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INTERMEDIATE KOREAN: A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK

Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume. This workbook presents twenty-four individual grammar points, covering the core material which students would expect to encounter in their second year of learning Korean. Grammar points are followed by examples and exercises which allow students to reinforce and consolidate their learning. Intermediate Korean is suitable for both class use as well as independent study. Key features include: • • • • • •

clear, accessible format many useful language examples all Korean entries presented in Hangul with English translations jargon-free explanations of grammar abundant exercises with full answer key subject index.

Clearly presented and user-friendly, Intermediate Korean provides readers with the essential tools to express themselves in a wide variety of situations, making it an ideal grammar reference and practice resource for students with some knowledge of the language. Andrew Sangpil Byon is Associate Professor at the State University of New York at Albany, where he teaches courses in Korean language and civilization.


Other titles available in the Grammar Workbooks series are: Basic Cantonese Intermediate Cantonese Basic Chinese Intermediate Chinese Basic Dutch Intermediate Dutch Basic German Intermediate German Basic Irish Intermediate Irish Basic Italian Basic Korean Intermediate Korean Basic Polish Intermediate Polish Basic Russian Intermediate Russian Basic Spanish Intermediate Spanish Basic Welsh Intermediate Welsh


INTERMEDIATE KOREAN: A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK Andrew Sangpil Byon


For my parents, James Ki Yong and Gloria Hye Ja Pyon

First published 2010 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. © 2010 Andrew Sangpil Byon All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Byon, Andrew Sangpil. Intermediate Korean : a grammar & workbook / Andrew Sangpil Byon. p. cm. Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada. 1. Korean language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Korean language— Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Title. PL913.B965 2009 495.7′82421—dc22 2008053381 ISBN 0-203-87590-7 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN10: 0-415-54714-8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0-415-77488-8 (pbk) ISBN10: 0-208-87590-7 (ebk) ISBN13: 978-0-415-54714-7 (hbk) ISBN13: 978-0-415-77488-8 (pbk) ISBN13: 978-0-203-87590-2 (ebk)


CONTENTS

1 2 3 G 4 5

6

7 8 9 10 11

Preface

ix

The intimate speech level and the plain speech level ~㠊/㞚, ~⓪/ච┺, ~┞/(㦒)⌦?, ~㞚/㠊⧒, ~㧦

1

Sentence-final endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

11

Particles ⽊┺, 㻮⩒, ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖, 㫆㹾, ⹬㠦

19

Auxiliary verbs I ~㠊/㞚G㡺┺, ~㠊/㞚GṖ┺, ~㠊/㞚G⽊┺

27

Auxiliary verbs II ~㠊/㞚G⌊┺, ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺, ~ἶGⰦ┺, ~㠊/㞚G㭒┺, ~㠊/㞚G✲Ⰲ┺

33

Auxiliary verbs III ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺, ~㠊/㞚G⚦┺, ~㠊/㞚G㧞┺, ~㠊/㞚䞮┺, ~㠊/㞚㰖┺

42

Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) ~(㦒)⩂, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ, ~☚⪳G

51

Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) ~㠊/㞚㍲, ~(㦒)┞₢, ~ⓦ⧒ἶ

61

Clausal conjunctives (conditions) ~(㦒)Ⳋ, ~㠊/㞚㟒, ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳, ~Ệ✶

72

Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) ~ἶ, ~(㦒)Ⳇ, ~Ệ⋮, ~✶㰖

85

Clausal conjunctives (time) ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲, ~㧦Ⱎ㧦, ~┺ṖG

95

v


12

Contents

Clausal connectives (background) ~⓪◆/(㦒)ච◆

105

Clausal connectives (although) ~㰖Ⱒ, ~(㦒)⋮, ~㠊/㞚☚

113

Permission, prohibition, and obligation ~㠊/㞚☚G♮┺, ~(㦒)ⳊG㞞G♮┺, 㞞G~(㦒)ⳊG㞞G♮┺/~㰖G 㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♮┺, ~㠊/㞚㟒G♮┺/䞮┺

120

Passives and causatives ~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ, ~₆, ~㤆, ~ῂ, ~㿪, ~ỢG䞮┺

129

The noun-modifying endings ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, ~(㦒)ඥ

137

G

Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥGộGṯ┺, ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥG⳾㟧㧊┺, ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥG ❅䞮┺, ~⋮/(㦒)චṖG⽊┺, ~㠊/㞚G⽊㧊┺G

146

18 G

Post modifiers I ₎, 㩗, 㧒, ☯㞞, ☚㭧, 㭧, 䘎

157

19 G

Post modifiers II ╖⪲, 䤚㠦, 㻯, ⹪⧢㠦, ộ, ㄪ, ➢

166

20

Ability and possibility ~(㦒)ඥG㑮G㧞┺/㠜┺, ~(㦒)ඥG㭚G㞢┺/⳾⯊┺, ~(㦒)ඥGⰂṖG㠜┺

178

Indirect question form ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖

186

The retrospective suffix ~▪

195

Nominalizing endings ~₆ and ~(㦒)ත

205

Direct and indirect quotation ~(㧊)⧒ἶG䞮┺, ~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶG䞮┺, ~ⓦ⌦ἶG䞮┺/ⶑ┺, ~(㦒)⧒ἶG䞮┺, ~㧦ἶG䞮┺

219

Key to exercises

228

Index

279

13 14

15 16 17

21 22 23 24

vi


PREFACE

Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook is a sequel to its sister volume Basic Korean: A Grammar and Workbook, and it likewise focuses on providing an accessible reference grammar explanation and related exercises in a single volume. It is designed for independent English-speaking adult Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) learners who intend to maintain and strengthen their knowledge of essential Korean grammar and for classroom-based learners who are looking for supplemental grammar explanations and practices. Consequently, this book differs from existing KFL materials whose primary purpose is to help KFL learners acquire four language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well as cultural knowledge. The layout of this book also differs from those of existing KFL materials. For instance, a typical KFL textbook chapter may include model dialogues, followed by vocabulary lists, grammar explanations, cultural notes, and exercises. In contrast, following the pattern of Basic Korean and other Grammar Workbooks of the Routledge series, every unit of Intermediate Korean focuses on presenting jargon-free and concise grammar explanations, followed by relevant grammar exercises. This book has 24 units, and it does not take a functional-situational approach in grouping and/or sequencing target grammatical points. Rather it sequences and covers grammatical points according to their grammatical categories (e.g., sentence endings, conjunctives, particles, and so on), so that learners can use the book as a reference material as well as a practice material. The exercises at the end of each unit are designed primarily to reinforce the target grammatical points. All Korean entries are presented in Hangul (the Korean alphabet) with English translations to facilitate understanding. Accordingly, it requires that learners familiarize themselves with Hangul, before going on to the book. In addition, when translating Korean entries into English, efforts were made to reflect the Korean meaning as closely as possible. Consequently, some learners may feel certain English translations do not reflect typical English usages. However, the direct translation approach was employed for pedagogical purposes.

vii


In writing this book, I have been fortunate to have the assistance and support of many people. I would like to thank my colleagues in the Department of East Asian Studies at the University at Albany, State University of New York, who were supportive of this project. I am grateful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments. I would like to express sincere gratitude to Sophie Oliver for initially encouraging this project and to the editorial and production teams of Routledge—Andrea Hartill, and Samantha Vale Noya—for their advice and support throughout the process. My thanks also go to Neil Dowden for his careful and thoughtful copy-editing service and to Kathy Auger at Graphicraft for her kind assistance during the final stage of production. Finally, as always, my special thanks go to my wife, Isabel, who, with her optimism and encouragement, makes it possible for me to do what I really love to do. Of course, I bear all responsibility for any shortcomings and errors in the text.

Preface

viii


UNIT 1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

The intimate speech level The intimate speech level is in general used in the following situations: by adults when addressing children, by parents when addressing their kids, by children when addressing their peers, and by adult friends when addressing their childhood friends (or friends whose relationships are close enough to switch to the intimate level from the polite level). The intimate speech level ending is ~㠊/㞚. The choice of ~㠊 or ~㞚 is the same with that of the polite speech level ending ~㠊㣪/㞚㣪. ~㞚 is used after a stem that ends in a bright vowel, 㡺 or 㞚 (e.g., 㺔┺ “find” => 㺔㞚), while ~㠊 is used with the stem that ends in any other vowels (e.g., ⺆㤆┺ “learn” => ⺆㤢). Consider the following examples:

Ṗ┺ “go” ⺆㤆┺ “learn” Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” ⲏ┺ “eat” 䞮┺ “do” 㧞┺ “have/exist” 㧊┺ “be” 㞚┞┺ “not be”

Polite speech level Ṗ㣪 ⺆㤢㣪 Ṗ⯊㼦㣪 ⲏ㠊㣪 䟊㣪 㧞㠊㣪 㧊㠦㣪 㞚┞㠦㣪

Intimate speecsh level Ṗ ⺆㤢 Ṗ⯊㼦 ⲏ㠊 䟊 㧞㠊 㧊㟒 㞚┞㟒

As seen above, one can generate the intimate speech level from the polite speech level, simply by removing 㣪. One exception is that the copula 㧊┺/㞚┞┺ takes slightly different forms: 㧊㟒 instead of 㧊㠦, and 㞚┞㟒 instead of 㞚┞㠦. Just like the polite speech level ending ~㠊㣪/㞚㣪, the intimate speech level ending ~㠊/㞚 is used for all sentence types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and propositive. For instance, consider the following:

1


1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

ⰺ㧒G⥆㠊 “(I) run everyday.” ⰺ㧒G⥆㠊? “(Do you) run everyday?” ⰺ㧒G⥆㠊! “Run everyday!” ⰺ㧒G⥆㠊 “(Let us) run everyday.” Koreans use contextual elements as well as intonation (e.g., rising intonation for a question) to figure out what intimate speech level ending ~㠊/㞚 is used for a specific sentence type.

The plain speech level The plain speech level ending sounds more blunt and direct than other speech levels: deferential, polite, and intimate. The plain speech level is primarily used in the following three contexts: When one addresses a child, his/her childhood friends, or younger siblings; when the speaker talks to himself/herself or wants to draw the listener’s attention to information that is noteworthy or provoking; when one writes (e.g., personal essay, prose, newspaper articles, academic papers, diary, and so forth). Unlike the intimate and the polite speech levels that use the same endings for different sentence types, the plain speech level has different endings for different sentence types, as shown below.

Declarative ~⓪/ච┺ (for verb stems) Ṗ┺ “go” ⲏ┺ “eat” Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study”

Ṛ┺ ⲏ⓪┺ Ὃ⿖䞲┺

~┺ (for adjective and copula stems) 㿻┺ “cold” ₾⊭䞮┺ “clean” 㧊┺ “be”

㿻┺ ₾⊭䞮┺ 㧊┺

~㠞/㞮┺ (for all predicate stems in the past tense) 㞺✲⮮ṖG䞯ᾦ㠦GṪ┺G “Andrew went to school.” ⋶㝾ṖG㿪㤶┺G“The weather was cold.” ⹿㧊G₾⊭䟞┺G“The room was clean.” ⁎G⋾㧦ṖG䞲ῃG㌂⧢㧊㠞┺ “That man was a Korean.” 2


Interrogative

The plain speech level

~┞/(㦒)⌦? (for all predicate stems) Ṗ┺G“go” ⲏ┺G“eat” Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” 㫡┺ “good” 㿻┺ “cold” ₾⊭䞮┺ “clean” 㧊┺ “be”

Ṗ┞? (or Ṗ⌦?) ⲏ┞? (or ⲏ⌦?) Ὃ⿖䞮┞? (or Ὃ⿖䞮⌦?) 㫡┞? (or 㫡⌦?) / 㫡㦒⌦? (for writing) 㿻┞? (or 㿻⌦?) / 㿪㤆⌦? (for writing) ₾⊭䞮┞? (or ₾⊭䞮⌦?) 㧊┞? (or 㧊⌦?)

~㠞/㞮┞/(㦒)⌦? (for all predicate stems in the past tense) 㞺✲⮮ṖG䞯ᾦ㠦GṪ┞? “Did Andrew go to school?” ⋶㝾ṖG㿪㤶┞? “Was the weather cold?” ⹿㧊G₾⊭䟞┞? “Was the room clean?” ⁎G⋾㧦ṖG䞲ῃG㌂⧢㧊㠞┞? “Was that man a Korean?”

Imperative (only for verb stems) ~㞚⧒ (after a stem that ends in 㡺 or 㞚) ~㠊⧒ (after a stem that ends in any other vowels) Ṗ┺ “go” ⲏ┺ “eat” Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study”

Ṗ⧒ ⲏ㠊⧒ Ὃ⿖䟊⧒

Propositive (only for verb stems) ~㧦 Ṗ┺ “go” ⲏ┺ “eat” Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study”

Ṗ㧦 ⲏ㧦 Ὃ⿖䞮㧦

Note that the plain speech level imperative ending ~㠊⧒/㞚⧒Gand propositive ending ~㧦 are used only for verb stems, and they are not conjugated for the tense.

3


1

Exercises

The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

Key vocabulary for Unit 1 exercises ṖỢ store Ṗ⹿ bag Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach ṫ㦮 lecture Ị⍞┺ to cross over ἓ㺆ὖ police officer ὒ㧒 fruits Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study Ὃ㡆 public performance/play ⁎Ⰲ┺ to draw ⁎Ⱂ painting/picture ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₆⿚ feeling/mood ₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean ⋮㊮┺ to be bad ⋶㝾 weather ⌊⩺Ṗ┺ to go down ⑚⋮ older sister ⓦ⋢ feeling/mood ⓦⰂ┺ to be slow/to be sluggish ┺Ⰲ bridge/legs ╁┺ to close/to shut ╂┺ to be sweet ╊⺆ cigarette ▮㰖┺ to throw ➆⦑䞮┺ to be warm ➆⯊┺ to follow ⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of/to leave ⥾ỗ┺ to be hot (water)/to be heated ⪲ⰾ㓺 romance

4

Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱎ䂮┺ to finish Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head) ⲏ┺ to eat Ⲗ┺ to be far ⶎ door ⹕┺ to trust/to believe ⹪㊮┺ to be busy


⹱┺ to receive ⹲ foot ⺆㤆┺ to learn ⻚Ⰲ┺ to throw away ⻚㓺 bus ⻪㧎Gcriminal ⽊⌊┺ to send ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read アⰂ┺ to borrow

Key vocabulary for Unit 1 exercises

㌂ὒ apple ㌂⧢ person ㌂ⶊ㔺 office ㌂㰚 picture ㏢䙂 package ㏦ hand 㔲䠮 test/examination 㔶┺ to wear (shoes/socks) 㔶ⶎ newspapers 㕇㕇䞮┺ to be fresh 㝆⩞₆ trash/garbage 㞑┺ to wash 㞚┞┺ not be 㞚⧮ the base/the lower part 㞚⻚㰖 father 㞚䂾 morning 㞚䝚┺ to be sore/to be painful 㟧Ⱖ socks 㠊⪋┺ to be difficult 㠎㩲 when 㡊┺ to open 㡊㐶 keys 㡗䢪 movie 㣎䂮┺ to shout 㧊⻞ this time 㧒 work/matter/errand 㧒⽎㠊 the Japanese language 㧒㹣 early 㧓┺ to read 㧛┺ to wear (clothes) 㧦┺ to sleep 㧦㩚Ệ bicycle 㧷┺ to catch/to hold 㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting

5


㩧㔲 dishes/plates 㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet 㫡┺ to be good/to be right/to be beneficial 㭒┺ to give 㭒Ⱖ weekend 㭧ῃ㠊 the Chinese language 㰧 house

1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

㹾 car 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 㺓ⶎ window 㺛 book 䂲ῂ friend 䄺䞒 coffee 䋂Ợ aloud 䌖┺ to ride 䕪┺ to sell 䝚⧧㓺 France 䞒㤆┺ to smoke 䞮⓮ sky 䞮┺ to do 䠺㠊㰖┺ to get scattered/to be separated/to break up 䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy

Exercise 1.1 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the intimate speech level ending. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 䞯ᾦ㠦 (Ṗ┺) / imperative = 䞯ᾦ㠦GṖ. “Go to school.”

6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

┺Ⰲ⯒ (Ị⍞┺) / imperative ⶎ㦚 (㡊┺) / imperative 㹾⯒ (䕪┺) / propositive 㝆⩞₆⯒ (⻚Ⰲ┺)G/ declarative 㺓ⶎ㦚 (╁┺) / imperative Ὃ㡆㦚G㧒㹣 (Ⱎ䂮┺) / imperative 㩧㔲⯒ (アⰂ┺) / propositive ⹲㦚 (㞑┺) / declarative 㧒㹣 (㧦┺) / propositve 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ (䌖┺) / interrogative ⓦ⋢㧊 (㫡┺) / declarative ṫ㦮Ṗ (㨂⹎㧞┺) declarative


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

䝚⧧㓺G㌂⧢ (㧊┺) /interrogative 㧒㦚 (䞮┺) / imperative ἓ㺆ὖ㧊 (㞚┞┺) /interrogative 㰧㧊 (Ⲗ┺) / declarative ㌂ὒṖ (╂┺) / declarative ⲎⰂṖ (㞚䝚┺) / interrogative 䞮⓮㧊 (䦦Ⰲ┺) / declarative ὒ㧒㧊 (㕇㕇䞮┺) / interrogative

Exercise 1.2

Exercise 1.2 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the declarative plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence. Example: ㍲㤎㠦 (Ṗ┺) = ㍲㤎㠦GṚ┺. “(I) go to Seoul.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㞚䂾㦚 (ⲏ┺) 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ (Ṗ⯊䂮┺) ⑚⋮⯒ (₆┺Ⰲ┺) ⶒ㦚 (Ⱎ㔲┺) ㏢䙂⯒ (⹱┺) 㧒⽎㠊⯒ (⺆㤆┺) ㌂ⶊ㔺㧊 (₾⊭䞮┺) ⻚㓺Ṗ (ⓦⰂ┺) 䄺䞒Ṗ (⥾ỗ┺) 㧊⻞G㭒Ⱖ㠦 (⹪㊮┺)

Exercise 1.3 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the interrogative plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence. Example: 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 (Ṗ┺) = 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦GṖ┞? “Do (you) go to the supermarket?” 1 2 3 4 5 6

㠎㩲GṖỢGⶎ㦚 (╁┺) 㠊❪㍲G䂲ῂ⯒ (Ⱒ⋮┺) 㠎㩲 (⟶⋮┺) 㠊❪㍲ (Ὃ⿖䞮┺) ╊⺆⯒ (䞒㤆┺) 㡊㐶⯒ (㺔┺)

7


1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

7 8 9 10

⋶㝾Ṗ (➆⦑䞮┺) 㔲䠮㧊 (㠊⪋┺) ₆⿚㧊 (⋮㊮┺) 㰧㧊 (㫆㣿䞮┺)

Exercise 1.4 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the imperative plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence. Example: 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 (Ṗ┺) = 㤆㼊ῃ㠦GṖ⧒. “Go to the post office.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

┺Ⰲ⯒ (Ị⍞┺) 㞚⧮⪲ (⌊⩺Ṗ┺) Ṗ⹿㦚 (▮㰖┺) 㺓ⶎ㦚 (㡊┺) 㞚⻚㰖⯒ (➆⯊┺) 㞺✲⮮⯒ (⹕┺) 㟧Ⱖ㦚 (㔶┺) ㎪䁶⯒ (㧛┺) ㏦㦚 (㧷┺) 䋂Ợ (㣎䂮┺)

Exercise 1.5 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parenthesis with the propositive plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence. Example: ☚㍲ὖ㠦 (Ṗ┺) = ☚㍲ὖ㠦GṖ㧦. “(Let us) go to the library.”

8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㌂㰚㦚 (⽊⌊┺) ⁎Ⱂ㦚 (⁎Ⰲ┺) ⻪㧎㦚 (㧷┺) 㔶ⶎ㦚 (㧓┺) 㧒㦚 (Ⱎ䂮┺) 䌳㔲⯒ (䌖┺) 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ (䠺㠊㰖┺) ⪲ⰾ㓺G㡗䢪⯒ (⽊┺) 㺛㦚 (㭒┺) 㝆⩞₆⯒ (⻚Ⰲ┺)


Exercise 1.6

Exercise 1.6

Underline the correct English translation of the Korean phrase below. Example: 㧦㩚Ệ⯒G䌖㧦. (Let us) ride a bike / Ride a bike. 1 Page 19 ⯒G㧓㠊⧒U (Let us) read page 19 / Read page 19. 2 ㏦㦚G㞑㧦. Wash (your) hands / (Let us) wash (our) hands. 3 ⶎ㦚G╁㞚⧒. (Let us) close the door / Close the door. 4 ☞㦚GアⰂ㧦. (Let us) borrow (his) money / Borrow (his) money. 5 ⹿㠦㍲G⋮Ṗ⧒. Go out from the room / (Let us) go out from the room. 6 ⏏㹾⯒GⰞ㎪⧒. Drink green tea / (Let us) drink green tea. 7 㑯㩲⯒G㭒㧦. (Let us) give (them) homework / Give (them) homework. 8 㼃⹪㰖⯒G㧛㧦. Wear jeans / (Let us) wear jeans. 9 㡗㠊⯒G⺆㤢⧒. Learn English / (Let us) learn English. 10 ⩆▮㦒⪲G⟶⋮㧦. (Let us) leave for London / Leave for London.

Exercise 1.7 Finish the following translation using the intimate speech level and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “What kind of movie do (you) want to see?” (ⶊ㓾G㡗䢪⯒ G ⽊ἶG㕌┺) = ⶊ㓾G㡗䢪⯒G⽊ἶG㕌㠊? 1 The movie begins at 2 p.m. (㡺䤚GYG㔲㠦G㡗䢪ṖG㔲㧧䞮┺) 2 Be quiet. (㫆㣿䧞G䞮┺)

9


1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(Let us) clean the house. (㰧㦚G㼃㏢䞮┺) Where do (you) meet Tom? (䐆㦚G㠊❪㍲GⰢ⋮┺) Where did (you) go? (㠊❪㠦GṖ┺) (He) quitted smoking. (╊⺆⯒G⊠┺) The weather was clear. (⋶㝾ṖGⰧ┺) Buy some wines. (㢖㧎㦚G㌂┺) How long did (you) wait? (㠒Ⱎ⋮G₆┺Ⰲ┺) (They) taught English in Korea. (䞲ῃ㠦㍲G㡗㠊⯒GṖ⯊䂮┺)

Exercise 1.8 Finish the following translation using the plain speech level and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(He) attends the University of Hawaii.” (䞮㢖㧊G╖䞯ᾦ㠦 G ┺┞┺) = 䞮㢖㧊G╖䞯ᾦ㠦G┺┢┺. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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(I) major in economics. (ἓ㩲䞯㦚G㩚Ὃ䞮┺) (He) traveled in Seoul last year. (㧧⎚㠦G㍲㤎㦚G㡂䟟䞮┺) The coffee is hot. (䄺䞒ṖG⥾ỗ┺) Is (he) a Canadian? (䃦⋮┺G㌂⧢㧊┺) Was the subway convenient? (㰖䞮㻶㧊G䘎䞮┺) Are (you) happy? (䟟⽋䞮┺) Open the window. (㺓ⶎ㦚G㡊┺) Throw the garbage. (㝆⩞₆⯒G⻚Ⰲ┺) (Let us) have the confidence. (㧦㔶Ṧ㦚GṖ㰖┺) (Let us) sing a song. (⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯊┺)


UNIT 2 Sentence-final endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

Typical sentence-final endings are speech level endings, such as the deferential, polite, intimate, and plain endings. However, sentence-final endings also include various sentence-final suffixes, such as 㰖, ῆ, and ⍺. These suffixes, combined with 㣪 “the politeness marker” can serve as sentencefinal endings that convey the speaker’s various psychological states or attitudes. This unit introduces three sentence-final endings, ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, and ~⍺㣪.

The sentence-final ending ~㰖㣪 㰖㣪 The sentence-final ending ~㰖㣪 is a one-form ending that indicates one of the following four mental states or attitudes of the speaker: (i) seeking agreement, (ii) asking a question with a belief that the hearer has the answer, (iii) assuring information, and (iv) suggesting. The speaker’s intonation (e.g., falling or rising) as well as contextual factors involved (e.g., referential and situational contexts) determine which among the four moods or attitudes the ending indicates.

(1) Seeking agreement (with a rising intonation) Consider the following two examples: 䙊㧊Gⰺ㧒G㫆ₛ㦚G䟊㣪? “Does Paul jog everyday?” 䙊㧊Gⰺ㧒G㫆ₛ㦚G䞮㰖㣪? “Paul jogs everyday, right?” Notice that the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 in the first sentence simply asks the message in a straightforward manner. On the other hand, the ending ~㰖㣪 in the second sentence indicates that the speaker seeks agreement while asking the same question. Here are more examples: 㡺⓮G 㩖⎗G ]㔲㠦G Ⱒ⋮㰖㣪? “(They) meet at 6 o’clock this evening, right?” 㠊㩲G䞯ᾦ㠦G㢪㰖㣪? “(You) came to school yesterday, right?”

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2 Sentencefinal endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

(2) Asking a question, believing that the hearer has the answer (with a rising intonation) 䞒䎆ṖGⳝG㔲㠦G☢㞚㢖㣪? “What time does Peter return?” 䞒䎆ṖGⳝG㔲㠦G☢㞚㡺㰖㣪? “What time does Peter return?” Again, the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 in the first sentence simply asks the message in a direct manner. However, the second sentence with the ending ~㰖㣪 implies that the speaker believes that the hearer has the answer. Here are more examples: 㩖G㌂⧢㧊G⑚ῂ㰖㣪? “Who is that person (over there)?” 㡊㐶ṖG㠊❪㠦G㧞㠞㰖㣪? “Where was the key?”

(3) Assuring information (with a falling intonation) ⍺, ⌊㧒G⟶⋮㣪. “Yes, (they) leave tomorrow.” ⍺, ⌊㧒G⟶⋮㰖㣪. “Yes, (I assure you that they) leave tomorrow.” The first sentence with the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 simply states the message. On the other hand, the ending ~㰖㣪 in the second sentence indicates that the speaker assures of the referential message. Here are more examples: 㡗ῃ㦮G㑮☚ṖG⩆▮㧊㰖㣪. “(I assure you) that the capital of England is London.” ⍺, 㠊㩲G㟓㏣㧊G㧞㠞㰖㣪. “Yes, (I assure you) that (we) had an appointment yesterday.”

(4) Suggesting (with a falling intonation) 㿪㤊◆G㺓ⶎG╁㞚㣪. “(It) is cold, so close the window.” 㿪㤊◆G㺓ⶎG╁㰖㣪. “(It) is cold, so how about closing the window?” The first sentence with the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 is a direct request. However, the second sentence is a suggestion because of the ending ~㰖㣪. Here are more examples: 䎢┞㓺⋮G䂮㰖㣪. “(How about we) play tennis (or something)?” 㩦㕂㧊⋮GⲏἶG㡆㔋䞮㰖㣪. “(How about we) practice after eating lunch (or something)?”

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The honorific suffix ~(㦒)㔲 can be optionally used along with ~㰖㣪 to make the suggestion sound more polite, as shown in the following examples:


㍶㌳┮, Ṗ㔲㰖㣪. “Professor, (how about we) go?” 㺛G㫖Gア⩺G㭒㔲㰖㣪. “(How about you) please lend (me) the book?”

The sentencefinal ending ~⍺㣪

The sentence-final ending ~⍺㣪 ⍺㣪 The one-form sentence-final ending ~⍺㣪 is used to indicate the speaker’s spontaneous and immediate reaction, such as unexpected surprise and/or realization. The ending ~⍺㣪 is used only for the declarative statement sentence type, and it may be translated as “Oh, I see/realize that . . .” Consider the following two examples: 㫊㧊G䞲ῃⰦ㦚G㧮G䟊㣪. “John speaks Korean well.” 㫊㧊G䞲ῃⰦ㦚G㧮G䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) John speaks Korean well.” Notice that the first sentence simply conveys the message in a straightforward manner. On the other hand, the second sentence with the ending ~⍺㣪 indicates the speaker’s spontaneous emotive reaction. It denotes that the information which the speaker hears or observes (e.g., John speaking Korean well) is unanticipated and/or contrary to what was expected. Here are more examples: 㞚䂾㦚GⰤ㧊G㭖゚䟞⍺㣪. “(I realize that you) prepared huge breakfast.” 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㡗㠊G㍶㌳┮㧊㠞⍺㣪. “(I am surprised that) Thomas was an English teacher.” ゚ṖGⰤ㧊G㡺⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) it rains a lot.” 㧊G䄺䞒ṖG㰚䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) this coffee is strong.”

~Ỷ⍺㣪 The suffix Ỷ is a pre-final ending that comes between the stem of the predicate and the final-ending. The suffix Ỷ denotes the speaker’s conjecture or inference about what did occur, what is occurring, and what will occur, based on circumstantial evidences. ~Ỷ⍺㣪, the combination of the suffix Ỷ and the ending ~⍺㣪, is used to indicate the speaker’s realization of what will happen in reaction to the surprised or unanticipated information the speaker just encountered. It is best translated in English as “(I guess . . . something) may/will . . . ” Consider the following examples: 㦢㔳㧊GⰤ㧊GⱋỶ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the food may be very spicy.” ⌊㧒G ⋶㝾ṖG 㿻Ỷ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I realize that) tomorrow’s weather may be cold.” ⁎⩒, 㤆ⰂG ⌊㧒G Ὃ䟃㠦㍲G Ⱒ⋮Ỷ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) then, we may run into each other tomorrow at the airport.”

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~㠞V㞮Ỷ⍺㣪G

2 Sentencefinal endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

~㠞/㞮Ỷ⍺㣪, the combination of the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 and ~Ỷ⍺ 㣪, is used to express the speaker’s surprise or realization about what must have occurred. It can be translated as “I guess that something must have . . . ,” as shown in the examples below: Ⱔ㧊G㞚䕶Ỷ⍺㣪. “(I guess that it) must have been painful.” 㡗䢪ṖG 㨂⹎㧞㠞Ỷ⍺㣪. “(I guess that) the movie must have been interesting.” ⑚⋮G ㌳㧒㧊㠞㦒┞₢G 㰧㠦G Ṫ㠞Ỷ⍺㣪. “Since (it) was (his) older sister’s birthday, (I guess that he) must have gone home.”

The sentence-final ending ~ῆ㣪 ῆ㣪 The one-form sentence-final ending ~ῆ㣪 is used as an exclamatory ending. It is used to express the speaker’s immediate realization to what he/she just perceived. The meaning and usage of ~ῆ㣪 is similar to those of ~⍺㣪 in that both indicate what the speaker just realized. However, there is one subtle difference. While ~⍺㣪 indicates that what’s been realized or perceived is contrary to the expectation, ~ῆ㣪 simply expresses the immediate realization in a straightforward manner. ~ῆ㣪 is used after adjective and copula stems. However, for verb stems, ~⓪ “the noun-modifying ending for verbs” is used along with ~ῆ㣪 (e.g., ~⓪ῆ㣪). Consider the following examples:

After adjective stems ⋶㝾ṖG▻ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the weather is hot.” 䞲ῃG㦢㔳㧊Gⰱ㧞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the Korean food is delicious.”

After copula stems 㩲㔲䃊ṖG 㧒⽎G ㌂⧢㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Jessica is a Japanese person.” 㡂₆ṖG㫊㦮G㰧㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) here is John’s house.”

After verb stems 㧒⽎㠊⯒G Ṗ⯊䂮⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) teach the Japanese language.” ⰺ㧒GἾ䝚⯒G⺆㤆⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that he) learns golf everyday. 14


For immediate realization about a past event, ~㠞/㞮ῆ㣪 is used for all predicates.

Key vocabulary for Unit 2 exercises

㡗䢪ṖG㨂⹎㧞㠞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the movie was interesting.” 䞲ῃ㦮G㑮☚ṖG㍲㤎㧊㠞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the capital of Korea was Seoul.” 䞲ῃG⏎⧮⯒G㫡㞚䟞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that you) liked Korean songs.” For immediate realization about a possible or guessed future event, ~Ỷῆ㣪 is used. ㍲㤎㠦㍲G 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒G Ⱒ⋮Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that he) may meet (his) mother in Seoul.” ⌊㧒G ṖỢ⯒G 㡊Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) may open the store tomorrow.” 䞲ῃGⶎ䞯㦚G㩚Ὃ䞮Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that she) may major in Korean literature.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 2 exercises ṖỢ store ἓ䂮 scenery ₖ䂮 kimchi ₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean ⋶㝾 weather ╁┺ to close ▻┺ to be hot (the weather) ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious ⲏ┺ to eat ⶒṖ prices ⹿ room ⼖䢎㌂ lawyer ゚㕎┺ to be expensive 㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy 㔶䢒 a new marriage 㞚⯚╋┺ to be beautiful 㠊㩲 yesterday 㠜┺ not have/not exist 㡂䟟 trip/travel 㡺⓮ today

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㡺䤚 afternoon 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧦┺ to sleep 㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet 㰧 house 䡫 older brother

2 Sentencefinal endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

Exercise 2.1 Finish the following translation using ~㰖㣪 (seeking confirmation) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Nick is also coming, right?” (┟☚G㡺ἶG㧞┺) = ┟☚G㡺ἶG㧞㰖㣪? 1 2 3 4 5

Wendy is a Chinese, right? (㢶❪ṖG㭧ῃG㌂⧢㧊┺) (They) meet Edward, right? (㠦✲㤢✲⯒GⰢ⋮┺) (You) believe me, right? (⋮⯒G⹕┺) The price is expensive, right? (Ṗỿ㧊G゚㕎┺) (You) take the bus over there, right? (㩖₆㍲G⻚㓺⯒G䌖┺)

Exercise 2.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~㰖㣪? (seeking confirmation). Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㌂ὒ⯒GⲏἶG㕌㠊䞮┺ = 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㌂ὒ⯒GⲏἶG㕌㠊䞮㰖㣪? “Thomas wants to eat an apple, right?” 1 2 3 4 5

㡺⓮G⋶㝾ṖG▻┺ ἓ䂮ṖG㞚⯚╋┺ ⹿㧊G㫆㣿䞮┺ 㰧㧊G㔲⊚⩓┺ 䄺䞒ṖGⰱ㧞┺

Exercise 2.3 16

Finish the following translation using ~㰖㣪 (suggestion) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.


Example: “(How about we) see an action movie together?” (ṯ㧊G㞷㎮G㡗䢪⯒G⽊┺) = ṯ㧊G㞷㎮G㡗䢪⯒G⽊㰖㣪U 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Exercise 2.4

(How about we) go back home? (㰧㦒⪲G☢㞚Ṗ┺) (How about we) order coffee? (䄺䞒⯒G㔲䋺┺) (How about we) turn on the air conditioner? (㠦㠊䄾㦚G䅲┺) (How about we) make a phone call to Linda? (Ⰶ┺䞲䎢G 㩚䢪⯒G Ỏ┺) (How about we) pay (them) by cash? (䡚⁞㦒⪲G㰖⿞䞮┺) (How about we) buy a birthday card? (㌳㧒G䃊✲⯒G㌂┺) (How about we) borrow a Korean movie? (䞲ῃG㡗䢪⯒GアⰂ┺) (How about we) use the subway? (㰖䞮㻶㦚G㧊㣿䞮┺) (How about we) invite Jodie’s friends as well? (㫆❪㦮G 䂲ῂ✺☚G 㽞╖䞮┺) (How about we) quit smoking? (╊⺆⯒G⊠┺)

Exercise 2.4 Finish the following translation using ~⍺㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(Oh, I see that) it rains outside.” (⹬㠦G゚ṖG㡺┺) = ⹬㠦G゚ṖG㡺⍺㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 6

(Oh, I (Oh, I (Oh, I (Oh, I (Oh, I (Oh, I

see see see see see see

that) Chris snores. (䋂Ⰲ㓺ṖG䆪Ἶ┺) that) Abigail sings well. (㞚゚Ợ㧒㧊G⏎⧮⯒G㧮G䞮┺) that) Ronald is diligent. (⪲⋶✲ṖG⿖㰖⩆䞮┺) that) Diana went home from work. (┺㧊㠦⋮ṖG䑊⁒䟞┺) that) Lidia earned money. (Ⰲ❪㞚ṖG☞㦚G⻢㠞┺) that) the ring was expensive. (⹮㰖ṖG゚㕢┺)

Exercise 2.5 Conjugate the predicate using ~⍺㣪. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㩲㧎䞮ἶG䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲┺ = 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㩲㧎䞮ἶG䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲⍺㣪U “(Oh, I see that) Thomas drinks coffee with Jane.” 17


2 Sentencefinal endings ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪

1 2 3 4 5 6

㫆㎟㧊G㰧㠦G㠜┺ ⩞㧊㼒㧊Gₖ䂮⯒Gⲏ┺ ┞䆲⧒㓺ṖG⋮䌞Ⰲ䞮ἶG㧊㟒₆䞮┺ ◆㧊キ㧊G㞢⩟㓺㦮G䡫㧊┺ 㞂❪ṖG㞚㰗G㞞G㧦┺ ⹿㧊G₾⊭䞮┺

Exercise 2.6 Finish the following translation using ~ῆ㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(Oh, I see that they) arrived (here) already.” (⻢㖾G☚㹿䟞┺) = ⻢㖾G☚㹿䟞ῆ㣪. 1 (Oh, I see that) the weather is chilly. (⋶㝾ṖG㕎⓮䞮┺) 2 (Oh, I see that it) was very windy yesterday. (㠊㩲G ⹪⧢㧊G Ⱔ㧊G ⿞㠞┺) 3 (Oh, I see that) Boston is famous for lobster. (⽊㓺䏺㧊G ⹪╍Ṗ㨂⪲G 㥶ⳛ䞮┺) 4 (Oh, I see that) Julia is a nurse. (㯊Ⰲ㞚ṖGṚ䢎㌂㧊┺) 5 (Oh, I see that it) is summer from now on. (㧊㩲⿖䎆G㡂⯚㧊┺) 6 (Oh, I see that) Jim received the bonus. (㰦㧊G⽊⍞㓺⯒G⹱㞮┺)

Exercise 2.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~ῆ㣪. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 䙊㧊G☚㍲ὖ㠦GṪ┺ = 䙊㧊G☚㍲ὖ㠦GṪῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Paul went to the library.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 18

⋮㡺⹎ṖG䕾㎮G⳾◎㧊┺ 㥶⩓㦒⪲G㔶䢒G㡂䟟㦚GṖ┺ 㡺䤚G`㔲㠦GṖỢ⯒G╁㞮┺ 䟊ⰂṖG⼖䢎㌂⪲G㧒䟞┺ ⶒṖṖG゚㕎┺ 㠊㩲G⹿㧊G▪㤶┺


UNIT 3 Particles ⽊┺, 㻮⩒, ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖, 㫆㹾, ⹬㠦

⽊┺ The particle ⽊┺Gis used to make a comparative sentence. This particle is attached to a noun that is being compared, and it is translated as “more than” or “rather than.” Consider the following example: 㩲㧎㦮G ⹿㧊G 䐆㦮G ⹿⽊┺G 䄺㣪. “Jane’s room is bigger than Tom’s room.” Notice that Tom’s room is the noun that is being compared to Jane’s room. Adverbs such as ▪ “more,” ▲ “less,” and 䤾㞂 “by far,” can be used along with the particle ⽊┺ to put more emphasis on the comparison, as shown below: 㧊G㢍㧊G⁎G㢍⽊┺G▪G゚㕎㣪. “This dress is more expensive than that dress.” 㡺⓮㧊G㠊㩲⽊┺G▲G㿪㤢㣪. “Today is less cold than yesterday.” 㩲ṖG 䡫⽊┺G 䤾㞂G ▪G Ⱔ㧊G ⲏ㠊㣪. “I eat much more than (my) older brother.” Here are more examples: 㩖⓪G ⽚⽊┺G Ṗ㦚㦚G ▪G 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for me, (I) like autumn more than spring.” 㞺✲⮮ṖG ⑚ῂ⽊┺G ▪G ⲡ㧞㠊㣪. “Andrew is handsomer than anybody.” ⪲⋶✲ṖG㩖⽊┺G⚦G㌊㧊G▪GⰤ㞚㣪. “Ronald is two years older than I.” 㫆㰖ṖG䝚⨃䋂⽊┺G▪G⻢㠞㠊㣪. “George earned more than Frank.” 䄺䞒⽊┺G㭒㓺⯒G▪GⰞ㔲ἶG㕌㠞㠊㣪. “(I) wanted to drink juice more than coffee.” 㧊G㡗䢪ṖG⁎G㡗䢪⽊┺G▲G㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪. “This movie was less interesting than that movie.”

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3 Particles ⽊┺, ṯ㧊, Ⱎ┺, 㫆㹾,

㻮⩒, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ㩖, ⹬㠦

䐆⽊┺G☞㦚G▲G㗒㠊㣪. “(I) spent less money than Tom.” ぢ⧮✲ṖG㫊⽊┺G䤾㞂G▪G㥶ⳛ䟊㣪. “Brad is much more popular than John.” 䞒䎆ṖG㩖⽊┺G䋺ṖG▪G䅎㠞㠊㣪. “Peter used to be taller than I.”

㻮⩒ and ṯ㧊 The particle 㻮⩒ is used to compare one noun with another. It is translated as “as if” and “like.” Consider the following examples: 㞾Ⰲ㓺ṖG䞲ῃG㌂⧢㻮⩒G䞲ῃⰦ㦚G㧮G䟊㣪. “Alice speaks Korean well like a Korean.” ┺㧊㞶⋮ṖG㠊⯎㻮⩒G䟟☯䟊㣪. “Diana behaves like an adult.” 䕆⋮㻮⩒G㡊㕂䧞G㧒䞮㎎㣪. “Work hard like Tina.” The meaning of the particle ṯ㧊G is similar to that of 㻮⩒, as shown below: 㩲㧎㦖G⳿㏢ⰂṖG⋾㧦G⳿㏢Ⰲṯ㧊G䠞㓺䋺䟊㣪. “As for Jane, (her) voice is husky like a man’s voice.” 㠊㩲⓪G 㡂⯚ṯ㧊G ▪㤶㠊㣪. “As for yesterday, (it) was hot like summer.” 㡺⓮G ⹺㦖G ⌄ṯ㧊G ⹳㞚㣪. “As for tonight, (it) is bright like the daytime.”

Ⱒ䋒G Ⱒ䋒 The particle Ⱒ䋒 is used to express “as much as” or “to the extent to that.” Consider the following examples: 㤆ⰂG䡫Ⱒ䋒G⡧⡧䟞㠊㣪. “(I) was as smart as my older brother.” 㡺⓮㦖G 㠊㩲Ⱒ䋒G ▻㰖G 㞠㞚㣪. “As for today, (it) is not as hot as yesterday.” 㫆㰖ṖG 㥢Ⰲ㠚Ⱒ䋒G Ἶ䝚⯒G 㧮G 㼦㣪. “George plays golf as good as William.” 㧊G 㹾ṖG 㩖G 㹾Ⱒ䋒G ゚㕎㣪. “This car is as expensive as that car (over there).” 䧦⩂Ⰲ⓪GⲪⰂⰢ䋒G㡞ㄦ㣪. “As for Hilary, (she) is as pretty as Mary.” ₆╖Ⱒ䋒G㩦㑮ṖG⋮㢪㠊㣪. “The score came out to the extent of (my) expectation.” 20


Ⱎ┺

Ⱎ┺

The particle Ⱎ┺ means “every” or “each,” as shown in the examples below: 䡫㧊G ╂Ⱎ┺G ☞㦚G ⿖㼦G 㭮㣪. “(My) older brother sends (me) money every month.” [㔲ṚⰞ┺G㟓㦚Gⲏ㦒㎎㣪. “Take the medicine every 4 hours.” ⹿Ⱎ┺G䎪⩞゚㩚㧊G㧞㠊㣪? “Does each room have a TV?” ᾦ㑮┮Ⱎ┺G㡆ῂ㔺㧊G㧞㠊㣪. “Each professor has an office.”

Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾 The particles Ⱎ㩖 or 㫆㹾 are used to express “even.” Consider the following examples: 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ⱎ㩖G 䕢䕆㠦G 㞞G 㢪㠊㣪. “Even Thomas did not come to the party.” ⁎G 䞯㌳㦖G 㧦₆G 㧊⯚㫆㹾G ⴑG 㖾㣪. “As for that student, (he) can not write even his name.” The meanings of Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾 are similar to that of ₢㰖 “even.” However, differing from ₢㰖, the particles Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾 are in general associated with unfavorable or unsought contents. Compare the following two sentences: 㫊㦮G㡂㧦䂲ῂ₢㰖GⰢ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend.” 㫊㦮G㡂㧦䂲ῂⰞ㩖GⰢ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend.” Although the translation of both examples are the same, the second example with Ⱎ㩖 implies that meeting Thomas’ girlfriend was not a favorable event, whereas the first example with ₢㰖 simply indicates “including (even).” Here are more examples: 㹾G㌂ἶ⪲G⿖㧎䞮ἶG㞚✺Ⱎ㩖G㧙㠞㠊㣪. “Due to the car accident, (he) lost (his) wife and even (his) son.” ╏㔶Ⱎ㩖G ⋮⯒G ⟶⋮ⳊG 㠊⠑ỢG ㌊㞚Ṗ㣪? “If you also leave me, how should (I) go on living?” グ➢ⶎ㠦G㰧㦚G䕪ἶG㹾Ⱎ㩖G䕪㞮㠊㣪. “Because of the debt, (we) sold the house and even the car.” 㞚䂾☚G ῌἶG 㩦㕂㫆㹾G ⴑG ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) skipped breakfast and could not eat even lunch.” ⁎㦮G 㡂㧦䂲ῂ㫆㹾G ⁎㦮G 㧊㟒₆⯒G 㞞G ⹕㠞㠊㣪. “Even his girlfriend did not believe his story.”

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⹬㠦G ⹬㠦

3 Particles ⽊┺, ṯ㧊, Ⱎ┺, 㫆㹾,

㻮⩒, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ㩖, ⹬㠦

The particle ⹬㠦 is used to indicate “only” or “nothing but” in English. The meaning of ⹬㠦 is similar to that of Ⱒ “only.” However, differing from Ⱒ, the particle ⹬㠦 always co-occurs with the negative predicate. For instance, compare the following sentences: X\G╂⧒ⰢG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have only 15 dollars.” X\G ╂⧒⹬㠦G 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have only 15 dollars (lit. I have nothing but 15 dollars).” Notice that although the meanings of both sentences are similar, the second sentence ends in a negative 㠜㠊㣪 “do not have.” Here are more examples: \G⿚⹬㠦G㞞G₆┺⪎㠊㣪U “(I) waited only 5 minutes.” ᾦ㔺㧊G⹮⹬㠦G㞞G㺒㠊㣪U “The classroom is only half full.” 䄺䞒⯒G⚦G㧪⹬㠦G㞞GⰞ㎾㠊㣪U “(I) drank only two cups of coffee.” ┺㦢G 䞯₆⓪G ㎎G ὒ⳿⹬㠦G 㞞G ✺㦚G Ệ㡞㣪. “As for next semester, (I) will take only three courses.” 㥶┞㓺⓪G㧒⽎㠊⯒G㫆⁞⹬㠦GⴑG䟊㣪. “As for Eunice, (she) can speak only a little Japanese.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 3 exercises

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₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ⌄㧶Gnap Ⱎ㔲┺Gto drink Ⱒ⋮┺Gto meet ⲏ┺ to eat ⿚Gminute ㌂ὒGapple ㌦⩂✲Gsalad ㌳ṗ䞮┺ to think ㏦┮Gcustomer/guest 㔲ṚGhour 㞚ザGdad 㠊Ⲏ┞Gmother 㠊㩲Gyesterday 㠎┞Golder sister 㠚ⰞGmom


㧦┺ to sleep 㨂㯞 jazz 㫡㞚䞮┺ to like 㭒㓺Gjuice

Exercise 3.1

Exercise 3.1 Complete the following translation using the particle ⽊┺ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) wanted to drink juice more than coffee.” (䄺䞒G/G㭒㓺⯒G▪GⰞ㔲ἶG㕌㠞㠊㣪) = 䄺䞒⽊┺G㭒㓺⯒G▪GⰞ㔲ἶG㕌㠞㠊㣪. 1 Charles is more popular than Lisa (Ⰲ㌂G /G 㺆㓺ṖG 㧎₆ṖG ▪G Ⱔ㞚 㣪) 2 Philippine is hotter than Korea (䞲ῃG /G䞚Ⰲ䞖㧊G▪G▪㤢㣪) 3 (I) liked autumn better than spring (⽚G/GṖ㦚㦚G▪G㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪) 4 (He) wanted to major in literature more than science (ὒ䞯G/Gⶎ䞯㦚G ▪G㩚Ὃ䞮ἶG㕌㠊䟞㠊㣪) 5 Did (you) want to buy a notebook more than a digital camera? (❪㰖 䌞G䃊Ⲫ⧒G/G⏎䔎⿗㦚G▪G㌂ἶG㕌㠞㠊㣪?) 6 An airplane is faster than a car (㹾G /G゚䟟₆ṖG▪Gザ⯛┞┺) 7 New York City is bigger than Honolulu (䢎⏖⭆⬾G /G Ⓤ㣫㔲ṖG ▪G 䋓 ┞┺) 8 Today is less cold than yesterday (㠊㩲G/G㡺⓮㧊G▲G㿻㔋┞┺) 9 Does Sam play tennis better than Harry? (䟊ⰂG /G ㌮㧊G 䎢┞㓺⯒G ▪G 㧮G䂿┞₢?) 10 Does Jane like meat more than Dave? (◆㧊ぢG /G 㩲㧎㧊G ἶ₆⯒G ▪G 㫡㞚䞿┞₢?)

Exercise 3.2 Finish the following translation using the particle 㻮⩒ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “That child drinks water much like a hippo.” (⁎G㞚㧊G/G䞮ⰞG/Gⶒ㦚GⰤ㧊GⰞ㎪㣪) = ⁎G㞚㧊ṖG䞮Ⱎ㻮⩒Gⶒ㦚GⰤ㧊GⰞ㎪㣪. 1 Juice is chilly like ice (㭒㓺G/G㠒㦢G/G㹾Ṗ㤢㣪) 2 Lidia acts like a detective (Ⰲ❪㞚G /G䡫㌂G/G䟟☯䟊㣪)

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3 Particles ⽊┺, ṯ㧊, Ⱎ┺, 㫆㹾,

㻮⩒, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ㩖, ⹬㠦

3 Does Chris swim well like a seal? (䋂Ⰲ㓺G /G ⶒṲG /G 㑮㡗㦚G 㧮G 䟊 㣪?) 4 Jerry was docile like a sheep (㩲ⰂG/G㟧G/G㑲䟞㠊㣪) 5 Vegetables will be expensive like gold (㟒㺚G /G⁞G/G゚㕖GỆ㡞㣪) 6 John is tall like a basketball player (㫊G /G⏣ῂG㍶㑮G /G䋺ṖG䄺㣪) 7 Sandy is slim like a model (㌢❪G/G⳾◎G/G⋶㞂䟊㣪) 8 Anthony is smart like Einstein (㞺㍲┞G /G㞚㧎㓞䌖㧎G /G⡧⡧䟊㣪) 9 Sarah sang the song well like an opera singer (㌂⧒G /G 㡺䗮⧒G Ṗ㑮G /G ⏎⧮⯒G㧮G䟞㠊㣪) 10 Thomas will run well like a marathoner (䏶Ⱎ㓺G /G Ⱎ⧒䏺G ㍶㑮G /G 㧮G ⥎GỆ㡞㣪)

Exercise 3.3 Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱒ䋒 and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Bill is as rich as Tom.” (アG /G䐆G/G⿖㧦㧛┞┺) = ア㧊G䐆Ⱒ䋒G⿖㧦㧛┞┺. 1 Catherine speaks Korean as fluently as Neal (䃦㍲ⰆG/G┦G/G䞲ῃ㠊⯒G 㧮G䞿┞┺) 2 The kitchen is as big as the living room (⿖㠢G /GỆ㔺G /G䋓┞┺) 3 Daniel is as diligent as Philip (◆┞㠮G /G䞚ⰓG /G⿖㰖⩆䞿┞┺) 4 Did Patrick like wine as much as Erica? (䕾䔎ⰃG /G 㠦Ⰲ䃊G /G 㢖㧎㦚G 㫡㞚䟞㔋┞₢?) 5 Rebecca was as graceful as Jennifer (⩞⻶䃊G /G 㩲┞䗒G /G 㟢㩚䟞㔋 ┞┺) 6 Seoul is as expensive as New York (㍲㤎G /GⓊ㣫G /G゚㕎㣪) 7 This car is as good as that car (over there) (㧊G㹾G /G㩖G㹾G/G㫡㞚㣪) 8 Does Philip earns money as much as Adam? (䞚ⰓG /G 㞚╊G /G ☞㦚G ⻢ 㠊㣪?) 9 The subway was as convenient as taxi (㰖䞮㻶G/G䌳㔲G/G䘎䟞㠊㣪) 10 Edward drank (it) as much as Thomas (㠦✲㤢✲G /G 䏶Ⱎ㓺G /G Ⱎ㎾ 㠊㣪)

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Exercise 3.4

Exercise 3.4

Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱎ┺ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Does Hugh jog every morning?” (䦊G /G㞚䂾G/G㫆ₛ㦚G G 䞿┞₢?) “䦊ṖG㞚䂾Ⱎ┺G㫆ₛ㦚G䞿┞₢?” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(I) take a walk every evening (㩖⎗G/G㌆㺛䞿┞┺) Do (you) ski every winter? (Ỿ㤎G /G㓺䋺⯒G䌧┞₢?) (We) went to the beach every summer (㡂⯚G /G⹪╍Ṗ㠦GṪ㔋┞┺) Every store will be busy (ṖỢG /G⹪㊶GỆ㡞㣪) (Let us) meet every night (⹺G /GⰢ⋿㔲┺) Every supermarket sells juice (㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩G/G㭒㓺G/G䕪㞚㣪) Each school has alma mater (䞯ᾦG /GᾦṖṖG㧞㠊㣪) Each room had a window (⹿G /G㺓ⶎ㧊G㧞㠞㠊㣪) Every student is studying for the test (䞯㌳G/G㔲䠮GὋ⿖⯒G䞮ἶG㧞㠊 㣪) 10 Did (your) friends play golf every Saturday? (䂲ῂ✺G/G䏶㣪㧒G/GἾ䝚 ⯒G㼺㠊㣪?)

Exercise 3.5 Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱎ㩖 and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Even Jane was sick.” (㩲㧎G/G㞚䕶㠊㣪) = 㩲㧎Ⱎ㩖G㞚䕶㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Even Sabrina lied (㌂ぢⰂ⋮G/GỆ㰩Ⱖ㦚G䟞㠊㣪) Even (my) older sister hid the fact (⑚⋮G/G㌂㔺㦚GṦ䀚㠊㣪) Even the weather was cold (⋶㝾G /G㿪㤶㠊㣪) Even my room was dark (㩲G⹿G /G㠊⚦㤶㠊㣪) Even the air conditioner was broken (㠦㠊䄾G/Gἶ㧻⌂㠊㣪) Even Matthew did not go to school (ⰺ䓲G/G䞯ᾦ㠦G㞞GṪ㠊㣪) Even (his) wife will go back to the States (⿖㧎G /G ⹎ῃ㦒⪲G ☢㞚ṞG Ệ㡞㣪) 8 Even Monica failed the test (⳾┞䃊G/G㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪) 9 Did even the convenient store close? (䘎㦮㩦G /G╁㞮㠊㣪?) 10 Even Paul will sell (his) car (䙊G /G㹾⯒G䕪GỆ㡞㣪) 25


3

Exercise 3.6

Particles ⽊┺, ṯ㧊, Ⱎ┺, 㫆㹾,

㻮⩒, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ㩖, ⹬㠦

Rewrite the following sentence using the [⹬㠦 + negative] pattern, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ㌂ὒⰢG㧞㠊㣪. = ㌂ὒ⹬㠦G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have only apples.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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㌂ὒG㭒㓺ⰢGⰞ㎪㣪U ㌦⩂✲ⰢGⲏ㠊㣪U 㠚Ⱎ⓪G㞚ザⰢG㫡㞚䟊㣪U ㏦┮㧊G^GⳛⰢG㧞㠊㣪U ⌄㧶㦚GXG㔲ṚⰢG㧮GỆ㡞㣪U 㠊Ⲏ┞ⰢG㌳ṗ䟞㠊㣪U 㨂㯞ⰢG㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪U 㠊㩲G\G㔲ṚⰢG㧺㠊㣪U XWG⿚ⰢG₆┺ⰊGỆ㡞㣪U 㠎┞ⰢGⰢ⋶GỆ㡞㣪U


UNIT 4 Auxiliary verbs I

An auxiliary verb combines with a main verb to express tense, aspect, mood and/or voice. For instance, English auxiliary verbs include “can,” “have,” “may,” “shall,” and “will,” since they combine with a main verb, as in “I can speak Korean.” This unit first discusses some general structural characteristics of Korean auxiliary verbs. Then, it introduces how the following three verbs, ⽊┺ “see,” 㡺┺ “come,” and Ṗ┺ “go,” can serve as auxiliary verbs.

Korean auxiliary verbs Korean auxiliary verbs are in fact all regular verbs. However, when these verbs are used as auxiliary verbs, they express different meanings, as shown below: Regular verbs ⽊┺ “see” 㡺┺ “come” Ṗ┺ “go” 㭒┺ “give” ⌊┺ “produce” ⋮┺ “occur” ⻚Ⰲ┺ “throw away” ⏩┺ “put down” 䞮┺ “do” 㰖┺ “become” Ⱖ┺ “stop”

Auxiliary verbs ~㠊/㞚G⽊┺ “try (doing something)” ~㠊/㞚G㡺┺ “continue to” ~㠊/㞚GṖ┺ “continue to” ~㠊/㞚G㭒┺ “do for (someone)” ~㠊/㞚G⌊┺ “do all the way completely” ~㠊/㞚G⋮┺ “have finished” ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ “finish up/end up with” ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺ “do for later” ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ “be in the state of” ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ “become” ~ἶGⰦ┺ “end up doing”

Korean auxiliary verbs always appear after the main verb (or adjectives for limited auxiliary verbs). In addition, the main verb is always conjugated with ~㠊/㞚 (or ~ἶ for limited auxiliary verbs). The compounding process takes the following pattern: [stem of the main verb ~㠊/㞚 plus an auxiliary verb]. ~㞚 is used after the stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺 (e.g., 㺔┺ “find”

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=> 㺔㞚G ⽊┺ “try looking for something”), while ~㠊 is used after the stem that ends in all other vowels (e.g., Ⱒ✺┺ “make” => Ⱒ✺㠊G ⽊┺ “try making something”).

4 Auxiliary verbs I

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G ⽊┺GG ⽊┺ When the verb ⽊┺ “see” is used as an auxiliary verb, it is used to express “try (doing something)/experience.” It is used when a speaker tries doing some action just once so that he/she can explore the consequences. For instance, consider how the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G ⽊┺ is used with the main verb ⺆㤆┺ “learn.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽛┞┺. “(I) try learning Korean.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try learning Korean.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽊㔲㰖㣪U “(Why don’t you try) learning Korean?” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽊㕃㔲㡺U “Try learning Korean.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽺㔋┞┺U “(I) tried learning Korean.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤢G⽒GỆ㡞㣪. “(I) will try learning Korean.” Notice in the examples above that ~㠊/㞚G⽊┺ completes each expression and carries all grammatical information, such as tense, sentence types, and honorifics. Here are more examples: ₖ䂮⯒G ⲏ㠊G ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) tried eating kimchi” (lit. “I ate kimchi and saw what it was like”). 䝚⧧㓺㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to France.” 㡺䏶⹪㧊⯒G䌖G⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried riding a motorcycle?” ₖ䂮⯒Gⲏ㠊G⽊㎎㣪. “Please try (eating) kimchi.” 㫊㦚GⰢ⋮G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try to meet John.” 㩲Ⰲ䞲䎢G 㧒㦚G ⰷỾG ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try entrusting the task to Jerry.” 䞲ῃG㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ㠊G⽒GỆ㡞㣪. “(I) will try eating Korean food.” 䞲ῃGⰻ㭒⯒GⰞ㎪G⽒GỆ㡞㣪. “(I) will try drinking Korean beer.”

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G 㡺┺VṖ┺G 㡺┺VṖ┺ Korean has two motion verbs 㡺┺ “come” and Ṗ┺ “go.” When these motion verbs are used as auxiliary verbs, both indicate that an action of the main verb is carried out continually. Since 㡺┺ “come” signifies the motion toward the speaker,G~㠊/㞚G㡺┺ is used to express an continuous action that comes toward the present, as shown below: 28


㰖⁞₢㰖G 䢒㧦G 㧮G ㌊㞚G 㢪㠊㣪. “Until now, (I) have lived alone well.” ₖ㌂㧻┮㧊G 䣢㌂⯒G 㧮G 㧊⊢㠊G 㢪㠊㣪. “President Kim has led the company well.” 㩖䧂⓪G㍶㌳┮GⰦ㝖㦚G⹕㠊G㢪㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) have believed the teacher’s word.”

Key vocabulary for Unit 4 exercises

On the other hand, Ṗ┺ “go” indicates the motion away from the speaker. Consequently, ~㠊/㞚GṖ┺ is used to express a continuous action that goes into the future. ✲⧒ⰞṖG⊳⋮GṖ㣪. “The drama is going to end.” Ṗ㦚㧊G₠㠊GṖ㣪. “Autumn is ripening.” ㌂㠛㧊G㧮G♮㠊GṖ㣪? “Does (your) business continue to do well?” 㞚㧊ṖG 㠚Ⱎ⯒G ╄㞚G Ṗ㣪. “The child continues to take after (her) mother.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 4 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach Ṗ㩫 family Ṧ₆ a cold/flu ἶ䂮┺ to fix ⊳⋮┺ to end/to finish ⌁┺ to get well/to recover from (illness) ⏒ⶎ thesis ⓯┺ to grow older ┺ all ☚㧦₆ ceramics Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⲏ┺ to eat ⶒ water ⹪∎┺ to change ⼧㤦 hospital ㌆ mountain ㌊┺ to live 㝆┺ to use/to write 㡂㧦 woman 㡗㠊 English 㢂⧒Ṗ┺ to climb/to go up

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㦢㔳 㧊㩲 㧎☚ 㧛┺

4 Auxiliary verbs I

food now India to wear

㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call 㩞㟓䞮┺ to economize on/to save/to be thrifty 㫆⁞㝿 little by little 䂲ῂ friends 䞲⽋ traditional Korean clothes 䟊 a year/the sun 䟟⽋䞮┺ to be happy 䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up 䢒㧦 alone

Exercise 4.1 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G⽺㔋┞┺ as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㰧㠦GṖ┺ = 㰧㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to the house.” 1 2 3 4 5

㧎☚G㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ┺ ☚㧦₆⯒GⰢ✺┺ 䞲⽋㦚G㧛┺ ⻶㧊㰫㠦GṖ┺ ⼧㤦㠦G㩚䢪䞮┺

Exercise 4.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G⽺㔋┞₢? as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㠮゚㓺㦮G⏎⧮⯒G✹┺ = 㠮゚㓺㦮G⏎⧮⯒G✺㠊G⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried listening to Elvis’ song?”

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1 2 3 4 5

ⶊ㡃G䣢㌂㠦㍲G㧒䞮┺ ⋰㔲⯒G䞮┺ 䌖㧊G㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ┺ 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤆┺ ᾦ䣢㠦GṖ┺


Exercise 4.3

Exercise 4.3

Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G⽊㕃㔲㡺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㣪Ṗ⯒G䞮┺ = 㣪Ṗ⯒G䟊G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try doing yoga.” 㡗㠊⯒GṖ⯊䂮┺ ㌆㦚G㢂⧒Ṗ┺ 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲G㌊┺ 㡂㧦䂲ῂ⧧G䠺㠊㰖┺ 䅊䜾䎆⯒Gἶ䂮┺

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 4.4 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G ⽛㔲┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ☚㍲ὖ㠦GṖ┺ = ☚㍲ὖ㠦GṖG⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try going to the library.” ₆☚䞮┺ ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢G⿖䌗䞮┺ 㹾⯒Gἶ䂮┺ ῂⲣ㦚GⰟ┺ 㠦㠊䄾㦚G䅲┺

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 4.5 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G ⽊┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) tried (doing) bungee jumping” (⻞㰖㩦䝚⯒G䞮┺) = ⻞㰖㩦䝚⯒G䟊G⽺㔋┞┺. 1 2 3 4 5 6

(I) have been to Africa (㞚䝚Ⰲ䃊㠦GṖ┺) (I) will try to study the Korean language (䞲ῃ㠊⯒GὋ⿖䞮┺) (I) tried drinking Korean beer (䞲ῃGⰻ㭒⯒GⰞ㔲┺) Have (you) been to Sweden? (㓺㤾◊㠦GṖ┺) Have (you) tried playing a guitar? (₆䌖⯒G䂮┺) Try to memorize (her) home phone number (㰧G 㩚䢪G ⻞䢎⯒G 㣎㤆 ┺)

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7 8 9 10

4 Auxiliary verbs I

Try (using) the massage machine (Ⱎ㌂㰖G₆Ἒ⯒G㌂㣿䞮┺) Try making Korean friends (䞲ῃG㌂⧢䞮ἶG㌂‖┺) (Let us) try to learn cooking (㣪Ⰲ⯒G⺆㤆┺) (Let us) try to repair the computer (䅊䜾䎆⯒Gἶ䂮┺)

Exercise 4.6 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G Ṗ┺ (or ~㠊/㞚G 㡺┺) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Ice is melting” (㠒㦢㧊G⏏┺) = 㠒㦢㧊G⏏㞚GṖ㣪. 1 2 3 4

(My) older brother brought good news (䡫㧊G㫡㦖G㏢㔳㦚G㩚䞮┺) The dog has run toward this way (ṲṖG㧊㴓㦒⪲G╂Ⰲ┺) William has suffered from a cold (㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊GṦ₆⪲Gἶ㌳䞮┺) (They) have been receiving help from Robert (⪲⻚䔎⪲⿖䎆G ☚㤖㦚G ⹱┺) 5 Water is getting frozen (ⶒ㧊G㠒┺)

Exercise 4.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚GṖ┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㡗䢪ṖG⊳⋮┺ (declarative) = 㡗䢪ṖG⊳⋮Gṧ┞┺. “The movie is going to end.” 1 2 3 4 5

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㤆ⰂG䞶Ⲏ┞⓪G䟊Ⱎ┺G⓯┺ (declarative) 㧊㩲⿖䎆G䢒㧦G㌊┺ (interrogative) 䟟⽋䞲GṖ㩫㦚GⰢ✺┺ (imperative) ⶒ㦚G㩞㟓䞮┺ (propositive) 㫆⁞㝿G㓺䅖㭚㦚G⹪∎┺ (propositive)


UNIT 5 Auxiliary verbs II

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G ⌊┺G ⌊┺ The verb ⌊┺ means “produce/put forth” as in 㣿₆⯒G⌊㎎㣪 “Put forth courage” or ㏣⩻㦚G ⌊㎎㣪 “Speed up” (lit. “Produce speed”). However, as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ means “do all the way (to the very end).” It is used to express that although a certain task/action is troublesome or difficult, he/she completes the action to the very end (or does all the way). Compare the following two examples: 䞮⬾Ⱒ㠦G㺛㦚G㧓㠞㠊㣪. “(I) read the book within a day.” 䞮⬾Ⱒ㠦G㺛㦚G㧓㠊G⌞㠊㣪. “(I) read the book (to the very end) within a day.” Notice that the first sentence simply indicates that the speaker finished reading the book in one day. On the other hand, the second sentence with ~㠊/㞚G ⌊┺ implies that although reading the book within a day was a difficult task, the speaker did it anyway. Here are more examples: 䢒㧦G ἶ㌳㦚G ἂ◢G ⌞㔋┞┺. “(He) endured hardship alone (all the way).” ἆῃG㰖ṧ㦚G㺔㞚G⌞㠊㣪. “Finally, (I) found the wallet.” Z ⎚㞞㠦G䞯㥚⯒G➆G⌞㠊㣪. “(He) got the degree within three years.” ἆῃG 㩚ῂ⯒G Ⱒ✺㠊G ⌞㔋┞┺. “Eventually, (he) made an electric bulb.”

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G ⻚Ⰲ┺G ⻚Ⰲ┺ The verb ⻚Ⰲ┺ means “throw (it) away/dismiss/abandon,” as shown in the following examples: 㠊㩲G㡱G㌂㰚✺㦚G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “Yesterday, (I) discarded old pictures.” ⁎⎖ṖG⋾䘎㦚G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “She abandoned (her) husband.”

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⌊㧒₢㰖G㝆⩞₆⯒G⻚Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Throw the garbage away by tomorrow.” 䂲ῂ⯒G 㥚䟊㍲G ⳿㑾㦚G ⻚ⰊG Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will lay down (my) life for (my) friend.”

5 Auxiliary verbs II

However, as an auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G ⻚Ⰲ┺ means “do completely/ end up doing/get (it) done.” Compare the following sentences: ⌊㧒G䘎㰖⯒G⿖䂮㎎㣪. “Send the letter tomorrow.” ⌊㧒G䘎㰖⯒G⿖㼦G⻚Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Send the letter tomorrow.” The basic meanings of both sentences are the same. However, the message of the second sentence is stronger than the first sentence, since ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ adds the meaning of “completeness of the action.” ~㠊/㞚G ⻚Ⰲ┺ is similar to ~㠊/㞚G ⌊┺ in a sense that both are used to indicate the completeness of an action. However, unlike ~㠊/㞚G ⌊┺, ~㠊/㞚G ⻚Ⰲ┺ does not imply that the completed action was a difficult task. Instead, depending on the context, ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ is used to express a sense of regret or relief. Consider the following examples: 㰖ṧ㦚G㧙㠞㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) wallet.” 㰖ṧ㦚G㧙㠊G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) wallet.” Losing a wallet is undesirable. Consequently, ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ in the second sentence adds the sense of regret, while the first sentence simply states the past action. It indicates that losing a wallet is not what the speaker had expected or wished for. Here are more examples that may denote a sense of regret: ἆῃG㤎㠊G⻚⪎㠊㣪U “(She) finally cried.” ☞㦚G┺G㖾G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) used up all of (my) money.” ⋮㡺⹎ṖGἆῃG⹎ῃ㠦GṖG⻚⪎㠊㣪. “Naomi finally went to America.” 㩲G⋾☯㌳㧊G⻢㖾G┺Gⲏ㠊G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “My younger brother already ate (them) all.” ⁞⿫㠊ṖG㭓㠊G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “The gold fish died.” ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ can also signify a sense of relief. Consider the following two sentences: 㑯㩲⯒G⊳⌞㠊㣪. “(I) finished (my) homework.” 㑯㩲⯒G⊳⌊G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) finished (my) homework.”

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Notice that the referential messages of both sentences are the same. However, ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ in the second sentence adds a sense of relief since the task (e.g., doing homework) has come to an end. Here are more examples that indicate a sense of relief:


㞚䝞G ₆㠋㦚G 㰖㤢G ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) erased the painful memory (completely).” 㔶㣿G 䃊✲G グ㦚G ┺G Ṱ㞚G ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) paid all of (my) credit card debt.”

~ἶGⰦ┺

~ἶG ἶG Ⱖ┺ The verb Ⱖ┺ means “stop,” as in ⑞㧊G㡺┺ṖGⰦ㞮㠊㣪 “(It) snowed but then (it) stopped.” However, as an auxiliary verb, ~ἶG Ⱖ┺ means “end up (doing),” and it implies that the completed action is against the subject’s intention or wish. It is used when the action is carried out despite the subject’s previous effort or wishes against the completed action. Compare the following two sentences: 㹾G㌂ἶ⪲G㭓㠞㠊㣪. “(He) died because of the car accident.” 㹾G ㌂ἶ⪲G 㭓ἶG Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(He) ended up dying because of the car accident.” Notice that the completed action (dying) is against the subject’s will. Here are more examples: ⑚⋮⓪G䞲ῃ㠦G☢㞚ṖἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “As for (my) older sister, (she) ended up returning to Korea.” 㑶㠦G䀾䞮ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “(We) ended up drunk.” ㏢䕢㠦G 䄺䞒⯒G 㘵ἶG Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up spilling coffee on the sofa.” ☢⿖Ⰲ㠦GỎ⩺G⍮㠊㰖ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up tripping on the jagged edge of a stone.” 㹾G㞞㠦㍲G㧶㧊G✺ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up falling asleep in the car.” 㩚㨗㧊GἆῃG䎆㰖ἶGⰦ㞮㔋┞┺. “The war finally broke out.” ⓼ỢG㧦ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up going to bed late.”

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G 㭒┺ The verb 㭒┺ means “give,” as shown in the following examples: 㫆㰖䞲䎢G㺛㦚G㮂㠊㣪. “(I) gave the book to George.” ⰺ╂G㡂☯㌳䞲䎢G㣿☞㦚G㭮㣪. “(I) give pocket money to (my) younger sister every month.” 㓺䕆て㧊GⰂ㌂䞲䎢G↙㦚G㭚GỆ㡞㣪. “Steven will give flowers to Lisa.” However, as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚G 㭒┺ means “do something as a favor (for someone).”

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5

䕪┺ “sell” Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” ⹕┺ “believe”

Auxiliary verbs II

䕪㞚G㭒┺ “sell (something for someone)” Ṗ⯊㼦G㭒┺ “teach (something for someone)” ⹕㠊G㭒┺ “believe (something for someone)”

Compare the following two sentences: ◆㧊キ㧊G䕢䕆㠦G㢪㠊㣪. “David came to the party.” ◆㧊キ㧊G䕢䕆㠦G㢖G㮂㠊㣪. “David came to the party” (lit. “David did a favor for somebody by coming to the party”). Notice that the first sentence simply expresses that David came to the party. On the other hand, the second sentence signifies that David came to the party for the benefit of the speaker or somebody. Here are more examples: 䂲ῂ✺㧊G㦢㔳㦚Gⰱ㧞ỢGⲏ㠊G㮂㠊㣪. “(My) friends ate the food with gusto (for me).” 㞺㍲┞ṖG ㍶ⶒ㦚G ⽊⌊G 㮂㠊㣪. “Anthony sent (her) the present (for me).” 㩲ṖGⶎ㦚G㡊㠊G㭚Ợ㣪. “I will open the door (for you).” ⪲⧒ṖG㔲Ἒ⯒G㌂G㭚GỆ㡞㣪. “Laura will buy (me) a bag (for me).” However, one can optionally use 㥚䟊㍲ “on the behalf of” when wishing to explicitly state who the beneficiary was. ⋾㧦G䂲ῂ⯒G㥚䟊㍲Gⰱ㧞⓪G㩦㕂㦚GⰢ✺㠊G㮂㠊㣪. “(She) made delicious lunch for (her) boyfriend.” 㤆Ⰲ⯒G 㥚䟊㍲G ⼧㤦㠦G 㢖G 㭒㎾㠊㣪. “(He) came to the hospital for us.”

~㠊V㞚G✲Ⰲ┺G vs. ~㠊V㞚G㭒┺ Meanwhile, if the beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e.g., a higher person in age or social status), ~㠊/㞚G ✲Ⰲ┺ is used instead of ~㠊/㞚G㭒┺. Compare the following two sentences: (O) 䞶Ⲏ┞℮G㔲Ἒ⯒G㌂G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) bought a watch for (my) grandmother.” (X) 䞶Ⲏ┞℮G 㔲Ἒ⯒G ㌂G 㮂㠊㣪. “(I) bought a watch for (my) grandmother.”

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The second sentence with ~㠊/㞚G 㭒┺ is inappropriate since the beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e.g., grandmother). Here are more examples:


㞚⻚㰖℮G 㞚䂾㦚G Ⱒ✺㠊G ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) made breakfast for (my) father.” 㞞ⰞG䟊G✲ⰊỢ㣪. “(I) will massage (your back).” 㢖㧎㦚G㌂G✲ⰂἶG㕌㠊㣪. “(I) want to buy wine (for him).”

Key vocabulary for Unit 5 exercises

Requesting ~㠊V㞚G㭒㎎㣪 The verb 㭒㔲┺ is the honorific form of 㭒┺. ~㠊/㞚G㭒㎎㣪 is used when requesting something politely. It is equivalent to “please do (something for me/someone).” Compare the following two sentences: 㧶₦G₆┺Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Please wait a moment.” 㧶₦G₆┺⩺G㭒㎎㣪. “Please wait a moment (for me).” Both sentences can be used for requesting. However, the second sentence with ~㠊/㞚G㭒㎎㣪 is more polite than the first sentence. Here are more examples: ┺⯎G ㌂㧊㯞⪲G ⹪∪G 㭒㎎㣪. “Please exchange (this) with a different size (for me).” 㹾⯒G 㞴㦒⪲G 㤖㰗㡂G 㭒㎎㣪. “Please move (your) car forward (for me).” ἽG㧒㦚G⊳⌊G㭒㎎㣪. “Please finish (your) work soon (for me).” 㺛㦚G䋂ỢG㧓㠊G㭒㎎㣪. “Please read the book aloud (for me).”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 5 exercises ṖỢ store Ṗ┺ to go ἶ₆ meat ἶ㧻㧊G⋮┺ to get out of order ῂ⼚䞮┺ to distinguish ΐ┺ to roast ⁎Ⰲ┺ to paint/to draw ⁎Ⱂ painting/picture ⁞ gold ₎ road/street ⋮㡺┺ to come out ⋾㧦 man ⏎⧮ song ╁┺ to close

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⡦ again Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⶎ door ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ to slide/to glide ⹪∎┺ to change ⹱┺ to receive ⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out ゚⹖ secret 㔲䋺┺ to order/to force (a person to do) 㕎㤆┺ to fight/to dispute (with) 㝆┺ to write/to use 㠎┞ older sister 㡊┺ to open 㢍 clothes 㦖 silver 㧓┺ to read

5 Auxiliary verbs II

㩚❇ electric lamp 㩚䢪₆ telephone 㩦㕂 lunch 㰖㤆┺ to erase 㹾 car 㺓ⶎ window 㺛 book 䂲ῂ friend 䃦┺ to dig into/to unearth 䅲┺ to light/to switch on 䕢㧒 file 䕪┺ to sell 䘎㰖Gletter 䞯ᾦ school 䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up 䡫 older brother 䢪⌊┺ to get angry

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Exercise 5.1

Exercise 5.1

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G ⌊┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(He) extracted the tooth.” (㧊⯒Gㆧ┺) = 㧊⯒Gㆧ㞚G⌞㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(She) caught a big fish (䋆Gⶒἶ₆⯒G⋰┺) (They) dammed up the river (ṫⶒ㦚GⰟ┺) (We) got the project (䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒G➆┺) (He) received the money (☞㦚G⹱┺) (I) wrote the thesis (⏒ⶎ㦚G㝆┺)

Exercise 5.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G⌊┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㧒㦚G䞮┺ = 㧒㦚G䟊G⌞㠊㣪. “(He) did the work.” 1 2 3 4 5

゚⹖㦚G䃦┺ 㩚䢪₆⯒GⰢ✺┺ ἶ₆⯒Gΐ┺ ⁞䞮ἶG㦖㦚Gῂ⼚䞮┺ ⁎Ⱂ㦚G⁎Ⰲ┺

Exercise 5.3 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) sold the house yesterday.” (㠊㩲G㰧㦚G䕪┺) = 㠊㩲G㰧㦚G䕪㞚G⻚⪎㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4

Andrew took pictures (㞺✲⮮ṖG㌂㰚㦚G㹣┺) Sara borrowed the notebook (㌂⧒ṖG⏎䔎⿗㦚GアⰂ┺) (We) used all the money (☞㦚G┺G㝆┺) Kevin watched the drama till the end (䅖ゞ㧊G ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒G ⊳₢㰖G ⽊┺) 5 Angie moved (her) job (㞺㰖ṖG㰗㧻㦚G㢄₆┺)

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5

Exercise 5.4

Auxiliary verbs II

Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G ⻚Ⰲ┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㟓㏣㦚G㧠┺ = 㟓㏣㦚G㧠㠊G⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) forgot about the appointment.” 1 2 3 4 5

㹾ṖG⡦Gἶ㧻㧊G⋮┺ ṖỢGⶎ㦚G╁┺ 䕢㧒㦚G㰖㤆┺ 䂲ῂṖGⓊ㣫㦒⪲G⟶⋮┺ 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲G⋮㡺┺

Exercise 5.5 Finish the following translation using ~ἶGⰦ┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) ended up being late for school.” (䞯ᾦ㠦G㰖ṗ䞮┺) = 䞯ᾦ㠦G㰖ṗ䞮ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. 1 (He) ended up getting up late (⓼ỢG㧒㠊⋮┺) 2 (They) ended up drinking whisky (㥚㓺䋺⯒GⰞ㔲┺) 3 (He) ended up confessing (his) love to (his) girlfriend (㡂㧦G䂲ῂ䞲䎢G ㌂⧧㦚Gἶ⺇䞮┺) 4 (He) finally ended up quitting (his) job (ἆῃG㧒㦚G⁎Ⱒ⚦┺) 5 (My) car ended up being broken down (㹾ṖGἶ㧻㧊G⋮┺)

Exercise 5.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~ἶG Ⱖ┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㫆㰖ṖG㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㰖┺ = 㫆㰖ṖG㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㰖ἶGⰦ㞮㠊㣪. “George ended up failing the test.”

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1 2 3 4 5

⪲⋶✲ṖG䡫䞮ἶG㕎㤆┺ ㌦ⰂṖG⋾㧦G䂲ῂ䞮ἶG䠺㠊㰖┺ 䎢⩢㓺ṖG⏎䔎⿗㦚G䕪┺ 㞂❪ṖG₎㠦㍲G⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ 㫆㞺㧊G㠎┞䞲䎢G䢪⌊┺


Exercise 5.7

Exercise 5.7

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G 㭒┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Thomas bought an umbrella (for me).” (䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㤆㌆㦚G㌂┺) = 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖG㤆㌆㦚G㌂G㮂㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tina helped (my) project (for me) (䕆⋮ṖG䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒G☫┺) (My) older brother bought (me) a bag (㡺ザṖGṖ⹿㦚G㌂┺) John sold the car (for me) (㫊㧊G㹾⯒G䕪┺) Megan will take pictures (for us) (ⲪỊ㧊G㌂㰚㦚G㹣┺) (My) older sister will wash dishes (for me) (㠎┞ṖG㍺Ệ㰖⯒G䞮┺) Please lend (me) the book (㺛㦚GアⰂ┺) Please repair the computer (for me) (䅊䜾䎆⯒Gἶ䂮┺) Please refund the dress (for me) (㢍㦚G䢮⿞䞮┺) Please play the piano (for me) (䞒㞚⏎⯒G䂮┺) Please turn on the radio (for me) (⧒❪㡺⯒G䔖┺)

Exercise 5.8 Conjugate the predicates using ~㠊/㞚G✲⪎㠊㣪, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒G☫┺ = 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒G☚㢖G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) helped (my) mother.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㺛㦚G㧓┺ 䘎㰖⯒G㝆┺ 㩚䢪⯒G⹱┺ 㺓ⶎ㦚G╁┺ 㩚❇㦚G䅲┺ ⶎ㦚G㡊┺ 㢍㦚G⹪∎┺ ⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯊┺ 㩦㕂㦚GⰢ✺┺ 䄺䞒⯒G㔲䋺┺

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UNIT 6 Auxiliary verbs III

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G ⏩┺ (or ~㠊V㞚G⚦┺ 㠊V㞚G⚦┺) The verb ⏩┺ means “release/place/put down,” as in: ἶ㟧㧊⯒G⏩㞚G㭒㎎㣪. “Let the cat go/loose.” 㩧㔲⯒G 㔳䌗G 㥚㠦G ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) placed the plate on the dining table.” 㰖ṧ㦚G㠊❪㠦G⏩㦒㎾㠊㣪? “Where have (you) left the wallet?” However, as an auxiliary verb, what ~㠊/㞚G ⏩┺ can express is twofold. First, ~㠊/㞚G ⏩┺ is used to indicate the continuation of a certain action or state after the completion of the action or state. For instance, compare the following sentences: Ệ㔺㠦G 㩚❇㦚G 䆆㠊㣪. “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the living room.” Ệ㔺㠦G 㩚❇㦚G 䅲G ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the living room (and it is still on).” The verb 䅲┺ means “turns on (an electric lamp).” Notice that the action of the main verb 䅲┺ is completed for both sentences, since they are marked by the past tense. However, while the first sentence simply indicates the past action (e.g., turned on the electric lamp), the second sentence with the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺ indicates the continuation of the completed action (e.g., the electric lamp continues to be on). Here are more examples: 䞒䎆ṖG ⶎ㦚G 㡊㠊G ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “Peter opened the door (and it is still open).” 㹾㠦G㔲☯㦚GỎ㠊G⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) started the car (and it is on).” ㍲⧣㦚G㧶ṖG⏩㞮㞚㣪. “(I) locked the drawer (and it is still locked).”

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Second, ~㠊/㞚G ⏩┺ means “doing something for later (future use).” Compare the following two sentences:


㫆ₛ㦚G 䞮₆G 㩚㠦G ⶒ㦚G Ⱔ㧊G Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “(I) drank water a lot, before jogging.” 㫆ₛ㦚G䞮₆G㩚㠦Gⶒ㦚GⰤ㧊GⰞ㎪G⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) drank water a lot for later, before jogging.”

~㠊V㞚G㧞┺

Notice that the first sentence simply indicates the past action, Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪 “drank.” However, the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺ in the second sentence indicates that the past action (e.g., drinking) was done for later. Here are more examples: 㡆㔋㦚GⰤ㧊G䟊G⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(We) practiced a lot for later.” ⹎ⰂG㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䟊G⏩㦒㎎㣪. “Study hard beforehand for later.” 㡂䟟GἚ䣣㦚G㎎㤢G⏩㦚GỆ㡞㣪. “(We) will make travel plans for later.” ⹿㦚G㼃㏢䟊G⏩㦚GỆ㡞㣪. “(They) will clean the room for later.” Alternatively, the verb ⚦┺ can be used instead of ⏩┺. The verb ⚦┺ means “place/keep,” as shown in the following examples: 㡊㐶⯒G㔳䌗G㥚㠦G⚦㕃㔲㡺. “Place the key on the dining table.” ☞㦚G⁞ἶ㠦G⚦㠞㠊㣪. “(I) kept the money in the safe.” ㌳㍶㦖G ⌟㧻ἶ㠦G ⚮G Ệ㡞㣪. “As for the fish, (I) will keep (it) in the refrigerator.” As an auxiliary verb, the meaning of ~㠊/㞚G ⚦┺ is similar to that of ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺. In fact ~㠊/㞚G⚦┺ and ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺ can be used interchangeably, as shown below: ⑚⋮ṖG 㞚䂾㦚G 㹾⩺G ⚦㠞㠊㣪V⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(My) older sister prepared breakfast (and it is still there/for later).” ⁎G㧒㦖G䙊䞲䎢GⰷỾG⚦㎎㣪V⏩㦒㎎㣪. “As for that task, entrust (it) to Paul (for later).” 㹾⯒G ㍲㩦G 㞴㠦G 㭒㹾䟊G ⛖㠊㣪V⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) parked the car in front of the bookstore (and it is still there/for later use). 㫢㍳㦚G 㡞㟓䟊G ⚮G Ệ㡞㣪V⏩㦚G Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will reserve seats (for later).”

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G 㧞┺G 㧞┺ The verb 㧞┺ means “exist/stay/have,” as shown in the following examples: ⪲⧒ṖG㍲㤎㠦G㧞㠊㣪. “Laura is in Seoul.” 䘟㟧㧊G⿗䞲㠦G㧞㠊㣪. “Pyongyang is in North Korea.”

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6

㞚㧊㌟㦖G 㞶䝢G 䅊䜾䎆(Ṗ)G 㧞㠊㣪. “As for Isaac, (he) has an Apple Computer.”

Auxiliary verbs III

As an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚G㧞┺ is mainly used with intransitive verbs and is used to indicate that the state brought about by the action of the main verb persists. Compare the following three sentences: 䏶⹎ṖG㦮㧦㠦G㞟㞚㣪. “Tommy sits on the chair.” 䏶⹎ṖG㦮㧦㠦G㞟ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “Tommy is sitting on the chair.” 䏶⹎ṖG㦮㧦㠦G㞟㞚G㧞㠊㣪. “Tommy is seated on the chair.” The first sentence simply states what Tommy does. The second sentence indicates the progressive action of the main verb. On the other hand, ~㠊/㞚G 㧞┺ in the third sentence indicates that the state resulting from the main verb continues to exist. Consider another three sentences: ⶎ㧊G㡊⩺㣪. “The door opens.” ⶎ㧊G㡊ⰂἶG㧞㠊㣪. “The door is being opened.” ⶎ㧊G㡊⩺G㧞㠊㣪. “The door is open.” The first sentence simply indicates that the door opens. The second sentence indicates the progressive action. The third sentence, however, indicates the continuous state, brought about by the main verb 㡊Ⰲ┺ “to be opened.” Here are more examples of ~㠊/㞚G㧞┺: 㞚㰗G䂾╖㠦G⑚㤢G㧞㠊㣪. “(He) is still lying down on the bed.” ᾦ㔺G㞴㠦G㍲G㧞㠊㣪. “(They) are standing in front of the classroom.” ⶎ㧊GΈỢG╁䡖G㧞㠊㣪. “The door is closed firmly.” ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊G☚㍲ὖ㠦G㢖G㧞㠊㣪. “Brian is at the library (as a result of coming here).” 㰖⁞G⪲Ⱎ㠦GṖG㧞㠊㣪. “(They) are in Rome now (as a result of going there).” Ṗ⹿G 㞞㠦G 㺛䞮ἶG 㰖ṧ㧊G ✺㠊G 㧞㔋┞┺. “(My) book and wallet are inside of the bag.” Meanwhile, a limited number of verbs of “wearing” (e.g., 㧛┺, 㝆┺, ⋒┺, and ⰺ┺) do not take the ~㠊/㞚G 㧞┺ pattern but the ~ἶG 㧞┺ pattern to indicate the resultant state. For instance, to say “(I) am wearing socks” is 㟧Ⱖ㦚G㔶ἶG㧞㠊㣪 not 㟧Ⱖ㦚G㔶㠊G㧞㠊㣪.

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⹪㰖⯒G㧛ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing pants.” 㞞ἓ㦚G㝆ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing glasses.” ⹮㰖⯒G⋒ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing a ring.” ⍻䌖㧊⯒GⰺἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing a necktie.”


~㠊V㞚䞮┺ 㠊V㞚䞮┺

~㠊V㞚䞮┺

The aforementioned auxiliary verbs are all mainly used with verbs. However, Korean has a limited number of auxiliary verbs that are used primarily with adjectives, such as ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ and ~㠊/㞚㰖┺. In English, one can state how another person feels, using emotion- or sense-related adjectives, such as “sad,” “happy,” and “cold.” For instance, it is grammatically correct to say a sentence like “Lisa is sad” or “Peter is cold.” However, in Korean, one cannot use adjectives to express how a third person or people feel or think. Since Korean emotive and/or sensory adjectives denote unobservable internal feelings, a speaker cannot speak for how other people feel or think. Consequently, a sentence like Ⰲ㌂ṖG 㔂䗒㣪 “Lisa is sad” is grammatically incorrect. In order to speak for a third person’s or people’s feelings or emotions, one has to change an emotive or sensory adjective into a verb form, using the auxiliary verb construction ~㠊/㞚䞮┺, as shown below: Adjective 㕁┺ “unpleasant” 㫡┺ “good” ⹟┺ “detestable” ⶊ㎃┺ “scary” ᾊ⫃┺ “painful” ₆㊮┺ “glad” 㔂䝚┺ “sad” ⿖⩓┺ “enviable” 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ “tired” ‖㡓┺ “cute” Ṗ㡓┺ “pitiful” 㕌┺ “desirous” 㿻┺ “cold” ▻┺ “hot”

Adjective stem +G 㠊V㞚䞮┺ 㕁㠊䞮┺ “dislike” 㫡㞚䞮┺ “like” ⹎㤢䞮┺ “hate” ⶊ㍲㤢䞮┺ “fear” ᾊ⪲㤢䞮┺ “suffer (from)” ₆ㄦ䞮┺ “rejoice” 㔂䗒䞮┺ “grieve” ⿖⩂㤢䞮┺ “envy” 䞒Ἲ䟊䞮┺ “feel tired” ‖㡂㤢䞮┺ “hold (a person) dear” Ṗ㡂㤢䞮┺ “pity” 㕌㠊䞮┺ “want” 㿪㤢䞮┺ “feel cold” ▪㤢䞮┺ “feel hot”

For instance, compare the following three sentences: 㩲ṖG䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “I am tired.” 㑮㧪, 䞒Ἲ䞮㎎㣪? “Susan, are (you) tired?” 䕆⳾䕆ṖG䞒Ἲ䟊䟊㣪. “Timothy feels tired.” Notice that when the subject of the sentence is the third person, a verb 䞒Ἲ䟊䞮┺ “feel tired” is used instead of the adjective 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ “be tired.” In addition, note that unlike other auxiliary verb compounding structures that normally require a space between the main verb and the auxiliary verb, as in 㡊㠊G⏩┺ “open (for later),” ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ does not leave a space

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between the main adjective and 䞮┺ (e.g., 㔂䗒䞮┺ not 㔂䗒G䞮┺). This is due to the Korean spelling convention. Meanwhile, when speaking of another person’s emotion or feeling in the past tense, one can use an adjective (without using ~㠊/㞚䞮┺). This is because the speaker could have information about the third person’s internal feeling. Consider the following examples:

6 Auxiliary verbs III

(X) (O) (O) (O)

Ⰲ㌂ṖG㔂䗒㣪. “Lisa is sad.” Ⰲ㌂ṖG㔂䗒䟊㣪. “Lisa grieves.” Ⰲ㌂ṖG㔂䗦㠊㣪. “Lisa was sad.” Ⰲ㌂ṖG㔂䗒䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa grieved.”

Notice that 㔂䗦㠊㣪 as well as 㔂䗒䟞㠊㣪 are both acceptable, since both refer to the third person’s feeling in the past tense.

~㠊V㞚㰖┺ 㠊V㞚㰖┺G The verb 㰖┺ means “bear/owe,” as shown in the following examples: 㩲Ṗ 㺛㧚㦚 㰖Ỷ㔋┞┺. “I will take the responsibility.” ⁎G䂲ῂ䞲䎢Gグ㦚G㪢㠞㠊㣪. “(I) owed (money) to that friend.” However, as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ is typically used with an adjective, and it is used to express a gradually intensified change that occurs in the meaning of the adjective. It can be translated as “become/begin to be/get to be” in English. For instance, compare the following two sentences: ⋶㝾ṖG㿪㤢㣪. “The weather is cold.” ⋶㝾ṖG㿪㤢㪎㣪. “The weather becomes cold.” Notice in the second sentence that ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ changes the adjective 㿻┺ “cold” into an intransitive verb, 㿪㤢㰖┺ “becomes cold.” In addition, the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ adds the meaning of progressive change in the meaning of the adjective (e.g., “is cold” => “becomes cold”). Moreover, just like ~㠊/㞚䞮┺, ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ does not leave a space between the main adjective and 㰖┺. Here are more examples:

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Ṗ㦚㠦G⋶㝾ṖG㍲⓮䟊㪎㣪. “In autumn, the weather becomes cool.” 㡂⯚㠦G⌄㧊G₎㠊㪎㣪. “In summer, the daytime becomes long.” ⹎㎖㧊G㡞ㄦ㪢㠊㣪. “Michelle became pretty.” ⹿㧊G₾⊭䟊㰞GỆ㡞㣪. “The room will become clean.”


Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 6 exercises

Key vocabulary for Unit 6 exercises

Ṩ price/value ἶⰯ┺ to be thankful ῗ⁞䞮┺ to be curious ₆㠋䞮┺ to remember/to memorize ₢ⰹ┺ to be black ℒ㰖┺ to be extinguished/to die out ↙ flowers ⋶㝾 weather ⑫┺ to lie down ▻┺ to be hot (the weather) Ⱗ┺ to be clear ⻞䢎 number ⿖⩓┺ to be envious ゚㕎┺ to be expensive 㔶ⶎ newspapers 㞑┺ to wash 㞚䝚┺ to be sick 㟒㺚 vegetables 㠒Ὴ face 㡞㊮┺ to be pretty 㡞㟓䞮┺ to reserve 㡺┺ to come 㦢㔳 food 㧋䧞┺ to make oneself familiar with 㧓┺ to read 㫢㍳ seat 㩚❇ electric lamp 㩚䢪 telephone 㩫㤦 garden 㰖Ⰲ geographical features 㰧 house 䂲ῂ friend 䂾╖ bed 䋂┺ to be big 䋺 height 䞒┺ to bloom 䢮㧦 patient 47


6

Exercise 6.1

Auxiliary verbs III

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G ⏩㦒㎎㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Open the window for later.” (㺓ⶎ㦚G㡊┺) = 㺓ⶎ㦚G㡊㠊G⏩㦒㎎㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

Finish (your) homework for later (㑯㩲⯒G⊳⌊┺) Draw a map for later (㰖☚⯒G⁎Ⰲ┺) Make a sauce for later (㏢㓺⯒GⰢ✺┺) Boil water for later (ⶒ㦚G⊩㧊┺) Receive money for later (☞㦚G⹱┺)

Exercise 6.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚G ⚦㎎㣪, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩖⁞䞮┺ = 㩖⁞䟊G⚦㎎㣪. “Save money for later.” 1 2 3 4 5

㩚䢪G⻞䢎⯒G₆㠋䞮┺ 㔶ⶎ㦚G㧓┺ 㫢㍳㦚G㡞㟓䞮┺ 㰖Ⰲ⯒G㧋䧞┺ 㟒㺚⯒G㞑┺

Exercise 6.3 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚G 㧞┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The dress is wet.” (㢍㧊G㩬┺) = 㢍㧊G㩬㠊G㧞㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 48

The gate is close (ⶎ㧊G╁䧞┺) The picture is hung on the wall (㌂㰚㧊G⼓㠦GỎⰂ┺) The store is open (ṖỢṖG㡊Ⰲ┺) The customer is seated on the sofa (㏦┮㧊G㏢䕢㠦G㞟┺) James is standing in front of the door (㩲㧚㓺ṖGⶎG㞴㠦G㍲┺)


Exercise 6.4

Exercise 6.4

Conjugate the predicate with ~㠊/㞚G㧞┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⳿㧊G⿩┺ = ⳿㧊G⿖㠊G㧞㠊㣪. “(My) throat is swollen.” 1 2 3 4 5

⻚㓺ṖG㡺┺ 㩫㤦㠦G↙㧊G䞒┺ 䂲ῂṖG㰧㠦G㡺┺ 䢮㧦ṖG䂾╖㠦G⑫┺ 㩚❇㧊Gℒ㰖┺

Exercise 6.5 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(He) grieves.” (㔂䝚┺) = 㔂䗒䟊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(She) feels happy (䟟⽋䞮┺) (He) rejoices (₆㊮┺) (They) will feel bored (㰖⬾䞮┺) (She) felt depressed (㤆㤎䞮┺) (He) felt painful (ᾊ⫃┺)

Exercise 6.6 Change the following adjective into a verb form, using ~㠊/㞚䟊㣪. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㣎⫃┺ = 㣎⪲㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels lonely.” 1 2 3 4 5

▻┺ 㞚䝚┺ ἶⰯ┺ ῗ⁞䞮┺ ⿖⩓┺ 49


6

Exercise 6.7

Auxiliary verbs III

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The house has become quiet.” (㰧㧊G㫆㣿䞮┺) = 㰧㧊G㫆㣿䟊㪢㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(My) head has become dizzy (ⲎⰂṖG㠊㰖⩓┺) (Her) personality has become calm (㎇ỿ㧊G㹾⿚䞮┺) (Your) voice has become soft (⳿㏢ⰂṖG⿖✲⩓┺) (His) body has become strong (ⴎ㧊G 䔒䔒䞮┺) (Your) car will become dirty (㹾ṖG▪⩓┺)

Exercise 6.8 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚㰖┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⹿㧊G₾⊭䞮┺ = ⹿㧊G₾⊭䟊㪢㠊㣪. “The room has become clean.” 1 2 3 4 5

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㞚㧊㦮G䋺ṖG䋂┺ 㩲㔲䃊ṖG㡞㊮┺ 㦢㔳GṨ㧊G゚㕎┺ ⋶㝾ṖGⰧ┺ 㠒Ὴ㧊G₢ⰹ┺


UNIT 7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

This unit discusses some major characteristics of Korean clausal conjunctives, and then introduces three clausal conjunctives, ~(㦒)⩂, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ, and ~☚⪳, that indicate the purpose or intention of the speaker.

Clausal conjunctives Clausal conjunctives are used to link two or more clauses and to add special meanings, such as simultaneous actions, contrastive actions or states, paralleling actions, and so on. Examples of English clausal conjunctives include “and,” “whereas,” “while,” and “though.” Korean has an extensive list of clausal conjunctives that indicate various meanings, such as “and (e.g., ~ἶ),” “because/and then (e.g., ~㠊/㞚㍲),” “while (e.g., ~㦒Ⳋ㍲),” “although (e.g., ~㰖Ⱒ),” “in order to (e.g., ~☚⪳),” and so forth. Korean clausal conjunctives are non-sentence-final endings, since they attach to the predicate stem of the preceding clause. Consider how the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ “while” serves to connect two different clauses: [䕳䆮㦚Gⲏ㠊㣪 “(I) eat popcorn”] + [㡗䢪⯒G⽦㣪 “(I) see a movie”] =G 䕳䆮㦚Gⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲G㡗䢪⯒G⽦㣪 “(I) see a movie, while eating popcorn.” In the example above, the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ attaches to the verb stem of the first clause ⲏ “eat” and indicates the new meaning “while” to the first clause: 䕳䆮㦚G ⲏ㠊㣪 “(I) eat popcorn” changes to 䕳䆮㦚G ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ “while eating popcorn.” Notice that the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is not a sentence-final ending, since it does not end the sentence. Instead, ~㠊/㞚㣪 in the main clause (or the second clause) is the sentence-final ending since it attaches to the verb stem of the main clause ⽊ “see” and ends the whole sentence. Consider another example: ⑞㧊G⌊ⰂἶG⹪⧢㧊G⿧┞┺. “The snow falls and the wind blows.”

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7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

The clausal conjunctive ~ἶ “and” links two clauses: ⑞㧊G⌊Ⰲ┺ “Snow falls” and ⹪⧢㧊G⿞┺ “Wind blows.” Again, the conjunctive ~ἶ ends the verb stem of the first clause ⌊Ⰲ┺ “fall,” while the deferential speech level ending ~㔋┞┺/ථ┞┺Gends both the verb stem of the main clause ⿞┺ “blow” as well as the whole sentence.

Restrictions Some Korean clausal conjunctives may be subject to various restrictions regarding how they are used in sentences.

Tense agreement The first restriction concerns the tense agreement. Since a clausal conjunctive connects two different clauses, there are at least two predicates within a clausal-conjunctive sentence. In English, the tense of each clause embedded within the sentence must be the same. Consider the following example: “I eat a pizza and watched TV.” The above sentence is grammatically incorrect because the tense of the two predicates is not the same. In contrast to English, the tense of each clause can be different in Korean. This is possible because some Korean conjunctives are not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following examples: 㡊㕂䧞G Ὃ⿖䟞㰖ⰢG jG ⯒G ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Although (I) studied hard, (I) received a C.” 㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䟊㍲GhG⯒G⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Because (I) studied hard, (I) received an A.” Notice that both sentences are about past actions. In the first example, both the conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ “although” in the first clause as well as the predicate of the main clause ⹱┺ take the past tense marker. However, in the second example, the conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because” of the first clause does not take the past tense marker but only the predicate of the main clause ⹱┺.

Subject agreement

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The second restriction concerns the subject agreement. Some conjunctives can have different subjects, while some cannot. In other words, for some conjunctives, the subject of the clauses within a sentence must be the same. Consider the following examples:


䂲ῂṖG䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㎾㰖ⰢG⋮⓪G㤆㥶⯒GⰞ㎾㠊㣪. “Although (my) friend drank coffee, as for me (I) drank milk.” 㦮㌂ṖG♮⩺ἶG㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䟞㠊㣪. “(I) studied hard in order to become a doctor.”

Restrictions

In the first example, each clause has its own subject. However, in the second example, both clauses have the same subject.

Predicate types The third restriction is about whether the conjunctive may be used with adjectives, copulas, and/or verbs. Some conjunctives must be used only with verbs, whereas some conjunctives may be used with verbs, adjectives, as well as copulas. For instance, the conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ “although” can be attached to verb, adjective, and copula stems, as shown below: 㡊㕂䧞G Ὃ⿖䞮㰖ⰢG 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Although (I) study hard, (it) is difficult.” 䞯ᾦṖG Ⲗ㰖ⰢG ⰺ㧒G Ṗ㣪. “Although the school is far, (I) go (there) everyday.” 䕖㧊G 䞲ῃG ㌂⧢㧊㰖ⰢG 䞲ῃG 㡃㌂㠦G ╖䟊㍲G Ⱔ㧊G ⴆ⧒㣪. “Although Tim is a Korean, (he) does not know much about Korean history.” On the other hand, a certain conjunctive such as ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “in order to” must be used only with verb stems. ⻫╖㠦G ✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶG 㭖゚䞮ἶG 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am preparing to enter law school.”

Sentence types The fourth restriction is that there are conjunctives that can be used for all sentence types, such as declarative, interrogative, imperative, and propositive, while some conjunctives must be used only for certain sentence types. For instance, consider the conjunctive ~(㦒)┞₢ and ~㠊/㞚㍲, which both mean “because/since.” 㿪㤆┞₢G㺓ⶎ㦚G╁㔋┞┺. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold.” 㿪㤆┞₢G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㔋┞₢? “Do (you) close the window because (it) is cold?” 㿪㤆┞₢G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Close the window because (it) is cold.” 㿪㤆┞₢G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) close the window because (it) is cold.”

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7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

㿪㤢㍲G㺓ⶎ㦚G╁㔋┞┺. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold.” 㿪㤢㍲G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㔋┞₢? “Do (you) close the window because (it) is cold?” OP 㿪㤢㍲G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Close the window because (it) is cold.” OP 㿪㤢㍲G 㺓ⶎ㦚G ╁㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) close the window because (it) is cold.” Notice that ~(㦒)┞₢ can be used for all sentence types, whereas ~㠊/ 㞚㍲ must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences.

~(㦒)⩂ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩂ is used to express the purpose of the speaker’s action. It is translated as “for the purpose of” or “to” in English. ~(㦒)⩂ is a two-form ending: ~㦒⩂ is used after a verb stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩂ “to eat”), while ~⩂ is used after a verb stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮⩂ “to teach”). ~(㦒)⩂ is usually used with a motion verb, such as Ṗ┺ “to go” and 㡺┺ “to come,” to indicate the purpose of going or coming, as shown in the examples below: 䘎㰖⯒G ⿖䂮⩂G 㤆㼊ῃ㠦G Ṗ㣪. “(I) go to the post office to send a letter.” 㡂㧦G 䂲ῂ⯒G Ⱒ⋮⩂G ㍲㤎⪲G ⟶⋮㎎㣪? “(Do you) leave for Seoul to meet (your) girlfriend?” ~(㦒)⩂ is subject to some of the aforementioned restrictions. First, the subjects of both clauses must be the same. Second, it is not conjugated for the tense, as shown below: 㺛㦚G㌂⩂G㍲㩦㠦GṪ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy books.” OP 㺛㦚G ㌖⩂G ㍲㩦㠦G Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy books.” Third, it is used only with verbs. 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G Ὃ⿖䞮⩂G ㍲㤎㠦G 㢪㔋┞┺. “(I) came to Seoul to study the Korean language.” OP 䟟⽋䞮⩂Gἆ䢒䞮ἶG㕌㠊㣪. “(I) want to marry (her) to be happy.”

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However, there is no restriction regarding sentence type. For instance, it can be used with any of four sentence types as shown below:


䂲ῂ⯒G Ⱒ⋮⩂G ₆㹾㡃㠦G ṧ┞┺. “(I) go to the train station to meet (my) friends.” 㠎㩲G 㺛㦚G ㌂⩂G ㍲㩦㠦G ṞG Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to the bookstore to buy books?” 㩦㕂G ⲏ㦒⩂G 㞚䕢䔎㠦G ✺⯊㎎㣪. “Stop by (my) apartment to have lunch.” 䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲⩂G㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦Gṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to drink coffee.”

~O㦒P⩺ἶ

~(㦒)⩺ἶ ⩺ἶ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺ἶ is used to express the speaker’s intention or plan. It is a two-form ending: ~㦒⩺ἶ is used after a verb stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩺ἶ “intending to eat”), and ~⩺ἶ is used after a verb stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ “intending to meet”). The meaning of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ is similar to that of ~(㦒)⩂. However, in contrast to ~(㦒)⩂, which is normally collocated with motion verbs such as Ṗ┺ or 㡺┺, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ can be used with any verb, as shown below: 㡗㠊Gᾦ㌂⪲G㧒䞮⩺ἶG䞯㥚⯒G➚㠊㣪. “(I) earned the degree (intending) to work as an English teacher.” 㥶⩓㦚G㡂䟟䞮⩺ἶG☞㦚G⳾㦒ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am saving money (intending) to travel in Europe.” h ⯒G ⹱㦒⩺ἶG 㡊㕂䧞G Ὃ⿖䟞㠊㣪. “(I) studied hard (intending) to receive an A.” ⌊⎚㠦G㌞G㹾⯒G㌂⩺ἶG䟊㣪. “(I) intend to buy a new car next year.” ╖㔶G 㰧㠦㍲G Ὃ⿖䞮⩺ἶG ☚㍲ὖ㠦G 㞞G Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) did not go to the library, intending to study at home instead.” 㫡㦖G䞯ᾦ㠦G✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶG㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䟞㔋┞┺. “(I) studied hard (intending) to enter a good school.” ~(㦒)⩺ἶ is subject to the following restrictions: (1) it is not conjugated for the tense; (2) the subject of the clauses must be the same; (3) it is used only with verbs; (4) it is used only for declarative and interrogative sentences. 㩲㧊㓾㦚G Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶG 䣢㌂㠦G Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the company to meet Jason.” 㠎㩲G 㺛㦚G ㌂⩺ἶG ㍲㩦㠦G ṞG Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to the bookstore to buy the book?” OP 㩖⎗㦚Gⲏ㦒⩺ἶGṖ㕃㔲㡺. “Go (intending to) have dinner.” OP 䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲⩺ἶG㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦Gṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to drink coffee.”

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7

~☚⪳ ☚⪳

Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

The clausal conjunctive ~☚⪳ is used to express “so that” or “to the point where.” ⋮ⶊṖG 㧮G 㧦⧒☚⪳G ☢⽦G 㭒㎾㠊㣪. “(He) took care of (the tree), so that the tree would grow better.” ⼧㧊GゾⰂG⌁☚⪳G₆☚䟞㠊㣪? “Did (you) pray so that the illness would be healed soon?” 䐆㧊G㩲┞䗒⯒G㭓☚⪳G㌂⧧䟞㠊㣪. “Tom loved Jennifer to death.” 㤆Ⰲ⓪G⑞ⶒ㧊G⋮☚⪳G㤙㠞㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) laughed till tears ran down our faces.” ~☚⪳ is subject to only one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense. However, it can be used with any sentence type; it can be used with any predicate type; its subject does not have to be the same as that of the main clause. Ṧ₆G㞞GỎⰂ☚⪳G㫆㕂䟞㔋┞┺. “(I) was careful so that (I) would not catch a cold.” 㤆ⰂG 䕖㧊G Ợ㧚㦚G 㧊₆☚⪳G 㡊㕂䧞G 㦧㤦䞮ἶG 㧞㔋┞₢? “Are (they) cheering (for our team) enthusiastically, so that our team may win?” ⳿㧊G㞚䝚☚⪳G㏢Ⰲ⯒G㰖⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Shout to the extent (your) throat hurts.” 㑮㧪㧊GⓊ㣫㦒⪲G⟶⋶G㑮G㧞☚⪳G㑮㧪㦚G☚㤗㔲┺. “(Let us) help Susan so that Susan can leave for New York.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 7 exercises

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Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ㫇 family ṯ㧊 together ἶ⯊┺ to select Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study Ὃ䟃 airport ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₆㹾 train ₎ road/street ⋾㧦 man ⋾䘎 husband ☚㍲ὖ library


☞ money ⟶⋮┺ to leave/to depart Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet ⰴ㿪┺ to set/to put together ⲏ┺ to eat ⻢┺ to earn ゚䋺┺ to get out of the way アⰂ┺ to borrow ゾⰂ fast/immediately ㌂┺ to buy ㌳㧒 birthday ㍶ⶒ present/gift 㔲䠮㠦G⿯┺ to pass a test 㔳╏ restaurant 㕎Ợ at a cheap price 㞑┺ to wash

Key vocabulary for Unit 7 exercises

㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎 a side job 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㞢⧢ alarm (clock) 㟆な⧖㓺 ambulance 㟒㺚 vegetables 㠒Ὴ face 㡂㧦 woman 㡃 station 㡊㕂䧞 eagerly/enthusiastically/hard 㤙┺ to smile 㧎㌗ impression 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧒㹣 early 㧮 well/excellently 㩦㕂 lunch 㭒┺ to give 㭧ῃ China 㰖⋮Ṗ┺ to pass by 㹾 car 㺛 book 䂲ῂ friend 䌖┺ to ride 䞯ᾦ school 䢒⌊┺ to teach a lesson/to frighten (a person) out of his wits/to scare 䢪㧻㔺 toilet 䦻㩫 buying and selling/making a deal (with)

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7

Exercise 7.1

Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)⩂ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) will go to the office to send the fax.” (䕿㓺⯒G⽊⌊┺G/G㌂ⶊ㔺⪲GṞGỆ㡞㣪) = 䕿㓺⯒G⽊⌊⩂G㌂ⶊ㔺⪲GṞGỆ㡞㣪. 1 Come to the post office to get (your) package (㏢䙂⯒G ⹱┺G /G 㤆㼊ῃ 㠦G㡺㎎㣪) 2 (They) are going to the service station to repair (their) car (㹾⯒Gἶ䂮 ┺G/G㩫゚㏢㠦GṖἶG㧞㠊㣪) 3 (Let us) go to the beach to do fishing (⋰㔲㰞G 䞮┺G /G ⹪╍Ṗ⪲G ṧ㔲 ┺) 4 (I) will go to the airport to catch the flight (゚䟟₆⯒G䌖┺G/GὋ䟃㠦GṞG Ệ㡞㣪) 5 Do (you) go to (your) friend’s house often to play computer games? (䅊䜾䎆GỢ㧚㦚G䞮┺G/G䂲ῂG㰧㠦G㧦㭒GṖ㎎㣪?)

Exercise 7.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩂. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㟧䕢⯒G㌂┺G/G㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦GṪ㠊㣪 = 㟧䕢⯒G㌂⩂G㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦GṪ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the supermarket to buy onions.” 1 2 3 4 5

䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲┺G/G㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦GṪ㠊㣪 㔲䠮GὋ⿖䞮┺G/G☚㍲ὖ㠦GṖ㕃㔲㡺 㠒Ὴ㦚G㞑┺G/G䢪㧻㔺㠦GṖἶG㧞㠊㣪 㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ┺G/G㭧ῃG㔳╏㠦Gṧ㔲┺ 䅖㧊䔎⯒GⰢ⋮┺G/GὋ䟃㠦Gṧ┞₢?

Exercise 7.3 Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)⩺ἶ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. 58

Example: “(I) am studying hard to receive an A.” (h ⯒G⹱┺G/G㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪) = h ⯒G⹱㦒⩺ἶG㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪.


1 (I) exercise to lose weight (㌊㦚Gヒ┺G /G㤊☯䟊㣪) 2 (She) was waiting in the office to meet the teacher (㍶㌳┮㦚G Ⱒ⋮┺G /G㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲G₆┺ⰂἶG㧞㠞㠊㣪) 3 (He) is studying hard intending to enter medical school (㦮ὒG ╖䞯㠦G ✺㠊Ṗ┺G /G㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪) 4 (I) reserved an airplane ticket intending to go to Korea this summer (㧊⻞G㡂⯚㠦G䞲ῃ㠦GṖ┺G/G゚䟟₆䚲⯒G㡞㟓䟞㠊㣪) 5 (She) was making efforts to get a job (䀾㰗䞮┺G /G ⏎⩻䞮ἶG 㧞㠞 㠊㣪)

Exercise 7.4

Exercise 7.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩺ἶ. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⶊ㡃G䣢㌂㠦G䀾㰗䞮┺G /G㭧ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤆ἶG㧞㠊㣪 = ⶊ㡃G䣢㌂㠦G䀾㰗䞮⩺ἶG㭧ῃ㠊⯒G⺆㤆ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am learning Chinese intending to get a job at a trading company.” 1 2 3 4 5

⋾䘎䞲䎢G㌳㧒G㍶ⶒ⪲G㭒┺G/G㍶ⶒ㦚Gἶ⯊ἶG㧞㠊㣪 䕢Ⰲ⪲G⟶⋮┺G/G₆㹾G㡃㠦GṪ㠊㣪U ṯ㧊G㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ┺G/G⪲゚㠦㍲G䂲ῂ⯒G₆┺⩺㣪 㕎ỢG㹾⯒G㌂┺G/G䦻㩫㦚G䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪 ☞㦚G⻢┺G/G㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒G䟞㠊㣪

Exercise 7.5 Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: A: 㢲G㡂䟟㌂㠦G㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪?G B: ゚䟟₆䚲⯒G㌂⩺ἶG㩚䢪䟊㣪U (゚䟟₆䚲⯒G㌂┺) 1 A: 㠊❪㠦GṖ㎎㣪? B: _____________________________ ☚㍲ὖ㠦GṖ㣪. (㺛㦚GアⰂ┺) 2 A: 㠊❪GṖ㎎㣪? B: _____________________________ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦GṖ㣪. (㟒㺚⯒ ㌂┺) 3 A: 㢲G㧻⹎⯒G㌂㎎㣪? B: _____________________________ ㌂㣪. (㡂㧦G䂲ῂ䞲䎢G㭒┺)

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7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)

4 A: 㢲G㰖䞮㻶㦚G䌪㠊㣪? B: ____________________________ 䌪㠊㣪. (䞯ᾦ㠦 ゾⰂ Ṗ┺) 5 A: ㍲㤎㠦⓪ 㢶 㧒㧊㎎㣪? B: ____________________________ 㢪㠊㣪. (⋾㧦G䂲ῂ㦮GṖ㫇㦚GⰢ⋮┺)

Exercise 7.6 Complete the following translation using ~☚⪳ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Please prepare so that (we) can leave at 7 a.m.” (㡺㩚G^ 㔲㠦G⟶⋶G㑮G㧞┺G/G㭖゚䟊G㭒㎎㣪) = 㡺㩚 ^ 㔲㠦G⟶⋶G㑮G㧞☚⪳G㭖゚䟊G㭒㎎㣪. 1 Please turn on the radio, so that (we) can listen to the news (Ⓤ㓺⯒G✺ 㦚G㑮G㧞┺G /G⧒❪㡺⯒G䅲G㭒㎎㣪) 2 Please allow (me) so that (I) can use (your) car (㹾⯒G㝎G㑮G㧞┺G/G䠞 ⧓䟊G㭒㎎㣪) 3 Please help (him) so that (he) can recover (his) health (Ịṫ㦚G䣢⽋䞶G 㑮G㧞┺G/G☚㢖G㭒㎎㣪) 4 Please write (her) a recommendation letter so that (she) can get a job (䀾㰗䞶G㑮G㧞┺G/G㿪㻲㍲⯒G㖾G㭒㎎㣪) 5 Please turn off the electric lamp so that (she) can sleep (㧮G 㑮G 㧞┺G /G 㩚❇㦚GℒG㭒㎎㣪)

Exercise 7.7 Connect the following two sentences using ~☚⪳. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㫆㣿䧞GὋ⿖䞶G㑮G㧞┺G/G䎪⩞゚㩚㦚Gℒ 㭒㎎㣪 = 㫆㣿䧞GὋ⿖䞶G㑮G㧞☚⪳G䎪⩞゚㩚㦚Gℒ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please turn off the TV so that (he) can study quietly.” 1 2 3 4 5 60

㟆な⧖㓺ṖG㰖⋮ṞG㑮G㧞┺G/G₎㦚G゚䅲G㭒㎎㣪 㫡㦖G㧎㌗㦚G㭚G㑮G㧞┺G/G㤙㠊G㭒㎎㣪 㔲䠮㠦G⿯┺G/G㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺 㞚䂾㠦G㧒㹣G㧒㠊⋶G㑮G㧞┺G/G㞢⧢㦚Gⰴ㿪㠊G㭒㎎㣪 㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞶G㑮G㧞┺G/G䢒⌊G㭒㎎㣪


UNIT 8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

~㠊V㞚㍲ 㠊V㞚㍲ Functions The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ expresses two things. First, it indicates a cause-and-effect relation between two actions or states, equivalent to “so” or “because/since” in English. In other words, it is used when the action and/or state of the first clause provides a cause or reason for the action and/or state of the main clause. Consider the following example: ⍞ⶊG ₆ㄦ㍲G ⲪⰂ䞲䎢G 㩚䢪䞮ἶG 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am so glad, so (I) am making a phone call to Mary.” The state of the first clause ₆㊮┺ “glad” gives a reason for the action of the main clause 㩚䢪䞮┺ “make a phone call.” Consider another example: 㣪㯞㦢G㌞⼓㠦G㫆ₛ㦚G䟊㍲G㞚䂾㠦G⹪ザ㣪. “(I) jog at dawn nowadays, so (I) am busy in the morning.” Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., 㫆ₛ㦚G 䞮┺ “jog”) is the reason for the state of the main clause (e.g., ⹪㊮┺ “busy”). Here are more examples: Ṗỿ㧊G⍞ⶊG゚㕎㍲GⴑG㌂㣪. “The price is too expensive, so (I) cannot buy (it).” ┺㦢G㭒㠦G㔲䠮㧊G㧞㠊㍲G⹪ザ㣪. “(I) have a test next week, so (I) am busy.” Second, ~㠊/㞚㍲ links two chronologically ordered actions or events without implying any cause-and-effect relation between them. Its English translation is equivalent to “and then.” 61


8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

䞯ᾦ㠦G Ṗ㍲G ㍶㌳┮㦚G Ⱒ⋶G Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go to school and then meet the teacher.” In the example above, ~㠊/㞚㍲ indicates that the action of the first clause Ṗ┺ “go” occurrs before the action of the main clause Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet.” Here are more examples: ⺇䢪㩦㠦G Ṗ㍲G ㌳㧒G 䃊✲⯒G ㌊G Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) go to the department store and then buy a birthday card?” ㌂ὒ⯒G₣㞚㍲Gⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Eat the apple after peeling (it).” 㡺⓮G 䞒䎆G 㰧㠦G Ṗ㍲G 㩖⎗㦚G ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “Today, (let us) go to Peter’s house and then eat dinner (there).”

Forms ~㠊/㞚㍲ is a two-form ending: ~㞚㍲ is used after a predicate stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊㍲ is used after a predicate stem that ends in all other vowels. Verb Ṗ┺ “go” 㺔┺ “find” Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” ⹕┺ “believe”

~㠊V㞚㍲ 㠊V㞚㍲ Ṗ㍲ (contracted from ṖG +G㞚㍲) 㺔㞚㍲ Ṗ⯊㼦㍲ (contracted from Ṗ⯊䂮G +G㠊㍲) ⹕㠊㍲

Adjective 㫡┺ “good” ₆㊮┺ “happy”

~㠊V㞚㍲ 㠊V㞚㍲ 㫡㞚㍲ ₆ㄦ㍲ (₆㊮G+G㠊㍲)

Copula 㧊┺ “to be” 㞚┞┺ “not be”

~㠊V㞚㍲ 㠊V㞚㍲ 㧊㠊㍲V(㧊)⧒㍲ 㞚┞㠊㍲V㞚┞⧒㍲

Notice that the combination of ~㠊/㞚㍲ with the copula 㧊┺ has two forms: 㧊㠊㍲ and (㧊)⧒㍲. The negative copula, 㞚┞┺, also has two forms: 㞚┞㠊㍲ and 㞚┞⧒㍲. The use of (㧊)⧒㍲/㞚┞⧒㍲ is more common than that of 㧊㠊㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲.

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䞲ῃG㌂⧢㧊⧒㍲/㧊㠊㍲ ㏢ἶ₆⧒㍲/㡂㍲

“since (I) am a Korean” “since (it) is beef”

䞲ῃG㌂⧢㧊 㞚┞⧒㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲ ㏢ἶ₆ṖG㞚┞⧒㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲

“because (I) am not a Korean” “because (it) is not beef”


Restrictions

~㠊V㞚㍲

~㠊/㞚㍲ is subject to two restrictions. First, it is not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following example: 㩖⎗㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠊㍲ ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “(I) did not eat dinner, so (I) was hungry.” Notice that the past tense is not marked in the first clause (e.g., 㞞 ⲏ㠊 ㍲) but in the main clause (e.g., ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪). Here are more examples: Ὃ⿖⯒ Ⱔ㧊 䟊㍲ h ⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “(I) studied a lot, so (I) received an A.” ⹪ザ㍲ 㰧㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) was busy, so (I) could not go home.” 㟓ῃ㠦G ✺⩂㍲G 㞚㓺䞒Ⰶ㦚G ㌖㠊㣪. “(I) bought aspirin after stopping at the pharmacy.” ⌊㧒㧊G㞚⻚㰖G㌳㔶㧊⧒㍲ Ἵ 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㢂 Ệ㡞㣪. “Tomorrow is (her) father’s birthday, so (she) will return home soon.” ☞㧊 㠜㠊㍲ 䕢䕆㠦G 㞞G ṞG Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) do not have money, so (I) will not go to the party.” Second, when ~㠊/㞚㍲ indicates a cause-and-effect relation, it cannot be used for the imperative and/or propositive sentences, as shown below: OvP ⲎⰂṖG 㞚䕢㍲G 㟓㦚G ⲏ㔋┞┺. “(My) head aches, so (I) take medicines.” OvP ⲎⰂṖG 㞚䕢㍲G 㟓㦚G ⲏ㔋┞₢? “Do (you) take medicines, since (your) head aches?” OP ⲎⰂṖG 㞚䕢㍲G 㟓㦚G ⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Take medicines, since (your) head aches.” OP ⲎⰂṖG㞚䕢㍲G㟓㦚Gⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) take medicines, since (our) heads ache.” However, when ~㠊/㞚㍲ is used to link two chronological actions or states, it can be used for any sentence type, as shown below: ⰾ䞮䎊㠦G Ṗ㍲G ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊G ⷺ㰖䅂㦚G ⽒G Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will go to Manhattan and then see Broadway musicals.” 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦G Ṗ㍲G ㌊G Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) go to the supermarket and then buy (it)?” 㡺⩢㰖⯒G㞑㠊㍲Gⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Wash the orange and then eat (it).” 㰧㠦GṖ㍲G㧊㟒₆䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) go home and then talk.” 63


~(㦒)┞₢ ┞₢

8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)┞₢Gis used to specify a reason for the main clause, and it can be translated as “since,” “so,” and “because” in English. ~(㦒)┞₢ is a two-form ending: ~㦒┞₢ is used after a predicate stem that ends in a consonant, and ~┞₢ is used after a predicate stem that ends in a vowel. Verb ⽊┺ “see” ⺆㤆┺ “learn” 㧷┺ “catch” ⲏ┺ “eat”

~(㦒)┞₢ ┞₢ ⽊┞₢ ⺆㤆┞₢ 㧷㦒┞₢ ⲏ㦒┞₢

Adjective 㕎┺ “cheap” 㧧┺ “small”

~(㦒)┞₢ ┞₢ 㕎┞₢ 㧧㦒┞₢

Copula 㧊┺ “to be” 㞚┞┺ “not be”

~(㦒)┞₢ ┞₢ 㧊┞₢ 㞚┞┞₢

The function of ~(㦒)┞₢ is similar to that of ~㠊/㞚㍲G since both provide a cause or reason for the action and/or state of the main clause. However, there are three differences between these two conjunctives. First, the reason and/or cause provided by ~(㦒)┞₢ sounds more specific than those given by ~㠊/㞚㍲. Second, while ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/ since/so” must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences, ~(㦒)┞₢ may be used for any sentence type, as shown below:

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OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (I) drink (it) slowly.” OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞₢? “Do (you) drink the coffee slowly because (it) is hot?” OP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㔲㕃㔲㡺. “Since the coffee is hot, drink (it) slowly.” OP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃㔲┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (let us) drink (it) slowly.” OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (I) drink (it) slowly.” OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞₢? “Do (you) drink the coffee slowly because (it) is hot?” OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㔲㕃㔲㡺. “Since the coffee is hot, drink (it) slowly.” OvP 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃㔲┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (let us) drink (it) slowly.”


Third, ~(㦒)┞₢ is conjugated for the tense, while ~㠊/㞚㍲ is not, as shown below:

~ⓦ⧒ἶ

OvP 㠊㩲G ⌊ṖG ㍺Ệ㰖 䟞㦒┞₢ 㡺⓮G ⍺ṖG 䟊. “Since I washed dishes yesterday, you do (it) today.” OP 㠊㩲G ⌊ṖG ㍺Ệ㰖G 䟞㠊㍲G 㡺⓮G ⍺ṖG 䟊. “Since I washed dishes yesterday, you do (it) today.” OvP ⌊㧒G 㞚䂾G 㧒㹣G ⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲G ⟶⋶G Ệ┞₢G 㧒㹣G 㧷㔲┺. “(Let us) sleep early, since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early morning.” OP ⌊㧒G 㞚䂾G 㧒㹣G ⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲G ⟶⋶G Ệ㠊㍲G 㧒㹣G 㧷㔲┺. “(Let us) sleep early, since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early morning.”

~ⓦ⧒ἶ ⓦ⧒ἶ The clausal conjunctive ~ⓦ⧒ἶ is a one-form ending, and it means “as a result of/because of.” Similar to ~㠊/㞚㍲ and ~(㦒)┞₢, ~ⓦ⧒ἶ expresses that the action of the first clause is the reason or cause for the main clause. However, there is a subtle meaning difference between ~ⓦ⧒ἶ and ~㠊/㞚㍲ (or ~(㦒)┞₢). The clause with ~ⓦ⧒ἶ generates a negative implication that the action of the main clause is performed at the expense of the action of the first clause. In other words, it indicates that the action of the first clause leads to the undesirable action of the main clause. Consider the following example: ⹺G㌞G䅊䜾䎆GỢ㧚㦚G䞮ⓦ⧒ἶG䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to school because of playing computer games all night.” Notice that the action of the first clause with ~ⓦ⧒ἶ contributes to the undesirable action of the main clause (e.g., could not go to school). ~ⓦ⧒ἶ is subject to more restrictions than ~㠊/㞚㍲ and ~(㦒)┞₢. First ~ⓦ⧒ἶGcannot be used for imperative and/or propositive sentences. Second, it must be used only with verbs. Third, it is not conjugated for the tense. Finally, the subject of the ~ⓦ⧒ἶ clause must be the same with that of the main clause. ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㞚䂾㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) cannot eat breakfast because of getting up late.” 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚G⽊ⓦ⧒ἶG㩚䢪Gⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not make a phone call, because of watching TV.” ⍞ⶊ ゾⰂ ọⓦ⧒ἶ 㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪. “(I) dropped (my) wallet because of walking too fast.”

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8

Exercises

Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

Key vocabulary for Unit 8 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch (a cold) Ἵ soon ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ⋮Ṗ┺ to go out ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⍹┺ to insert/to put (something) in ⏖┺ to play/to enjoy (oneself) ⑞ snow/eyes ⓼┺ to be late ┺㧊㠊䔎 diet ▪ more ▻┺ to be hot/to be warm ☚㍲ὖ library ☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive ☫┺ to help ✹┺ to listen ⥾ỗ┺ to be hot/to be heated ⧒❪㡺 radio Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱔ㧊 a lot/plenty ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious ⲎⰂ head ⲏ┺ to eat ⳾⧮ the day after tomorrow ⶒ㠊⽊┺ to ask (a person about something) ⷺ㰖䅂 musical ⹎㞞䞮┺ to be sorry ⹪㊮┺ to be busy ⹬ outside ⹺ night ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read

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㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢✺ people ㌞㤆┺ to stay up all night ㌳㧒 birthday ㍶ⶒ present/gift ㏢⁞ salt


㏢Ⰲ sound 㑯㩲 homework 㔲Ṛ hour/time 㔳╏ restaurant 㕇ỗ┺ to be watery/to be insipid

Key vocabulary for Unit 8 exercises

㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㞚䝚┺ to be painful/to be sore 㟓 medicine 㟓㏣ appointment 㠊㩲 yesterday 㠦㠊䆮 air conditioner 㡂₆ here 㡺┺ to come 㡺㩚 a.m. 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook 㤊☯䞮┺ to do (physical) exercise/sports 㦖䟟 bank 㦢㔳 food 㦢㞛 music 㧊㌂ moving (housing) 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk 㧊㩲 now 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧒㹣 early 㧦㭒 often 㨂⹎㧞Ợ interestingly 㩖⎗ dinner/evening 㩚䢪 telephone 㫆⁞ little 㫡┺ to be good 㭒┺ to give 㰧 house 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 㻲㻲䧞 slowly 㽞㧎㫛 doorbell 䂲ῂ friend 䋂Ợ greatly/loudly 䔖┺ to switch on 䕢䕆 party 䙂㧻䞮┺ to pack/to wrap 䞯ᾦ school 䦻ἏỢ merrily/pleasantly

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8

Exercise 8.1

Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “and then” and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) went to Hawaii and then met (his) parents.” (䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⿖⳾┮㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪) = 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṗ㍲ ⿖⳾┮㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. 1 (I) will call the travel agency and then ask about the airfare (㡂䟟㌂㠦 㩚䢪䞮┺ / 䟃Ὃ 㣪⁞㠦 ╖䟊㍲ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪) 2 (We) went to school and then met the professor (䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺ / ᾦ㑮┮ 㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪) 3 Did (she) wash the strawberry and then eat (it)? (➎₆⯒ 㞑┺ / ⲏ㠞 㠊㣪?) 4 Buy that ring and then give (it) to (your) girlfriend (⁎ ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂┺ / 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒㎎㣪) 5 (Let us) learn the Korean language and then get a job in Seoul (䞲ῃ 㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ / ㍲㤎㠦㍲ 䀾㰗䞿㔲┺)

Exercise 8.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “and then.” Then translate the sentence. Example: 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ┺ / ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ㌓㔲┺ = 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ㍲ ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ㌓㔲┺. “(Let us) go the supermarket and then buy (some) pork.” 1 2 3 4 5

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㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺ / 㤊☯䞶⧮㣪 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺 㠎㩲 Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⷺ㔲䅂㦚 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪? ㍶ⶒ㦚 䙂㧻䞮┺ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 ➢ 㮂㠊㣪. 䕢䕆㠦 Ṗ┺ / 䦻ἏỢ ⏟㔲┺


Exercise 8.3

Exercise 8.3

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/since” and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Since (it) is too expensive, (I) will not buy (it).” (⍞ⶊ ゚㕎┺ / 㞞 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪) = ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎㍲ 㞞 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. 1 Since traffic was held up, (I) was late for the class (ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪) 2 Since (I) ate breakfast late, (I) have not had lunch yet (㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ┺ / 㞚㰗 㩦㕂㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪) 3 Since (my) stomach hurts, (I) want to go home early (⺆Ṗ 㞚䝚┺ / 㰧㠦 㧒㹣 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪) 4 Since the room is too dirty, (we) will clean (it up) today (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ ▪⩓┺ / 㡺⓮ 㼃㏢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪) 5 Since (it) was (her) birthday, (he) went home early (㌳㧒㧊┺ / 㧒㹣 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪)

Exercise 8.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/since.” Then translate the sentence. Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / ㌆㺛䟞㠊㣪 = ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㍲ ㌆㺛䟞㠊㣪. “Since the weather was nice, (we) took a walk.” 1 2 3 4 5

㠊㩲Ṗ 䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊┺ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. 㧊 㔳╏ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺ / 㧦㭒 㢖㣪. ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ / 㟓㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞㠊㣪. 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼┺ / ⹎㞞䞿┞┺.

Exercise 8.5 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)┞₢ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Since (it) is late night, (let us) call (him) tomorrow.” (⓼㦖 ⹺㧊┺ / ⌊㧒 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺) = ⓼㦖 ⹺㧊┞₢ ⌊㧒 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺.

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8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)

1 Since (she) does not drink coffee, (let us) buy green tea instead (䄺䞒 ⯒ ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ╖㔶 ⏏㹾⯒ ㌓㔲┺) 2 Since (it) is the closing hour, traffic is held up (䑊⁒ 㔲Ṛ㧊┺ / ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䧯┞┺) 3 Since (I) don’t have time, tell (me) only the main points (㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜┺ / 㣿ỊⰢ Ⱖ䞮㕃㔲㡺) 4 Since (my) back hurts, (I) do not want to meet anyone (䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / ⑚ῂ☚ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㔋┞┺) 5 Since (it) is cold, close the window (㿻┺ / 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺)

Exercise 8.6 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)┞₢. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⹿㧊 㠊⚷┺ / 㩚❇㦚 䅲 㭒㎎㣪. = ⹿㧊 㠊⚦㤆┞₢ 㩚❇㦚 䅲 㭒㎎㣪. “Since (my) room is dark, turn the light on.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

⌊㧒 ⹪㊮┺ / ⳾⧮ 㩚䢪䞶Ợ㣪. ☚㍲ὖ㧊┺ / 䋂Ợ 㧊㟒₆䞮㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺. ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓㦚 ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪. ⌊㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㧊㌂䞮┺ / 㡺㩚 _ 㔲₢㰖 㡺㎎㣪. 㦢㔳㧊 㕇ỗ┺ / ㏢⁞㦚 ⍹㦒㕃㔲㡺. ▻┺ / 㠦㠊䆮㦚G䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪. 㧊㩲 Ἵ 䞒㧦Ṗ ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㫆⁞ ▪ ₆┺Ⱃ㔲┺.

Exercise 8.7 Finish the following translation using ~ⓦ⧒ἶ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) could not sleep because of preparing for the interview.” (㧎䎆う⯒ 㭖゚䞮┺ / ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪) = 㧎䎆う⯒ 㭖゚䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪.

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1 (I) spent all of (my) money because of buying beer (ⰻ㭒⯒ ㌂┺ / ☞㦚 ┺ 㗒㠊㣪) 2 (I) could not leave (my) office yet because of repairing the computer (䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺ / 㞚㰗 䑊⁒㦚 ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪). 3 (I) could not eat dinner together because of talking over the phone for a long time (㡺⧮ 䐋䢪䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ṯ㧊 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪)


4 (I) dropped (my) wallet as a result of inserting coins (☯㩚㦚 ⍹┺ / 㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪) 5 (I) was late because of looking for keys (㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪)

Exercise 8.8

Exercise 8.8 Connect the following two sentences using ~ⓦ⧒ἶ. Then translate the sentence. Example: {} ⯒ ⽊┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪 = {} ⯒ ⽊ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not make a phone call because of watching TV.” 1 2 3 4 5

㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / ⹺㦚 ㌞㤶㠊㣪. ⧒❪㡺⯒ ✹┺ / 㽞㧎㫛 ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ✺㠞㠊㣪. ㌂⧒⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪? ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ⲏ㔋┞┺. 㦖䟟㦚 㺔┺ / ㌂⧢✺䞲䎢 ⶒ㠊⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪.

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UNIT 9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

~(㦒)Ⳋ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ is used to express that the first clause is the condition of the main clause. It is equivalent to “if” and/or “when” in English. It is a two-form ending: ~㦒Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒Ⳋ “if I eat”); ~Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., ⽊Ⳋ “if I see”). 㡺⓮ 㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) eat Korean food for dinner tonight, contact (us).” ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ⼖ᾦ㑮┮㧊 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲Ⳋ ✺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If Professor Byon teaches the Korean language class next semester, (I) will take (it).” ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡺Ⳋ ⋮ṞỢ㣪. “When (my) roommate returns home, (I) will go out.” The conjugation of ~(㦒)Ⳋ with the copula 㧊┺ has two forms: ~(㧊) ⳊGand ~(㧊)⧒Ⳋ. ~Ⳋ/⧒Ⳋ is used after a noun that ends in a vowel (e.g., 㦮㌂Ⳋ “if he is a doctor”), whereas ~㧊Ⳋ/㧊⧒Ⳋ is used after a noun that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳋ “if (he) is an American”). 䞯㌳㧊ⳊV㧊⧒Ⳋ 㩲 ⹿㦒⪲ ⽊⌊㎎㣪. “If (they) are students, send (them) to my room.” 䄺䞒ⳊV⧒Ⳋ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it) is coffee, (I) will drink (it).” When ~(㧊)Ⳋ/(㧊)⧒Ⳋ occurs after a time word, it means “in” or “at the end of,” as shown below: 䞲 䞯₆Ⳋ 㫎㠛䟊㣪. “In one semester, (I will) graduate.” ㎎ 㔲Ⳋ 㡗䢪Ṗ ⊳⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “By three o’clock, the movie will end” (lit. “When it is three o’clock, the movie will end”). 72


~(㦒)Ⳋ is not subject to any restriction. For instance, it is conjugated for the tense, as shown below:

~O㦒PⳊ

Ỿ㤎㧊 ♮Ⳋ 㓺䋺 䌖⩂ ṧ㔲┺. “When (it) becomes winter, (let us) go for skiing.” 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṫ㦒Ⳋ ⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If Susan went to Korea, (she) would have given me a call.” ㌳㧒 䕢䕆⯒ 䞶GỆⳊ 㰧㠦㍲ 䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) will host a birthday party, do (it) at home.” Second, it can be used with any predicate type. 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮Ⳋ h ⯒ ⹱㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) study hard, (you) can receive an A.” ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤆Ⳋ ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. “If the weather is too cold, (let us) not go out.” ┺㦢 ㏦┮☚G䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊O⧒PⳊ 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㕃㔲㡺. “If the next customer is also a Korean, please call (me).” Third, there is no restriction regarding subject agreement. ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮Ⳋ 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪. “When (I) graduate from college, (I) want to go to Korea.” 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺Ⳋ 㩲Ṗ 䆲⧒⯒ 㔲䌂Ợ㣪. “If Thomas orders coffee, I will order cola.” Finally, ~(㦒)Ⳋ may be used with any sentence type. Ỿ㤎㧊 ♮Ⳋ ⑞╖㔶 ゚Ṗ 㢖㣪. “When (it) becomes winter, rain falls instead of snow.” ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂Ⳋ Ⲓ㩖 㠊❪㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪? “When (you) buy a new car, where do (you) want to go first?” 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮Ⳋ ⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪. “When (you) arrive at home, call me.” 㞞 ⹪㊮Ⳋ ⌊㧒 Ⱒ⋿㔲┺. “If (you) are not busy, (let us) meet tomorrow.”

~(㦒)Ⳋ 䞮┺V㫡Ỷ┺ “wish/hope” The combination of ~(㦒)Ⳋ and the verb 䞮┺ “do” or the adjective 㫡Ỷ ┺ “would/will be nice” expresses the speaker’s wish or hope. ~(㦒)Ⳋ 䞮┺ sounds slightly more polite than ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺. However, both can be translated as “wish/hope” in English. 73


9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

㧊⻞ 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺Ⳋ 䟊㣪. “(I) wish that (it) snows a lot this Christmas.” ゾⰂ ⽚㧊 ♮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish spring comes early (lit. It would be nice, if it would become spring soon).” ⌊⎚㠦 ㌞ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ㌂Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) buy a new computer next year.” Adding the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 to ~(㦒)Ⳋ 䞮┺/㫡Ỷ┺ makes the speaker’s desire or wish sound more assertive or emphatic. 㧊㩲⿖䎆 ☞ ệ㩫㦚 㞞G䟞㦒ⳊG䟊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) would not worry about money from now on.” 㑮㣪㧒㠦 㔲䠮㦚 ⽺㦒ⳊG 䞿┞┺. “(I) wish that (I) would take the test on Wednesday.” ㍲㤎㠦 Ṟ ➢ ☯ἓ㠦 ✺⩖㦒ⳊG䞿┞┺. “(I) wish that (I) would stop by Tokyo on my way to Seoul.” 㧊⻞ 㡂⯚㠦 㧒⽎㦚 㡂䟟䟞㦒ⳊG㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) would travel in Japan this summer.” 䞲ῃ㧊 ゾⰂ 䐋㧒㧊 ♦㦒ⳊG 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that Korea would be unified immediately.”

~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ ⩺Ⳋ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ “if one intends to do” is the combination of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “intending to” with the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if/when.” It is a two-form ending: ~⩺Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., ⺆㤆⩺Ⳋ “if you intend to learn”), and ~㦒⩺Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩺Ⳋ “if you intend to eat”).

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䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞮⩺Ⳋ 䞲ῃ㧎 䂲ῂ✺㦚 ㌂‖㠊㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to speak Korean well, (you) need to make Korean friends.” 㧊 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㦒⩺Ⳋ ㌊㦚 ヒ㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to wear this suit, (you) should lose weight.” 䞯ᾦ㠦 ┺┞⩺Ⳋ Ⲓ㩖 ❇⪳⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to attend the school, pay the tuition first.” ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺Ⳋ ⹎Ⰲ 㩚䢪䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend to meet the professor, (you) must call in advance.” 䝚⪲ṯ㧊 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㧮 䂮⩺Ⳋ 㡊㕂䧞 㡆㔋䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend to play the piano like a professional, (you) need to practice hard.” 㫡ἶ 㕒 ⶒỊ㦚 ㌂⩺Ⳋ 㠊❪⪲ Ṗ㟒 䟊㣪? “If (we) intend to buy good and cheap items, where should (we) go?” 䑊⁒䞮⩺Ⳋ ZW ⿚ ▪ ₆┺Ⰲ㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to leave office, wait 30 more minutes.”


~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ ඥ㑮⪳

~O㦒Pඥ㑮⪳

The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳Gexpresses continuous increase in the nature of an action or state. It can be translated as “the more . . . the more” in English. ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ is a two-form ending: ~㦚㑮⪳ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⹕㦚㑮⪳ “the more I believe”), while ~ඥ㑮⪳ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱎ㔺㑮⪳ “the more I drink”). ₖ䂮Ṗ ⲏ㦚㑮⪳ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪. “The more (I) eat kimchi, the more tasty (it) is.” 䌲ῢ☚⓪ ⺆㤎㑮⪳ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “As for Taekwondo, the more (I) learn (it), the more interesting (it) is.” In addition, ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if/when” can be optionally used along with ~(㦒) ඥ㑮⪳, as shown below: Ἶ䝚⓪ 䂮ⳊG 䂶㑮⪳ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “As for golf, the more (you) play (it), the more difficult (it) is.” ṫ㞚㰖⯒ ⽊ⳊG ⽒㑮⪳ ‖㡂㤢㣪. “The more (I) look at the puppy, the more cute (it) is.” ㌂⧧㦖 㔲Ṛ㧊 㰖⋮ⳊG 㰖⋶㑮⪳ ㏢㭧䟊㪎㣪. “As for love, the more time passes, the more precious (it) becomes.” 㧦ⳊG 㧮㑮⪳ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “The more (you) sleep, the more tired (you) are.” ⏎䔎⿗㦖 㧧㦒ⳊG 㧧㦚㑮⪳ ゚㕎㣪. “As for notebook, the smaller (it) is, the more expensive (it) is.”

~㠊V㞚㟒 㠊V㞚㟒 The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㟒 indicates that the ~㠊/㞚㟒 ending clause is a prerequisite or necessary condition of the main clause. It is corresponding to “only if” in English. Consider the following example: 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ㟒 ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) go to school, (you) can meet the professor.” Notice that the action of the first clause “going to school” is the necessity for the action of the main clause “meeting the professor.” ~㠊/㞚㟒 is a two-form ending: ~㞚㟒 is used after a stem that ends in either 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊㟒 is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels.

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9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

Verb 㡺┺ “see” 㧷┺ “catch” ⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⹕┺ “believe”

Verb stem + 㠊V㞚㟒 㢖㟒 (contracted from 㡺 + 㞚㟒) 㧷㞚㟒 ⺆㤢㟒 (contracted from ⺆㤆 + 㠊㟒) ⹕㠊㟒

Adjective 㕎┺ “cheap” 㧧┺ “small” 㔂䝚┺ “sad” 㠊⪋┺ “difficult”

Adjective stem + 㠊V㞚㟒 㕎㟒 㧧㞚㟒 㔂䗒㟒 (㔂䝚 + 㠊㟒) 㠊⩺㤢㟒 (㠊⩺㤆 + 㠊㟒)

Copula 㧊┺ “to be” 㞚┞┺ “not be”

Copula stem + 㠊V㞚㟒 㧊㠊㟒/㧊⧒㟒 㞚┞㠊㟒/㞚┞⧒㟒

To add an emphatic meaning, one can use the particle Ⱒ “only” along with ~㠊/㞚㟒, as shown below: 㞺✲⮮⯒ Ⱒ⋮㟒Ⱒ ◆┞㠮㠦╖䟊 ✺㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) meet Andrew, (you) can hear about Daniel.” 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䟊㟒Ⱒ 㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) graduate from a medical school, (you) can become a doctor.” 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔㞚㟒Ⱒ 㰧㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (we) find the key, (we) can go home.”

~Ệ✶ Ệ✶ The clausal conjunctive ~Ệ✶ is used to indicate that the ~Ệ✶G ending clause is the condition for the main clause. It is equivalent to “if” in English. ~Ệ✶ is subject to one restriction: It must be used only with imperative and/or propositive sentences, as shown in the following examples: 䞶 Ⱖ㧊 㧞Ệ✶ 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If (you) have something to say, say (it).” ⹪㊮㰖 㞠Ệ✶ 㡆⧓䟊㣪. “If (you) are not busy, contact (me).” 䘎㰖Ṗ ☚㹿䞮Ệ✶ ⰺ䓲䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If the letter arrives, give Matthew a phone call.” 㞾Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦 ṖỆ✶ 㤆Ⰲ☚ ṧ㔲┺. “If Alice goes to Korea, (let us) go (there) as well.” 㔲䠮㧊 ⊳⋮Ệ✶ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “If the test ends, (let us) have dinner together.”

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Meanwhile, in spoken communication, ~Ệ✶ (or ~Ệ✶㣪) is often used as a sentence ending. The sentence ending ~Ệ✶㣪 expresses an emphatic meaning, and it can be translated as “you know,” “you see (because),” and “indeed” in English. Consider the following dialogue:


A: 㧒㣪㧒㧎◆ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 㠊⠑Ợ 㡺㎾㠊㣪? “(It) is Sunday, but what brought you to the library?” B: ⌊㧒 㔲䠮㧊 㧞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) have a test tomorrow, you know.”

Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises

Notice that B’s response ends with ~Ệ✶㣪. By using ~Ệ✶㣪, B offers a kind of follow-up explanation (e.g., having a test tomorrow) to what has been implied (e.g., to be in the library on Sunday). Here are more examples: A: ⡦ 䞲 㧪 㔲䋺㎎㣪? “(You) order a cup again?” B: 㩲Ṗ 㡂₆ 䄺䞒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮Ệ✶㣪. “I like the coffee of this place, you know.” A: 䞒Ἲ䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. “(You) look tired.” B: 㠊㩲 ⹺ ⓼Ợ₢㰖 㧒䟞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) worked late last night, you know.” A: 㠊㩲 ⲏ㦖 㦢㔳㦚 ⡦ 㔲䌂 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) order the food (you) ate yesterday, again?” B: 㞚㭒 ⰱ㧞㠞Ệ✶㣪. “(It) was really delicious, you know.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ₳┺ to be near Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach Ịṫ health ệ㩫ỆⰂ source of anxiety Ὃ ball ⊠┺ to quit ⊩㧊┺ to boil ⋾㧦 man ⋾䘎 husband ⋶㝾 weather ⌊┺ to pay ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⌚゚ pot ⍞ⶊ too (much) ⏎⧮ song

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9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

⏎䔎⿗ notebook ⏖┺ to play ⑚ῂ who ⓼Ợ late ┺㦢 next ╊⺆ cigarette ╖䞯 college ▻┺ to be hot (the weather) ☚㤖 help ✲㔲┺ to eat ✺㠊Ṗ┺ to enter ➆⦑䞮┺ to be warm/to be mild ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎 roommate Ⱖ䞮┺ to speak Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet Ⱔ㧊 a lot ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head) ⲏ┺ to eat ⳾⯊┺ do not know ⳾㧦⧒┺ to be short of ⳿ throat ⶑ┺ to ask ⶒ water ⹎ῃ U.S.A. ⹪∎┺ to change ⹪㊮┺ to be busy ⹱┺ to receive ⺆ stomach ⺆㤆┺ to learn ⻫╖ law school ⼧㤦 hospital ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ゚㧦 visa

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㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㌂㣿䞮┺ to use ㌂㧊㯞 size ㌊┺ to live ㌳㧒 birthday ㍶ⶒ present/gift ㏢䕢 sofas 㔲䠮㦚 ⽊┺ to take tests/exams 㔳╏ restaurant


㔳㌂ meal 㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored 㝆┺ to use

Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises

㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎 a side job 㞚䝚┺ to be sore 㠊㩲 yesterday 㟓 medicine 㡂䟟 trip/travel 㡆⧓䞮┺ to contact 㡊┺ to open 㡞㟓䞮┺ to make a reservation 㡺┺ to come 㣪⁞ fee 㥶䞯Ṗ┺ to go abroad for study 㧛ῃ䞮┺ to enter a country 㧒㹣 early 㧦┺ to sleep 㧧┺ to be small 㧮 well/expertly 㩖⁞ saving 㩖⎗ dinner/evening 㩚䢪 telephone 㩲㿲䞮┺ to submit 㫆⁞ little 㫆㕂䞮┺ to be careful/to take care of 㫎㠛㧻 diploma 㭒㧒 week (day) 㰖䞮㻶 subway 㰗㧻 one’s place of work 㰧 house 㺓ⶎ window 㺛 book 㿪㻲㍲ recommendation letter 㿻┺ to be cold 䀾㰗 getting employment 䂮┺ to play/to strike 䂲ῂ friend 䅲┺ to switch on 䌖┺ to ride 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ to be tired 䞚㣪䞮┺ to be in need of 䞯₆ semester 䞲ῃ Korea

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䢪㧻㔺 toilet 䣢㌂ company 䧞䎆 heater

9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

Exercise 9.1 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “If (it) is cold outside, (let us) not go out.” (⹬㧊 㿻┺ / ⋮ Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺) = ⹬㧊 㿪㤆Ⳋ ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. 1 When (I) have time, (I) will make a phone call to Bill (㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞┺ / ア䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ㡞㣪) 2 If the road is congested, (let us) take a subway (₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㰖䞮㻶 㦚 䌧㔲┺) 3 If (it) is expensive, will (you) buy (it)? (゚㕎┺ / ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪?) 4 If (you) get up early tomorrow morning, wake (me) up (⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒 㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺ / ₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪) 5 If (I) told (him), (he) probably would get angry (㧊㟒₆䟞┺ / 䢪⌞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)

Exercise 9.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳋ. Then translate the sentence. Example: Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺ / ㌂㎎㣪 = Ṗỿ㧊 㕎Ⳋ ㌂㎎㣪. “If (its) price is cheap, buy (it).” 1 2 3 4 5

⺆ṖG㞚䝚┺G /G⼧㤦㠦GṖ㎎㣪 ⋶㝾ṖG⍞ⶊG㿻┺G/G䧞䎆⯒G䅲Ỷ㠊㣪 ⳾⯊┺G/Gⶒ㠊G⽊㎎㣪 ▻┺G/G㺓ⶎ㦚G㡓㔲┺ ☚㤖㧊G䞚㣪䞮┺G/G⑚ῂ䞲䎢G㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪?

Exercise 9.3 80

Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.


Example: “(I) wish that (it) snows tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⑞㧊 㡺┺) = ⌊㧒 ⑞㧊 㡺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.

Exercise 9.4

1 (I) wish that (we) meet at the airport (Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮┺) 2 (I) wish that (I) receive a watch for (my) birthday present (㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ ⪲ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ⹱┺) 3 (I) wish that (we) order red wine (⩞✲ 㢖㧎㦚 㔲䋺┺) 4 (I) wish that (we) have Korean food for dinner (㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ┺) 5 (I) wish that (I) make a lot of money (☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⻢┺)

Exercise 9.4 Conjugate the following predicate using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: ゾⰂG㹾⯒G䕪┺ = ゾⰂG㹾⯒G䕪ⳊG㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) sell (my) car immediately.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺ 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㥶䞯Ṗ┺ 㰗㧻㧊 㰧㠦㍲ Ṗ₳┺ ⌊㧒 ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮┺ ⋾䘎㧊 㧒㹣 㧦┺ ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ₖᾦ㑮┮㧊 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲┺ ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ ╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ ⹱┺

Exercise 9.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ. Then translate the sentence. Example: ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ / ⺆㿪Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪 = ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺⩺Ⳋ ⺆㿪Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to make kimchi, (you) need Chinese cabbage.” 1 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊┺ / ⌚゚Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪 2 㧊 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㡞㟓䞮㕃㔲㡺 3 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌖㎎㣪

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9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

4 5 6 7 8

⹎ῃ㠦 㧛ῃ䞮┺ / ゚㧦⯒ ⹱㞚㟒 䟊㣪 㧊 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮┺ / ╖䞯 㫎㠛㧻㦚 㩲㿲䞮㎎㣪 ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊G㑒⯒G⽊┺ / Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮┺ / Ὃ䞮ἶ ⧒䅩㧊 䞚㣪䟊㣪 䢪㧻㔺㦚 ㌂㣿䞮┺ / 㣪⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪

Exercise 9.6 Finish the following translation using the ~(㦒)Ⳋ ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ pattern and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The more (I) meet that friend, the more (I) want to meet (him).” (⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ / ▪ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪) = ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ Ⱒ⋶㑮⪳ ▪ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪. 1 The more (I) read the letter, the angrier (I) am (䘎㰖⯒ 㧓┺ / 䢪⋮ 㣪) 2 The cloudier the weather is, the colder (it) is (⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / 㿪㤢 㣪) 3 The more time passes, the more (I) long for old days (㔲Ṛ㧊 㰖⋮┺ / 㡱⋶㧊 ⁎Ⰲ㤢㣪) 4 The bigger (it) was, the more expensive (it) was (䋂┺ / ゚㕢㠊㣪) 5 The more (I) read that book, the more interesting (it) was (⁎ 㺛㦚 㧓 ┺ / 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪)

Exercise 9.7 Connect the following sentences using the ~(㦒)Ⳋ ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ pattern. Then translate the sentence. Example: ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / 㭧☛♒㣪 = ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆Ⳋ 䞒㤎㑮⪳ 㭧☛♒㣪. “The more (you) smoke, the more (you) become addicted to (it).” 1 2 3 4 5 82

䞲ῃ㠦㍲ ㌊┺ / 㫡㞚㣪 ㌂⧢✺㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺ / 䞒Ἲ䞿┞┺ ☞㦚 㝆┺ / 䞚㣪䞿┞┺ 㡂䟟㦚 䞮┺ / Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤎 Ệ㡞㣪 ⹪㊮┺ / Ịṫ 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪


Exercise 9.8

Exercise 9.8

Finish the following translation using ~Ệ✶ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Do not call (me) if (you) are busy.” (⹪㊮┺ / 㩚䢪 䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) = ⹪㊮Ệ✶ 㩚䢪䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. 1 Hug the baby if the baby cries (㞚₆Ṗ 㤎┺ / 㞚₆⯒ 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪) 2 If (it) is tasty, (let us) order (it) more (ⰱ㧞┺ / ▪ 㔲䌋㔲┺) 3 If (you) make a Christmas tree, take a picture (䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 䔎Ⰲ⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ / ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㦒㎎㣪) 4 If (you) work this weekend, do not come to the party (㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮┺ / 䕢䕆㠦 㡺㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) 5 If (we) meet Mary later, (let us) convey the message (⋮㭧㠦 ⲪⰂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ / Ⲫ㎎㰖⯒G㩚䟊G㭣㔲┺)

Exercise 9.9 Connect the following two sentences using ~Ệ✶. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪 = 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮Ệ✶ 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) arrive at home, please call (me).” 1 2 3 4 5

㿪㻲㍲Ṗ 䞚㣪䞮┺ / 㩖䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪 ⡦ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓㦚 ✲㎎㣪 ệ㩫ỆⰂṖ 㧞┺ / Ⱖ䞮㎎㣪 㕂㕂䞮┺ / {} ⽊㎎㣪 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⹫㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪

Exercise 9.10 Answer to the following question using ~Ệ✶㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Then translate the answer. Example: 㢲 䕢䕆㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪? (㟓㏣㧊 㧞┺) = 㟓㏣㧊 㧞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) have an appointment, you know.” 83


9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)

1 2 3 4 5 6

㢲 㢲 㢲 㢲 㢲 㢲

㩖⎗ 㔳㌂⯒ 㞞 䞮㎎㣪? (㩦㕂㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞┺) ⏎⧮ 㞞 䞮㎎㣪? (⳿㧊 㞚䝚┺) 㫆⁞ ✲㎎㣪? (┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞┺) 㞞 ㌂㎎㣪? (☞㧊 㠜┺) 㞞 Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪? (㑶㦚 ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┺) 㢍㦚 ⹪∎㎾㠊㣪? (㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞮┺)

Exercise 9.11 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㟒 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Only if (we) have money, (we) can go to Hawaii.” (☞㧊 㧞┺ / 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) = ☞㧊 㧞㠊㟒 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. 1 Only if (my) girlfriend is happy, (I) am also happy (㡂㧦 䂲ῂṖ 䟟⽋ 䞮┺ / 㩖☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪) 2 Only if (it) is on sale, (I) can buy (it) (㎎㧒㦚G䞮┺ / ㌊G㑮G㧞㠊㣪) 3 Only if (you) study hard, (you) can become a doctor (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) 4 Only if (he) quits (his) work, (he) can travel (㧒㦚G ⁎Ⱒ⚦┺ / 㡂䟟㦚 䞶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) 5 Only if (she) quits smoking, (her) illness can be cured (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ / ⼧㧊 ⋮㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)

Exercise 9.12 Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㟒. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⰺ㧒 㤊☯㦚 䞮┺ / Ịṫ䟊㰞G㑮G㧞㠊㣪 = ⰺ㧒G㤊☯㦚G䟊㟒GỊṫ䟊㰞G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) exercise everyday, (you) can become healthy.” 1 2 3 4 5 84

㔲䠮㦚 㧮 ⽊┺ / ⻫╖㠦 ✺㠊Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䞮┺ / 䞯゚⯒ ⌒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪 㩖⁞㦚 䞮┺ / ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪 䕢Ⰲ㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㠦䗶䌖㤢⯒G⽒G㑮G㧞㠊㣪 䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㦚GⰢ⋮┺ / 㺛㦚 ⹱㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪


UNIT 10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

~ἶ The function of the clausal conjunctive ~ἶ is twofold. First, it simply connects two different clauses, regardless of their sequence. It corresponds to “and” in English. Consider the following examples: 㩲┞䗒Ṗ 㼃㏢䞮ἶ ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪. “Jennifer cleans up, and Matthew cooks.” ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㩲┞䗒Ṗ 㼃㏢䟊㣪. “Matthew cooks, and Jennifer cleans up.” Notice that the meanings of the sentences above are the same, even if the sequences of the clauses are different. Here are more examples: 㫊㦖G 㔶ⶎ㦚G 㧓ἶG 㑮㧪㦖G 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚G ⽦㣪. “As for John, (he) reads newspaper, and as for Susan, (she) watches TV.” 㞺㧊G㧒⽎㦒⪲GṖἶG䐆㧊G䞲ῃ㦒⪲GṖ㣪. “Ann goes to Japan, and Tom goes to Korea.” ⲎⰂṖG㞚䝚ἶG㫎⩺㣪. “(My) head aches, and (I) am sleepy.” 㞺✲⮮ṖG㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒G㩚Ὃ䞮ἶG㧊㌂⻾㧊G䝚⧧㓺㠊⯒G㩚Ὃ䟊㣪. “Andrew majors in Spanish, and Isabel majors in French.” Second, ~ἶ links two sequential actions or events, equivalent to “and then” in English. Consider the following examples: 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ἶ 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) do the homework and then eat lunch.” 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㑯㩲⯒ 䟊㣪. “(I) eat lunch and then do the homework.” Notice that ~ἶ indicates the order of the action. In other words, the change in the sequence of the clauses generates a different meaning. Here are more examples: 85


10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

㩖⎗㦚 ⲏἶ ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺. “(I) eat dinner and then go to a bookstore.” ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧦㣪? “Do (you) take a shower and then go to bed?” ㏦㦚 㞑ἶ 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Wash (your) hands and then cook.” 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) meet (our) friends and then go home.” ~ἶ is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following examples: 㞚䂾㦚GⲏἶG㤆㼊ῃ㠦GṪ㠊㣪. “(I) ate breakfast and then went to the post office.” 㠊㩲⓪G ⋶㝾ṖG 䦦ⰂἶG 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “As for yesterday, the weather was cloudy and cold.” Notice that both sentences are about the past action and state. However, the past tense is not marked by the ~ἶ ending clauses but by the main clauses.

~(㦒)Ⳇ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳇ means “and” or “while.” It is a two-form ending: ~㦒Ⳇ is used when the preceding stem ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒Ⳇ “eat and”); ~Ⳇ is used when the preceding stem ends in a vowel (e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮Ⳇ “teach and”). Verbs/adjectives ⲏ┺ “eat” ⹕┺ “believe” 㧷┺ “catch” 㫡┺ “good” Ⱔ┺ “many” Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ┺ “go” ⽊┺ “see” ₆㊮┺ “glad” 䋂┺ “big”

86

Stem + (㦒)Ⳇ ⲏ㦒Ⳇ ⹕㦒Ⳇ 㧷㦒Ⳇ 㫡㦒Ⳇ Ⱔ㦒Ⳇ Ṗ⯊䂮Ⳇ ṖⳆ ⽊Ⳇ ₆㊮Ⳇ 䋂Ⳇ

The meaning of ~(㦒)Ⳇ is similar to that of ~ἶ since both connect two actions or states. However, while ~ἶ can indicate both the non-sequential as well as sequential actions/states (e.g., “and” and “and then”), ~(㦒)Ⳇ indicates only non-sequential actions/states. In addition, while ~ἶ is widely used both in spoken and written communication, ~(㦒)ⳆGtends to be used only in writing. Consider the following sentences:


䞚Ⱃ㦖Gἓ㩲䞯㦚G㩚Ὃ䞮ⳆG㺆㓺⓪G㕂Ⰲ䞯㦚G㩚Ὃ䞿┞┺. “As for Philip, (he) majors in economics, and as for Charles, (he) majors in psychology.” Ⰲ㌂⓪G 㨂㯞⯒G 㫡㞚䞮ⳆG 㩲㧚㓺⓪G 䋊⧮㔳㦚G 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for Lisa, (she) likes jazz, and as for James, (he) likes classic.”

~Ệ⋮

㡺⓮㦖 ⹪⧢㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⿞Ⳇ 㿻Ỷ㔋┞┺. “As for today, (it) will be very windy and cold.” 㧊G 㢍㦖G 㢍Ṧ㧊G 㫡㦒ⳆG ❪㧦㧎㧊G 㡞㊿┞┺. “As for this dress, the fabric is good, and the design is pretty.” 㤆㼊ῃ㧊G 㣒㴓㠦G 㧞㦒ⳆG Ὃ㤦㧊G 㡺⯎㴓㠦G 㧞㠊㣪. “The post office is on the left side, and the park is on the right side.” 㠦✲㤢✲⓪G 䃦⋮┺G ㌂⧢㧊ⳆG ⰞⰂ㡺⓪G ⲫ㔲䆪G ㌂⧢㧊㠦㣪. “As for Edward, (he) is a Canadian, and as for Mario, (he) is a Mexican.” Notice in the examples above that ~(㦒)Ⳇ simply links two separate and/or non-sequential actions or states. When the subjects of both clauses are the same, ~(㦒)Ⳇ indicates that two or more actions or events occur simultaneously. Consider the following examples: ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳇ 㧊㟒₆䟊㣪. “(We) talk while drinking beer.” ⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 㦢㞛㦚 ✺㦒Ⳇ 㫆ₛ㦚 䟊㣪. “Grace jogs, while listening to music.” Note in the above examples that ~(㦒)Ⳇ is translated as “while” rather than “and” in English. ~(㦒)Ⳇ is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense, as shown below: ᾦ㑮┮㦮 ṫ㦮⯒ ✺㦒Ⳇ ⏎䔎⯒ 㩗㠞㠊㣪. “While listening to the professor’s lecture, (I) took notes.” 㿺㦚 㿪Ⳇ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿞⩖㠊㣪? “Did (you) sing, dancing?” Notice in the examples that only the main clauses are conjugated for the past tense.

~Ệ⋮ Ệ⋮ The clausal conjunctive ~Ệ⋮ is used to list two or more actions/states. It is equivalent to “or” in English, as shown in the following examples: 䏶㣪㧒㠦⓪ ⽊䐋 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 㰧㠦㍲ 㓂㠊㣪. “As for Saturday, (I) normally see a movie with (my) friends or take a rest at home.”

87


10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

㞚䝚Ệ⋮ 䞒Ἲ䞶 ➢ 㰧 ㌳ṗ䟊㣪? “When (you) are sick or tired, do (you) think about (your) home?” 䞒䎆㦮 㞚⻚㰖Ṗ ㍶㌳┮㧊Ệ⋮ Ὃⶊ㤦㧒 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I guess that) Peter’s father is either a teacher or a government officer.” 㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚G⽊⌊Ệ⋮G㩚䢪⯒G䞮㎎㣪. “Send (him) an e-mail or give (him) a call.” ☚㍲ὖ㠦G ṖỆ⋮G 䄺䞒㑣㠦G ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the library or the coffee shop.” ~Ệ⋮ may imply that the actions or states listed by the conjunctive are trivial, while the predicate or the content of the main clause is essential. In such case, ~Ệ⋮ is translated as “whether . . . or” in English. Consider the following example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻Ệ⋮G ▻Ệ⋮ ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊㣪. “Whether the weather is cold or hot, (I) run everyday.” Notice that the two states denoted by two adjectives, 㿻┺ “cold” and ▻┺ “hot,” are trivial, whereas the predicate of the main clause, ⥆┺ “run” is important. Here are more examples: ⰱ㧞Ệ⋮ ⰱ㠜Ệ⋮ ⺆ ἶ䝚Ⳋ 㞚ⶊỆ⋮ ⲏ㠊㣪. “Whether (it) is delicious or not, (we) eat anything if (we) are hungry.” 㠊⪋Ệ⋮G 㓓Ệ⋮ 㡊㕂䧞 ⺆㤎⧮㣪? “Whether (it) is hard or easy, will (you) learn (it) enthusiastically?” {}⯒G⽊Ệ⋮G㧦Ệ⋮ 㡺䤚 ^ 㔲₢㰖 㰧㠦 㧞㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Stay home until 7 p.m., whether (you) watch TV or sleep.” 㔂䝚Ệ⋮ ₆㊮Ệ⋮ 㠎㩲⋮ 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Whether (you) are sad or happy, call (me) anytime.” ゚ṖG㡺Ệ⋮G⑞㧊G㡺Ệ⋮ ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞿㔲┺. “Whether (it) rains or snows, (let us) exercise everyday.”

~✶㰖 ✶㰖 The clausal conjunctive ~✶㰖 is used to list a series of selections or to imply an unenthusiastic or indifferent attitude toward the selections. It can be translated in English as “or,” “no matter,” and/or “regardless.” Consider the following example:

88

䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲✶㰖 㞚㧊㓺䋂Ⱂ㦚 ⲏ✶㰖 ⶪṖ 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) order something, whether (we) drink coffee or eat ice creams.”


Notice in the example above that ~✶㰖 enumerates two activities (e.g., drinking coffee and eating ice creams). However, it also implies that the speaker is not enthusiastic about these activities. Here are more examples:

Key vocabulary for Unit 10 exercises

⌊㧒 ゚Ṗ 㡺✶㰖 ⑞㧊 㡺✶㰖 㡞㩫╖⪲ 㰚䟟䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺. “(We) will proceed (the event) according to the schedule, regardless (it) rains or snows tomorrow.” ⁎ 㢍㧊 ⹪㕎✶㰖G 㕎✶㰖 Ↄ ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please buy (me) that dress whether (it) is expensive or inexpensive.” ⁎ 㞚㧊✺㦖 㡜㠦 ㌂⧢㧊 㧞✶㰖G㠜✶㰖 䟃㌗ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “As for those kids, (they) are always noisy, whether people are around or not.” 㠊❪⯒ Ṗ✶㰖 ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮✶㰖 Ịṫ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Wherever (you) go and whatever (you) do, be healthy.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 10 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṟ㞚㧛┺ to change (clothes) ₎┺ to be long ↙ flowers ⋶㞂䞮┺ to be slim ⋶㝾 weather ⌊┺ to pay out ♒㰖ἶ₆ pork ➖ sweat Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⰱ㠜┺ to be tasteless ⲎⰂ head/hair (of the head) ⲏ┺ to eat ⹪╍Ṗ beach ⹿ room ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ⽊䐋 usually ゚ rain ㌂┺ to buy ㌆ mountain ㌊ age ㎇ỿ personality

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10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

㎎㑮 face washing ㏢ἶ₆ beef ㏢Ⰲ sound/noise 㑯㩲 homework 㔲㤦䞮┺ to be cool/to be refreshing 㔶ⶎ newspapers 㕎┺ to be cheap 㝆┺ to use 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㠎㩲 when 㠒Ὴ face 㡗䢪 movie 㡞㊮┺ to be pretty 㢍 clothes 㣎㔳 dining out 㤎┺ to cry 㦮㌂ doctor 㧎䎆⎍ internet 㧓┺ to read 㧧┺ to be small 㩖⎗ dinner/evening 㫡┺ to be good 㰖⯊┺ to cry out 㰖⿞䞮┺ to pay 㹿䞮┺ to be good/to be kindhearted 㿻┺ to be cold 䂮┺ to play/to strike 䂲㩞䞮┺ to be kind 䋂┺ to be big 䋺 height 䡚⁞ cash 䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy 䦮Ⰲ┺ to spill/to drop

Exercise 10.1 Complete the following translation using ~ἶ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.

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Example: “(I) will listen to (my) friend’s story and then decide.” (㩲 䂲ῂ㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ✹┺ / ἆ㩫䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺) = 㩲 䂲ῂ㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ✹ἶ ἆ㩫䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺.


1 (I) eat breakfast and then exercise (㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㤊☯䞿┞┺) 2 Brush (your) teeth and then go to bed (㧊⯒ ┼┺ / 㧦㣪) 3 Do (you) ask the teacher first and then go to the restroom? (㍶㌳┮ 䞲䎢 Ⲓ㩖 ⶒ㠊 ⽊┺ / 䢪㧻㔺㠦 ṧ┞₢?) 4 (Let us) leave after making a reservation (㡞㟓㦚 䞮┺ / ⟶⋿㔲┺) 5 (I) want to get a job after graduating from college (╖䞯ᾦ⯒ 㫎㠛䞮┺ / 䀾㰗䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪) 6 As for Susan, (her) eyes are big and (she) is quiet (㑮㧪㦖 ⑞㧊 䋂┺ / 㫆㣿䟊㣪) 7 As for Tim, (his) voice is good and (he) has humor (䕖㦖 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 㫡 ┺ / 㥶ⲎṖ 㧞㠊㣪) 8 As for Andrew, (he) is humble and diligent (㞺✲⮮⓪ Ἆ㏦䞮┺ / ⿖㰖 ⩆䟊㣪)

Exercise 10.2

Exercise 10.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~ἶ. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩖⎗㦚 Ⲓ㩖 ⲏ┺ / 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? = 㩖⎗㦚 Ⲓ㩖 ⲏἶ 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) eat dinner first and then do (your) homework?” 1 2 3 4 5

㎎㑮⯒ 䞮┺ / 㢍㦚 Ṟ㞚 㧛㦒㎎㣪 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / 㧎䎆⎍㦚 㝆Ỷ㠊㣪 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺ 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺ / 㠒Ὴ㧊 㧧㞮㠊㣪 㫊㧊 31 ㌊㧊┺ / 㦮㌂㧛┞┺

Exercise 10.3 Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳇ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The subway is convenient and fast.” (㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮┺ / ザ⯛┞┺) = 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮Ⳇ ザ⯛┞┺. 1 Paul’s voice is loud and soft (䙊㦮 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 䋂┺ / ⿖✲⩓㔋┞┺) 2 James is a scientist and an inventor (㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ὒ䞯㧦㧊┺ / ⹲ⳛṖ㧛 ┞┺) 3 Wendy is an actress and a singer (㥂❪Ṗ ⺆㤆㧊┺ / Ṗ㑮㧛┞┺)

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10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

4 Today’s weather is clear and cool (㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ┺ / ㍶㍶䞿┞┺) 5 That school is good and famous (⁎ 䞯ᾦṖ 㫡┺ / 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺) 6 Train is safe and convenient (₆㹾Ṗ 㞞㩚䞮┺ / 䘎䞿┞┺)

Exercise 10.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳇ. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䡂⩢㧊 㤙┺ / 㧊㟒₆䟞㠊㣪 = 䠦⩢㧊 㤙㦒Ⳇ 㧊㟒₆䟞㠊㣪. “Helen talked, smiling.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓ἶ 㧞㠊㣪 ⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪 Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪 㠦㓺▪Ṗ ➖㦚 䦮Ⰲ┺ / 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ 㤎┺ / ㏢Ⰲ 㰞⩖㠊㣪 ┞䆲㧊 ⋶㞂䞮┺ / 㹿䟊㣪 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ 㡞㊮┺ / ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㞚㣪 ⪲⧒⓪ ⲎⰂṖ ₎┺ / 䂲㩞䟞㠊㣪 ㍲㤎㦖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / ゚Ṗ 㡺Ỷ㠊㣪 㧊 ⹿㧊 䋂┺ / 㔲㤦䟊㣪

Exercise 10.5 Complete the following translation using ~Ệ⋮ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) will buy (it) whether (it) is cheap or expensive.” (㕎┺ / ゚㕎┺ / ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪) = 㕎Ệ⋮ ゚㕎Ệ⋮ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪.

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1 (He) is (my) older brother whether (he) is a rich man or a beggar (⿖㧦㧊┺ / Ệ㰖㧊┺ / 㩲 䡫㧊㠦㣪) 2 (I) want to study Korean whether (it) is difficult or easy (㠊⪋┺ / 㓓┺ / 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪) 3 (I) will wait (for her), whether (she) comes or not (㡺┺ / 㞞 㡺┺ / ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪) 4 (I) will try asking (him), whether (he will) lend (it to me) or not (ア⩺ 㭒┺ / 㞞 ア⩺㭒┺ / ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪) 5 Watch that drama again whether (it) is interesting or dull (㨂⹎㧞┺ / 㨂⹎㠜┺ / ⁎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ┺㔲 ⽊㕃㔲㡺)


Exercise 10.6

Exercise 10.6

Connect the following two sentences using ~Ệ⋮. Then translate the sentence. Example: {} ⯒ ⽊┺ / 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝎 Ệ㡞㣪 = {} ⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝎 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will watch TV or use the computer.” 1 2 3 4 5

⽊䐋G㠎㩲G㡗䢪⯒G⽊┺G/G㣎㔳㦚G䞿┞₢? ↙㦚G㌂┺G/G䅖㧊䋂⯒GⰢ✲㕃㔲㡺 㞚䂾㠦G㫆ₛ㦚G䞮┺G/G㣪Ṗ⯒G䟊㣪 䡚⁞㦒⪲G⌊┺G/G䃊✲⪲G㰖⿞䞶GỆ㡞㣪 ㌆㦒⪲GṖ┺G/G⹪╍Ṗ⪲Gṧ㔲┺

Exercise 10.7 Complete the following translation using ~✶㰖 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(Let us) clean the room or do the laundry.” (⹿㦚G㼃㏢䞮┺G/Gゾ⧮⯒G䞿㔲┺) = ⹿㦚G㼃㏢䞮✶㰖Gゾ⧮⯒G䞿㔲┺. 1 (We) will eat lunch or drink coffee (㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞 㣪) 2 (Let us) go home or a coffee shop (㰧㠦 Ṗ┺ / 䄺䞒㑣㠦Gṧ㔲┺) 3 Drink apple juice or tomato juice (㌂ὒ 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 䏶Ⱎ䏶 㭒㓺 ⯒ Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪) 4 (Let us) see an action movie or a horror movie (㞷㎮ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ / Ὃ䙂 㡗䢪⯒ ⽛㔲┺) 5 (We) will play tennis whether (it) is cold or hot (㿻┺ / ▻┺ / 䎢┞ 㓺⯒ 䂶 Ệ㡞㣪)

Exercise 10.8 Connect the following two sentences using ~✶㰖. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㦖䟟㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. = 㦖䟟㠦 Ṗ✶㰖 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go to the bank or the post office.”

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10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)

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1 2 3 4 5

䆲⧒⯒G㌂┺G/G㭒㓺⯒G㌂Ỷ㠊㣪U ㏢ἶ₆⯒Gⲏ┺G/G♒㰖ἶ₆⯒Gⲏ㦣㔲┺U 䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲┺G/G䅖㧊䋂⯒Gⲏ㠊㣪U ⋶㝾ṖG䦦Ⰲ┺G/G㿪㤎GỆ㡞㣪U 㔶ⶎ㦚G㧓┺ / {} ⯒G⽒GỆ㡞㣪U


UNIT 11 Clausal conjunctives (time)

~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ Ⳋ㍲ The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲Gis used when two actions (or states) are carried out simultaneously by the same subject. It corresponds to “while” in English. ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is a two-form ending: ~㦒Ⳋ㍲ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ “while eating”); ~Ⳋ㍲ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ “while drinking”). 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(He) is seeing a movie, eating popcorn.” 㤊㩚䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㩚䢪䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪? “Are (you) calling (someone), while driving?” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ 㧊㟒₆䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Talk, drinking coffee.” 䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊Ⳋ㍲ ṯ㧊 Ỏ㦒㕃㔲┺. “(Let us) walk together, singing Korean songs.” ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮Ⳋ㍲ Ṩ㧊 㕎㣪. “While the design is pretty, the price is inexpensive.” 㧊 㰧㧊 䋂Ⳋ㍲ 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲☚ Ṗ₢㤢㣪. “While this house is big, (it) is also near from school.” 㦢㔳㧊 ゚㕎Ⳋ㍲ ㍲゚㓺☚ ⋮ザ㣪. “While (their) food is expensive, (their) service is also bad.” ῆ㧎㧊Ⳋ㍲ 䞯㌳㧊㠦㣪. “While (he) is a military man, (he) is a student.” ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following examples: ☞㦚 ⻢Ⳋ㍲ ╖䞯㠦 ┺⎪㠊㣪. “(I) attended the college, while earning money.” 䘎㰖⯒ 㧓㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㤎㠞㠊㣪? “Did (she) cry, while reading the letter?” ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌳ṗ䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㧊 ㌂㰚✺㦚 ⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) was looking at these pictures, while thinking about that friend.”

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Notice in the examples above that only the predicates of the main clauses are conjugated for the tense. ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is often used for disapproving, criticizing or complaining. This is when two simultaneous actions or states, connected by ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲, are disagreeing or inconsonant each other. Consider the following example: Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞G䞮Ⳋ㍲ h ⯒ ⹱ἶ 㕌㠊䟊㣪. “While (he) does not study, (he) wants to receive an A.” Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., not studying) and that of the main clause (want to receive an A) are inconsonant each other. In addition, the sentence is a speech act of complaining or disapproving. Here are more examples: 㩲㧒 ⏨㦖 ⽟ 㦚 ⹱㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㔺⩻㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “While (he) receives the highest salary, (he) does not have any merit.” 㰗㠛☚ 㠜㦒Ⳋ㍲ ゚㕒 㹾Ⱒ 㺔㞚㣪. “While (he) does not even have a job, (he) only looks for expensive cars.”

~㧦Ⱎ㧦 㧦Ⱎ㧦 The clausal conjunctive ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 means “as soon as” or “immediately after.” ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 is subject to the following restrictions. First, it must be used only with verbs, as shown below: 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㰧㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go home as soon as (I) finish with (my) work.” 㧒㠊⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㌺㤢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) take a shower as soon as (you) get up?” Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “Contact (them) as soon as (you) arrive in the airport.” Second, it is not conjugated for the tense. 㥶┞㓺ṖG⹿㠦G✺㠊㡺㧦Ⱎ㧦G䞒䎆ṖG㩚❇㦚G䆆㠊㣪. “Peter turned the electric lamp on as soon as Eunice entered the room.” 䘎㰖⯒ 㧓㧦Ⱎ㧦 㤎㠞㠊㣪. “(She) cried as soon as (she) read the letter.” ㏢㔳㦚 ✹㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) went outside as soon as (he) heard the news.”

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Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated for the tense.


~┺Ṗ ┺Ṗ

~┺Ṗ

The clausal conjunctive ~┺ṖGis used to express the shift in action or state. When it is attached to a verb stem, it indicates that the subject shifts his/ her action to another. Consider the following examples: 㺛㦚 㧓┺Ṗ 㧺㠊㣪. “As (I) read the book, (I) slept.” 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺Ṗ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪. “On my way to school, (I) stopped by the supermarket.” Notice in the examples above that the subjects shifted certain actions (e.g., reading, going to school) to another actions (e.g., sleeping, stopping by the supermarket). Here are more examples: XW ⿚ 㩚₢㰖 ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺Ṗ 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) waited for that friend until 10 minutes ago and then went home.” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “While drinking coffee, (I) met (my) friends.” 㤆㼊ῃ㠦GṖ┺ṖGⶊ㠝㦚G㌖㠊㣪? “What did (you) buy on (your) way to the post office?” ⥆┺Ṗ XW ⿚ 㩫☚ 㓂㎎㣪. “Run and then rest about 10 minutes.” ⲪⓊ⯒ ⽊┺Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) look at the menu and then order food.” When ~┺Ṗ is attached to an adjective stem, it indicates the shift in state to another. Consider the following example: ⰱ㧊 㕇ỗ┺Ṗ 㰲㣪. “The taste was watery and then (it) is salty (now).” Notice in the example above that there was a shift in the state (e.g., from “being watery” to “being salty”). The first state is no longer in effect in favor of the second state. Here are more examples: 㡺㩚₢㰖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺Ṗ 㰖⁞㦖 䦦Ⱃ┞┺. “The weather was good until a.m. and then (it) is cloudy now.” 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 㩚₢㰖 ゚㕎┺Ṗ XY 㤪G Y] 㧒⿖䎆⓪ 㕎㪢㠊㣪. “(They) were expensive before Christmas but then (they) became inexpensive (starting) from December 26.” The use of the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is optional for ~┺Ṗ. If the speaker wishes to highlight the past action rather than the shift in the action, he/she can optionally use the past tense marker. Compare the following two sentenes:

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11 Clausal conjunctives (time)

䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ✺㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “On (my) way to school, (I) met (my) friends.” 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ✺㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) went to school and then met (my) friends.” Notice that there is a subtle meaning difference between the two sentences: While the first sentence simply indicates the shift in the action, the second sentence highlights the completed past action that took place before the shift of the action took place. Here are more examples: 㟓㏣㦚 䟞┺Ṗ 䀾㏢䟞㠊㣪. “(I) made a promise and then (I) cancelled (it).” 㠊❪ Ṫ┺Ṗ 㡺㎾㠊㣪? “Where did you go and come back?” 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ㌖┺Ṗ 䕪㞮㠊㣪. “(We) bought the computer and then sold (it).” 㩚❇㦚 䆆┺ṖGΩ┺Ṗ ⁎⧮㣪. “(They) do things like turning the electric lamp on and off.” 㠎㩲 ╖㌂ὖ㠦 Ṫ┺Ṗ 㢪㠊㣪? “When did (you) go to the embassy and come back?”

~┺Ṗ⓪ The topic particle ⓪ can be optionally attached to the conjunctive ~┺Ṗ. ~┺Ṗ⓪ is used to warn about the action or state of the prior clause. Consider the following examples: ⰺ㧒G㑶㦚GⰞ㔲┺Ṗ⓪GỊṫ㦚G䟊䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) drink alcohol everyday, (you) can harm (your) health.” 㿪㤊G⋶㝾㠦G⹬㠦㍲G㡺⧮G㤊☯䞮┺Ṗ⓪GṦ₆GỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) exercise for a long time under the cold weather outside, (you) can catch a cold.” Notice in the examples above that ~┺Ṗ⓪ indicates that the continual action of the first clause may generate an unpleasant or troublesome consequence.

~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ

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The combination of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “intending to” with ~┺Ṗ creates a new clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ. The conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ is used when one tries to do something but comes across another situation. It indicates that the intentional action of the first clause was never actualized, but the action of the main clause was realized instead. Consider the following example:


㰧㠦 Ṗ⩺┺Ṗ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. “As (I) intended to go home, (I) went to a bookstore.”

Key vocabulary for Unit 11 exercises

Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., going home) was never actualized. Instead, the action of the main clause was realized. Here are more examples: Ṳ⯒ 㧷㦒⩺┺Ṗ ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪. “As (I) intended to catch the dog, (I) fell (on the ground).” ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ⩺┺Ṗ ₎㠦㍲ 㩲㧚㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮㍲ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “As (I) intended to go to the library, (I) met James on the street and had dinner together.” 䝚Ⰶ䎆⯒G ㌂⩺┺ṖG ╖㔶G 䅊䜾䎆⯒G ㌖㠊㣪. “As (we) intended to buy a printer, (we) bought a computer instead.” ⶊ㠝㦚 䕪⩺┺Ṗ ⴑ 䕪㞮㠊㣪? “What did (you) intend to sell, but could not sell?”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 11 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ệ㰖 beggar ọ┺ to walk Ἒ┾ stairs Ἒ㏣ continually Ἶ┺ to snore ₎ road ₾┺ to break/to smash ⍮㠊㰖┺ to fall (down over) ⏎⧮ song ⏖┺ to play/to amuse ╖䞯 college ☞ money ♮┺ to become/to get to/to elapse ⟾㠊㰖┺ to fall/to drop Ⱔ㧊 a lot ⲏ┺ to eat Ⲟ㿪┺ to stop ⶊ㠎Ṗ something ⹪∎┺ to change ⺆䌞⋮┺ to have a stomachache

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11 Clausal conjunctives (time)

⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ㌂┺ to buy ㌊㹢┺ to gain weight ㎎㑮 face washing 㔲䋺┺ to order 㔲䠮 test/exam 㔶ⶎ newspapers 㝆┺ to use 㟧䂮㰞 brushing teeth 㡊㕂䧞 hard/earnestly/enthusiastically 㡗䢪 movie 㡺⯎㴓 right side 㢂⧒Ṗ┺ to climb/to go up 㣪Ⰲ cooking 㤎┺ to cry 㤙┺ to smile 㧊㌂ (house) moving 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧓┺ to read 㧦┺ to sleep 㩚㠦 before 㩦㕂 lunch 㩧㔲 dish 㫎┺ to doze off 㫎㠛䞮┺ to graduate 㭒㏢ address 㭧㠒ỆⰂ┺ to mutter/to murmur 㴩Ỿ⋮┺ to be expelled 㹾 car 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 㺛 book 䢒㧦 alone 䣢㌂ company/firm

Exercise 11.1 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. 100


Example: “Do not chew a gum, while working.” (㧒䞮┺ / ™㦚 㞏㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) = 㧒䞮Ⳋ㍲ ™㦚 㞏㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.

Exercise 11.2

1 (She) is calling (someone), crying (㤎┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪) 2 Will (you) make friends while traveling? (㡂䟟㦚 䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂„ Ệ 㡞㣪?) 3 Do not fall from the bed, while getting up (㧒㠊⋮┺ / 䂾╖㠦㍲ ⟾㠊 㰖㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺) 4 (Let us) not break dishes while cooking (㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ / 㩧㔲⯒G ₾⥾Ⰲ㰖G Ⱟ㔲┺) 5 Did (you) fall, while riding a bike? (㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖┺ / ⍮㠊㪢㔋┞₢?)

Exercise 11.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㤊㩚㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪 = 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ 㤊㩚㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am driving, while drinking coffee.” 1 2 3 4 5

䐆䞮ἶG㩲ⰂṖG㤙┺G/G㧊㟒₆䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪 㓺䕆ぢṖG㺛㦚G㧓┺G/G䢒㧦G㭧㠒Ệ⩺㣪 ⬾㧊㓺ṖG㧦┺G/G䆪⯒GἾ㞮㠊㣪 䟊ⰂṖG⏎⧮⯒G䞮┺G/G㌺㤢⯒G䟊㣪 㫆❪ṖG₎㦚Gọ┺G/Gⶊ㠎ṖG㺔ἶG㧞㠞㠊㣪

Exercise 11.3 Finish the following translation using ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(He) danced as soon as (he) wore shoes.” (㔶⹲㦚G㔶┺G/G㿺㦚G䀚㠊㣪) = 㔶⹲㦚G㔶㧦Ⱎ㧦G㿺㦚G䀚㠊㣪. 1 (I) want to get married as soon as (I) get a job (䀾㰗䞮┺ / ἆ䢒䞮ἶ 㕌㔋┞┺) 2 (She) cried as soon as (she) met (her) boyfriend (⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮ ┺ / 㤎㠞㠊㣪) 101


11 Clausal conjunctives (time)

3 (He) will snore as soon as (he) lies down on the bed (䂾╖㠦G ⑫┺ / 䆪⯒ Ἶ Ệ㡞㣪) 4 What do (you) want to do as soon as (you) graduate from college? (╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮┺ / ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪?) 5 Call (your) older sister as soon as (you) arrive in London (⩆▮㠦G ☚㹿䞮┺ / ⑚⋮䞲䎢G㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺) 6 (Let us) buy (some) popcorn as soon as (we) enter the theatre (㡗䢪 ὖ㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ┺ / 䕳䆮㦚 ㌓㔲┺)

Exercise 11.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~㧦Ⱎ㧦. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṫ㠊㣪 = 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) returned to the office, as soon as (he) drank coffee.” 1 2 3 4 5

㧒㠊⋮┺G/G㎎㑮⯒G䞿┞┺ ㌞G㰧㦒⪲G㧊㌂⯒G䞮┺G/G㭒㏢⯒G⹪∾㠊㣪 ╖䞯㦚G㫎㠛䞮┺G/G㹾⯒G㌊GỆ㡞㣪? 㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ┺G/G䄺䞒⯒G㔲䌋㔲┺ ㎎㑮⯒G䞮┺G/G㟧䂮㰞㦚G䞮㕃㔲㡺

Exercise 11.5 Finish the following translation using ~┺Ṗ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “As (I) did laundry, (I) answered the phone.” (ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪) = ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺Ṗ 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪.

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1 (I) watched TV and then slept (䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊┺ / 㧺㠊㣪) 2 As (he) bought vegetables in the supermarket and (he) ran into (his) friend (㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦㍲G㟒㺚⯒G㌂┺ / 䂲ῂ㢖GⰞ㭒㼺㠊㣪) 3 As (she) opened the door, (she) got (her) wrist injured (ⶎ㦚 㡊┺ / ㏦⳿㦚G┺㼺㠊㣪) 4 As (he) played basketball, (he) sprained (his) ankle (⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺ / ⹲⳿㦚 ㋦㠞㠊㣪) 5 (I) wrote a letter and then went to the restroom (䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺ / 䢪㧻㔺 㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪)


Exercise 11.6

Exercise 11.6

Connect the following two sentences using ~┺Ṗ. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. = 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺Ṗ 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “As (he) ate lunch, (he) answered the phone.” 1 2 3 4 5

㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺ / 㫎㞮㠊㣪 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ / 㤎㠞㠊㣪 㡺⯎㴓㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / Ⲟ㿪㎎㣪 Ἒ┾㦚 㢂⧒Ṗ┺ / ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪? ⑚Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩧㔲⯒ ⃒㠊㣪?

Exercise 11.7 Finish the following translation using ~┺Ṗ⓪ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “If (you) leave late, (you) can miss the bus.” (⓼Ợ ⟶⋮┺ / ⻚㓺⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) = ⓼Ợ ⟶⋮┺Ṗ⓪ ⻚㓺⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. 1 If (you) do not study hard, (you) cannot enter college (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䞮┺ / ╖䞯㠦 ⴑ ✺㠊Ṗ㣪) 2 If (you) continue to smoke, (you) can get a cancer (╊⺆⯒ Ἒ㏣ 䞒㤆 ┺ / 㞪㠦 ỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) 3 If (you) overspeed, an accident may occur (ὒ㏣㦚 䞮┺ / ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ Ệ 㡞㣪) 4 If (you) do not contact (each other), (you) can end up forgetting each other (㡆⧓㦚 㞞 䞮┺ / ㍲⪲ 㧠㠊 ⻚Ⰺ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) 5 If (you) continue to turn down, (you) can miss an opportunity (Ἒ㏣ Ệ 㩞䞮┺ / ₆䣢⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪) 6 If (he) drinks whisky everyday, (he) may become an alcoholic (ⰺ㧒 㥚 㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㞢䆲 㭧☛㧦Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪)

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Exercise 11.8

Clausal conjunctives (time)

Connect the following two sentences using ~┺Ṗ⓪. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 㡺⧮ ⽊┺ / 㔲⩻㧊 ⋮ザ㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪 = 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 㡺⧮ ⽊┺Ṗ⓪ 㔲⩻㧊 ⋮ザ㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) watch TV for a long time, (your) vision can become worse.” 1 2 3 4 5

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㧦₆G㩚㠦GⰤ㧊Gⲏ┺G/G㌊㹪GỆ㡞㣪 Ἒ㏣G⏖┺G/G㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㰞G㑮G㧞㠊㣪U ☞ⰢG㝆┺G/GỆ㰖ṖG♶GỆ㡞㣪U 㡊㕂䧞G㧒㦚G㞞G䞮┺G/G䣢㌂㠦㍲G㴩Ỿ⋶G㑮G㧞㠊㣪U Ⱔ㧊Gⲏ┺G/G⺆䌞⋶GỆ㡞㣪


UNIT 12 Clausal conjunctives (background)

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)ච◆ ච◆ Function The clausal conjunctive ~⓪ /(㦒)ච◆ is used to provide background information for the main clause. Consider the following example: 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪◆ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “(I) study Korean, and (it) is interesting.” In this example, the first clause 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “(I) study Korean” is the background information for the main clause 㨂⹎㧞┺ “(it) is interesting.” Here are more examples: 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤊◆ ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “The weather is cold tonight, so do not go outside.” 㩦㕂 ➢Ṗ ♦⓪◆ 㠊❪ Ṗ㍲ ⶪṖ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(It) has become lunchtime, so (let us) go somewhere and eat something.” 㧊⻞ 㭒㠦 㟓㏣㧊 㧞⓪◆ ┺㦢 㭒Ṗ 㠊➢㣪? “(I) have an appointment this week, so how about next week?” ⌊㧒₢㰖 㧒㦚 Ⱎ㼦㟒G䞮⓪◆ 䞮⋮☚ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) have to finish the work by tomorrow, but (I) have not done anything.” 㡺⓮㦖 ⹪㊲◆ ⌊㧒 Ⱒ⋿㔲┺. “As for today, (I) am busy, so (let us) meet tomorrow.”

How it is conjugated ~⓪◆ is used after a verb stem. Verb Ṗ┺ “go” ⺆㤆┺ “learn” Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ “cook”

Verb stem + ⓪◆ Ṗ⓪◆ ⺆㤆⓪◆ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪◆ 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪◆

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12 Clausal conjunctives (background)

Verb stem + ⓪◆ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪◆ ⲏ⓪◆ 㺔⓪◆ 㧞⓪◆ 㠜⓪◆

Verb Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” ⲏ┺ “eat” 㺔┺ “find” 㧞┺ “have/exist” 㠜┺ “not have/exist”

As for adjectives and copulas, ~㦖◆ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant, and ~ච◆ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel, as shown below: Adjective 㧧┺ “small” 㫡┺ “good” Ⱗ┺ “clear” 㿻┺ “cold” 㕎┺ “cheap” 䟟⽋䞮┺ “happy” 㧊㌗䞮┺ “strange”

Adjective stem + (㦒)ච◆ ච◆ 㧧㦖◆ 㫡㦖◆ Ⱗ㦖◆ 㿪㤊◆ 㕒◆ 䟟⽋䞲◆ 㧊㌗䞲◆

Copula 㧊┺ “be” 㞚┞┺ “be not”

Copula stem + (㦒)ච◆ ච◆ 㧎◆ 㞚┢◆

As for an adjective that is made of 㧞┺/㠜┺, such as 㨂⹎㧞┺ “interesting” and ⰱ㠜┺ “tasteless,” ~⓪◆ is used. Adjective 㨂⹎㠜┺ “uninteresting” ⰱ㧞┺ “delicious” ⲡ㧞┺ “stylish”

Adjective stem + ⓪◆ 㨂⹎㠜⓪◆ ⰱ㧞⓪◆ ⲡ㧞⓪◆

As for the past tense, ~⓪◆ is used after the past tense marker 㠞/㞮, and this applies to any predicate type, as shown below: Verb stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆ ⓪◆: 㠊㩲 䞲ῃ 㔳╏㠦 Ṫ⓪◆ ㏦┮ 㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) went to the Korean restaurant yesterday, and there were many customers.” Adjective stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆ ⓪◆: 㠊㩲 㿪㤶⓪◆ ㌂⧢㧊 Ⱔ 㞮㠊㣪. “(It) was cold yesterday, but there were many people.”

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Copula stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆ ⓪◆: 㧧⎚₢㰖 ἶ❇ 䞯㌳㧊㠞⓪◆ 㧊㩲 ╖䞯㌳㧊㠦㣪. “Until last year, (she) was a high school student, but (she) is a college student now.”


~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪 as a sentence ender

~⓪VO㦒P ච◆☚

In spoken communication, conjunctives often end a sentence. For instance, in a delicate or face-threatening communicative situation, such as expressing disagreement, requesting, complaining, and refusing, people often opt out of saying the main clause as a strategy to be indirect and polite (e.g., so that they may reduce the degree of imposition when requesting or they may not hurt the addressee’s feeling when refusing or complaining). For instance, consider the following dialogue: A: Can you come to my birthday party tonight? B: I have a test tomorrow so . . . (I will not be able to make it). Notice that the speaker B uses the ellipsis, leaving the main clause out. In a similar manner the English conjunctive “so” ends the first clause in the example above, ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆ may be used as a sentence ender. The politeness ending 㣪 is optionally attached to ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆, as in ~⓪/(㦒) ච◆㣪, to sound more polite. Consider the following dialogue: A: ⌊㧒 䕢䕆㠦 ṯ㧊 Ṟ⧮㣪? “Would (you) like to go to the party together tomorrow?” B: 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ ⹪㊲◆㣪. “(I) am busy this week (so).” Notice that the speaker B just provides background information (e.g., he/ she is busy), and opts out saying the main clause. In this way, the speaker B makes the speaker A figures out the implicit message (e.g., so I can’t go to the party tomorrow).

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)ච◆☚ ච◆☚ The combination of the conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆ and the particle ☚ “even/ also” is a new conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚ “although/despite (the fact that)/ even if.” Consider the following examples: 㧧㦖◆☚ ⹿㎎Ṗ ゚㕎㣪. “Although (it) is small, the room rent is expensive.” 㭒Ⱖ㧎◆☚ ㏦┮㧊 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (it) is a weekend, there are not many customers.” Ⱔ㧊 㧺⓪◆☚ 㞚㰗☚ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “Although (I) slept a lot, (I) am still tired.” 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞⓪◆☚ ⺆Ṗ 㡂㩚䧞 㞚䕢㣪. “Although (I) took the medicine, (my) stomach still aches.”

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12

Exercises

Clausal conjunctives (background)

Key vocabulary for Unit 12 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ⹿ bag/suitcase ṯ㧊 together ⁞⹿ just now/at once ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₆䌖 guitar ⊩㧊┺ to boil ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⍞ⶊ too much ┺㦢 next ☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive ☫┺ to help Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head) ⲏ┺ to eat ⳿Ⱎ⯊┺ to be thirsty ⶊỗ┺ to be heavy ⶊ㻯 very much/extremely ⶒ water ⹎ῃ U.S.A. ⹎㞞䞮┺ to be sorry ⹪㊮┺ to be busy ⹿ room ⺆㤆┺ to learn ⺇䢪㩦 department store ⿖㠢 kitchen ⿖䂮┺ to send/to mail ゚㕎┺ to be expensive アⰂ┺ to borrow

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㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㏢Ⰲ sound/noise ㏢䙂 parcel/package 㑮Ⰲ䞮┺ to fix/to repair 㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy 㞚䝚┺ to be sore 㟓 medicine 㠜┺ do not have/do not exist


㡆⧓ contact 㣪㯞㦢 nowadays 㦢㔳 food 㧞┺ to have/to exist

Exercise 12.1

㫖 a little/please 㭒 week 㭒┺ to give 㭚㧊┺ to reduce 㰖⁞ now 㰖⋲ last 㹾 car/tea 䅲┺ to switch on 㿻┺ to be cold 䂲ῂ friend 䞯ᾦ school 䞲ῃ Korea 䧞䎆 heater

Exercise 12.1 Finish the following translation using ~⓪◆ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(We) saw the movie, and (it) was really interesting.” (㡗䢪⯒ ⽺┺ / 㞚㭒 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪) = 㡗䢪⯒ ⽺⓪◆ 㞚㭒 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪. 1 (I) am chewing a gum, but (my) tooth aches (™㦚 㞏ἶ 㧞┺ / 㧊Ṗ 㞚䕢㣪) 2 (I) am sweeping the street, and will (you) help (me)? (₎㦚 㼃㏢䞮ἶ 㧞┺ / ☚㢖 㭚⧮㣪?) 3 (I) have to buy a gift, and (let us) go to the department store together (㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂㟒 䞮┺ / ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺) 4 (We) met Eric yesterday, but (he) was exactly the same as before (㠊㩲 㠦Ⰳ㦚 Ⱒ⌂┺ / 㩚䞮ἶ ⡧ṯ㞮㠊㣪) 5 (He) studied hard but (he) failed the exam (Ὃ⿖⯒ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞┺ / 㔲䠮 㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪)

Exercise 12.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪◆. Then translate the sentence.

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Example: 㰖⁞ 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞┺ / ₆┺⩺ 㭒㎎㣪. = 㰖⁞ 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞⓪◆ ₆┺⩺ 㭒㎎㣪. “(She) is eating breakfast now, so please wait.”

12 Clausal conjunctives (background)

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⿖㠢㦚 㑮Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧞┺ / ゚㕎㣪 㰖⁞ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺ / ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺ ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊ἶ 㧞┺ / Ⱎ㔺⧮㣪? ⺇䢪㩦㠦 Ṫ┺ / ㌂⧢✺㧊 ⍞ⶊ Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ㏢䙂⯒ ⿖㼺┺ / ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪?

Exercise 12.3 Finish the following translation using ~㠞/㞮⓪◆ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) was hungry, but (l) could not eat lunch.” (⺆Ṗ ἶ䝚┺ / 㩦㕂㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪) = ⺆Ṗ ἶ䕶⓪◆ 㩦㕂㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. 1 (She) was a student last year, but (she) is a teacher now (㧧⎚㠦 䞯㌳ 㧊㠞┺ / 㧊㩲 ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪) 2 There were many people before, but there are not many now. (㩚㠦 ㌂⧢✺㧊 Ⱔ㞮┺ / 㧊㩲 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪) 3 As for yesterday, (it) was hot, but as for today, (it) is cool (㠊㩲⓪ ▪㤶┺ / 㡺⓮㦖 ㍶㍶䟊㣪) 4 As for the price, (it) was cheap, but the quantity was small (Ṩ㦖 㕢┺ / 㟧㧊 㩗㠞㠊㣪) 5 The weather was bad, but there were many customers (⋶㝾Ṗ ⋮ナ ┺ / ㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪)

Exercise 12.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ච◆. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / ㌆㺛䞶₢㣪? = ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦖◆ ㌆㺛䞶₢㣪? “The weather is good, so shall (we) take a walk?”

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1 ₆䌖⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㕌┺ / ṯ㧊 ⺆㤗㔲┺ 2 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓 㧞㠊㣪? 3 Ṗ⹿㧊 ⶊỗ┺ / ☚㢖 㭒㔺⧮㣪?


4 㞺✲⮮⓪ ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺ / 㓺䗮㧎㠊☚ 㧮 䟊㣪 5 㣪㯞㦢 ⶊ㻯 ⹪㊮┺ / ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㡆⧓㭒㎎㣪

Exercise 12.5

Exercise 12.5 Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis and ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪, as shown in the example. Example: A: 㡺⓮ 㩖⎗ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒㎎㣪? B: __________________ (㩖⎗㠦 㧒䞮┺) = 㩖⎗㠦 㧒䞮⓪◆㣪 1 A: ⌊㧒 䕢䕆㠦 ṯ㧊 Ṟ₢㣪? B: ⹎㞞䟊㣪. __________________ (⌊㧒㦖 㫖 ⹪㊮┺) 2 A: ⶦ ⲏ㦚₢㣪? B: ____________________ (䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⲏἶ 㕌┺) 3 A: XW ╂⧒Ⱒ ア⩺ 㭚⧮㣪? B: ____________________ (\ ╂⧒⹬㠦 㠜┺) 4 A: _________________ (㞚㰗 㦢㔳㧊 㞞 ⋮㢪┺) B: 㬚㏷䞿┞┺. ⁞⹿ ⋮㢂 Ệ㡞㣪. 5 A: 㫖 ________________ (㔲⊚⩓┺) B: ⹎㞞䞿┞┺. ㏢Ⰲ⯒ 㭚㧊Ỷ㔋┞┺.

Exercise 12.6 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Although the house is big, the house rent is inexpensive.” (㰧㧊 䋂┺ / 㰧㎎Ṗ 㕎㣪) = 㰧㧊 䋆◆☚ 㰧㎎Ṗ 㕎㣪. 1 Although (he) is an English teacher, (he) can’t speak English well (㡗㠊 ㍶㌳┮㧊┺ / 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪) 2 Although the quantity is small, (it) is delicious (㟧㧊 㩗┺ / ⰱ㧞㠊㣪) 3 Although the salary is much, (I) will quit (it) (㤪 㧊 Ⱔ┺ / ⁎Ⱒ⚮ Ệ㡞㣪) 4 Although the test was hard, (he) passed (the test) (㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶┺ / 䞿ỿ䟞㠊㣪) 5 Although (they) were poor, (they) were happy (Ṗ⋲䟞┺ / 䟟⽋䟞 㠊㣪)

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12

Exercise 12.7

Clausal conjunctives (background)

Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / 㰧㠦 㧞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪? = ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦖◆☚ 㰧㠦 㧞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪? “Although the weather is nice, will (you) stay home?” 1 2 3 4 5

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㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞┺ / ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪 ⶒ㦚 ⚦ 䅋㧊⋮ Ⱎ㎾┺ / ⳿Ⱖ⧒㣪? ⁎ 㹾Ṗ ゚㕎┺ / ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪 䧞䎆⯒ 䆆┺ / ⹿㧊 㿪㤶㠊㣪 ☞㧊 㠜㠞┺ / ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪


UNIT 13 Clausal conjunctives (although)

~㰖Ⱒ 㰖ⰢG The clausal conjunctive ~㰖ⰢG is used to acknowledge the action and/or state of the first clause but to indicate something contrary or opposite to that of the main clause. It is equivalent to “but” or “although” in English. ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺㰖Ⱒ 㞞 㿪㤢㣪. “(It) snows a lot, but (it) is not cold.” 㰧㧊 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ Ⲗ㰖Ⱒ ᾦ䐋㧊 䘎䟊㣪. “Although the house is far from school, the traffic is convenient.” ~㰖Ⱒ is not subject to any restriction. For instance, it is conjugated for the tense, as shown below: 䞲ῃ㠦 ṖἶG 㕌㰖Ⱒ ☞㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (I) want to go to Korea, (I) do not have money.” 㧒⽎㠊⯒ ⺆㤶㰖Ⱒ 㧮 ⴑ 㧓㠞㠊㣪. “(I) learned Japanese, but (I) could not read (it) well.” Second, there is no subject agreement restriction. 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㰖Ⱒ 㧮 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) study hard, but (I) do not understand (it) well.” 㠎┞⓪ ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮㰖Ⱒ, 㩖⓪ 㧮 ⴑ 䟊㣪. “As for my older sister, (she) sings well, but as for me (I) cannot sing well.” Third, it may be used with any predicate type. ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㰖Ⱒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “(I) eat Kimchi, but (I) do not like (it).” ⴎ㧊 䞒Ἲ䞮㰖Ⱒ 䟟⽋䟊㣪. “Although (my) body is tired, (I) am happy.” 113


13 Clausal conjunctives (although)

䡫㦖 ἓ㺆ὖ㧊㰖Ⱒ 䡫㦮 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ⓪ ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪. “As for my older brother, (he) is a policeman, but as for his girlfriend, (she) is a teacher.” Finally, it can be used for all sentence types, as shown below: 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㰖Ⱒ h ⯒ ⴑ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Although (I) studied hard, (I) could not receive an A.” Ἵ ₆㹾Ṗ ☚㹿䞶GỆ㰖Ⱒ 㞞 ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪? “The train will arrive (here) soon, but won’t (you) wait?” Ṩ㦖 ゚㕎㰖Ⱒ ゾⰂ ㌂㎎㣪. “As for the price, (it) is expensive, but buy (it) immediately.” ⹬㠦 ゚Ṗ 㡺㰖Ⱒ ⋮ṧ㔲┺! “Although (it) rains outside, (let us) go out!”

~(㦒)⋮ ⋮G The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⋮ is used to indicate that the content of the first clause does not comply with that of the main clause. It is also equivalent to “but/although” in English. ~(㦒)⋮ is a two-form conjunctive: ~㦒 ⋮ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., 㧓㦒⋮ “read but”), and ~⋮ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., ⺆㤆⋮ “learn but”). In addition, just like ~㰖Ⱒ, ~(㦒)⋮ is not subject to any restriction. Ṗỿ㦖 ゚㕎⋮ ₆⓻㧊 Ⱔ㞚㣪. “As for the price, (it) is expensive, but (it) has many functions.” Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮ἶG 㕌㦒⋮ 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (I) want to play golf, (I) do not have time.” 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㠞㦒⋮ 㡂㩚䧞 ⺆Ṗ ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “Although (I) ate breakfast, (I) was still hungry.” ~(㦒)⋮ may be used with two or more clauses, before the main clause (e.g., ~㦒⋮ ~㦒⋮). In such cases ~(㦒)⋮Gis used to list selections of actions or states that have opposite meanings and to indicate that the content of the main clause happens regardless of the selections indicated by ~(㦒)⋮. Consider the following example: 㧊₆⋮ 㰖⋮ 㡊㕂䧞 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “Whether (we) win or lose, (we) will do (our) best.”

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Notice that ~(㦒)⋮ lists two activities that have opposite meanings (e.g., winning or losing), while the main clause occurs anyway regardless of the activities of the previous clauses. Here are more examples:


㯦Ệ㤆⋮G 㔂䝚⋮ ⿖㧎㦚 ㌂⧧䞮㔲Ỷ㔋┞₢? “Will (you) love (your) wife, whether (you) are happy or sad?” 㞟㦒⋮G㍲⋮ ╏㔶Ⱒ㦚 ㌳ṗ䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “Whether (I) sit or stand, (I) will think only of you.”

~㠊V㞚☚

~㠊V㞚☚ 㠊V㞚☚ The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚☚ is also equivalent to “but/although” in English. In addition, it is not subject to any restriction. ~㞚☚ is used after a stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊☚ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels. ⰺ㧒 㡆㔋䟊☚ 㔺⩻㧊 㞞 ⓮㠊㣪. “Although (I) practice (it) everyday, (my) skill does not make any progress.” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎪☚ 㫎⩺㣪? “(You) drink coffee a lot, but do (you) feel drowsy?” ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮☚ Ↄ 㡺㕃㔲㡺. “Come by all means, even if (you) get up late.” ☞㧊 㧞㠊☚ ㌂㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. “Although (we) have money, (let us) not buy (it).” ⴎ㧊 䞒Ἲ䟊☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪. “Although my body is exhausted, (I) am happy.” 䄺䞒⧒☚ 㫡㞚㣪. “Even if (it) be coffee, (it) is fine.” 㞚䂾㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠞㠊☚ 㡂㩚䧞 ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “Although (I) ate breakfast a lot, (I) was still hungry.” 㰧㧊 䣢㌂㠦㍲ Ⲗ㠞㠊☚ 㩖⓪ ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪. “Although the house was far from the company, (it) was fine with me.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 13 exercises Ṗ₳┺ to be near Ṗ┺ to go ệ㩫♮┺ to be anxious/to feel uneasy Ợ㦒⯊┺ to be lazy ἶ₆ meat ‖㡓┺ to be cute ₎┺ to be long ⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong ⌊㎇㩗 introvert ┺Ⰲ legs/bridge

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13 Clausal conjunctives (although)

❇⪳⁞ tuition ⡧⡧䞮┺ to be smart ⤇⤇䞮┺ to be chubby ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious ⱋ┺ to be spicy ⲏ┺ to eat Ⲗ┺ to be far ⹎ῃ U.S.A. ⽊⌊┺ to send ⺇䢪㩦 department store ゚㕎┺ to be expensive ㌂┺ to buy 㕎┺ to be cheap 㠊⪋┺ to be difficult 㠊Ⰲ┺ to be young/to be juvenile/to be immature 㡃 station 㡗ⶎ䞯 English literature 㡗㠊 English 㡺┺ to come 㢍 clothes 㥶䞯 studying abroad 㦢㔳 food 㧦㭒 often 㧧┺ to be small 㧮 well 㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting 㩚Ὃ䞮┺ to major in 㫡㞚䞮┺ to like 㰖䞮㻶 subway 㽞╖㧻 invitation 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺Gto be tall 䘎䞮┺ to be convenient 䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language 䢲⹲䞮┺ to be active

Exercise 13.1 Finish the following translation using ~㰖Ⱒ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.

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Example: “Although (it) is expensive, (it) is delicious.” (゚㕎┺ / ⰱ㧞 㠊㣪) = ゚㕎㰖Ⱒ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪.


1 Although Dave is in Seoul, (he) calls Barbara everyday (◆㧊ぢṖ ㍲ 㤎㠦 㧞┺ / ⹪⹪⧒䞲䎢 ⰺ㧒 㩚䢪䟊㣪) 2 Although the bag is big, (it) is light (Ṗ⹿㧊 䋂┺ / Ṗ⼒㤢㣪) 3 Although (I) want to go (there) together, (I) have an appointment (ṯ㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / 㟓㏣㧊 㧞㠊㣪) 4 Although (I) will take an exam tomorrow, (I) did not study (⌊㧒 㔲䠮 㦚 ⽒ Ệ┺ / Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪) 5 Although (it) was hot in summer, (it) was cold in winter (㡂⯚㠦 ▻㤶 ┺ / Ỿ㤎㠦 㿪㤶㠊㣪)

Exercise 13.2

Exercise 13.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~㰖Ⱒ. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㰖Ⱒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “Although (I) eat Chinese food, (I) do not like (it).” 1 2 3 4 5

䞲ῃ㠊⓪ 㠊⪋┺ / 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ 㥶䞯㦚 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / ❇⪳⁞➢ⶎ㠦 ệ㩫♒㣪 ἶ₆⯒ 㫡㞚䞮┺ / 㧦㭒 ⲏ㰖 ⴑ 䟊㣪 㡗ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䟞┺ / 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪 㽞╖㧻㦚 ⽊⌞┺ / 㞞 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪

Exercise 13.3 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)⋮ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) slipped in the bathroom, but (I) was fine.” (䢪㧻㔺㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ / ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪) = 䢪㧻㔺㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㪢㦒⋮ ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪. 1 (I) learned the Korean language for a year, but (it) is still difficult (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧒⎚ ⺆㤆┺ / 㞚㰗 㠊⩺㤢㣪) 2 (They) waited for one hour, but (she) did not come (䞲 㔲Ṛ ₆┺Ⰲ┺ / 㞞 㢪㠊㣪) 3 (I) argued with (my) older brother, but (I) reconciled with (him) at once (㡺ザ䞮ἶ ┺䒂┺ / ⁞⹿ 䢪䟊 䟞㠊㣪) 4 The living room is spacious but the kitchen is small (Ệ㔺㧊 ⍩┺ / ⿖ 㠢㧊 㫗㞚㣪) 5 The room is clean but noisy (⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺ / 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪)

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13

Exercise 13.4

Clausal conjunctives (although)

Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⋮. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ṗ⊪ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪 = 䄺䞒⯒ Ṗ⊪ Ⱎ㔲⋮ 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “Although (I) drink coffee sometimes, (I) do not like (it).” 1 2 3 4 5

⩞㧊Ⲓ✲⓪ 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺ / ⤇⤇䟊㣪 㫆㰖⓪ 䢲⹲䞮┺ / ◆㧊キ㦖 ⌊㎇㩗㧊㠦㣪 ⺇䢪㩦㧊 Ṗ₳┺ / 㰖䞮㻶 㡃㧊 Ⲗ㠊㣪 䌳㔲⓪ 䘎䞮┺ / ゚㕎㣪 㦢㔳㦖 㕢┺ / ㍲゚㓺Ṗ ⋮ナ㠊㣪

Exercise 13.5 Finish the following translation using the [~(㦒)⋮ . . . ~(㦒)⋮] pattern and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Whether (it) is cold or hot, (let us) go outside.” (㿻┺ / ▻┺ / ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮ṧ㔲┺) = 㿪㤆⋮ ▪㤆⋮ ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮ṧ㔲┺. 1 Whether the food is delicious or not, (let us) eat (it) all (㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞 ┺ / ⰱ㠜┺ / ┺ ⲏ㦣㔲┺) 2 Whether the test is easy or difficult, (I) must take (it) (㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺ / 㠊⪋┺ / ⽦㟒 䟊㣪) 3 Whether (you) jog or do yoga, do (it) everyday (㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺ / 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮┺ / ⰺ㧒 䞮㕃㔲㡺) 4 Whether (you) go to Korea or Japan, (you) need a visa (䞲ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / ゚㧦Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪) 5 Whether (it) is pork or beef, (they) are all expensive (♒㰖ἶ₆㧊┺ / ㏢ἶ₆㧊┺ / ┺ ゚㕎㣪)

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Exercise 13.6

Exercise 13.6

Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚☚ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Even if (I) drink water, (I) am still thirsty.” (ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺/ ⳿㧊 㡂㩚䧞 Ⱖ⧒㣪) = ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㎪☚ ⳿㧊 㡂㩚䧞 Ⱖ⧒㣪. 1 Even if (I) turn the heater on, (it) is still cold (䧞䎆⯒ 䅲┺ / 㡂㩚䧞 㿪㤢㣪) 2 Even if (he) smoked, (he) was healthy (╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / Ịṫ䟞㠊㣪) 3 Even if (she) eats a lot, (she) does not gain weight (Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺ / ㌊㧊 㞞 㳚㣪) 4 Even if (I) waited two hours, there was no contact (⚦ 㔲Ṛ㦚 ₆┺Ⰲ ┺ / 㡆⧓㧊 㠜㠞㠊㣪) 5 Even if (I) am sick, (I) will go to school (㞚䝚┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪)

Exercise 13.7 Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚☚. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ / ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ䟊㣪 = 䞒Ἲ䟊☚ ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ䟊㣪. “Even if (I) am tired, (I) jog everyday.” 1 2 3 4 5

㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㠊Ⰲ┺ / 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⱋ┺ / ⰱ㧞㠊㣪 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ Ợ㦒⯊┺ / ⡧⡧䟊㣪 㢍㧊 ゚㕎┺ / ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧┺ / ‖㡂㤶㠊㣪

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UNIT 14 Permission, prohibition, and obligation

Permission Seeking and/or giving permission in Korean is typically carried out by the form ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺. This form is constructed from ~㠊/㞚☚ “even if” and the verb ♮┺ “become/get/turn into.” Some other adjectives, such as ὲ㺄 ┺ “be fine” or 㫡┺ “be good,” can be used instead of ♮┺ to indicate the similar meaning. Consequently, the construction ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ (or ὲ 㺄┺/㫡┺) literally means “it is all right even if . . .” The selection between ~㠊☚Gand ~㞚☚Gdepends on the same principle of choosing between ~㠊㣪 and ~㞚㣪, the informal polite speech level endings. ~㞚☚Gis used after a stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺 (e.g., Ṗ☚ “even if I go”), whereas ~㠊☚ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels (e.g., ⺆㤢☚ “even if I learn”). ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ in an interrogative sentence is used to ask for permission. On the other hand, ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺Gin a declarative sentence is used to give permission, as shown in the examples below.

Asking for permission 㧊㩲 㰧㠦 Ṗ☚G♒㣪? “May (I) go home now (lit. Is it all right even if I go home now)?” ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㎪☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) drink water?” Ⲓ㩖 ⲏ㠊☚Gὲ㺄㞚㣪? “May (I) eat first?” ⰺ㤢☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪? “Is (it) okay even if (it) is spicy?” ₊ 㡂䟟㧊⧒☚ 㫡㞚㣪? “Is (it) all right even if (it) is a long trip?”

Giving permission 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽦☚G♒㣪. “(You) may watch TV (lit. It is okay even if you watch TV).” 㧊㩲 㹾⯒ 䕪㞚☚G♒㣪. “(You) may sell the car now.” Ⲓ㩖 㔲䅲☚Gὲ㺄㞚㣪. “(You) may order (it) first.” 120


㫖 ▪ ゚㕎☚Gὲ㺄㞚㣪. “(It) is fine even if (it) is a little more expensive.” ⶒ㧊 㞚┞⧒☚G㫡㞚㣪U “(It) is fine even if (it) is not water.”

Prohibition

~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ in a negative sentence means “. . . do not have to . . . ” as shown in the examples below: ⹪㊮Ⳋ 㞞GṖ☚G㫡㞚㣪. “If (you) are busy, (you) do not have go (lit. If you are busy, it is all right, even if you do not go).” ⿞䘎䞮Ⳋ 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㰖G 㞠㞚☚G ὲ㺄㞚㣪. “If (you) feel uncomfortable, (you) do not have to put on a suit.” ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎Ⳋ ⁎ 㺛㦚 㞞G ㌂☚G ♒㣪. “If (it) is too expensive, (you) do not have to buy that book.”

Prohibition For denying permission, prohibiting some action, or giving a warning, the form ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is used. This form is the combination of ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if,” the negative 㞞 “not,” and the verb ♮┺ “become/get/turn into.” It can be translated as “(it) would not be all right if . . .” or “you should/must not” in English. Ệ㰩Ⱖ 䞮ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(You) should not lie.” ἆ䢒㔳 ➢ 㤎ⳊG 㞞G ♒㣪. “(You) should not cry during the wedding ceremony.” Ⲓ㩖 ⟶⋮ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(You) should not leave first.” 㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆ⳊG㞞G♿┞┺. “(You) should not smoke here.” 㡂₆㠦 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚ⰂⳊG 㞞G ♿┞┺. “(You) should not throw garbage away here.” 㢍㧊 ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎ⳊG 㞞G ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the dress is too expensive.” ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦ⰂⳊG 㞞G ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the weather is cloudy.” 㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if (you) are late for the class.” ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ ⋾䞯㌳㧊ⳊG 㞞G ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the roommate is a male student.” Meanwhile, the non-negating form of ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ would be ~(㦒) Ⳋ ♮┺. Note that ~(㦒)Ⳋ ♮┺ means literally “it would be all right if . . .” or “it would do if.” ~(㦒)Ⳋ ♮┺ is typically used when one wishes to stress what is minimally necessary or required. It is equivalent to “all one has to do is . . .” Consider the following examples: 121


14 Permission, prohibition, and obligation

㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ⳊG♒㣪. “(It) would do if (you) study hard.” 䞲ῃ㠦 ṖⳊG♒㣪. “All (you) have to do is to go to Korea.” ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮ⳊG♒㣪. “(It) would do if the design is pretty.” ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦒ⳊG♒㣪. “(It) would do if the weather is good.” 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊ⳊG♒㣪. “(It) would do if (they) are Koreans.” ⳿㩗㰖Ṗ ⩆▮㧊ⳊG♒㣪. “(It) would do if the destination is London.”

Obligation In English, a sense of obligation or necessity is expressed by various auxiliary verbs, such as “should,” “must,” “ought to,” “need to,” and “have to.” In Korean, a sense of obligation can be expressed by the following two constructions: (1) 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺/~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and (2) ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺.

㞞 ~O㦒PⳊG㞞G♮┺VG~㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♮┺ Previously, it was noted that ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is used to express “prohibition” or “warning.” Notice that 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺Gor ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ are the combinations of ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the negative form. Consider the following examples: [㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺] ⶒ㦚 㞞GⰞ㔲ⳊG㞞G♒㣪U “(You) must drink water.” [~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺] ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔲㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(You) must drink water.” Notice that the meanings of both sentences are the same. The difference between 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is that while the first is the short-form negation, the second is the long-form negation. Here are more examples: 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㞞G㧒㠊⋮ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(You) must get up early in the morning.” 䏶㣪㧒㠦 㔲䃊ἶ㠦 㞞GṖⳊG㞞G♒㣪. 䏶㣪㧒㠦 㔲䃊ἶ㠦 Ṗ㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(We) must go to Chicago on Saturday.”

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㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞G䞮ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(I) must study for the test.”


~㠊V㞚㟒G♮┺G The idea of obligation or necessity can be also expressed by ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺ (or ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞮┺ for more formal usage).

Key vocabulary for Unit 14 exercises

⌊㧒 ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗ㟒G♒㣪U “(I) must go to Seoul tomorrow.” ⰺ㧒 ⹺ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠊㟒G♒㣪. “(I) must take medicines every night.” 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 㩚₢㰖 䃊✲⯒ ⽊⌊㟒G䞿┞┺. “(I) must send the card before Christmas.” ㎇⓻㧊 㫡㞚㟒G♒㣪. “The function has to be good.” Ↄ 䟟⽋䟊㟒G♒㣪. “(You) must be happy by all means.” 㰧㧊 䄺㟒G䞿┞┺. “The house has to be big.” 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊⧒㟒G♒㣪. “(He) has to be a Korean.” 㠊⯎㧊⧒㟒G♒㣪. “(They) must be adults.” 㞚⻚㰖㦮 ㌂㧎㧊⧒㟒G䞿┞┺. “(It) must be (your) father’s signature.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 14 exercises ṖỢ store Ṗỿ price Ṗ⹿ bag ἶ❇䞯㌳ high-school student Ὃ⿖ study ῃ soup ₎ road/street ⋶㝾 weather ⌊┺ to pay ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⑞ snow/eyes ╁┺ to close ☚㍲ὖ library ➆┺ to obtain ⥾┺ to open (one’s eyes) ⲏ┺ to eat ⹮㺂 side dishes ⹿ room ㏦ hands 㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin 㔲䠮 test/examination/experiment 㕇ỗ┺ to be watery 㕎┺ to pack/to be cheap

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㝆┺ to use 㞑┺ to wash

14 Permission, prohibition, and obligation

㞚㰗 yet/even now 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㠒Ὴ face 㡂䟟 traveling 㡗䢪 movie 㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞 driving license 㥚䠮䞮┺ to be dangerous 㧊㩲 now/this time 㧒 work/matter/affair 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧒㹣 early 㧧┺ to be small 㧷┺ to hold/to capture 㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting/to be dull 㩚₆㎎ electricity usage bill 㩦㕂 lunch 㫗┺ to be narrow/to be small 㫡┺ to be good 㰧 house 㰲┺ to be salty 㼃㏢ cleaning 䌖┺ to ride 䑊⁒䞮┺ to leave one’s office/to go home

Exercise 14.1 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(You) may leave tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⟶⋮┺) = ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮☚ ♒㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

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(You) (You) (You) (You) (You)

may may may may may

trust Peter’s story (䞒䎆㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕┺) use my computer (⌊ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝆┺) turn on the air conditioner (㠦㠊䆮㦚G䔖┺) turn off the electric lamp (㩚❇㦚 ⊚┺) close the door (ⶎ㦚 ╁┺)


Exercise 14.2

Exercise 14.2

Conjugate the following using ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂮┺ = 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㼦☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may play the piano.” 1 2 3 4 5

㧊㩲 䑊⁒䞮┺ ⑞㦚 ⥾┺ 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑┺ ㏦㦚 㧷┺ ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺

Exercise 14.3 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(You) should not leave tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⟶⋮┺) = ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(You) (You) (You) (You) (You)

should should should should should

not not not not not

lose the key (㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚Ⰲ┺) cross the bridge (┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺) drink beer (ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺) dump refuse (㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ┺) smoke here (㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺)

Exercise 14.4 Conjugate the following using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻┺ = ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the weather is cold.” 1 2 3 4 5

ῃ㧊 㕇ỗ┺ ⹮㺂㧊 㰲┺ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜┺ ⹿㧊 㧧┺ ₎㧊 㫗┺ 125


14

Exercise 14.5

Permission, prohibition, and obligation

Finish the following translation using ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(You) must hurry.” (㍲⚦⯊┺) = ㍲⚦⯊㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(You) must study hard (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺) (I) must clean up the office (㌂ⶊ㔺㦚 㼃㏢䞮┺) (He) must do the dishes (㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞮┺) (They) must go outside (⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ┺) (She) must stay home (㰧㠦 㧞┺)

Exercise 14.6 Conjugate the following using ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㟓㦚 ⲏ┺ = 㟓㦚 ⲏ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must take the medicine.” 1 2 3 4 5

㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮┺ 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮┺ ㏦㦚 㞑┺ ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺ 㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞⯒ ➆┺

Exercise 14.7 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(You) must tie a necktie.” (⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ┺) = ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ㟒 ♒㣪.

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1 2 3 4 5

(He) has to be a doctor (㦮㌂㧊┺) (You) must wear a uniform (㥶┞䙒㦚 㧛┺) (We) must make money (☞㦚 ⻢┺) (You) must wash (your) face (㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑┺) (I) must go to the hospital (⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺)


Exercise 14.8

Exercise 14.8

Conjugate the following using ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṗ┺ = Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must go to the airport.” 1 2 3 4 5

㡂䟟 Ṗ⹿㦚 㕎┺ 㩚₆㎎⯒ ⌊┺ ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺ ἶ❇䞯㌳㧊┺

Exercise 14.9 Complete the following dialogue, as shown in the example. Example: A: 㡺⩢㰖 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㎪☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) drink orange juice?” B: 㞚┞㡺, _______________ “No, (you) should not drink (it).” = Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 1 A: 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㖾☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) use (your) computer?” B: 㞚┞㡺, _____________________. “No, (you) should not use (it).” 2 A: 㧊㩲 䑊⁒䟊☚ ♶₢㣪? “May (I) leave the office?” B: ⍺, __________________________. Yes, (you) may leave the office.” 3 A: 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) close the window?” B: ⍺, _______________________. “Yes, (you) may close the window.” 4 A: 㡺䏶⹪㧊⯒ 䌖☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) ride (your) motorcycle?” B: 㞚┞㡺, ___________________. No, (you) should not ride (it).”

Exercise 14.10 Finish the following translation using the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(You) should not do laundry here.” (㡂₆㍲ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) = 㡂₆㍲ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.

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14 Permission, prohibition, and obligation

128

1 (You) may smoke there (㩖₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺) 2 (You) may take pictures in the room (⹿㠦㍲ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣┺ / ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺) 3 (I) must take a Korean language class (䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹┺ / 㞞 ~(㦒) Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) 4 (You) must buy a coat (䆪䔎⯒ ㌂┺ / 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) 5 (I) must talk in a loud voice (䋆㏢Ⰲ⪲ Ⱖ䞮┺ / ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) 6 (You) must wear seat belts (㞞㩚 ⻾䔎⯒ ⰺ┺ / ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) 7 (You) must park (your car) here (㡂₆㠦 㭒㹾䞮┺ / ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺) 8 (I) must leave Paris (䕢Ⰲ⯒ ⟶⋮┺ / ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺) 9 (You) should not open the refrigerator (⌟㧻ἶ⯒ 㡊┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺) 10 (You) should not touch the painting (⁎Ⱂ㦚 Ⱒ㰖┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺)


UNIT 15 Passives and causatives

Passives A sentence can be said either in the active voice or the passive voice. In the active sentence, the subject is the “doer” of the action. For instance, consider the following two sentences: “John opens the door.” (active) “The door is opened by John.” (passive) In the first sentence, John is the doer, and the situation is depicted from the doer’s standpoint. However, in the second sentence, the situation is depicted from the standpoint of the object (e.g., the door) instead. In this passive sentence, the focus is not on the doer but on the object of the action. In English, one can change a verb into a passive form by using the copula “to be” along with the past particle of the verb (e.g., ~ed), as in “the door was opened.” In Korean, one can change a verb into a passive verb by attaching the suffix ~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ, or ~₆ to the stem of verbs: Suffix 㧊 ⽊┺ “to see” 㝆┺ “to use” ⏩┺ “to place” ㍴┺ “to mix” 㕩┺ “to pile up”

⽊㧊┺ “to 㝆㧊┺ “to ⏩㧊┺ “to ㍴㧊┺ “to 㕩㧊┺ “to

be be be be be

seen” used” placed” mixed” piled up”

Suffix 䧞 ╁┺ “to close” Ⱏ┺ “to block” 㧷┺ “to catch” ọ┺ “to lift” ⹵┺ “to step on”

╁䧞┺ “to Ⱏ䧞┺ “to 㧷䧞┺ “to ọ䧞┺ “to ⹵䧞┺ “to

be be be be be

closed” blocked” caught” lifted” stepped on” 129


15 Passives and causatives

Suffix Ⰲ ⶒ┺ “to bite” 㡊┺ “to open” ✹┺ “to hear” 䕪┺ “to sell” ⹖┺ “to push”

ⶒⰂ┺ “to 㡊Ⰲ┺ “to ✺Ⰲ┺ “to 䕪Ⰲ┺ “to ⹖Ⰲ┺ “to

be be be be be

bitten” opened” heard” sold” pushed”

Suffix ₆ ュ┺ “to take away” 㞞┺ “to hold” 㴩┺ “to chase” ⦅┺ “to tear out” ⊠┺ “to disconnect”

ュ₆┺ “to 㞞₆┺ “to 㴩₆┺ “to ⦅₆┺ “to ⊠₆┺ “to

be be be be be

taken away” held” chased” torn out” disconnected”

The use of passives is more common in English than in Korean. For instance, most English transitive verbs can be changed into passives (e.g., “I placed the book on the desk” vs. “The book was placed on the desk by me”). However, in Korean, there is only a limited set of transitive verbs that can be made passive (like the verbs listed above). One has to memorize both the verbs that can be changed into a passive verb as well as the suffix each verb takes. When an active sentence is changed into a passive sentence, the subject and object relationship changes. For instance, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Consider the following two sentences. 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺㧊 㧊 㺛㦚 㧓⓪┺. “Korean students read this book.” 㧊 㺛㧊 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺䞲䎢 (or 㠦Ợ) 㧓䧢┺. “This book is read by Korean students.” In the first sentence, the subject is 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺, whereas the subject is 㺛 in the second sentence. In addition, notice in the second sentence that 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺Gis marked by 䞲䎢. When the object is an animate noun (e.g., human or animals), 䞲䎢 (or 㠦Ợ) marks the object. However, when it is an inanimate noun (e.g., wind, car), 㠦 marks the object. 㫊㧊 㞶₆⯒ 㞞㞚㣪. “John holds the baby.” 㞶₆Ṗ 㫊䞲䎢 (㠦Ợ) 㞞Ỿ㣪. “The baby is held by John.” 䌲䛣㧊 ₎㦚 Ⱏ㞮㠊㣪. “The storm blocks the road.” ₎㧊 䌲䛣㠦 Ⱏ䡪㠊㣪. “The road was blocked by the storm.”

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Causatives

Causatives

The function of a causative is to (i) make someone or something to do something or (ii) to cause a change of state. In Korean, one can change a verb or adjective into a causative by attaching a causative suffix to the stem of verbs and/or adjectives. There are seven suffixes: ~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ, ~₆, ~㤆, ~ῂ, and ~㿪. Suffix 㧊 ⲏ┺ “to eat” ⽊┺ “to see” 㭓┺ “to die” ⊩┺ “to boil”

ⲏ㧊┺ “to ⽊㧊┺ “to 㭓㧊┺ “to ⊩㧊┺ “to

feed someone” show” kill someone” boil something”

Suffix 䧞 㧛┺ “to wear” ⑫┺ “to lie down” 㞟┺ “to sit” ⍩┺ “to be wide” 㫗┺ “to be narrow”

㧛䧞┺ “to ⑫䧞┺ “to 㞟䧞┺ “to ⍩䧞┺ “to 㫗䧞┺ “to

dress someone” lay someone down” put someone into a seat” widen” narrow”

Suffix Ⰲ 㤎┺ “to cry” 㠒┺ “to freeze” ⋶┺ “to fly” 㞢┺ “to know”

㤎Ⰲ┺ “to 㠒Ⰲ┺ “to ⋶Ⰲ┺ “to 㞢Ⰲ┺ “to

make someone cry” freeze something” let something fly” inform”

Suffix ₆ ⻭┺ “to take off ” 㤙┺ “to laugh” 㔶┺ “to wear” ⋾┺ “to remain”

⻭₆┺ “to 㤙₆┺ “to 㔶₆┺ “to ⋾₆┺ “to

undress someone” make someone laugh” put shoes on someone” leave something behind”

Suffix 㤆 㧦┺ “to sleep” 䌖┺ “to burn” ₾┺ “to wake” ⋒┺ “to join in”

㨂㤆┺ “to 䌲㤆┺ “to ₾㤆┺ “to ⋒㤆┺ “to

put someone to sleep” burn something” wake someone up” put in”

Suffix ῂV㿪 ☡┺ “to rise” ⰴ┺ “to be suited” ⌄┺ “to be low”

☡ῂ┺ “to make higher” ⰴ㿪┺ “to make fit” ⌄㿪┺ “to lower”

There are some similarities between the causatives and passives. First, you may notice that both passive and causative suffixes contain ~㧊, ~䧞,

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15 Passives and causatives

~Ⰲ, and ~₆. In fact, some verbs such as ⽊㧊┺, 㠛䧞┺ and 㞞₆┺G can function both as causatives as well as passives. For example, consider the following two sentences: 㞚㧊Ṗ Ⰲ㌂䞲䎢 㠛䡪㠊㣪. “The child was put on Lisa’s back.” 㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ Ⰲ㌂䞲䎢 㞚㧊⯒ 㠛䡪㠊㣪. “The mother put the child on Lisa’s back.” In such cases, one can only tell whether 㠛䡪㠊㣪 is a causative or a passive verb by its context. In addition, as with passives, only a restricted number of verbs and adjectives (e.g., like the verbs and adjectives listed above) can take the suffixes and be changed into causative verbs. Since there is no rule that specifies which verb/adjective can take which causative suffix, one has to learn both the verb/adjective that can be changed into a causative as well as the suffix each verb/adjective takes.

The long-form causative construction ~ỢG䞮┺ ỢG䞮┺ Besides changing verbs/adjectives into causatives by adding the suffixes, there is one more way to change verbs/adjectives into causative constructions. One can add the causative meaning to the verbs and/or adjectives by attaching ~Ợ 䞮┺ after their stems. Ṗ┺ “to go” ṖỢ 䞮┺ “to make someone go” ⲏ┺ “to eat” ⲏỢ 䞮┺ “to make someone eat” ⺆㤆┺ “to learn” ⺆㤆Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone learn” ⽊┺ “to watch” ⽊Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone watch” ➆⦑䞮┺ “to be warm” ➆⦑䞮Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something warm” ⰱ㧞┺ “to be delicious” ⰱ㧞Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something delicious” ₆㊮┺ “to be happy” ₆㊮Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone happy” 㓓┺ “to be easy” 㓓Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something easy” The ~Ợ 䞮┺ construction is a much more productive means to indicate causative function than the adding the causative suffix, since its usage is not restricted to the certain verbs and adjectives.

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Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 15 exercises

Key vocabulary for Unit 15 exercises

ἶ㟧㧊 cat ὆ bear ₎┺ to be long ™ chewing gum ⑚⋮ older sister ┺䟟䧞 fortunately ▪ more ▻┺ to be hot ⛺ back Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious ⰺ㧒 everyday ⲏ┺ to eat Ⲓ㩖 first ⳾₆ mosquito ⶒἶ₆ fish ⹲䚲 presentation ⹻ meal ⽊䐋 usually ゚ rain ゾ⧮ laundry ゾ⧮㭚 clothes-line ㍲㨂 a study/library 㓺㤾䎆 sweater 㔲䠮 test/exam 㕎┺ to be cheap 㞏┺ to chew 㞚㧊 child 㞞Ṳ fog 㞴㭚 front row 㡺⓮ today 㧦㭒 often 㨂䌍 jacket 㩖⎗ evening/dinner 㩚₆ electricity 㩚䢪 telephone 㺛 book 㼃⹪㰖 jeans 㿻┺ to be cold

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Exercise 15.1

Passives and causatives

Complete each sentence with an appropriate active or passive form of the verb indicated. 1 To sell (䕪┺ / 䕪Ⰲ┺) a ⁎ ṖỢṖ pTw–‹š ⯒G___________. “That store sells I-Pods.” b pTw–‹š ➢ⶎ㠦 jk w“ˆ Œ™G ⓪ Ⱔ㧊 㞞G ___________. “Because of I-Pods, CD players are not sold much.” 2 To listen (✹┺ / ✺Ⰲ┺) a 㩚䢪 ⻾ ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ________. “(I) could not hear the phone ring.” b 㦢㞛 ㏢ⰂṖ 㞞 __________. “Music is not heard.” 3 To place (⏩┺ / ⏩㧊┺) a 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㠊❪㠦 _______? “Where should (I) place the computer?” b 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㺛㌗ 㥚㠦 ______. “The computer is placed on the table.”

Exercise 15.2 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis. Example: “The mountain is seen.” (㌆ / ⽊㧊┺) = ㌆㧊 ⽊㡂㣪. 1 (I) only use olive oil (㢂Ⰲぢ ₆⯚ / 㝆┺) 2 This balloon is used for the birthday party (㧊 䛣㍶ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 / 㝆㧊┺) 3 What time do (you) close the store? (ⳝ 㔲 / ṖỢ / ╁┺) 4 The door was closed by the wind (ⶎ / ⹪⧢ / ╁䧞┺) 5 (I) caught a mouse (㮦 / 㧷┺) 6 The thief was caught by the police (☚⚧ / ἓ㺆 / 㧷䧞┺) 7 Mosquitoes bite (⳾₆ / ⶒ┺) 8 John was bitten by mosquitoes a lot (㫊 / ⳾₆ / Ⱔ㧊 ⶒⰂ┺) 9 If the baby cries, please hug (him) (㞚₆ / 㤎┺ / 㞞┺) 10 The baby was held by (her) dad (㞚₆ / 㞚ザ / 㞞₆┺)

Exercise 15.3 Translate the following sentences into English. 134

Example: ⹿ⶎ㧊 ΈỢ ╁䡖 㧞㠊㣪. = “The door is firmly closed.”


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㺛㌗㠦 㺛㦚 㕩㞚㣪. 㔲䠮➢ⶎ㠦 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ 㕩㡂㣪. ゾ⧮⯒ ゾ⧮㭚㠦㍲ ọ㠞㠊㣪. ┺䟟䧞 㞞ṲṖ ọ䡪㠊㣪. ὆㧊 ⶒἶ₆⯒ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. ⳾₆䞲䎢 ⶒ⪎㠊㣪. 㕎Ợ 䕢㎎㣪. 㓺㤾䎆Ṗ 㧮 䕪⩺㣪. Ⲓ㩖 㩚䢪 ⊠㦒㎎㣪. ゚➢ⶎ㠦 㩚₆Ṗ ⊠ἒ㠊㣪.

Exercise 15.4

Exercise 15.4 Complete the following sentences, as shown in the example. Pay special attentions to the causative form. Example: 㠊Ⲏ┞⓪ 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚G___________ (to feed) = 㠊Ⲏ┞⓪ 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚 ⲏ㧛┞┺. 1 2 3 4 5

㞚䂾 ^ 㔲㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ______________ (to wake) 㞚㧊㠦Ợ 㢍㦚 _______________ (to dress) 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ㌞ 㔶⹲㦚 ______________ (to put shoes on) 㞚㧊⯒ 㦮㧦㠦 _______________ (to put someone into a seat) 㩖⎗ _ 㔲㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ______________ (to put someone to sleep)

Exercise 15.5 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis. Example: “(I) lowered the radio volume.” (⧒❪㡺 ⽒⮾ / ⌄㿪┺) = ⧒❪㡺 ⽒⮾㦚 ⌄䀚㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Don’t make the child cry (㞚㧊 / 㤎Ⰲ┺). Did (you) dress (him) the uniform? (㥶┞䙒 / 㧛䧞┺) Please make the students laugh (䞯㌳✺ / 㤙₆┺). Please wake me up at 6 o’clock (㩖 / ] 㔲㠦 ₾㤆┺). Please boil the water (for me) (ⶒ / ⊩㧊┺). Please lay the baby on the bed (㞚₆ / ⑫䧞┺). Please do not burn the meat (ἶ₆ / 䌲㤆┺).

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Exercise 15.6

Passives and causatives

Translate the following into English. Example: 䂾╖㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ⑫䡪㠊㣪. = “(We) laid the child on the bed.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㡺⓮ ⶮ ⲏ㦚₢㣪? 㑮㧪㧊 ἶ㟧㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚 ⲏ㡂㣪. 䞒䎆Ṗ ⰺ㧒 ^ 㔲Ṛ 㩫☚ 㧦㣪. ⑚⋮Ṗ ⽊䐋 _ 㔲 㸺㠦 㞚㧊⯒ 㨂㤗┞┺. 䋂Ⰲ㓺⓪ 㼃⹪㰖⯒ 㧦㭒 㧛㠊㣪. 䕆㎪䁶⯒ 㧛䧞㎎㣪. ⛺㠦 㞟㦒㎎㣪. 㞺✲⮮⯒ 㞴 㭚㠦 㞟䧞㎎㣪. 㓺㤾䎆⯒ ⻭㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. 㨂䌍㦚 ⻭Ỿ 㭒㎎㣪.

Exercise 15.7 Finish the following translation using ~Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪 and the cues provided in parenthesis. Example: “Please make the hair short.” (ⲎⰂ / 㰽┺) = ⲎⰂ⯒ 㰽Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

Please Please Please Please Please

make make make make make

the soup spicy (ῃ / ⱋ┺). the room warm (⹿ / ➆⦑䞮┺). the surrounding dark (㭒㥚 / 㠊⚷┺). Lisa happy (Ⰲ㌂ / 䟟⽋䞮┺). (your) wife joyful (⿖㧎 / ₆㊮┺).

Exercise 15.8 Translate the following expressions into English. Example: 㩲┞䗒⯒ 䟟⽋䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. = “Please make Jennifer happy (for me).”

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1 2 3 4 5

⹲䚲⯒ ▪ ₎Ợ 䞮㎎㣪. ⰱ㧞Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. 㕎Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ợ 䞮㎎㣪. ™㦚 㞏Ợ 䞮㎎㣪.


UNIT 16 The noun-modifying endings

Modifier clauses The typical examples of English modifiers are adjectives and relative clauses. The English modifiers can occur before the word they modify (e.g., in case of adjectives, as in “smart John”) and/or after the word (e.g., in case of relative clauses, as in “John who is smart” or “John who studies history”). However, in Korean, modifiers (or modifying clauses) always come before the word they modify. Moreover, any predicate can be changed into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying ending to the predicate stem. This unit introduces three Korean noun-modifying endings: ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)ඥ.

The noun-modifying ending ~⓪ The noun-modifying ending ~⓪G is used with verbs, and it carries the present meaning. Consider the following examples: Verb 㧦┺ “sleep” Ⱎ㔲┺ “drink” 㡺┺ “come” Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” 㧒䞮┺ “work” 㺔┺ “find” ⲏ┺ “eat” Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” 㧓┺ “read” ┺┞┺ “attend”

Verb stem + ⓪ 㰧㠦㍲ 㧦⓪ 䞯㌳ “the student who sleeps at home” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⓪ 䞯㌳ “the student who drinks coffee” ⰺ㧒 㡂₆㠦 㡺⓪ ㏦┮ “the customer who comes here everyday” 㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who meets John” 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⓪ Ⰲ㌂ “Lisa who works in Korea” ⌊Ṗ 㺔⓪ ㌟ “the color I look for” 䐆㧊 ⲏ⓪ 㦢㔳 “the food that Tom eats” Ⰲ㌂Ṗ Ⱒ⋮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person whom Lisa meets” 䡫㧊 㧓⓪ 㺛 “the book that (my) older brother reads” 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ ┺┞⓪ ╖䞯ᾦ “the college that Jessica attends”

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16 The nounmodifying endings

Notice in the examples above that ~⓪ attaches to the verb stem and changes the predicate into the present form of a relative clause. Although ~⓪ is primarily used with verbs, few adjectives that end with 㧞┺/㠜┺ take ~⓪, as shown below: ⰱ㧞┺ “delicious” ⰱ㠜┺ “tasteless” ⲡ㧞┺ “stylish” 㨂⹎㧞┺ “interesting”

ⰱ㧞⓪ 㦢㔳 “delicious food” ⰱ㠜⓪ 㩦㕂 “tasteless lunch” ⲡ㧞⓪ ⳾㧦 “fanciful hat” 㨂⹎㧞⓪ 㡗䢪 “interesting movie”

The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)චGis used with adjectives, copulas, as well as verbs. When ~(㦒)ච is used with adjectives or copulas, it indicates the present meaning; when it is used with verbs, it carries the past meaning.

~O㦒PචG with adjectives and copulas One can change an adjective and/or a copula into a noun-modifying unit by attaching ~(㦒)ච to their stems: ~㦖 is used after a stem that ends in a consonant; ~ච is used after a stem that ends in a vowel, as shown below: Adjective 㧧┺ “small” 㫡┺ “good” Ⱔ┺ “many” 㡞㊮┺ “pretty” ⹪㊮┺ “busy” 㫆㣿䞮┺ “quiet” 㥶ⳛ䞮┺ “famous” 㠊⪋┺ “difficult”

Adjective stem + (㦒)ච 㧧㦖 㺛㌗ “small desk” 㫡㦖 ㌂⧢ “good person” Ⱔ㦖 ☞ “a lot of money” 㡞㊲ ↙ “pretty flower” ⹪㊲ 㓺䅖㭚 “busy schedule” 㫆㣿䞲 ⹿ “quiet room” 㥶ⳛ䞲 ⏎⧮ “famous song” 㠊⩺㤊 㔲䠮 “difficult test”

Copula 㧊┺ “be” 㞚┞┺ “not be”

Copula stem + (㦒)ච 㦮㌂㧎 ⰺ䓲 “Matthew who is a doctor” 䞯㌳㧊 㞚┢ ㌂⧢ “the person who is not a student”

~O㦒PචG with verbs When ~(㦒)ච is attached to a verb stem, it changes the predicate into the past form of a relative clause, as shown in the following examples: 138


Verb ⲏ┺ “eat” 㺔┺ “find” 㧓┺ “read” ⽊┺ “see” ⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⟶⋮┺ “leave” Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study”

Verb stem + (㦒)ච 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate dinner” ⌊Ṗ 㺔㦖 㡊㐶 “the key that I found” 㧊㌂⻾㧊 㧓㦖 㺛 “the book that Isabel read” ⌊Ṗ ⽎ 㡗䢪 “the movie that I saw” Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤊 䞯㌳ “the students who learned a lot” 㠊㩲 ⟶⋲ ⋾㧦 “the man who left yesterday” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞲 ㌂⧢ “the person who studied Korean”

The nounmodifying ending ~O㦒Pඥ

Since ~(㦒)ච denotes the past meaning, the use of past tense marker 㠞/㞮 along with ~(㦒)ච is grammatically incorrect. For instance, saying a phrase like “the food that I ate” in Korean should be “⌊Ṗ ⲏ㦖 㦢㔳” not “⌊Ṗ ⲏ㠞㦖 㦢㔳.”

The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ ඥG The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥG indicates that the action or state denoted by the predicate has not yet been actualized. ~㦚G is attached to a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ ⲏ㦚 㦢㔳 “the food that Richard will eat”); ~ඥG is attached to a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ⽒ 㡗䢪 “the movie that Lisa will see”). Ὃ⿖䞮┺ 㧓┺ Ṗ⯊䂮┺ ⶊỗ┺ 㫡┺ 㠊⪋┺

㡺⓮ Ὃ⿖䞶 ⌊㣿 “the content that (I) will study today” ⌊㧒 㧓㦚 㺛 “the book (I) will read tomorrow” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂶 ㍶㌳┮ “the teacher who will teach Korean” ⶊỆ㤎 Ṗ⹿ “the bag that will be heavy” ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person whose personality will be nice” 㠊⩺㤎 㔲䠮 “the test that will be difficult”

As shown above, ~(㦒)ඥ mainly indicates the prospective meaning. However, since the action or state has not been realized, the ending can also imply the meaning of intention or conjecture. This is particularly true when the ending is used with the past tense. Compare the following examples: ㌦⩂✲⯒ ㌦⩂✲⯒ ㌦⩂✲⯒ ㌦⩂✲⯒

ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate salad” ⲏ⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who eats salad” ⲏ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who will eat salad” ⲏ㠞㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have eaten salad” 139


16 The nounmodifying endings

The first sentence is the past form of a relative clause as indicated by ~㦖; the second sentence indicates the present action as indicated by ~⓪; the third sentence is about a prospective action as indicated by ~㦚. However, notice that the predicate of the fourth sentence has the past tense marker ~㠞 and ~(㦒)ඥ (e.g., ⲏ + 㠞 + 㦚). The ~(㦒)ඥ ending in the fourth sentence does not indicate the prospective meaning but conjecture. Here are more examples: 㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㦚 䘎㰖 “the letter that might have arrived (there) yesterday” 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⌂㦚 䐆 “Tom who might have left for Korea” ⌊Ṗ Ⱒ⌂㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person that I might have met” 㰖⋲ 㤪㣪㧒㠦 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṫ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have gone to the library last Monday”

Placing a noun-modifying unit in a sentence When a predicate is changed into a noun-modifying unit, it becomes part of a new noun phrase, as shown in the following examples: 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒

ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) eat spaghetti.” ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate spaghetti” ⲏ⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who eats spaghetti” ⲏ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who will eat spaghetti” ⲏ㠞㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have eaten spaghetti”

These newly transformed noun phrases (or noun-modifying clauses) can be used as a subject, object, or indirect object, depending on the particle that attaches to them, as shown below: 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒G ⲏ㦖G ㌂⧢㧊 㫊㧊㠦㣪. “The person who ate spaghetti is John.” 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒G ⲏ㦖G ㌂⧢㦚 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “(I) like the person who ate spaghetti.” 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒G ⲏ㦖G ㌂⧢䞲䎢 㩚䢪䟞㠊㣪. “(I) made a phone call to the person who ate spaghetti.”

140


Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 16 exercises

Key vocabulary for Unit 16 exercises

Ṗ┺ to go Ṟ㞚䌖┺ to change (car/train)/to transfer ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry (a person) ὒ㧒 fruits ₆㹾 train ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⌊ I/my ⍺ you ⏎⧮ song ⏨┺ to be high ⑚⋮ older sister ┺㦢 next ☯⬢ colleague ✹┺ to listen Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⹎ῃ U.S.A. ⹱┺ to receive ⹿ room ⻚Ⰲ┺ to throw away アⰂ┺ to borrow ㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㌆ mountain ㌊┺ to live ㍶ⶒ gift/present ㎂ island 㕎┺ to be cheap/to wrap up 㝆┺ to use 㝆⩞₆ trash 㞚⯚╋┺ to be beautiful 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㞚䕢䔎 apartment 㟧⽋ suit/dress 㠊㩲 yesterday 㢍 clothes 㦢㔳 food 㧊㌂Ṗ┺ to move (into a new address)

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16

㧒䞮┺ to work 㧛┺ to wear (a dress) 㧧⎚ last year 㩲㧒 the first/most 㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet 㭒 week 㰖⋲ last 㰧 house 㺛 book 䂲ῂ friend 䞯ᾦ school 䡫 older brother 䣢㌂ company

The nounmodifying endings

Exercise 16.1 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Yellow cab” (⏎⧭┺ / 䌳㔲) = ⏎⧖ 䌳㔲 1 Pretty designs (㡞㊮┺ / ❪㧦㧎) 2 The most famous tourist attraction in Korea (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㥶ⳛ䞮 ┺ / ὖὧ㰖) 3 The most popular actor in Korea (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㧎₆㧞┺ / ⺆㤆) 4 The most expensive watch (㩲㧒 ゚㕎┺ / 㔲Ἒ) 5 Long hair (₎┺ / ⲎⰂ)

Exercise 16.2 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ච, as shown in the example. Then translate the phrase. Example: ⱋ┺ / ₖ䂮 = ⰺ㤊 ₖ䂮 “spicy kimchi”

142

1 2 3 4 5

㧊 㰧㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㫆㣿䞮┺ / ⹿ ◆┞㠮㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / 䞯ᾦ 㩲㧒 㞚⯚╋┺ / ㎂ ⹎ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 ⏨┺ / ㌆ 㩲㧒 㕎┺ / 㢍


Exercise 16.3

Exercise 16.3

Finish the following translation using ~⓪ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The bus that I ride everyday” (⌊Ṗ ⰺ㧒 䌖┺ / ⻚㓺) = ⌊Ṗ ⰺ㧒 䌖⓪ ⻚㓺 1 The book that Peter reads nowadays (䞒䎆Ṗ 㣪㯞㦢 㧓┺ / 㺛) 2 The sports (we) enjoy during winter (Ỿ㤎㠦 㯦₆┺ / 㓺䙂䁶) 3 The food that Korean people eat everyday (䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊 ⰺ㧒 ⲏ┺ / 㦢㔳) 4 The store where Jessica works (㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㧒䞮┺ / ṖỢ) 5 The man whom (my) older sister dates with (㠎┞Ṗ ㌂‖┺ / ⋾㧦)

Exercise 16.4 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~⓪, as shown in the example. Then translate the phrase. Example: ⰺ㧒 ọ┺ / ỆⰂ = ⰺ㧒 ọ⓪ ỆⰂ “The street that (I) walk everyday” 1 2 3 4 5

䂲ῂṖ ㌂┺ / ὒ㧒 㔲䃊ἶ㠦㍲ Ṟ㞚䌖┺ / ₆㹾 䡫㧊 ㌊┺ / 㞚䕢䔎 ⑚⋮Ṗ 㝆┺ / 䅊䜾䎆 ⌊Ṗ ṯ㧊 㧒䞮┺ / ㌂⧢

Exercise 16.5 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The high school that I graduated from” (⌊Ṗ 㫎㠛䞮┺ / ἶ❇䞯ᾦ) = ⌊Ṗ 㫎㠛䞲 ἶ❇䞯ᾦ 1 2 3 4 5

The The The The The

picture that (we) took together (ṯ㧊 㹣┺ / ㌂㰚) movie that (I) saw last month (㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ⽊┺ / 㡗䢪) dress that (she) exchanged yesterday (㠊㩲 ⹪∎┺ / 㢍) milk that (I) drank in the morning (㞚䂾㠦 Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㤆㥶) item that (I) sold in the afternoon (㡺䤚㠦 䕪┺ / ⶒỊ)

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16

Exercise 16.6

The nounmodifying endings

Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ච, as shown in the example. Then translate the phrase. Example: ⁎㩖℮ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 䄺䞒 = ⁎㩖℮ Ⱎ㔶 䄺䞒 “The coffee that (I) drank the day before yesterday” 1 2 3 4 5

㠊㩲 ⿖⯊┺ / ⏎⧮ 㧧⎚㠦 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ㌂⧢ 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ⹱┺ / ㍶ⶒ 㞚䂾㠦 ⻚Ⰲ┺ / 㝆⩞₆ ⌊Ṗ Ⱒ✺┺ / 㦢㔳

Exercise 16.7 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The tree that we will plant tomorrow” (㤆ⰂṖ ⌊㧒 㕂┺ / ⋮ⶊ) = 㤆ⰂṖ ⌊㧒 㕂㦚 ⋮ⶊ The food that I will cook tomorrow (⌊Ṗ ⌊㧒 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ / 㦢㔳) The bottle that (I) will fill with milk (㤆㥶⯒ ╊┺ / ⼧) The water that the patient will drink (䢮㧦Ṗ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ⶒ) The book that (we) will borrow from the library (☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ アⰂ┺ / 㺛) 5 The package which (you) will mail at the post office (㤆㼊ῃ㠦㍲ ⿖䂮 ┺ / ㏢䙂)

1 2 3 4

Exercise 16.8 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ඥ, as shown in the example. Then translate the phrase. Example: 㤪㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ㏦┮ = 㤪㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋶ ㏦┮ “The customer that (I) will meet on Monday” 144


1 2 3 4 5

㩲㧊㓾㧊 㧛┺ / 㟧⽋ ⑚⋮Ṗ ἆ䢒䞮┺ / ㌂⧢ 㤆ⰂṖ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㧊㌂Ṗ┺ / 㰧 ⍺Ṗ ⌊㧒 アⰂ┺ / 㺛 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㞟┺ / 㧦Ⰲ

Exercise 16.9

Exercise 16.9 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “John who studies Korean” (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 㫊) = 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ 㫊 1 Maria who plays a guitar (₆䌖⯒ 䂮┺ / ⰞⰂ㞚) 2 The person who will leave for Japan tomorrow (⌊㧒 㧒⽎㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / ㌂⧢) 3 The woman who made a cake (䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ / 㡂㧦) 4 The season that I like (⌊Ṗ 㫡㞚䞮┺ / Ἒ㩞) 5 The child who threw the ball (Ὃ㦚 ▮㰖┺ / 㞚㧊) 6 The student who has an Apple computer (㞶䝢 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㧞┺ / 䞯㌳) 7 The man who will meet Laura on Tuesday (䢪㣪㧒㠦 ⪲⧒⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ / ⋾㧦) 8 Tom who has an expensive car (゚㕒 㹾Ṗ 㧞┺ / 䐆) 9 Dave who is a policeman (ἓ㺆ὖ㧊┺ / ◆㧊ぢ) 10 The customer who sent the letter yesterday (㠊㩲 䘎㰖⯒ ⽊⌊┺ / ㏦┮)

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UNIT 17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

This unit introduces several expressions that are used to describe the appearance of actions or states of affair and to express the speaker’s conjecture.

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චV චV(㦒)ඥGộGṯ┺ ඥGộGṯ┺ The construction ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺ “(it) seems/looks like” is the combination of one of three noun-modifying endings (e.g., ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)ඥ), the dependent noun ộ “the fact/the one/the being” (or Ệ for colloquial settings), and the adjective ṯ┺ “be the same.” The selection of ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)ඥ follows the same mechanism of the nounmodifying patterns: ~⓪ is used after a verb stem for the present meaning; ~(㦒)ච is used after a verb stem for the past meaning or after an adjective/copula stem for the present meaning; ~(㦒)ඥ is used after a verb or adjective stem for the prospective meaning.

~⓪GộGṯ┺ 㣪㯞㦢 ⰺ㧒 㞚䂾 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮⓪G ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (she) jogs every morning nowadays.” ⻚㓺Ṗ Ἵ ☚㹿䞮⓪GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like the bus arrives soon.” ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪G ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Matthew teaches English.”

~O㦒PචGộGṯ┺

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䙊㧊 ⳾⚦㠦Ợ 䂲㩞䞲GộGṯ㞚㣪. “Paul seems to be nice to everyone.” 㺆㓺Ṗ 㡗ῃ ㌂⧢㧎GộGṯ㞚㣪. “Charles seems to be British.” 㧊 㹾Ṗ ▪ 㫡㦖GộGṯ㞚㣪. “This car seems to be better.” 㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㔶GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) drank beer a lot yesterday.” 䏶┞Ṗ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 ṚG ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Tony went to the library.”


㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ Ⱔ㧊 䞲GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) studied a lot for the test.”

~⓪VO㦒PචVO 㦒PඥG ⳾㟧㧊┺

~O㦒PඥGộGṯ┺ ⌊⎚㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 ṞG ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will go to Korea next year.” ⌊㧒㦖 ⑞㧊 㢂GộGṯ㞚㣪. “As for tomorrow, (it) seems that snow will fall.” 䂲ῂṖ 䕢䕆㠦 㞞G 㢂G ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (my) friend will not come to the party.” 䢪㣪㧒㧊 㿪㤎GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Tuesday will be cold.” 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤎GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the test will be difficult.” For the past tense, the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is used after ṯ┺. Consider the following examples: ⹿㠦㍲G㧦ἶG㧞⓪GộGṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) was sleeping in the room.” 㩲㧚㓺ṖG Ṧ₆㠦G ỎⰆG ộG ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that James caught a cold.” ㏢ἶ₆⯒G 㞞G ⲏ㦚G ộG ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) would not eat beef.” 㧊G 㡗䢪ṖG 㨂⹎㧞㦚G ộG ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that this movie would be interesting.” 㠊Ⲏ┞ṖG 㧒⽎G ㌂⧢㧎G ộG ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (her) mother was a Japanese person.”

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චV චV(㦒)ඥG⳾㟧㧊┺ ඥG⳾㟧㧊┺ ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥG ⳾㟧㧊┺ “appears/looks like” consists of one of three noun-modifying endings, the noun ⳾㟧 “appearance/form/sign,” and the copula 㧊┺.

~⓪G⳾㟧㧊┺ 䕳䆮㦚 Ⱒ✲⓪G ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) makes (some) popcorn.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆⓪G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (she) learns the Korean language.” 㡊㐶Ṗ 㠜⓪G ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (she) does not have the key.” 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞⓪G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that the movie is interesting.”

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~O㦒Pච ⳾㟧㧊┺

17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

㞚䂾㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㦖G ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (they) could not eat breakfast.” 㧒⽎㠦㍲ ἶ❇䞯ᾦ⯒ ┺┢G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) attended a high school in Japan.” 䂲ῂṖ ⁎Ⰲ㤊G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) longs for a friend.”

~O㦒PඥG⳾㟧㧊┺ ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦚G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) will quit smoking.” ❪㩖䔎⯒ 㞞 ⲏ㦚G ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) looks like (they) will not eat dessert.” 㡺⓮ 㰧㠦 㞞 㢂G⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) will not come home today.”

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චV චV(㦒)ඥG❅䞮┺ ඥG❅䞮┺ ~⓪/(㦒)ච/ (㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺ “seems/appears/looks like” is the combination of one of the noun-modifying endings, the dependent noun ❅ “seeming appearance,” and the dependent adjective 䞮┺ “really/indeed.” 㡂⯚㧊 㡾G❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that the summer has come.” 㧦ἶG㧞⓪G❅䞿┞┺. “(He) seems to be asleep.” 㞚㰗 ㌊㞚G㧞⓪G❅䞿┞┺. “(He) seems to be alive still.” ㎇㔺䞲 ㌂⧢㧎G❅䟊㣪. “(He) appears to be a diligent person.” ⁎ ㏢ⶎ㧊 ㌂㔺㧎G❅䟊㣪. “That rumor seems to be true.” For the past tense, the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is used after ❅䞮┺, as shown in the following examples: 㨂㯞⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⓪G❅䟞㠊㣪. “(They) seemed to like jazz.” 㭧ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞲G❅䟞㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) majored in Chinese history.” 㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤊G❅䟞㠊㣪. “The food appeared to be spicy.”

~⋮V ⋮V(㦒)චṖG⽊┺ චṖG⽊┺

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~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺ “guess/seem” is used to express the speaker’s inferential judgment. It is corresponding to English expressions, such as “(I) guess that,” and “(it) appears that.” For verb stems, ~⋮ ⽊┺ is used, as shown below:


㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Jessica learns Taekwondo/ (It) seems that Jessica learns Taekwondo.” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㔲⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (she) drinks coffee a lot.” 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞮⋮G ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) majors in Korean history.” 㧒㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ ᾦ䣢㠦 Ṗ⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) go to church every Sunday.” ☞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㧞⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) has a lot of money.”

~⋮VO㦒PචṖG ⽊┺

For adjectives and copulas, ~(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺ is used: ~㦖Ṗ ⽊┺ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant, and ~චṖ ⽊┺ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel. 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ ₆⿚㧊 㫡㦖ṖG ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Edward is in a good mood.” Ṗ⹿㧊 㧧㦖ṖG⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (her) bag is small.” 㰧㧊 㞚㭒 ゚㕒ṖG⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the house is very expensive.” ⹬㧊 㿪㤊ṖG⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the outside is cold.” 㔲䠮➢ⶎ㠦 Ⱔ㧊 ⹪㊲ṖG ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) are very busy because of the test.” Ṗ⹿㧊 Ṗ⼒㤊ṖG⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the bag is light.” 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧎ṖG⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) is Korean.” For the past tense, ~⋮ ⽊┺ is used after the past tense marker 㠞/㞮: with verbs, adjectives, and copulas. Consider the following examples: 㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㗒⋮G ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) spent money a lot last month.” 㩖⎗㦚 㞚㰗 㞞 ⲏ㠞⋮G ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) have not eaten dinner yet.” 㦢㔳㧊G㫖G㱆⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food was a bit salty.” 㔲䠮㧊G㓂㤶⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the test was easy.” 㦢㔳㧊G⍞ⶊG╂㞮⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food was too sweet.” 㠊㩲GⰤ㧊G䞒Ἲ䟞⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) was very tired yesterday.” ⰺ㤆G⺆ṖGἶ䕶⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) were very hungry.” 㭧ῃG㌂⧢㧊㠞⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) was Chinese.” 䞒䎆㦮G ㌳㧒㧊G 㠊㩲㡖⋮G ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Peter’s birthday was yesterday.” Note that the main verb ⽊┺ does not take the tense marker. It is not grammatically incorrect to add the past tense marker to ⽊┺. However, adding the past tense to the main verb generates a different meaning, as shown in the following examples:

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17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ school.” 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ school.”

䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Thomas goes to school.” 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ⋮G⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Thomas went to school.” 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⋮G ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) checked whether Thomas goes to 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ⋮G ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) checked whether Thomas went to

~㠊V㞚G 㠊V㞚G ⽊㧊┺G ⽊㧊┺ ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺ is used when the speaker expresses his/her opinion regarding the appearance of something. It is only used with adjectives, and it corresponds to “(it) looks/appears to be” in English. 㢍㧊 ゚㕎G⽊㡂㣪. “The dress looks expensive.” 䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞㠊G⽊㧛┞┺. “The coffee looks delicious.” ⿖㠢㧊 䄺G⽊㡂㣪. “The kitchen appears to be big.” For the past tense, the auxiliary verb ⽊㧊┺ takes the tense marker, while the ~㠊/㞚 ending adjective stem does not, as shown below: ₆⿚㧊G⋮ザG⽊㡖㠊㣪. “(Her) mood appeared to be bad.” 㫊㧊G㠊㩲G⹪ザG⽊㡖㠊㣪. “John looked busy yesterday.” 㠒Ὴ㧊G⓯㠊G⽊㡖㠊㣪. “(His) face looked old.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 17 exercises

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Ṗỿ price Ṗ⋲䞮┺ to be poor Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach Ṗ⼣┺ to be light Ị⍞┺ to cross/to go over ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry Ἆ㏦䞮┺ to be humble ἶ䂮┺ to fix/to repair Ὃ䟃 airport ‖Ỏ㧊 earring ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₆㑯㌂ dormitory ₖ䂮 kimchi


₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean ⊠┺ to quit ⋶㝾 weather ⏎⧮ song ⏎䔎⿗ notebook ⑞ snow/eyes ┺Ⰲ bridge/leg ┺㦢 next ╂ month ╊⺆ cigarette ╖䞯㤦㌳ graduate student ▻┺ to be hot ☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive ☞ money ☢㞚Ṗ┺ to return ☫┺ to help ⡧⡧䞮┺ to be smart Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much ⰱ㠜┺ to be tasteless ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious ⰺ㧒 everyday ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)

Key vocabulary for Unit 17 exercises

⹪㊮┺ to be busy ⼚⪲ not in particular ⼧㤦 hospital ⽚ spring ⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out ⿖㠢 kitchen ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ to be diligent ⿖䂮┺ to send ゚㕎┺ to be expensive アⰂ┺ to borrow ㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㌊┺ to live ㎇㔺䞮┺ to be earnest 㑮㣪㧒 Wednesday 㔂䝚┺ to be sad 㔲䋺┺ to order (something)/to force (a person to do) 㔶䢒㡂䟟G honeymoon 㕇ỗ┺ to be watery 㕎┺ to be cheap/to be inexpensive 151


17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

㞚䝚┺ to be sore 㞞 inside 㞞ἓ glasses 㞶䝢䕢㧊 apple pie 㠜┺ not have/not exist 㡗㠊 English 㡞㊮┺ to be pretty 㡺┺ to come/to precipitate/to drop 㡺䤚 afternoon/p.m. 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook 㦢㔳 food 㧎₆ popularity 㧒⽎ Japan 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧮 well/expertly/nicely 㩠┺ to be young 㫡㞚䞮┺ to like 㰖ṧ wallet 㰧 house 㰲┺ to be salty 㹢Ṳ pot stew 㹾 car 㿲⹲䞮┺ to depart 㿻┺ to be cold 䂲ῂ friends 䘎㰖 letter 䞯₆ semester 䞲ῃ Korea 䡫 older brother 䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy

Exercise 17.1 Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ ộ ṯ┺ (for verbs) and ~(㦒)ච ộ ṯ┺ (for adjectives). Then translate the sentence. Example: ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆┺ = ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Brian learns Taekwondo.”

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1 㢖㕇䎊㠦㍲G㿲⹲䞮┺ 2 㡺䤚㠦G☚㹿䞮┺ 3 䂲ῂ⯒G₆┺Ⰲ┺


4 5 6 7 8 9 10

☞㧊G⼚⪲G㠜┺ ㍲㤎㠦G䂲ῂṖGⰤ┺ 㹢ṲṖG㰲┺ 㞺✲⮮ṖG㎇㔺䞮ἶG⡧⡧䞮┺ ⋶㝾ṖG㿻ἶG䦦Ⰲ┺ 䂲ῂṖ ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺

Exercise 17.2

Exercise 17.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺ = ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that service will be nice.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㔶䢒G㡂䟟㦖G⧒㓺⻶Ṗ㓺⪲GṖ┺ 䙊㧊G╊⺆⯒G⊠┺ ┺㦢G㑮㣪㧒㠦G㰧㠦G☢㞚Ṗ┺ 䡫㧊G☞㦚Gア⩺G㭒┺ ┺㦢G䞯₆⿖䎆G₆㑯㌂㠦㍲G㌊┺ 㩲㧎㧊G⏎⧮⯒G㧮G䞮┺ 㦢㔳㧊Gⰱ㠜┺ ⰺ㧒G⹪㊮┺ ⋶㝾ṖG▻┺ 㫊㧊GἎ㏦䞮┺

Exercise 17.3 Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ ⳾㟧㧊┺ (for verbs) and ~(㦒)ච ⳾㟧 㧊┺ (for adjectives). Then translate the sentence. Example: 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺ = 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Emily studies Japanese.” 1 2 3 4 5

㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺ 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ⿖㠢㠦㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ 㫊㧊 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺ ㌢❪Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺ 㞺㍲┞Ṗ 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺

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17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

6 7 8 9 10

㌂⧒Ṗ 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮┺ 㺆㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺┺ 㥂❪Ṗ Ṗ⋲䞮┺ 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ ㌦ⰂṖ 㧎₆Ṗ Ⱔ┺

Exercise 17.4 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺G and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(It) seems that flowers are blooming.” (↙㧊 䞒ἶ 㧞┺) = ↙㧊 䞒ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

(It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It)

seems seems seems seems seems seems seems seems

that that that that that that that that

(he) is looking for keys (㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞┺) (she) works on Saturday (䏶㣪㧒㠦 㧒䞮┺) (they) sold the house (㰧㦚 䕪┺) (he) will quit the job (㰗㧻㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦┺) the soup is spicy (ῃ㧊 㰲┺) the ring is too expensive (⹮㰖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎┺) the size will be too small (㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧┺) the room will be too cold (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㿻┺)

Exercise 17.5 Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ❅䞮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㡺ザṖ ⏏㹾⯒ 㔲䋺ἶ 㧞┺ = 㡺ザṖ ⏏㹾⯒ 㔲䋺ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (my) older brother is ordering green tea.” 1 2 3 4 5

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䂲ῂ⯒ ☫ἶ 㧞┺ 㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊ἶ 㧞┺ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮ἶ 㧞┺ ⑞㧊 㡺┺ 㦢㔳㧊 㰲┺


Exercise 17.6

Exercise 17.6

Conjugate the predicate using ~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䅖ゞ㧊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺ = 䅖ゞ㧊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Kevin reads newspapers.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

⌎㔲ṖG┺㦢G╂㠦G䞲ῃ㠦GṖ┺ 㪎㓺䕊㧊G⼧㤦㠦㍲G㧒䞮┺ ⋮㡺⹎ṖG㧊⻞G⽚㠦Gἆ䢒䞮┺ ㌮㧊G⪲⧒⯒G㫡㞚䞮┺ 䕆⳾䕆ṖG㞚䝚┺ ₖ䂮ṖG㕇ỗ┺ 㡺⓮G⋶㝾ṖG▻┺ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜┺ 㼒㔲Ṗ ╖䞯㤦㌳㧊┺ ぢ⧮✲Ṗ 㡗ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺

Exercise 17.7 Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺ and the adjective cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(He) looks anxious.” (⿞㞞䞮┺) = ⿞㞞䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(She) looks joyful (₆㊮┺) (He) looks scary (ⶊ㎃┺) (You) look lonely (㣎⫃┺) (You) look bored (㕂㕂䞮┺) (They) look happy (䟟⽋䞮┺) (He) looked excited (䦻⿚♮┺) (She) looked nervous (₊㧻♮┺) (They) looked to be in high spirits (㔶⋮┺) (You) looked annoyed (㰲㯳⋮┺) (He) looked angry (䢪⋮┺)

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17

Exercise 17.8

Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair

Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䂲㩞䞮┺ = ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䂲㩞䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. “Brian looks kind.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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䅖㧊䔎ṖG㩠┺ 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊G⹪㊮┺ Ⰶ┺ṖG㞚䝚┺ ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊G㔂䝚┺ 㩲㔲ṖG㡞㊮┺ 㞶䝢䕢㧊ṖGⰱ㧞┺ ‖Ỏ㧊ṖG゚㕎┺ 㞞ἓ㧊G㕎┺ 㰧㞞㧊G₾⊭䞮┺ ⏎䔎⿗㧊GṖ⼣┺


UNIT 18 Post modifiers I

Korean has a number of idiomatic expressions that consist of one of three noun-modifying endings (e.g., ~⓪, ~㦖, and ~㦚) and a noun, such as ₎, 㩗, ☯㞞, and so forth. Since these nouns always appear after the nounmodifying endings (e.g., ~⓪ ₎ or ~㦖 㩗), they are called “post modifiers.” This unit introduces seven special expressions that are made by combining one of three noun-modifying endings with one of the following post modifiers: ₎, 㩗, 㧒, ☯㞞, ☚㭧, 㭧, and 䘎.

~⓪G ⓪G ₎ ~⓪ ₎ “on the way” is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ and the noun ₎ “way/road/street.” ~⓪ ₎ is normally used with a verb of movement, such as Ṗ┺ “go” (e.g., Ṗ⓪ ₎ “on the way to”) and 㡺┺ “come” (e.g., 㡺⓪ ₎ “on the way from”). ⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲ Ṗ⓪G₎㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am on (my) way to Boston.” 㤆Ⰲ⓪ ₖ ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩂ Ṗ⓪G₎㧊㠞㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) were on (our) way to meet Professor Kim.” 㤆㼊ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ⓪G ₎㠦 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒ Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) met (my) mother on (my) way to the post office.” Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ 㡺⓪G₎㠦 ㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will buy the present on (my) way from the airport.” 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪G₎㠦 ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪 “(I) stopped by the department store on (my) way from school.”

~(㦒)චG චG 㩗V㧒G 㩗V㧒 ~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒 is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච and the noun 㩗 or 㧒 “experience.” Typically, ~(㦒)ච 㩗 or ~(㦒)ච 㧒 is followed by 㧞┺ “exist/have” or 㠜┺ “not exist/not have,” and they are used to indicate whether the subject “has an/no experience (of doing something).” Consider the following examples:

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18 Post modifiers I

㩲┞䗒㦮 㰧㠦 ṚG㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have been to Jennifer’s house.” Ἶ䝚⯒ ⺆㤊G㩗㧊G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have never learned golf.” The auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ “try (doing) something” is often used with the form ~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺, as shown below: ㍲㤎㠦 ṖG⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have been to Seoul.” ㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮G⽎G㩗㧊G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have never met the teacher.” 㧒⽎㠦㍲ 㧒䟊G⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪? “Have (you) ever worked in Japan?” 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊G ⽎G 㧒㧊G 㧞㠊㣪? “Have (you) ever tried Korean food?” Notice that ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺ highlights whether the subject has an/no experience of doing something. In addition, when it is used in an interrogative sentence, the form expresses “Have you ever?” Various time-related expressions, such as 䞲 ╂ 㩚㠦 “a month ago” and 㧧⎚㠦 “last year,” can be used with ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺. However, since ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㧒/㩗㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺Gnormally refers to a temporarily distant experience, the use of relatively recent time-related expressions, such as 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 “last week” and 㠊㩲 “yesterday,” is inappropriate. OvP 㧧⎚㠦 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of learning Korean last year.” OP 㠊㩲 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of learning Korean yesterday.”

~⓪G ⓪G ☯㞞 The noun ☯㞞 means “a while/an interval,” as in 㡺⨁ ☯㞞 “for a long time,” ㌒ ⎚ ☯㞞 “for three years,” and Ỿ㤎 ⹿䞯 ☯㞞 “during winter vacation.” The combination of ☯㞞 and the noun-modifying ending ~⓪, as in ~⓪ ☯㞞, expresses two situations or activities that overlap in time. The form ~⓪ ☯㞞 is equivalent to “while” or “during,” as shown below: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⓪G☯㞞 “while drinking coffee” ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㺛㦚 㧓⓪G☯㞞 “while reading the book in the library” 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮⓪G☯㞞 “while making a phone call to (my) friend” Since ~⓪ ☯㞞 indicates this temporal relation, the particle 㠦 can be used optionally after the form, as in ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦.

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㑮㧪㧊 ㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⓪G ☯㞞㠦 ⌊Ṗ ⪲゚㠦㍲ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪. “While Susan worked in the office, (I) waited in the lobby.”


⹬㠦㍲ 㫆ₛ㦚G䞮⓪G☯㞞㠦 㩲 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝆㎎㣪. “While (I) jog outside, use my computer.” ⑚⋮Ṗ 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶG 㧞⓪G ☯㞞㠦 㧦ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “While (my) older sister was eating lunch, (I) was sleeping.” 㞚⌊Ṗ 㧦ἶG 㧞⓪G ☯㞞㠦 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✺㠞㠊㣪. “While (my) wife was sleeping, (I) made dinner.” 㩲Ṗ 㠜⓪G☯㞞㠦 ⋾☯㌳㦚 ☢⽦ 㭒㎎㣪. “While I am away, please take care of (my) younger brother.”

~⓪G☚㭧

~⓪G ⓪G ☚㭧 The noun ☚㭧 means “on the road.” The combination of the nounmodifying ending ~⓪ and the noun ☚㭧, as in ~⓪ ☚㭧, indicates “on the way to/from” or “in the middle of .” 㔲䠮㦚 䂮⓪G ☚㭧㠦 㰞ⶎ㧊 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩖䞲䎢 ⶒ㦒㎎㣪. “If (you) have questions in the middle of taking the test, ask me.” ⺇䢪㩦㠦㍲ 㡺⓪G ☚㭧㠦 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) had a car accident on (my) way from the department store.” 㰧㠦 Ṗ⓪G☚㭧㠦 㞚⻚㰖⯒ Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will meet (my) father on my way home.” 㧊㟒₆䞮⓪G☚㭧㠦 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) went to the restroom in the midst of conversation.” Ὃ⿖䞮⓪G☚㭧㠦 㧶✺㠞㠊㣪. “(I) fell asleep in the middle of studying.” 㞚Ⱎ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊⓪G ☚㭧㠦 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “Perhaps, (she) will fall asleep in the middle of (seeing the) movie.”

~⓪G ⓪G 㭧㧊┺G 㭧㧊┺ ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ means “be in the process/middle of (doing something).” This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~⓪, the noun 㭧 “middle,” and the copula 㧊┺. 㩖䧂 ⳾⚦ 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪G㭧㧛┞┺. “We are all in the middle of cooking.” ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ ⁎ 㺛㦚 㺔⓪G 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of looking for that book in the library.” 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⓪G 㭧㧊㠞㠊㣪. “(We) were in the middle of learning Taekwondo.” 㤊㩚䞮⓪G㭧㧒GỆ㡞㣪. “(I guess that he) is in the middle of driving.” The meaning of ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ is similar to that of the progressive ~ἶ 㧞┺, since both involve progressive actions. Compare the following examples:

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18 Post modifiers I

䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am talking to (my) friend.” 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮⓪G 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle (or process) of talking to (my) friend.” However, while ~ἶ 㧞┺ simply indicates the progressive meaning, ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ tends to highlight the process.

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චG䘎㧊┺ චG䘎㧊┺G ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺G is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ (for a verb stem) or ~(㦒)ච (for an adjective stem), the noun 䘎 “side/ way/party,” and the copula 㧊┺. ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ means “tends to” or “kind of” in English, as shown in the following examples: 㥶┞㓺Ṗ 㩖⽊┺ 㑮㡗㧻㠦 ▪ 㧦㭒 Ṗ⓪G䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Eunice tends to go to the swimming pool more often than I do.” ⋾☯㌳㧊 㡗㠊⯒ ▪ 㧮 䞮⓪G䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) younger brother kind of speaks English better (than I).” 㭒Ⱖ㠦 Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮⓪G䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(I) tend to play golf on the weekend.” Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 䞲ῃⰦ㦚 㧮 䞮⓪G 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Lisa kind of speaks Korean well.” 㩲 㹾Ṗ 㧧㦖G䘎㧊㠦㣪. “My car is kind of small.” ☚㍲ὖ㧊 㩲 㰧㠦㍲ ⲒG 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The library is kind of far from my house.” ⋮⽊┺ 䡫㧊 䋺ṖG▪G䋆G䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) older brother is kind of taller than me.” 㧊 ṖỢ ⶒỊ✺㧊 ゚㕒G 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The items in this store are kind of expensive.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 18 exercises Ṗ┺ to go ⋮Ṗ┺ to go out ⋶㝾 weather ⌊ I/my ┺䒂┺ to quarrel/to argue ♒㰖ἶ₆ pork ⰻ㭒 beer ⳾㧦 hat 160


⹱┺ to receive ⺆㤆┺ to learn ㌂┺ to buy 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩 supermarket 㓺䋺 ski 㔲䋺┺ to order/to ask (someone to do) 㔲䠮 test/exam 㕎┺ to pack 㗆┺ to cut up/to slice 㝆┺ to use 㞚⌊ wife 㟧⽋ suit/dress 㠊⪋┺ to be difficult 㠊Ⲏ┞ mother 㡺⓮ today 㣪Ⰲ cooking 㦢㔳 food 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk 㧒㣪㧒 Sunday 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧛┺ to wear/to put on

Key vocabulary for Unit 18 exercises

㧦┺ to sleep 㧦Ⰲ seat 㧪㏢Ⰲ useless talk/scolding/preaching 㧮 well/expertly 㧻䞯⁞ scholarship 㫆ₛ jogging 㫡㞚䞮┺ to like/to be fond of/to rejoice 㭧ῃ China 㰦 loads/packages 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 䂮┺ to play (tennis or piano)/to strike 䂲ῂ friend 䌖┺ to ride 䌲ῢ☚ Taekwondo 䞲ῃ Korea 䡫 older brother 䢪㧻㔺 toilet 䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy

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Exercise 18.1

Post modifiers I

Finish the following translation using ~⓪ ₎㠦 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) stopped by the supermarket on (my) way from school.” (㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⯊┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺┺) = 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪. 1 (We) will send the package on (our) way to school (㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌊┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺) 2 (They) ran into the teacher on (their) way to the hospital (㍶㌳┮䞮ἶ Ⱎ㭒䂮┺ / ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺) 3 (She) lost (her) wallet on (her) way from the library (㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊 ⻚Ⰲ┺ / ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㡺┺) 4 (He) fell on (his) way from the church (㝆⩂㰖┺ / ᾦ䣢㠦㍲ 㡺┺) 5 (I) met John on (my) way from the store (㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ṖỢ㠦㍲ 㡺┺)

Exercise 18.2 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච 㩗㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) have tried Philippine food.” (䞚Ⰲ䞖 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽊ ┺) = 䞚Ⰲ䞖 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I)

have have have have have

never failed the test (㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪎 ⽊┺) been to Manhattan (ⰾ䞮䎊㠦 Ṗ ⽊┺) tried kimchi (ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㠊 ⽊┺) never been married (ἆ䢒㦚 䟊 ⽊┺) an experience of shooting a gun (㽳㦚 㙊 ⽊┺)

Exercise 18.3 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ච 㩗㧊 㧞┺. Then translate the sentence.

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Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮ ⽊┺ = 䏶Ⱎ㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮ ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of meeting Thomas.”


1 2 3 4 5

㧻䞯⁞㦚G⹱㞚G⽊┺ 䌲ῢ☚⯒G⺆㤢G⽊┺ 䡫ὒG┺䒞G⽊┺ 䞲ῃ㠦㍲G㓺䋺⯒G䌖G⽊┺ 㧒㣪㧒㠦G㧒䟊G⽊┺

Exercise 18.4

Exercise 18.4 Finish the following translation using ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “While (my) older brother was sleeping, (I) used (his) computer.” (䡫㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞┺ / 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㗒㠊㣪) = 䡫㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㗒㠊㣪. 1 While Harry does the laundry, Kate cooks (䟊ⰂṖ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / 䅖㧊 䔎Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪) 2 While I look for keys, Gina will pack loads (⌊Ṗ 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / 㰖⋮ṖG 㰦㦚G㕖GỆ㡞㣪) 3 While John drove (the car), Sally read the map (㫊㧊 㤊㩚㦚 䞮┺ / ㌦ ⰂṖ 㰖☚⯒ ⽺㠊㣪) 4 While Charles worked, Cindy waited (for him) at the coffee shop (㺆 㓺Ṗ 㧒䞮┺ / 㞂❪ṖG䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲G₆┺⪎㠊㣪) 5 While I negotiated with the salesman, (my) wife looked around the shop (⌊Ṗ ㎎㧒㯞ⰾ䞮ἶ 䦻㩫㦚 䞮┺ / 㞚⌊Ṗ ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䟞㠊㣪)

Exercise 18.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㑮㧪㧊 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮┺ / 䐆㧊 㰧㠦 ✺㠊㢪㠊㣪 = 㑮㧪㧊 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䐆㧊 㰧㠦 ✺㠊㢪㠊㣪. “While Susan was on the phone, Tom entered (my) house.” 1 2 3 4 5

㠦✲㤢✲ṖG⳾㧦⯒G㌂ἶG㧞┺G/G䞒䎆ṖG䢪㧻㔺㠦GṪ㠊㣪 ⌊ṖG㫆ₛ㦚G䞮ἶG㧞┺G/G㞚⌊ṖG㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦GṪ㠊㣪 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ / 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䆆㠊㣪 ⲪỊ㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞┺ / 㫆㧊㓺Ṗ {} ⯒ ⽺㠊㣪 㤆ⰂṖ 㧦Ⰲ⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞┺ / ㌮㧊 䕳䆮㦚 ㌂⩂ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪 163


18

Exercise 18.6

Post modifiers I

Finish the following translation using ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) am in the middle of shaving.” (Ⳋ☚⯒ 䞮┺) = Ⳋ☚⯒ 䞮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(She) is in the middle of driving (㤊㩚䞮┺) (We) are in the middle of planting a tree (⋮ⶊ⯒ 㕂┺) (He) is in the middle of fixing the computer (䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺) (I) am in the middle of writing a letter (䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺) (We) are in the middle of crossing the bridge (┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺)

Exercise 18.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✺┺ = 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✲⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of making dinner.” 1 2 3 4 5

㰦㦚G㕎┺ 㭧ῃG㦢㔳㦚G㔲䋺┺ 㠦Ⰳ䞮ἶG䎢┞㓺⯒G䂮┺ ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒G㗆┺ 㟧⽋㦚G㧛┺

Exercise 18.8 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Kevin kind of eats a lot.” (䅖ゞ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺) = 䅖ゞ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. 1 2 3 4 5 164

The house is kind of noisy (㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩓┺) The room is kind of dark (⹿㧊 㠊⚷┺) Nancy’s food is kind of salty (⌎㔲㦮 㦢㔳㧊 㰲┺) Naomi tends to skip breakfast (⋮㡺⹎ṖG㞚䂾㦚Gῌ┺) (I) tend to exercise everyday (ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮┺)


Exercise 18.9

Exercise 18.9

Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㞢⹪┞㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺┺ = 㞢⹪┞㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(It) kind of snows a lot in Albany.” 1 2 3 4 5

㓺䕆ぢṖ ⰻ㭒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮┺ 䡂⩢㧊 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㧮 䞮┺ 㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ 㧪㏢Ⰲ⯒ 䞮㔲┺ 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⪋┺ 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺

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UNIT 19 Post modifiers II

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චG╖⪲ චG╖⪲ ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲ means “as soon as” or “in accordance with.” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ (for a verb stem) or ~(㦒) ච (for an adjective stem) and the noun ╖⪲ “according to/the same/just as.” 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮⓪G ╖⪲ 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪. “Give (me) a call as soon as (you) arrive home.” 㔲䋺⓪G ╖⪲ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪? “Will (you) do according to (what I) ask (you to do)?” ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㰖⓪G╖⪲ 㔲㧧䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) begin as soon as the weather becomes better.” 㭒⓪G╖⪲Gⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) ate whatever (she) gave (me).” ⋶㧊G ⹳⓪G ╖⪲G ⟶⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will leave as soon as the dawn breaks.” 䞮ἶG㕌㦖G╖⪲G䞮㎎㣪. “Do as (you) like to do.” ⲏἶG 㕌㦖G ╖⪲G ⲏ㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(You) can eat as much as (you) like to eat.”

~(㦒)චG චG 䤚㠦 ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦 means “afterward” or “later.” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච, the noun 䤚 “after,” and the particle 㠦. 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㦖G 䤚㠦 ⽊䐋 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㎪㣪. “(I) usually drink coffee after having breakfast.” 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡾G 䤚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “(He) took a shower after coming back home.” 㞚䕢䔎⪲ 㧊㌂⯒G 䞲G 䤚㠦 ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌖㠊㣪. “(We) bought new sofas after moving in to the apartment.” 166


㏦┮㧊 ☢㞚ṚG 䤚㠦 ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will do the dishes after guests return.” 㑯㩲⯒ ┺ 䞲G䤚㠦 㤊☯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will exercise after doing all (my) homework.”

~⓪VO㦒PචG 㻯V㼊䞮┺

The use of noun, such as ┺㦢 “next” or ⛺ “behind” (instead of 䤚), indicates a similar meaning, as shown below: Z ὒ⯒ 㧓㦖G ┺㦢㠦 [ ὒ⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺. “After reading chapter 3, study chapter 4.” 㤊☯㦚G䞲G┺㦢㠦G⽊䐋G㌺㤢⯒G䟊㣪. “After exercising, (I) usually take a shower.” 㡗䢪⯒G⽎G⛺㠦GṦ㌗ⶎ㦚G㝆㎎㣪. “After seeing the movie, write a reaction paper.”

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චG චG 㻯V㼊䞮┺ ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺ means “pretend.” It is the combination of the nounmodifying ending ~⓪ (for verbs in the present meaning) or ~(㦒)ච (for verbs in the past meaning; for adjectives/copulas in the present meaning), the noun 㻯(or 㼊) “pretence,” and the verb 䞮┺ “do.”

~⓪G㻯V㼊䞮┺ ⁎⎖ṖG⋮⯒G⳾⯊⓪G㻯䞿┞┺. “She pretends that (she) does not know me.” 㠚ⰞṖ ☢㞚㡺Ⳋ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮⓪G 㻯䞶G Ệ㡞㣪. “When (my) mom returns, (I) will pretend that (I) study hard.” ἶ₆Ⱒ ⲏ⓪G 㻯䞶G Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) pretend that (you) eat only meat?” 㩖⯒ 㞚⓪G㼊䞮㰖GⰞ㎎㣪. “Do not pretend that (you) know me.” ㏢䕢㠦㍲ 㧦⓪G 㻯䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Pretend that (you) are asleep on the sofa.” ⰻ㭒⯒ ⴑG Ⱎ㔲⓪G 㻯䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) pretend that (we) cannot drink beer.”

~O㦒PචG㻯V㼊䞮┺ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞲G㻯䟊㣪. “(He) pretends that (he) studied hard.” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔶G㻯䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) pretend that (we) drank coffee.” 㡗䢪⯒ 㞞 ⽎G 㻯䞶G Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will pretend that (I) did not see the movie.” 167


19 Post modifiers II

⁎ ⿖⿖⓪ ⓮ 䟟⽋䞲G㻯䟊㣪. “As for that couple, (they) always pretend to be happy.” 䂲ῂ✺㦚G Ⱒ⋮ⳊG 㔂䝞G 㻯䞮㎎㣪. “When (you) meet (your) friends, pretend that (you) are sad.” ⳿㧊G㞚䝞G㻯䟞㠊㣪. “(I) pretended that (my) throat was sore.” ἶⰞ㤊G㻯䞶GỆ㡞㣪. “(We) will pretend that (we) are grateful.” ⿖㰖⩆䞲G㻯䞶GỆ㡞㣪? “Will (you) pretend that (you) are diligent?” 㑮㧪㧊G 䃦⋮┺G ㌂⧢㧎G 㻯䟊㣪. “Susan pretends that (she) is a Canadian.”

~⓪G ⓪G ⹪⧢㠦 ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪, the noun ⹪⧢ “wind,” and the particle 㠦. It means “as a result of/because of,” and the effects for which ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 is used are generally negative and incidental. Consider the following example: ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮⓪G ⹪⧢㠦G 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to school because of getting up late.” Notice that ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 indicates the cause (e.g., getting up late) for the negative or unpleasant consequence of the main clause (e.g., could not go to school). Here are more examples: 㰧㦚 ㌂⓪G ⹪⧢㠦 ☞㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) do not have money as a result of buying the house.” ゚Ṗ Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪G⹪⧢㠦 ⼧㤦㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to the hospital because (it) rained a lot.” ㍲⚦⯊⓪G⹪⧢㠦 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) had a car accident because (I) hurried up.” 㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊G ⻚Ⰲ⓪G ⹪⧢㠦 㟓㏣㦚 ⴑ 㰖䆆㠊㣪. “(I) could not keep the promise because (I) lost the key.”

~⓪V ⓪V(㦒)චGộ㧊┺ චGộ㧊┺

168

~⓪/(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺ is used to give an account of events or states of affairs. It can be translated as “the fact is,” or “what happened is that.” This form is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ (for verbs in the present meaning) or ~(㦒)ච (for verbs in the past meaning or for adjectives/copulas in the present meaning), the dependent noun ộ (or Ệ for colloquial usage) “fact/thing,” and the copula 㧊┺.


~⓪Gộ㧊┺

~O㦒PඥG ㄪ䟞┺

㞺✲⮮ṖG ⻶㧊㓺G ₆䌖⯒G 䂮⓪G Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Andrew plays the base guitar.” 㧊㩲⿖䎆 ⰺ㧒 ⥆⓪G Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that (we will) run everyday from now on.”

~O㦒PචGộ㧊┺ 㠮Ⰲ㧦⻶㓺ṖG 䞒㞚⏎⯒G 䂲G Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Elizabeth played the piano.” 㡺⓮G ⋶㝾ṖG ➆⦑䞲G Ệ㠦㣪. “The fact is that today’s weather is warm.” 㧻⹎ṖG㞚⯚┺㤊GỆ㡞㣪U “The fact is that roses are beautiful.” ◆┞㠮㧊G䞲ῃG㌂⧢㧎GỆ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Daniel is a Korean.”

~(㦒)ඥG ඥG ㄪ䟞┺ ~(㦒)ඥG ㄪ䟞┺ is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒) ඥ, the noun ㄪ “almost/about to,” and the verb 䟞┺ “did.” ~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞 ┺ indicates that some events almost happened. It corresponds to “almost” or “to be nearly” in English. ⋶㝾ṖG㿪㤢㍲GṦ₆㠦GỎⰊGㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost caught a cold, since the weather was cold.” Ὃ䟃㠦G⓼ỢG☚㹿䟊㍲G゚䟟₆⯒G⏩䂶Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost missed the flight, since (I) arrived in the airport late.” 㠊㩲G₎㠦㍲G㑮㧪䞮ἶGⰞ㭒䂶Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost ran into Susan on the street yesterday.” 䞒Ἲ䟊㍲G 㞚䂾㠦G ⴑG 㧒㠊⋶G ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost could not get up in the morning for (I) was tired.”

~(㦒)ඥG ඥG ➢ ~(㦒)ඥ ➢ means “when.” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ and the noun ➢ “time/occasion.” 㔲䃊ἶ⪲ ⟶⋶G➢ 㹾⪲ Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will go by car, when (we) leave for Chicago.” ⺆Ṗ 㞚䝢G➢ 㧊 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪? “Do (you) take this medicine, when (your) stomach aches?” ⪲㎮㦚G⹬㠦G⋮ṞG➢G㠒Ὴ㠦G⹪⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Apply the lotion on (your) face, when (you) go outside.”

169


19 Post modifiers II

㔲Ṛ 㧞㦚G ➢ 㡆⧓䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) contact (them) when (we) have time.” ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦚G ➢ Ὃ㤦㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪. “Go to the park, when the weather is good.” ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞶G➢ ⹪╍Ṗ㠦㍲ 㑮㡗䞿㔲┺. “When the weather is warm, (let us) swim at the beach.” 㕇⁖㧒G ➢G 㡂䟟㦚G Ⱔ㧊G 䞮ἶG 㕌㠊㣪. “While (I) am a single, (I) want to travel a lot.” 㞚㰗G 䞯㌳㧒G ➢G Ⱔ㧊G ⺆㤆㕃㔲㡺. “Learn a lot when (you) are still a student.” There are two things to remember when using ~(㦒)ඥ ➢ with verbs in the past tense. When only the main clause is conjugated for the past tense, the action of the ➢Gclause co-occurred with that of the main clause. Consider the following example: Ⓤ㣫㔲㠦G ṞG ➢G ⻚㓺⯒G 䌪㠊㣪. “Going to New York City, (I) took a bus.” Notice in the example above that the action of the first clause “going” co-occurred with the action of the main clause “taking the bus,” and the tense is marked only in the main clause. However, when both clauses are conjugated for the past tense, the actions of both clauses do not co-occur: The action of the first clause happened prior to that of the main clause. Consider the following example: Ⓤ㣫㔲㠦GṪ㦚G➢G㑮㧪㦚G㻮㦢GⰢ⌂㠊㣪. “When (I) went to New York City, (I) met Susan for the first time.” Notice that the first clause “going to New York City” happened prior to the action of the main clause “meeting Susan.” Here are more examples:

170

㧒⽎㧎 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ ╖䢪䞶G ➢ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “Conversing with (my) Japanese friend, (I) talked in Japanese.” ☚㍲ὖ㠦 ṞG ➢ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌪㠊㣪. “Going to the library, (I) took a subway.” 㧒㦚 ⊳⌒G➢ 㩚䢪䟞㠊㣪. “Finishing (my) work, (I) called (her).” 䕢Ⰲ㠦 Ṫ㦚G➢ ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “When (I) went to Paris, the weather was cold.” ゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䟞㦚G➢ 㧊⹎ ㌞⼓㧊㠞㠊㣪. “When the airplane arrived in the airport, (it) was already dawn.” 䞮㢖㧊㠦GṪ㦚G➢G㠊ⓦG䢎䎪㠦G㧞㠞㠊㣪? “When (you) went to Hawaii, at which hotel did (you) stay?”


Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 19 exercises

Key vocabulary for Unit 19 exercises

Ṗ┺ to go Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch a cold/flu ṧ㧦₆ suddenly Ị⍞┺ to cross/to go over ἆ䢒㔳 wedding ceremony ἓ₆ game ἓ㺆 police ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺ to get out of order/to break down Ἶ┺ to snore Ὃ⿖ study/learning ὖ㕂㧊 㠜┺ to be uninterested ₆⿚ feeling/mood ₎ road/street ⊚┺ to switch off/to extinguish ⊩㧊┺ to boil ⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong ⋶㝾 weather ⋾㧦 man ⍹┺ to put (something) into/to insert ⏎⧮ song ⓼Ợ late ┺䂮┺ to hurt (oneself)/to be wounded ╁┺ to close ╖䞯 college ▻┺ to be hot ☚㤖 help ☞ money ☢⩺㭒┺ to return (a thing)/to give (a thing) back ☢㞚Ṗ┺ to return/to go back ♮┺ to become ✹┺ to listen/to take (a class) ⧒Ⳋ ramyon/instant noodle Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱎ䂮┺ to finish/to accomplish Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much Ⱔ㧊 a lot ⰻ㭒 beer ⲏ┺ to eat ⳾㧦 hat

171


19 Post modifiers II

172

ⶎ door ⶒ water ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ to slide ⹪㰖 pants ⹱┺ to receive ⽊┺ to see/to watch ⿖⯊┺ to sing ゚ rain ザ㰖┺ to fall into/to be drowned ㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺ to have an accident ㌂ⶊ㔺Goffice ㌞⼓ dawn ㌳㧒Gbirthday ㍲⮮ documents ㍲㩦 bookstore ㍶ⶒ gift/present ㏢⁞ salt 㑮㠛 class 㑯㩲 homework 㓺䔎⩞㓺 stress 㔲Ṛ hour/time 㔲㧧䞮┺ to start 㔲䋺┺ to order (something from a person)/to force (a person to do) 㔳㌂ meal 㕁㠊䞮┺ to dislike 㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored 㕎㤆┺ to quarrel/to fight 㞚㧊✺ children 㟓㏣ promise/appointment 㟧⽋ suit/dress 㠊Ⰲ┺ to be juvenile/to be childish 㡆⧓ contact 㡊㐶 keys 㡗䢪 movie 㡺┺ to come 㢍 clothes 㢖㧎 wine 㤆㌆ umbrella 㤊☯ exercises 㤪  salary 㦢㔳 food 㦢㞛 music 㦮㌂ doctor 㧊₆┺ to win/to overcome


㧊Ⲫ㧒 e-mail 㧒 work 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧙┺ to lose 㧛┺ to wear/to put on 㧠┺ to forget

Exercise 19.1

㧦┺ to sleep 㧶 sleeping 㧶⁎┺ to lock 㩚❇ electric lamp 㩚䢪 telephone 㩬┺ to get wet 㫡┺ to be good/to be nice 㭖゚ preparation 㫎㠛䞮┺ to graduate 㰖ṗ䞮┺ to be late/to be tardy 㰖┺ to lose/to get defeated 㰧 house 㰲┺ to be salty 㰽┺ to be short 㹾 car/tea 㺓ⶎ window 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 䀾㰗 employment 䂲ῂ✺ friends 䆪 nose 䞚㣪䞮┺ to be in need of 䟟⽋䞮┺ to be happy 䢪⌊┺ to get angry 䠞Ⰲ waist 䣢㌂ company 䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy

Exercise 19.1 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Comply with whatever (they) request.” (㣪ῂ䞮┺ / ✺㠊㭒 ㎎㣪) = 㣪ῂ䞮⓪ ╖⪲ ✺㠊㭒㎎㣪.

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19 Post modifiers II

1 (We) will do as Simon orders (us to do) (㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㰖㔲䞮┺ / 䞶 Ệ 㡞㣪) 2 The mail arrived (here) yesterday as (we) expected (₆╖䞮┺ / 䘎㰖Ṗ 㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪) 3 Will (you) drink as much as (you) want? (Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌┺ / Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞 㣪?) 4 Sleep as long as (you) want (㧦ἶ 㕌┺ / 㧦㎎㣪) 5 (Let us) eat as much as (we) want (ⲏἶ 㕌┺ / ⲏ㦣㔲┺)

Exercise 19.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲. Then translate the sentence. Example: Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㎎㣪 = Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮⓪ ╖⪲ 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㎎㣪. “Call (me) as soon as (you) arrive at the airport.” 1 2 3 4 5

㧒㠊⋮┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪 㔳㌂⯒ Ⱎ䂮┺ / ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪? 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / ⟶⋮㎎㣪 ㍲⮮⯒ ⹱┺ / 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺 㺛㦚 ⹱┺ / ☢⩺㭣㔲┺

Exercise 19.3 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦 and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) will buy (it) after (I) look around the store.” (ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䞮┺ / ㌊⧮㣪) = ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䞲 䤚㠦 ㌊⧮㣪.

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1 Usually, (I) shave after brushing (my) teeth (⽊䐋 㧊⯒ ┼┺ / Ⳋ☚⯒ 䟊㣪) 2 (He) leaves home for work after having breakfast (㞚䂾 㔳㌂⯒ 䞮┺ / 㿲⁒䟊㣪) 3 (She) returned to school after sending the package (㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌊┺ / 䞯 ᾦ⪲ ☢㞚㢪㠊㣪) 4 (We) will go to the party after buying a gift (㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂┺ / 䕢䕆㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪) 5 (I) want to rest after finishing (my) work (㧒㦚 ⊳⌊┺ / 㓂ἶ 㕌㠊㣪)


Exercise 19.4

Exercise 19.4

Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 䅲┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㠞㠊㣪 = 䅊䜾䎆⯒G䅶 䤚㠦 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) made a phone call after turning (my) computer on.” 1 2 3 4 5

㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊┺ / ⧒Ⳋ㦚 ⍹㦒㎎㣪 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮┺ / 䀾㰗 㭖゚⯒ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁┺ / 㩚❇㦚 ⊚㕃㔲㡺 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂮┺ / 㰧㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺

Exercise 19.5 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯䞮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Do not pretend that (you) are drunk.” (㑶㠦 䀾䞮┺) = 㑶㠦 䀾䞲 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

Do not pretend that (you) are sleeping (㧦ἶ 㧞┺) Do not pretend that (you) are working hard (㡊㕂䧞 㧒䞮ἶ 㧞┺) (She) pretends that (she) likes the present (㍶ⶒ㦚 㫡㞚䞮┺) (He) pretended that (he) could swim (㑮㡗䞶 㑮 㧞┺) Will (you) pretend that (you) are an American? (⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺)

Exercise 19.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯䞮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䌊⻢ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ = 䌊⻢ⰂṖ 㞚䝞 㻯䟊㣪. “Kimberly pretends that (she) is sick.” 1 2 3 4 5

㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㰖⋮䞮ἶ 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㞺㍲┞Ṗ

゚⹖ ⻞䢎⯒ 㞢┺ ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䟟⽋䞮┺ 䟃㌗ ☞㧊 㠜┺ 㩲㔲䃊⯒ 㕁㠊䞮┺ Ὃ⿖㠦 ὖ㕂㧊 㠜┺

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19

Exercise 19.7

Post modifiers II

Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච Ệ㡞㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The fact is that (we) leave for London tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⩆▮㦒⪲ 㿲⹲䞮┺) = ⌊㧒 ⩆▮㦒⪲ 㿲⹲䞮⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. 1 The fact is that (we) meet the professor together (ᾦ㑮┮㦚 䞾℮ Ⱒ⋮┺) 2 The fact is that (we) all wear contact lenses (㤆Ⰲ ⳾⚦ 䆮䎣䔎 ⩢㯞 ⯒ ⋒┺) 3 The fact is that (we) live together from now on (㧊㩲⿖䎆 ṯ㧊 ㌊┺) 4 The fact is that prices are high (ⶒṖṖ ⏨┺) 5 The fact is that George is honest (㫆㰖Ṗ ㏪㰗䞮┺) 6 The fact is that James is smart (㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ⡧⡧䞮┺) 7 The fact is that (they) bought a new car (㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺) 8 The fact is that (he) lost the wallet (㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊⻚Ⰲ┺) 9 The fact is that (she) invited Gina to the party as well (㰖⋮☚ 䕢䕆 㠦 㽞㼃䞮┺) 10 The fact is that (he) majored in the Korean language (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ 䞮┺)

Exercise 19.8 Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦. Then translate the sentence. Example: ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪 = ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪. “(I) was late for the appointment, because the road was congested.”

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮┺ / 㑮㠛㠦 㰖ṗ䟞㠊㣪 ṧ㧦₆ ゚Ṗ 㡺┺ / 㢍㧊 㩬㠞㠊㣪 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺ / 䣢㌂㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪 Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰂ┺ / Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪 ⹪⧢㧊 ⿞┺ / ⳾㧦⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪 ㏢⁞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⍹┺ / 㦢㔳㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㱆㠊㣪 䆪⯒ Ἶ┺ / 㧶㦚 ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ / 䠞Ⰲ⯒ ┺㼺㠊㣪 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪 ㌞⼓㠦 㧒䞮┺ / Ṧ₆㠦 Ỏ⪎㠊㣪


Exercise 19.9

Exercise 19.9

Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ඥ ➢. Then translate the sentence. Example: ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㰖⯚₎㦚 㧊㣿䞿┞┺ = ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧦➢ 㰖⯚₎㦚 㧊㣿䞿┞┺. “When the roads are congested, (I) use a short cut.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

㤪 㦚 ⹱┺ / ₆⿚㧊 㫡㔋┞┺ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䞮┺ / 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺ 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / 㦢㞛㦚 ✹㔋┞₢? ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㕃㔲㡺 㓺䎢㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ┺ / 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㕃┞┺ 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ Ⱔ┺ / 㤊☯㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ✺䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞶 ỗ┞┺ ἆ䢒㔳㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㠞㔋┞┺ ゚Ṗ 㡺┺ / 㤆㌆㧊 䞚㣪䞿┞┺ 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞┺ / 䆪⹎❪ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㕃㔲㡺 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊿┞┺ 㡂㧦䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊┺ / ⶊ㓾 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ㦚 㭖゚䞿┞₢? 㕂㕂䞮┺ / ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺ 㠊⪎┺ / 㦮㌂Ṗ ♮ἶ 㕌㠞㔋┞₢? ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻┺ / 㰽㦖 ⹪㰖⯒ 㧛㦣㔲┺

Exercise 19.10 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䞮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺ = 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost had a car accident.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㕎㤆┺ ⶒ㠦 ザ㰖┺ 㟓㏣㦚 㧠┺ ⶎ㦚 㧶⁎┺ Ợ㧚㦚 㰖┺ 㤆Ⰲ 䕖㧊 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₆┺ ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ 㞚㧊✺䞲䎢 䢪⌊┺ 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺ ₎㦚 Ị⍞┺ 177


UNIT 20 Ability and possibility

~(㦒)ඥG ඥG 㑮G㧞┺V㠜┺ ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺ is used to indicate an ability or possibility of doing something. This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ, the noun 㑮 “means/way,” and the verb 㧞┺ “have/exist.” For negation, 㠜┺ “not have/not exist” is used instead of 㧞┺. ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺ is equivalent to English translation “one can do/be” or “it is possible to,” as shown in the examples below: 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂶G 㑮G 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can play a piano” or “(It) is possible to play a piano.” ㍲㤎㠦 ṞG㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can go to Seoul” or “(It) is possible to go to Seoul.” ⁎ 㺛㦚 㧓㦚G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can read that book” or “(It) is possible to read that book.” On the other hand, ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜┺ is used to express “cannot do/be” or “it is not possible to.” 㰧㠦㍲ Ὃ⿖䞶G 㑮G 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot study at home” or “(It) is not possible to study at home.” 䕢䕆㠦 ṞG 㑮G 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot go to the party” or “(It) is not possible to go to the party.” ⰺ㧒 㑮㡗䞶G 㑮G 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot swim everyday” or “(It) is not possible to swim everyday.” The meaning of ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜㠊㣪 is similar to that of the negative expression with ⴑ “cannot/unable.” For instance, compare the following two sentences:

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ニ㦚 ⴑGⲏ㠊㣪 (or ニ㦚 ⲏ㰖Gⴑ䟊㣪). “(I) cannot eat bread.” ニ㦚 ⲏ㦚G㑮G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot eat bread” or “(It) is not possible to eat bread.”


Notice that while the first sentence with the negative ⴑ simply emphasizes one’s inability (e.g., whether one can eat bread or not), the second sentence with ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜㠊㣪 indicates one’s ability as well as the possibility of the action (e.g., whether eating bread is possible or not). When ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺ is used with adjectives, it indicates the possibility of the state or quality, as shown below:

~O㦒PඥG㭚G 㞢┺V⳾⯊┺

㤪㣪㧒 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤎G 㑮G 㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is possible that the test on Monday can be difficult.” ⌊㧒㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤎G㑮G㧞㔋┞┺. “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s weather can be cold.” Meanwhile, some particles, such as ☚ “also,” Ⱒ “only,” and ⹬㠦 “except/ but,” can appear after the noun 㑮 to indicate additional meanings. Consider the following examples: ⌊㧒㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎G㑮☚G㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s weather can be also hot.” ㍲㤎㠦㍲ ㌊G 㑮ⰢG 㧞┺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(It) would be wonderful, only if (I) can live in Seoul.” Notice that the particle ☚ adds a special meaning of “also” to the first sentence, and the particle Ⱒ adds a meaning of “only” to the second sentence. When the noun 㑮 is followed by the particle ⹬㠦, which means “except/ but,” as in ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪, it creates an expression of “have no other way to/can’t help (doing),” as shown below: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔺G㑮⹬㠦G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot help drinking coffee.” ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚 䞶G㑮⹬㠦G㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot help jogging everyday.” 㩲 㰧㦚 䕪G㑮⹬㠦G㠜㠞㠊㣪. “(I) couldn’t help selling my house.”

~(㦒)ඥG ඥG 㭚G 㞢┺V⳾⯊┺ ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/⳾⯊┺ is used to express a specific ability of the subject, equivalent to “know how to” in English. This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ, the noun 㭚 “the way (how to),” and the verb 㞢┺ “know” or ⳾⯊┺ “do not know.” 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺G㭚G㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to drink wine.” ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⱂG㭚G㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) knew how to wear a tie.” 㡗㠊⯒ 䞶G㭚G㞢㞚㣪? “(Do you) know how to speak English?” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 䞶G㭚Gⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know how to speak Korean.”

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20 Ability and possibility

䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺G㭚Gⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not know how to make Korean food.” ☞㦚 㝎G㭚Gⴆ⧒㣪? “Don’t (you) know how to spend money?” When the subject of ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢㞮┺/ⴆ⧦┺ is a third person, it indicates the speaker’s presumed thought, as shown below: 䐆㧊 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺G 㭚G 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that Tom would drink wine.” ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎G 㭚G 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that the weather would be hot.” ┞䆲⧒㓺Ṗ 㧒㦚 㧒㹣 ⊳⌒G㭚G㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that Nicolas would finish (his) work early.” 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 䞶G 㭚G ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Susan would speak Korean.” 䐆㧊 㡂₆㠦 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚ⰊG㭚Gⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not expect that Tom would throw the garbage away here.” 㞚⌊Ṗ ⁎ 㰧㦚 㫡㞚䞶G 㭚G ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that (my) wife would like that house.”

~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒) ඥ, the dependent noun Ⰲ “possibility,” the subject particle Ṗ, and the verb 㠜┺ “not have/not exist.” ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ indicates that content of the ~(㦒)ඥ Ⰲ ending clause is not true or far from the reality. It can be translated as “it is not possible that . . . ” or “there is no possibility that . . . ” in English. 㞺㰖Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦 ṞGⰂṖG㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that Angie goes to Korea.” ⁎ 䂲ῂ✺㧊 ⋮⯒ 㕁㠊䞶G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that those friends dislike me.” 㡂⯚㠦 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㦚GⰂṖG㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that (she) wears a coat in summer.” 㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤎GⰂṖG㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that the test is easy.” ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤎G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that the weather is cold.” ア㧊 Ṗ⋲䞶GⰂṖG㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that Bill is poor.” ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㡂㧦㧒G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that (his) roommate is a woman.” 180


Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 20 exercises

Key vocabulary for Unit 20 exercises

ṖỢ store Ṗ┺ to go Ṟ㞚䌖┺ to change (cars/trains) ṯ㧊 together Ἶ䝚 golf ₖ䂮 kimchi ⏎⧮ song ⓦ⋒┺ to feel ╁┺ to close ╖䞯 college ▪㥚 the heat/sun stroke ❪㧦㧎 design ⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⹎ῃ U.S.A. ⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out ㌂‖┺ to make friends ㌳䢲 living/life 㑮㡗䞮┺ to swim 㓓┺ to be easy 㕎┺ to be cheap 㠊⠑Ợ how 㡞㊮┺ to be pretty 㡺⓮ today 㢖㧎 wine 㣪⁞ fee 㤊☯ exercise/sports 㤊㩚䞮┺ to drive 㤪㣪㧒 Monday 㧒⽎ Japan 㧒㹣 early 㧮 well/expertly 㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting 㰖䞮㻶 subway 䂮┺ to play (tennis/golf/piano) 䂲ῂ friend 䏶㣪㧒 Saturday 䔎⩃ truck

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䘎䞮┺ to be convenient/to be comfortable 䞲ῃ Korea 䡫 older brother 䣢㌂ company

20 Ability and possibility

Exercise 20.1 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/ 㠜┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(They) can repair the car.” (㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺) = 㹾⯒ ἶ䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

(I) can open the store alone (䢒㧦 ṖỢ⯒ 㡊┺) (We) can give a hope to them (⁎✺㠦Ợ 䧂ⰳ㦚 㭒┺) (They) can dance on the stage (ⶊ╖ 㥚㠦㍲ 㿺㦚 㿪┺) (She) cannot sell the house (㰧㦚 䕪┺) (I) cannot solve this math problem (㧊 㑮䞯 ⶎ㩲⯒ 䛖┺)

Exercise 20.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⁎ 㞚㧊䞲䎢 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺ = ⁎ 㞚㧊䞲䎢 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can teach English to that child.” 1 2 3 4 5

䔎⩃㦚 㤊㩚䞮┺ ▪㥚⯒ ⓦ⋒┺ 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺ 䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺ ⹎ῃ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖┺

Exercise 20.3 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢㞮┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.

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Example: “(I) know how to speak Spanish.” (㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒ 䞮┺) = 㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒ 䞶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪.


1 (I) know how to sing a Japanese song (㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺) 2 (I) know how to make Chinese food (㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺┺) 3 (I) thought that Scarlet would have a key (㓺䃒Ⱅ㧊 㡊㐶⯒ Ṗ㰖ἶ 㧞┺) 4 (I) thought (they) would open the store even on Sunday (㧒㣪㧒㠦☚ ṖỢ⯒ 㡊┺) 5 (I) thought that (he) would be in church today (㡺⓮ ᾦ䣢㠦 㧞┺)

Exercise 20.4

Exercise 20.4 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㧒⽎㠊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺ = 㧒⽎㠊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㦚 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to read Japanese newspapers.” 1 2 3 4 5

ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮┺ 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖┺ 㡂₆㍲ 䣢㌂₢㰖 Ṗ┺ 㑮㡗䞮┺

Exercise 20.5 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 ⴆ⧦┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) did not think that Lisa would order Chinese food.” (Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䋺┺) = Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䌂 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. 1 (I) did not think that Jerry would be popular (㩲ⰂṖ 㥶ⳛ䞮┺) 2 (I) did not think that Professor Chang would be a Korean (㧻 ᾦ㑮 ┮㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺) 3 (We) did not think that Kate would study well (䅖㧊䔎Ṗ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㧮 䞮┺) 4 (I) did not think that (she) would have a boyfriend (⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ 㧞┺) 5 (I) did not think that George would be a policeman (㫆㰖Ṗ ἓ㺆ὖ 㧊┺) 183


20

Exercise 20.6

Ability and possibility

Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 ⴆ⧦┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ☛㧒 ㌂⧢㧊┺ = Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ☛㧒 ㌂⧢㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Lisa would be a German.” 1 2 3 4 5

䡫㧊 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䏶㣪㧒㠦 ṖỢ⯒ 㧒㹣 ╁┺ 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺ ㌂㧊Ⲓ㧊 㤊☯㦚 㧮 䞮┺ 㺆㓺Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺

Exercise 20.7 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “There is no possibility that Paul is a college student.” (䙊㧊 ╖䞯㌳㧊┺) = 䙊㧊 ╖䞯㌳㧒 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. 1 There is no possibility that the dress size fits (㢍 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⰴ┺) 2 There is no possibility that the weather is nice (⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺) 3 There is no possibility that the movie is interesting (⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎ 㧞┺) 4 There is no possibility that Andrew is lazy (㞺✲⮮Ṗ Ợ㦒⯊┺) 5 There is no possibility that William majors in Korean history (㥢Ⰲ㠚 㧊 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞮┺)

Exercise 20.8 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩲㧊㓾㧊 ☞㧊 Ⱔ┺ = 㩲㧊㓾㧊 ☞㧊 Ⱔ㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that Jason has a lot of money.” 184


1 2 3 4 5

╖䞯 ㌳䢲㧊 㨂⹎㧞┺ 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮┺ 䎢┞㓺Ṗ 㓓┺ 䌳㔲 㣪⁞㧊 㕎┺ ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮┺

Exercise 20.8

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UNIT 21 Indirect question form

Questions can be either direct or indirect. Direct question: “What does Peter drink?” Indirect question: “Do you know what Peter drinks?” In English the indirect question is often marked by the relative clause, introduced by question words such as “whether,” “what,” “where,” and “which.” Notice in the second example above that the actual question is a relative clause (e.g., what Peter drinks), which is marked by the question word “what.” This unit introduces the form ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖, which is used to construct indirect questions in Korean as well as to indicate the speaker’s uncertain or wondering mindset.

Indirect question The form ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 consists of one of three noun-modifying endings and the special noun 㰖 “whether/given the state of being/since then/until.” ~⓪㰖 is used after a verb stem for the present meaning (e.g., ⲏ┺ => ⲏ⓪㰖); ~(㦒)ච㰖 is used after an adjective/copula stem for the present meaning (e.g., 㧧┺ => 㧧㦖㰖); ~(㦒)ඥ㰖 is used after a verb or adjective/ copula stem for the unrealized or prospective meaning (e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮┺ => Ṗ⯊䂶㰖; ⹪㊮┺ => ⹪㊶㰖). For a verb as well as adjective/copula in the past meaning, ~㠞/㞮⓪㰖 is used (e.g., ⲏ┺ => ⲏ㠞⓪㰖; 㧧┺ => 㧧㞮⓪㰖). ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 is often used with certain verbs or adjectives, such as 㞢┺ “know,” ⳾⯊┺ “do not know,” and ῗ⁞䞮┺ “curious.” Consider the following two sentences:

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㧊㌂⻾㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㢖㣪? “What time does Isabel return?” 㧊㌂⻾㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㡺⓪㰖G㞢㞚㣪? “Do (you) know what time Isabel returns?”


The first sentence is a direct question, and the second sentence is an indirect question. Notice in the second sentence that ~⓪㰖 is used after the verb stem (e.g., ☢㞚㡺 + ⓪㰖), and followed by the verb 㞢┺. The use of the adverb 㠒Ⱎ⋮ “how much/many” with the form ~⓪/ (㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ 㰖 may add an exclamatory sense to the content, as shown below:

Indirect question

◆㧊キ㧊 㣪㯞㦢 㠒Ⱎ⋮G㡊㕂䧞G㔲䠮GὋ⿖⯒G䞮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how hard David studies for tests nowadays?” ⁎ 㹾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮G ゚㕒㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how expensive that car is?” Here are more examples.

After the verb stem in the present meaning 䙊㧊 㠊❪㠦 ṖἶG㧞⓪㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where Paul is going to?” 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㠊❪㠦 ㌂⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where Erica lives?”

After the adjective or copula stem in the present meaning 䢎⏖⭆⬾㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㫡㦖㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how nice Honolulu’s weather is?” ⁎✺㧊 䟟⽋䞲㰖 ῗ⁞䟊㣪? “Are (you) curious whether they are happy?” ぢ⧮✲Ṗ ⑚ῂ㧎㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know who Brad is?”

After the verb, adjective and/or copula stem in the past meaning 㞺㰖Ṗ 㠊㩲 ⶊ㠝㦚G 䟞⓪㰖G 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what Angie did yesterday?” 㠊㩲 ⹺ ⳝG㔲₢㰖GὋ⿖䟞⓪㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (he) studied until last night?” 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⹪ナ⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how busy (I) was last week?” 㔲䠮㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠊⩺㤶⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how hard the test was?”

After the verb, adjective and/or copula stem in the prospective meaning 䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 㿲⁒䞶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know at what time Christine will go to work?” ⁎ 㹾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ゚㕖㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how expensive that car will be?”

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21

Indicating a speculative mindset

Indirect question form

When ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 is used in a non-interrogative sentence, it indicates the speaker’s speculative or uncertain mindset. Consider the following sentence: 䃦䕆Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪㰖G ⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know what time Cathy goes to school.” Notice that ⳝ 㔲㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪㰖 “what time Cathy goes to school” implies the speaker’s wondering mindset. Here are more examples: 㞶䝢㦚G 㝆⓪㰖G wjG ⯒G 㝆⓪㰖G ₆㠋㧊G 㞞G ⋮㣪. “(I) do not remember whether (he) uses an Apple or a PC.” 㡺ザṖ 㠊❪㍲G㌂⓪㰖G⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know where (my) older brother lives.” 㫊䞲䎢 ⁎ 㺛㧊 ゚㕒㰖G ⶒ㠊⽊㎎㣪. “Ask John whether that book is expensive.” 㔲䠮㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮G㠊⩺㤊㰖Gⴆ⧒㣪. “(They) do not know how difficult the test is.” 㰖⹎ 㓺⹎㓺Ṗ ⑚ῂ㧎㰖G ⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know who Jimmy Smith is.” 㡺⓮ 㠊ⓦG䕖㧊G㧊₎㰖Gῗ⁞䟊㣪. “(I) am curious which team will win today.” ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 㠊⟺G 㑮㠛㦚G ✺㦚㰖G ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) am not sure what kind of courses (I) will take next semester.” 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㦚㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㔋┞┺. “(I) am not sure whether the food will be tasty.” 㡊㐶⯒ 㠊❪㠦 Ṧ㿪㠞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know where (she) hid the key.” ⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠞⓪㰖G 㧊㟒₆䟊G 㭒㎎㣪. “Please tell (us) whether that movie was interesting.” 㧧⎚ Ỿ㤎㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮G 㿪㤶⓪㰖 ⳾⯒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(They probably) do not know how cold the last winter was.”

~㠊V㞚㟒G䞶㰖G⳾⯊┺G The form ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺ is used when the speaker is uncertain about what he/she must do. This form is constructed from ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞮┺ “must/should,” the form ~(㦒)ඥ㰖, and the verb ⳾⯊┺ “do not know/be unaware of.” 188

㩲┞䗒㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕㠊㟒G䞶㰖G⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know whether (I) should believe Jennifer’s story.”


⁎ ⋾㧦⯒ Ἒ㏣ Ⱒ⋮㟒G䞶㰖G⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know whether (I) should continue to meet with that man.”

~O㦒Pච㰖GUGUGUG ♮┺V㰖⋮┺

~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺ is often used with a question word, such as ⶊ㠝 “what,” 㠎㩲 “when,” and 㠊❪ “where,” as shown below: Ⲓ㩖 ⶊ㠝㦚 ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what (I) have to buy first.” 㠎㩲 ⿖䌗㦚 䟊㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know when (I) should ask for a favor.” ゚Ṗ 㡺⓪◆ 㤆㌆㦚 ㌂⩂ 㠊❪⪲GṖ㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(It) rains, but (I) do not know where (I) should go to buy an umbrella.”

~(㦒)ච㰖 ච㰖G. . .G♮┺V㰖⋮┺ The form ~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺/㰖⋮┺ is constructed from ~(㦒)ච㰖, and the verb ♮┺ “become” (or the verb 㰖⋮┺ “pass/elapse”). The ~(㦒)ච 㰖 . . . ♮┺/㰖⋮┺ is used to express the amount of time that has elapsed since a certain temporal point, and it can be translated as “since” in English. ぢ⧒㧊㠎䞲䎢 㩚䢪⯒G䞲㰖G㌒G㭒ṖG♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been three weeks since (I) called Brian.” Ṗ㦚 䞯₆Ṗ 㔲㧧䞲㰖G㌒G㧒㧊G㰖⌂㠊㣪. “(It) has been three days since the fall semester began.” ㍲㤎㠦 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⩂ 㡾㰖G 㧒G ⎚㧊G 㰖⌂㠊㣪. “(It) has been a year since (I) came to Seoul to study Korean.” Ἶ䝚⯒ ⺆㤊㰖G 㠒Ⱎ⋮G ♦㠊㣪? “How long has (it) been, since (you) learned golf?”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 21 exercises ṖỢ store Ṗ┺ to go Ṧ₆ cold/flu Ὃ⿖ study ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₎ road ⋶㝾 weather ⑞ snow ⓼┺ to be late ╁┺ to close

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▻┺ to be hot ☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive ⟶⋮┺ to leave/to depart Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱏ䧞┺ to be blocked/to be held up Ⱔ㧊 a lot ⲏ┺ to eat ⶎ㩲 problem

21 Indirect question form

⹿ room ⻞䢎 number ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ゚䟟₆ airplane ㌊ age/one’s years 㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy 㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin 㔲䠮 test/examination 㕎┺ to be cheap/to be inexpensive 㠊⪋┺ to be difficult 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ girlfriend 㡗䢪 movie 㡺┺ to come 㣪㯞㦢 nowadays 㤊☯ exercise/sports 㦢㔳 food 㧊䔖 two days 㧒䞮┺ to work

190

㨂⹎㧞Ợ interestingly 㩖⎗ dinner 㩚䢪 telephone 㩦㕂 lunch 㰧 house 㰲┺ to be salty 㹾 car 䀾㰗䞮┺ to get employed 䂋 floor 䌖┺ to ride 䕪┺ to sell 䘎㰖 letter 䛖┺ to solve 䞯ᾦ school 䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up 䢪㧻㔺 toilet 䣢㌂ company


Exercise 21.1

Exercise 21.1

Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච㰖. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⳝ 㔲㠦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? = ⳝ 㔲㠦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (they) return to the office?” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㩲ⰂṖ ⳝ ㌊㧊㠦㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㡗䢪Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 㔲㧧䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㠊❪㠦㍲ 㧒䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㠊❪㠦㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㩲㧚㓺㦮 ⹿㧊 ⳝ 䂋㠦 㧞㠊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㭚ⰂṖ 㢲 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㰧㧊 㢲 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? ⹿㧊 㢲 ▪㤢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㧊 ῃ㧊 㢲 㰲㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㧊 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㢲 㕎㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?

Exercise 21.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ඥ㰖. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧒㦚 Ⱎ㼦㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (they) will finish (their) work?” 1 2 3 4 5

Ⱎ㧊䋊㧊 ⶊ㓾 㧒㦚 䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㠊❪㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? 㣪㯞㦢 ⪲Ⱎ㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠊➢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? ゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☚㹿䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪? ⌊㧒 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞚㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?

Exercise 21.3 Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. 191


21 Indirect question form

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Example: “(I) do not know why Edward went to Korea.” (㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ 㢲 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺) = 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ 㢲 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṫ⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. (I) do not know whether Paul passed the test (䙊㧊 㔲䠮㠦 䞿ỿ䞮 ┺) (I) do not know where (they) have a wedding ceremony (㠊❪㍲ ἆ 䢒㔳㦚 䞮┺) (I) do not know what (I) should buy (ⶮ ㌂㟒 䞮┺) (I) do not know what (her) name is (㧊⯚㧊 ⶊ㠝㧊┺) (I) do not know when (I) should marry (㠎㩲 ἆ䢒㦚 䟊㟒 䞮┺) (I) do not know when the package will arrive (㠎㩲 ㏢䙂Ṗ ☚㹿䞮 ┺) (I) do not know whether Peter has a car (䙊㧊 㹾Ṗ 㧞┺) (I) do not know whether the test was easy (㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺) (I) do not know whether the price is expensive (Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕎┺) (I) do not know how heavy the bag will be (Ṗ⹿㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⶊỗ┺)

Exercise 21.4 Translate the following into English. Example: 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㰦㧊 ⶊỆ㤊㰖 ⴑ Ṗ㪎㢪㠊㣪. = “How heavy the load was, (I) could not bring (it).” 1 2 3 4 5

㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠒Ⱎ⋮

㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩂㤊㰖 Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪 ₎㧊 Ⱏ䡪⓪㰖 䕢䕆㠦 X 㔲Ṛ㧊⋮ ⓼㠞㠊㣪 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶⓪㰖 䞲 ⶎ㩲☚ ⴑ 䛖㠞㠊㣪 㡗䢪⯒ 㨂⹎㧞Ợ ⽊⓪㰖 䢪㧻㔺☚ 㞞 Ṗ㣪 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪㰖 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪

Exercise 21.5 Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㠎㩲 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ┺ = 㠎㩲 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) am not sure when (I) should return home.”

192

1 ⳝ 㔲₢㰖 ₆┺Ⰲ┺ 2 㠊ⓦ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺ 3 㠒Ⱎ㠦 㰧㦚 䕪┺


4 㢲 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ㢖G䠺㠊㰖┺ 5 ⶊ㠝㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺

Exercise 21.6

Exercise 21.6 Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(It) has been three days since my back hurts.” (䠞ⰂṖ 㞚 䝚┺ / Z 㧒) = 䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝞㰖 Z 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. 1 (It) has been 4 days since snow started falling (⑞㧊 㡺₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺ / [ 㧒) 2 (It) has been a year since (we) moved to Canada (䃦⋮┺⪲ 㧊㌂㡺 ┺ / X ⎚) 3 (It) has been 3 weeks since (I) learned Korean (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ / ZG㭒) 4 (It) has been 6 months since (I) quitted smoking (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ / ] Ṳ 㤪) 5 (It) has been 10 minutes since (I) began cooking (㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㔲㧧䞮┺ / XW ⿚) 6 (It) has been 2 days since (I) bought the car (㹾⯒ ㌂┺ / 㧊䔖) 7 (It) has been a week since Jennifer left for London (㩲┞䗒Ṗ ⩆▮㦒 ⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / 㧒 㭒㧒) 8 How long has (it) been since (you) had a hair cut? (ⲎⰂ⯒ 㧦⯊┺ / 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?) 9 How long has (it) been since (you) returned home? (㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡺┺ / 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?) 10 How long has (it) been since (you) last saw him? (⁎⯒ Ⱎ㰖Ⱏ㦒⪲ ⽊┺ / 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?)

Exercise 21.7 Write a sentence using the cues provided and ~(㦒)ච㰖GUGUGUG♮┺, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ◆┞㠮㧊 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / Z 㧒 = ◆┞㠮㧊 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋲㰖 Z 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been three days since Daniel left for Korea.” 193


1 2 3 4 5

21 Indirect question form

194

㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / Y 㔲Ṛ Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ / 㧊䔖 䘎㰖⯒ ⹱┺ / X 㭒㧒 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䞮┺ / [ 㧒 䀾㰗䞮┺ / X ⎚


UNIT 22 The retrospective suffix

~▪ The retrospective suffix ▪ indicates a speaker’s past observation and/or experience. This unit introduces several grammatical forms that incorporate the suffix ▪. These patterns include a sentence-ending, a noun-modifying ending, and clausal conjunctives.

~▪⧒ῂ㣪 ▪⧒ῂ㣪 The sentence ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 is primarily used in spoken communication. The ending is constructed from the retrospective suffix ▪, the statement suffix ⧒, the quotation particle ῂ (the informal counterpart of ἶ), and the politeness marker 㣪. ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 is used to report what a speaker has experienced or observed. It also stresses the authenticity of the speaker’s experience and adds meanings such as “I am telling you” and “you know.” Consider the following examples: ἓ䂮Ṗ 㞚㭒 㞚⯚╋▪⧒ῂ㣪. “(I am telling you that) the scenery was really beautiful.” 㫊㧊 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “John spoke Korean well (you know).” Notice in the examples above that the ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 emphasizes the validity of the speaker’s experiences or observation. Here are more examples: 㰧㧊 㩫Ⱖ 䋂▪⧒ῂ㣪. “The house was really huge (you know).” ⋮⓪ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 㩲㧒 ⰱ㧞▪⧒ῂ㣪. “As for me, the Korean food was the most delicious (you know).” Ịṫ㦚G㥚䟊㍲Gⰺ㧒G㟒㺚ⰢGⲏ▪⧒ῂ㣪. “For the sake of health, (they) ate only vegetables (you know).” 195


22

~▮

The retrospective suffix

In Unit 16, three Korean noun-modifying endings, ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒) ඥGwere introduced. It was noted that any phrase (whether it be an adjective or a verb) can be made into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying ending to the stem of the predicate. Korean has one more noun-modifying ending, ~▮. It is the retrospective noun-modifying ending that indicates a speaker’s past experience and/or observation of the action or state. When it is used with a verb stem, the ending ~▮ indicates an habitual action in the past. When it is used with an adjective stem, it implies that the past state that no longer exists.

Verb Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” ⲏ┺ “eat” 㺔┺ “find” 㧓┺ “read”

Verb stem + ▮ Ⱒ⋮▮ 㡂㧦 “the woman that (I) used to meet” ⲏ▮ 㦢㔳 “the food that (I) used to eat” 㺔▮ ㌂⧢ “the person that (I) used to look for” 㧓▮ 㺛 “the book that (I) used to read”

Adjective 㡞㊮┺ “pretty” 㫆㣿䞮┺ “quiet” 㥶ⳛ䞮┺ “famous”

Adjective stem + ▮ 㡞㊮▮ ↙ “the flower that used to be pretty” 㫆㣿䞮▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be quiet” 㥶ⳛ䞮▮ ⏎⧮ “the song that used to be popular” 㠊⪋▮ 㔲䠮 “the test that used to be difficult”

㠊⪋┺ “difficult”

One can make the past action or state even more temporarily remote by using it with the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 as in 㠞/㞮▮. Compare the following two sentences: 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮▮ 䞯㌳ “the student who used to study the Korean language.” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䟞▮ 䞯㌳ “the student who used to study the Korean language (a long time ago).” Here are more examples: 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓▮ ㌂⧢ “the person who used to read the newspaper.” 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㠞▮ ㌂⧢ “the person who used to read the newspaper (a long time ago).” 㠊⚷▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be dark.” 㠊⚦㤶▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be dark (a long time ago).” 196


~▪┞ ▪┞

~▪┞

The clausal conjunctive ~▪┞, consisting of the retrospective suffix ▪ and the suffix ┞, means “but (now)/as/since/and as a result.” The conjunctive ~▪┞Gis used when the speaker recollects what he/she has directly observed or experienced. Consider the following examples: 㠊㩲⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻▪┞ 㡺⓮㦖 㿻⍺㣪. “As for yesterday, the weather was hot, but as for today, (it) is cold.” 㞚䂾㠦 ⑞㧊G 㡺▪┞ 㧊㩲 ゚Ṗ 㢖㣪. “(It) snowed in the morning, but (it) rains now.” Notice in the first example that the ~▪┞ ending clause (e.g., the weather was hot) is based on the speaker’s direct experience. In the second example, the first clause with ▪┞ (e.g., snow in the morning) is based on the speaker’s direct observation. Since ~▪┞ involves the speaker’s past observation/experience, it implies the past connotation. Consequently, the use of the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 would be optional for the past action or state. Consider the following examples: 䘎㰖⯒ 㧓▪┞ 㤙₆ 㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “As (she) read the letter, (she) began to laugh.” ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚G䞮▪┞ Ịṫ䟊㪢⍺㣪. “Since (you) have jogged everyday, (now I see that you) became healthy.” 㠊Ⲏ┞㢖 㩚䢪䞮▪┞, 㤎₆ 㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “As (he) talked to (his) mother over the phone, (he) began to cry.” Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated for the past tense. When ~▪┞G is used with the past tense marker 㠞/㞮, as in ~㠞/㞮 ▪┞, the speaker’s past observation/experience sounds even more temporarily distant. 㞚䂾㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠞▪┞ ⺆Ṗ 㞚䕢㣪. “Since (I) ate a lot of breakfast, (my) stomach aches.” 㰧㠦 Ṫ▪┞ 㞚ⶊ☚ 㠜㠞㠊㣪. “(I) went home, but nobody was there.” ⹺ ⓼Ợ₢㰖 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽺▪┞ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “Since (I) watched TV until late at night, (I) feel tired.”

197


~㠞V㞮▪⧒Ⳋ 㠞V㞮▪⧒Ⳋ

22 The retrospective suffix

The clausal conjunctive ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ means “if (something had/had not been the case).” This conjunctive is constructed from the past tense marker 㠞/㞮, the retrospective suffix ▪, the statement suffix ⧒, and the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if.” The conjunctive ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ is used when the speaker wishes to express a sense of regret or supposition. Consider the following examples: ╊⺆⯒ 㞞 䞒㤶▪⧒Ⳋ ▪ Ịṫ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) did not smoke, (he) would have been healthier.” ⁎ ➢ ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䟞▪⧒Ⳋ ▪ 㫡㦖 㰗㧻㦚 Ṗ㰞 㑮 㧞㠞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that I) graduated from college at that time, (I) could have had a better job.” Notice that the main clauses of both examples indicate the sense of disappointment or assumption. Here are more examples: ⁎ ⋶ 䞯ᾦ㠦 㞞 Ṫ▪⧒Ⳋ 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ 㞞 ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that I) didn’t go to school on that day, the car accident might not have occurred.” 㩲㧎㦚 ▪ 㧒㹣 Ⱒ⌂▪⧒Ⳋ Ⰲ㌂䞮ἶ ἆ䢒 㞞 䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) met Jane earlier, (he) might not have married Lisa.” ᾦ㑮┮㦮 㫆㠎㧊 㠜㠞▪⧒Ⳋ 䢪ṖṖ 㞞 ♦㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that) there was not the professor’s advice, (he) might not have become a painter.”

~▪⧒☚ ▪⧒☚ The clausal conjunctive ~▪⧒☚ means “even though (it may be the case).” It is constructed from the retrospective suffix ▪, and the clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚☚ “although.” This conjunctive is used when the speaker acknowledges the content of the ~▪⧒☚ ending clause but stresses that the following clause must be the case. Consider the following example: ゚ṖG 㡺▪⧒☚ Ↄ ṖỢ㠦 ✺⯊㎎㣪. “Even though (it) may rain, stop by the store for sure.” Notice that the content of the first clause is acknowledged but the content of the main clause is highlighted (e.g., stopping by the store). Here are more examples: 198


₎㧊G Ⱏ䧞▪⧒☚ ệ㩫䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even though the road may get congested, do not worry (about it).” 㔲䠮㠦G ⟾㠊㰖▪⧒☚G 㫢㩞䞮㰖G Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even though (you) may fail the test, do not be discouraged.” 䂲ῂ⯒ ⴑ Ⱒ⋮▪⧒☚ 㡂₆㍲ ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. “Even though (I) may not be able to meet (my) friend, (I) will wait (for her) here.”

Key vocabulary for Unit 22 exercises

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 22 exercises Ṗ┺ to go Ṗ㪎㡺┺ to bring ṯ㧊 together ἶ₆ meat ᾦ⽋ school uniform ₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait ₆⿚ feeling/mood Ↄ surely ⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong ⋮㡺┺ to come out ╖䞯ᾦ college ☞ money ☯⬢ colleague ✲⧒Ⱎ drama ⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of/to leave Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet ⰻ㭒 beer ⲎⰂ head ⲏ┺ to eat ⶊỗ┺ to be heavy ⹮㰖 (a finger) ring ⺆㤆┺ to learn ⼧㤦 hospital ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ to be diligent ㌂‖┺ to make friends/to go out with ㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㌂㧻 president (of company)/CEO ㌊┺ to live

199


22 The retrospective suffix

㏢㍺㺛 novel 㔂䝚┺ to be sad 㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㞚䕢䔎 apartment 㞚䝚┺ to be sore 㟓 medicine 㠊㩲 yesterday 㡂㧦 woman 㡗䢪 movie 㡺ザ older brother 㡺䤚 afternoon 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook 㤎┺ to cry 㤙┺ to smile 㦢㔳 food 㧊⻞ 㭒 this week 㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting 㩚㠦 before 㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet 㫎┺ to doze off 㭧䞯ᾦ middle school 㯦Ỿ willingly/frequently 㰖⋲ 㭒 last week 㰧 house 㹾 car 㺛 book 䂲ῂ friend 䏶㣪㧒 Saturday 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ to be tired 䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language 䣢㌂ company/firm

Exercise 22.1 Finish the following translation using ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(They) served various side dishes (you know)” (㡂⩂Ṗ㰖 ⹮㺂㦚 㭒┺) = 㡂⩂Ṗ㰖 ⹮㺂㦚 㭒▪⧒ῂ㣪. 200


1 2 3 4 5

There were many customers (you know) (㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ┺) The service was great (you know) (㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺) The apartment rent was expensive (you know) (㞚䕢䔎㎎Ṗ ゚㕎┺) (It) took five hours (you know) (┺㎅ 㔲Ṛ ỎⰂ┺) The house was huge (you know) (㰧㧊 䋂┺)

Exercise 22.2

Exercise 22.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~▪⧒ῂ㣪. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⳾⚦ ⹪㊮┺ = ⳾⚦ ⹪㊮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Everyone was busy (you know).” 1 2 3 4 5

㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ 㑮㧪㦮 㡺ザṖ 䣢㌂ ㌂㧻㧊┺ 䐆㧊 䌳㔲⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺ 㩲㧎㦮 ㌳㧒㧊 㠊㩲㧊┺ 䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊 ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞┺

Exercise 22.3 Finish the following translation using ~▮ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “The friend that (I) used to study with.” (ṯ㧊 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ) = ṯ㧊 Ὃ⿖䞮▮ 䂲ῂ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The song that (I) used to listen to (✹┺ / ⏎⧮) The bicycle that (I) used to ride (䌖┺ / 㧦㩚Ệ) The company that (we) used to work for (㧒䞮┺ / 䣢㌂) The food that (we) used to like (㫡㞚䞮┺ / 㦢㔳) The toothbrush that (you) used to use (㝆┺ / 䃁㏪) The man who used to be brave (㝿㝿䞮┺ / ⋾㧦) The skin that used to be soft (⿖✲⩓┺ / 䞒⿖) The room that used to be dark (㠊⚷┺ / ⹿) The weather that used to be warm (➆⦑䞮┺ / ⋶㝾) The store that used to be crowded with customers (㏦┮㦒⪲G⿦゚┺ / ṖỢ)

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22

Exercise 22.4

The retrospective suffix

Respond to each question using ~▮ and the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Then translate the response. Example: 㡂₆Ṗ 㠊❪㡞㣪? (⌊Ṗ ┺┞┺ / ἶ❇䞯ᾦ) = ⌊Ṗ ┺┞▮ ἶ❇䞯ᾦ㡞㣪. “(It) is the high school that I used to attend.” 1 2 3 4 5 6

㧊 㺛㦖 ⶦ㡞㣪? (╖䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧓┺ / ㏢㍺㺛) 㩖 ㌂⧢㦖 ⑚ῂ㡞㣪? (㌂‖┺ / 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ) 㧊 ✲⧒Ⱎ⓪ ⶊ㓾 ✲⧒Ⱎ㡞㣪? (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㯦Ỿ ⽊┺ / {} ✲⧒Ⱎ) 㡂₆Ṗ 㠊❪㡞㣪? (XW ⎚㩚㠦 ㌊┺/ 㞚䕢䔎) ⁎ ộ㦖 ⶦ㡞㣪? (㭧䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧛┺ / ᾦ⽋) 㩖 ㌂⧢㦖 ⑚ῂ㡞㣪? (ṯ㧊 㧒䞮┺ / ☯⬢)

Exercise 22.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~▪┞. Then translate the sentence. Example: ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖┺ / ㎇ỿ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⼖䟞㠊㣪 = ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖▪┞ ㎇ỿ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⼖䟞㠊㣪. “As (she) made a boyfriend, (her) personality changed a lot.” 1 2 3 4 5

㞚䂾㠦⓪ 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮┺ / 㡺䤚㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪 㰖⋲ 㭒₢㰖 㧒⽎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽊┺ / 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ 䞲ῃ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽦㣪 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ / 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪Ⱒ ⽦㣪 㕃 ⿚ ₆┺⪎┺ / 㦢㔳㧊 ⋮㢪㠊㣪 㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾┺ / ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪

Exercise 22.6 Finish the following translation using ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.

202

Example: “If (it was the case that I) studied harder, (I) might have entered medical school.” (▪ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṫ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪) = ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞▪⧒Ⳋ 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṫ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.


1 If (it was the case that I) had time, (I) might have met (her) (㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞┺ / Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪) 2 If (it was the case that I) was not busy, (I) might have stopped by home (⹪㊮㰖 㞠┺ / 㰧㠦 ✺⩖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪) 3 If (it was the case that they) were happy, (they) might not have divorced (䟟⽋䞮┺ / 㧊䢒䞮㰖 㞠㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪) 4 If (it was the case that he) knew the secret, (he) might have succeeded (゚⹖㦚 㞢┺ / ㎇Ὃ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪) 5 If (it was the case that they) practiced harder, (they) might have won the game (㡆㔋㦚 ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 䞮┺ / ἓ₆⯒ 㧊ἒ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)

Exercise 22.7

Exercise 22.7 Connect the following two sentences using ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㰧㠦 㧞┺ / ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. = 㰧㠦 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that I) stayed home, (I) might have watched the drama.” 1 2 3 4 5

⼧㤦㠦GṖ┺G/G㌊㞮㦚GỆ㡞㣪 㟓㦚Gⲏ┺G/G㞞G㞚䕶㦚GỆ㡞㣪 ☞㧊G㧞┺G/G⟶⌂㦚GỆ㡞㣪 ἶ₆ṖG㧞┺G/G㌖㦚GỆ㡞㣪 㹾ṖG㧞┺G/GⰢ⌂㦚GỆ㡞㣪

Exercise 22.8 Finish the following translation using ~▪⧒☚ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Even if (it) may be cold, do not put on a coat.” (㿻┺ / 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) = 㿻▪⧒☚ 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

Even if (you) may be curious, do not ask (ῗ⁞䞮┺ / ⶑ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) Even if (you) may be itchy, do not scratch (Ṗ⪋┺ / ⁗㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪) Even if (you) may be angry, control (yourself) (䢪⋮┺ / 㺎㦒㎎㣪) Even if (you) may feel bored, stay home (㕂㕂䞮┺ / 㰧㠦 㧞㦒㎎㣪) Even if (he) may come late, do not nag at (him) (⓼Ợ 㡺┺ / 㧪㏢Ⰲ 䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)

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22

Exercise 22.9

The retrospective suffix

Connect the following two clauses using ~▪⧒☚. Then translate the sentence. Example: ▻┺ / ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪 = ▻▪⧒☚ ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even if (it) may be hot, do not go outside.” 1 2 3 4 5

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䞒Ἲ䞮┺ / 㫎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜┺ / Ↄ ⽊㎎㣪 ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮┺ / 㤙㦒㎎㣪 ⶊỗ┺ / Ṗ㪎㡺㎎㣪 㔂䝚┺ / 㤎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪


UNIT 23 Nominalizing endings

Nominalizing endings change a verb or an adjective into a noun form. Examples of English nominalzing endings include the gerund “~ing” (e.g., studying), “~ment” (e.g., accomplishment), and “~ation” (e.g., legalization). This unit introduces two Korean nominalizing endings, ~₆ and ~(㦒)ත, as well as some useful expressions that incorporate one of these two nominalizing endings.

The nominalizing ending ~₆ When the nominalizing ending ~₆Gis attached to a verb stem, it modifies the meaning of the verb as “the act of ~ing” (e.g., ✹┺ “listen” => ✹₆ “listening”). When it appears after an adjective stem, it changes the meaning of the adjective to “state of being~” (e.g., ⹮ṧ┺ “glad” => ⹮ṧ₆ “state of being glad”). Consider the following examples: 䢒㧦㍲G㡗䢪G⽊₆⯒G㫡㞚䟊㣪. “(I) like seeing a movie alone.” 㭒⪲GⰦ䞮₆⯒G⺆㤢㣪. “(We) mainly learn speaking.” 㣎ῃ㠦G⋮Ṗ₆ṖG㓂㤢㪢㠊㣪. “Going abroad became easier.” ⋶㝾ṖG ▻₆➢ⶎ㠦G 㰧㠦 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) stay home because the weather is hot.” 㧊G 䃊䗮ṖG 䄺䞒ṖG ⰱ㧞₆⪲ 㥶ⳛ䟊㣪. “This cafe is famous for (its) delicious coffee.” What follows are some major expressions that contain the nominalizing ending ~₆.

~₆⓪ ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ~₆⓪ 䄺⎫ means “far from ~ing.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the topic particle ⓪, and the particle 䄺⎫ “not at all.” ~₆⓪ 䄺⎫ is used to negate the content of the ~₆ ending predicate emphatically, as shown below:

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23 Nominalizing endings

㯦ỗ₆⓪G 䄺⎫G 㞚㭒G ⿞䇢䟊㣪. “Far from being joyful, (I) feel very unpleasant.” 㭒Ⱖ㠦G㓂₆⓪G䄺⎫ ⹪㊮Ợ 㧒䟞㠊㣪. “Far from resting over the weekend, (I) worked busily.” 䃃㺂㦚G✹₆⓪G䄺⎫G∎㰖⧢ⰢG✺㦚GỆ㡞㣪. “In place of hearing praise, (he) will (probably) hear only reproach.”

~₆ 㩚㠦 ~₆ 㩚㠦 means “before verb~ing.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the noun 㩚 “before,” and the particle ~㠦. ゾ⧮⯒G䞮₆G㩚㠦 ⹿ 㼃㏢⯒ 䞿┞┺. “(I) clean the room before doing the laundry.” ⩆▮㦒⪲G⟶⋮₆G㩚㠦G䢎䎪㠦G㩚䢪G䞶GỆ㡞㣪. “(I) will make a phone call to the hotel before (I) leave for London.” 㧦₆G㩚㠦 ㌺㤢䟊㣪? “Do (you) take a shower before going to bed?” 㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ₆G㩚㠦G㏦㦚G㞑㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Wash (your) hands before having a lunch.” ṫ㦮⯒G ✹₆G 㩚㠦G 㺛㦚G 㧓㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Read the book before listening to (his) lecture.” 䞯ᾦ㠦GṖ₆G㩚㠦Gニ㰧㠦G✺⯛㔲┺. “(Let us) stop by the bakery, before going to school.”

~₆⓪㣪 ₆⓪㣪 ~₆⓪㣪 is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the topic particle ⓪, and the politeness marker 㣪. This form is used to mildly contend another speaker’s comment. It is corresponding to English expressions, like “What do you mean . . . ?” or “No way!” Consider the following dialogue: A: ㍲㤎㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶㰖㣪? “The weather of Seoul was cold, right?” B: 㿻₆⓪㣪, ㌳ṗ⽊┺ ➆⦑䟞㠊㣪. “No way, (it) was much warmer than (my) thought.” Frequently, ~₆⓪㣪 is used to express humility, when receiving a complimentary remark or praise. A: 㹾Ṗ 㺎 㫡㞚㣪. “(Your) car is really nice.” B: 㫡₆⓪㣪. 㕎Ợ ㌖㠊㣪. “Good? (no way). (I) bought (it) at a bargain price.” 206


~₆㠦⓪ ₆㠦⓪ ~₆㠦⓪ is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle 㠦, and the topic particle ⓪. It means “as for (doing something),” as shown below:

The nominalizing ending ~₆

㧊 㰧㦖 䢒㧦G㌊₆㠦⓪ 㧧㞚㣪. “As for this house, (it) is small for living alone.” 㧊 ⹿㧊 㫆㣿䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮₆㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “This room is noisy for studying quietly.” 㰧㠦G䞮⬾㫛㧒G㧞₆㠦⓪G⋶㝾ṖG⍞ⶊG㫡㞮㠊㣪. “As for staying home whole day, the weather was too nice.”

~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦Gmeans “because of ~ing.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the dependent noun ➢ⶎ “cause,” and the particle 㠦. ⰺ㧒 㞚䂾 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆G ➢ⶎ㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㟒 䟊㣪. “(I) must get up early since (I) jog every morning.” ἶ₆⯒ Ⱔ㧊 㞞G ⲏ₆G ➢ⶎ㠦 Ịṫ䟊㣪. “(I) am healthy since (I) don’t eat meat much.” ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻₆G➢ⶎ㠦 ㍶䛣₆⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “Since the weather is hot, (we) will buy a fan.” ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚₆G➢ⶎ㠦 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “Because (my) head aches, (I) don’t want to study.” ~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 can take the past tense marker, when it refers to the past activity or state, as shown below: ⁎ ➢ 㡂ῢ㧊 㠜㠞₆G ➢ⶎ㠦 䃦⋮┺㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to Canada because (I) did not have the passport at that time.” 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾₆G ➢ⶎ㠦 Ἶ䂮Ṗ 㕂䟞㠊㣪. “(My) headache was terrible because of excessive wine drinking.” 㧊Ṗ 㞚䕶₆G➢ⶎ㠦 䂮ὒ㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the dentist office because of the toothache.” ⍞ⶊ ゚㕢₆G ➢ⶎ㠦 ⴑ ㌖㠊㣪. “(We) could not buy (it) because (it) was too expensive.”

~₆ 㥚䟊㍲ ~₆ 㥚䟊㍲ means “in order to.” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆ and 㥚䟊㍲ “for the sake of.” 207


23 Nominalizing endings

㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮₆G 㥚䟊㍲ YW ⿚㧊⋮ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪. “(I) waited as long as 20 minutes in order to meet John.” 䢎䎪㠦G ☢㞚Ṗ₆G 㥚䟊㍲G 䌳㔲⯒G ⿞⩖㠊㣪. “(I) called a taxi in order to return to the hotel.” 㥶䞯㦚 Ṗ₆G㥚䟊㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am learning English in order to study abroad.” ⼖䢎㌂ṖG♮₆G㥚䟊㍲G▪G㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞶GỆ㡞㣪. “(I) will study harder in order to become a lawyer.”

~₆⪲ ₆⪲ 䞮┺ ~₆⪲ 䞮┺ means “plans to” or “decides to.” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle ⪲, and the verb 䞮┺ “do.” It is used when one wishes to express a decision or determination. ⌊㧒 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ₆⪲G 䟞㠊㣪. “(We) decided to return home tomorrow.” 㭧ῃ 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ₆⪲G䞶GỆ㡞㣪. “(We) will decide to eat dinner at Chinese restaurant.” 㠊❪㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮₆⪲G䟞㔋┞₢f “Where did (you) decide to meet?” 㡺䤚 10 㔲㠦 ⟶⋮₆⪲G䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Plan to leave at 10 p.m.” 㔶䢒㡂䟟㦖 䞮㢖㧊⪲ Ṗ₆⪲G䞿㔲┺. “As for (our) honeymoon, (let us) decide to go to Hawaii.” Instead of 䞮┺, other verbs such as ἆ㩫䞮┺ “make a decision,” ἆ㕂 䞮┺ “make up one’s mind,” and 㩫䞮┺ “fix up” can be used as well. 㽞㼃G㡆㌂⪲G㾲G⹫㌂┮㦚G⳾㔲₆⪲Gἆ㩫䟞㔋┞┺. “(We) made a decision to invite Dr. Choi as a guest speaker.” 㠎㩲 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠₆⪲G ἆ㕂䟞㠊㣪f “When did (you) make up (your) mind to quit smoking?” 㿪㤆┞₢ ṖỢ 㞞㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮₆⪲G 㩫䞿㔲┺. “Since it is cold, (let us) decide on meeting inside the store.”

~₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺ ~₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺ means “begins to.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆ and the verb 㔲㧧䞮┺ “begin.” 㠊㩲⿖䎆 㧓₆G㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “(I) started reading (it) since yesterday.” 㰖⁞ 㝆₆G㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Start writing now.” 㡺䤚 ` 㔲⿖䎆 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆G 㔲㧧䞶G Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will start seeing the movie from 9 p.m.” 208


~₆Ṗ ₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺ ~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺ is used to express how difficult a certain action is. It can be translated as “(it) is difficult to” in English. This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the subject particle Ṗ, and the adjective 㠊⪋┺ “difficult.”

The nominalizing ending ~₆

⁖㧦ṖG⍞ⶊG㧧㞚㍲G㧓₆ṖG㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Since the letters are too small, (it) is difficult to read (them).” ⳿㧊 ⿖㠊㍲ 䂾☚ ㌒䋺₆ṖG㠊⩺㤶㠊㣪. “Since (my) throat was swollen, even swallowing (my) saliva was difficult.” Instead of 㠊⪋┺, other adjectives, as shown below, can be used to convey different messages:

~₆Ṗ 㓓┺ “(it) is easy to” ⁎ 㑮㠛㦖 h ⯒ ⹱₆ṖG㓂㤢㣪. “As for that class, receiving an A is easy.” 㧊 㩧㔲Ṗ ₾㰖₆ṖG㓂㤆┞₢ 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪. “Since this dish is easy to be broken, be careful.”

~₆Ṗ 䧮✺┺ “(it) is laborious to” ㌂ⶊ㔺G㞞㧊G⍞ⶊG▪㤢㍲G㧒䞮₆ṖG䧮✺㠊㣪. “Since the inside of the office is too hot, working is toilsome.”

~₆Ṗ 㫡┺ “(it) is good to” 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾⓪ 㧦㩚ỆG䌖₆ṖG㫡㞚㣪. “As for today’s weather, (it) is good to ride a bicycle.”

~₆Ṗ 䘎䞮┺ “(it) is convenient to” ☚㍲ὖ㧊 Ṗ₢㤢㍲ 㺛㦚 アⰂ₆ṖG 䘎䟊㣪. “Since the library is close, borrowing books is convenient.”

~₆Ṗ 㕁┺ “(it) is unwilling/unpleasant to” 䞒䎆⯒G ☚㢖㭒₆ṖG 㕁㠊㣪. “(I) am unwilling to help Peter / Helping Peter is unpleasant.”

~₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞┺ “(it) is fun to” 䞲ῃ㠊⪲ Ⱖ䞮₆ṖG㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is fun to talk in Korean / Talking in Korean is fun.”

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~₆Ṗ ‖㺄┺ “(it) is bothersome to”

23 Nominalizing endings

㑯㩲⯒G䞮₆ṖG‖㺄㞚㣪. “Doing homework is bothersome.”

~₆☚ ₆☚ 䞮┺ ~₆☚ 䞮┺Gis used to indicate that a nominalized activity is a less common activity. It is translated as “also does (something).” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle ☚ “also,” and the verb 䞮┺ “do.” Consider the following example: 䄺䞒⯒ 㭒⪲ Ⱎ㔲㰖Ⱒ ⏏㹾⯒ Ⱎ㔲₆☚G䟊㣪. “(I) normally drink coffee, but (I) also drink green tea.” Notice in the example above that ~₆☚ 䟊㣪Gadds a less common activity (e.g., drinking green tea) to the main activity (e.g., drinking coffee). Here are more examples: Ṗ⊪ 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒G 䞮₆☚G 䟊㣪. “(I) also play basketball with (my) friends once in a while.” 㭒⪲ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䟞㰖Ⱒ ゚Ṗ 㢂 ➢⓪ Ṗ⊪ 䌳㔲⯒ 䌖₆☚G 䟞㠊㣪. “Normally, (we) used the subway, but when (it) rained, (we) sometimes took a taxi.” 㩚Ὃ㦖 㧒⽎䞯㧊㰖Ⱒ 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛☚ Ṗ⊪ ✹₆☚G䞶GỆ㡞㣪. “Although (my) major is Japanese Studies, (I) will also take the Korean language class occasionally.”

The nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත The use of the nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත is much more restricted and less frequent than that of ~₆. For instance, the ending ~(㦒)ත is used only when the activity or state of the predicate has already occurred, and has been actualized and /or confirmed. Consider the following examples: 㫊㧊 ㍲㤎㠦 Ṫ㦢㦚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(We) did not know that John went to Seoul.” 䞮㢖㧊 ⶒ㦖 ₾⊭䞾ὒG Ⱗ㦢㦒⪲ 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺. “As for Hawaii’s water, (it) is well known for its purity and clarity.” Notice that the ~(㦒)ත ending phrases imply that the activity or state has already been ensured, or determined. Here are more examples: 210

䐆㦖 㧦㔶㧊 㬚㧎㧚㦚 ₾╁㰖 ⴑ䟞㔋┞┺. “As for Tom, (he) could not realize that he was a sinner.”


㤆ⰂG⳾⚦G㧊⼚㦮G㞚䝪㦚Gἓ䠮䟞㠊㣪. “We all experienced the pain of separation.” Meanwhile, a number of Korean nouns are made of ~(㦒)ත. The ~(㦒) තGending nouns include: ㌊┺ “to live” 㭓┺ “to die” 㤙┺ “to smile” 㤎┺ “to cry” 㧦┺ “to sleep” 㞚䝚┺ “to be sore” ₆㊮┺ “to be joyous” 㯦ỗ┺ “to be glad” 㠊⪋┺ “to be hard”

Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises

㌌ “life” 㭓㦢 “death” 㤙㦢 “smile/laughter” 㤎㦢 “weeping” 㧶 “sleep” 㞚䝪 “pain” ₆㊾ “joy” 㯦Ệ㤖 “gladness” 㠊⩺㤖 “hardship/distress”

In limited contexts, such as when one wishes to state, inform, and/or record a certain fact in a concise manner, the nominalizing ending ~(㦒) ත can be used as a sentence ending. Consider the following examples: 㩖⎗ 㡺⓮ 㰧㠦 䂲ῂ

㞞Gⲏ㠞㦢 “Did not eat dinner.” 㑮㠛 㠜㦢 “No class today.” 㡺Ⳋ 㡆⧓ ⹪⧢ “Let us know when you come home.” 㺔㞮㦢 “Found a friend.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises Ṗ⊪ sometimes Ṗ┺ to go Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch a cold ṯ㧊 together Ṳ dog ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry ἓ₆ game/competitive sport ἶ䂮┺ to fix/to repair ᾦ㑮┮ professor ῂἓ sightseeing/looking around ῂ䞮┺ to seek ₆Ṛ period ₆㑯㌂ dormitory ₆㹾 train

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23 Nominalizing endings

₢ⰹ┺ to be black/dark ⊠┺ to quit ⋮Ṗ┺ to go out ⋶㝾 weather ⌊⎚ next year ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⍞ⶊ too (much)/ever so much ⏎⧮ song ⏣ῂ basketball ⓦⰂ┺ to be slow ⓼Ợ late ⓼┺ to be late ┺㤊⪲✲ download ┺㦢 next ╂ month ╊⺆ cigarette ☚㍲ὖ library ☞ money ☢㞚㡺┺ to return/to come back ✹┺ to take (a class)/to listen ✺⯊┺ to stop by ❇㌆ mountaineering

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Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet Ⱒ✺┺ to make Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much Ⱔ㧊 a lot ⰺ┺ to wear (a tie) ⰺ㧒 everyday ⲎⰂ hair (from a head)/head ⲏ┺ to eat Ⲗ┺ to be far ⳾㧦⧒┺ to be short of ⹱┺ to receive ⺆㤆┺ to learn ⽊ὖ䞮┺ to keep/to take custody of ⽊┺ to see/to read/to watch ⽚ spring ⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out ⿞䘎䞮┺ to be inconvenient/to be uncomfortable ゚ rain ゚㕎┺ to be expensive ゾ⧮ laundry/washing (clothes)


㌂┺ to buy ㌂⧢ person/people ㌊㦚 ヒ┺ to lose weight ㌊┺ to live ㌗╊䞮┺ to consult ㌞ new ㌳㧒 birthday ㍶ⶒ gift/present ㍶㌳┮ teacher ㏦ hand 㑮㠛 class/course 㑮㡗 swimming 㔲Ṛ time/hour 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖┺ to fail a test 㔲䠮㦚 ⽊┺ to take a test 㔶ⶎ newspaper 㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored 㞑┺ to wash

Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises

㞚⻚㰖 father 㞚䂾 morning/breakfast 㠊Ⰲ┺ to be juvenile/to be childish 㡆㔋䞮┺G to practice 㡊㕂䧞 earnestly 㡗䢪 movie 㡞㟓䞮┺ to reserve 㡺㩚 a.m. 㢍 clothes 㣪Ṗ yoga 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook 㤊☯䞮┺ to exercise 㤊㩚䞮┺ to drive 㦢㔳 food 㦮ὒ ╖䞯 medical college 㦮⏒䞮┺ to consult 㧊₆┺ to win 㧊㌂䞮┺ to move into/to change one’s residence 㧊㣿䞮┺ to use 㧒䞮┺ to work 㧙┺ to lose 㧦⯊┺ to cut off 㧦┺ to sleep 㧧┺ to be small 㧶 sleeping

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23 Nominalizing endings

㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting 㩖⎗ dinner/evening 㩚Ὃ major 㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call 㩦㕂 lunch 㩫゚㏢ repair shop 㩫䞮┺ to decide 㫆⁞ little 㭒┺ to give 㭒Ⱖ weekend 㭖゚䞮┺ to prepare 㰖ṧ wallet 㰖䞮㻶 subway 㰚䞯䞮┺ to go on to next stage of education 㰧 house 㹾 car 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 㿲⁒䞮┺ to leave home for work 㿻┺ to be cold 㿿⿚䧞 sufficiently 䀾㏢♮┺ to be canceled 䂮┺ to play (tennis/golf/piano)/to hit 䂲ῂ friend 䂾╖ bed 䋺 height 䌖┺ to ride 䏶㣪㧒 Saturday 䕪┺ to sell 䚲 ticket 䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language 䞯₆ semester 䞯ᾦ school 䢒㧦 alone 䢪㧻 makeup

Exercise 23.1 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ 㩚㠦. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example.

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Example: 㧦┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. = 㧦₆ 㩚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) took a shower before going to bed.”


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㞚䂾㦚Gⲏ┺ / ㏦㦚G㞑㦒㎎㣪 㔲䠮㦚G⽊┺ / 㧶㦚G㿿⿚䧞G㧦㎎㣪 ₆㹾⯒G䌖┺ /G₆㹾G䚲⯒G㡞㟓䟊㟒G♒㣪 ⩞㓺䏶⧧㠦 Ṗ┺G/G㰧㠦G✺⯛㔲┺ 㿲⁒䞮┺ / 㔶ⶎ㦚G⽊㎎㣪? 䢪㧻㦚G䞮┺ /G㌺㤢⯒G䟊㣪 ㌞G㰧㦒⪲G㧊㌂䞮┺G/G㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲G㌊㞮㠊㣪? 㩚Ὃ㦚G㩫䞮┺G/Gᾦ㑮┮䞮ἶG㌗╊䟊㟒G䞿┞┺ 䞒䎆⯒GⰢ⋮⩂G⋮Ṗ┺G /G㩚䢪䞿㔲┺ 㹾⯒G䕪┺G /G㞚⻚㰖䞮ἶG㦮⏒䞮㎎㣪

Exercise 23.2

Exercise 23.2 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆⓪ 䄺⎫, as shown below. Then translate the sentence. Example: ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㠒Ὴ☚ ⴑ 㞑㠞㠊㣪 = ㌺㤢⯒G䞮₆⓪G䄺⎫G㠒Ὴ☚GⴑG㞑㠞㠊㣪. “Far from taking a shower, (I) could not even wash (my) face.” 1 2 3 4 5

㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ┺G /G㞚䂾☚G㞞Gⲏ㠞㠊㣪 ❇㌆㦚G䞮┺G /G㰧G⹬㠦☚G㞞G⋮Ṫ㠊㣪 㩖⎗㦚Gⲏ┺G /G䄺䞒☚GⴑGⰞ㎾㠊㣪 ㌞G㹾⯒G㌂┺G /Gῂἓ☚GⴑG䟞㠊㣪 ㌳㧒G䕢䕆⯒G䞮┺G/G㍶ⶒ☚GⴑG⹱㞮㠊㣪

Exercise 23.3 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆㠦⓪. Then translate the sentence. Example: 䢒㧦 ⹺㠦 Ỏ㠊┺┞┺ / 㥚䠮䟊㣪. = 䢒㧦 ⹺㠦 Ỏ㠊┺┞₆㠦⓪ 㥚䠮䟊㣪. “(It) is dangerous for walking around alone at night.” 1 2 3 4 5 6

⚦G㌂⧢㧊G㧦┺G/G䂾╖ṖG⍞ⶊG㧧㞚㣪G 㡗䢪⯒G┺㤊⪲✲G⹱┺G /G㩲G䅊䜾䎆ṖG⍞ⶊGⓦ⩺㣪 㑮㡗㦚G䞮┺G /G⋶㝾ṖG⍞ⶊG㿪㤢㣪 㡗䢪⯒G⽊┺G /G㔲Ṛ㧊G㠜㠊㣪 㩚䢪⯒G䞮┺G /G⍞ⶊG⓼㠞㠊㣪 ⏣ῂ⯒G䞮┺G /G䋺ṖG㧧㞮㠊㣪

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23 Nominalizing endings

7 8 9 10

䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲┺G/G⍞ⶊG㠊⪎㠊㣪 䢒㧦G㤊㩚䞮┺G /G⍞ⶊGⲖ㠞㠊㣪 ⏎䔎⿗㦚G㌂┺G/G☞㧊G⳾㧦⧦㠊㣪 ㍶ⶒ⪲G㭒┺G/G⍞ⶊG゚㕢㠊㣪

Exercise 23.4 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪 = 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪. “Because there was a car accident, (I) was late.” 1 2 3 4 5

Ṧ₆GỎ⪎┺G/G䞯ᾦ㠦GⴑGṖ㣪 㞚䂾㦚G⓼ỢGⲏ㠞┺G/G㩦㕂㦚GⲏἶG㕌㰖G㞠㞚㣪 ゚ṖG㡺┺G/Gἓ₆ṖG䀾㏢♶GỆ㡞㣪 ⻚㓺ṖG⿞䘎䞮┺G/G㰖䞮㻶㦚G㧊㣿䟊㣪 㔲䠮G₆Ṛ㧊┺G/G☚㍲ὖ㠦G㌂⧢㧊GⰤ㞚㣪

Exercise 23.5 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ 㥚䟊㍲. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example. Example: 㣿☞㦚 ⻢┺ / 㭒ⰦⰞ┺ 㧒䟞㠊㣪 = 㣿☞㦚 ⻢₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㭒ⰦⰞ┺ 㧒䟞㠊㣪. “(I) worked every weekend to earn extra money.” 1 2 3 4 5

㌊㦚Gヒ┺G/G㩖⎗㦚G㫆⁞Gⲏ㦚GỆ㡞㣪 㦮ὒG╖䞯㠦G㰚䞯䞮┺G /G㭖゚䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪 㹾⯒Gἶ䂮┺G/G㩫゚㏢㠦GṖἶG㧞㠊㣪 ┺㦢Gἓ₆⯒G㧊₆┺G/Gⰺ㧒G㡊㕂䧞G㡆㔋䟊㣪 䞲ῃ㠦G㧞⓪G䂲ῂ䞲䎢G㩚䢪䞮┺G/G㩚䢪G䃊✲⯒G㌖㠊㣪

Exercise 23.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~₆⪲ 䞮┺. Then translate the sentence.

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Example: ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮┺ = ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to exercise everyday.”


1 2 3 4 5

⌊⎚ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮┺ 䞯ᾦ ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊┺ ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹┺ ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ ┺㦢 ╂⿖䎆 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆┺

Exercise 23.7

Exercise 23.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~₆☚ 䞮┺. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ = 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(We) also see a movie on the weekend.” 1 2 3 4 5

䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮┺ Ṗ⊪ ₢Ⱒ ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ┺ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺ 㕂㕂䞮Ⳋ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ 䏶㣪㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺

Exercise 23.8 Construct a sentence using the cues provided, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺ = ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Entering a college is difficult.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ⰺ㧒G㣪Ṗ⯒G䞮┺G/G~₆ṖG㠊⪋┺ 䝚⧧㓺G㦢㔳㦚GⰢ✺┺G /G~₆ṖG㠊⪋┺ 㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㰖┺G/G~₆ṖG㓓┺G 㧊㌂䞮┺G/G~₆ṖG䧮✺┺ ⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯊┺G /G~₆ṖG㫡┺ 㹾⯒G䌖┺G/G~₆ṖG䘎䞮┺ 㧒䞮┺G/G~₆ṖG㕁┺ 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺G/G ~₆ṖG㨂⹎㧞┺ ゾ⧮⯒G䞮┺G/G~₆ṖG‖㺄┺G ⰺ㧒G㤊☯䞮┺G/G~₆ṖG䧮✺┺

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23

Exercise 23.9

Nominalizing endings

Complete the dialogue using ~₆⓪㣪, as shown in the example. Example: A: ⰺ㧒 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮㎎㣪? B: ⰺ㧒G䂮₆⓪㣪, X 㭒㧒㠦 Y ⻞㩫☚ 㼦㣪. 1 A: 㹾Ṗ 㫡⍺㣪. B: __________________. 㧦㭒 ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮㣪. 2 A: 㡺⓮ 㡗䢪 ⽦㣪? B: ___________________ 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㔲䠮㧊 㧞㠊㍲ Ὃ⿖䟊㟒 䟊㣪. 3 A: ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⧧ 㧦㭒 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪? B: _________________ 㣪㯞㦢 ⹪ザ㍲ 㧦㭒 ⴑ ⽦㣪. 4 A: ⹿㧊 ➆⦑䞮⍺㣪. B: _________________ ⰺ㧒 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲ἶ 㧦㣪. 5 A: ⿖㰖⩆䞮㔲⍺㣪. B: _________________ 㡺⓮Ⱒ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⌂㠊㣪.

Exercise 23.10 Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ත, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: 㩖⎗ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪 = 㩖⎗ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㦢. “Did not eat dinner.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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⌊㧒G㡺㩚 XW 㔲㠦G☢㞚㢖㣪 㡺⓮G㩖⎗㦖 㓺䎢㧊䋂㡞㣪 㹾Gἶ㼺㠊㣪 㰧㠦G㞞GṪ㠊㣪 㢍G㌖㠊㣪 㠊㩲GⲎⰂG㧮⧦㠊㣪 㤆ⰂṖG㰖ṧ㦚G⽊ὖ䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪 㧙㠊⻚ⰆGṲ⯒G㺔㞮㔋┞┺ ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎⯒ ῂ䞿┞┺ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜㠊㣪


UNIT 24 Direct and indirect quotation

A direct quotation conveys the exact spoken or written message. Consider the following sentence: “Jane said that ‘I will come to the party no matter what happens!’” This sentence is a direct quotation. It reports what has been said or written verbatim, using quotation marks. On the other hand, an indirect quotation delivers only the main message. In an indirect quotation, the speaker delivers what somebody said or wrote without using the original speaker’s exact words. Consequently, an indirect quotation involves the modification of the original utterance. Consider the following example: “Jane said that she would come to the party no matter what happens.” Notice that the personal pronoun and the tense are modified so that they represent the speaker’s voice and perspective. This unit introduces direct and indirect quotations in Korean.

Direct quotation Direct quotation in Korean is constructed from the original utterance, a quotation particle (㧊)⧒ἶ, and a quoting verb, such as Ⱖ䞮┺ “speak,” ╖╋䞮┺ “answer,” ⶑ┺ “ask,” ⿖䌗䞮┺ “request,” and 㩲㠎䞮┺ “suggest.” Consider the following examples: 㑮㧪㧊 “㤆Ⰲ 㧊㩲 㩦㕂 ⲏ㦣㔲┺” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Susan said ‘Let us have lunch now.’” 䞒䎆Ṗ ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 “Ἵ ṞỢ㣪” ⧒ἶ ╖╋䟞㠊㣪. “Peter replied to the teacher, ‘(I) promise to go (there) soon.’” ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 “㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ ⌊ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 㢂 Ệ㡞㣪?” ⧒ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Simon asked (me) ‘Will (you) come to my birthday party this weekend?’” 219


24 Direct and indirect quotation

ⶎ 㞴㠦 “⁞㡆!” 㧊⧒ἶ 㖾 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(It) was written ‘No Smoking!’ in front of the door.” 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 “㩲 ἶ䟻㦖 ㍲㤎㧛┞┺” ⧒ἶ ╖╋䟞㠊㣪. “William answered ‘As for my hometown, (it) is Seoul.’” When quoting mimetic expressions and/or when quoting the exact forms involved along with the tone and intonation of the quoted utterance, the particle 䞮ἶ is used instead of (㧊)⧒ἶ. Consider the following examples: 䞯ᾦG 㫛㧊 “➷➷” 䞮ἶ 㤎⪎㔋┞┺. “The school bell rang ‘ttang ttang.’” 㺆㓺⓪ “⡧⡧” 䞮ἶ ⶎ㦚 ⚦✲⪎㠊㣪. “Charles knocked on the door ‘knock knock.’” ㌂⧢✺㧊 “⿞㧊㟒!” 䞮ἶ ㏢Ⰲ⯒ 㰞⩖㠊㣪. “People shouted ‘It’s fire!’” 㞺✲⮮Ṗ “㢖, Ṗ㦚㧊┺!” 䞮ἶG㏢Ⰲ㼺㔋┞┺. “Andrew shouted ‘Wow, it’s Autumn!’” 㫊㧊 㩲┞䗒㠦Ợ 㹾⿚䞲 ⳿㏢Ⰲ⪲ “㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪 ⽊⩂ Ṗ㧦” 䞮ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “John asked Jennifer in a calm tone of voice, saying ‘Let us go see a movie this weekend.’” 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ “㍶㌳┮!” 䞮ἶ ⿞⩖㔋┞┺. “Jessica called out, ‘Professor!’”

Indirect quotation Generally speaking in Korean, the use of indirect quotation is more frequent than that of direct quotation. The function of indirect quotation in Korean is twofold: (1) to convey what somebody has said or written without using the original speaker’s or writer’s exact words, and (2) to report one’s own thoughts or feelings (e.g., internal speech).

Reporting without using the speaker’s or writer’s exact words Indirect quotation in Korean is constructed from the following: the quoted utterance, the indirect quotation particle ἶ, and a verb, such as Ⱖ䞮┺ (or 䞮┺) “say,” ⶑ┺ “ask,” ╖╋䞮┺ “answer,” and the adjective ⁎⩝┺ “be that way.” When a direct quoted utterance is converted to an indirect reported utterance, part of the original utterance (e.g., tense, personal pronouns, and honorifics) is modified to fit the perspective of the speaker. Compare the following two sentences:

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Ⰲ㌂Ṗ “㩲Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ỷ㠊㣪” ⧒ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said ‘I will work this weekend.’”


Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㧦₆Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ỷ┺ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said that (herself/she) would work this weekend.”

Indirect quotation

The first sentence is a direct quotation, whereas the second is an indirect quotation. Notice that the first person pronoun 㩖 in the first sentence was replaced by the noun 㧦₆ “herself” in the second sentence. In addition, the polite speech level ending in the first sentence is replaced by the plain speech level ending in the second (e.g., 㧒䞮Ỷ㠊㣪 vs. 㧒䞮Ỷ┺). Note that the plain speech level has different endings depending on the sentence type: Declarative ~(ⓦ)ච┺

Interrogative ~(㦒)┞/⌦

Imperative ~㠊⧒/㞚⧒

Propositive ~㧦

Consequently, depending on the sentence type of the quoted utterance, one of the four plain speech level endings is used accordingly before the quotation particle ἶ. Declarative

~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs) ⰺ㧒 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ⓪┺ἶG䟞㠊㣪. “(They) said that (they) would eat Korean food everyday.” 㡺⓮ ⹺ 㭧ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋲┺ἶGⰦ䟞㠊㣪. “(He) said that (he) would leave for China tonight.” 㧒⽎ ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞲┺ἶG䟊㣪. “(She) says that (she) majors in Japanese literature.”

~┺ἶ 䞮┺ (for adjectives) 㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺ἶG䟊㣪. “(He) said that the test is easy.” 㠊㩲 㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤶┺ἶGⰦ䟞㠊㣪. “(She) said that yesterday’s food was spicy.”

~⧒ἶ 䞮┺ (for copulas) ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ⽚ ⹿䞯㧊⧒ἶG䟊㣪. “(They) say that (it) is the spring break from tomorrow.” ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⓼Ợ 㧮 Ệ⧒ἶG䟞㠊㣪. “(My) roommate said that (he) would go to bed late tonight.” 㞚⻚㰖Ṗ 㦮㌂⧒ἶG䟊㣪. “(She) says the (her) father is a doctor.” 221


24

Interrogative

Direct and indirect quotation

~ⓦ⌦ἶ 䞮┺Vⶑ┺ (for verbs) 㧊㌂⻾㧊G 㠦Ⰳ㠦ỢG 㠊ⓦG 㦖䟟㠦G Ṗ⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Isabel asked Eric which bank (he) goes to.” ┺㦢G ⁞㣪㧒㠦G 㠊❪㠦G ṞG Ệ⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㔋┞┺. “(I) asked (her) where (she) would go next Friday.” 㡺⓮G㩖⎗GⲪⓊṖGⶦ⌦ἶG䟊㣪. “(He) asks (her) what the dinner menu for today is.”

~⌦ἶ 䞮┺Vⶑ┺ (for adjectives and copulas) ㍲㤎㦮G ⋶㝾ṖG 㿻⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) asked (them) whether Seoul’s weather is cold.” 㑮㧪㧊G ⑚ṖG 䞲ῃG ㌂⧢㧊⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㔋┞┺. “Susan asked (me) who is a Korean.” Imperative

~(㦒)⧒ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs only) 㧦₆ 㩚㠦 㟓㦚 ⲏ㦒⧒ἶG 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) told (him) to take the medicine before going to bed.” 㡂☯㌳䞲䎢 㫆㕂䟊㍲ 㤊㩚䞮⧒ἶG䟞㠊㣪. “(I) told (my) younger sister to drive safely.” Note that ~(㦒)⧒ is used instead of the plain speech level ending ~㠊 ⧒/㞚⧒. Propositive

~㧦ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs only) ◆┞㠮㧊 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦ἶG 䟞㠊㣪. “Daniel suggested that (we) meet this weekend.” ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ṯ㧊 䎢┞㓺G 䂮㧦ἶG 䟊㣪. “(They) suggest that (we) play tennis together from tomorrow (onward).” ⰞⰂ㡺Ṗ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗ ⲏ㧦ἶG䞿┞┺. “Mario suggests that (we) eat dinner together.”

Abbreviation of the indirect quotation endings in colloquial usages 222

In conversational settings, some of the aforementioned indirect quotation endings can be abbreviated, as shown below:


~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~(ⓦ)ච╖㣪. ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㫡㞚䞲╖㣪. “(They) say that Matthew likes Korean food.”

Reporting one’s thoughts or feelings

~⧒ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~⧮㣪. 䡫㧊G⼖䢎㌂⧮㣪. “(He) says that (his) older brother is a lawyer.” ~(㦒)⧒ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~(㦒)⧮㣪. 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ₆㩚㠦 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㦒⧮㣪. “(She) tells (us) to eat breakfast before going to school.” ~㧦ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~㨂㣪. ⌊㧒 ṯ㧊 Ἶ䝚 䂮㨂㣪. “(They) suggest that (we) play golf tomorrow together.”

Reporting one’s thoughts or feelings Beside reporting the speech or writing of a third person, indirect quotation is also used to report one’s own thoughts or feelings. It is constructed from the following: the quoted utterance, the indirect quotation particle ἶ, and a verb, such as ㌳ṗ䞮┺ “think” or ⓦ⋒┺ “feel.” Consider the following example: 㠊㩲 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶┺ἶG ㌳ṗ䟞┺. “(I) thought that yesterday’s test was difficult.” Notice that the form reports one’s thought rather than quotes someone else’s idea. Here are more examples: 㩲㧎㦮G ㎇ỿ㧊G 㺎G 㫡┺ἶG ㌳ṗ䞲┺. “(I) think that Jane’s personality is really nice.” 㫊㦮G 䟟☯㧊G 㢉㞮┺ἶG ㌳ṗ䟞┺. “(I) thought that John’s action was right.” 㰗㤦✺㦮G 䌲☚ṖG 㞞G 㫡㞮┺ἶG ⓦ⅞┺. “(I) felt that the employees’ attitudes were not good.”

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 24 exercises Ṗ┺ to go ṯ㧊 together Ἒ㩞 season Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study

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24 Direct and indirect quotation

224

⁎Ⱒ⚦┺ to quit/to stop (doing) ⁞㣪㧒 Friday ⊳ an end/the tip ⋮㭧 next time ⌊⩺㡺┺ to come down ⌊Ⰲ┺ to get off/to come down ⌊㧒 tomorrow ⏖┺ to play ┺㔲 again ☢㞚Ṗ┺ to go back ☫┺ to help ✺⯊┺ to stop by ➆⧒㡺┺ to follow Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet Ⱒ✺┺ to make ⱋ┺ to be spicy ⲏ┺ to eat ⹺ night ⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read ゾ⧮ laundry ゾⰂ fast/immediately ㏢⋮₆ a passing rain/shower 㑮㠛 class 㔲Ṛ time/hour 㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin 㡊㐶 keys 㡊㕂䧞 earnestly/enthusiastically/hard 㡗䢪 movie 㡺⓮ today 㡺⯊┺ to climb/to go up 㡺䤚 p.m. 㤆㥶 milk 㧊➆ after a while 㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up 㧒㹣 early 㧮 well/expertly 㩖⎗ dinner/evening 㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call 㩫Ⱖ really 㩲⹲ please/for heaven’s sake 㭒Ⱖ weekend 㰖⌊┺ to spend (time)/to get along


㰗㧻 one’s place of work 㰧 house 㰧㎎ house rent 㹢Ṳ pot stew 㺔┺ to look for/to seek for 䂲ῂ friends 䌖┺ to ride (a train/car/bus/airplane) 䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language 䢪⌊┺ to get angry

Exercise 24.1

Exercise 24.1 Quote the following directly, as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: The speaker: 㩲㧎 / The original utterance: “㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺” = 㩲㧎㧊 “㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺”⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jane said ‘Let us go home.’” 1 The speaker: ⑚⋮ / The original utterance: “㩲⹲ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮⧒” 2 The speaker: 㞺✲⮮ / The original utterance: “ゾⰂ ➆⧒㡺㎎㣪” 3 The speaker: 㧊㌂⻾ / The original utterance: “㩫Ⱖ 㤆㥶⯒ 㧮 Ⱎ㔲 ⍺㣪” 4 The speaker: Ⰲ㌂ / The original utterance: “㩖⎗㠦 㩖䧂 㰧㠦 ✺⯊ ㎎㣪” 5 The speaker: ㍶㌳┮ / The original utterance: “㡺⓮ 㑮㠛 ⊳” 6 The speaker: 䙊 / The original utterance: “䞒㧦 ⲏ㧦” 7 The speaker: ⰞⰂ㞚 / The original utterance: “㹢ṲṖ ⱋ┺” 8 The speaker: ぢ⧮✲ / The original utterance: “㤆Ⰲ ⁞㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦” 9 The speaker: ┞䆲 / The original utterance: “㧊➆ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩚䢪 䟊” 10 The speaker: 㰖⋮ / The original utterance: “㰧㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪?”

Exercise 24.2 Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: The speaker: 䙊 / The original utterance: 㡺䤚㠦 㰧㠦 ṧ┞ ┺ = 䙊㧊 㡺䤚㠦 㰧㠦 Ṛ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Paul said that (he) would go home in the afternoon.”

225


24 Direct and indirect quotation

1 The speaker: ⳾┞䃊 / The original utterance: Ⓤ㣫㠦 [ Ἒ㩞㧊G 㧞㔋 ┞┺ 2 The speaker: 㞺㍲┞ / The original utterance: ⌊㧒 ㏢⋮₆ṖG⌊ⰂỶ㔋 ┞┺ 3 The speaker:G㌂ぢⰂ⋮ / The original utterance: 㰧㎎Ṗ 㢂⧦㔋┞┺ 4 The speaker: 㩲㧊㓾 / The original utterance: 㡺⓮ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒G Ⱒ✺ 㠊㣪 5 The speaker: 㫆❪ / The original utterance: ⌊㧒 ┺㔲 㩚䢪䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺ 6 The speaker: 㓺䕆ぢ / The original utterance: 㠎㩲 㰗㧻㦚G ⁎Ⱒ⛖ 㠊㣪? 7 The speaker: 㯊Ⰲ㞚 / The original utterance: 㠎㩲 㰧㠦 㢖㣪? 8 The speaker: 㠦㓺▪ / The original utterance: 㧊 㹾Ṗ ⑚ῂ Ệ㡞㣪? 9 The speaker: 㩲Ⰲ / The original utterance: 㧮 㰖⌊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪? 10 The speaker: ◆㧊㰖 / The original utterance: ⳝ 㔲㡞㣪?

Exercise 24.3 Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example. Then translate the sentence. Example: The speaker: 䎢⩢㓺 / The original utterance: 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖ 䞿㔲┺. = 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Terrence suggested that (we) study hard.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The speaker: 㠦Ⰳ / The original utterance: ⻚㓺⯒ 䌧㔲┺ The speaker: ⋮㡺⹎ / The original utterance: 㡺䤚 Y 㔲㠦GⰢ⋿㔲┺ The speaker: 䋊⧒⧒ / The original utterance: ṯ㧊 㣪Ṗ⯒G㔲㧧䞿㔲┺ The speaker: 㫆㰖 / The original utterance: 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦G ṯ㧊G 㡗䢪⯒ ⽛㔲┺ The speaker: ⋮䌞Ⰲ / The original utterance: ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒G☚㢖G㭣㔲┺ The speaker: 㞚゚Ṗ㧒 / The original utterance: ゾ⧮⯒G䞮㕃㔲㡺 The speaker: 䅖ゞ / The original utterance: 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺 The speaker: ┺㧊㠦⋮ / The original utterance: YW ⿚㞞㠦G ⌊⩺㡺㕃 㔲㡺 The speaker: 㪎㓺䕊 / The original utterance: 䢪⌊㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺 The speaker: 㧒⩞㧎 / The original utterance: 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔㦒㕃㔲㡺

Exercise 24.4 226

Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.


Example: “Luis suggested that (we) buy a wine.” (⬾㧊㓺 / 㢖㧎㦚 ㌓㔲┺) = ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 㢖㧎㦚 ㌂㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. 1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 24.5

Sam said that (he) leaves tonight (㌮ / 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⟶⋮㣪) Lisa asked (me) what time (I) go to bed (Ⰲ㌂ / ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧦㣪?) Paul suggested that (we) eat Korean food (䙊 / 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺) Teacher told (us) to be quiet (㍶㌳┮G/ 㫆㣿䧞 䞮㕃㔲㡺) Susan said that (she) would call (me) tonight (㑮㧪 / 㡺⓮ ⹺ 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ 㡞㣪)

Exercise 24.5 Finish the following translation using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) think that the room was too noisy.” (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㔲⊚⩂ 㤶┺) = ⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㔲⊚⩂㤶┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺. (I) think that (their) food is delicious (㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺) (I) think that (their) service is great (㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺) (I) think that the coffee was too strong (䄺䞒Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㰚䟞┺) (I) thought that (I) would start exercising from tomorrow (⌊㧒⿖䎆 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䟊㟒Ỷ㠊㣪) 5 (I) thought that (I) would write an e-mail to John (㫊䞲䎢 㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚 㖾㟒Ỷ┺)

1 2 3 4

227


KEY TO EXERCISES

Unit 1 Exercise 1.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞. “Cross a bridge.” ⶎ㦚G㡊㠊. “Open the door.” 㹾⯒G䕪㞚. “(Let us) sell the car.” 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚⩺. “(I) throw away the trash.” 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚. “Close the window.” Ὃ㡆㦚 㧒㹣 Ⱎ㼦. “End the concert early.” 㩧㔲⯒ ア⩺. “(Let us) borrow dishes.” ⹲㦚G㞑㠊. “(I) wash (my) feet.” 㧒㹣G㧦. “(Let us) go to bed early.” 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖? “Do (you) ride a bicycle?” ⓦ⋢㧊G㫡㞚. “The feeling is good.” ṫ㦮ṖG㨂⹎㧞㠊. “The lecture is interesting.” 䝚⧧㓺G㌂⧢㧊㟒? “Is (she) a Frenchman?” 㧒㦚G䟊 “Work.” ἓ㺆ὖ㧊 㞚┞㟒? “Isn’t (he) a policeman?” 㰧㧊GⲖ㠊. “The house is far.” ㌂ὒṖG╂㞚. “The apple is sweet.” ⲎⰂṖG㞚䕢? “Does (your) head ache?” 䞮⓮㧊G䦦⩺. “The sky is cloudy.” ὒ㧒㧊G㕇㕇䟊? “Is the fruit fresh?”

Exercise 1.2

228

1 2 3 4 5 6

㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ⓪┺. “(I) eat breakfast.” 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂲┺. “(I) teach Chinese.” ⑚⋮⯒ ₆┺Ⰶ┺. “(I) wait for (my) older sister.” ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔶┺. “(I) drink water.” ㏢䙂⯒ ⹱⓪┺. “(I) receive a package.” 㧒⽎㠊⯒ ⺆㤊┺. “(I) learn Japanese.”


7 8 9 10

㌂ⶊ㔺㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺ “The office is clean.” ⻚㓺Ṗ ⓦⰂ┺. “The bus is slow.” 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾ỗ┺. “The coffee is hot.” 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 ⹪㊮┺. “(I) am busy this weekend.”

Key to exercises

Exercise 1.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㠎㩲 ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 ╁┞? “When do (you) shut the store door?” 㠊❪㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮┞? “Where do (you) meet (your) friend?” 㠎㩲 ⟶⋮┞? “When do (you) depart?” 㠊❪㍲ Ὃ⿖䞮┞? “Where do (you) study?” ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┞? “Do (you) smoke?” 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┞? “Do (you) look for keys?” ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮┞? “Is the weather warm?” 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⪋┞? “Is the test difficult?” ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮┞? “Is (your) mood bad?” 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮┞? “Is the house quiet?”

Exercise 1.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⧒. “Cross the bridge.” 㞚⧮⪲ ⌊⩺Ṗ⧒. “Go down to the bottom.” Ṗ⹿㦚 ▮㪎⧒. “Throw the bag.” 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊⧒. “Open the window.” 㞚⻚㰖⯒ ➆⧒⧒. “Follow (your) father.” 㞺✲⮮⯒ ⹕㠊⧒. “Trust Andrew.” 㟧Ⱖ㦚 㔶㠊⧒. “Put on (your) socks.” ㎪䁶⯒ 㧛㠊⧒. “Wear the shirt.” ㏦㦚 㧷㞚⧒. “Take (my) hand.” 䋂Ợ 㣎㼦⧒. “Shout aloud.”

Exercise 1.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㌂㰚㦚G⽊⌊㧦. “(Let us) send (him) the picture.” ⁎Ⱂ㦚G⁎Ⰲ㧦. “(Let us) draw a picture.” ⻪㧎㦚G㧷㧦. “(Let us) catch the criminal.” 㔶ⶎ㦚G㧓㧦. “(Let us) read the newspaper.” 㧒㦚GⰞ䂮㧦. “(Let us) finish the work.” 䌳㔲⯒G䌖㧦. “(Let us) take a taxi.” 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ 䠺㠊㰖㧦. “(Let us) get scattered at the coffee shop.” ⪲ⰾ㓺G㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㧦. “(Let us) see a romance movie.” 㺛㦚G㭒㧦. “(Let us) give (them) a book.” 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ㧦. “(Let us) throw garbage away.”

229


Key to exercises

Exercise 1.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Read page 19. (Let us) wash (our) hands. Close the door. (Let us) borrow (his) money. Go out from the room. Drink green tea. (Let us) give (them) homework. (Let us) wear jeans. Learn English. (Let us) leave for London.

Exercise 1.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㡺䤚 Y 㔲㠦 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䟊. 㫆㣿䧞G䟊U 㰧㦚G㼃㏢䟊U 䐆㦚G㠊❪㍲GⰢ⋮? 㠊❪㠦 Ṫ㠊? ╊⺆⯒G⊠㠞㠊U ⋶㝾ṖGⰧ㞮㠊U 㢖㧎㦚G㌂U 㠒Ⱎ⋮G₆┺⪎㠊? 䞲ῃ㠦㍲G㡗㠊⯒GṖ⯊㼺㠊.

Exercise 1.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ἓ㩲䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞲┺. 㧧⎚㠦 ㍲㤎㦚 㡂䟟䟞┺. 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾ỗ┺. 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧊┞? 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䟞┞? 䟟⽋䞮┞? 㺓ⶎ㦚G㡊㠊⧒. 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚⩺⧒. 㧦㔶Ṧ㦚 Ṗ㰖㧦. ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㧦.

Unit 2 Exercise 2.1 230

1 㢶❪ṖG㭧ῃG㌂⧢㧊㰖㣪? 2 㠦✲㤢✲⯒ Ⱒ⋮㰖㣪?


3 ⋮⯒ ⹕㰖㣪? 4 Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕎㰖㣪? 5 㩖₆㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㰖㣪?

Key to exercises

Exercise 2.2 1 2 3 4 5

㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻㰖㣪? “Today’s weather is hot, right?” ἓ䂮Ṗ 㞚⯚╋㰖㣪? “The scenery is beautiful, right?” ⹿㧊 㫆㣿䞮㰖㣪? “The room is quiet, right?” 㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩓㰖㣪? “The house is noisy, right?” 䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞㰖㣪? “The coffee is delicious, right?”

Exercise 2.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㰧㦒⪲G☢㞚Ṗ㰖㣪. 䄺䞒⯒G㔲䋺㰖㣪. 㠦㠊䄾㦚G䅲㰖㣪. Ⰶ┺䞲䎢 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㰖㣪. 䡚⁞㦒⪲ 㰖⿞䞮㰖㣪. ㌳㧒 䃊✲⯒ ㌂㰖㣪. 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪⯒ アⰂ㰖㣪. 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䞮㰖㣪. 㫆❪㦮 䂲ῂ✺☚ 㽞╖䞮㰖㣪. ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㰖㣪.

Exercise 2.4 1 2 3 4 5 6

䋂Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䆪ἶ⍺㣪. 㞚゚Ợ㧒㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮⍺㣪. ⪲⋶✲Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞮⍺㣪. ┺㧊㠦⋮Ṗ 䑊⁒䟞⍺㣪. Ⰲ❪㞚Ṗ ☞㦚 ⻢㠞⍺㣪. ⹮㰖Ṗ ゚㕢⍺㣪.

Exercise 2.5 1 㫆㎟㧊G㰧㠦G㠜⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Joseph is not home.” 2 ⩞㧊㼒㧊Gₖ䂮⯒Gⲏ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Rachel eats kimchi.” 3 ┞䆲⧒㓺ṖG ⋮䌞Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Nicolas talks to Natalie.” 4 ◆㧊キ㧊G 㞢⩟㓺㦮 䡫㧊⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) David is Alex’s older brother.” 5 㞂❪ṖG㞚㰗G㞞G㧦⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Cindy does not sleep yet.” 6 ⹿㧊G₾⊭䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the room is clean.”

231


Key to exercises

Exercise 2.6 1 2 3 4 5 6

⋶㝾Ṗ 㕎⓮䞮ῆ㣪. 㠊㩲 ⹪⧢㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⿞㠞ῆ㣪. ⽊㓺䏺㧊 ⹪╍Ṗ㨂⪲ 㥶ⳛ䞮ῆ㣪. 㯊Ⰲ㞚ṖGṚ䢎㌂㧊ῆ㣪. 㧊㩲⿖䎆G㡂⯚㧊ῆ㣪. 㰦㧊G⽊⍞㓺⯒G⹱㞮ῆ㣪.

Exercise 2.7 1 ⋮㡺⹎ṖG 䕾㎮G ⳾◎㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Naomi is a fashion model.” 2 㥶⩓㦒⪲G 㔶䢒G 㡂䟟㦚G Ṗ⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) go to Europe for (their) honeymoon.” 3 㡺䤚 ` 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞮ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) closed (their) store at 9 p.m.” 4 䟊ⰂṖG ⼖䢎㌂⪲G 㧒䟞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Harry worked as a lawyer.” 5 ⶒṖṖ ゚㕎ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) prices are expensive.” 6 㠊㩲 ⹿㧊 ▪㤶ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the room was hot yesterday.”

Unit 3 Exercise 3.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ⰲ㌂⽊┺ 㺆㓺Ṗ 㧎₆Ṗ ▪ Ⱔ㞚㣪. 䞲ῃ⽊┺ 䞚Ⰲ䞖㧊 ▪ ▪㤢㣪. ⽚⽊┺ Ṗ㦚㦚 ▪ 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪. ὒ䞯⽊┺Gⶎ䞯㦚G▪G㩚Ὃ䞮ἶG㕌㠊䟞㠊㣪. ❪㰖䌞G䃊Ⲫ⧒⽊┺G⏎䔎⿗㦚 ▪ ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪? 㹾⽊┺G゚䟟₆ṖG▪Gザ⯛┞┺. 䢎⏖⭆⬾⽊┺GⓊ㣫㔲ṖG▪G䋓┞┺. 㠊㩲⽊┺G㡺⓮㧊G▲G㿻㔋┞┺. 䟊Ⰲ⽊┺G㌮㧊G䎢┞㓺⯒G▪G㧮 䂿┞₢? ◆㧊ぢ⽊┺G㩲㧎㧊Gἶ₆⯒G▪ 㫡㞚䞿┞₢?

Exercise 3.2

232

1 2 3 4 5

㭒㓺ṖG㠒㦢㻮⩒G㹾Ṗ㤢㣪. Ⰲ❪㞚ṖG䡫㌂㻮⩒G䟟☯䟊㣪. 䋂Ⰲ㓺ṖGⶒṲ㻮⩒G㑮㡗㦚 㧮 䟊㣪? 㩲ⰂṖG㟧㻮⩒G㑲䟞㠊㣪. 㟒㺚ṖG⁞㻮⩒G゚㕖GỆ㡞㣪.


6 7 8 9 10

㫊㧊G⏣ῂG㍶㑮㻮⩒G䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪. ㌢❪ṖG⳾◎㻮⩒G⋶㞂䟊㣪. 㞺㍲┞ṖG㞚㧎㓞䌖㧎㻮⩒G⡧⡧䟊㣪. ㌂⧒ṖG㡺䗮⧒GṖ㑮㻮⩒G⏎⧮⯒G㧮G䟞㠊㣪. 䏶Ⱎ㓺ṖGⰞ⧒䏺G㍶㑮㻮⩒G㧮G⥎GỆ㡞㣪.

Key to exercises

Exercise 3.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊G┦Ⱒ䋒G䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞿┞┺. ⿖㠢㧊GỆ㔺Ⱒ䋒G䋓┞┺. ◆┞㠮㧊G䞚ⰓⰢ䋒G⿖㰖⩆䞿┞┺. 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊G㠦Ⰲ䃊Ⱒ䋒G㢖㧎㦚 㫡㞚䟞㔋┞₢? ⩞⻶䃊ṖG㩲┞䗒Ⱒ䋒G㟢㩚䟞㔋┞┺. ㍲㤎㧊GⓊ㣫Ⱒ䋒G゚㕎㣪. 㧊G㹾ṖG㩖G㹾Ⱒ䋒G㫡㞚㣪. 䞚Ⱃ㧊G㞚╊Ⱒ䋒G☞㦚G⻢㠊㣪? 㰖䞮㻶㧊G䌳㔲Ⱒ䋒G䘎䟞㠊㣪. 㠦✲㤢✲ṖG䏶Ⱎ㓺Ⱒ䋒GⰞ㎾㠊㣪.

Exercise 3.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㩖⎗Ⱎ┺G㌆㺛䞿┞┺. Ỿ㤎Ⱎ┺G㓺䋺⯒ 䌧┞₢? 㡂⯚Ⱎ┺G⹪╍Ṗ㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. ṖỢⰞ┺G⹪㊶GỆ㡞㣪. ⹺Ⱎ┺GⰢ⋿㔲┺. 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩Ⱎ┺G㭒㓺⯒ 䕪㞚㣪. 䞯ᾦⰞ┺ ᾦṖṖ 㧞㠊㣪. ⹿Ⱎ┺ 㺓ⶎ㧊 㧞㠞㠊㣪. 䞯㌳Ⱎ┺ 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮ἶG㧞㠊㣪. 䂲ῂ✺㧊 䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ Ἶ䝚⯒G㼺㠊㣪?

Exercise 3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㌂ぢⰂ⋮Ⱎ㩖GỆ㰩Ⱖ㦚G䟞㠊㣪. ⑚⋮Ⱎ㩖G㌂㔺㦚GṦ䀚㠊㣪. ⋶㝾Ⱎ㩖 㿪㤶㠊㣪. 㩲 ⹿Ⱎ㩖 㠊⚦㤶㠊㣪. 㠦㠊䄾Ⱎ㩖Gἶ㧻⌂㠊㣪. ⰺ䓲Ⱎ㩖G䞯ᾦ㠦G㞞GṪ㠊㣪. ⿖㧎Ⱎ㩖 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. ⳾┞䃊Ⱎ㩖 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪. 䘎㦮㩦Ⱎ㩖 ⶎ㦚 ╁㞮㠊㣪? 䙊Ⱎ㩖 㹾⯒ 䕪 Ệ㡞㣪.

233


Key to exercises

Exercise 3.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㌂ὒ 㭒㓺⹬㠦 㞞 Ⱎ㎪㣪. “(I) drink only apple juice.” ㌦⩂✲⹬㠦 㞞 ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) eat only salad.” 㠚Ⱎ⓪ 㞚ザ⹬㠦 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for Mom, (she) likes only Dad.” ㏦┮㧊 ^ ⳛ⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “There are only seven customers.” ⌄㧶㦚 X 㔲Ṛ⹬㠦 㞞 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will take a nap only one hour.” 㠊Ⲏ┞⹬㠦 ㌳ṗ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) thought of only (my) mother.” 㨂㯞⹬㠦 㞞 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪. “(I) liked only jazz.” 㠊㩲 \ 㔲Ṛ⹬㠦 㞞 㧺㠊㣪. “(I) slept only 5 hours yesterday.” XW ⿚⹬㠦 㞞 ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will wait only 10 minutes.” 㠎┞⹬㠦 㞞 Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will meet only (my) older sister.”

Unit 4 Exercise 4.1 1 2 3 4 5

㧎☚G㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ㠊G⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried Indian food.” ☚㧦₆⯒GⰢ✺㠊G⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried making ceramics.” 䞲⽋㦚G㧛㠊G⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried wearing Hanbok.” ⻶㧊㰫㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to Beijing.” ⼧㤦㠦G㩚䢪䟊G⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried calling the hospital.”

Exercise 4.2 1 ⶊ㡃G䣢㌂㠦㍲G㧒䟊 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried working for a trading company?” 2 ⋰㔲⯒G䟊G⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried fishing?” 3 䌖㧊G㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ㠊G⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried (eating) Thai food?” 4 䞲ῃ㠊⯒G ⺆㤢G ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried learning the Korean language?” 5 ᾦ䣢㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) been to church?”

Exercise 4.3 1 2 3 4 5

234

㡗㠊⯒GṖ⯊㼦G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try teaching English.” ㌆㦚G㢂⧒ṖG⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try climbing the mountain.” 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲G㌊㞚G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try living in an apartment.” 㡂㧦䂲ῂ⧧G䠺㠊㪎G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try breaking up with (your) girlfriend.” 䅊䜾䎆⯒Gἶ㼦G⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try fixing the computer.”


Exercise 4.4

Key to exercises

1 ₆☚䟊G⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try praying.” 2 ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢G ⿖䌗䟊 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try asking a favor to the teacher.” 3 㹾⯒Gἶ㼦G⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try fixing the car.” 4 ῂⲣ㦚GⰟ㞚G⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try filling up a hole.” 5 㠦㠊䄾㦚G䅲G⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try turning on the air conditioner.”

Exercise 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㞚䝚Ⰲ䃊㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞┺. 䞲ῃ㠊⯒GὋ⿖䟊G⽒Gỗ┞┺. 䞲ῃGⰻ㭒⯒GⰞ㎪G⽺㔋┞┺. 㓺㤾◊㠦GṖG⽺㔋┞₢? ₆䌖⯒G㼦G⽺㔋┞₢? 㰧G㩚䢪G⻞䢎⯒G㣎㤢 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. Ⱎ㌂㰖 ₆Ἒ⯒ ㌂㣿䟊 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢䞮ἶ ㌂‖㠊 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. 㣪Ⰲ⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽛㔲┺. 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ㼦 ⽛㔲┺.

Exercise 4.6 1 2 3 4 5

䡫㧊 㫡㦖 ㏢㔳㦚 㩚䟊 㢪㠊㣪. ṲṖ 㧊㴓㦒⪲ ╂⩺ 㢖㣪. 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 Ṧ₆⪲ ἶ㌳䟊 㢪㠊㣪. ⪲⻚䔎⪲⿖䎆 ☚㤖㦚 ⹱㞚 㡺ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. ⶒ㧊 㠒㠊 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪.

Exercise 4.7 1 㤆ⰂG 䞶Ⲏ┞⓪G 䟊Ⱎ┺G ⓯㠊G Ṗ㕃┞┺. “As for my grandmother, (she) continues to get old.” 2 㧊㩲⿖䎆 䢒㧦 ㌊㞚ṧ┞₢? “Do (you) go on living alone from now on?” 3 䟟⽋䞲 Ṗ㩫㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 Ṗ㕃㔲㡺. “Continue to make a happy family.” 4 ⶒ㦚 㩞㟓䟊 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) continue to save water.” 5 㫆⁞㝿G 㓺䅖㭚㦚G ⹪∪G ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) continue to change the schedule gradually.”

235


Key to exercises

Unit 5 Exercise 5.1 1 2 3 4 5

䋆Gⶒἶ₆⯒G⋰㞚 ⌞㠊㣪. ṫⶒ㦚GⰟ㞚G⌞㠊㣪. 䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒G➆G⌞㠊㣪. ☞㦚G⹱㞚G⌞㠊㣪. ⏒ⶎ㦚G㖾G⌞㠊㣪.

Exercise 5.2 ゚⹖㦚 䃦 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) ferreted out a secret.” 㩚䢪₆⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(He) made a telephone.” ἶ₆⯒ ῂ㤢 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) roasted meat.” ⁞䞮ἶ 㦖㦚 ῂ⼚䟊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) made a distinction between gold and silver.” 5 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 ⁎⩺ ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) drew a picture.”

1 2 3 4

Exercise 5.3 1 2 3 4 5

㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. ㌂⧒Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ア⩺ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. ☞㦚 ┺ 㖾 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. 䅖ゞ㧊G✲⧒Ⱎ⯒G⊳₢㰖G⽦G⻚⪎㠊㣪. 㞺㰖ṖG㰗㧻㦚G㢄ỾG⻚⪎㠊㣪.

Exercise 5.4 1 2 3 4 5

㹾Ṗ ⡦ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “The car broke down again.” ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) shut the store door.” 䕢㧒㦚 㰖㤢 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) erased the file.” 䂲ῂṖ Ⓤ㣫㦒⪲ ⟶⋮ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(My) friend left for New York.” 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ ⋮㢖 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) came out from school.”

Exercise 5.5 1 2 3 4 5 236

⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. 㥚㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 ㌂⧧㦚 ἶ⺇䞮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. ἆῃ 㧒㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㞚㣪.


Exercise 5.6

Key to exercises

1 ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䡫䞮ἶ 㕎㤆ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Ronald ended up disputing with (his) older brother.” 2 ㌦ⰂṖG ⋾㧦G 䂲ῂ䞮ἶG 䠺㠊㰖ἶG Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Sally ended up breaking up with (her) boyfriend.” 3 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 䕪ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Terrence ended up selling (his) notebook.” 4 㞂❪ṖG ₎㠦㍲G ⹎⊚⩂㰖ἶG Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Cindy ended up sliding down on the road.” 5 㫆㞺㧊 㠎┞䞲䎢 䢪⌊ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Joan ended up getting mad at (her) older sister.”

Exercise 5.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䕆⋮ṖG䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒G☚㢖 㮂㠊㣪. 㡺ザṖGṖ⹿㦚G㌂G㮂㠊㣪. 㫊㧊 㹾⯒ 䕪㞚 㮂㠊㣪. ⲪỊ㧊 ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪. 㠎┞Ṗ ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䟊 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪. 㺛㦚 ア⩺ 㭒㎎㣪. 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ㼦 㭒㎎㣪. 㢍㦚 䢮⿞䟊 㭒㎎㣪. 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㼦 㭒㎎㣪. ⧒❪㡺⯒G䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪.

Exercise 5.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㺛㦚G㧓㠊G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) read a book (for her).” 䘎㰖⯒G㖾G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) wrote a letter (for her).” 㩚䢪⯒G⹱㞚G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) received the phone call (for her).” 㺓ⶎ㦚G╁㞚G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) shut the window (for him).” 㩚❇㦚G䅲G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) switched on the electric lamp (for her).” ⶎ㦚G㡊㠊G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) opened the door (for him).” 㢍㦚G⹪∪G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) changed the dress (for him).” ⏎⧮⯒G⿞⩂G✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) sang the song (for her).” 㩦㕂㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) made lunch (for him).” 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䅲 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) ordered coffee (for him).”

237


Key to exercises

Unit 6 Exercise 6.1 1 2 3 4 5

㑯㩲⯒ ⊳⌊ ⏩㦒㎎㣪. 㰖☚⯒ ⁎⩺ ⏩㦒㎎㣪. ㏢㓺⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⏩㦒㎎㣪. ⶒ㦚 ⊩㡂 ⏩㦒㎎㣪. ☞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⏩㦒㎎㣪.

Exercise 6.2 1 㩚䢪G ⻞䢎⯒G ₆㠋䟊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Remember the telephone number for later.” 2 㔶ⶎ㦚G㧓㠊G⚦㎎㣪. “Read newspapers for later.” 3 㫢㍳㦚G㡞㟓䟊G⚦㎎㣪. “Reserve a seat for later.” 4 㰖Ⰲ⯒G 㧋䡖G ⚦㎎㣪. “Make (yourself) familiar with the geographical features for later.” 5 㟒㺚⯒G㞑㠊G⚦㎎㣪. “Wash vegetables for later.”

Exercise 6.3 1 2 3 4 5

ⶎ㧊G╁䡖G㧞㠊㣪. ㌂㰚㧊G⼓㠦GỎ⩺ 㧞㠊㣪. ṖỢṖG㡊⩺G㧞㠊㣪. ㏦┮㧊G㏢䕢㠦G㞟㞚 㧞㠊㣪. 㩲㧚㓺ṖGⶎG㞴㠦 ㍲ 㧞㠊㣪.

Exercise 6.4 1 2 3 4 5

⻚㓺ṖG㢖G㧞㠊㣪. “Bus is here.” 㩫㤦㠦G↙㧊G䞒㠊 㧞㠊㣪. “Flowers are in bloom in the garden.” 䂲ῂṖG㰧㠦G㢖G㧞㠊㣪. “The friends are (here) home.” 䢮㧦ṖG䂾╖㠦G⑚㤢 㧞㠊㣪. “The patient is lying on the bed.” 㩚❇㧊Gℒ㪎G㧞㠊㣪. “The electric lamp is off.”

Exercise 6.5 1 2 3 4 5 238

䟟⽋䟊䟊㣪. ₆ㄦ䟊㣪. 㰖⬾䟊䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. 㤆㤎䟊䟞㠊㣪. ᾊ⪲㤢䟞㠊㣪.


Exercise 6.6 1 2 3 4 5

Key to exercises

▪㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels hot.” 㞚䕢䟊㣪. “(He) feels sore.” ἶⰞ㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels thankful.” ῗ⁞䟊䟊㣪. “(He) feels curious.” ⿖⩂㤢䟊㣪. “(He) envies.”

Exercise 6.7 1 2 3 4 5

ⲎⰂṖG㠊㰖⩂㤢㪢㠊㣪. ㎇ỿ㧊G㹾⿚䟊㪢㠊㣪. ⳿㏢ⰂṖG⿖✲⩂㤢㪢㠊㣪. ⴎ㧊G䔒䔒䟊㪢㠊㣪. 㹾ṖG▪⩂㤢㰞GỆ㡞㣪.

Exercise 6.8 1 2 3 4 5

㞚㧊㦮G䋺ṖG䄺㪢㠊㣪. “The child’s height has become tall.” 㩲㔲䃊ṖG㡞ㄦ㪢㠊㣪. “Jessica has become pretty.” 㦢㔳GṨ㧊G゚㕎㪢㠊㣪. “Food price has become expensive.” ⋶㝾ṖGⰧ㞚㪢㠊㣪. “The weather has become clear.” 㠒Ὴ㧊 ₢ⰺ㪢㠊㣪. “(My) face has become dark.”

Unit 7 Exercise 7.1 1 2 3 4 5

㏢䙂⯒G⹱㦒⩂G㤆㼊ῃ㠦G㡺㎎㣪. 㹾⯒Gἶ䂮⩂G㩫゚㏢㠦GṖἶG㧞㠊㣪. ⋰㔲㰞G䞮⩂G⹪╍Ṗ⪲Gṧ㔲┺. ゚䟟₆⯒G䌖⩂GὋ䟃㠦GṞGỆ㡞㣪. 䅊䜾䎆GỢ㧚㦚G䞮⩂G䂲ῂG㰧㠦 㧦㭒 Ṗ㎎㣪?

Exercise 7.2 1 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⩂ 㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to Starbucks to drink coffee.” 2 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖䞮⩂ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ㕃㔲㡺. “Go to the library to study for the test.” 3 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑㦒⩂ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am going to toilet to wash (my) face.” 4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦒⩂ 㭧ῃ 㔳╏㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the Chinese restaurant to have lunch.”

239


Key to exercises

5 䅖㧊䔎⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ Ὃ䟃㠦 ṧ┞₢? “Do (you) go to the airport to meet Kate?”

Exercise 7.3 1 2 3 4 5

㌊㦚 ヒ⩺ἶ 㤊☯䟊㣪. ㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ ㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲ ₆┺Ⰲἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. 㧊⻞ 㡂⯚㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ⩺ἶ ゚䟟₆䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟞㠊㣪. 䀾㰗䞮⩺ἶ ⏎⩻䞮ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪.

Exercise 7.4 1 ⋾䘎䞲䎢 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒⩺ἶ ㍶ⶒ㦚 ἶ⯊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am choosing a gift intending to give (it) to (my) husband for (his) birthday present.” 2 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮⩺ἶ ₆㹾 㡃㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the train station intending to leave for Paris.” 3 ṯ㧊 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦒⩺ἶ ⪲゚㠦㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺⩺㣪. “(I) wait for (my) friend at lobby intending to have lunch together.” 4 㕎Ợ 㹾⯒ ㌂⩺ἶ 䦻㩫㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am negotiating intending to buy the car at a cheap price.” 5 ☞㦚 ⻢⩺ἶ 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) had a side job intending to earn (some) money.”

Exercise 7.5 1 2 3 4 5

㺛㦚GアⰂ⩺ἶ 㟒㺚⯒G㌂⩺ἶ 㡂㧦G䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒⩺ἶ 䞯ᾦ㠦GゾⰂGṖ⩺ἶ ⋾㧦G䂲ῂ㦮GṖ㫇㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ

Exercise 7.6 1 2 3 4 5

Ⓤ㓺⯒G✺㦚G㑮G㧞☚⪳G⧒❪㡺⯒ 䅲 㭒㎎㣪. 㹾⯒G㝎G㑮G㧞☚⪳G䠞⧓䟊G㭒㎎㣪. Ịṫ㦚G䣢⽋䞶G㑮G㧞☚⪳G☚㢖 㭒㎎㣪. 䀾㰗䞶G㑮G㧞☚⪳G㿪㻲㍲⯒G㖾 㭒㎎㣪. 㧮G㑮G㧞☚⪳G㩚❇㦚GℒG㭒㎎㣪.

Exercise 7.7 240

1 㟆な⧖㓺ṖG㰖⋮ṞG㑮G㧞☚⪳G₎㦚G゚䅲G㭒㎎㣪. “Please get out of the way so that the ambulance can pass by.”


2 㫡㦖 㧎㌗㦚 㭚 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㤙㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please smile so that (you) can give (them) a good impression.” 3 㔲䠮㠦G⿯㦚G㑮G㧞☚⪳G㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Study hard so that (you) can pass the test.” 4 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋶ 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㞢⧢㦚 ⰴ㿪㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please set the alarm, so that (he) can get up early in the morning.” 5 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 䢒⌊ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please teach (him) a lesson, so that (he) can study hard.”

Key to exercises

Unit 8 Exercise 8.1 1 2 3 4 5

㡂䟟㌂㠦G㩚䢪䟊㍲G䟃Ὃ 㣪⁞㠦 ╖䟊㍲ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. 䞯ᾦ㠦GṖ㍲Gᾦ㑮┮㦚GⰢ⌂㠊㣪. ➎₆⯒G㞑㠊㍲Gⲏ㠞㠊㣪? ⁎ ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂㍲ 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒㎎㣪. 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢㍲ ㍲㤎㠦㍲ 䀾㰗䞿㔲┺.

Exercise 8.2 1 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㍲ 㤊☯䞶⧮㣪. “(I) will get up early in the morning and then exercise.” 2 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 Ṗ㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Go to (your) friend’s house and then cook.” 3 㠎㩲 Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㍲ ⷺ㔲䅂㦚 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to New York and then see a musical?” 4 ㍶ⶒ㦚 䙂㧻䟊㍲ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 ➢ 㮂㠊㣪. “(I) wrapped up the gift and then gave (it to her) at (her) birthday party.” 5 䕢䕆㠦 Ṗ㍲ 䦻ἏỢ ⏟㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the party and then play merrily.”

Exercise 8.3 1 2 3 4 5

ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䡖㍲ 㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪. 㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠊㍲ 㞚㰗 㩦㕂㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. ⺆Ṗ 㞚䕢㍲ 㰧㠦 㧒㹣 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪. ⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ ▪⩂㤢㍲ 㡺⓮ 㼃㏢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. ㌳㧒㧊㠊㍲ 㧒㹣 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪.

241


Key to exercises

Exercise 8.4 1 㠊㩲Ṗ 䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊㠊㍲ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. “Since yesterday was (my) friend’s birthday, (I) went to (his) birthday party.” 2 㧊 㔳╏ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㠊㍲ 㧦㭒 㢖㣪. “Since this restaurant’s food is delicious, (we) come (here) often.” 3 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㢖㍲ 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Since (it) snows much, (I) guess that (I) will not be able to go to school.” 4 Ṧ₆ Ỏ⩺㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Since (I) caught a cold, (I) am taking medicines.” 5 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠊㍲ ⹎㞞䞿┞┺. “(I) am sorry in that (I) am late for the appointment.”

Exercise 8.5 1 2 3 4 5

䄺䞒⯒ ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┞₢ ╖㔶 ⏏㹾⯒ ㌓㔲┺. 䑊⁒ 㔲Ṛ㧊┞₢ ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䧯┞┺. 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㦒┞₢ 㣿ỊⰢ Ⱖ䞮㕃㔲㡺. 䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┞₢ ⑚ῂ☚ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㔋┞┺. 㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺.

Exercise 8.6 1 ⌊㧒 ⹪㊮┞₢ ⳾⧮ 㩚䢪䞶Ợ㣪. “Since (I) am busy tomorrow, (I) will call (you) the day after tomorrow.” 2 ☚㍲ὖ㧊┞₢ 䋂Ợ 㧊㟒₆䞮㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺. “Since (here) is the library, do not talk aloud.” 3 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┞₢ 㟓㦚 ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪. “Since (my) head aches, please buy medicines (for me).” 4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㧊㌂䞮┞₢ 㡺㩚 _ 㔲₢㰖 㡺㎎㣪. “Since (we) move (into the new residence) tomorrow morning, come by 8 a.m.” 5 㦢㔳㧊 㕇Ệ㤆┞₢ ㏢⁞㦚 ⍹㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Since the food is watery, put (some) salt in (it).” 6 ▪㤆┞₢ 㠦㠊䆮㦚G 䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Since (it) is hot, please turn on the air conditioner.” 7 㧊㩲 Ἵ 䞒㧦Ṗ ☚㹿䞮┞₢ 㫆⁞ ▪ ₆┺Ⱃ㔲┺. “Since the pizza will arrive (here) soon, (let us) wait a little more.”

Exercise 8.7

242

1 2 3 4 5

ⰻ㭒⯒ ㌂ⓦ⧒ἶ ☞㦚 ┺ 㗒㠊㣪. 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㞚㰗 䑊⁒㦚 ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. 㡺⧮ 䐋䢪䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 ṯ㧊 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. ☯㩚㦚 ⍹ⓦ⧒ἶ 㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪. 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ⓦ⧒ἶ ⓼㠞㠊㣪.


Exercise 8.8

Key to exercises

1 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ ⹺㦚 ㌞㤶㠊㣪. “(I) stayed up all night because of doing (my) homework.” 2 ⧒❪㡺⯒ ✹ⓦ⧒ἶ 㽞㧎㫛 ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ✺㠞㠊㣪. “(I) could not hear the doorbell sound because of listening to the radio.” 3 ㌂⧒⯒ ₆┺Ⰲⓦ⧒ἶ ⓼㠞㠊㣪? “Were (you) late waiting for Sarah?” 4 ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ⲏ㔋┞┺. “(I) do not eat dinner much because (I) am on diet.” 5 㦖䟟㦚 㺔ⓦ⧒ἶ ㌂⧢✺䞲䎢 ⶒ㠊⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) was asking people because (I) was looking for a bank.”

Unit 9 Exercise 9.1 1 2 3 4 5

㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㦒Ⳋ ア䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞Ⳋ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌧㔲┺. ゚㕎Ⳋ ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪? ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮Ⳋ ₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪. 㧊㟒₆䟞㦒Ⳋ 䢪⌞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.

Exercise 9.2 1 ⺆Ṗ 㞚䝚Ⳋ ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪. “If (your) stomach hurts, go to hospital.” 2 ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤆Ⳋ 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲Ỷ㠊㣪. “If the weather is too cold, (I) will turn on the heater.” 3 ⳾⯊Ⳋ ⶒ㠊 ⽊㎎㣪. “If (you) do not know, try asking (someone).” 4 ▪㤆Ⳋ 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡓㔲┺. “If (it) is hot, (let us) open the window.” 5 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞮Ⳋ ⑚ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪? “When (you) need help, who do (you) call?”

Exercise 9.3 1 2 3 4 5

Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ⹱㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. ⩞✲ 㢖㧎㦚 㔲䋺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. 㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. ☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⻢Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.

243


Key to exercises

Exercise 9.4 1 ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) roommate is a Korean.” 2 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㥶䞯ṖⳊ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) go abroad for study to Canada.” 3 㰗㧻㧊 㰧㠦㍲ Ṗ₢㤆Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) place of work is near from home.” 4 ⌊㧒 ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that tomorrow’s weather is warm.” 5 ⋾䘎㧊 㧒㹣 㧦Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) husband goes to bed early.” 6 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ₖᾦ㑮┮㧊 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that Professor Kim teaches next semester.” 7 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) boyfriend quits smoking.” 8 ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ ⹱㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) receive a notebook for (my) birthday present.”

Exercise 9.5 1 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊⩺Ⳋ ⌚゚Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to boil water, (you) need a pot.” 2 㧊 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦒⩺Ⳋ 㡞㟓䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If (you) intend to have dinner in this restaurant, make a reservation.” 3 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ⩺Ⳋ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌖㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to go to hospital, take a subway.” 4 ⹎ῃ㠦 㧛ῃ䞮⩺Ⳋ ゚㧦⯒ ⹱㞚㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to enter the States, (you) have to receive a visa.” 5 㧊 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮⩺Ⳋ ╖䞯 㫎㠛㧻㦚 㩲㿲䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to get employed in this company, submit (your) college diploma.” 6 ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊 㑒⯒ ⽊⩺Ⳋ Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend to see a Broadway show, (you) must go to New York.” 7 䎢┞㓺⯒G 䂮⩺ⳊG Ὃ䞮ἶG ⧒䅩㧊G 䞚㣪䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to play tennis, (you) need a ball and a racket.” 8 䢪㧻㔺㦚 ㌂㣿䞮⩺Ⳋ 㣪⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to use a toilet, pay the fee.”

Exercise 9.6

244

1 2 3 4 5

䘎㰖⯒G㧓㦒ⳊG㧓㦚㑮⪳ 䢪Ṗ ⋮㣪. ⋶㝾ṖG䦦ⰂⳊG䦦Ⰺ㑮⪳ 㿪㤢㣪. 㔲Ṛ㧊G㰖⋮ⳊG㰖⋶㑮⪳ 㡱⋶㧊 ⁎Ⰲ㤢㣪. 䋂ⳊG䋊㑮⪳G゚㕢㠊㣪. ⁎G㺛㦚G㧓㦒ⳊG㧓㦚㑮⪳ 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪.


Exercise 9.7

Key to exercises

1 䞲ῃ㠦 ㌊Ⳋ ㌊㑮⪳ 㫡㞚㣪. “The more (I) live in Korea, the better (it) is.” 2 ㌂⧢✺㦚 Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ Ⱒ⋶㑮⪳ 䞒Ἲ䞿┞┺. “The more (I) meet people, the more tired (I) am.” 3 ☞㦚 㝆Ⳋ 㝎㑮⪳ 䞚㣪䞿┞┺. “The more (I) spend money, the more (I) need (it).” 4 㡂䟟㦚 䞮Ⳋ 䞶㑮⪳ Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤎 Ệ㡞㣪. “The more (you) travel, the more (you) will learn.” 5 ⹪㊮ⳊG ⹪㊶㑮⪳G ỊṫG 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪. “The busier (you) are, take more care of (your) health.”

Exercise 9.8 1 2 3 4 5

㞚₆Ṗ 㤎Ệ✶ 㞚₆⯒ 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪. ⰱ㧞Ệ✶ ▪ 㔲䌋㔲┺. 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 䔎Ⰲ⯒ Ⱒ✺Ệ✶ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㦒㎎㣪. 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ệ✶ 䕢䕆㠦 㡺㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. ⋮㭧㠦 ⲪⰂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮Ệ✶ Ⲫ㎎㰖⯒ 㩚䟊 㭣㔲┺.

Exercise 9.9 1 㿪㻲㍲Ṗ 䞚㣪䞮Ệ✶ 㩖䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) need a recommendation letter, contact me.” 2 ⡦ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚Ệ✶ 㟓㦚 ✲㎎㣪. “If (your) head aches again, take medicines.” 3 ệ㩫ỆⰂṖ 㧞Ệ✶ Ⱖ䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) have a source of anxiety, talk (to me).” 4 㕂㕂䞮Ệ✶ {} ⽊㎎㣪. “If (you) feel bored, watch TV.” 5 ⼧㤦㠦 ṖỆ✶ ⹫㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪. “If (you) go to the hospital, meet Dr. Park.”

Exercise 9.10 1 2 3 4 5 6

㩦㕂㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) ate lunch late, you know.” ⳿㧊 㞚䝚Ệ✶㣪. “(My) throat hurts, you know.” ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) am on diet, you know.” ☞㧊 㠜Ệ✶㣪. “(I) do not have money, you know.” 㑶㦚 ⴑ Ⱎ㔲Ệ✶㣪. “(I) cannot drink alcohol, you know.” ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞮Ệ✶㣪. “The size was small, you know.”

245


Key to exercises

Exercise 9.11 1 2 3 4 5

㡂㧦G䂲ῂṖG䟟⽋䟊㟒G㩖☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪. ㎎㧒㦚G䟊㟒G㌊G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. 㡊㕂䧞GὋ⿖䟊㟒G㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. 㧒㦚G⁎Ⱒ⛂㟒G㡂䟟㦚G䞶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. ╊⺆⯒G⊠㠊㟒G⼧㧊G⋮㦚G㑮 㧞㠊㣪.

Exercise 9.12 1 㔲䠮㦚 㧮 ⽦㟒 ⻫╖㠦 ✺㠊Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) do well on the test, (you) can enter law school.” 2 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䟊㟒 䞯゚⯒ ⌒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (I) do a side job, (I) can pay (my) tuition.” 3 㩖⁞㦚 䟊㟒 ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (we) save money, (we) can buy a new sofa.” 4 䕢Ⰲ㠦GṖ㟒G㠦䗶䌖㤢⯒G⽒G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) go to Paris, (you) can see Eiffel Tower.” 5 䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㦚GⰢ⋮㟒G㺛㦚G⹱㦚G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) meet Christine, (you) can receive the book.”

Unit 10 Exercise 10.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㤊☯䞿┞┺. 㧊⯒ ┼ἶ 㧦㣪. ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 Ⲓ㩖 ⶒ㠊 ⽊ἶ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 ṧ┞₢? 㡞㟓㦚 䞮ἶ ⟶⋿㔲┺. ╖䞯ᾦ⯒ 㫎㠛䞮ἶ 䀾㰗䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪. 㑮㧪㦖 ⑞㧊 䋂ἶ 㫆㣿䟊㣪. 䕖㦖 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 㫡ἶ 㥶ⲎṖ 㧞㠊㣪. 㞺✲⮮⓪ Ἆ㏦䞮ἶ ⿖㰖⩆䟊㣪.

Exercise 10.2

246

1 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮ἶ 㢍㦚 Ṟ㞚 㧛㦒㎎㣪. “Wash (your) face and then change (your) clothes.” 2 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧎䎆⎍㦚 㝆Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will do (my) homework and then use the internet.” 3 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) take a shower and then eat dinner.” 4 䋺Ṗ 䋂ἶ 㠒Ὴ㧊 㧧㞮㠊㣪 “(His) height was tall and (his) face was small.” 5 㫊㧊 ZX ㌊㧊ἶ 㦮㌂㧛┞┺. “John is 31 years old and (he) is a doctor.”


Exercise 10.3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Key to exercises

䙊㦮 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 䋂Ⳇ ⿖✲⩓㔋┞┺. 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ὒ䞯㧦㧊Ⳇ ⹲ⳛṖ㧛┞┺. 㥂❪Ṗ ⺆㤆㧊Ⳇ Ṗ㑮㧛┞┺. 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ㦒Ⳇ ㍶㍶䞿┞┺. ⁎ 䞯ᾦṖ 㫡㦒Ⳇ 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺. ₆㹾Ṗ 㞞㩚䞮Ⳇ 䘎䞿┞┺.

Exercise 10.4 1 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳇ 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Terrence is reading newspapers, drinking coffee.” 2 ⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊Ⳇ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “Grace ate dinner, watching TV.” 3 Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳇ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪. “Richard sees a movie, eating popcorn.” 4 㠦㓺▪Ṗ ➖㦚 䦮ⰂⳆ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Esther is playing tennis, sweating.” 5 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ 㤎Ⳇ ㏢Ⰲ 㰞⩖㠊㣪. “Robert shouted crying.” 6 ┞䆲㧊 ⋶㞂䞮Ⳇ 㹿䟊㣪. “Nicole is slender and tenderhearted.” 7 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ 㡞㊮Ⳇ ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㞚㣪. “Clara is pretty and (her) personality is good.” 8 ⪲⧒⓪ ⲎⰂṖ ₎Ⳇ 䂲㩞䟞㠊㣪. “As for Laura, (her) hair was long, and (she) was nice.” 9 ㍲㤎㦖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦ⰂⳆ ゚Ṗ 㡺Ỷ㠊㣪. “As for Seoul, the weather will be cloudy and rain may fall.” 10 㧊 ⹿㧊 䋂Ⳇ 㔲㤦䟊㣪. “This room is big and cool.”

Exercise 10.5 1 2 3 4 5

⿖㧦㧊Ệ⋮ Ệ㰖㧊Ệ⋮ 㩲 䡫㧊㠦㣪. 㠊⪋Ệ⋮ 㓓Ệ⋮ 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪. 㡺Ệ⋮ 㞞 㡺Ệ⋮ ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. ア⩺㭒Ệ⋮ 㞞 ア⩺㭒Ệ⋮ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. 㨂⹎㧞Ệ⋮ 㨂⹎㠜Ệ⋮ ⁎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ┺㔲 ⽊㕃㔲㡺.

Exercise 10.6 1 ⽊䐋 㠎㩲 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 㣎㔳㦚 䞿┞₢? “When (do) you usually see movies or dine out?” 2 ↙㦚 ㌂Ệ⋮ 䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✲㕃㔲㡺. “Buy flowers or make cakes.” 3 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮Ệ⋮ 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䟊㣪. “In the morning, (I) jog or do yoga.”

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Key to exercises

4 䡚⁞㦒⪲ ⌊Ệ⋮ 䃊✲⪲ 㰖⿞䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will pay by cash or defray by a card.” 5 ㌆㦒⪲ ṖỆ⋮ ⹪╍Ṗ⪲ ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to mountains or beach.”

Exercise 10.7 1 2 3 4 5

㩦㕂㦚Gⲏ✶㰖G䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔺GỆ㡞㣪. 㰧㠦GṖ✶㰖G䄺䞒㑣㠦Gṧ㔲┺. ㌂ὒG㭒㓺⯒GⰞ㔲✶㰖G䏶Ⱎ䏶 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪. 㞷㎮G㡗䢪⯒G⽊✶㰖GὋ䙂G㡗䢪⯒ ⽛㔲┺. 㿻✶㰖G▻✶㰖G䎢┞㓺⯒G䂶GỆ㡞㣪.

Exercise 10.8 1 2 3 4 5

䆲⧒⯒G㌂✶㰖G㭒㓺⯒G㌂Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will buy cola or juice.” ㏢ἶ₆⯒Gⲏ✶㰖G♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) eat beef or pork.” 䄺䞒⯒GⰞ㔲✶㰖G䅖㧊䋂⯒Gⲏ㠊㣪. “Drink coffee or eat cake.” ⋶㝾ṖG䦦Ⰲ✶㰖G㿪㤎GỆ㡞㣪. “The weather will be cloudy or cold.” 㔶ⶎ㦚G 㧓✶㰖G {}G ⯒G ⽒G Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will read newspapers or watch TV.”

Unit 11 Exercise 11.1 1 2 3 4 5

㤎Ⳋ㍲ 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. 㡂䟟㦚 䞮Ⳋ㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂„ Ệ㡞㣪? 㧒㠊⋮Ⳋ㍲ 䂾╖㠦㍲ ⟾㠊㰖㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺. 㣪Ⰲ䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㩧㔲⯒ ₾⥾Ⰲ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖Ⳋ㍲ ⍮㠊㪢㔋┞₢?

Exercise 11.2 1 䐆䞮ἶ 㩲ⰂṖ 㤙㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Tom and Jerry are talking, smiling.” 2 㓺䕆ぢṖ 㺛㦚 㧓㦒Ⳋ㍲ 䢒㧦 㭧㠒Ệ⩺㣪. “Steve murmurs alone, while reading a book.” 3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 㧦Ⳋ㍲ 䆪⯒ Ἶ㞮㠊㣪. “Lewis snored, while sleeping.” 4 䟊ⰂṖ ⏎⧮⯒ 䞮Ⳋ㍲ ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪. “Harry takes a shower, singing.” 5 㫆❪Ṗ ₎㦚 Ỏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ ⶊ㠎Ṗ 㺔ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “Jodie was looking for something, while walking on the road.” 248


Exercise 11.3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Key to exercises

䀾㰗䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ἆ䢒䞮ἶ 㕌㔋┞┺. ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㤎㠞㠊㣪. 䂾╖㠦 ⑫㧦Ⱎ㧦 䆪⯒ Ἶ Ệ㡞㣪. ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪? ⩆▮㠦 ☚㹿䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⑚⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺. 㡗䢪ὖ㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ㧦Ⱎ㧦 䕳䆮㦚 ㌓㔲┺.

Exercise 11.4 1 㧒㠊⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞿┞┺. “(I) wash (my) face as soon as (I) get up.” 2 ㌞G㰧㦒⪲G㧊㌂⯒G䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦G㭒㏢⯒G⹪∾㠊㣪. “(I) changed (my) address as soon as (I) moved to the new house.” 3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㹾⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) buy a car as soon as (you) graduate from college?” 4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㧦Ⱎ㧦 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) order coffee as soon as (we) eat lunch.” 5 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㟧䂮㰞㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Brush (your) teeth as soon as (you) wash (your) face.”

Exercise 11.5 1 2 3 4 5

䎪⩞゚㩚㦚G⽊┺ṖG㧺㠊㣪. 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦㍲G㟒㺚⯒G㌂┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ㢖GⰞ㭒㼺㠊㣪. ⶎ㦚G㡊┺ṖG㏦⳿㦚G┺㼺㠊㣪. ⏣ῂ⯒G䞮┺ṖG⹲⳿㦚G㋦㠞㠊㣪. 䘎㰖⯒G㝆┺ṖG䢪㧻㔺㠦GṪ㠊㣪.

Exercise 11.6 㔶ⶎ㦚G㧓┺ṖG㫎㞮㠊㣪. “As (I) read newspapers, (I) dozed off.” 㡗䢪⯒G⽊┺ṖG㤎㠞㠊㣪. “As (I) saw the movie, (I) cried.” 㡺⯎㴓㦒⪲GṖ┺ṖGⲞ㿪㎎㣪. “Go to the right side and then stop.” Ἒ┾㦚G 㢂⧒Ṗ┺ṖG ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪? “Did (you) fall as (you) went up the stairs?” 5 ⑚ṖG 㣪Ⰲ⯒G 䞮┺ṖG 㩧㔲⯒G ⃒㠊㣪? “Who broke dishes while cooking?” 1 2 3 4

249


Key to exercises

Exercise 11.7 1 2 3 4 5 6

㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ╖䞯㠦 ⴑ ✺㠊Ṗ㣪. ╊⺆⯒ Ἒ㏣ 䞒㤆┺Ṗ⓪ 㞪㠦 ỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. ὒ㏣㦚 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. 㡆⧓㦚 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ㍲⪲ 㧠㠊 ⻚Ⰺ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. Ἒ㏣ Ệ㩞䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ₆䣢⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. ⰺ㧒 㥚㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺Ṗ⓪ 㞢䆲 㭧☛㧦Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪.

Exercise 11.8 1 㧦₆G㩚㠦GⰤ㧊Gⲏ┺Ṗ⓪G㌊㹪GỆ㡞㣪. “If (she) eats a lot before going to bed, (she) may gain weight.” 2 Ἒ㏣ ⏖┺Ṗ⓪ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) continue to play, (you) can fail the test.” 3 ☞Ⱒ 㝆┺Ṗ⓪ Ệ㰖Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪. “If (he) only spends money, (he may) become a beggar.” 4 㡊㕂䧞 㧒㦚 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ 䣢㌂㠦㍲ 㴩Ỿ⋶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) do not work hard, (you) can be expelled out from the company.” 5 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺Ṗ⓪ ⺆䌞⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “If (he) eats a lot, (he) may have a stomachache.”

Unit 12 Exercise 12.1 1 2 3 4 5

™㦚 㞏ἶ 㧞⓪◆ 㧊Ṗ 㞚䕢㣪. ₎㦚 㼃㏢䞮ἶ 㧞⓪◆ ☚㢖 㭚⧮㣪? ㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂㟒 䞮⓪◆ ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺. 㠊㩲 㠦Ⰳ㦚 Ⱒ⌂⓪◆ 㩚䞮ἶ ⡧ṯ㞮㠊㣪. Ὃ⿖⯒ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞⓪◆ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪.

Exercise 12.2

250

1 ⿖㠢㦚 㑮Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧞⓪◆ ゚㕎㣪. “(They) are repairing the kitchen, but (it) is expensive.” 2 㰖⁞ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪◆ ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺. “(I) am going to school now, and (let us) go together.” 3 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊ἶ 㧞⓪◆ Ⱎ㔺⧮㣪? “(I) am boiling water, and will (you) drink (it)?” 4 ⺇䢪㩦㠦 Ṫ⓪◆ ㌂⧢✺㧊 ⍞ⶊ Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) went to the department store, and there were too many people.” 5 㰖⋲G㭒㠦G㏢䙂⯒G⿖㼺⓪◆G☚㹿䟞㠊㣪? “(I) mailed the package last week, and did (it) arrive (there)?”


Exercise 12.3 1 2 3 4 5

Key to exercises

㧧⎚㠦 䞯㌳㧊㠞⓪◆ 㧊㩲 ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪. 㩚㠦 ㌂⧢✺㧊 Ⱔ㞮⓪◆ 㧊㩲 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪. 㠊㩲⓪ ▪㤶⓪◆ 㡺⓮㦖 ㍶㍶䟊㣪. Ṩ㦖 㕢⓪◆ 㟧㧊 㩗㠞㠊㣪. ⋶㝾Ṗ ⋮ナ⓪◆ ㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪.

Exercise 12.4 1 ₆䌖⯒G⺆㤆ἶG㕌㦖◆Gṯ㧊G⺆㤗㔲┺. “(I) want to learn (how to play) a guitar, and (let us) learn (it) together.” 2 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝞◆ 㟓 㧞㠊㣪? “(My) head aches, and do (you) have medicines?” 3 Ṗ⹿㧊 ⶊỆ㤊◆ ☚㢖 㭒㔺⧮㣪? “The bag is heavy, and will (you) help (me)?” 4 㞺✲⮮⓪G⹎ῃG㌂⧢㧎◆G㓺䗮㧎㠊☚G㧮G䟊㣪. “As for Andrew, (he) is an American, but (he) also speaks Spanish well.” 5 㣪㯞㦢 ⶊ㻯 ⹪㊲◆ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㡆⧓㭒㎎㣪. “(I) am very busy nowadays, so contact (me) next week.”

Exercise 12.5 1 2 3 4 5

⌊㧒㦖 㫖 ⹪㊲◆㣪. 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⲏἶ 㕌㦖◆㣪. \ ╂⧒⹬㠦 㠜⓪◆㣪. 㞚㰗 㦢㔳㧊 㞞 ⋮㢪⓪◆㣪. 㔲⊚⩂㤊◆㣪.

Exercise 12.6 1 2 3 4 5

㡗㠊 ㍶㌳┮㧎◆☚ 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪. 㟧㧊 㩗㦖◆☚ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪. 㤪 㧊 Ⱔ㦖◆☚ ⁎Ⱒ⚮ Ệ㡞㣪. 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶⓪◆☚ 䞿ỿ䟞㠊㣪. Ṗ⋲䟞⓪◆☚ 䟟⽋䟞㠊㣪.

Exercise 12.7 1 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞⓪◆☚ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪. “Although (I) took medicines, (my) head aches.” 2 ⶒ㦚G ⚦G 䅋㧊⋮G Ⱎ㎾⓪◆☚G ⳿Ⱖ⧒㣪? “(You) drank as many as two cups of water, but are (you) thirsty?” 3 ⁎ 㹾Ṗ ゚㕒◆☚ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “Although that car is expensive, (I) will buy (it).”

251


Key to exercises

4 䧞䎆⯒ 䆆⓪◆☚ ⹿㧊 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “Although (I) turned on the heater, the room was cold.” 5 ☞㧊 㠜㠞⓪◆☚ ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪. “Although (I) did not have money, (I) wanted to go to Seoul.”

Unit 13 Exercise 13.1 1 2 3 4 5

◆㧊ぢṖ ㍲㤎㠦 㧞㰖Ⱒ ⹪⹪⧒䞲䎢 ⰺ㧒 㩚䢪䟊㣪. Ṗ⹿㧊 䋂㰖Ⱒ Ṗ⼒㤢㣪. ṯ㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌㰖Ⱒ 㟓㏣㧊 㧞㠊㣪. ⌊㧒 㔲䠮㦚 ⽒ Ệ㰖Ⱒ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪. 㡂⯚㠦 ▻㤶㰖Ⱒ Ỿ㤎㠦 㿪㤶㠊㣪.

Exercise 13.2 1 䞲ῃ㠊⓪ 㠊⪋㰖Ⱒ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “Although Korean is difficult, (it) is interesting.” 2 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ 㥶䞯㦚 Ṗἶ 㕌㰖Ⱒ ❇⪳⁞➢ⶎ㠦 ệ㩫♒㣪. “Although (I) want to study abroad in America, (I) feel uneasy because of tuition.” 3 ἶ₆⯒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖Ⱒ 㧦㭒 ⲏ㰖 ⴑ 䟊㣪. “Although (I) like meat, (I) cannot eat (it) often.” 4 㡗ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䟞㰖Ⱒ 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪. “Although (I) majored in English literature, (I) cannot speak English well.” 5 㽞╖㧻㦚 ⽊⌞㰖Ⱒ 㞞 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Although (I) sent an invitation, (it) seems that (he) will not come.”

Exercise 13.3 1 2 3 4 5

䞲ῃ㠊⯒G㧒⎚G⺆㤶㦒⋮G㞚㰗 㠊⩺㤢㣪. 䞲G㔲ṚG₆┺⪎㦒⋮G㞞G㢪㠊㣪. 㡺ザ䞮ἶG┺䒲㦒⋮G⁞⹿G䢪䟊 䟞㠊㣪. Ệ㔺㧊G⍩㦒⋮G⿖㠢㧊G㫗㞚㣪. ⹿㧊G₾⊭䞮⋮G㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪.

Exercise 13.4 1 ⩞㧊Ⲓ✲⓪ 䋺Ṗ 䋂⋮ ⤇⤇䟊㣪. “As for Raymond, (his) height is tall, but (he) is chubby.” 2 㫆㰖⓪ 䢲⹲䞮⋮ ◆㧊キ㦖 ⌊㎇㩗㧊㠦㣪. “As for George, (he) is active, but as for David, (he) is introverted.” 252


3 ⺇䢪㩦㧊 Ṗ₢㤆⋮ 㰖䞮㻶 㡃㧊 Ⲗ㠊㣪. “The department store is near, but the subway station is far.” 4 䌳㔲Ṗ 䘎䞮⋮ ゚㕎㣪. “Taxi is convenient, but (it) is expensive.” 5 㦢㔳㦖 㕢㦒⋮ ㍲゚㓺Ṗ ⋮ナ㠊㣪. “As for food, (it) was cheap, but the service was bad.”

Key to exercises

Exercise 13.5 1 2 3 4 5

㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㦒⋮ ⰱ㠜㦒⋮ ┺ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. 㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤆⋮ 㠊⩺㤆⋮ ⽦㟒 䟊㣪. 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮⋮ 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮⋮ ⰺ㧒 䞮㕃㔲㡺. 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ⋮ 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ⋮ ゚㧦Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪. ♒㰖ἶ₆⋮ ㏢ἶ₆⋮ ┺ ゚㕎㣪.

Exercise 13.6 1 2 3 4 5

䧞䎆⯒ 䅲☚ 㡂㩚䧞 㿪㤢㣪. ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤶㠊☚ Ịṫ䟞㠊㣪. Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠊☚ ㌊㧊 㞞 㳚㣪. ⚦ 㔲Ṛ㦚 ₆┺⪎㠊☚ 㡆⧓㧊 㠜㠞㠊㣪. 㞚䕢☚ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.

Exercise 13.7 1 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㠊⩺☚ 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪. “Even if Emily is young, (she) is tall.” 2 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤢☚ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪. “Even if Korean food is spicy, (it) is delicious.” 3 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ Ợ㦚⩂☚ ⡧⡧䟊㣪. “Even if Robert is lazy, (he) is smart.” 4 㢍㧊 ゚㕎☚ ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪. “Even if the dress was expensive, (I) wanted to buy (it).” 5 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞚☚ ‖㡂㤶㠊㣪. “Even if the size was small, (it) was cute.”

Unit 14 Exercise 14.1 1 2 3 4 5

䞒䎆㦮G㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕㠊☚ ♒㣪. ⌊G䅊䜾䎆⯒G㖾☚ ♒㣪. 㠦㠊䆮㦚G䔖㠊☚ ♒㣪. 㩚❇㦚Gℒ☚G♒㣪. ⶎ㦚G╁㞚☚G♒㣪. 253


Key to exercises

Exercise 14.2 1 2 3 4 5

㧊㩲G䑊⁒䟊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may go home now.” ⑞㦚G⟶☚G♒㣪. “(You) may open (your) eyes.” 㠒Ὴ㦚G㞑㠊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may wash (your) face.” ㏦㦚G㧷㞚☚G♒㣪. “(You) may hold (her) hand.” ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may take a shower.”

Exercise 14.3 1 2 3 4 5

㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪. ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪. 㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.

Exercise 14.4 1 ῃ㧊 㕇Ệ㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the soup is watery.” 2 ⹮㺂㧊 㰲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if side dishes are salty.” 3 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the movie is uninteresting.” 4 ⹿㧊 㧧㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the room is small.” 5 ₎㧊 㫗㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the road is narrow.”

Exercise 14.5 1 2 3 4 5

㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. ㌂ⶊ㔺㦚 㼃㏢䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 㰧㠦 㧞㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.

Exercise 14.6 㔲䠮GὋ⿖⯒G䞮㰖G㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must study for the test.” 㧒㦚G㔲㧧䞮㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must begin (my) work.” ㏦㦚G㞑㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G♒㣪. “(You) must wash (your) hands.” ⌊㧒G 㞚䂾G 㧒㹣G 㧒㠊⋮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must get up early tomorrow morning.” 5 㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞⯒ ➆㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must obtain a driver’s license.” 1 2 3 4

254


Exercise 14.7 1 2 3 4 5

Key to exercises

㦮㌂㧊㠊㟒G♒㣪. 㥶┞䙒㦚G㧛㠊㟒 ♒㣪. ☞㦚G⻢㠊㟒G♒㣪. 㠒Ὴ㦚G㞑㠊㟒G♒㣪. ⼧㤦㠦GṖ㟒G♒㣪.

Exercise 14.8 1 2 3 4 5

㡂䟟 Ṗ⹿㦚 㕎㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must pack a travel bag.” 㩚₆㎎⯒ ⌊㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must pay for electricity bill.” ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㟒 ♿┞┺. “The weather has to be good.” Ṗỿ㧊 㕎㟒 ♿┞┺. “The price has to be cheap.” ἶ❇䞯㌳㧊⧒㟒 ♿┞┺. “(He) has to be a high-school student.”

Exercise 14.9 1 2 3 4

㝆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 䑊⁒䟊☚ ♒㣪. ╁㞚☚ ♒㣪. 䌖Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.

Exercise 14.10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㩖₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤢☚ ♒㣪. ⹿㠦㍲ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊☚ ♒㣪. 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 㞞 ✺㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 䆪䔎⯒ 㞞 ㌂Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 䋆㏢Ⰲ⪲ Ⱖ䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 㞞㩚 ⻾䔎⯒ ⰺ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. 㡂₆㠦 㭒㹾䟊㟒 ♒㣪. 䕢Ⰲ⯒ ⟶⋮㟒 ♒㣪. ⌟㧻ἶ⯒ 㡊Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. ⁎Ⱂ㦚 Ⱒ㰖Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.

Unit 15 Exercise 15.1 1 a 䕪㞚㣪. 2 a ✺㠞㠊㣪. 3 a ⏩㦚₢㣪?

b 䕪⩺㣪. b ✺⩺㣪. b ⏩㡂 㧞㠊㣪. 255


Key to exercises

Exercise 15.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㢂Ⰲぢ ₆⯚Ⱒ 㝗┞┺. 㧊 䛣㍶㧊 ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 㝆㡂㣪. ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞚㣪? ⶎ㧊 ⹪⧢㠦 ╁䡪㠊㣪. 㮦⯒ 㧷㞮㠊㣪. ☚⚧㧊 ἓ㺆䞲䎢 㧷䡪㠊㣪. ⳾₆Ṗ ⶒ㠊㣪. 㫊㧊 ⳾₆䞲䎢 Ⱔ㧊 ⶒ⪎㠊㣪. 㞚₆Ṗ 㤎Ⳋ 㞞㦒㎎㣪 (or 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪). 㞚₆Ṗ 㞚ザ䞲䎢 㞞ἒ㠊㣪.

Exercise 15.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(I) heap a desk with books. Because of the stress, stress is piled up. (I) removed the laundry from a clothes-line. Fortunately, fog was lifted up. The bear bit a fish. (I) was bitten by mosquitoes. Please sell (it) at a cheap price. Sweaters are sold well. Please hang up the phone first. The electricity is disconnected due to rain.

Exercise 15.4 1 2 3 4 5

₾㤗┞┺. 㧛䧯┞┺. 㔶ₗ┞┺. 㞟䧯┞┺. 㨂㤗┞┺.

Exercise 15.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 256

㞚㧊⯒G㤎Ⰲ㰖GⰞ㎎㣪. 㥶┞䙒㦚G㧛䡪㠊㣪? 䞯㌳✺㦚G㤙ỾG㭒㎎㣪 㩖⯒G]G㔲㠦G₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪. ⶒ㦚G⊩㡂G㭒㎎㣪. 㞚₆⯒G䂾╖㠦G⑫䧞㎎㣪. ἶ₆⯒G䌲㤆㰖GⰞ㎎㣪.


Exercise 15.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Key to exercises

What shall (we) eat today? Susan feeds a cat. Peter sleeps about 7 hours everyday. Usually (my) older sister put the child to sleep around 8 o’clock. Chris often wears jeans. Please dress (him) a T-shirt. Please sit in the back. Please make Andrew sit in the front row. Don’t take off (your) sweater. Please undress (his) jacket.

Exercise 15.7 1 2 3 4 5

ῃ㦚 ⱋỢ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. ⹿㦚 ➆⦑䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. 㭒㥚⯒ 㠊⚷Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. Ⰲ㌂⯒ 䟟⽋䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪. ⿖㧎㦚 ₆㊮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.

Exercise 15.8 1 2 3 4 5

Please Please Please Please Please

make make make make make

(your) presentation longer. (it) delicious (for me). (it) cheap (for me). (him/her) drink coffee. (him/her) chew a gum.

Unit 16 Exercise 16.1 1 2 3 4 5

㡞㊲ ❪㧦㧎 䞲ῃ㠦㍲G㩲㧒G㥶ⳛ䞲Gὖὧ㰖 䞲ῃ㠦㍲G㩲㧒G㧎₆㧞⓪G⺆㤆 㩲㧒 ゚㕒 㔲Ἒ ₊ ⲎⰂ

Exercise 16.2 1 㧊 㰧㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㫆㣿䞲 ⹿ “the quietest room in this house” 2 ◆┞㠮㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌㦖 䞯ᾦ “the school Daniel wants to go to” 3 㩲㧒 㞚⯚┺㤊 ㎂ “the most beautiful island”

257


Key to exercises

4 ⹎ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 ⏨㦖 ㌆ “the highest mountain in the U.S.A.” 5 㩲㧒 㕒 㢍 “the cheapest clothes”

Exercise 16.3 1 2 3 4 5

䞒䎆Ṗ 㣪㯞㦢 㧓⓪ 㺛 Ỿ㤎㠦 㯦₆⓪ 㓺䙂䁶 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊 ⰺ㧒 ⲏ⓪ 㦢㔳 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㧒䞮⓪ ṖỢ 㠎┞Ṗ ㌂‖⓪ ⋾㧦

Exercise 16.4 1 2 3 4 5

䂲ῂṖ ㌂⓪ ὒ㧒 “the fruit which (my) friend buys” 㔲䃊ἶ㠦㍲ Ṟ㞚䌖⓪ ₆㹾 “the train that (I) change at Chicago” 䡫㧊 ㌂⓪ 㞚䕢䔎 “the apartment where (my) older brother lives” ⑚⋮Ṗ 㝆⓪ 䅊䜾䎆 “the computer which (my) older sister uses” ⌊Ṗ ṯ㧊 㧒䞮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person that I work with”

Exercise 16.5 1 2 3 4 5

ṯ㧊 㹣㦖 ㌂㰚 㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ⽎ 㡗䢪 㠊㩲 ⹪− 㢍 㞚䂾㠦 Ⱎ㔶 㤆㥶 㡺䤚㠦 䕦 ⶒỊ

Exercise 16.6 1 2 3 4 5

㠊㩲 ⿖⯎ ⏎⧮ “the song that (I) sang yesterday” 㧧⎚㠦 Ⱒ⋲ ㌂⧢ “the person that (I) met last year” 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ⹱㦖 ㍶ⶒ “the present that (I) received last week” 㞚䂾㠦 ⻚Ⰶ 㝆⩞₆ “the garbage that (I) threw away in the morning” ⌊Ṗ Ⱒ✶ 㦢㔳 “the food that (I) made”

Exercise 16.7 1 2 3 4 5 258

⌊Ṗ ⌊㧒 㣪Ⰲ䞶 㦢㔳 㤆㥶⯒ ╊㦚 ⼧ 䢮㧦Ṗ Ⱎ㔺 ⶒ ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ アⰊ 㺛 㤆㼊ῃ㠦㍲ ⿖䂶 ㏢䙂


Exercise 16.8

Key to exercises

1 㩲㧊㓾㧊 㧛㦚 㟧⽋ “the suit which Jason will wear” 2 ⑚⋮Ṗ ἆ䢒䞶 ㌂⧢ “the person whom (my) older sister will marry” 3 㤆ⰂṖ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㧊㌂Ṟ 㰧 “the house where we will move into next week” 4 ⍺Ṗ ⌊㧒 アⰊ 㺛 “the book which you will borrow tomorrow” 5 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㞟㦚 㧦Ⰲ “the seat where James will sit”

Exercise 16.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

₆䌖⯒ 䂮⓪ ⰞⰂ㞚 ⌊㧒 㧒⽎㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ ㌂⧢ 䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✶ 㡂㧦 ⌊Ṗ 㫡㞚䞮⓪ Ἒ㩞 Ὃ㦚 ▮㰚 㞚㧊 㞶䝢 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㧞⓪ 䞯㌳ 䢪㣪㧒㠦 ⪲⧒⯒ Ⱒ⋶ ⋾㧦 ゚㕒 㹾Ṗ 㧞⓪ 䐆 ἓ㺆ὖ㧎 ◆㧊ぢ 㠊㩲 䘎㰖⯒ ⽊⌎ ㏦┮

Unit 17 Exercise 17.1 1 㢖㕇䎊㠦㍲G 㿲⹲䞮⓪G ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) depart from Washington.” 2 㡺䤚㠦G ☚㹿䞮⓪G ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) arrive (here) in the afternoon.” 3 䂲ῂ⯒G ₆┺Ⰲ⓪G ộG ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) waits for (his) friend.” 4 ☞㧊G⼚⪲G㠜⓪GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) does not have much money.” 5 ㍲㤎㠦G䂲ῂṖGⰤ㦖GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (she) has many friends in Seoul.” 6 㹢ṲṖG㰶GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the stew is salty.” 7 㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㎇㔺䞮ἶ ⡧⡧䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Andrew is earnest and smart.” 8 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻ἶ 䦦Ⰶ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the weather is cold and cloudy.” 9 䂲ῂṖ ⿖㰖⩆䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (your) friend is diligent.” 10 Ṗỿ㧊 㕒 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the price is cheap.”

259


Key to exercises

Exercise 17.2 1 㔶䢒G㡂䟟㦖G⧒㓺⻶Ṗ㓺⪲GṞGộGṯ㞚㣪. “As for (their) honeymoon, (it) seems that (they) will go to Las Vegas.” 2 䙊㧊 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Paul will quit smoking.” 3 ┺㦢 㑮㣪㧒㠦 㰧㠦 ☢㞚Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will return home next Wednesday.” 4 䡫㧊 ☞㦚 ア⩺ 㭚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (my) older brother will lend (me) money.” 5 ┺㦢 䞯₆⿖䎆 ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will live in the dormitory from next semester.” 6 㩲㧎㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Jane will sing well.” 7 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the food will be tasteless.” 8 ⰺ㧒G⹪㊶GộGṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like (I) will be busy everyday.” 9 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like the weather will be hot.” 10 㫊㧊 Ἆ㏦䞶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that John will be humble.”

Exercise 17.3 1 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that James teaches English in Korea.” 2 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ⿖㠢㠦㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Thomas cooks in the kitchen.” 3 㫊㧊 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that John crosses the bridge.” 4 ㌢❪Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sandy waits for (her) friends.” 5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Anthony repairs (his) car.” 6 ㌂⧒Ṗ 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sarah sends the letter.” 7 㺆㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Charles orders coffee.” 8 㥂❪Ṗ Ṗ⋲䞲 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Wendy is poor.” 9 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞲 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Kate is diligent.” 10 ㌦ⰂṖ 㧎₆Ṗ Ⱔ㦖 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sally is popular.”

Exercise 17.4

260

1 2 3 4 5

㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺. 䏶㣪㧒㠦G㧒䞮⓪ ❅䞿┞┺. 㰧㦚G䕦G❅䞿┞┺. 㰗㧻㦚G⁎Ⱒ⚮G❅䞿┞┺. ῃ㧊G㰶G❅䞿┞┺.


6 ⹮㰖ṖG⍞ⶊG゚㕒 ❅䞿┞┺. 7 ㌂㧊㯞ṖG⍞ⶊG㧧㦚 ❅䞿┞┺. 8 ⹿㧊G⍞ⶊG㿪㤎G❅䞿┞┺.

Key to exercises

Exercise 17.5 1 䂲ῂ⯒ ☫ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (he) is helping (his) friends.” 2 㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (they) are singing a Japanese song.” 3 䅊䜾䎆⯒G ἶ䂮ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (he) is repairing (his) computer.” 4 ⑞㧊G㡺⓪G❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (it) snows.” 5 㦢㔳㧊G㰶G❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that the food is salty.”

Exercise 17.6 1 ⌎㔲Ṗ ┺㦢 ╂㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Nancy goes to Korea next month.” 2 㪎㓺䕊㧊G ⼧㤦㠦㍲G 㧒䞮⋮G ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Justin works at the hospital.” 3 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㧊⻞ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Naomi marries this spring.” 4 ㌮㧊 ⪲⧒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Sam likes Laura.” 5 䕆⳾䕆Ṗ 㞚䝞Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Timothy is sick.” 6 ₖ䂮Ṗ 㕇Ệ㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that kimchi is watery.” 7 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that today’s weather is hot.” 8 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food is tasteless.” 9 㼒㔲Ṗ ╖䞯㤦㌳㧎Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Chelsea is a graduate student.” 10 ぢ⧮✲Ṗ 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧎Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Brad is a Canadian.”

Exercise 17.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

₆ㄦG⽊㡂㣪. ⶊ㍲㤢G⽊㡂㣪. 㣎⪲㤢G⽊㡂㣪. 㕂㕂䟊G⽊㡂㣪. 䟟⽋䟊G⽊㡂㣪. 䦻⿚♒G⽊㡖㠊㣪. ₊㧻♒G⽊㡖㠊㣪. 㔶⋮G⽊㡖㠊㣪. 㰲㯳⋮ ⽊㡖㠊㣪. 䢪⋮ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.

261


Key to exercises

Exercise 17.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䅖㧊䔎ṖG㩠㠊G⽊㡂㣪. “Kate looks young.” 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊G⹪ザG⽊㡂㣪. “William looks busy.” Ⰶ┺ṖG㞚䕢G⽊㡂㣪. “Linda looks sick.” ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊G㔂䗒G⽊㡂㣪. “Simon looks sad.” 㩲㔲ṖG㡞ㄦG⽊㡂㣪. “Jessie looks pretty.” 㞶䝢䕢㧊ṖGⰱ㧞㠊 ⽊㡂㣪. “The apple pie looks delicious.” ‖Ỏ㧊ṖG゚㕎G⽊㡂㣪. “The earring looks expensive.” 㞞ἓ㧊 㕎 ⽊㡂㣪. “(His) glasses look inexpensive.” 㰧㞞㧊 ₾⊭䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. “The inside of the house looks clean.” ⏎䔎⿗㧊 Ṗ⼒㤢 ⽊㡂㣪. “The notebook looks light.”

Unit 18 Exercise 18.1 1 2 3 4 5

䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪ ₎㠦 ㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌒ Ệ㡞㣪. ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ⓪ ₎㠦 ㍶㌳┮䞮ἶ Ⱎ㭒㼺㠊㣪. ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. ᾦ䣢㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㝆⩂㪢㠊㣪. ṖỢ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㫊㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪.

Exercise 18.2 1 2 3 4 5

㔲䠮㠦G⟾㠊㪎G⽎G㩗㧊 㠜㠊㣪. ⰾ䞮䎊㠦GṖG⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪. ₖ䂮⯒Gⲏ㠊G⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪. ἆ䢒㦚G䟊G⽎G㩗㧊G㠜㠊㣪. 㽳㦚G㙊G⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪.

Exercise 18.3 1 㧻䞯⁞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of receiving a scholarship.” 2 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of learning Taekwondo.” 3 䡫ὒG┺䒞G⽎G㩗㧊G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of quarrelling with (my) older brother.” 4 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㓺䋺⯒ 䌖 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of skiing in Korea.” 5 㧒㣪㧒㠦 㧒䟊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of working on Sunday.” 262


Exercise 18.4 1 2 3 4 5

Key to exercises

䟊ⰂṖGゾ⧮⯒G䞮⓪G☯㞞㠦G䅖㧊䔎ṖG㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪. ⌊ṖG㡊㐶⯒G㺔⓪G☯㞞㠦G㰖⋮ṖG㰦㦚G㕖GỆ㡞㣪. 㫊㧊G㤊㩚㦚G䞮⓪G☯㞞㠦G㌦ⰂṖG㰖☚⯒G⽺㠊㣪. 㺆㓺ṖG㧒䞮⓪G☯㞞㠦G㞂❪ṖG䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲G₆┺⪎㠊㣪. ⌊ṖG㎎㧒㯞ⰾ䞮ἶG䦻㩫㦚G䞮⓪G☯㞞㠦G㞚⌊Ṗ ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䟞㠊㣪.

Exercise 18.5 1 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ ⳾㧦⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䞒䎆Ṗ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “While Edward was buying a hat, Peter went to the restroom.” 2 ⌊Ṗ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㞚⌊Ṗ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “While I was jogging, (my) wife went to the supermarket.” 3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䆆㠊 㣪. “While Luis was talking to (his) friend, Erica ordered food.” 4 ⲪỊ㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㫆㧊㓺Ṗ {} ⯒ ⽺㠊㣪. “While Megan was sleeping, Joyce watched TV.” 5 㤆ⰂṖ 㧦Ⰲ⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 ㌮㧊 䕳䆮㦚 ㌂⩂ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “While we were looking for seats, Sam went out to buy popcorn.”

Exercise 18.6 1 2 3 4 5

㤊㩚䞮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. ⋮ⶊ⯒ 㕂⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. 䘎㰖⯒ 㝆⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.

Exercise 18.7 1 㰦㦚 㕎⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of packing loads.” 2 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䋺⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of ordering Chinese food.” 3 㠦Ⰳ䞮ἶ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of playing tennis with Eric.” 4 ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ 㖾⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of cutting pork (into piecies).” 5 㟧⽋㦚 㧛⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of wearing a suit.”

Exercise 18.8 1 㰧㧊G㔲⊚⩂㤊G䘎㧊㠦㣪. 2 ⹿㧊G㠊⚦㤊G䘎㧊㠦㣪.

263


Key to exercises

3 ⌎㔲㦮G㦢㔳㧊G㰶G䘎㧊㠦㣪. 4 ⋮㡺⹎ṖG㞚䂾㦚Gῌ⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. 5 ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪.

Exercise 18.9 1 㓺䕆ぢṖ ⰻ㭒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Steve kind of likes beer.” 2 䡂⩢㧊 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㧮 䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Helen kind of cooks well.” 3 㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ 㧪㏢Ⰲ⯒ 䞮㔲⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) mother tends to do useless talk.” 4 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤊 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The test is kind of hard.” 5 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰶ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Today’s weather is kind of cloudy.”

Unit 19 Exercise 19.1 1 2 3 4 5

㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㰖㔲䞮⓪ ╖⪲ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. ₆╖䞲 ╖⪲ 䘎㰖Ṗ 㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪. Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞㣪? 㧦ἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ 㧦㎎㣪. ⲏἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ ⲏ㦣㔲┺.

Exercise 19.2 1 㧒㠊⋮⓪ ╖⪲ ㌺㤢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will take a shower as soon as (I) get up.” 2 㔳㌂⯒ Ⱎ䂮⓪ ╖⪲ ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) return to the office as soon as (you) finish (your) meal?” 3 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔⓪ ╖⪲ ⟶⋮㎎㣪. “Leave as soon as (you) find the key.” 4 ㍲⮮⯒ ⹱⓪ ╖⪲ 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Start working as soon as (you) receive the document.” 5 㺛㦚G ⹱⓪G ╖⪲G ☢⩺㭣㔲┺. “(Let us) return the book (to them) as soon as (we) receive (it).”

Exercise 19.3 1 2 3 4 5 264

⽊䐋G㧊⯒G┼㦖G䤚㠦GⳊ☚⯒ 䟊㣪. 㞚䂾G㔳㌂⯒G䞲G䤚㠦G㿲⁒䟊㣪. ㏢䙂⯒G⽊⌎G䤚㠦G䞯ᾦ⪲G☢㞚㢪㠊㣪. ㍶ⶒ㦚G㌆G䤚㠦G䕢䕆㠦GṞGỆ㡞㣪. 㧒㦚G⊳⌎G䤚㠦G㓂ἶG㕌㠊㣪.


Exercise 19.4

Key to exercises

1 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞲 䤚㠦 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go to bed after taking a shower.” 2 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧎 䤚㠦 ⧒Ⳋ㦚 ⍹㦒㎎㣪. “Put ramyon after boiling water.” 3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞲 䤚㠦 䀾㰗 㭖゚⯒ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will prepare for employment after graduating from college.” 4 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦖 䤚㠦 㩚❇㦚 ⊚㕃㔲㡺. “Turn off the electric lamp after closing the window.” 5 㧒㦚GⰞ䂲G䤚㠦G㰧㠦GṪ㔋┞┺. “(They) went home after finishing (their) work.”

Exercise 19.5 1 2 3 4 5

㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. 㡊㕂䧞 㧒䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. ㍶ⶒ㦚 㫡㞚䞮⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. 㑮㡗䞶 㑮 㧞⓪ 㻯䟞㠊㣪. ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧎 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪?

Exercise 19.6 1 㩲㧚㓺ṖG ゚⹖G ⻞䢎⯒G 㞚⓪G 㻯䟊㣪. “James pretends that (he) knows the secret code.” 2 㰖⋮䞮ἶG ⪲⋶✲ṖG 䟟⽋䞲G 㻯䟊㣪. “Gina and Ronald pretend that (they) are happy.” 3 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊G 䟃㌗G ☞㧊G 㠜⓪G 㻯䟊㣪. “Patrick always pretends that (he) has no money.” 4 㩲㧚㓺ṖG㩲㔲䃊⯒G㕁㠊䞮⓪G㻯䟊㣪. “James pretends that (he) dislikes Jessica.” 5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ Ὃ⿖㠦 ὖ㕂㧊 㠜⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. “Anthony pretends that (he) is uninterested in studying.”

Exercise 19.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ᾦ㑮┮㦚G䞾℮GⰢ⋮⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. 㤆ⰂG⳾⚦G䆮䎣䔎 ⩢㯞⯒ ⋒⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. 㧊㩲⿖䎆Gṯ㧊G㌂⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. ⶒṖṖG⏨㦖GỆ㡞㣪. 㫆㰖ṖG㏪㰗䞲GỆ㡞㣪. 㩲㧚㓺ṖG⡧⡧䞲 Ệ㡞㣪. ㌞G㹾⯒G㌆GỆ㡞㣪. 㰖ṧ㦚G㧙㠊⻚Ⰶ Ệ㡞㣪. 㰖⋮☚G䕢䕆㠦G㽞㼃䞲 Ệ㡞㣪. 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞲 Ệ㡞㣪.

265


Key to exercises

Exercise 19.8 1 ⓼ỢG㧒㠊⋮⓪G⹪⧢㠦G㑮㠛㠦G㰖ṗ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) was late for the class because (I) got up late.” 2 ṧ㧦₆G゚ṖG㡺⓪G⹪⧢㠦G㢍㧊G㩬㠞㠊㣪. “(My) dress got wet because (it) rained suddenly.” 3 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 䣢㌂㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to the company because (my) car broke down.” 4 Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰂ⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not study because (I) caught a cold.” 5 ⹪⧢㧊 ⿖⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 ⳾㧦⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) hat because the wind blew.” 6 ㏢⁞㦚G Ⱔ㧊G ⍹⓪G ⹪⧢㠦G 㦢㔳㧊G ⍞ⶊG 㱆㠊㣪. “The food was too salty because (I) put too much salt (into it).” 7 䆪⯒ ἶ⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㧶㦚 ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪. “(I) could not sleep because (he) snored.” 8 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 䠞Ⰲ⯒ ┺㼺㠊㣪. “(I) hurt (my) waist because (I) slid on the road.” 9 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not make a phone call because there was a car accident.” 10 ㌞⼓㠦G 㧒䞮⓪G ⹪⧢㠦G Ṧ₆㠦G Ỏ⪎㠊㣪. “(I) caught a cold because (I) worked at dawn.”

Exercise 19.9 1 㤪 㦚 ⹱㦚 ➢ ₆⿚㧊 㫡㔋┞┺. “When (I) receive (my) salary, (I) feel good.” 2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䞶 ➢ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “When the movie begins, (let us) eat popcorn.” 3 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 ➢ 㦢㞛㦚 ✹㔋┞₢? “Do (you) listen to music when (you) do (your) homework?” 4 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 ➢ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Sing a song, when (you) drink beer.” 5 㓺䎢㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ㦚 ➢ 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “When (I) eat steak, (I) drink wine.” 6 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ Ⱔ㦚 ➢ 㤊☯㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “When there is a lot of stress, do exercise.” 7 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞶 ➢ 䂲ῂ✺䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞶 ỗ┞┺. “When (I) need help, (I) will contact (my) friends.” 8 ἆ䢒㔳㠦 Ṟ ➢ 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㠞㔋┞┺. “When (I) went to the wedding ceremony, (I) wore a suit.” 9 ゚Ṗ 㢂 ➢ 㤆㌆㧊 䞚㣪䞿┞┺. “When (it) rains, (you) need an umbrella.” 266


10 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㦚 ➢ 䆪⹎❪ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “When (you) have (some) time, see a comedy movie.” 11 ⋶㝾ṖG 䦦ⰊG ➢G ₆⿚㧊G ⋮㊿┞┺. “When the weather is cloudy, (I) feel bad.” 12 㡂㧦䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧒 ➢Gⶊ㓾 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ㦚 㭖゚䞿┞₢? “When it is (your) girl friend’s birthday, what kind of birthday gift do (you) prepare?” 13 㕂㕂䞶 ➢ ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺. “When (I) feel bored, (I) go to a bookstore.” 14 㠊⪎㦚 ➢ 㦮㌂Ṗ ♮ἶ 㕌㠞㔋┞₢? “When (you) were young, did (you) want to become a doctor?” 15 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 ➢ 㰽㦖 ⹪㰖⯒ 㧛㦣㔲┺. “When the weather is hot, (let us) wear short pants.”

Key to exercises

Exercise 19.10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䂲ῂ䞮ἶG㕎㤎Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost quarrelled with (my) friend.” ⶒ㠦Gザ㰞Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost fell into the water.” 㟓㏣㦚G㧠㦚Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost forgot about the appointment.” ⶎ㦚G㧶⁖Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost locked the door.” Ợ㧚㦚G㰞Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost lost the game.” 㤆ⰂG䕖㧊Gἓ₆⯒G㧊₎ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “Our team almost won the game.” ₎㠦㍲G⹎⊚⩂㰞Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost slid on the road.” 㞚㧊✺䞲䎢G䢪⌒Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost got angry at (my) children.” 㢖㧎㦚GⰞ㔺Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost drank wine.” ₎㦚GỊ⍦Gㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost crossed the road.”

Unit 20 Exercise 20.1 1 2 3 4 5

䢒㧦GṖỢ⯒G㡊G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. ⁎✺㠦ỢG䧂ⰳ㦚G㭚G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. ⶊ╖ 㥚㠦㍲ 㿺㦚 㿲 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. 㰧㦚 䕪 㑮 㠜㠊㣪. 㧊 㑮䞯 ⶎ㩲⯒ 䛖 㑮 㠜㠊㣪.

Exercise 20.2 1 2 3 4 5

䔎⩃㦚G㤊㩚䞶G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can drive a truck.” ▪㥚⯒Gⓦ⋚G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can feel the heat.” 㢖㧎㦚GⰞ㔺G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can drink wine.” 䞲ῃG⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯒G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can sing Korea songs.” ⹎ῃG䂲ῂ⯒G㌂„G㑮G㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can make American friends.”

267


Key to exercises

Exercise 20.3 1 2 3 4 5

㧒⽎G⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯒G㭚G㞢㞚㣪. 㭧ῃG㦢㔳㦚GⰢ✺G㭚G㞢㞚㣪. 㓺䃒Ⱅ㧊G㡊㐶⯒GṖ㰖ἶG㧞㦚 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪. 㧒㣪㧒㠦☚GṖỢ⯒G㡊G㭚G㞢㞮㞚㣪. 㡺⓮Gᾦ䣢㠦G㧞㦚G㭚G㞢㞮㠊㣪.

Exercise 20.4 ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to make kimchi.” Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to play golf.” 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌞 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to ride a bicycle.” 㡂₆㍲ 䣢㌂₢㰖 Ṟ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to get to the company from here.” 5 㑮㡗䞶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to swim.” 1 2 3 4

Exercise 20.5 1 2 3 4 5

㩲ⰂṖ 㥶ⳛ䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. 㧻 ᾦ㑮┮㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㧮 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ 㧞㦚 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. 㫆㰖Ṗ ἓ㺆ὖ㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.

Exercise 20.6 1 䡫㧊 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṟ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that (my) older brother would go to Japan on Monday.” 2 ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䏶㣪㧒㠦 ṖỢ⯒ 㧒㹣 ╁㦚 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Matthew would close the store early on Saturday.” 3 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṟ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Susan would go to Korea.” 4 ㌂㧊Ⲓ㧊 㤊☯㦚 㧮 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Simon would be good at sports.” 5 㺆㓺Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Charles would leave for London today.”

Exercise 20.7

268

1 2 3 4 5

㢍 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⰴ㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. ⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. 㞺✲⮮Ṗ Ợ㦒⯒ ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞶 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.


Exercise 20.8

Key to exercises

1 ╖䞯G㌳䢲㧊G㨂⹎㧞㦚GⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that college life is fun.” 2 㰖䞮㻶㧊G 䘎䞶G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that a subway is convenient.” 3 䎢┞㓺ṖG 㓂㤎G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that (playing) tennis is easy.” 4 䌳㔲G 㣪⁞㧊G 㕖G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that taxi fee is cheap.” 5 ❪㧦㧎㧊G 㡞㊶G ⰂṖG 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that the design is pretty.”

Unit 21 Exercise 21.1 1 㩲ⰂṖGⳝG㌊㧎㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how old Jerry is?” 2 㡗䢪ṖG ⳝG 㔲㠦G 㔲㧧䞮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time the movie starts?” 3 㠊❪㠦㍲G㧒䞮⓪㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (he) works?” 4 㠊❪㠦㍲G ⻚㓺⯒G 䌖⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (he) rides the bus?” 5 㩲㧚㓺㦮G⹿㧊GⳝG䂋㠦G㧞⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know on what floor James’ room is?” 6 㭚ⰂṖG㢲G䕢Ⰲ⪲G⟶⋮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why Julie leaves for Paris?” 7 㰧㧊G㢲G㔲⊚⩂㤊㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why the house is noisy?” 8 ⹿㧊G㢲G▪㤊㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why the room is hot?” 9 㧊Gῃ㧊G㢲G㰶㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why this soup is salty?” 10 㧊 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㢲 㕒㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why this computer is inexpensive?”

Exercise 21.2 1 Ⱎ㧊䋊㧊Gⶊ㓾G㧒㦚G䞶㰖G㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what kind of work Michael will do?” 2 㠊❪㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦚㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (they) will have dinner?” 3 㣪㯞㦢 ⪲Ⱎ㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠊⟾㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how Rome’s weather will be like nowadays?” 4 ゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☚㹿䞶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time the airplane will arrive at the airport?” 5 ⌊㧒 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㦚㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (they) will close the store tomorrow?”

269


Key to exercises

Exercise 21.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

䙊㧊 㔲䠮㠦 䞿ỿ䟞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 㠊❪㍲ ἆ䢒㔳㦚 䞮⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. ⶮ ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 㧊⯚㧊 ⶊ㠝㧎㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 㠎㩲 ἆ䢒㦚 䟊㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 㠎㩲 ㏢䙂Ṗ ☚㹿䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 䙊㧊 㹾Ṗ 㧞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. 㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤶⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕒㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. Ṗ⹿㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⶊỆ㤎㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.

Exercise 21.4 1 “How noisy the house is, (I) cannot study.” 2 “How congested the road was, (I) was late for the party as long as one hour.” 3 “How difficulty the test was, (I) could not solve even one problem.” 4 “How interestingly (they) see a movie, (they) do not even go to a toilet.” 5 “How heavily (it) snows, (it) seems that (we) may not be able to go to school.”

Exercise 21.5 1 ⳝ 㔲₢㰖 ₆┺⩺㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what time (we) should wait until.” 2 㠊ⓦ 㹾⯒ ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know which car (I) should buy.” 3 㠒Ⱎ㠦 㰧㦚 䕪㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know at what price (I) should sell the house.” 4 㢲G 㡂㧦G 䂲ῂ㢖G 䠺㠊㪎㟒G 䞶㰖G ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know why (I) should break up with (my) girlfriend.” 5 ⶊ㠝㦚 Ⱎ㎪㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what (I) should drink.”

Exercise 21.6

270

1 2 3 4 5 6

⑞㧊 㡺₆ 㔲㧧䞲㰖 [ 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㧊㌂㡾㰖 X ⎚㧊 ♦㠊㣪. 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤊㰖 Z 㭒Ṗ ♦㠊㣪. ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦖㰖 ] Ṳ㤪㧊 ♦㠊㣪. 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㔲㧧䞲㰖 XW ⿚㧊 ♦㠊㣪. 㹾⯒ ㌆㰖 㧊䔖㧊 ♦㠊㣪.


7 8 9 10

㩲┞䗒Ṗ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋲㰖 㧒 㭒㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. ⲎⰂ⯒ 㧦⯎㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪? 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡾㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪? ⁎⯒ Ⱎ㰖Ⱏ㦒⪲ ⽎㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?

Key to exercises

Exercise 21.7 1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦖㰖 Y 㔲Ṛ㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been two hours since (I) ate (my) lunch.” 2 Ṧ₆ ỎⰆ㰖 㧊䔖㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been two days since (I) caught a cold.” 3 䘎㰖⯒ ⹱㦖㰖 X 㭒㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been one week since (I) received the letter.” 4 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䞲㰖 [ 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been four days since (I) started exercising.” 5 䀾㰗䞲㰖 X ⎚㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been one year since (I) got employed.”

Unit 22 Exercise 22.1 ㏦┮㧊GⰤ▪⧒ῂ㣪. ㍲゚㓺ṖG㫡▪⧒ῂ㣪. 㞚䕢䔎㎎ṖG゚㕎▪⧒ῂ㣪. ┺㎅G㔲ṚGỎⰂ▪⧒ῂ㣪. 㰧㧊G䋂▪⧒ῂ㣪.

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 22.2 1 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⿖㰖⩆䞮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “William was diligent (you know).” 2 㑮㧪㦮 㡺ザṖ 䣢㌂ ㌂㧻㧊▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Susan’s older brother was the company president (you know).” 3 䐆㧊 䌳㔲⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Tom waited for a taxi (you know).” 4 㩲㧎㦮 ㌳㧒㧊 㠊㩲㧊▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Jane’s birthday was yesterday (you know).” 5 䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊 ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Catherine was buying a ring (you know).”

Exercise 22.3 1 ✹▮G⏎⧮ 2 䌖▮G㧦㩚Ệ 3 㧒䞮▮G䣢㌂

271


Key to exercises

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

㫡㞚䞮▮G㦢㔳 㝆▮G䃁㏪ 㝿㝿䞮▮G⋾㧦 ⿖✲⩓▮G䞒⿖ 㠊⚷▮G⹿ ➆⦑䞮▮G⋶㝾 ㏦┮㦒⪲G⿦゚▮GṖỢ

Exercise 22.4 1 ╖䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧓▮ ㏢㍺㺛㧊㠦㣪. “(It) is the novel that (I) used read during (my) college days.” 2 ㌂‖▮ 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ㡞㣪. “(she) is (my ex) girlfriend that (I) used to go out with.” 3 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㯦Ỿ ⽊▮ TV ✲⧒Ⱎ㡞㣪. “(It) is the TV drama that (I) used to enjoy watching in Korea.” 4 XW ⎚㩚㠦 ㌊▮ 㞚䕢䔎㡞㣪. “(It) is the apartment where (I) used to live ten years ago.” 5 㭧䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧛▮ ᾦ⽋㧊㠦㣪. “(It) is the school uniform that (I) used to wear during (my) intermediate school days.” 6 ṯ㧊 㧒䞮▮ ☯⬢㡞㣪. “(He) is (my) colleague whom (I) used to work with.”

Exercise 22.5 1 㞚䂾㠦⓪ 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮▪┞ 㡺䤚㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “In the morning, the house was quiet, but in the afternoon, (it) is noisy.” 2 㰖⋲ 㭒₢㰖 㧒⽎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽊▪┞ 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ 䞲ῃ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽦㣪. “(She) watched Japanese dramas until last week, but (she) watches Korean dramas this week.” 3 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆▪┞ 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪Ⱒ ⽦㣪. “(He) has learned Korean, and as a result (he) only sees Korean movies.” 4 㕃 ⿚ ₆┺⪎▪┞ 㦢㔳㧊 ⋮㢪㠊㣪. “As (I) waited for ten minutes, the food was served.” 5 㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾▪┞ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪. “Since (I) drank beer a lot yesterday, (my) head aches.”

Exercise 22.6

272

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㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. ⹪㊮㰖 㞠㞮▪⧒Ⳋ 㰧㠦 ✺⩖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. 䟟⽋䟞▪⧒Ⳋ 㧊䢒䞮㰖 㞠㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. ゚⹖㦚 㞢㞮▪⧒Ⳋ ㎇Ὃ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. 㡆㔋㦚 ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞▪⧒Ⳋ ἓ₆⯒ 㧊ἒ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.


Exercise 22.7

Key to exercises

1 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṫ▪⧒Ⳋ ㌊㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) went to the hospital, (he) might have lived.” 2 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞▪⧒Ⳋ 㞞 㞚䕶㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that she) took the medicine, (she) might not feel painful.” 3 ☞㧊 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ⟶⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that I) had money, (I) might have left.” 4 ἶ₆Ṗ 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ㌖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that they) had meat, (she) might have bought (it).” 5 㹾Ṗ 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) had a car, (he) might have met (her).”

Exercise 22.8 ῗ⁞䞮▪⧒☚Gⶑ㰖GⰞ㎎㣪. Ṗ⪋▪⧒☚G⁗㰖GⰞ㎎㣪. 䢪⋮▪⧒☚G㺎㦒㎎㣪. 㕂㕂䞮▪⧒☚G㰧㠦G㧞㦒㎎㣪. ⓼ỢG㡺▪⧒☚G㧪㏢Ⰲ 䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 22.9 1 䞒Ἲ䞮▪⧒☚ 㫎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even if (you) may be tired, do not doze off.” 2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜▪⧒☚ Ↄ ⽊㎎㣪. “Even if the movie may be uninteresting, see (it) for sure.” 3 ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮▪⧒☚ 㤙㦒㎎㣪. “Even if (your) mood may be bad, smile.” 4 ⶊỗ▪⧒☚ Ṗ㪎㡺㎎㣪. “Even if (it) may be heavy, bring (it).” 5 㔂䝚▪⧒☚ 㤎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even if (you) may be sad, do not cry.”

Unit 23 Exercise 23.1 1 㞚䂾㦚G ⲏ₆G 㩚㠦G ㏦㦚G 㞑㦒㎎㣪. “Wash (your) hands before eating breakfast.” 2 㔲䠮㦚G⽊₆G㩚㠦G㧶㦚G㿿⿚䧞G㧦㎎㣪. “Sleep sufficiently before taking a test.” 3 ₆㹾⯒ 䌖₆ 㩚㠦 ₆㹾 䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “(You) must reserve a train ticket before riding the train.” 4 ⩞㓺䏶⧧㠦 Ṗ₆ 㩚㠦 㰧㠦 ✺⯛㔲┺. “(Let us) stop by home before going to the restaurant.”

273


Key to exercises

5 㿲⁒䞮₆G 㩚㠦G 㔶ⶎ㦚G ⽊㎎㣪? “Do (you) read newspapers before leaving home for work?” 6 䢪㧻㦚 䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪. “(I) take a shower before doing makeup.” 7 ㌞ 㰧㦒⪲ 㧊㌂䞮₆ 㩚㠦 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲ ㌊㞮㠊㣪? “Did (you) live in an apartment before moving into the new house?” 8 㩚Ὃ㦚 㩫䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ᾦ㑮┮䞮ἶ ㌗╊䟊㟒 䞿┞┺. “(You) must consult with (your) professor before deciding (your) major.” 9 䞒䎆⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ ⋮Ṗ₆ 㩚㠦 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) make a phone call before going out to meet Peter.” 10 㹾⯒G 䕪₆G 㩚㠦G 㞚⻚㰖䞮ἶG 㦮⏒䞮㎎㣪. “Consult with (your) father before selling (your) car.”

Exercise 23.2 1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㞚䂾☚ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “Far from eating lunch, (she) did not even eat breakfast.” 2 ❇㌆㦚 䞮₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㰧 ⹬㠦☚ 㞞 ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “Far from climbing the mountain, (they) did not even go outside of the house.” 3 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 䄺䞒☚ ⴑ Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “Far from eating dinner, (I) could not even drink coffee.” 4 ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ῂἓ☚ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “Far from buying a new car, (I) could not even look around.” 5 ㌳㧒 䕢䕆⯒ 䞮₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ㍶ⶒ☚ ⴑ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Far from having a birthday party, (I) could not even receive a present.”

Exercise 23.3

274

1 ⚦ ㌂⧢㧊 㧦₆㠦⓪ 䂾╖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧㞚㣪. “The bed is too small for two people to sleep.” 2 㡗䢪⯒ ┺㤊⪲✲ ⹱₆㠦⓪ 㩲 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ⓦ⩺㣪. “My computer is too slow for downloading a movie (file).” 3 㑮㡗㦚 䞮₆㠦⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤢㣪. “The weather is too cold for swimming.” 4 㡗䢪⯒G ⽊₆㠦⓪G 㔲Ṛ㧊G 㠜㠊㣪. “(We) do not have time for seeing a movie.” 5 㩚䢪⯒G䞮₆㠦⓪G⍞ⶊG⓼㠞㠊㣪. “(It) is too late for making a phone call.” 6 ⏣ῂ⯒G 䞮₆㠦⓪G 䋺ṖG 㧧㞮㠊㣪. “(My) height was small for playing basketball.” 7 䄺䞒⯒G Ⱎ㔲₆㠦⓪G ⍞ⶊG 㠊⪎㠊㣪. “(I) was too young to drink coffee.” 8 䢒㧦G㤊㩚䞮₆㠦⓪G⍞ⶊGⲖ㠞㠊㣪. “(It) was too far (for me) to drive alone.”


9 ⏎䔎⿗㦚G㌂₆㠦⓪G☞㧊G⳾㧦⧦㠊㣪. “The money was short for buying a notebook.” 10 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒₆㠦⓪ ⍞ⶊ ゚㕢㠊㣪. “(It) was too expensive (for me to) give (it) away as a gift.”

Key to exercises

Exercise 23.4 1 Ṧ₆ Ỏ⪎₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṗ㣪. “(I) cannot go to school because (I) caught a cold.” 2 㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “(I) do not want to eat lunch because (I) ate breakfast late.” 3 ゚Ṗ 㡺₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ἓ₆Ṗ 䀾㏢♶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I guess that) the game will be cancelled because (it) rains.” 4 ⻚㓺Ṗ ⿞䘎䞮₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䟊㣪. “(I) use a subway because a bus is inconvenient.” 5 㔲䠮 ₆Ṛ㧊₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 ㌂⧢㧊 Ⱔ㞚㣪. “There are many people in the library because (it) is an examination period.”

Exercise 23.5 1 ㌊㦚 ヒ₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 㫆⁞ ⲏ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will eat dinner a little to lose weight.” 2 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 㰚䞯䞮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㭖゚䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am preparing to enter medical school.” 3 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩫゚㏢㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am going to the repair shop to repair (my) car.” 4 ┺㦢 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₆₆ 㥚䟊㍲ ⰺ㧒 㡆㔋䟊㣪. “(I) practice everyday to win the next game.” 5 䞲ῃ㠦 㧞⓪ 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩚䢪 䃊✲⯒ ㌖㠊㣪. “(I) bought a telephone card to make a phone call to (my) friend in Korea.”

Exercise 23.6 1 ⌊⎚ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(We) decided to get married next year’s spring.” 2 䞯ᾦ ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to live in school dormitory.” 3 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to take the Korean language class next semester.” 4 ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to quit smoking from tomorrow.” 5 ┺㦢 ╂⿖䎆 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to learn Taekwondo from next month.” 275


Key to exercises

Exercise 23.7 1 䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(We) also play tennis every Saturday.” 2 Ṗ⊪ ₢Ⱒ ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also wear a black tie occasionally.” 3 㭒Ⱖ㠦 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also play basketball with (my) friends on the weekend.” 4 㕂㕂䞮Ⳋ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆☚ 䟊㣪. “When feeling bored, (we) also see movies.” 5 䏶㣪㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also jog on Saturday morning.”

Exercise 23.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ⰺ㧒 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Doing yoga everyday is difficult.” 䝚⧧㓺 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Making French food is difficult.” 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖₆Ṗ 㓂㤢㣪. “(It) is easy to fail a test.” 㧊㌂䞮₆ṖG䧮✺㠊㣪. “Changing one’s residence is laborious.” ⏎⧮⯒G⿖⯊₆ṖG㫡㞚㣪. “(It) is nice to sing songs.” 㹾⯒G䌖₆ṖG䘎䟊㣪. “Riding a car is convenient.” 㧒䞮₆ṖG㕁㠊㣪. “(It) is unpleasant to work.” 㣪Ⰲ䞮₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “Cooking is interesting.” ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮₆Ṗ ‖㺄㞚㣪. “Doing the laundry is bothersome.” ⰺ㧒G㤊☯䞮₆ṖG䧮✺㠊㣪. “Exercising everyday is laborious.”

Exercise 23.9 1 2 3 4 5

㫡₆⓪㣪. 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆⓪㣪. 㧦㭒 Ⱒ⋮₆⓪㣪. ➆⦑䞮₆⓪㣪. ⿖㰖⩆䞮₆⓪㣪.

Exercise 23.10

276

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

⌊㧒G㡺㩚 XW 㔲㠦G☢㞚㢊. “Will be back at 10 a.m. tomorrow.” 㡺⓮G㩖⎗ 㓺䎢㧊䋂㧚. “Tonight’s dinner is steak.” 㹾Gἶ㼺㦢. “Repaired (your) car.” 㰧㠦G㞞GṪ㦢. “Did not go home.” 㢍 ㌖㦢. “Bought the dress.” 㠊㩲GⲎⰂG㧮⧦㦢. “Had a hair cut yesterday.” 㤆ⰂṖ 㰖ṧ ⽊ὖ䞮ἶ 㧞㦢. “We are keeping (your) wallet.” 㧙㠊⻚Ⰶ Ṳ 㺔㞮㦢. “Found the lost dog.” ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎 ῂ䞾. “Seeking a roommate.” 㡗䢪 㨂⹎㠜㦢. “The movie is uninteresting.”


Unit 24

Key to exercises

Exercise 24.1 1 ⑚⋮Ṗ “㩲⹲ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮⧒” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(My) older sister said ‘For heaven’s sake, get up early.’” 2 㞺✲⮮Ṗ “ゾⰂ ➆⧒㡺㎎㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Andrew said ‘Follow (me) immediately.’” 3 㧊㌂⻾㧊 “㩫Ⱖ 㤆㥶⯒ 㧮 Ⱎ㔲⍺㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Isabel said ‘(You) really drink milk well.’” 4 Ⰲ㌂Ṗ “㩖⎗㠦 㩖䧂 㰧㠦 ✺⯊㎎㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said ‘Stop by our house in the evening.’” 5 ㍶㌳┮㧊 “㡺⓮ 㑮㠛 ⊳” 㧊⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Teacher said ‘The end of class for today.’” 6 䙊㧊 “䞒㧦 ⲏ㧦” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Paul said ‘Let us eat pizza.’” 7 ⰞⰂ㞚Ṗ “㹢ṲṖ ⱋ┺” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Maria said ‘Pot stew is spicy.’” 8 ぢ⧮✲Ṗ “㤆Ⰲ ⁞㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Brad said ‘Let us meet on Friday.’” 9 ┞䆲㧊 “㧊➆ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩚䢪䟊” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Nicole said ‘Call (me) if (you) have time later.’” 10 㰖⋮Ṗ “㰧㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪?” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. ‘Gina said ‘Don’t you go home?’”

Exercise 24.2 1 ⳾┞䃊Ṗ Ⓤ㣫㠦 [ Ἒ㩞㧊 㧞┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Monica said that there are four seasons in New York.” 2 㞺㍲┞Ṗ ⌊㧒 ㏢⋮₆Ṗ ⌊ⰂỶ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Anthony said that (it) would shower tomorrow.” 3 ㌂ぢⰂ⋮ṖG 㰧㎎ṖG 㢂⧦┺ἶG 䟞㠊㣪. “Sabrina said that house rent went up.” 4 㩲㧊㓾㧊 㡺⓮ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ Ⱒ✶┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jason said that (he) would make spaghetti today.” 5 㫆❪Ṗ ⌊㧒 ┺㔲 㩚䢪䞮Ỷ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jodie said that (she) would call again tomorrow.” 6 㓺䕆ぢṖG㠎㩲G㰗㧻㦚G⁎Ⱒ⛖⌦ἶGⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Steve asked (me) when (I) quitted (my) job.” 7 㯊Ⰲ㞚ṖG㠎㩲G㰧㠦G㡺⌦ἶGⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Julia asked (them) when (he) would come home.” 8 㠦㓺▪ṖG 㧊G 㹾ṖG ⑚ῂG Ệ⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Esther asked (me) whose car this is.” 9 㩲ⰂṖG 㧮G 㰖⌊ἶG 㧞⌦ἶG ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Jerry asked (me) how (I) am getting along.” 10 ◆㧊㰖ṖGⳝG㔲⌦ἶGⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Daisy asked (her) what time it is.”

277


Key to exercises

Exercise 24.3 1 㠦Ⰳ㧊 ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Eric suggested that (we) take a bus.” 2 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㡺䤚 Y 㔲㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Naomi suggested that (we) meet at 2 p.m.” 3 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ ṯ㧊 㣪Ṗ⯒ 㔲㧧䞮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Clara suggested that (we) start yoga together.” 4 㫆㰖Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 ṯ㧊 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “George suggested that (we) see a movie together this weekend.” 5 ⋮䌞ⰂṖ ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ☚㢖 㭒㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Natalie suggested that (we) help that friend.” 6 㞚゚Ṗ㧒㧊 ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Abigail told (me) to do laundry.” 7 䅖ゞ㧊 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Kevin told (her) to study hard.” 8 ┺㧊㠦⋮Ṗ YW ⿚㞞㠦 ⌊⩺㡺⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Diana told (us) to come down within 20 minutes.” 9 㪎㓺䕊㧊G䢪⌊㰖GⰦ⧒ἶG䟞㠊㣪. “Justin told (him) not to be angry.” 10 㧒⩞㧎㧊G㡊㐶⯒G㺔㦒⧒ἶG䟞㠊㣪. “Elaine told (them) to find keys.”

Exercise 24.4 1 2 3 4 5

㌮㧊G㡺⓮G⹺G⟶⋲┺ἶG䟞㠊㣪. Ⰲ㌂ṖGⳝG㔲㠦G㧦⌦ἶGⶒ㠞㠊㣪. 䙊㧊G䞲ῃG㦢㔳㦚Gⲏ㧦ἶG䟞㠊㣪. ㍶㌳┮㧊G㫆㣿䧞G䞮⧒ἶG䟞㠊㣪. 㑮㧪㧊G㡺⓮G⹺G㩚䢪䞶GỆ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.

Exercise 24.5 1 2 3 4 5

278

㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺. ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺. 䄺䞒Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㰚䟞┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺. ⌊㧒⿖䎆 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䟊㟒Ỷ┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺. 㫊䞲䎢 㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚 㖾㟒Ỷ┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺.


INDEX

Page numbers in bold refer to those pages in the book where the relevant grammar point is discussed in detail. auxiliary verbs 27–8, 122 auxiliary verb ~ἶGⰦ┺ 27, 35 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚GṖ┺ 27, 28 – 9 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⋮┺ 27 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⌊┺ 27, 33–4 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⏩┺ 27, 42 – 3 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⚦┺G 43 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⻚Ⰲ┺ 27, 33 – 5 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G⽊┺ 27, 28, 158 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G㡺┺ 27, 28 – 9 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G㧞┺G 43–4 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚G㭒┺ 27, 35 – 7 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ 27, 46 auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ 27, 45 – 6 causatives 131 – 2 suffix ~ῂG 131 suffix ~₆G 131 – 2 suffix ~㤆G 131 suffix ~㧊G 131 – 2 suffix ~ⰂG 131 – 2 suffix ~䧞G 131 – 2 suffix ~㿪G 131 clausal conjunctives 51 – 4 conjunctive ~Ệ⋮G 87 – 8 conjunctive ~Ệ✶G 76 – 7 conjunctive ~ἶ 51 – 2, 85 – 6 conjunctive ~ⓦ⧒ἶG 65 conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆G105 – 7 conjunctive ~⓪/(㦖)ච◆☚G107 conjunctive ~┺ṖG 97 – 9 conjunctive ~▪┞G 197 conjunctive ~▪⧒☚G 198 – 9 conjunctive ~☚⪳G 51, 56 conjunctive ~✶㰖G 88 – 9 conjunctive ~㠊/㞚☚G 115, 120, 198 conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ 51–4, 61 – 3, 64 – 5 conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㟒G 75 – 6, 123

conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive 98 conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive 198 conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive

~㠞/㞮▪⧒ⳊG 198 ~(㦒)⋮G114 – 5 ~(㦒)┞₢G 53 – 4, 64 – 5 ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳G 75 ~(㦒)⩂G 51, 54 – 5 ~(㦒)⩺ἶG 51, 53, 55, 74, ~(㦒)⩺┺ṖG 98 – 9 ~(㦒)⩺ⳊG 74 ~(㦒)ⳆG86 – 7 ~(㦒)ⳊG 72 – 3, 74 – 5, 121 – 2, ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲G 51, 95 – 6 ~㧦Ⱎ㧦G 96 ~㰖Ⱒ 51 – 3, 113–4

ellipsis 107 honorific suffix ~(㦒)㔲G 12 – 13 modality ability 178 – 80 evidentiality 146 – 50 obligation 122 – 3 permission 120 – 1 possibility 178 – 80 prohibition 121 – 2 modifiers 137 –40 noun-modifying ending ~⓪G 137 –8, 146 – 8, 157 – 60, 166 – 9, 186 – 8 noun-modifying ending ~▮G196 noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)චG 138 – 9, 146 – 8, 157 – 8, 160, 166 – 9, 186 – 9 noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥG 139–40, 146 – 8, 169 – 70, 178 – 80, 186 – 9 relative clause 137 – 40, 186

279


negation 122 negative ⴑG178 – 9 negative 㞞G121 – 2 nominalization 205 – 11 nominalizing ending ~₆ 205 – 10 nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත 210 – 11

Index

particles particle ṯ㧊G20 particle ₢㰖G21 particle ☚ 107, 179, 210 particle ⪲G 208 particle Ⱎ┺G 21 particle Ⱎ㩖G21 particle ⰢG22, 76, 179 particle Ⱒ䋒G 20 particle ⹬㠦G22, 179 particle ⽊┺G19 – 20 particle 㠦G158 – 9, 166, 168, 206 – 7 particle 㠦ỢG130 particle 㦖/⓪G98, 205 – 7 particle 㧊/ṖG180, 209 – 10 particle 㫆㹾G21 particle 㻮⩒G20 particle 䞲䎢G130 passives 129 – 30, 131 – 2 suffix ~₆G 129, 130, 132 suffix ~㧊G 129, 131 – 2 suffix ~ⰂG 129, 130, 132 suffix ~䧞G 129, 131 – 2 post modifiers 157 ~⓪ ₎G157 ~⓪ ☚㭧G159 ~⓪ ☯㞞G158 – 9 ~⓪G⹪⧢㠦G168 ~⓪G㭧㧊┺G 159 – 60 ~⓪/(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺G 168 – 9 ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲G 166 ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺G 167 – 8 ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺G160 ~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒G157 – 8 ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦G166 – 7 ~(㦒)ඥ ➢G169 – 70 ~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞┺G169 predicate type restriction 53, 56, 73, 113 progressive 44, 159 – 60 question direct question 186 – 7 indirect question 186 – 7

280

quotation abbreviated indirect quotation endings 222 – 3 direct quotation 219 – 20 indirect quotation 219 – 23 indirect quotation particle ἶ 195, 220 – 3 quotation particle (㧊)⧒ἶG219 quotation particle 䞮ἶG 220 retrospective suffix ~▪G 195–8 sentence-final endings ending ~Ệ✶㣪G 76 – 7 ending ~ῆ㣪G 14– 15 ending ~⍺㣪G 13– 14 ending ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪G107 ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪G 195 ending ~㰖㣪G 11 – 13 sentence types 1 – 3, 28, 53–4, 56, 63 – 4, 73, 114, 221 declarative 1 – 3, 53 – 5, 64, 120, 221 imperative 1 – 3, 53 – 4, 63, 65, 76, 222 interrogative 1 – 3, 53 – 5, 64, 120, 158, 222 propositive 1 – 3, 53 – 4, 63, 65, 76, 222 speech levels 11 deferential speech level 2, 11, 52 intimate speech level 1 – 2, 11 plain speech level 2 – 3, 11, 221 – 2 polite speech level 1 – 2, 11, 120, 221 subject agreement restriction 52 – 3, 54 – 6, 65, 73, 113 suffixes suffix ~ỶG 13 – 15 suffix ~ῆG 11 suffix ~⍺G 11 suffix ~㰖G 11 tense 27 – 8, 52, 219 past 14 – 15, 46, 52, 74, 97 – 8, 106, 138 – 40, 146 – 50, 170, 186 – 7, 196 – 8, 207 present 137 – 8, 146, 186 – 7 prospective 139 – 40, 146, 186 – 7 tense agreement restriction 52, 54 – 6, 63, 65, 73, 86 – 7, 95 – 6, 113 voice 27, 129

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