (“’s” or “of”). B∂f ‰

pronounced [I∂ü ‰]

®ìf ®Â

pronounced [®ìü ®Â]

Appendix 2: Easily Misspelled Words QM‡ ™Ï ¥y˚


g versus i “not” ix and iax are verbs that always follow -Ù.


Œ±ü g Bx.

Œ±ü @Ù iax.

hk g ∑ÿx.

hk ∑ÿÙ ix.

kx “to be” versus enx “not to be” (gkx is wrong.) “Y Œ˚kx.


≥ëa Œ˚k enx.

òx “there is not,” “not to have” versus g ux “not to be” ˚ü e©≥ òx.

®a ˚ü g uç ‡óÂü ux.

®a ó@ òx. 4.

≥ “also,” “too” versus f “again,” “in addition” ®≥ Bx.



®a f Œ±ü Bx.

≈x verb “to become” with ≈ versus √ (≈ + é A √) ê ßFk ∆x

¯fl ßFk ≈öx A ƒx


¯fl ßFk ≈é‚ A √‚


¯fl ßFk ≈éL A √L


¯fl ßFk ≈é≥ A √≥


¯fl ßFk ≈öW® A ƒW®


¯fl ßFk ≈öé≥ A ƒé≥

QM‡ ™Ï ¥y˚



6. ¿ versus ƒ There are no rules for the use of ¿ or ƒ. One must memorize the spelling of these words since they may sound the same. ¿ ƒ R









“yes,” “your”


“birds,” “new”

[ (ç)

“three (persons)”




“to (a person)”

“a place to go”

òmœã‚. They say he is studying.

òmÕa£ (úL@ “x). As I was studying, (the phone rang).

’ü, Dü. Yeah, I will go. sZü‚. I’ll eat.


¬ a ó

(from ’ ek)

∆ à

“credit club”

(from ö ek)


ä‡ (from k~‡ “story”) ∑


ÕC‚(from Õ¬ç ÷‚)


“old days”





-£ versus -ã -£

a. “place”

a. “they say,” from -xç ÷

B∂ W®a £@ éÓÙ? b. connective B∂E W≥a£ ¤@˙é.

B∂@ ¿ã. b. “versus,” “to” 3 ã 1Ã kÖé.




µ‹F versus ∂‹F

∂-‹F usually appears in verb endings, as with the past tense markers q and ö and the future y; µ‹F is usually for nouns or verb stems. µ ∂



“thing, item”; l “this (thing)”






“had come”


“what, some”


“will go”




“was not there”


“old days”


“there is”


“upper village”




“to laugh”




“to be clean”

éø˙x “was difficult”


“to wash (body parts)”

Kööx “had gone”

Verb endings -[‚ and -(W)»¡æ -[‚

polite informal request

-(W) polite formal honorific »¡æ request 10.

éL æ[‚. oW[‚. éL 满æ. oW»¡æ.

≤ verbs

Some verbs change to Ù or À when a vowel follows. See the irregular verb chart for ≤ verbs in Appendix 4. Ù @Ûx A @ÏÙ‚, @ÏÙL ©—x

A ©ÃÙ‚, ©ÃÙL


A çUÙ‚, çUÙL

eFÑx A eFxÙ‚, eFxÙL


A ™Ù‚, ™ÙL À A ≥À‚, ≥ÀL


A çÀ‚, çÀL


QM‡ ™Ï ¥y˚

11. fore”



±/\Wà “by means of” versus (W)≈à “because,” “there-



B∂f ≥Wà nZ ü¿x. I finished the job with a friend’s help.

Âók mµÕ≈à nZ ò ü ¿x. We could not finish the job because we didn’t have enough people.

∏F∏a Ü@f eFxWÃ NçÕx. Switzerland is famous for its scenic beauty.

∏F∏a Ü@@ eFxÍ≈à XY ú¢Sk °e¿x. Many tourists visit Switzerland because its scenery is beautiful.

12. N. + (W)Ã(L) “as,” “in the role of” versus N. + (W)Ã(fl) “with,” “by means of”




ÂóWÃ(L) ’∞ ñ@ òx. As a human being, how could it be possible!

®a √‚ö ȇÃ(fl) nZ üUƒx. I finished the work with determination and courage.

±NŒ˚WÃ(L) œ∑ü Kx. I went to Korea as an exchange student.

B∂f ≥WÃfl ’ nZ ü¿x. With my friend’s help, I got the work done.

Here are some confusing words and homonyms: ê


ê @yé‚.



ö óüL H@ Íe‚?



é§ Ë lZ wç g @¨“é‚.


≤WÃ ÊZ fx.



’ ÂóY µü yç ·ü òmœx.




∂k réˆx.



òk òéL rME ò òöx.



Œ± xq F öZ Xk ±x.


“light,” “ray of sun”

õk òWâ ¨k ò yïx.


“to lose”

ß≈Z qé Ù∆é‚.


“to forget”

úL ˆBE wé Ù∆é‚.


“to teach”

k P˚sk Œ˚ÁZ @B¬‚.


“to point at,” “to finger”

¡à ◊bk ´Ã ¡E @Mp‚.

Appendix 3: Spacing between Words áé Q‡ 1. Words are written separately, spacing after each word, but postpositions, case markers, and some dependent nouns are not separated from the preceding words. W‡:





Œ±ü P˚sQ



Œ±Ã P˚sö Ok

klWÃ πnÏÙ

2. Helping verbs, such as (é/e)Wx, (é/e)‘x, and (é/ e)ux are written either with or without a space. oéWx or oé Wx oé‘x or oé ‘x heux or he ux 3. Personal names in general are written closed up unless it is not clear which is the family name and which is the given name. Ê≥¬

∞¡ Ù


PÍ ˆ

4. Sino-Korean proper nouns may be written with or without spacing. 㜠›Œ± or 㜛Œ±

“Tae-han Middle School”

mò FY or mòFY

“satellite” (literally “manmade satellite”)

Òó ˜Ω ¥” or Ò˜˜Ω¥”

“farmers cooperative association”





Numbers are written separated by ten thousands. »OW Ì≥æÁ


Áæ»gW D≥∂


Appendix 4: Verb Charts


1. Present and Past Formal Endings





Dictionary Form





@x to go

Hnx @»nx

Bx @√x

Kænx @kænx

Kx @kx

non-hon. hon.

@B@x to teach

non-hon. hon.

@BGnx @BBx @B@»nx @B@√x

@Bƒænx @B@kænx

@Bƒx @B@kx

xnx to attend

non-hon. hon.

xtnx xn»nx

xpx xn√x

x‰ænx xnkænx

x‰x xnkx

(òm, n, Âó)Õx to do (study, work, business)

non-hon. hon.

”nx Õ»nx

œx Õ√x

›ænx Õkænx

›x Õkx

æx to come

non-hon. hon.

«nx æ»nx

¿x æ√x

“ænx ækænx

“x ækx

Wx to see

non-hon. hon.

]nx W»nx

Zx W√x

bænx Wkænx

bx Wkx

Qx to use, to write

non-hon. hon.

Xnx Q»nx

Sx Q√x

Êænx Qkænx

Êx Qkx

ox to read

non-hon. hon.

oænx oW»nx

oax oW√x

oöænx oWkænx

oöx oWkx

Íx to live

non-hon. hon.

Ónx »nx

Ëx Â√x

Íqænx Âkænx

Íqx Âkx

kx to be

non-hon. hon.

snx k»nx

kx k¡x

köænx kkænx

köx kkx




Present Dictionary Form








ux to have to exist

non-hon. hon. hon.

uænx uW»nx à»nx

ux uW¡x à¡x

uöænx uWkænx àkænx

uöx uWkx àkx

òx to have not

non-hon. hon.

òænx g à»nx

òx g à¡x

òöænx g àkænx

òöx g àkx

øx to be good

non-hon. hon.

øænx øW»nx

øx øW¡x

øqænx øWkænx

øqx øWkx

Xx to be many

non-hon. hon.

Xænx XW»nx

Xx XW¡x

Xqænx XWkænx

Xqx XWkx

éƒx to be difficult

non-hon. hon.

éƒænx éƒx éøÍ»nx éøÍ¡x

éø˙ænx éøÍkænx

éø˙x éøÍkx

2. Polite Informal Endings

Dictionary Form

Present Ùá

Past öd

Future ?ü

@x to go

non-hon. hon.

@‚ @[‚

Ké‚ @ké‚

@yé‚ @¡yé‚

@B@x to teach

non-hon. hon.

@B¬‚ @B@[‚

@Bƒé‚ @B@ké‚

@B@yé‚ @B@¡yé‚

xnx to attend

non-hon. hon.

xfi‚ xn[‚

x‰é‚ xnké‚

xnyé‚ xn¡yé‚

Õx to do (study, work, business)

non-hon. hon.

(òm, n, Âó) ÷‚ (òm, n, Âó) Õ[‚

(òm, n, Âó) ›é‚ (òm, n, Âó) Õké‚

(òm, n, Âó) Õyé‚ (òm, n, Âó) Õ¡yé‚

æx to come

non-hon. hon.

À‚ æ[‚

“é‚ æké‚

æyé‚ æ¡yé‚

Wx to see

non-hon. hon.

`‚ W[‚

bé‚ Wké‚

Wyé‚ W¡yé‚

Qx to use, to write

non-hon. hon.

fl‚ Q[‚

Êé‚ Qké‚

Qyé‚ Q¡yé‚




Dictionary Form

Present Ùá

Past öd

Future ?ü

ox to read

non-hon. hon.

oé‚ oW[‚

oöé‚ oWké‚

oyé‚ oW¡yé‚

Íx to live

non-hon. hon.

Íe‚ Â[‚

Íqé‚ Âké‚

Íyé‚ Â¡yé‚

kx to be

non-hon. hon.

kü‚ k[‚

köé‚ kké‚

kyé‚ k¡yé‚

ux to have to exist

non-hon. hon. hon.

ué‚ uW[‚ à[‚

uöé‚ uWké‚ àké‚

uyé‚ uW¡yé‚ à¡yé‚

òx to have not

non-hon. hon.

òé‚ òW[‚

òöé‚ òWké‚

òyé‚ òW¡yé‚

øx to be good

non-hon. hon.

øe‚ øW[‚

øqé‚ øWké‚

øyé‚ øW¡yé‚

Xx to be many

non-hon. hon.

Xe‚ XW[‚

Xqé‚ XWké‚

Xyé‚ XW¡yé‚

éƒx to be difficult

non-hon. hon.

éøÙ‚ éøÍ[‚

éø˙é‚ éøÍké‚

éƒyé‚ éøÍ¡yé‚

3. Verbal Modifiers

Descriptive Verbs

to be refreshing to be cool to be to be fast to be big to be small to be far to be cold to be difficult to be good to be red to be yellow to be blue to be white to be black

Dictionary Form

Past/Present Verbal Modifier (§/Y)

ÒàÕx ¡ˆÕx kx úBx ßx zx ux ‚x éƒx øx üQx Èûx cûx Õâx Ïcx

Òàœ ¡ˆœ m úD © zY t ›Ï éøÏ øY üB Èï cï ÕÅ ÏW



Descriptive Verbs

to be in some manner to be plenty to be clear

Dictionary Form

Past/Present Verbal Modifier (§/Y)

éZx Xx [x

éQ XY [Y Action Verbs

Dictionary Form

Past (§/Y)

Present (a)

Future (©/Z)

@x æx sx ox Íx Êx

B ¿ sY oY Ë ÁY

@a æa sa oa Âa Êa

D ¡ sZ oZ Í ÁZ

4. Irregular Verbs A.



All verb stems ending in © are irregular in that the © drops when followed by §/a, ≤/æ, or ¡.

© Drops

Íx Ïx gx jx Áx

© Remains




Ónx Ônx jnx onx Ínx

»nx È»nx c»nx e»nx „»nx

Âa Èa ca ea „a

-ç, y, -Ù, -â, -é/e Íç, Íyx Ïç, Ïyx gç, gÙ jç, jâ Áç, Áé‚

B. ≤ verbs In some ≤ verbs, ≤ changes to Í when followed by a vowel.

Change to Í ‚x Øx ûx

-é‚ ›Ù‚ ™Ù‚ ïÙ‚

-öé‚ -Wâ ›˙é‚ ›Íâ ™˙é‚ ™Íâ ï˙é‚ ïÍâ

≤ Remains -é≥ ›Ù≥ ™Ù≥ ïÙ≥

-yx ‚yx Øyx ûyx

-ç ‚ç Øç ûç


-‡ F¨ü ‚‡ F¨ü ؇ F¨ü û‡ F¨ü




Alternating verbs

Nonalternating verbs


“to be warm”


“to catch”


“to be difficult”


“to fold”


“to be beautiful”


“to pick up”


“to be hot”


“to dress”


“to be merry”


“to select”


“to be afraid”


“to carry on one’s back”


“to be heavy”


“to chew”


“to mend”


“to be narrow”

C. ß/© alternating verbs In some verbs with the stems ending in ß, ß changes to © when a vowel suffix such as -ö/q, -W¡, or -Wâ follows. ß remains when a consonant suffix follows. (1) With vowel suffixes

-Y Êx to hear gx to walk ≠x to ask

-W≠ (in

(past verbal modifier) -q/ö (past) -W¡ (honorific)

-Wâ (if)

order to)


ÁWâ hWâ ÆWâ

ÁW≠ hW≠ ÆW≠

Áöx höx Æöx

ÁW¡ hW¡ ÆW¡

(2) With consonant suffixes

Êx to hear gx to walk ≠x to ask

-‡ (nominalizer)

-y (future) -a (present verbal modifier)

ʇ g‡ ≠‡

Êyx gyx ≠yx

Êa ga ≠a

(3) The regular verbs that do not alternate include ‹x “to receive,” íx “to obtain,” and |x “to close.”



D. B verbs Verb stems ending in -B take another © before é or e. But note that there is no change before ç.

mBx to call êBx to know not xBx to be different ÖBx to flow





q¥é‚ îöé‚ }öé‚ ä¥é‚

q≠L îìL }ìL ä≠L

q≠‚ îì‚ }ì‚ ä≠‚

mBç êBç xBç ÖBç

µ verbs

Some verb stems with µ drop the µ before a vowel suffix.

≤x to get well ¸x to make, to build ›x to draw (a line) tx to connect



®eL ÙéL ’éL kéL

®Wâ ÙWâ ’Wâ kWâ

≤Ù ¸Ù ›Ù tÙ

Some µ verbs do not change.

¸x to take off (undress) Úx to laugh òx to comb cx to wash (body) ßpx to take away




¸éL ÚéL òéL céL ßpeL

¸Wâ ÚWâ òWâ cWâ ßpWâ

¸Ù ÚÙ òÙ cÙ ßpÙ

æ verbs

Some verb stems ending in æ drop the æ before a vowel suffix.


Èûx to be yellow üQx to be red Ïcx to be black Õâx to be white cûx to be blue ’∂x to be in that way éZx to be in a certain manner





Èï üB ÏW ÕÅ cï ’Ø éQ

Èìâ ü@â ÏUâ Õ~â cìâ ’≠â éOâ

Èì[‚ ü@[‚ ÏU[‚ Õ~[‚ cì[‚ ’≠[‚ éO[‚

Some æ verbs do not change.

øx to be good ‘x to put in Ûx to place Xx to be many ∏x to give birth




øY ‘Y ÛY XY ∏Y

øWâ ‘Wâ ÛWâ XWâ ∏Wâ

øW[‚ ‘W[‚ ÛW[‚ XW[‚ ∏W[‚


Appendix 5: Connectives †rÂ

either . . . or

k ܇üL k‡d® Ùd® Òúòx.


(and) also

’≠Y ≠]≥ ›˙dnÀ J≥ “x.

if / when (colloquial)

˚ü @d érnQ gm ú÷ ‘[‚.

dÁõ (hõ) if / when (colloquial)

œ∑ü @dÁõ –rn °e eì. (‰ê)

fUa / fW


Œ±ü Xk x‰fUa ea lk òx.



٤㠢ñ@ ˚ü ∑e Kydn Õç úLE höx.



Œ±ü≥ @ç ÁLüü≥ Kx.


and / after (completion)

ó§E Õç(L) ÿ∑ëúZ bx.

‡ F¨ü


tsk æ‡ F¨ü æb ◊ú‚.

‡ úü

before doing

‚ s‡ úü tZ cé~Ù.

‡a. . . ÙW

is . . . but

≠]@ ‚‡a ‚ÙW ì\k ì ¢≥a enx.

‡a ^Â

far from it / let alone

≠]@ ‚‡a ^ ïÙ ’yx.


because of

≠]@ ÖM‡ü ë@ ¡ ◊ jqx.


because (colloquial)

e©≥ ò‰ü g Áé@ç ˚Wà ∑e“x.




§/a Ωgü

while, during

π@ òa Ωgü úL@ “x.

§/a Âkü


’@ Œ± B Âkü úL@ “é!

§/a/m Ùì because

Œ˚mÙì ‰Œ FŸüa ßfiZ òœx.

§/Y üü

as a result of

nZ ´«ó œ üü my@ ≈öx.

§/Y cü

after doing

≥LE Z cü ëíZ Êé‚.

§/Y/a ¢Ã as it is / the way it is

êyE S ¢Ã Ñx.

§/Y/a Ωü due to / because of (blame)

Æ@@ æBa Ωü ˚Ok éøÙ±x.

§/Y/a/©/ as if Z Îk

rM@ ¯¯ Îk eøx.


and / but

æb Èa ≠m£ nZ Õn?


even if

Ù¤ BÁ ¯fl iöyÙ?

_n óìM

rather than doing . . .

ëæa ≠ q±Z @_n óìM ˚üL Åk® yyx.


for / in order to òmÕ_ì(ç) is Ñx.

a ãÃ

as / when

≥∑ü @a ãà úL÷.

a ãÃ

following / after

π@ Õa ãà ÷.

a ◊óü

because of /in the midst of

O„a ◊óü ©∫ qOÙ ÁMÙ@ iqx.



Ù∏@ g æaÙì hé“x.

if / whether

~ uaÙ ¡¤Õx. Ω˚k “aÙ êByx.


while doing

˚ü @x@ B∂E W≥x.

x ò÷

couldn’t . . . anymore

‡xMx ò÷ Dy ˚ü Kx.

x Wâ

as you do (something)

⁄∑ü Íx Wâ O nk x ux.


as (he) was doing . . .

Ω˚k TVE Wïn éÓŒ@ @Ù∆x.




just doing / if only . . .

çÙW Wïì≥ ’f àXZ j ñ ux.


if not (past / subjunctive)

π@ ÏúZ g ›òÁ Âç@ g ≥Z◊£.

but / although rMa øe≥ òmE g œx.


either . . . or / À≥ g À≥ øx. neither . . . nor


until (to the point)

≠k Û≥Õ £Z oöx.


µY u≈ T ◊Z êDx.


either / or

@ÂÙ g@ÂÙ ™îZ Õyé‚.

©/Z F


µÅZ ~ F úL@ “x.

©/Z FUx


œ∑ü D FUx ’ B∂E W´x.

©/Z Fã

around / about B∂@ ¡ Fã ƒx. (time)

©/Z `¢

even if

ºZ `¢ mêüs µZ g ‹ax.

©/Z ©ƒ (ü)

about when

÷@ ¯ ©ƒü ¥ñ@ °e“x.

©/Z — (kÙ)

only / just (followed by negative)

ZZ ~ – —kÙ ŸY òSx.

©/Z ◊

how to

≥é – ◊ e[‚? – ◊ îì‚.

©/Z ◊ êBâ

if . . . don’t know how

ãÑ– ◊ êBâ Åyy uéì.

©/Z ◊ jâ

if . . . know how ¿∑éE – ◊ jâ È®÷ ‘[‚.

©/Z l OWâ

if it seems

©/ZÏ `

afraid that, lest Ù∏E ÛDÏ ` xé “x.


as much as pos- ’ ßya L@ ≠ãà ≥x. sible / one can

©/Z —ï≠

not only

ZZ ~ – —ï≠ Ÿ≥ ~ Sx.

©/Z —W enì

not only . . . but

qéE ~ – —W enì ¥é≥ ~ œx.

Jk ¡ l OWâ ÏúÕÙ Uì.




the more . . . the better

ÂóY òmE Xk Õâ –ñÕ Çt÷ ˆx.


even if

e©≥ g DÙì≥ ®a @yx.


(not) even

ºZÙê¢ ’Ø nY gœx.



nk éø̈ã éé Dy Õya@.


since / as it’s expected

π@ ê D’nÏ ‡xø.

ì/xça . . . do what one can œxça ›a£ nk g ü≥x. a£ ì/xç ÷(L)

just because

mêìç ÷L y¬Z FMâ ©n´x.

±/\ü ˘ì


∞nk Èn»ü ˘ì ˚≥ ◊éöx.

±/\WÃ (m)÷L

due to, because ÖŒ¤Z ‹\Wà ÷L ®a ㌱ü D ñ uöx.


by doing

(e©M) . . . ÙW

no matter how e©M éƒÙW œˆ ÷ `ì.

(e©M) . . . (k)ÙW

no matter who /what

e©M B∂ÙW Ok Í ña òx.

(é/e) @Ùç

after doing

µZ YfiüL °e @Ùç £‰ü Kx.

(é/e) @Ùç

because of (colloquial)

µk òé @Ùç hé“Ù.

(é/e) Wqy

even if

Ù¤ Œ±ü @ Wqy e©≥ òZ lkx.


and /after

˚ü @L ó§E ›x.



›ÙL ˚ü nè “x.

È¿“WÃfl ëõZ }Y– ñ ux.

(é/e)~(W) only if

¥È÷~(W) nk ~ ∆x.

(éé®) òÙ It was so . . . that . . .

’ ó@ éé® üM @òÙ ò ˘ì Ké‚.


and then ’f tZ Çqx@ Ûqx. (interruption)




while at it

⁄‡›x@ B∂E Í™ó W≥x.


although /but

hY ≈öW® ‡‡@ òx.

(W)® . . . (W)®

either . . . or

ßfiZ @® g @® Uô@Ùx.


even if / although

ëœ lY en®U k PÆZ ‹e ‘[‚.

(W)n . . . (W)n

saying this . . . and that . . .

µk õWn XWn xÛöx.


as /when

£Z oéWnÏ Â≈Z jyx.



¡Bk òWnÏ ò @yx.


in order to (followed by @x, æx, xnx)

µZ ¯≠ ~¡yü Ké‚.


in order to

⁄±úk ≈øç ¢@ŒZ òm÷‚.



¡Êü xWøn Õöx.


if (one) intends to

πn Œ±ü giWøâ nè né®ì.

(W)¡Ua(W) probably but

érn@ Íeà¡â øW¡Ua.


in addition

I≥ ëÃá Ư≥ ®ÿx.


if /when

nk ü®â ê x‰Wà æ[‚.

(W)â . . . ©/ZñÕ

the more . . . the more

òmE Õâ –ñÕ á?ux.


while, at the same time

÷@ ®âL ë@ ¿x.


since /as

πnk ‘Zk≈à ¡π@ œ@–d~.


either . . . or

£kÂÙ ™»kÂÙ x »‚÷‚.


because . . . is

öa Œ˚kì ÷Ö –mZ ‹e‚.


as soon as

LÌü ≥òÕy(Uy) Núqü Kx.


although /but

±≈à xé KÙW iöx.

far from it / let alone

100qY ^Â 10q≥ òx.

Patterns and Grammar Notes Index ¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

In this index, L17 means that the term or concept appears in Lesson 17. The index is arranged according to the hangul alphabetical order, referring to the last element both with and without the verbal modifiers (§/ Y/a/©/Z), tenses (ö/q), case markers (Z/E), and the inserting vowels. For example, ©/ZÏ` is listed under -©/ZÏ ` and -Ï `, and §/a/ö/q{x is listed under -§/a/ö/q{x, -ö/q{x, and -{x. The English entries in the beginning of the index are the grammar notes items that did not have Korean terms given, as for the charts and some special terms. Adverb with negative L20 Causative infixes k, ó, M, ‡, Í, ∂, and › L17 Causative verbs chart L17 Epenthetic µ L14 Expressions for “any” or “every” L5 Helping verbs chart L14 Indirect speech endings chart L9 Intimate speech style L2 Mathematical terms L12 Nominalization L15 Non-polite speech style L2 Passive verbs chart L15 Question word -ÂÙ L10 Reported speech L9 (See Indirect speech endings chart) Verbs for involuntary action L19 -@x “to do . . . and take” L2 -@‚? “is it . . . ?” L5



¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-@Ùç -G -OY -d® -dÂ(‚) -d∑‚ -h ’¶x -hMx -l -l Ox -löa }M -lŸü êBx -l òk -lWà NçÕx -lk enì -l±± -s -s ≈x -s U¡kx -s‚ -s Õx -s Õx/WÁx -y -Ç -ç ’ü‚ -ç ®L -ç Zç‚


“having done . . . ,” “after doing . . . ” L15 “prospective (person noun)” L25 “like,” “same as” L9 “either (do this) . . . or (do that) . . . ” L3 “you know” L18 “I think / expect it will . . . ” L1 “should have . . . ” L19 verb for involuntary action L19 “one should / must (do)” L14 “it seems / appears . . . ,” “it is/looks as though . . . ” L3 “unlike being,” “different from that” L16 “to know nothing but —ing” L4 “without —ing . . . ” L11 “is famous for —ing . . . ” L10 “not . . . but . . . ,” “it is not (the fact) that . . . ” L8 “as,” “as though,” “as well as” L7 “-ly” (adverb) L21 “it turns out that,” “it happens that,” “it becomes that” L13, L21 “it is expected,” “it is only natural that . . . ” L21, L23 “I / we will . . . ” L2 “make (someone) do,” “cause something to happen” L25 “to make (someone) do (something)” L21 supposition, guess, and intention L21 “while doing . . . ” L18 “it’s said (so),” “it is called . . . ” L8 “after doing . . . ,” “having done . . . ” L3 “of course, . . . will be / do,” “it goes without saying” L21

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-çy Õx -ê Õx -è ›x -úœ/ú÷L ’ãà -’ØÙ -‡ -‡@ ©Vs -‡a . . . -ÙW -‡a ÕÙW -‡a^ -‡≥ Õx -‡Ã NçÕx -‡Ã Õx -‡E ◊ìx -‡ U¡kx -‡W Õâ -‡ü(a) -‡ FÕß/F÷L -Êü -Ï ` -Ï‚? cE †M -§/Y@‚?



“to try to,” “to plan to,” “would like to” L26 “from time to time, it does,” “now and then” L16 “used to” L16 “about,” “on” L17 “as (it) is,” “the way (it) is” L16 “maybe because,” “it could be because” L18 nominalization L15 “as soon as,” “immediately (after)” L11 “it is true that . . . , but” L18 “it is true . . . , but,” “although it is . . . ” L18 “far from doing . . . ” L25 “it is also . . . ” L26 “is famous for —ing . . . ” L10 “to decide to” L4 “to wish,” “to pray for,” “to hope for” L22 “it is expected,” “it is only natural that . . . ” L23 “whenever,” “every time,” “only if” L23 “as,” “as for” L17 “for,” “for the sake of,” “in order to” L9 “while one is at it / doing it,” “since / because” L6 “(because) . . . afraid that,” “in anticipation of” L12 “would it . . . ?,” “do you think it will . . . ?” L2 “a tiny bit (of motion)” L6 “among / by themselves” L24 “is it . . . (adjective)?” L5


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm


-§/Y/a l -§/Y/a l Ox -§/Y/a löa }M -§/Y/a lk enì -§/Y/a/©/Z l òk -§/Y lWà NçÕx -§/Y/a Êü -§/axâL‚? -§/a/ö/q{x -§/Y/a/©/Z ãà -§/Y/a ã√ü -§/Y/a ñ¡ü/ñoü -§/Y/a £x@ -§/Y/a êákx -§/Y/a _kx -§/Y/a òB -§/Y õk òx -§/Y õk ux -§/Y/a/©/Z ◊ îöx -§/Y/a/©/Z ◊ jqx -§/Y ¢(Ã) -®

“—ing,” “to . . . ,” “the fact that . . . ” L2 “it seems / appears . . . ,” “it is / looks as though . . . ” L3 “unlike being,” “different from that” L16 “not . . . but . . . ,” “it is not (the fact) that . . . ” L8 “without —ing . . . ” L11 “is famous for —ing . . . ” L10 “while (one is at it / doing it),” “since / because L12 is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?” L12 “(I am telling you) . . . ,” “(I say) . . . ” L12 “as is,” “as (someone) does / says” L16 “in place of,” “instead of,” “but” L17 “due to (your) generosity,” “thanks to you” L20 “in addition to,” “not only . . . but also,” “and also” L22 “it looks . . . ,” “it seems . . . ,” “it appears . . . ” L9 “it is (almost) as though,” “I would say” L21 “the moment,” “at the moment of” L11 “there has never been,” “to have never done” L11 “there has been,” “to have done” L11 “did not expect that,” “did not know that” L25 “expected that,” “knew that” L25 “just as it is,” “(while) doing,” “being in the state of” L25 “either (this) . . . or (that) . . . ” L3; “just,” “nothing else but . . . ” L4

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-®x -® U® -® `‚ -®‚? -®‚ ∑ πø@x -¬ç œx -D nx -C‚ -’‚ H∂® H∂ÂÙ -_n (óìM) -_ìç -a l -a lŸü êBx -a lk enì -a l±± -a Êü -a ãà -a Ωgü -a ” Ua ” -a W´ -a ◊óü -a ›ü -a çkx



verb for involuntary action L19 “no use,” “no point doing,” “not worth doing” L19 “I think it is,” “it seems” L7 “is it . . . (action verb)?” L5 “what else?,” “you know” L18 “to go down” L6 indirect speech (question) L6 indirect speech: formal short form (question) L20 indirect speech (question) L9 sentence ending L1 “everyone” L5 “whoever” L10 “(I) would rather,” “it is better to . . . ” L16 “for doing . . . ,” “(in order) to do . . . ” L12 “act of doing . . .” L15 “to know nothing but —ing” L4 “not . . . but . . . ,” “it is not (the fact) that . . . ” L8 “as,” “as though,” “as well as” L7 “while one is at it,” “while doing it,” “since / because” L6 “as soon as” L16 “while,” “during,” “when” L17 “hurriedly,” “haphazardly,” “barely,” “hardly” L24 “do as much as,” “is enough to . . . ” L9 “as the result of,” “because of” L16 “in the middle / midst of doing . . . ” L8 “to be kind of,” “to be rather,” “to be relatively” L6


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-nÏ -x@ -xç œx -xâL‚? -x Wn -x¡≈ -xÙ‚? -x Õïì≥ -{x -}M -Ñnx -ãx -ãà -ã√ -ã‚ -ïn -ïì -ñ¡ü or ñoü -ò úü -ò úkx/ókx -£x@ -£Mç @x -£Mç æx -≥ -≥ √‚?


“because,” “since,” “as,” “for” L2 “while doing,” “as (something) is going on” L21 indirect speech (statement) L5 “is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?” L12 “while (doing / being),” “as . . . (is doing),” “as,” “since” L20 “as you (know, see, hear)” L23 “isn’t it . . . ?” L19 “even if,” “although,” “no matter (what, who, and so on)” L24 “(I am telling you) . . . ,” “(I say) . . . ” L12 “being unlike,” “different from that” L16 indirect speech: formal short form (statement) L20 “to keep on doing,” “to do repeatedly” L13 “as is,” “as (someone) does / says” L16 “instead of,” “as a replacement” L17 indirect speech (statement) L9 “and then,” “since,” “but” L18 “I’d say . . . ,” “(I remember) something . . . ” L10 “thanks to (you) . . . ” L20 “in the middle of doing” L22 “(I am) in the middle of doing / being . . . ” L22 “in addition to,” “not only . . . but also,” “and also” L22 “to take (someone) along” L10 “to bring (someone)” L10 “even if,” “although,” “even though” L4 “is it all right if / to . . . ?,” “is it okay if / to . . . ?” L3

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-≥Õ Õx -Ωg -≈x -Ãx -” Ua ” Õç -ÂÙ -Á -Áx ˘Bâ FUx Fâ -©/Z -©/Z -©/Z -©/Z

d∑‚ h ’¶x l l

-©/Z l Ox -©/Z l òk -©/Zs‚ -©/Z Ç -©/ZÏ ` -©/ZÏ Õx@ -©/ZÏ‚? -©/Z ãà -©/Z FUx -©/Z Fâ -©/Zü‚ -©/Zü‚?



“to try to make,” “to have someone do” L21 “while,” “during,” “when” L17 intransitive / passive L24 helping verb L13 “hurriedly,” “haphazardly,” “barely,” “hardly” L24 “whoever / whatever / whenever / wherever . . . ” L10 use of plural marker L14 verb for involuntary action L19 “according to,” “on the basis of” L24 “whenever,” “every time” L15 “when,” “whenever,” “by the time” L25 “I think / expect it will . . . ” L1 “should have . . . ” L19 “one should / must (do)” L14 “—ing,” “to . . . ,” “the fact that . . . ” L2 “it seems / appears . . . ,” “it is / looks as though . . . ” L3 “without —ing . . . ” L11 “I / we will . . . ” L2 “while doing . . . ” L18 “(because) . . . afraid that,” “in anticipation of” L12 “considered doing . . . but . . . ,” “was going to . . . then . . . ” L22 “would it . . . ?,” “do you think it will . . . ?” L2 “as is,” “as (someone) does / says” L16 “whenever,” “every time” L15 “when,” “whenever,” “by the time” L25 “I will . . . ” L3 “will you . . . ?,” “are you . . . ?” L3


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-©/Z Wœx -©/Z êákx -©/Z µÕx -©/Z —W enì -©/Z _kx -©/Z ñÕ -©/Z ñŸü òx -©/Z ¢≥à -©/Z ◊ îöx -©/Z ◊ jx -©/Z ◊ jqx -©/Z ÙÜkx -ìç œx -ìa -ìâ H∂/©ôk® -ìâL‚? -ìL -ònx -õ -ü‚ -øç Õx


“it is worth doing,” “it is doable,” “to be deserving” L14 “it looks . . . ,” “it seems . . . ,” “it appears . . . ” L9 “almost,” “nearly,” “a close call” L5 “not only . . . (but) also,” “as well as” L13 “(one) plans to,” “(one) intends to” L21 “the more one does . . . , the more . . . ” L9 “there is no way / choice but to . . . ,” “have to” L22 “(so) . . . to the extent that,” “(so) . . . to the point that” L20 “did not expect that,” “did not know that” L25 “to know,” “to know how” L15 “expected that,” “knew that” L25 “to / at the point of . . . ,” “almost,” “nearly” L19 indirect speech (statement) L5 “(so) called . . . ,” “known as . . . ” L10 “if . . . is, then whoever / whatever . . . ” L7 “is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?” L12 “as . . . being,” “since it is,” “because it is” L1 indirect speech: formal short form (statement) L20 “and,” “with” L14 “I will . . . ,” “will you . . . ?” L3; indirect speech (statement) L9 “to intend to,” “to plan to,” “going to” L1

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm


-ÃL -à NçÕx -±/\ -±/\ òk U¡kx Uô@Ù -W´ -WÕx -Zkü‚ -â -©/ZñÕ -â éF‚? -êákx -òÙ is ©ôk® ©ôkÂÙ -∑ -≈à -◊óü -Ÿü êBx -ÙMx -Wn -`~Ù‚ -`‚ -by/WqÙ -ë“Õß -ë÷(L) . . . (çkx)


“as,” “for,” “being (in the position of )” L11 “is famous for” L10 nominalization L15 “without —ing . . . ” L11 “it is expected,” “it is only natural that . . . ” L23 “same thing,” “similar thing” L20 “(almost) as much as,” “as well as” L9 “it is worth doing,” “it is doable,” “to be deserving” L14 “do you mean . . . ?,” “I mean” L16 “the more one does . . . , the more . . .” (emphasis) L9 “How about . . . ?” L8 “it looks . . . ,” “it seems . . . ,” “it appears . . . ” L9 “as good / well as” “(even) better / more than” L15 “anything” L5 “whatever” L10 “what else,” “you know” L18 “because,” “as,” “for,” “since,” “for being . . . ” L6 “as the result of,” “because of” L16 “to know / care about only,” “to know nothing but” L4 helping verb L14 “while (doing / being),” “as . . . (is doing),” “as,” “since” L20 “should (try) . . . ,” “must (try) . . . and . . . ” L7 “I think it is,” “it seems” L7 “even if (I try) doing . . . ,” “even if (something) is . . . ” L19 “including,” “beginning with” L26 “compared with . . . , (it is on the side of ) . . . ” L23


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-ßç -µÕx -—W enì -≥ Ât ¡» -_kx -d or -[‚ -ñÕ -ñ Ÿü òx -òB -¡Æx -enì -eq ñ òx e© -(k)® -~ Õx/≈x éÓ® éÓÂÙ éZs ≈Ù‚? éZs …nÏ? -é/e @x -é/e @Ùç -é/e ãx -é/e≥ -é/e≥ √‚? -é/e Ãx -é/e ÙMx -é/e `~Ù‚


“without” L12 “almost,” “nearly,” “a close call” L5 “not only N. (but) also N. . . . ” L13 “—’s,” “of” L14 “it is as though,” “I would say,” “(one) plans to,” “(one)intends to” L21 “This is . . . (HON.)” L5 “the more one does . . . , the more . . .” L9 “there is no way / choice but to . . . ,” “have to” L22 “the moment,” “at the moment of” L11 “to make (someone) do . . . ,” “to order” L22 “(it is) not . . . (but)” L8 “it cannot be anything but,” “it is such a . . . ” L26 “any / every . . . ” L5 “must,” “have to,” “should” L1 “everywhere,” “anywhere” L5 “wherever” L10 “how is . . . ?,” “what is . . . ?” L23 “how is . . . ?,” “what is . . . ?” L23 “to do . . . and take,” “to progress / go . . . (ADV.)” L17 “having done . . . ,” “after doing . . . ” L15 “to keep on doing,” “to do repeatedly” L13 “even if,” “although,” “even though” L4 “is it all right if / to . . . ?,” “is it okay if / to . . . ?” L3 helping verb L13 helping verb L14 “should (try) . . . ,” “must (try) . . . and . . . ” L7

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm


-é/e by -é/eL ’ØÙ -é/e~ ≈x -é/e~ Õx -é/e æx -é/e ux -é/e¨ ux -é/eÙx -é/eÕx ꧮ ê§ÂÙ ìU® . . . ö/qòÙ ìU® . . . ö/qòÙ ìU® . . . §/YÙ ìU® . . . aÙ -òk -ö/qx@ -ö/q{x -ö/qïn -ö/qò -ö/qöx -ö/q|e‚ -ü úœ -ü ú÷L -ü ˘Bâ -ü ë÷(L) . . . (çkx) -ü f÷L -ü lx -æx


“even if (I try) doing . . . ,” “even if (something) is . . . ” L19 “maybe because,” “it could be because” L18 “must,” “have to,” “should” L1 “must,” “have to,” “should” L1 “to do . . . and bring” L17 “to be in the state / place of,” “to be still . . . ” L12 “being in (changed state or position of )” L26 “is becoming . . . ,” “is turning . . . ” L5 “to feel . . . ” L8 “any time” L5 “whenever” L10 “it was such (ADV.) A.V. that . . . ” L4 “it was so D.V. that . . . ” L4 “it is so D.V. that . . . ” L4 “it is such (ADV.) A.V. that . . . ” L4 “without (something)” L11 “while / when,” “and then” L21 “(I am telling you) . . . ,” “(I say) . . . ” L12 “since,” “because,” “so,” “as,” “when” L18 “used to do,” “was doing . . . ” L13 “it has / had been,” “it has / had had” (double past) L20 “right?,” “didn’t it?” L10 “about,” “on” L17 “about,” “concerning” L17 “according to,” “on the basis of” L24 “compared with . . . , (it is on the side of ) . . . ” L23 “by,” “in accordance with” L26 “to be familiar with” L24 “to do . . . and bring” L17


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

¡ì@x -À/öa }M -F÷L/FÕß NçÕx -W® U® -WnÏ -Wìç œx -Wònx -Wü‚ -Wøç Õx -Wà NçÕx -WÃL -Wâ -©/Z ñÕ -Wâ éF‚? -W≈à -Y@ `‚ -Y lk enì -Y l±± -Y Êü -Y W´ -Y Ù@ -Y/a ^ . . . ≥ -Y çkx -Z W´ -Z/E -Z/E £øx@


“to go up” L6 “being unlike,” “different from that” L16 “for,” “for the benefit of” L9 “is famous for” L10 “no use,” “no point doing,” “not worth doing” L19 “because,” “since,” “as,” “for” L2 indirect speech (command) L6 indirect speech: formal short form (command) L20 indirect speech (command) L9 “to intend to,” “to plan to,” “going to” L1 “is famous for” L10 “as,” “for,” “being (in the position of )” L11 “the more one does . . . , the more . . . ” (emphasis) L9 “How about . . . ?” L8 “because,” “as,” “for,” “since,” “for being . . . ” L6 “I think it is,” “it seems” L7 “it is not (the fact) that . . . ,” “not . . . but . . . ” L8 “as,” “as though,” “as well as” L7 “while one is at it,” “while doing it,” “since / because” L6 “do as much as,” “is enough to . . . ” L9 “it’s been . . . since . . . ” L8 “not even . . . , let alone” L25 “to be kind of,” “to be rather,” “to be relatively” L6 “do as much as,” “is enough to . . . ” L9 special use of -Z / E L1 “after bringing” L10

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-Z/E -Z/E -Z/E -Z/E

£Mç ë“Õß ßç ¡Æx

-Z◊£‚ -Z/E ÈÕß(L) -f÷L -k enì -k eq ñ òx -k lx -k, ó, M, ‡ -k, ó, M, ‡, Í, › -k/@ -k/@ enì -k/@ òk -k‡a ÕÙW -k® -kÂÙ -kìç œx -kìa -kìâ H∂® -kìâ ©ôk® -kìâL‚? -kìL -kõ -kü‚ -k≈à -kd or k[‚



“bringing / taking with” L10 “including,” “beginning with” L26 “without” L12 “to make (someone) do . . . ,” “to order” L22 “I imagine,” “I would think,” “it must be” L7 “by way of,” “through” L23 “by,” “in accordance with” L26 “it is not N. but . . . ,” “not N. but . . . ” L8 “it cannot be anything but,” “it is such a . . . ” L26 “to be familiar with” L24 passive verbs L15 causative suffixes L17 special use of -k / @ L1 “it is not N. but . . . ,” “not N. but . . . ” L8 “without (something / someone)” L11 “it is true that . . . but” L18 “either (this) . . . or (that) . . . ” L3; “just,” “nothing else but . . . ” L4 “whoever / whatever / whenever / wherever . . . ” L10 indirect speech (statement) L5 “(so) called . . . ,” “known as . . . ” L10 “if . . . is, then whoever . . . ” L7 “if . . . is, then whatever . . . ” L7 “is it true that . . . ?,” “is (what I heard) true?” L12 “as . . . being,” “since it is,” “because it is” L1 “and,” “with” L14 indirect speech (statement) L9 “because it is . . . ” L6 “This is . . . (HON.)” L5


¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm

-kö|e‚ -köò -k|e‚ lx -m@‚? -n◊£‚ -ux -y -yç œx -yUy . . . -|e‚ -Çnx -á‚ -õWà -õk ux/òx -¢≥à -¨ ux -◊ îöx -◊ jx -◊ jqx -›ü -Ù@ -ÙÜkx -Ùx -Ù êBx -Ù iZ ñ òx -Ù jx -Ù‚/®‚ ∑


“wasn’t it?” L10 “used to be” L13 “isn’t it?” L10 “to be familiar with” L24 “is it . . . ?” L5 “I imagine,” “I would think,” “it must be” L7 “to be in the state / place of,” “to be still . . . ” L12 “as,” “soon after” L4 indirect speech (“let’s”) L6 “as soon as” L4 “right?,” “doesn’t it?” L10 indirect speech: formal short forms (“let’s”) L20 indirect speech (“let’s”) L9 adverbs L7 “there has / has never been,” “to have / have never done” L11 “(so) . . . to the extent that,” “(so) . . . to the point that” L20 “being in (changed state or position of )” L26 “did not expect that,” “did not know that” L25 “to know,” “to know how” L15 “expected that,” “knew that” L25 “among,” “in the midst of . . . ” L8 “it’s been . . . since . . . ” L8 “to / at the point of . . . ,” “almost,” “nearly” L19 “is becoming . . . ,” “is turning . . . ” L5 “not to know if / whether” L2 “could not help but,” “there is no way but” L11 “to know if / whether” L2 “what else,” “you know” L18

¨˙ö ¨˚ Ùm


úü úkx/ókx -¢Ã -±± ∑-^ -◊£‚ -ÈÕß(L) -çkx -Õx Õïì≥ ÕUÀâ -©/Z µÕx -– ñ òx -– ñ òk


“in the middle of doing” L22 “(I am) in the middle of doing / being . . . ” L22 “just as it is,” “(while) doing,” “being in the state of” L25 “like” L7 “first,” “beginning” L3 “far from doing . . . ,” “not even . . . , let alone” L25 “I imagine,” “I would think,” “it must be” L7 “by way of,” “through” L23 “to be kind of,” “to be rather,” “to be relatively” L6 “to feel . . . ” L8; transitive action verb L24 “even if,” “although,” “no matter (what, who, and so on)” L24 “almost,” “nearly,” “a close call” L5 “can’t help it,” “can’t do” L13 “having no choice,” “without an alternative” L13

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{é Ùm

In this glossary, L21 means that the word or term appears for the first time in Lesson 21; L7r means that the word or term appears in the Extra Reading section of Lesson 7. Double citations, such as L2r, L8, mean that the word or term appears for the first time in the Extra Reading of Lesson 2 and later appears in the main text of Lesson 8. (°) @| @çc @Ûx @xx @õ @´Õx @_xï @hY @hÕx @‰ @î @B@x @MÙˆ

@Â @Ï£

price L21 “Longing to Go” (song title) L15 to be close, to be near @ÏÏ near L2 to take care of (plants) L24 sometimes, once in a while L5 to be poor L18r slender, very thin @_xûx to be slender, to be very thin L27 possibility L17 to be possible, it’s possible @hÕâ if possible L19 full, fully L19r tune, melody, song (archaic expression of é) L12 to teach, to instruct L4 concealed, hidden @MÙÙx to get concealed @Mx to conceal, to hide L27 lyrics L15 in the middle (of) L2r 305


{é Ùm


@Z @Ö; §n @µ

autumn L6 the most L6 family L9r

@Ùç æx @@ A; AA Ay -B B{ó

to bring L1 value L24 each L15 each person, individual, individually L3r between L19r briefly, simply B{Õx to be simple L3 conflict, tension DÏ(k) ux to have conflict or tension L19r to change clothes L14r sense NrGA sense of humor L16r

DÏ De sx GA GΩ

Hy‡ L LI [Lh] Lf Lf≈ L¥Õx Ox OY Ok [@@] R›Õx RmÈ RŒ¬ dÊ���

impression, excitement, emotion GΩÕx/≈x to be moved, to be impressed by L25 suddenly L4r river L2r city of Kangnüng in Kangwön Province L6 lecture L3 lecture hall, classroom L3 to emphasize, to stress L¥ emphasis L18 to be identical, to be equal -l Ox it seems, it looks L3 same Ox to be the same L26 together (with) L2 to develop L22r personal use, private use RmÈ cπÀ personal computer L23 orientation RŒÕx to begin (semester) L3 holiness, greatness dÊÕx to be holy, to be great L27

{é Ùm

dM df dùÕx e¢Õx fLœ f∑ fÆ fñ gx hMx h\ sx@ {∑ Åö Å∑ Å«Õx Å¢Õx Å¢≈x ÅDÕx ÉÉk Üà ܇ Üm çr ≥à Üëˆ Ü≥Œ ÜÍ ÜNÕß Ü§



streets LÌ dM streets of Seoul L6 almost, mostly L1 to refuse L18r to worry e¢ concern, worry L2 healthy fLÕx to be healthy fL health L14 founding a nation f∑Õx to found a nation L10 building L2 Geon-su (man’s name) L5 to walk L2 to take (time) L2 step, walking L27 in addition, moreover (short form of d‡üx@) L6 (nation’s) people L15 result L26 finally, in the end L18r to determine Å« determination L14 to decide, to decide on Å¢ decision L5 to be decided L25 to marry L9r in many layers (of mountains, fabric, clothes) L12 border, boundary L26 (sports) game, tournament L18; state of economy, business conditions L22r Seoul-Pusan Expressway L11r security personnel, guard L24 study of business administration Ü≥ business administration L9 occasion, case L9r through, by way of ÜNÕx to pass through, to go by way of L13 economy L22


{é Ùm

ܧõ Ü‘ Üõú Ü@ ÜÊ àr àÄ àX çR çS ç∂ø ç‡; Æç‡ çÏŒ± çø çBx çr Ù∏ çr ÑM çk; ñs çÖ çú ç˚ ç@x ç‡ é é¬ èïÕx [ëï] ê óó òÂ


economical L16r city of Kyöngju (Silla’s capital city) L10 police officer L9 scenery L6 experience ÜÊÕx to experience L13 continuously àrÕx to continue àr≈x to be continued L2r contract L22 plan L9 neck L19r customer L16 Koguryö (37 b.c.–668 a.d., one of the Three Kingdoms) L25 fish ç‡ Çx to fish L11 high school L9 Koryö dynasty (918–1392) L10 to select, to choose L21 express bus L7 high-speed ferry L11 beautifully, delicately L27 breakdown çÖ®x to be out of order L21 classics, classical literature L18 stubbornness, obstinacy ç˚ mMx to be stubborn L25 to repair, to fix L21 hometown L15 tune, piece (of music) L15 grains, food L6 to be difficult, to be hard, to be tough L17 immediately L1 here and there, everywhere L24 construction work L7r

{é Ùm

òË‘f ò™ òÖ ò‘ ò’ ön öÖs öŒ ú úòL ú¢ ú¢S ú¢Ù úM [ùM] úMÕx [ùMÕx] úæ ú« úı úœ ¢ç ¢L¨ ® §öx ∞Öó ±π ±ñ ±OŒ [±NK]



communism òË‘fy communist L26 performance (music, drama, or dance) L19 factory L22 princess L25 airport L1 fruit L6 department head (HON.) öÖ manager, section chief L22 science L8 coffin L25 government or public office L11 tour, tourism ú¢ Ëó tourist industry L7 tourist L7r tourist place L7r bureaucrat, government official L18r to control, to manage, to be in charge of L26 custom, usual practice L9r interest ú« ux to be interested L5 government position L18r regarding, concerning, about L17 advertisement ¢çÕx to advertise L8 Kwang-hwa-mun stop or station L18 to be all right §öe‚. That’s OK. No problem. L1 very, enormously, wonderfully ∞ÖÕx to be grand L2 on campus ±π ¬á campus cafeteria L4 professor L3 study of education ±O education L9


{é Ùm

±È ±ó ±N ±ñ ±NÕx ±N Œ˚ ∂ÜÕx ∂π dÖ ∂µk ∂F ∂sÕx ∂Õx ∑@ ∑ÜP ∑R [¡t] ∑à ∑Ë ∑§ ∑§ úL ∑W fˆ -∏ ∏m ∫ ¡¤Õx ¡ú ≈ Àhk À∑Õx


traffic, transportation L2 Koreans residing abroad, overseas Koreans L3r, L20 exchange professor L12 to exchange ±N exchange L23r exchange student ±NÕx to exchange L5 to see, to sightsee ∂Ü sightseeing L2 school store, campus store L23 boa, large snake L19r cloud L1 to purchase ∂s purchase, buying L21 to look for, to seek L9r state, nation L10 national border line ∑Ü national border L20r national, government-established L10 people of the country L25 domestic, made in Korea ∑ËÆ Korean/domestic product L21 international ∑§ Œ˚ ‡ó international student dormitory L3r international phone call L14 member of the Korean National Assembly L17 Mr. — (to young man by superior) L22 soldier, military L26 grotto, cave L10 to be curious about L16 palace, royal residence L25 volume (book) L18 earring ëhk necklace L10 to return to one’s home country L14

{é Ùm

’ Ωg ’« ’ã ’ãà ’ü ’üL ’ØÙ ’≠‡E; ’∂s ≈‡E ’≠x@ ’≠y ’Ø£ ’± ’Mx ’MÙì ’Q ’Rx ’WÃx ’»≠ ’éÛx ’öQ ’@x ◊© ¡B ◊± Ÿ ŸË Ÿo‡ ¤LË ¤¤Ù ¤Y ¤™ ‹ró [‹ÏÆ]


in the mean time L7r for no reason, as it is, as it stands L9 you, thou (in poems and letters) L25 as it is L16 Yes, Sure, It’ll be . . . , I’ll do so. ’ü? Is that so? L2 maybe that is why L18 hoping it would turn out so L22 while doing so, meanwhile L18r and then, when it’s done, as soon as (something) happens / is done L25 by the way L5 Yeah, Sure, Certainly, Of Course, If so, Well then L2 to draw, to paint L7 (I) miss, (I) long for L15r drawing, painting L7 to long for, to miss L15 to quit L9r the last day of the month L14 to draw or mark to leave (a line) ›x to draw (a line) L27 the day before yesterday L16 to cease, to stop ë@ ’@x to stop raining L23r work hour L8 vicinity, nearby place L6 writing L7 Well, Let me see L7 reading and studying (classics) L25 Kümgang (Diamond) Mountains L26 gold ring L10 Gold Star (name of company) L21 no smoking L4 quickly, rapidly L23r



{é Ùm

‹Õx ‹œ [’f] ‡B ‡à ‡xMx ‡Bx ‡F ‡Z; Œ‡Z ‡Z ‡o ‡Â ‡P ‡ö

‡è®x ‡Ú‡Ú ‡ˆ ú ‡W ‡c ‰ ‰~Õx Úù ¯ùÕx ¯x Gπx P‰dMa _


to be in a hurry, to have an emergency ‹ó in a hurry, urgently L22 urgent ‹Õx to be urgent L4 time period L3r machine, machinery L21r to wait (for) L2 to raise (a child), to grow L7 gas, oil L12 end-of-term ‡Z WçL term paper ‡Z ¡Ê final exam L23 basic ‡Z «f basic option L23 feeling, mood L12 news item √¨ ‡Â newspaper account, newspaper article L24 liner, large ship, steamship L11 technology, skill öŒ ‡ö ㌠institute or college of science and technology L8r to recall, to remind ‡è memory L10 craning, peeking in ‡Ú‡ÚÕx to crane, to peek in L3 b.c. ‡ˆ c a.d. L10 opportunity, chance L9r, L15 climate L24 way, street @a ‰ on the way to L1 to be longish ‰~œ longish L27 momentarily, in an instant of time L14 to be clean L10 (Vt.) to break; (Vi.) to wake up ¯Íx (Vt.) to wake up L10 to take out (of box, envelope, or the like) L21 jumping P‰dMx to jump up and down L27 for sure L10

{é Ùm

b W‡ ∆x cE òÕx j n xÙó } }°Á îx ññœ óéÙx [î»Ùx] óròk òx ü ü®x [ñ®x] üU@x [ñU@x] -†M (§) ®’’ ®Hé ‘x ®Tx ®ïó ®rÙ ®Ÿ ®æx ®k  ®∂®x



hate to see (the face of a person) L19r can’t move a bit cEÕx to budge, to stir L6 fully, tightly L6 quite, rather L6 scolding, rebuke xÙóÕx to scold xÙó Êx to be scolded L21r dream }xx to dream L9 even in (my) dreams L15r to switch off, to turn off, to extinguish L21 sticky, gluey ññÕx to be sticky, to be gluey L27 to break, to be cut, to come to an end L27 endlessly óx to sever, to cut off L11 to draw ú«Z òx to draw interest L24 end point üÏÙ to the end L4 (Vi.) to end, to be over üπx (Vt.) to finish L4 (Vt.) to finish, to complete L3r, L4 together with, in a group, by themselves ÍM†M by ourselves L16 wanderer L27 to distribute L18r to be divided ®Hx to divide L26 side by side, in line, in a row L19 the rest, the remaining L4 bad, wicked ®ÿx to be bad, to be wicked L18r to come out L7 old ®k Áx to get mature or old L16r to appear L5


{é Ùm


≠ ≠x ≠] ≠WM [®BM] ≠D ∞ ∞fi íÏ ∞x ∞? ∞Ë ∞e ux ∞y ∞i ◊x ∞ç ∞œ ¥ëÕx µÅ ∂lx [´o˘] ∑Z [´Z] ππ πxWx πø @x πÈ πpx ¡^≈ »≥®≥ »© ……Õx [”»Jx]

day (used only with modifiers, as in ˚n ≠ birthday) L2 to fly L1 weather L2 (I imagine/fancy it will) fly L15r (due) date ≠D@ ‹Õx to be in a rush, time is running out L22 others, other person, stranger L16 gender equality, women’s equality L9 to be left over L8 South America L3 Nam-san Mountain L2 to still exist, to remain L9r man, male L5 southern sea L15r husband mm wife L7 South Korea L26 to waste ¥ë waste L16, L21r noon nap L1 to be familiar with (a face) L5 word, vocabulary L16r throughout a time period n‡ ππ all through the year L24 to look out from L12 to go down ¡ì æx to come up, to rise L6 content L4r, L23 to expel, to chase out L19r iced coffee ¡ñ iced water L19 everyone L16 too (much, little) L2 to be sufficient, to have enough (time, space, or money) L22r

{é Ùm

Œx œx [œ˘] -’ Èüyõ È¿Õx ΠÏìx ÏMx ÒÉ Òm Úkx Û@x J‰ JÆ äMx J bx bMx ix iéÙx (ß) x@ æx xnx xBx xM x‰ xñÅ x∏Mx xáÕs xÕx



to be wide ŒY wide L1 to exceed, to be more than L2r family (of someone) èm’ Hüngbu’s family or home L2 song contest L15 to make an effort È¿ effort, endeavor L20r rice paddy and fields Î rice paddy  field, farm L11 to be surprised, to be startled L11 to tease ÏQ teasing, making fun of L25 joke L5 farmer L12 to raise L22 to miss, to fail to catch L12 line of vision; attention L27 to shed tears L25 eyebrows L14r to increase L7r to widen, to make it increase L7r to be late L3 to become late L6 to approach, to near L17 to come and go; to walk around, to go around L2 to be different L2r bridge; leg L2r tearoom L10 majority decision xñ majority L15 to govern, to rule L18r variously xáÕx to be various L21 to exhaust ‘PZ xÕx to do one’s best L22


{é Ùm

xfikx {Ù {± {±k Áx } } }øæx }wk Éáy ÉÊ ≈Íx ÑÑÕx ÖÛ áP≈x á¡ á™Õx áÖ äx ã ãL ãR; ãRa ã∆ ãñ

ãmo ã√



to be fortunate L13 complex, compound UË òó {Ù Masan Industrial Park L8 fall colors; maple (leaves) {±¥ fall season L7 to change to fall colors L6 month L6 moon }k ~x the moon rises L7 to come running L25 snail L27 person in charge ÉáÕx to be in charge L23 to smoke a cigarette L4 to be frustrated L1 five days ÖÛ gü within five days L21 to be elected, to win election L17 at that time L7 to be expected, natural á™ó naturally, justly L9 immediately, right now L19r to arrive at, to reach L11 to, versus ≥ ã n 1000 : 1 L1 roughly, generally L14 mostly, in general L3r palace L15 city of Taedök (south of Seoul and next to Taejön) ãñ öŒ ™∂ {Ù Taedök Science Town L8 almost all, for the most part, mostly L11r instead of, substitution, substitute ã√Õx to take the place of, to replace L12 about five or six œÃ ¡B three or four houses Ã[ ç two or three persons L» ˚ a couple of hours L11r

{é Ùm

ãú ãÈ« ãL ãW -å -ï≠ ï∏x® -ñ¡ü ¢m [ï«] £øx@ £Mç £Mç @x

£kÀ; yfl £kÀBk∏ ≥Õ; ≥õ ≥à ≥¡ ≥òÕx ¥R [Ωt] ¥RÕx ¥† ¥Nœ [¥ML] µ ∑ ∑Wx ∑e æx ªx Ω‡ Ω’



city of Taejön (south of Seoul) L8 president LI7 dialogue, conversation L3 meeting, conference, competition L15 house, residence (HON.) L7 to (a person) (colloquial) L27 furthermore L22r owing to, thanks to L20 covered ¢kx to be covered ¢x to cover L27 having brought L10 accompanying L18r to take along £Mç æx to bring together L19 data L23 database L23 thief, burglar ≥Õ¯Õx to steal L18r (paved) road L7r, L12 city L2r, L8 to arrive ≥ò arrival L1 independence ¥R ÏΩ independence movement L20r to become independent ¥R independence L26 solo (singing) L15 unique, peculiar ¥NÕx to be unique, to be peculiar L23r money L8 stone, rock L13 to look after L9r to return, to come back ∑e @x to return, to go back L5 to help ≥ help, aid L7 motive L24 village, town L15


{é Ùm


Ω© ΩeM ΩáL ΩÙ ΩL£ œ≠Wx œ≠Ãx ”Ù „®Áx „¨ Êx Áh Áx ÁBx Áßx Wx Ï -Ï Ïü Ùx ˘x ˘ÜÕx [˘~∂x] ˘ì@x ˘ìL ˘æx D O®x P∑ Ré~Mx RéÙx

friend, chum L15r club, group L18 Oriental painting Ωá the Orient, Oriental L12 winter solstice L14r children’s storybook L25 to look around, to make a survey L18 to surround, to wrap around L13 nest L19r to go in and out L11 scarce, rare, unusual „Æx to be scarce, to be rare L18 to take (course) L26 wildflower L27 to cost Œë@ Ãs Âx. Tuition costs little. L24 to drop by, to stop by L12 to look into, to peek in L3 et cetera, and so on L6 place (in contest) nÏ first place kÏ second place L15 to carry on the back L27 to pick L19r to be warm L24 to follow, to go with, to accompany, to follow in one’s steps L16 therefore L8r to pick off (a tree) and bring ˘x to pick off L13 earth, land, ground L19r to leave L6 rice-cake soup L14 (Vt.) to drop RéÙx (Vi.) to drop L19r, L21 to fall, to go down L24

{é Ùm

Réˆ fü p≈Õx [pø∂x] tx [s∂] xÏò xé®x ~x Çx ÇéWx [~ïWx] ÜŸü [ÇúQ] (©) ≠¡e Ãìi (±) -Ux UZ U\ U\] Uô@Ùkx U@ UF Vóx WÁx W¥ -W´ WL Z



worn-out Réˆ √ worn-out shoes RéÙx to be worn out; to fall off L25 of the same age group, of the peer group L16 to be clear, to be sure L9 to make a hole L19r used to romp/frolic L15r to be outstanding L7 to rise, to come up, to float L7 to take apart, to tear apart (and open) L21 to open to see or read Çx to tear off L24 unexpectedly L5 Russia L11 Robin Hood


each, every L6 village L10 heart, mind, thought L14 mind, heart U\] òœ good-hearted, good-natured L19 to be the same, to be similar L20 as if, just as L10 just at the right time, just at the right moment L22 (Vi.) to be blocked Vx (Vt.) to block, to stop L6 to make L2r Man-chul (man’s name) L20 to the extent, as much as, as well as L9 cartoon, comics L18 horse L10


{é Ùm

Zx ax

a¯k mm aP

ae. [Uy] akÕx b‡x bx d‡; d÷ dn dÖ dˆkx; dˆ≈x d∫ d£ˆ rÆx ux yux [r¡˘] ç« [çÂ] çù êà ê∑ êBx ê˙ êe Ãx êd Ûx êæ


not to do ÕÙ Ze. Don’t do. @Ù U[‚. Don’t go. L5 to fit, to be suitable, to be correct L9; to get hit LÍZ ax to be shot by an arrow L25 working couple L9r meeting prospective mate face to face (a)PWx to meet face to face (for marriage purposes) L5 You are right. L8 to welcome, to face L6 to entrust, to charge with a duty L17 to be in charge of, to take on (responsibility) L15 every year L14 everyday L9 sales floor L23 to be sold out dˆ sold-out L8 medium, intermediary L23r ticket agent d£∂ ticket window d£ q box office L8 to stay (from r©Bx) L3r to be far L2 to be stylish, to be cool, to be chic L10 order, command ç«Z πMx to order, to command L18r holiday L6 all, in all, all together L3 the day after tomorrow L16 not to know L2 model, good example L7 to accumulate L18r to set up, to place (respectfully) ê¡x to serve L10 appearance, figure, look L2r

{é Ùm

êWx êr êyìx ëõ ëõ ñ -òÙ is ôç∏ ©kx ©k ©ù ©ûx ©fl(Ã) ©Vs

©ö ©® ©≤ -¨ç ¨˚ ¨§ ¨L Ƶœ ÆŒ ÆÛ Æé Wx ∑Õ≠ ¿Ùb ?ü ?Âx



to gather, to collect L25 meeting, gathering L15 to lack, to be insufficient L21r life, breath of life ëõZ qx to be dead or killed L26 purpose, objective, goal L23 body L14 as good as L15 Mongolian army ôç Mongolia L13 to be heavy @Px to be light L10 pattern, figure h©k floral pattern L16 grave, tomb L10 to be humid and hot L6 free (with no charge) L21 awfully ©Vx to be awful, to be fearful, to be terrible ä‡@ ©Vs as soon as it arrives L11 martial arts L18 trade, import and export L22 very, immensely, highly L10 bookstore LÌ ¨ç Seoul Bookstore L18 grammar L4r problem ¨§ òx No problem. L22 culture L3r, L10 soft and squishy ƵÕx to be soft and squishy L27 of course L3r water bird L15r to try asking ≠x to ask L3 for what L13 a musical L19 future L8 to postpone, to put off L14


{é Ùm

?M ?q ?öú Ãÿ õ Ñ‘f Œ@ (≤) ◊xx ◊É ‘x

◊Ö@; ÷N ◊ìx ◊ó ◊óü ◊à ◊W ◊é ◊F

◊ké ÿ ÿÆú [‰Æú] ÿñ Ÿ ¤ ¤@ÙÕx ¤Hs


ahead, in advance L13 smile L10 art exhibition L19 homestay ÃÿÕx to stay with a family L3r ethnic group, race, (ethnically identical) people L20r, L26 democracy Ñ‘f(f) democratic L26 flour L14r to change, to exchange L1 to change (for someone) úLE ◊É‘x to put (someone) on the phone L14 beach L7 to wish, to hope L22 wind ◊ók qx wind blows L13 as the result of, because of L16 just, exactly ◊à kl exactly this one ê◊à immediately L7 idiot, stupid person L25 Basho (sixteenth-century Japanese haiku master) L27 rock, boulder L27 buyer L22 gourd ÿ ] gourd seed ÿ h gourd flower L19r museum L2r applause ÿñ @x to applaud L15 outside L1 class L15 (Vt.) to be glad, to rejoice ¤Hx (Vi.) to be glad L7 gladly ¤Hx (Vi.) to be glad (to see, to hear, or to meet) L5

{é Ùm

¤≥∫ ¤‘

‹x ›}Õx [›¸Õx]

›π∂m £k ›\ ›úÕx ›£Õx ‚ ‚Õx ‰˚; ˚ ‰¬ ÊÍ ÊÍx Á ÁÃË ÁW Á§ ÁLü [ÊÇü] -ˆO ¯x ˚ú ˚ã ˚Œ [Ùd] ¸‡



semiconductor L22r accompaniment (in music) ¤‘Õx to accompany (in music) ¤‘y accompanist L15 to receive L1 to develop ›}≈x to be developed ›} development L7 Saint Valentine’s Day L16 pronunciation ›\Õx to pronounce L20 to make progress ›ú progress, advancement L10 to present, to announce ›£ presentation, announcement L15 cooked rice, meal L3 to cook L13 method, means L4r way, method, manner ˚O ‰¬ way of life L13 actor or actress L9 to learn L1 hundred L1 Paektu Mountain L26 million L24 Paekche (one of the Three Kingdoms) L8 department store L16 rank or position in a series ∑ ˆO first place à ˆO second place L2r to earn µZ ¯x to make money L8 judge L9 law school L9 study of law L9 taking off ¸x to take off »Z ¸x to take off clothes L15


{é Ùm

B∏M^≠ Lª NÕx NBÂ O n OÃ S WçL; MóM Wçcì Wπx Wóux WÆ WM Wkx WÈ WÈkx X ‹x X∂≈x

Xûeh XÇÕx Z‚ [M _Û ` Ãx mÉÕx m≠Ùx


best-seller L18 government position, official rank L25 to change, to become different, to turn into L9 lawyer L9 strange event, unexpected thing Ostrange, unexpected L14 (not) very, (not) much (followed by negative verb) L2 disease, illness Sk ®x/Áx to get sick L23r report, paper WçÕx to report L23 (I) wish to see, (I) miss seeing L15r to spend (time) L8; to send L11 to be rewarding Wó worthwhile, rewarding L4 treasure, valuables L19r jewel, gem, precious stone L19r to be seen Wx to look at, to watch L1 ordinary, common, usual, average L3r, L10 to be usual, to be common L7r to be blessed X blessing L14 to be reconstructed, to be restored X∂ Õx to reconstruct, to restore X∂ reconstruction, restoration L26 peach blossom Xûe peach L15 to be complex, to be crowded L2 mainland L13 volt L21 envelope L24 to inspect, to see ahead L13 to pay, to bear the expense mÉk ßx to cost a lot L21 (Vi.) to break m≠~Mx (Vt.) to break L19r

{é Ùm

mo mLÙx

mß my mÙØÕx m±s m∑ nÜ n? nœ o~ [m¬] oF‡ [mT‡] -q; }≠ [¸ì] q± q∑ qx

qMx qW qÒ qçÕx qí qíÏ tëx qé ux xkx [m@x] ë



part nmo one part of L23 to be destroyed, to be demolished, to be broken mñx to destroy, to demolish, to break L26 city of Puyö L8 rich person L19r to be diligent L11 the Buddha (HON.) L10 request, favor m∑Õx to request, to ask a favor L22 Beijing L20 North America L3 North Korea L20 field L9 ambience, atmosphere L5 dollar L1 Buddhism L10 Pulguk-sa temple in Kyöngju L10 (Vt.) to blow (trumpet, bugle), to play on (flute); (Vi.) to blow ◊ók qx The wind blows. L9 to be called L26 discontent qWZ Æx to be discontent, to have a grudge L18r Buddha statue L10 to be uncomfortable, to be inconvenient L7r, L21 complaint qíÕx to complain L19r inequality L9r to be crowded L16 to be stuck on, to be fastened to, to be posted L17 to acquire, to glue È?E xkx to find pleasure in L9 rain ë@ æx to rain L2


{é Ùm

ë± ëÕ ëŒ ˆB ëøÕx ëÈ ëÙ Ãx ëfi‡ ì îø Qx üM •˚; §öü ßx ßpx ?x ?óx [≈≈x] œMx œM@x —W knì (µ) Âf [ÂJ] YÖ ÂÀx Âπ Âì ÂìÙx ÂõÕx —ó ÂáÕx ÂÈ


comparison ë±Õx to compare L12 even if L24 password, secret number L23 to be similar, to be alike L6 expense L21 to leave empty/blank ëÍx to empty L23 airplane L1 empty ëx to be empty L1 to borrow and use îMx to borrow L23 quickly, hurriedly L2 bakery L10 to pull out ü{Z ßx to act dignified L5 to snatch, to take away L18r to choose, to select, to elect L17 (Vi.) to be selected ?x (Vt.) to select L15 to scatter L14r, L27 to shake off, to leave L15r not only

— only


event L23r growth YÖÕx to grow, to expand ܧ YÖ economic growth L16r to make (a friend) L4 man Âπ ek boy L10 Sarah L9 to disappear L18 to love L12 lightly (in steps or motion) L27 to decline, to turn down (politely) L22 use ÂÈÕx to use L21r

{é Ùm

ÂÈy ÂÈÕx ÂLG Âk ¢ ˆ Â? ÂW Ë Ëë [Ëb] Ëq Ëó Íç Ùç Í∂h Íx ÍMx -Í sx Íe à¡x Ì∑ ÌgP; Ì»g≥P

Ò ÒãÕx Òˆ fˆ Òy Ò@Õx ÒÆ Û† ÛÃ ÛÃÏ



user L23 to use L20 prospective son-in-law L25 between, gap; relationship L7 circumstances, state of things L25 photo L17 cousin L14 society L9r mountain L2r mountain valley, mountain village L15 graves, cemetery (HON.) L6 industry ñËó marine industry L7 live and die L15r apricot blossom Í∂ apricot L15 to live, to be inhabited L2r to revive, to save, to let live Íx to live L15 to get to be . . . years old (colloquial) L14r to be alive (HON.) L9 Three Kingdoms (Silla, Koguryö, Paekche) L10 thirty-eight degrees north latitude (literally), thirty-eighth parallel (dividing Korea) L26 table L12; prize, award ÒZ ‹x to win a prize L15 to deal with L8 senator L17 box L21 to symbolize L23r merchandise L22r chick, baby (animal) L19r newly L8r new Û—x to be new, to be fresh L13


{é Ùm

ÛM ÛÍx Û÷ ˚Aòk ˚Ak ®x ˚‡x ˚Â ˚Ëë ˚ËÆ ˚P ˚√ ˚Oë ˚OÕx

¸ÙÕx L∂ LÃ L˜ Lë∏ ]À Lá LÌ LÌ® Lü LÛBx L÷ -M M } M∫n


dawn, early in the morning L11 to stay up ·Z ÛÍx to stay up all night L14r new year L6 without thinking L21r to occur to one, to think of, to remember ˚A thoughts L6 to happen, to occur L4 life and death L25 production cost L22r products, manufactured goods L22 (caught food) fish Æç‡ live fish L11 birthday (HON.) ˚n birthday (plain) L16 living expenses L24 to live, to exist ˚O life, livelihood L3r to take a shower L3 western Europe Lá the West Ω∂ eastern Europe L20 mutually, to each other L5 document, paper L22 service center L21 occidental, the Occident, Western world Ωá Orient L16 city of Seoul L1 Seoul Station ® stop, station L2 bookstore L18 to be clumsy, to be unskilled LÛD ≥é broken English L2 West Sea (also known as Yellow Sea) L26 seat (for tickets) A M A-class ticket L19 three months L5 Sökkuram Grotto (where stone Buddha was built) Ll0

{é Ùm

Mº Nx P (i) Pd PÆ Pÿ PÊ PúÕx Q} ’»≠ R àx R; R≠ Rç Rñ RfË U Y (ì) YòÕx Yh Y§Õx Yf@ YÖÕx [à [àõWÃ [ú [‡ [ã [Ê



stone pagoda º tower ¡àº clock tower L10 to mix (with) L4 line 127 election Pd ÏΩ election campaign L17 gift, present L16 boat, ship L11 senior classmate cÊ junior classmate L8 to advertise L24 the year’s last month’s last day, New Year’s Eve L14r to celebrate New Year’s Day L14r New Year’s Day L6 explanation RçÕx to explain L3 New Year’s Day attire L14r Sörak Mountains on the eastern coast L6 island L13 last name L10 to be successful Yò success L23r performance, capability L23 to visit grave to pay respect to ancestor L6 concert singer L12 to grow YÖ growth L20 world L2r internationally, worldwide L21r customs office L1 century 2 [‡ second century L10 generation, era L23r sebae (formal bow of respect to elders on New Year’s Day) [Ê @x to pay visit of respect on New Year’s Day [Ê „Mx; [ÊÕx to perform sebae L14


{é Ùm

[Íx [ÙÙx

]À ^ ñ òk -_kx qRÕx q®© q¡ qM qM ÙBx që qëy qR qR@ qñ q¬ qˆ t Áx ts ux w] zç ñ≥ ñ¿ ›ú [›]] ñËó ñá


to erect, to build, to found L10 (Vi.) to be founded [Íx (Vt.) to found, to set up L26 center ¢W ]À information center L23 innumerably, countlessly L12 it is as though L21 to introduce qR introduction L3 pine tree L7 Russia (former Soviet Union) L26 sound, word ©∫ qM~? What’s this sound?, What do you mean? L20 to yell, to shout L4 consumption qëÕx to consume L21r consumer qëÕx to consume L21 fiction, novel L18 novelist, fiction writer L12 minority xñ majority qñ õ ethnic minority L20r news L25 wish L15 to raise a hand L4 customer L16 pine needles L27 skill (mostly manual skills) L7 rice cake (sweet-filled) P rice cake (any kind) L6 capital city (Sino-Korean, formal word for nation’s capital) L2 hydroelectric power generation L21r marine industry L11r mind cultivation ñáÕx to train one’s mind L18

{é Ùm

ñó ñ≥ ñ≥Ö ñs ñsÆ ñ÷ ñ¤éÕx [ñ‘ÙÕx] ñ‡ ñ‡Æ òB ° ™x Øs ∏©(R) ∏Jø ∏óı ªøs æú ¡ ¡î≤x ¡π ¡ã ¡˙ -(¡)«qL ¡m ¡zÕx ¡ÖÕx ¡› @| ¡˚ Wπx



instruction, lessons, class L3 swimming ñ≥Õx to swim L7 swimming pool L24 import L22 import (trade goods) L11r level ˚O ñ÷ living standard L22r to feel shy ñ¤x to be shy L5 export L22 export (trade goods) L11r moment, instant L11 forest L10 to take a rest ™âL while relaxing L24 easily L16 twenty (items) L2r scarf L16 sport L18 sadly ªøx to be sad L25 habit, custom L14 poem, poetry L7 to be loud, to be noisy L1 downtown, within city limits L18 time, age L2 example, demonstration ¡˙ ܇ exhibition game or match L18 I pray . . . (HON.) L27 poet L12 to begin, to start ¡z beginning, starting L1 to be hungry (HON.) Ê@ çøx to be hungry (plain) L12 market price L23 to marry off (woman) ¡˚ marriage (for woman), in-law’s house (literally) ¡˚@x to get married L25


{é Ùm

¡ó ¡Æx

¡” ¬∂ ¬Æ [?Æ] √®s √®x √´x! √‡ àX √ì [≈ì] √õ [≈õ] √›; √ √›ó √Pœ √[ã √›Õs √πL √˙ √Dßfi √L ≈¿ ≈»kx

≈M{ ÈM ≈ñÕx


time difference L14 to order (food), to make (a person) do jeL ¡Æx to figure out and order (food), to make (a person) do L5 competition, match L15 immediate family member L9 plants L13 happily, elatedly, excitedly √®x to be exciting L21 to be exciting L18 Exciting! Super! Cool! √®x to be exciting L6 New Year’s plan L14 Silla dynasty L10 groom √õG prospective groom L25 shoes L2 shoe industry L11r refreshing, fresh √PÕx to be refreshing, to be fresh L24 new generation L16r prudently, cautiously, discreetly L17 application form √πÕx to apply (for) L23 new style L21 honeymoon L13 myth, mythology L10 knowledge ≥é ≈¿ command of English L4r to not follow proper etiquette ≈»ÙW Excuse me, . . . L3 Silicon Valley L8r to make a mistake ≈ñ mistake, blunder L16

{é Ùm

«x «MŒ «Â Fˆ «öèk ??Õx ÃÍx ÔeÙx [ÏxÙx] TTó ]Ó ¡∑ké ]p; ] (∑) e‡ e‡ ˆ}ü eA en; g eB◊kM eF eFÑx eU e© e¡e ek ek∂ e‘ eı eó eQMü gπ gm çÙ gú



to plant L19r psychology «M state of mind, mentality L8 judge (for contest) «ÂÕx to judge, to assess L15 grouch, ill-tempered person L19r to be fresh L11 to fight L25 to pour out, to gush out L19r lonely TTÕx to be lonely L14 CD player ]Ó CD L21 seed L19r baby (u‡ for colloquial) L1 fresh spring azalea L15 contraction of enæ L1 not L27 student’s part-time job eB◊kMÕx to work part-time L4 armful, bundle L27 to be beautiful L1 maybe L2 any e© ¯¨ any question L4 Asia L3 child, kid L7 My goodness! Oh my! L17 very L1 still, yet L1 Oops! L14 atelier, studio L19 guide, information L22 letter to find out if one is well L24 safety, security gúÕx to be safe or secure L24


{é Ùm

geü [gcQ] hx [g˘] j je Êx je Wx je‘x oÕL tUá [nUá] tWà [eøÃ] tyM u∑@ (ëŒO) um

uøÀ Lë∏ v]M Ä ÄË Är ÑúÕx á¿ [áfl] ᤠä‡

éêÀ éÓ éÓ@® éÓ BÁ éø éƒx éD


in the inside and outside ge the inside and the outside L20r to sit L1 egg L10 to understand L4 to find out, to look up, to check out L3r to recognize, to appreciate L21 Apnok River (also known as Yalu River) L20r front yard L19r for, named to L24 front seat yM seat L19 Korean national anthem ∑@ (ŒO) national anthem L26 girlfriend or boyfriend, lover L16 service under warranty L23 accent L20 approximate, about L2r place in Yöngbyön region that is famous for azaleas L27 promise, appointment ÄrÕx to promise L5 to be well-mannered, to be poised, to be demure L5 western calendar L6 yangban class, nobility L7 story, tale, talk, news (short form of k~‡) ä‡Õx to say L7 adapter L21 where L3 wherever one goes L11 wherever (I) go L15r difficulty, hardship L16r to be hard, to be difficult L2r adult, older person L5

{é Ùm

éMx éM”ùÕx é∆Z F ér! éÙÕx éP é¡Ö ék∂@ êñ êé ìMx ìU® òéÙx -ü úœ -ü ã÷(L) -ü ˘Bâ üé{; ¡‰‡ -ü fÕâ -ü f÷L †∏ó ¢MBkÀ; ¿L‡ ¢B -ß ß@ ߇ ö‡ ß≠ @٠ߌ



to be very young, to be immature éøL mÀ from the time of youth L9 to feel confused, to be bewildered or at a loss L20 when (one) was young L7 expression of surprise (usually used by female) L5 to be unfamiliar, to be unnatural, to be awkward L5 fishing boat L11 fish market L11 why, what (went wrong) (short form of éé Õx@) L15r hill L10 language L13 to join, to mingle (short form of éÌMx) L15r so (good, bad, hard, or the like), how much L4 to disappear, to vanish L9r regarding, concerning, about L17 about, concerning L3 according to ˘Bx to follow L24 air conditioner L20 according to fÕx to be based on L13 by means of, in accordance with L13 exposition L8r elevator L20 LSAT L9 more than » ß Rf ¬á more than ten restaurants L20r leisure L3r here and there L2 different kinds, various kinds L2r public opinion L23r


{é Ùm

ßF ‰Œ ßY ßy ßfi ßfiy ñ£ ßfiÕx ®Éx ®Â ®ÂõWà ™∂ ™∂q ™÷ ™‡ ™î [´î] ™îÕx ™N ™ñ ™æ ´¬œ ´Mx ´«ó ÆøÕx [Æfi] ≥ ≥Ω çr ≥à ≥N ≥‡


summer vacation L1 female ∞Y male L9 woman, female L5 travel L1 traveler’s check L1 to travel L13 to feel disgusted L27 history L10 historically L7 research ™∂ {Ù research complex L8 research institute L8r drama, play L9 performance, acting ™‡Õx to act L19 connection, contact ™îÕx to get in touch with, to contact L5 to contact, to get in touch with ™î contact L14 Yönbyön (northeastern region in China near North Korean border) L20 study and training L3 exercise, practice ™æÕx to practice L15 passionate ´¬Õx to be passionate L23r to be held L8r diligently, hard L4 to worry ÆøÕÙ U[‚. Don’t worry. L21 completely, not at all L20 Yöngdong Expressway (from Seoul to Kangnüng) L7r place in North Pyöngan Province (North Korea) L27 influence L22r

{é Ùm

∑ ∑d± ∑dÕx ∑Ÿ ∑ö ∑⁄ ∑ù º≠ [∏≠] æÃV˚

æÓæ æüBWü æü≈x æDi; ◊Di æÆ≈x æú æÑì æc ¿ ¿M ¿È ¡Mx ¡÷; ¤‡ √‡x ≈x [¡∂] ”ú ”I [”h] ”X£ ”X ”ë ⁄∑m ⁄Ω¸



example ∑E Áâ for example L9r booth for advance sales L19 to sell/buy in advance L19 pretty ∑ÿx to be pretty L7 art ∑öõ artistic L12 exception L9r etiquette, manners ∑ù ◊Bx to have a good manner L5 ancient times, old days L2 hut L19r audio system, stereo set L21 after a long time L17 to be old, to be a long time (since) L2 right side L1 to be polluted L21r a.m., morning L3r, L4 opera L12 p.m., afternoon L2 all, entire ¿ ®ì all over the country ¿ ˚g entire family/home L18r all kinds L15r all, entirely, altogether L17 to raise L21r this year L17 to move to L25 to be right, to be correct L18r (royal) crown L10 king’s grave L10 round-trip ticket L8 round-trip ”XÕx to make a round trip L11 queen L10 foreigner ⁄∑ foreign country L3r only daughter ⁄ΩeÁ/⁄eÁ only son L7


{é Ùm


⁄üé ⁄ÃÏ ⁄Íx ‹i ‚M ‚Û; ‚ „«Ök ÈGÕx Ȩ ÈË ÍÃrM ÍP Íu Ï≥Õx ÏúÕx Ì›q› Ìx ÌmAa [Ìmˆa] ıkx ˆy¿ ˆ‘à ˆÕx ˜‹ AW´ F@ FÕß F÷L LÂó N≤ Nr

word of foreign origin, loanword L20 lonely ⁄—x to be lonely L27 to memorize, to recite L15 left side L1 cook ‚M cooking ‚MÕx to cook L24 these days L13 greedy person L19 to be brave L10 capacity L23 Yongsan (district in Seoul) L21 head, leader, chief L18r first of all, before other things L1 brotherly or friendly love L19r to manage, to administer Ï≥ management, administration L22 to drive (a car) L2r colorful, variegated L15 to cry L1 crying ÌmAx to cry out L19r to move L25 nuclear power L21r natives L27 to want, to wish L22 monthly salary L8 tolerably, acceptably AWÕx to be at an acceptable level L14 location L26 for, for the sake of L3r for, for the sake of L22r superior person, elderly person L5 Europe L3 humor Nr(@) ux to be humorous L16r

{é Ùm

NçÕx N? Nê N°∏ NŒ æx Nfi O kæ (6 . 25) OÙ VÏkÕx -(W)æMx Y≥ YÓÕx -Z/E ë“Õß -Z/E ßç \¿ [\fl] \¬ \f fÎÕx fÃÏ fX fŒ k‡x kòé @x k† -(k)® kF k∂s



to be famous L7 Yu-mi (woman’s name) L5 last words, dying wish NêÕx to express dying wish L19r U.N. troops L26 to come to study abroad NŒÕx to study abroad L9 trend, fashion Nfikx/NfiÕx to be trendy, to be in fashion L16 Korean War (began June 25, 1950) L26 land, the shore L13 to play yut game VÏk yut game, FourStick Game L14 old humble future ending of -yx L27 Eun-young (woman’s name) L2 to retire YÓ retirement L24 including, beginning with, along with L26 without, except, leaving out ßx to take out, to leave out L12 lunar calendar L6 (cooked) food \¬ w] cooking skill L12 music \f@ musician L9 to discuss fÎ discussion Ll9 righteous f—x to be righteous L18r clothes L22r medical study, medicine L9 to win L15 to lead kòx to pull, to draw L23r moss L27 either . . . or, and, as well L6 at this time, at that moment L5 like this L1


{é Ùm


kÂx kF kê k? kà kà æx kÒ kÒÕx k~‡ k~‡Õx k⁄ü≥ kÈÕx kN òk kú k§; m§ k‘Õx kó [à ãú kQ k÷¡Æx k÷Õx kc lx m∂ m‡kx; m‡@ ux mπ«

to establish, to achieve L15 name L10 mother’s sister çê father’s sister L5 already L13 immigration kÃy immigrant L24 to immigrate kà @x to emigrate L24 more than, above, over L7r, L24 to be odd or strange L21 story, tale k~‡Õx to converse L2r to have a conversation k~‡ story, conversation L4 additionally, besides k⁄ others L20r to utilize, to make use of, to use -Z/E kÈÕß by utilizing L3 without reason kN reason LI6 (from) the previous, before kc after this L20r by now, now L14 to move, to immigrate k‘ moving, immigration L20r World War II nó [à ãú World War I L26 two days L8 to make someone understand k÷ understanding L22 to understand k÷ understanding L17 after this (point), since L16r to be familiar with, to be accustomed to L24 population L11 to be popular m‡ [m†] popularity L15 patient mind, endurance mπ patience L18

{é Ùm

m¿ [n¿] m˜Œ [n˜Œ] m mÒ mÒõ mÇÕx m≥

mÀ¤ né®x n§¡ã [nd¡ã] nºf nè qx [n∂] r¤ r¤s wéÙMx; wx [köÙMx] wWMæ (∏) y‡ yx yìx yõ yM yZ‘f ym« y√ y™



human power m¿yˆ human resources L22r anthropology L5 greeting Û÷ m New Year’s greeting mÂÕx to greet L14 impression mÒZ ‘x to give an impression L11r impressive L7 to print mÇ printing L26 city of Inch’ön L11 Internet L23 to get up (from seat or bed); to happen, to occur, to break out L4 Japanese occupation period L20r a kind of, a sort of nº a kind, a sort L18 early L5 to lose L26 wages L22r king L10 to forget completely, to forget L2 how (can I) forget


self, one’s own L1 repeatedly, frequently L25 to grow up, to be raised L16r, L20 pride, boast, self-conceit yõÕx to be proud of, to show off L8 seat, place, room L1 capitalism L26 pride L20r self y√f of one’s own L20r nature L7


{é Ùm

y™∏≤x yÎ; y∑ yˆ yN—s y‘ y@∂ z@ zé z zYÕx -{ {{œ ~ò≈x ÅÔW Åk Áx -Ö Öü Öq Öñ áfl áË á‘ õ õx õY õé ‘x õùœ


to be natural y™ nature L5 trace L27 resources L21r freely yN freedom yN—x to be free L7 frequently, many times L9 self-governing region L20r author L23r composition (music), composed by zé Õx to compose L15 writing lyrics, lyrics by zÂÕx to write lyrics L15 to prepare (document), to draw up, to fill in zY drawing up L23 cup (of ) ^≈ œ{ cup of coffee L19 calm, tranquil L15r (something) goes wrong L21 just a moment, a little while L22 to fall asleep L19 piece [ Ö three pieces £ MÖ three (pieces of ) tickets L19 future L9 place Är Öq appointment place L5 warrior, general L10 material L22r property, asset L18r talent á‘@ ux to be talented L7 enemy L25 to be few (in number), to be little (in quantity) L9r aptitude L9 to write and submit õx to write down, to jot down L23 appropriate õùÕx to be appropriate L4r

{é Ùm

õÙ iY úòÕx ú∑ ú‡ úì≥ ú¨ Èé úR ú¡≈x úo [ö±] úy Ò@ úy §Æ úy òŒ úy Íç; k}n úè úÈ ú÷ „Mx úÚ ù ùãà [ùFÃ] ùÄÕx [ö®Jx] ûY [ù∆] ü -ü ü«[üÂ]Õx ü« üˆ ü{Z ßx üü üó ¢@ [¢Ï]



not a few õx to be few L20r to major in úò major, specialty L5 the whole country (nation) L11 electricity L21r Chölla Provinces L12 technical terms L22 legend úRõ(m) legendary L26 to be exhibited ú¡Õx to exhibit ú¡ exhibition L21 voltage L21r mall of electronics stores L21 electrical or electronic item L21 electronic engineering L8 e-mail L23r war úèÀ battlefield L25 tradition L12 to relay (for someone) (HON.) L22 entirely (not), completely (not) L20 Buddhist temple L10 never, don’t ever, absolutely (not) L4 to save, to be thrifty L21r young ûx to be young L1 point, issue xD ü different point øY ü good point L13 piece (of artwork) ’Q œ ü one piece of painting L12 to occupy L27 lunch L4 shop clerk L16 to put on dignified air L5 gradually L9r, L18 gradually L22r regular price, sticker price L21


{é Ùm

¢Ñ ¢≥ ¢µ ¢Z ¢W ¢XÕx ¢Y ¢YN ¢√ ¢ˆ ¢˜; n˜(âd) ¢@ ¢Õx ¢÷Ùx -§ §ë §ë §‘≥


correct answer L24 extent, degree L12 order, proper arrangement ¢µ≈x to be put in order L10 really, indeed L2 information L8r, L23 to conquer L13 devotion, care, sincerity ¢YZ xÕx to devote all strength to L15 with care, with devotion L19r mind, consciousness, mentality L18 garden ¢ˆÂ gardener L24 January L6 politics L17 to decide on, to choose L5 (Vi.) to be set, to be decided ¢Õx (Vt.) to decide on, to choose L20r made in or by ¥n§ made in Germany L21 title L26 swallow L19r Cheju Island (south of Korean Peninsula), Cheju Province L13

§‘¡ §Æ ¥P

city of Cheju (on Cheju Island) L13 product, goods L21 Chosön dynasty (1392–1910) L2r

¥Pó ¥Pµ ¥«Õx ¥J ∂ÜÕx ∑Mx ∑óÕx π

shipbuilding industry L11r Chosön nationals, Korean-Chinese L20 to be careful ¥« caution, prudence L5 nephew and niece L25 to respect ∂Ü [ºÜ] respect L5 to be sleepy ∑x to doze off L14r to graduate L8 a little; please L5

{é Ùm

∫x º˜ [ºY] øx [¥∂] ¿M …zÕx ‘ç ‹x ‘µ‘µ ‘à ‘¨Õx ‘¬; ‘ ‘Nq ‘n ’x ÷ëÕx ÷ë ◊ ◊dM ◊x ¤x -› -›ü ›∑ ›‡ ›« ›«Ù ›‚œ ›Œ± Ïø‡x Ô‡x



to be narrow L7r kind, sort, variety L11 to be good L2 seat L1 to be or feel sorry …zÕÙW Excuse me, but . . . L5 to share, to exchange (literally, to give and take) L3 (hanging) in clusters L19r mainly, mostly L4r, L22 to order (food) ‘¨ an order, ordering L5 stock ‘@ [‘Ï] stock price L8 gas station L12 week k ‘n two weeks L5 to die L19 to get ready, to prepare L6 Jun-hie (woman’s name) L20 lane, line à ◊ two lanes, two lines L7r outline, plot; stalk, stem k~‡ ◊dM main plot of story L19r to decrease ◊éÁx to (gradually) decrease L21 to pick up (from the ground) L19r during ñó › during class L4 among, between L7r China L11 middle age L1 center, core L22r central region, core area L8r important ›‚Õx to be important L3 middle school L9 to step on carefully, to step lightly L27 to enjoy, to have fun L12


{é Ùm


ÙÜkx Ù¤ Ù®@x Ù≥ ÙÂÕx ÙMõ Ù‰ ÙÊ ÙqÕx Ùw Ù® ÙÆx ÙÕ¥ Ùu ıó [Ùk] ıÖ ıfi [ÙZ] ˆ}üh ˆŒÕx ˙¿ ˙zÕx [˙yJx] ˚g n ˚›≈x Ix [H˘] -i pe πx -ã

to be at the point of ’Z ÙÜkx to almost die L19 present time, now L2 to pass by L27 map L7 to be boring, to be tedious L8 geographic ÙMõWÃ geographically ÙM geography L24 local area, region, the country L6 ruling ÙÊÕx to rule, to govern L26 to pay Ùq payment L19 roof L19r region L20r to keep, to preserve, to guard L20r subway L2 direction (music) ÙuÕx to conduct (in music) Ùuy conductor L15 profession, occupation ıó ßY professional woman L9 job, employment, workplace L9r direct route, nonstop route ıfi £ express ticket, nonstop ticket L13 azalea flower L27 to move on (to next level of school) L9 beast, animal L27 to guess, to estimate ˙zWÃ by guessing L4 housework L13 to be focused ˚›Õx to concentrate L17 to be short L8 side, way k i this way ö i that way L22 to drive off L25 about L2

{é Ùm

(∫) óx ó»

óMm; óO

óOÕx óÙÕx òÕx [óJx] òœ [óL] ú úMÕx †; †¨; NM† °x °e @x °e Wx °eL £rÙx ±fi -±± ±\ ≥ã ≥ãÕx ≥W ≥™ [±‡]



(Vi.) to fill up (Vt.) ¢Íx to fill up L19r memorial service for ancestors on New Year’s Day and Ch’usök ó» Ùπx to have memorial service on New Year’s Day and Ch’usök §Â memorial service (in general) §Â Ùπx to have memorial service L6 decorated with, equipped with óMx to prepare (meal); to arrange, to decorate L15 to discriminate against L9r to occupy L26 to be good-natured, to be good-hearted L1 good-hearted, good-natured òÕx to be good-natured, to be good-hearted L19 very; By the way, Say L3 to attend, to participate úM attendance L3 window L1 to find L9 to visit L23 to find, to look for, to search L8 in search of °x to search for L11 to take responsibility, to be responsible £ r responsibility L24 maiden, virgin L13 like ∞y±± like a man L7 first ±\Wà for the first time L1 mistreatment, ill-treatment ≥ãE ‹x to be mistreated L18r to mistreat, to treat with contempt L19r ten million L2r natural ≥™ yˆ natural resources L22r


{é Ùm

≥Ö ≥Ùók

¥L ∂ ∑π› ∫v (óõ) ¬Áéæx »@˚ »ãÕx »ÏŒ± »Õ ?Ö œA ‘ã ‘P ‘√ ›M ›ñ ›ñGÂù ‡›Õx ‡√ ‰ç È? ÈıÕx -¸ @x


ceiling L19r big difference (as if between heaven and earth) ≥Ùókkx to be worlds apart L24 steel L22r concubine L18r first ∑ ≠ first day L3 audience L15 body fluid L27 to invade, to attack L25 thatched house L19r to invite »ã invitation L12 elementary school (formerly ∑ÃŒ±) L9 first day of the month L6 village chief L10 bachelor, single man L13 biggest, largest, most L11r (one’s) best ‘PZ xÕx to do one’s best L22 the newest L21 Harvest Festival Day (August 15 on lunar calendar) L6 ›ñÕx to harvest L6 Thanksgiving L6 to start, to depart ‡› starting, departure L1 origin, birth; graduate ‡√kx to come from; to be a graduate of L12 advice ‰çÕx to advise L15 interest, hobby L9 to get a job Èı getting a job L8 floor 3 ¸ third floor L3 to take (test); to hit L26 harvest

{é Ùm