The Reporter The Journal of the New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
Theme: Adapted Physical Education
NJAHPERD EXECUTIVE BOARD 2005-06 PRESIDENT: Jacqueline Malaska, firstname.lastname@example.org PRESIDENT ELECT: Dr. Klara Gubacs-Collins, GubacsK@mail.montclair.edu PAST PRESIDENT: Dr. Tim Sullivan, Sullivant@mail.montclair.edu TREASURER: Joan Mariconda, email@example.com EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Joe Locascio, firstname.lastname@example.org RECORDING SECRETARY: Arlene Dolegiewitz, email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, HEALTH: Dr. Shari Willis, firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Anne Quintavella, email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, RECREATION: Rich Mann, firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, DANCE: Marcella Gonzales email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, SPORTS AND ATHLETICS: Lara Wallert, firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, STUDENT DIVISION: Evan Totka, email@example.com VP-ELECT, HEALTH: Jennifer Tym, firstname.lastname@example.org VP-ELECT, PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Lucille Williams, email@example.com VP-ELECT, RECREATION: Ben Schaffer, firstname.lastname@example.org VP-ELECT, DANCE: Sharon Phillips, Shar0se@yahoo.com VP-ELECT, SPORTS AND ATHLETICS: Jim McConville, email@example.com MARKETING & PUBLIC RELATIONS: Jim McConville, firstname.lastname@example.org AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR: Jennifer Ellis, email@example.com CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS: Dr. Michele Fisher, firstname.lastname@example.org CREDENTIALS AND ELECTIONS: Dr. Domenica Desiderioscioli, email@example.com COUNTY COUNCIL COORDINATOR: Jennifer Scuderi-Lahey Jennlucy@aol.com LONG RANGE PLANNING: Dr. Domenica Desiderioscioli, firstname.lastname@example.org NECROLOGY: Juanita Fieseler, JPFies@aol.com NJEA CONVENTION: Joanne Groeger, joannGroe@aol.com EDITOR, THE REPORTER: Dr. Kathy Silgailis, email@example.com TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE: Barbara Huss, firstname.lastname@example.org ADVISOR TO THE STUDENT DIVISION: Dr. Carolyn Masterson, email@example.com DEPT. OF EDUCATION REP: Dr. Jim McCall, firstname.lastname@example.org RETIREES NETWORK: Mary Putman, email@example.com EDA REP, COUNCIL FOR CONVENTION Dr. Klara Gubacs-Collins, firstname.lastname@example.org EDA REP, COUNCIL FOR SERVICES: Lynn Holman, email@example.com EDITOR, FYI: Dr. Peter Rattigan, firstname.lastname@example.org LEGISLATIVE ACTION COMMITTEE: Bruce Peragallo, email@example.com MEMBERSHIP: Lynn Vollmuth, firstname.lastname@example.org PARLIAMENTARIAN: Dr. Michele Fisher, email@example.com AMERICAN HEART ASSOC. REP: Nan Cashon, firstname.lastname@example.org COORD. LAKE CONFERENCE &HFH/JRFH: John Grzymko, email@example.com NJEA REP: Sharyn Robbins, firstname.lastname@example.org LEGISLATIVE FITNESS DAY: Richard Mann, email@example.com ADVOCACY: Theresa Purcell-Cone, firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS President’s Message.........................................................2 Jacqueline Malaska Calendar of Upcoming Events........................................2 Welcome to Adapted Physical Education!.....................3 Matthew Schinelli, Director of NJAPE Introduction to Adapted Physical Education................4 Project INSPIRE Adapted Physical Education National Standards.........6 Adapted P. E. National Standards UPDATE!.............10 Adapted Physical Education Status in New Jersey.....11 Tim Sullivan, Montclair State University Disability Information Sheets…….……………….….14 Project INSPIRE Creating an Individualized Education Program (IEP) in PE ..………..............26 Bryan Smith, Bridgewater-Raritan School District Supporting Children with Autism in PE: Two Intervention Strategies…………….….......…28 Iva Obrusnikova, Rowan University Dr. Thomas M. Vodola: Nobody Like Him …….........30 Thomas M. Pagano, Ocean Twp. School District Positive and Not so Positive Discipline Techniques....32 Tim Davis, SUNY Cortland Modified Games/Activities ….....………………….….35 Karen Hilberg, William Paterson University Rediscovering Your ABC’s............................................44 Matthew Schinelli, Livingston Public School Adapted Physical Education Resources......................46 Innovative Lesson Plan: Marijuana and Driving: A Dangerous Combination......................................48 Shari Willis, Kimberly Weiss & Brian Newton, Rowan University New Jersey Urban Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Activity, Sport, Physical Fitness, and Physical Education....................................................51 Carolyn Masterson, Nick Barese & Deborah Hortas, Montclair State U. Guidelines for Authors……………..............................56 .
PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE “Teaching Outside the Box”
Calendar of Upcoming Events FUTURE PROFESSIONAL WORKSHOP NJAAHPERD STUDENT DIVISION November 6, 2005 E. Brunswick High School, E. Brunswick NJ NJEA CONFERENCE November 10-11, 2005 Atlantic City, NJ PTA CONVENTION November 18-19, 2005 E. Brunswick Hilton, E. Brunswick NJ HANDS ON HEALTH CONFERENCE December 5, 2005 Jamesburg Holiday Inn, Jamesburg NJ REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY January 9, 2006 TBA PRE CONVENTION WORKSHOPS February 26, 2006 E. Brunswick High School, E. Brunswick NJ NJAHPERD ANNUAL CONVENTION February 27-28, 2006 E. Brunswick Hilton, E. Brunswick NJ EDA CONVENTION March 1-5, 2006 Hartford, CT AAHPERD CONVENTION April 25-29, 2006 Salt Lake City, UT
As educators, we face daily challenges as we strive for excellence in our teaching responsibilities. We incorporate a multitude of strategies to address the physical ability levels, cultural diversity, various competing interests, learning styles, multiple intelligences, and medical limitations of our students. The common thread is that all children need our expertise and guidance to achieve the knowledge and skills necessary for a lifetime of wellness. Simply stated, we must be everything for all students. Effective teachers “think outside the box” to reach as many students as possible. Taking a risk and trying a new way to teach a skill may be the best way to motivate a special needs student. An adaptation to a piece of equipment’s color, size, or height may make the difference between success and failure. A health concept taught through role playing or modifying the time allotted to finish a project, can positively affect a student. Teaching outside the box is being creative, resourceful and patient. It means finding effective ways, sometimes after many trials and errors, to do what ever it takes to enhance our students’ confidence, competence and knowledge. I encourage you to be realistic in your expectations, and then raise your personal bar. Do everything possible to help all your students experience the joys of movement and a lifetime of wellness. I hope this edition of The Reporter assists you in your efforts to continue to be the best that you can be, both for yourself and for your students! Jacqueline Malaska President NJAHPERD 2
EDITORIAL BOARD EDITOR: Dr. Kathy Silgailis Dept. of EMS William Paterson University Wayne, NJ 07470 973-720-2708 email@example.com INVITED ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Karen Hilberg Dept. of Recreational Services William Paterson University Wayne, NJ 07470 973-720-2779 firstname.lastname@example.org REVIEWERS: Dr. Klara Gubacs-Collins Dept. of ESPE Montclair State University Lynn Holman Millstone Elementary School Plainsboro Lynn Vollmuth Franklin Elementary School Union Dr. Shari Willis Dept. of HES Rowan University Bonnie Zimmermann Glen Rock High School Glen Rock Printed by: Server Graphics, Inc. Wayne, NJ
Advertisers welcomed and encouraged. Price list available from: Joe Locascio Executive Director, NJAHPERD P.O. Box 7578 North Brunswick, NJ 08902-7578 732-297-1040 email@example.com Material published in this journal does not necessarily reflect the views of the Editor or the policies of NJAHPERD.
Welcome to Adapted Physical Education! Navigating the complexities of implementing an inclusive physical education program often presents significant challenges for teachers and administrators. Inclusive physical education models traditionally present several constraints that unfairly burden physical education teachers including the lack of preparation time provided to help teachers understand the strengths and weaknesses of their students and which skills should be taught to each student. Too often the general physical education teacher is asked to modify activities that are not a realistic or reasonable match for the student with disabilities. In addition, little to no extra setup or lead in time is provided to help understand what those needs are and how to best meet them in the inclusive physical education setting. General physical education teachers are often required to adhere to the basic curriculum when working with students with special needs. Not only is the practice unfair to both the student and teacher, but it might squarely place the district in conflict with the nature of the studentâ€™s needs, which could eventually present legal problems. Inclusion does not mean teaching all children the same skill at the same time in the same way. The goal of New Jersey Adapted Physical Education (NJAPE) is for all physical education teachers to receive the necessary training and support to work effectively with students with disabilities. This goal is in direct alignment with the language of Federal Public Law 105-17 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). Please review the articles included in this issue of The Reporter to get started on your path to understanding the needs of students with disabilities. For more information about adapted physical education in New Jersey, visit the NJAPE website at: www.njape.com Matthew Schinelli Director of NJAPE
Adapted Physical Education
Introduction to Adapted Physical Education What is Adapted Physical Education? Adapted physical education is the art and science of developing and implementing a carefully designed physical education instructional program for an individual with a disability, based on a comprehensive assessment, to give the individual skills necessary for a lifetime of rich leisure, recreation, and sport experiences to enhance physical fitness and wellness.
Who is an Adapted Physical Education Teacher? The adapted physical education teacher (APE) is the person responsible for developing an appropriate physical education plan for individuals with disabilities. The APE teacher is a physical educator with highly specialized training in the assessment and evaluation of motor competency, physical fitness, play and leisure, recreation, and sport skills. The APE teacher has the skills necessary to develop an individualized physical education program and to implement the program. The APE is a direct service provider, not a related service provider, because special physical education is a federally mandated component of special education services.
What Responsibilities Should an Adapted Physical Educator Specialist Assume? • Direct service provider. • Assessment specialist, completing comprehensive motor assessments of individualswith disabilities and making specific program recommendations. • Consultant for physical education and special education staff providing physical education instruction for individuals with disabilities. • Individualized Education Program (IEP) Committee member who helps develop the IEP in the psychomotor domain. • Student and parent advocate. • Program coordinator who develops curricular materials, develops intra and inter-agency collaborations to meet the needs of individuals with disabilities, and monitors progress on IEP’s.
The Individualized Education Program (IEP) The IEP must include each of the following components: • A statement of the child’s present levels of educational performance including how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general curriculum. • Measurable annual goals. • Short-term instructional objectives or “benchmarks” relating to enabling the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum 4
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and meeting each of the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability. Statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided. Program modifications or supports that will be provided for the child to advance toward the annual goals and to be involved and progress in the general curriculum, to participate in extracurricular activities, and to be educated and participate with other children with and without disabilities. An explanation of the extent to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and extracurricular activities. Projected date for the beginning of services and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of services and modifications.
• A statement of how progress toward the annual goals will be measured. • A statement of how the parents will be regularly informed (by such means as a periodic report card), at least as often as parents are informed of their nondisabled children’s progress, of the child’s progress toward the annual goals and the extent to which that progress is sufficient to enable the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year. • Consideration of assistive technology devices and services. Physical Education and the IEP Physical education must be addressed on the child’s IEP. Most certainly, the IEP Committee is responsible for determining if the student needs to be evaluated for Adapted Physical Education services. Unfortunately all too often, a unilateral decision is made by someone without a broad based understanding of physical education or the federal mandates and the IEP reflects only that the child’s educational needs are being met in the regular physical education program. If the child is evaluated and it is recommended that the child receive Adapted Physical Education services, then physical education must be addressed within each of the required components of the IEP. In some states, an Individual Physical Education Plan is developed. Reprinted with permission from Project INSPIRE website (www.twu.edu/inspire).
Adapted Physical Education
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION NATIONAL STANDARDS (APENS) APENS has two objectives: 1. To define a body of knowledge based upon what practicing Adapted Physical Education teachers are actually doing in their jobs. 2. To develop a means of certifying that a Physical Education Teacher has the skills and knowledge to practice Adapted Physical Education. The determination of the current roles, responsibilities, and perceived needs of practicing adapted physical educators required: (a) the creation of an appropriate tool to collect this information; and (b) the identification of a representative sample of practitioners to supply the needed information. The first step was to review previous needs assessment instruments that had been used in the profession and to solicit input from the Executive and Steering Committees. With this information, the project staff developed and field tested a survey. The second task was to identify a representative sample of practitioners to receive the survey. Since it was essential that the job analysis be completed by teachers who were actually practicing adapted physical educators, it was ultimately decided to identify exemplary K-12 adapted physical educators in each state and then to use this group as the sample. A stratified sampling plan was developed. This process resulted in a total sample size of 585 with each state contributing a weighted number of subjects based upon the population of the state. Two states were unable to produce the requested number resulting in the final sample size of 575. These results were reviewed by the Steering Committee and divided into 15 broad areas. The
members of the Steering Committee were then assigned 2-3 of these areas for which they were responsible for delineating the content with their individual Standards Committees. The content in each of the 15 standards was divided into five levels as shown in the example below: Level 1: Standard Number and Name (e.g., 2. Motor Behavior) Level 2: Major components of the Standard (e.g., Theories of Motor Development, Principles of Motor Learning, etc.) Level 3: Sub-components, dependent pieces of knowledge of fact or principle related to the major component that all regular educators would be expected to know (e.g., stages of learning, knowledge of types of feedback, etc.) Level 4: Adapted Physical Education content additional knowledge regarding the sub components that teachers working with individuals with disabilities need to know (e.g., common delays in development experienced by individuals with severe visual impairments) Level 5: Application of adapted physical education content knowledge from (level 4) to teaching individuals with disabilities (e.g., can identify and interpret motor performance delays in children with disabilities) The first three levels of each standard represent content that should be known by all physical educators. These levels were developed by the Steering Committee and reviewed and validated by the Standards Committees. Level 4 content represents the additional content adapted physical educators need to know to meet the roles and responsibilities of their positions. Level 5 contains example applications of the level 4 content that adapted physical educators would be expected to be able to demonstrate. 6
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THE 15 ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION NATIONAL STANDARDS Standard 1: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT The foundation of proposed goals and activities for individuals with disabilities is grounded in a basic understanding of human development and its applications to those with various needs. For the adapted physical education teacher, this implies familiarity with theories and practices related to human development. The emphasis within this standard focuses on knowledge and skills helpful in providing quality APE programs. Standard 2: MOTOR BEHAVIOR Teaching individuals with disabilities requires some knowledge of how individuals develop. In the case of APE teachers, it means having knowledge of typical physical and motor development as well as understanding the influence of developmental delays on these processes. It also means understanding how individuals learn motor skills and apply principles of motor learning during the planning and teaching of physical education to students with disabilities. Standard 3: EXERCISE SCIENCE As an adapted physical educator, you must understand that modifications to the scientific principles of exercise and the application of these principles may be needed when teaching individuals with disabilities to ensure that all children with disabilities enjoy similar benefits of exercise. While there is a wealth of information in the foundational sciences, the focus of this standard will be on the principles that address the physiological and biomechanical applications encountered when working with diverse populations. Standard 4: MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION This standard is one of the foundation standards underscoring the background an adapted physical educator should have in order to comply with the mandates of legislation and meet the needs of students. Understanding the measurement of motor performance, to a large extent, is based on a good grasp of motor development and the acquisition of motor skills covered in other standards. Standard 5: HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY This standard traces facts regarding legal and philosophical factors involved in current day practices in adapted physical education. This information is important to understand the changing contribution that physical education can make in their lives. Major components of each law that related to education and physical activity are emphasized. The review of history and philosophy related to special and general education is also covered in this area. Standard 6: UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES OF LEARNERS Standard 6 refers to information based on the disability areas identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) found within school age population. Material is categorically organized in order to 7
Adapted Physical Education present the information in a systematic matter. This organization is not intended to advocate a categorical approach to teaching children with disabilities. All children should be treated as individuals and assessed to determine what needs they have. Standard 7: CURRICULUM THEORY AND DEVELOPMENT As you are planning to teach physical education to students with disabilities, you should recognize that certain Curriculum Theory and Development concepts, such as selecting goals based on relevant and appropriate assessments, must be understood by APE teachers. As you have no doubt discovered Curriculum Theory and Development is more than writing unit and lesson plans. Nowhere does this come into play more than when you are planning a program for a student with disability. Standard 8: ASSESSMENT This standard addresses the process of assessment, one that is commonly taught as part of the basic measurement and evaluation course in a physical education degree curriculum. Assessment goes beyond data gathering to include measurements for the purpose of making decisions about special services and program components for individuals with disabilities.
Standard 9: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND PLANNING Instructional design and planning must be developed before an APE teacher can provide services to meet legal mandates, educational goals and most importantly the unique needs of individuals with disabilities. Many of the principles addressed earlier in human development, motor behavior, exercise science and curriculum theory and development are applied to this standard in order to successfully design and plan programs of physical education. Standard 10: TEACHING A major part of any APE position is teaching. In this standard many of the principles addressed earlier in such standard areas as human development, motor behavior, and exercise science, are applied to this standard in order to effectively provide quality physical education to individuals with disabilities. Standard 11: CONSULTATION AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT As more students with disabilities are included in the general education program, teachers will provide more consultation and staff development activities for colleagues. This will require sensitivity and excellent communication skills. The dynamics of interdisciplinary cooperation in the consultation process requires knowledge of several consultative models. This standard identifies key competencies an adapted physical educator should know related to consultation and staff development.
Adapted Physical Education Standard 12: STUDENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION Program evaluation is a process of which student assessment is only a part. It involves evaluation of the entire range of educational services. Few physical educators are formally trained for program evaluation, as national standards for programs have only recently become available. Therefore, any program evaluation that has been conducted is typically specific to the school or district, or limited to a small range of parameters such as number of students scoring at a certain level of a physical fitness test. Adapted physical education programs or outcomes for students with disabilities are almost never considered in this process. Standard 13: CONTINUING EDUCATION The goal of this standard is to focus on APE teachers remaining current in their field. A variety of opportunities for professional development are available. Course work at a local college or university is just one avenue. APE teachers can take advantage of workshops, seminars and presentations at conferences, conventions or in service training. Distance learning opportunities are also becoming abundant. Standard 14: ETHICS A fundamental premise of the Adapted Physical Education National Standards Project is that those who seek and meet the standards to be certified as adapted physical educators will strive at all times to adhere to the highest of ethical standards in providing programs and services for children and youth with disabilities. This standard has been developed to ensure that its members not only understand the importance of sound ethical practices, but also adhere to and advance such practices. Standard 15: COMMUNICATION In recent years, the role of the professional in APE has evolved from being a direct service provider to include communicating with families and other professionals in order to enhance program instruction for individuals with disabilities. This standard includes information regarding the APE teacher effectively communicating with families and other professionals using a team approach in order to enhance service delivery to individuals with disabilities.
Reprinted by permission from: www.cortland.edu/APENS/
Adapted Physical Education
Adapted Physical Education National Standards UPDATE! APENS is on the move! APENS is now housed at the State University of New York at Cortland under the leadership of Dr. Timothy D. Davis. Announcing our new web site: www.cortland.edu/ APENS - please visit our new site for the latest information and applications. The new site has a complete listing of the APENS standards with a brief description of each along with information on how to secure a study guide and manuscript on How to Make CAPE Work for You! Finally, feedback is great so feel free to email the APENS staff at APENS@cortland.edu. Let us know your Adapted Physical Education concerns! If you are a current CAPE and a member of the NCPERID, APENS is looking for STATE COORDINATORS! If you are interested, your role will be to share our vision by helping to put “A CAPE IN EVERY DISTRICT IN THE COUNTRY!” There are over 14,000 public school districts that serve approximately 5.2 million children with disabilities in the United States. APENS is concerned that for so many of those children, qualified Adapted Physical Educators are not available or possible for the district to hire. Therefore, general Physical Educators are often left to manage with little or no experience or training. In addition, the majority of states do not offer a certification in Adapted Physical Education or require certification to teach Adapted Physical Education. The 15 Adapted Physical Education Standards detailing the comprehensive knowledge Adapted Physical Educators need to know is available for Adapted Physical Education and general Physical Education teachers to review, study, and ultimately demonstrate by sitting for the APENS exam. If a district is unable to hire or find a qualified Adapted Physical Educator, they should at least provide the opportunity for an existing general Physical Educator to learn the 15 standards and demonstrate that knowledge by taking the APENS exam. Join the movement be a part of a national unified voice for all Adapted Physical Educators by taking the APENS National Certification Exam. The national certification exam, sanctioned by the National Consortium for Physical Education and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities (NCPERID), is composed of 100 multiple choice items designed to measure a teacher’s knowledge base according to the APENS. A comprehensive website exists for the APENS Project (www.cortland.edu/APENS). Applications for the exam can be downloaded from the website or can be obtained by contacting Dr. Timothy D. Davis, E253 Park Center, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY 13077. Phone: (607) 753-4969. Email: APENS@cortland.edu or Davist@cortland.edu. 10
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Adapted Physical Education Status in New Jersey Tim Sullivan Montclair State University Does New Jersey have a Adapted Physical Education State Mandate? No Physical Education is mandated in grades K12 in New Jersey. N.J.S.A. 18A:35-7&8 requires that students in grades 1-12 receive 150 minutes (or two and one-half hours) of health, safety, and physical education per week, prorated for school holidays. Local school districts decide how many minutes per week are necessary in each area in order to achieve the core standards.
Adapted Physical Education (state regulations/ definition):
Adapted Physical Education State Regulations (yes/no): No Since instruction in Physical Education is part of Special Education p93 Chapter 14 Special Education www.state.nj.us/njded/code/current/title6a/ chap14.pdf ”Physical Education – is the development of Physical and Motor Fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns and skill in aquatics, dance, and individual games and sports and includes special education, adapted physical education and motor development.” The State Department refers to comprehensive Health and Physical Education. State Director of Special Education:
The State Department includes Adapted Physical Education as part of Physical Education. According to the NJAHPERD, Adapted Physical Education in New Jersey is a specially designed program of developmental activities, games, sports, and rhythms suited to the interests, capabilities and limitations of students with disabilities who may not safely or successfully engage in unrestricted participation in the activities of the regular physical education program. The safety of students must be considered when planning and implementing APE programs. The Individuals with Disabilities Act requires special education, including instruction in physical education, be provided at no cost to parents. Adapted physical education may be supplemented by related services, intramural sports, athletics, or other experiences that are not primarily instructed. However, these services cannot be provided in place of an adapted physical education program.
Barbara Gantwerk, Director Office of Special Education Programs New Jersey Department of Education 100 Riverview Plaza P. O. Box 500 Trenton, NJ 08625-0500 (609) 633-6833 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.state.nj.us/education State Director/Representative of Physical Education: Dr James McCall, Physical Education and Health Consultant New Jersey Department of Education 100 Riverview Plaza P. O. Box 500 Trenton, NJ 08625-0500 (609) 633-6833 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.state.nj.us/education 11
Jump Rope For Heart at: Adapted Physical Education Number of State Certified Physical Educators: There are approximately 7,000 certified physical education teachers in New Jersey. Number of State Certified Adapted Physical Educators: New Jersey does not have a state certification for APE. Adapted Physical Education National Standards (APENS): State reps â€“ Information: Margaret Malley, NJAHPERD Adapted Physical Education Chair E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Matt Schinelli, NJAPE Project Coordinator E-mail: email@example.com Total Nationally Certified Adapted Physical Education(CAPE) Instructors Within State of NJ: 15 State/Regional Parent Advocacy Information: Parent Training and Information Center (PTI) Diane Autin, Executive Co-Director Deborah Jennings, Co-Director Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN) 35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor Newark, NJ 07102 (973) 642-8100; (800) 654-7726 (In NJ) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.spannj.org Parent-To-Parent Malia Corde, Program Coordinator New Jersey Statewide Parent-to-Parent 35 Halsey Street Newark, NJ 07102 (908) 537-4673; (800) 372-6510 E-mail: Parent2Parent@spannj.org Web: www.spannj.org/familywrap/ parent2parent.htm
Councils on Developmental Disabilities Ethan B. Ellis, Executive Director New Jersey Council on Developmental Disabilities 20 W. State Street, 7th floor P. O. Box 700 Trenton, NJ 08625-0700 (609) 292-3745 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.njddc.org Protection and Advocacy Agency Sarah W. Mitchell, Executive Director New Jersey Protection and Advocacy, Inc. 210 S. Broad Street, 3rd Floor Trenton, NJ 08608 (609) 292-9742; (609) 633-7106 (TTY) (800) 922-7233 (in NJ) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Deborah Spitalnik, Ph.D., Executive Director The Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Liberty Plaza 335 George Street, 3rd Floor P.O. Box 2688 New Brunswick, NJ 08903-2688 (732) 235-9300 E-mail: email@example.com Web: rwjms.umdnj.edu/boggscenter Technology-Related Assistance Ellen Catanese, Project Director Assistive Technology Advocacy Center New Jersey Protection and Advocacy, Inc. 210 S. Broad Street, Third Floor Trenton, NJ 08608 (609) 292-9742; (609) 633-7106 (TTY) (800) 922-7233 (in NJ) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.njpanda.org
Adapted Physical Education State Special Education Resources (e.g., CEC, TASH): State Department of Education: Special Education Barbara Gantwerk, Director Office of Special Education Programs New Jersey Department of Education 100 Riverview Plaza P. O. Box 500 Trenton, NJ 08625-0500 (609) 633-6833 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.state.nj.us/education State Coordinator for NCLB (No Child Left Behind) J. Michael Rush, Chief of Staff New Jersey Department of Education P.O. Box 500 100 Riverview Plaza Trenton, NJ 08625 (609) 292-4442 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.state.nj.us/education State Assistive Technology Information: www.state.nj.us/njded/techno/assistive/ State Early Childhood Special Education Information:
State Disability Sport Organizations/Contacts: New Jersey Dept. of Community Affairs Sponsors state-wide athletic programs for individuals with disabilities www.nj.gov/dca/programsbook/ programsbook.pdf Special Olympics Contact 窶適im Baraldi Web: www.sonj.org
Disability Sport Organizations (e.g., USCPAA, USABA, Wheelchair Sports USA): Contact Patricia Swartz New Jersey Dept. of Community Affairs, Office of Recreation Web: www.state.nj.us/dca/rec/ APENS: Contact Tim Davis Email: APENS@Cortland.edu Web: www.cortland.edu/APENS NJAHPERD: Email: email@example.com Web: www.njahperd.org
For 3-5: www.state.nj.us/njded/ece/eoy.htm Early Intervention, Early Childhood Special Education, ... early care and education programs serving children birth through age eight; NJ State Agencies... www.njpdc.org/pages/personnel.html early childhood projects funded by the Office of Special Education ... information and consultation via telephone and email, state conferences, ... www.nectac.org/topics/personnel/619/ NJ619TASys.asp
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Disability Information Sheets What is an “Information Sheet” and “How do I use it?” http://www.twu.edu/inspire/Fact_Sheets/ dis_info.htm The information sheets contained in these pages were developed by Doctoral and Masters students studying adapted physical education at Texas Woman’s University in Denton, Texas. The information sheets were designed to help educators and family members who wish to enhance the leisure, recreation, and sport competencies and the health and physical fitness of individuals with disabilities. The material shared is categorized by disability in order to facilitate easy access to the information. This is done with the best possible intent. Obviously, individuals with disabilities are unique, capable, talented individuals who should not be labeled within a category.
Attention Deficit Disorders Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can best be explained by highlighting some of the common characteristics of individuals with ADD/ADHD: • Distractibility • Difficulty following directions • Difficulty working independently • Difficulty focusing and concentrating • Difficulty organizing school work and other responsibilities • Avoiding activities that require sustained self-application • Poor work habits and study skills • Inconsistent performance in school work • Difficulty “reading” social situations • Difficulty with rule-governed situations Generally Suspected Causes of ADD/ADHD Include: neurological • brain damage • head injury • anoxia fetal alcohol syndrome
genetic environmental • toxins • poor nutrition General Behaviors Associated with ADD/ ADHD: Impulsivity Impatience Intrusiveness High activity level Aggressiveness Social immaturity Low self-esteem Difficulty handling transitions Easily frustrated Motor Behaviors of Individuals with ADD/ ADHD: Poor dynamic balance Delayed fine motor development Extraneous movements Perseveres (tends to continue an activity) Arrthymia patterns Poor motor planning Misapplied force Premature, delayed or inappropriate responses Varied performance levels • skilled in one activity • relatively unskilled in another Teaching Suggestions: • Use strategies to help the learner focus and maintain attention • Follow a routine • Plan smooth transitions • Alert a learner that a transition is about to occur • Develop a behavior management plan which includes positive reinforcement and quick redirection • Use proximity control • Have clear expectations • Post and verbalize expectations often • Create a relaxed environment • Incorporate “down time” into the lesson • Decrease distractions in the learning environment • Reduce clutter 14
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Asthma Asthma is a respiratory disease with a number of causes. An inhaler that delivers medication directly to the lungs is often used. Some inhalers work best prior to exercise. Individuals with asthma tend to be sensitive to weather changes, heavy exercise, body temperature changes, pollution, and cigarette smoke.
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a non-progressive condition caused by damage to the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly following birth. “Cerebral” refers to brain and “palsy” refers to a disorder of movement or posture.
TYPES OF CEREBRAL PALSY: Spastic: Muscles are tense, contracted and resistant to movement. This makes muscle movement “jerky” and uncertain. These individuals have exaggerated stretch reflexes that cause them to respond to rapid passive stretching with vigorous muscle contractions. Spastic CP is the most comCOMMONLY USED MEDICATIONS: mon type of CP. Ventolin Athetoid: Characterized by involuntary Alupent movements of the body parts affected. The hands Proventol may twist and turn, and often there is facial grilbuterol macing, tonguing and drooling. Because of the Intal presence of primitive reflexes and inability to control muscles, posture is unpredictable. FIRST AID: Ataxia: Disturbance or lack of balance and • Encourage self-monitoring, particularly with coordination. Individual may sway when standing, older learners. • Assist the individual with asthma by provid- have trouble maintaining balance and may walk ing controlled access to inhalers during exer- with feet spread wide apart to avoid falling. cise. • Use cool, wet towels on the back of the neck CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY: Lack of oxygen supply to the fetus to assist in body temperature control. Illness during pregnancy • In the event of an asthma attack, make the inChild abuse dividual comfortable and monitor breathing. Premature delivery • Seek help if needed. Lead poisoning Illness early in the infant’s life TEACHING TIPS: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS: Breathing difficulty, particularly exhalation Wheezing Coughing Occasionally, a “barrel chest” appearance
• • • • • • •
Watch for fatigue and signs of overexertion COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF CERElike redness in the face. Be sure to include warm-up exercises prior to BRAL PALSY: • Persistence of primitive reflexes any vigorous activity. • Involuntary movement Include breathing control exercises. • Disturbance in gait and mobility In a classroom, place the individual with • Slow to develop equilibrium reflexes asthma away from the chalkboard to avoid • Loss of perceptual ability chalk dust. • Seizures Remind the individual with asthma to drink • Learning disability or mental retardation adequate water during the class period. • Poor depth perception and poor tracking Encourage diaphragmatic breathing. ability due to difficulty with coordinating Let the individual with asthma be the guide in eye movements the level of activity at any given time, and provide alternate ways to be part of the activity when necessary.
Adapted Physical Education TEACHING TIPS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: • Take caution at the hip joint when doing activities. • Individuals with CP who use wheelchairs are at high risk for hip dislocation. • Adapt activities and modify rules and/or the environment to permit participation in group games. • Use larger balls that enable the fingers to be in extension. This inhibits the hand grasp reflex. • Teach striking activities with an open hand (e.g., use a tetherball or a balloon suspended on a string). • Utilize communication boards. • Provide frequent rest periods. • Integrate relaxation training into the lesson. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: • Stretching exercises • Tether ball or balloon activities • Manual wheelchair maneuvers to build upper body strength • Soccer (individual can use the wheelchair to kick the ball) • Aquatic activities • Physical fitness activities to strengthen large and small muscle groups • Bowling • Rhythm activities • Baseball (use a plastic bat and ball, e.g. , placed on a cone, or suspended on a string)
Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders resulting from insufficiency of insulin. The two most common types of diabetes mellitus are insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes. TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS: Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I): Type I diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas stops producing insulin and is usually diagnosed before 18 years of age. Insulin helps the body use carbohydrates. Students manage diabetes by taking insulin, eating regular nutritional meals and snacks, exercising regularly and monitoring blood sugars. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (Type II): The onset of Type II diabetes is gradual and frequently does not occur until after 30 years of age. Insulin therapy is usually not necessary because individuals with this type of diabetes usually retain some insulin secretion capabilities. Obesity usually accompanies Type II diabetes. SYMPTOMS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA: High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a problem for active individuals with Type I or Type II diabetes. It results when daily exercise volume is suddenly reduced without increasing insulin or oral agents used to control glucose levels. Symptoms Include: Inattentiveness Extreme thirst Lethargy Frequent need to urinate SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA: Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is the greatest concern of the individual who has Type I diabetes. Hypoglycemia can occur quickly and needs immediate attention. Skipping or delaying meals or snacks, exercising or too much insulin can cause blood sugar to fall rapidly. Symptoms include: Shaking/trembling Mental slowness Double vision 16
Adapted Physical Education Irritability/mood swings Sudden hunger Slurred speech Sweating Inappropriate responses Inability to concentrate Weakness Sudden anger Headache Sleepiness Sudden silence Numbness FIRST AID FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DIABETES: • Permit the diabetic student to leave the classroom to take medication, test blood sugar or to ingest sugar. • Take care of cuts and bruises immediately, because diabetic students can develop skin infections easily. • If the student becomes unconscious or is unable to take the sugar, call the nurse immediately. If the student’s blood sugar is high: • Let the student rest if lethargic. • Avoid exercise until testing for ketones in the urine has been completed. If the student’s blood sugar is low: • Give some form of sugar immediately (4 to 8 oz. of a regular soft drink, fruit juice or a commercial gel or sugar tablet). When improvement occurs, give additional food. • If the student does not improve after sugar intake, call for emergency assistance. TEACHING TIPS AND SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: • Determine physical activity tolerance levels through communication with the student’s parents and physician. • Help the student schedule physical education within two hours of eating. • Avoid psychological stress caused by competitive or excitatory activities.
Emotional Disturbances Section 300.7c(4) of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (1997) defines emotional disturbance as a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: A. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. B. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. C. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. D. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. E. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. F. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. The term emotional disturbance is often used interchangeably with the terms emotional disorder/problem, behavior disorder/disturbance, psychiatric illness, and mental illness/disorder. For more information, visit the Project INSPIRE information sheet for Mental Disorders, or any of the various links throughout this information sheet. The symptoms of emotional disturbance can include everything from severe anxiety to having strange thoughts and hearing voices that nobody can hear. Following are some of the most common emotional disturbances. 17
Adapted Physical Education Anxiety Disorder According to the Anxiety Disorder Association of America “anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses affecting both children and adults.” The association identifies the following categories of anxiety disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Children with GAD worry excessively and unrealistically for six months or more about a variety things including, but not limited to, grades, performance in sport, and family issues. Adults with GAD chronically worry about health, money, or career. Symptoms for both may include restlessness, muscular tension, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, abdominal upsets, and dizziness. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Individuals with OCD are troubled by persistent, repeating thoughts (obsessions) of exaggerated fears or worries that lead to the individual performing a ritual or routine (compulsion). An example would be a person who is obsessed with the thought of contamination who compulsively washes his/her hands. Panic Disorder. Panic Disorder sufferers experience severe attacks of panic for no apparent reason, which can simulate a heart attack or mental breakdown. Symptoms may include chest pain, heart palpitations, choking, sweating, trembling, tingling sensations, fear of dying or losing control, and feelings of unreality. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Following a traumatic event such as the unexpected death of a loved one, a sexual or physical assault or a catastrophic event such as occurred with the events of 9/11, individuals with PTSD will find themselves reliving the experience through nightmares or flashbacks, avoiding places related to the trauma, and/or detaching themselves from others through emotional numbing, and/or experiencing problems with sleeping, irritability, and poor concentration. Symptoms usually begin within 3 months of the trauma, although sometimes 6 months and even years can pass before the appearance of symptoms. Societal Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia). SAD is extreme anxiety about being judged by others
or behaving in such a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule. The symptoms include extreme perspiring, blushing, heart palpitations, and faintness. Specific Phobias (fears). Phobics experience excessive fear of a specific object (ie. spiders, snakes) or situation (ie. heights, shots) that is usually inappropriate to the situation and that is recognized by the sufferer as being irrational. A phobia can lead to avoidance of typical everyday situations and is diagnosed if the fear persists for 6 months and interferes with the individual’s daily routine. Depression Depression is an illness that affects many people of all ages. The Depression Alliance estimates that one in five people will suffer from depression at some point in their lives. Depression includes a wide spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms. Typically individuals will experience 2-3 of the following symptoms: • Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness • Feeling useless, inadequate, bad • Self-hatred, constant questioning of thoughts and actions • Being vulnerable and “over-sensitive” • Feeling guilty • A loss of energy and motivation • Self harm • Loss or gain in weight • Agitation and restlessness • Loss of sex drive • Finding it impossible to concentrate for any length of time, forgetfulness • Physical aches and pains, sometimes with the fear that you are seriously ill • Difficulty with getting off to sleep, or (less frequently) an excessive desire to sleep • Suicidal ideas Bipolar or Manic Depression. Involves radical mood swings, from “highs” of increased energy and euphoria, but sometimes, irritability and anger (National Schizophrenia Association), to “lows of hopelessness and lack of energy.” Post Partum Depression. Is extreme “baby blues” that can last from about 2 weeks to up to 2 years after the birth of a child. 18
Adapted Physical Education Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Is a form of depression is associated with a lack of Innovativethat Lesson Plans sunshine that occurs in higher latitudes where there are long winters and short time spans of sunlight. This type of depression can be treated with exposure to ultraviolet light from light boxes. Schizophrenia Often mistakenly identified as “split personality,” or the correct term, “multiple personality,” schizophrenia actually means split-mind. The name “was intended to represent the fact that processes of thought, feeling and intention, guiding the person’s actions no longer interact to form a coherent whole”(www.rethink.org). Schizophrenia is characterized by unusual activity of the chemical messengers at specific nerve endings in the brain. During an acute episode, what one senses and thinks becomes contorted so that the affected person experiences “positive” symptoms of hallucinations and delusions and/or “negative” symptoms of lethargy and/or indifference. According to the National Schizophrenia Fellowship one in a hundred people experience schizophrenia during their lifetime, but the majority of them will lead ordinary lives with help. CAUSES OF EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCES: The causes of emotional disturbances are varied and difficult to determine. They may develop from a complicated set of risk factors that include genetics, personality, brain chemistry and life experiences. TREATMENTS FOR EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCES: If an individual is suffering from the symptoms of one of the above disorders, it is imperative that he/she seeks professional help immediately so that the particular type of emotional disturbance can be diagnosed and appropriate treatment can be recommended. Both professional help and self-help techniques can be effective in preventing or lessening the impact of the specific disturbance.
PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE: Appropriate treatment of an emotional disturbance begins with a complete psychological evaluation that includes a review of one’s physical health history. A person’s psychologist will ask the physician of record to rule out the possibility that specific medications and/or medical conditions are causing the symptoms of emotional disturbance. In addition, the psychologist will consult with the patient about the nature and history of the symptoms and follow up with a mental status evaluation. The outcome of the psychological diagnostic evaluation will determine the choice of treatment (Psychology Information On-line). Following are some different types of professional treatment for emotional problems: Psycho-Social Therapy Included in this treatment choice are cognitive behavior therapy (what you think affects how you feel), interpersonal therapy (focuses on your relationships), and problem solving therapy (learn ways to deal with current problems). Medication Most people do well with psycho-social therapy, but some also require medication. Drugs used to treat emotional disturbances include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, beta blockers, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). For a complete list of drugs, their target disorder, benefits, and side effects, visit ADAA.org. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) This form of treatment is used when a person is unable to be treated with medication for any of a variety of reasons. An “electrical stimulus” produces brain wave (EEG) changes that are characteristic of a grand mal seizure. It is believed that this seizure activity leads to the clinical improvement seen after a series (6-12 treatments) of ECT. Alternative or Complementary Therapies Included in this form of treatment are herbal remedies (St. John’s Wort is widely used in Europe for the treatment of depression), homeopathy, and acupuncture. Some studies have also suggested benefits from massage and aromatherapy. For more information, visit MentalHealth.org. 19
Adapted Physical Education SELF-HELP TECHNIQUES: As an individual with a diagnosed emotional disturbance begins to understand her or his particular type, she or he can learn some coping skills that may help to control the symptoms. • Recognition/understanding - learn as much as possible about the disorder. • Positive thinking - stay positive, take one day at a time. • Set small achievable goals each day write up lists and reward yourself for accomplishing them. • Relaxation - try calming yourself with music or reading or by practicing specific relaxation techniques such as meditation or yoga. • Diet - eat a diet low in fat, high in carbohydrates, particularly fresh fruits and vegetables. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. • Communicate with others - share your concerns and goals with your loved ones. • Exercise - exercise on a regular basis to trigger the release of endorphins to enhance your mood and self-esteem. TEACHING TIPS: Following are some effective teaching strategies for teachers of children with emotional disturbances: • Structure the class for success • Establish class rules that are stated positively (in terms of the appropriate behavior) • Have a set routine • Organize and plan class for active participation by all; little waiting time • De-emphasize competition • Reward appropriate behavior • Enforce fair and humane consequences for inappropriate behavior (follow the • Behavioral Intervention Plan, if available) • Provide students with a safe space to be alone so that they can develop skills to control their behavior
Exercise caution regarding the use of peer tutors with children with emotional disturbances.
Learning Disabilities A learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, spell, or perform mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, developmental aphasia, and attention deficit disorder. POSSIBLE BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS: • Significantly different behaviors such as difficulty in beginning or finishing tasks, organization, consistency in behavior, or peer relationships. • Below average auditory comprehension, listening, and spoken language • Academic problems • Orientation difficulties including time concept and poor directionality relationships (i.e., south, north, far, near, under, behind, on, or close) • Motor difficulties, including poor coordination, clumsiness, very poor balance, awkward movements, poor manual dexterity, and lack of rhythm in movements • Impulsiveness and poor decision making skills • Inability to sit or stand in one place for extended periods of time and hyperactivity • Difficulty with visual-motor movements • Delayed bilateral coordination (using both sides of the body together) COMMONLY USED MEDICATIONS: Ritalin Cylert Dexadrine Benzadrine Methedrine
Adapted Physical Education POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS OF MEDICATIONS: Depressed appetite Sleeplessness Balance and coordination may be affected TEACHING TIPS: • Increase alternative ways to get positive attention from peers or teachers. • Instruct the individual to continue with the easier part of a task or do a substitute task while waiting for the teacher’s help. • Inform the individual with a learning disability in advance of anticipated difficult tasks or situations where extra control will be needed. • Decrease the length of the task and make lessons brief. • Provide short, clear instructions. • Break lessons into shorter segments (task-analysis). • Present new information in small quantities. • Allow the individual with a disability a “mini-break” when his/her tension level appears to be building. • Deliver reinforcements immediately and more frequently than usual. • Repeat directions to the individual with a learning disability. • Have the individual with a learning disability repeat/explain the task back to you. • Obtain frequent responses and input from the individual with a learning disability. • Avoid changing the learning environment frequently (use routines). • Eliminate distractions (visual and auditory).
Mental Retardation Mental Retardation (MR) is defined by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) by the following three criteria: intellectual functioning level (IQ) is below 70-75;
significant limitations exist in two or more adaptive skill areas; and the condition manifests before the age of 18. Adaptive skill areas are those daily living skills needed to live, work, and play in the community. The new definition includes ten adaptive skills: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, leisure, health and safety, self-direction, functional academics, community use, and work. CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION: MR can be caused by impaired or delayed development of the brain before or during birth, or in childhood years. Genetic conditions. MR may result from abnormality of parental genes, or disorders of the genes caused during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors. Two major chromosomal disorders are Down’s syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. Problems During Pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, maternal malnutrition, certain environmental contaminants, and illnesses during pregnancy, including HIV, may cause mental retardation. Problems at Birth. Prematurity and low birth weights are often associated with mental retardation. Problems After Birth. Childhood diseases such as whooping cough, chicken pox, measles, which may lead to meningitis, and encephalitis can damage the brain. Also, accidents such as a blow to the head or near drowning may cause mental retardation. Lead, mercury and other environmental toxins can cause irreparable damage to the brain and nervous system. Poverty and Cultural Deprivation. Malnutrition, disease-producing conditions, inadequate medical care and environmental health hazards may cause mental retardation. PREVALANCE: An estimated 7.5 million people in the United States have mental retardation, approximately 2.5 – 3% of the population.
Adapted Physical Education PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION: Early prenatal care for the mother and the fetus Newborn screening programs Quality early childhood intervention programs TEACHING TIPS: • Provide frequent feedback to the individual. • Provide short and clear instructions. • Repeat directions. • Have the individual demonstrate the task for clear understanding. • Keep the learning environment consistent with little change. • Eliminate distractions (visual and auditory). • Demonstrate tasks for visual understanding. • Use peers as partners for the individual with MR. • Slow down the speed of the activity.
Muscular Dystrophy A disease of the muscular system characterized by weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the body. The disease is progressive and remission does not occur. The rate of progression is different for each set of muscles. TYPES OF MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: Duchenne: Occurs primarily in males and presents itself between the ages of 3 and 7 years. This type of muscular dystrophy is most common and most severe. This type affects the pelvic girdle and then moves to the shoulder girdle. Facioscapularhumeral: The most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults. This type affects both genders equally. Appears in adolescence but is not usually diagnosed until adulthood. Characterized by progressive weakness of the shoulder muscles and weakness of the face muscles. Life span for individuals with this type is normal. Limb-Girdle: Occurs anytime from age 10 and on. Both genders are equally affected. Early symptoms include difficulty in raising the arms above shoulder level or difficulty in climbing stairs. Initially muscle weakness is either in the shoulder girdle muscles or the hip and thigh muscles. CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: • Tendency to tire quickly • Walking on tip toes • Lack of motivation because of limitations
• • • • •
Waddling gait with legs far apart Tendency to lose fine manual dexterity Pseudohypertrophy particularly in the calf muscles Gower’s sign (moving to all fours and then “climbing up the legs” when changing from a prone to standing) Postural changes due to progressive muscle weakness
EIGHT STAGES OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: 1. Ambulates with mild waddling gait and lordosis. Climbs stairs and curbs without assistance. 2. Ambulates with moderate waddling gait and lordosis. Needs support to climb stairs and curbs. 3. Ambulates with moderately severe waddling gait and lordosis. Cannot climb stairs or curbs. 4. Ambulates with severe waddling gait and lordosis. Unable to rise from a standard height chair. 5. Wheelchair independence. Sits erect and can roll chair and perform all activities of daily living (ADL) and wheelchair activities without assistance. 6. Wheelchair with dependence. Needs assistance when performing ADL and wheelchair activities. 7. Wheelchair with dependence. Sits erect only with support. Able to do minimal ADL. 8. Bed patient. Needs maximum assistance for ADL. TEACHING TIPS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: • Allow for full participation in games and athletics while condition is in early stages • Be aware that the individual may tire more easily • Introduce sedentary recreational activities that will carry over when the individual is in a wheelchair • Allow the individual to be in an aquatic environment as much as possible 22
Adapted Physical Education • • •
Design stretching and strengthening programs for the individual to maintain functional skills Encourage movement and dance activities that allow the individual to express emotions Due to progressive muscle weakness, respiratory and cardiac problems become evident. Encourage breathing games and exercises when the individual is confined to the wheelchair
Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic. It is estimated that at least one of every four individuals in the United States is obese. Though not technically a disability, obesity is associated with conditions that are directly related to disability. Obesity is defined as the presence of an abnormally large amount of body fat or adipose tissue. An individual who is obese is considered to be 20% or more above his/her ideal body weight. Overweight is defined as body weight above an established standard which is related to height. An individual who is overweight is considered to be 10% or more above his/her ideal weight. The most common reason for being overweight is that the individual’s food and caloric consumption is greater than energy expenditure. It has been estimated that 10% or more of school-aged children are considered overweight. CAUSES FOR OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY: • Caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure • Significant inactivity (particularly associated with TV and videogame use) • Genetic predisposition (Prader-Willi Syndrome) • Metabolic disturbances • Endocrine dysfunction (specifically the pituitary and thyroid function) • Emotional disturbance TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE OBESE: • Poor self-concept • Immature social and emotional behaviors • Heightened sensitivity to criticism • Motor awkwardness • Prefers solitary and sedentary activities
TREATMENT AND PROGRAMMING FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE OBESE: • Create an environment that will enable the individual to have successful experiences in a compatible, supportive social group. • Allow individuals to have privacy when dressing. • Develop an individualized regularly scheduled progressive, low-impact, aerobic exercise program (walking, aquarobics, stationary cycling) • Monitor any type of strenuous physical activity. • Avoid activities that involve quick movements or sudden stops which might damage the knee and ankle joints. • Implement a lifestyle management program that includes increasing activity, decreasing calorie intake, and reducing stress. Components of such a program include: • Setting short-term goals • Provide frequent feedback about progress and give social reinforcement when weight loss occurs • Seeking medical attention if the problem is because of glandular dysfunction • Seeking counseling advice when emotional causes are the problem SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE OBESE: Walking Bicycling Swimming Water aerobics Most individuals who are obese/overweight in childhood continue to be obese/overweight in adulthood. Active lifestyles and sound nutrition practices should be initiated in the home. Parents need to serve as role models so that individuals will develop and continue a healthy lifestyle into adulthood. 23
Adapted Physical Education
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is the most common congenital spinal defect. Spina Bifida is caused by failure of the neural arch of the vertebra to properly develop and enclose the spinal cord. This usually occurs between the fourth and sixth week of pregnancy. TYPES OF SPINA BIFIDA: Myelomeningocele: Most severe type of Spina Bifida. Spinal cord, nerve roots and lining (meninges) protrude out into a sac from an opening in the spine. Meningocele: The spinal cord lining protrudes out into a sac, but the spinal cord and nerves are not displaced. Oculta: The least severe type. Vertebral arches fail to fuse, but there is no protrusion of the spinal cord lining or the spinal cord itself. This type does not cause paralysis or muscle weakness and usually is not diagnosed unless an xray is taken. Myelomeningocele and Meningocele require surgical correction. MEDICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SPINA BIFIDA: Hydrocephalus: Increased cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. This condition is surgically corrected by placing a shunt into the ventricles of the brain to drain excess fluid. Neurological Impairments: Range from mild muscle imbalance to sensory loss in the lower limbs to paralysis of one or both legs to lack of control of bowels and bladder. Skin Breakdown/Lesions: Due to lack of sensation in the lower limbs, it is critical to continuously check the individual for skin problems. TEACHING TIPS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: • Develop activities that utilize the head, trunk, shoulders, arms and hands.
• • • •
Develop activities that encourage pushing, pulling and lifting (i.e., scooterboards, parachutes, hanging and climbing, and weight training). Avoid activities that could displace a shunt or put pressure on the sensitive areas of the spine. Encourage walking whenever possible. Teach functional movement skills. Develop stretching exercises to improve flexibility and to achieve full range of motion.
Visual Impairments & Blindness Visual Impairment (VI) is an impairment in vision which, even with correction, adversely affects an individual’s educational performance. This term includes individuals who are partially sighted and blind. TYPES OF VISION: Refractive Vision (Acuity): The degree of detail that can be seen in an object. The product of light rays bending and reaching receptors (rods and cones) of the retina. Refraction is influenced by the size and shape of the eyeball which changes with age. Refractive vision includes myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism (blurring or distortion of the image). Visual acuity is commonly tested using the Snellen Eye Chart. The effect of impaired vision can negatively impact motor development. The age onset commonly determines future problems in these areas. Refractive problems are commonly corrected using prescription glasses or surgery. Orthoptic Vision: Refers to the activity of the six external muscles of the eye responsible for providing coordinated movements of the eyes. Orthoptic vision includes binocular vision (the ability of the eyes to coordinate), depth perception (including strabismus, amblyopia and alternating) and nystagmus (constant involuntary movement of the eyeballs). Orthoptic vision problems can sometimes be treated with surgery; however, the problem may be corrected with a special lens or with eye 24
Adapted Physical Education exercises. When depth perception problems exist, students should refrain from participating in activities that require judging where in space moving objects are located. INDICATORS OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: • Lack of coordination in directing vision of both eyes • Difficulty visually tracking an object • Avoidance of climbing apparatus • Difficulty going down steps one at a time • Sensitivity to normal light levels • Walking overcautiously and hesitantly • Faltering and stumbling when walking even on an even surface • Walking down steps using a marked time pattern • Body tension • Eyes are bloodshot • Frequent rubbing of the eyes • Squinting
Use equipment with a wide variety of textures. Insist the individual wear eye protection (goggles).
Information on these sheets contain only suggested guidelines. Each person must be considered individually, and in many cases, a physician’s written consent should be obtained. Developed by Texas Woman’s University Graduate Adapted Physical Education Program in cooperation with the Denton, TX ISD Visit the Project INSPIRE website for more information about adapted physical education: www.twu.edu/inspire
TEACHING TIPS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: • Ensure optimal lighting to ensure use of residual vision. • Keep equipment and objects in the same place • Keep the activity area free of clutter. • Alter the playing surface texture (i.e., sand, dirt, asphalt) or increase or decrease the grade to indicate play area boundaries. • Place audio devices inside balls and bean bags; use beepers by goals and bases. • Use brightly colored equipment and boundaries, that differ from the ground (red balls on green grass, blue lines on tan floor). • Allow the individual to use an “anchor” for orientation when running a sighted partner or a rope suspended at hip level. • Use a movement exploration approach to maximize movement opportunities. 25
Adapted Physical Education
Creating an Individualized Education Program (IEP) in PE Bryan Smith Bridgewater-Raritan School District Creating an Individualized Education Program (IEP) in PE can be a very confusing matter; but in reality, it is actually fairly simple. Just follow the five steps below! An example of a very brief IEP is included immediately following the five steps. Step #1: Before you can create an IEP for a student, you first need to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the student. This can be done using a simple test of gross motor ability. This type of test assesses different gross motor skills including balance and posture orientation, gross body coordination, eye-hand coordination, eye-foot coordination, and body part identification. You can find samples of these tests through PE CENTRAL, in their Adapted Physical Education link (www.pecentral.org). Step #2: After you determine the areas of most need for your student, you need to start creating main goals that you want the student to reach after a certain time period. (i.e., 6 months, 1 year). These are long term goals, so they should be written in general terms. You only want to make about three main goals at one time. Once a student achieves these goals you can start creating new ones. If you have students who participate in Special Olympics, you can use these events as your main goals. Correlating your lessons with Special Olympics is a great way for students to practice their events, as well as improve basic skills. Step #3: For each main goal, you must create specific objectives that you will use to see the growth and progression the student is making toward meeting the goal. Again you only want to create approximately 3-4 objectives for each goal. Since the objectives will be measured, they must be written in very specific terms. For example, how many times must the student demonstrate the skill? Step #4: Once you have created the goals and objectives, you can now start to identify specific activities that you will use for each of the skills being taught. You need to start with simple activities and as your student improves, you can move onto more complex activities. Be sure to use a variety of activities to keep your student interested and motivated. Step #5: The final step is to set certain dates that you will use to assess the progression made by the student. From this ongoing assessment, you can judge if you can move forward or need to continue and/or change your activities.
Adapted Physical Education
Sample Individualized Education Program (IEP) in PE: Student: John Smith Grade: 3 Disability: Autism Goal 1: Student will improve his/her balance and posture, through activities Objective 1: Students will recover from displacement while sitting on a vestibular (therapy) ball. (Students sitting on ball are tilted in different directions and are to recover from slight tilt.) Displacement to: a. Forward b. Backward c. Right d. Left Objective 2: Student will be able to walk on stilts for 10 consecutive steps. Objective 3: Student will be able to walk across a 6-inch balance beam without falling off. Objective 4: While standing in place, the student will be able to reach in all directions and collect and place objects. Suggested activities: 1. Balancing on therapy ball a. Prone position b. Sitting 2. 1 stilt walk 3. 2 stilt walking 4. River crossing (balance beams are logs to walk on) Time Frame: Goal should be reached by end of school year. Progress will be checked after 3 months and 6 months.
New Jersey Adapted Physical Education (NJAPE) The Official New Jersey Adapted Physical Education Resource www.njape.com This site was created to promote the advocacy of Adapted Physical Education in the state of New Jersey. It provides useful tools in developing and maintaining developmental, adapted, inclusionary, and self-contained physical education programs. Services include district workshops, individual student assessment, and support materials. Creating an Adapted Physical Education program and an Inclusive Physical Education program starts with establishing an effective developmental program. Developmental Physical Education programs are designed to provide teachers, students, parents, and school districts with the opportunity to assess and teach students with disabilities without having to be boxed in by the formal IEP process. By creating a weekly supplemental period in a self-contained environment, the process of understanding student needs and preparing all parties for comprehensive and successful inclusionary environment is greatly bolstered. Combining traditional curriculums with fundamentally age and developmentally appropriate skill units is the key component of creating a successful program. NJAPE has created a comprehensive curriculum guide (NJAPE Developmental Physical Education Curriculum Guide) that will lay the groundwork for developing a successful developmental program. In addition to the guide, NJAPE will provide one full year of online support and a 10% discount for a district that requests an in-service workshop. For over 10 years, NJAPE has provided workshops for school systems, colleges, individual families, and state organizations across New Jersey. Half and full day workshops and personal screenings can be scheduled. For more information, visit the NJAPE website (/www.njape.com).
Adapted Physical Education
Supporting Children with Autism in Physical Education: Two Intervention Strategies Iva Obrusnikova Rowan University Tom is a second-grader at Smith Elementary School. Although Tom loves physical education he appears to be “different” from his peers; he has Asperger syndrome, a high functioning form of autism. In spite of his brilliant skills for math and computers, Tom has always been obsessed with structure. He listens to his physical education teacher carefully and follows directions without hesitation. However, when things are not going his way, Tom quickly becomes tremendously upset or tantrums. One day the physical education teacher introduced Tom’s favorite game, the Medic. The students were divided into two teams; each team was assigned to one half of the gym. The goal of the game was to eliminate opponents by hitting them with a rolling ball. The teacher chose two players from each team to be the medics. Medics were allowed to rescue their teammates by placing them on a scooter and pulling them past their own end line. Tom was very upset because he was not chosen to be the medic. When the game started, Tom exploded—screaming, throwing nearby balls at peers, and having tantrum like you would not believe (OK, maybe you would). The physical education teacher tried to ignore Tom’s tantrum first, but when she noticed that another student was hurt by the ball he was throwing, she quickly
walked over and urged Tom to stop. The battle between Tom and his physical education teacher continued until the class was over. Behavior is often the reason why students with autism are not successfully included in physical education classes. Similarly to other children with autism, Tom cannot control his impulses. His understanding of how to behave in class is muddled and disturbed. This does not mean that he does not want to act more appropriately or to make friends or be liked by his peers and teachers. It is just like a child with cerebral palsy who has trouble controlling his or her muscles; Tom simply has trouble reading others’ emotions, reading the social appropriateness of a situation, and generally dealing with a change. What can this physical education teacher do so that the physical education experience is more positive for everybody involved? First, it is important to observe the student acting out to gather information about what happens after the behavior in order words, what purpose it is accomplishing (Janney & Snell, 2000). For example, if Tom’s inappropriate behavior serves the function of getting his favorite role in the game, then getting the favorite role would be rewarding to him and would facilitate his reaction in the future. Therefore, the teacher needs to show Tom that his behavior is not working
in accomplishing this purpose. This does not, however, mean completely ignoring such a student and pretending that nothing has happened. This only causes Tom to think that nobody has noticed and that he has to keep trying. Even worse, Tom has found a behavior that could not be ignored (i.e., screaming and throwing nearby balls at his peers). Once the purpose of inappropriate behavior is revealed, the next step in this process is to find an effective strategy that would keep Tom from loosing control and exhibiting inappropriate behaviors during physical education. Activity Schedule Considering the fact that Tom likes structure and computers, one strategy of changing his behavior may be the use of an activity schedule (Kluth, 2003; Reid & O’Connor, 2003). A schedule is a list of activities introduced to a student prior to or during the class. The schedule should be developmentally-appropriate and can be created with words, pictures, photographs, or objects (Mesibov et al., 2002). Having information about what skills will be taught or what games will be played in any given physical education class may provide a sense of structure for Tom and can help him become a better time manager. It may also introduce the activities which are expected of him to complete before he is allowed to engage in more preferred activities. For ex28
Adapted Physical Education ample, if Tom sees and understands that he will become the medic after the first game or be allowed to use his computer after the entire class period, he may be less upset and exhibit less inappropriate behavior during the game. Tom can actually develop a sense of accomplishment as items in the schedule are crossed off and the whole list is completed. The teacher can also make going over the physical education schedule a regular part of Tom’s routine in the classroom. Or, she may copy the schedule into Tom’s notebook so he can look at it throughout the day or class period. Activity Choices Another strategy that can be effective involves taking turns in choosing activities or equipment. Providing activity choices may not only assist Tom in gaining a feeling of control in physical education but also an opportunity to learn about himself as a worker (Kluth, 2003). For example, the teacher can pre-choose which activities are appropriate for the particular class and then ask Tom what he prefers to do while the rest of the class is playing the Medic game. Of course, this would require further assistance from a teacher aid. After the child understands this, introduce new activities when it is her turn to choose. The sense of taking turns utilized in this strategy can also be transferred into other activities such as games. Presence of inappropriate behaviors in inclusive physical education results in frustrated teachers and a lot of lost time and energy. There are numerous strategies that can be used to support students with autism; two of which were described in this paper. You may consider implementing these strategies, yet keep in mind to constantly rethink and adapt your intervention according to the needs of the students. References Janney, R., & Snell, M.E. (2000). Teachers’ guide to inclusive practices: Behavioral support. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Kluth, P. (2003). “You are going to love this kid”: Teaching students with autism in the classroom. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Mesibov, G.B., Schopler, E., & Hearsey, K.L. (1994). Structured teaching. In E. Schopler, G.B., & Mesibov (Eds.), Behavioral issues in autism (pp. 195-207). New York: Plenum Publishers. Reid, G., & O’Connor, J. (2003). The autism spectrum disorders: Activity selection, assessment, and program concept with favored activities, the teacher may organization—part II. Palaestra, 19(1), 20-29.
Adapted Physical Education
Dr. Thomas M. Vodola: Nobody Like Him Thomas M. Pagano Superintendent of Schools Ocean Township School District Nobody could out-work him and nobody could out-think him. Nobody could out-debate him and nobody could out-sell him. He was the consummate educator, organizer, and child advocate. He had boundless energy, enthusiasm and passion like nobody else. His name was Dr. Thomas M. Vodola and his work was the driving force behind Developmental + Adaptive Physical Education programs, not only here in New Jersey but throughout the country as well. His vision, energy, and perseverance were unmatched. The effects of his work still reverberate throughout school systems and in college preparation programs everywhere. Dr. Vodola began his service in Ocean Township in 1965, first as Chairman of the Health and Physical Education Department and then as Director of Research and Development for the district before retiring in 1983. He earned his doctorate from Temple University along the way but it was his work in physical education for the handicapped that brought Ocean Township, and thereafter the state of New Jersey, to the forefront of new strategies for teaching the handicapped. And it all happened because of the vision and effort of one man – Thomas M. Vodola.
Under Tom’s forceful and astute leadership, Ocean Township developed a Developmental + Adaptive Physical Education program based on the “developmental approach” to handicapping conditions in children. The premise was to ignore the educational label put on children while structuring an individualized program based on the child’s needs. Those needs were determined through the “TAPE” process – Test, Assess, Prescribe, and Evaluate. The program was developed for all children who evidenced any of the following needs: Low Motor Ability, Low Physical Vitality, Postural Abnormalities, Nutritional Deficiencies, Breathing Difficulties, and Orthopedic Disabilities/Limitations. Low Motor Ability and Low Physical Vitality comprised the developmental phase of the program meaning the D+A teachers provided the expertise needed. The other needs were the adaptive phase of the program requiring medical clearance and a prescription from the school or family physician before participation.
Tom chose, trained, and evaluated his “D+A” teachers to meet his exacting standards of performance. He was a mix of teacher, tough taskmaster and warm father figure, all the while using positive reinforcement for his teachers. There were five schools in the district and each had their own teacher assigned for D+A teaching only. Instruction was not only individualized but rapport was also established with the child and his/her parents. Each phase of the process was documented via referral form, an administered pre-test, periodic retesting, and written progress reports sent to parents, CST members, principal, and Tom Vodola himself. Each D+A teacher maintained an individual folder on every child entrusted to his/her care with all pertinent tests, forms, progress reports and dispositions on an up-to-date basis that Dr. Vodola would monitor. Nothing escaped his keen oversight.
“He was our mentor and our friend who believed that we had leadership potential that should be nourished...” Eventually, because of Dr. Vodola’s superior communication and writing skills, the program became the model program for the state of New Jersey. Shortly thereafter it became the model program for the nation’s 30
Adapted Physical Education schools as part of the National Diffusion Network: Project Active – All Children Totally Involved Exercising. It was a teacher training program that took off and kept growing and spreading across the country via teacher workshops taught by members of the Project Active Cadre team. It was a competency based teacher training program and every aspect of it was developed by Dr. Vodola. The Cadre Team numbered about twenty people – all hand picked, trained, and assigned to lead the workshops by the Project Director – Tom. The Cadre Team met regularly on Saturday mornings to be retrained as Project Active grew, evolved, and was embraced not only by public school systems across the country but by colleges and universities as part of their teacher training programs. Dr. Vodola applied for grant funds each year and each year Project Active, his brain-child, was afforded ever greater financial support from the Department of Education. Cadre Team teacher trainers were dispensed to just about every state on a nationwide basis. Many states adopted
Project Active as their own state model and the Cadre Team trainers found themselves going back to such places as Massachusetts, Colorado, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New York, Maine, Texas, and South Carolina on a regular basis. There was also an onsite component to the project as other states opted to send teachers to Ocean Township for on-site training. All teacher training, whether on-site based or state-site based, featured practice experiences with handicapped children brought to the training site which allowed the trained teachers to practice their recently learned TAPE process competencies with children under the watchful eye of the Cadre Team trainer. The teacher training workshops were supported by a set of teacher training manuals, written resources to guide the pre-testing, individualized teaching, and reporting by the teacher trainees. Dr. Vodola, of course, wrote and revised the manuals as needed. The manuals sold by the hundreds as the secretaries worked very hard just to keep up with the Project Active manual orders.
Dr. Vodola retired in 1983 and passed on in 1993, his life richly distinguished by his service to educating handicapped children and their teachers. There are still a few of us around today who worked closely with him. He was our mentor and our friend who believed that we had leadership potential that should be nourished so he took a personal interest in our professional growth. I suppose his belief in us was well founded as the four of us from his original Cadre Team rose to prominent positions of school administration within our district. We learned from the best educational role model that ever lived. There was nobody like him!
New Jersey Association for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance 2005 Mini Grants For information contact: NJAHPERD/Grants P.O. Box 7578 North Brunswick, NJ 08902-7578 Email firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 732-297-1040 Fax 732-297-6020
Adapted Physical Education
Positive and Not So Positive Discipline Techniques Tim Davis SUNY Cortland
will settle down. Unfortunately, the teacher is reinforcing that they Addressing problems of inappro- are willing to talk over or compriate behavior and discipline are pete with the students’ conversajust a few of the tough jobs teach- tion. Students begin to get the ers are expected to do. Unmoti- idea that it is acceptable to be invated students, increased vio- attentive and talk while you are lence, lack of resources and large teaching. class sizes are a few of the problems facing our nation’s schools. Gaining class attention simply It is not surprising then that soci- means that you demand student ety as a whole perceives a lack attention before you begin. Exof discipline as the major concern perienced teachers know that siin today’s public schools. In- lence on their part can be a very creasing appropriate behavior effective technique. They will and decreasing inappropriate be- punctuate their waiting by exhavior is essential in creating a tending it 5 to 10 seconds even safe, positive, and nurturing after the students are completely learning environment. There are quiet. Then they begin their lesmany different approaches and son using a quieter – more norstrategies teachers can use to de- mal – voice tone. A soft spoken crease the occurrence of disci- teacher can often have a more pline problems in their classes. focused and attentive class than The following are “back to ba- one with a loud stronger voice sics” strategies that all teachers simply because the students should revisit either as a reflec- know they must be quite in order tion on current practice or as a to receive the next set of direcprimer when starting a new job. tions. These eleven techniques can be used to empower students while 2. Expectation. Uncertainty inreinforcing what most good creases the level of excitement in teachers already know about be- the gym. The technique of expechavior management and effective tation is to begin each class by use of discipline. telling the students exactly what Techniques that work when used appropriately! 1. Class Attention. It’s simple, but be sure you have the attention of everyone in your gym before you start your lesson. Try not to start by attempting to teach over the chatter of students who are not paying attention. Inexperienced teachers think that by beginning their lesson, the class
will be happening and what you (the teacher) expects from them for that day. Outlining what will be done and presenting a timeline of the tasks for the lesson can also be effective. An effective strategy to use includes allowing student time at the end of class to practice skills or games of their choosing. The teacher may say to the students:
“If we have additional time at the end of the period, you can play or practice any of the stations around the gym.” As long as the teacher is comfortable that the class has worked long enough on the day’s objective, time left over can be used for student choice. The students soon realize that the more time the teacher has to wait for their attention, the less time they will have at the end of the hour. 3. Performance Checking. The key to this principle is to circulate around the gym and/or stations and check progress on performance. Staying in one spot makes it difficult to provide positive reinforcement and encouragement on an individual basis. An effective teacher will move throughout the whole gym or field space in about two - five minutes after the students have started the activity. The delay allows the teacher to see which students or group of students need assistance or clarification. Students or groups who are not yet on task will be quick to get going as they see the teacher approach. Those that appear distracted or slow to get started can be encouraged and given individual instruction. Try not to disrupt the class or make general announcements unless several students have difficulty with the same thing. When in a situation where disruption of the activity is required, 32
Adapted Physical Education keep the announcement short and specific demanding full attention before you begin. Ask for clarification or call on a student to repeat the direction prior to sending the students back to the activity. 4. Teacher as Model. It has been frequently said that “Values are caught, not taught.” Teachers who demonstrate how to be courteous, who are prompt, enthusiastic, in control, patient, and organized provide examples for their students through their own behavior. Teachers who “do as I say, not as I do” send mixed messages that confuse students and invite misbehavior. If you want students to demonstrate good sportsmanship and be courteous to others then as teachers we must do the same. In addition, we must reinforce students who are observed engaging in the type of behavior we want to see. In other words, “catch them being good – and tell them about it!” 5. Non-Verbal Signals. Nonverbal signals such as raising one’s hand, blowing a whistle, shaking a tambourine, pounding a drum, or starting/stopping music are all effective methods of gaining class attention. Shouting over the noise in the gym only escalates the noise level and perpetuates the amount of time it takes to gain attention. Be sure to explain to the students what the signal means prior to using it and expect the same response each and every time.
6. Managing the Environment. A school can be a warm cheery or dark and dreary place for students to be. Create an environment in your gym that embraces the most important messages you hope to teach throughout your curriculum. Reinforce these concepts (e.g. good sportsmanship) in different ways and display them on bulletin boards and when possible, incorporate them into your lessons. Students enjoy an environment that is colorful and stimulating as well as providing a level of self reinforcement. For example, a question can be posted on the exit door of the gym or on a bulletin board asking students if they met one of the following good sportsmanship “rules” for the day. In this way, students self reflect on the importance of managing their own behavior as well as meeting one of the expectations set forth to be a good sportsman. 7. Calm Intervention. Most students are sent to the principal’s office as a result of misbehavior that has escalated beyond the teacher’s control. The teacher has called them on a lesser offense, but in the moments that follow, the student and the teacher are swept up in a verbal maelstrom. Much of this can be avoided when the teacher’s intervention is quiet and calm. An effective teacher will take care that the student is not rewarded for misbehavior by becoming the focus of attention. Experienced teachers often an-
ticipate the problem and stop it before it occurs without ever saying a word. For example, simple proximity – or putting oneself near the problem can often defuse a situation before it occurs. The use of “hypodermic” affection or a shot of positive reinforcement can quickly and effectively redirect a student bent on disruption. Teachers who get to know their students and who monitor their students closely can effectively minimize inappropriate off-task behavior. 8. Positive Reinforcement. Make ample use of praise. When you see good behavior, acknowledge it. This can be done verbally, of course, but it doesn’t have to be. A nod, a smile or a “thumbs up” will reinforce the behavior. Use positive reinforcement specific to the skill to help refine movement patterns and correct errors while maintaining positive self image. 9. Assertive I-Messages. Assertive I-Messages are statements that the teacher uses when confronting a student who is misbehaving or disrupting the class. Assertive I messages are clear descriptions of what you expect the student to do. For example, a student who continues to push and shove may get an immediate time out from the teacher in this fashion: “Johnny, I need you to put yourself in time out.” The teacher who makes good use of this technique will focus the child’s attention first and foremost on the behavior that is desired and not on the misbehavior. “I want you to ...” or “I need 33
Adapted Physical Education you to ...” or “I expect you to ...” are all phrases that promote assertive I messages and provide clear teacher expectation. An inexperienced teacher may say to the same student: “Johnny, I want you to stop shoving and pushing...” only to discover that this usually triggers confrontation and some form of denial or blame on others. When the focus is on the misbehavior students are able to respond in one of the following ways: “I wasn’t doing anything!” or “It wasn’t my fault ...” or “Since when is there a rule against ...” When this occurs, the student has successfully engaged the teacher in a form of confrontation that will most probably end in escalation. 10. Humanistic I-Messages. Humanistic I-messages are expressions of how we feel. Thomas Gordon, creator of Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET), structures these messages in three parts. First, a description of the child’s behavior. “When you talk while I talk ...” Second, the effect this behavior has on the teacher. “... I have to stop teaching ...” And third, the feeling that it generates in the teacher. “... This frustrates me.” Effective teachers will often use this technique after a confrontation has occurred and the student has been removed from the setting. It helps teachers express the problem to the child and clearly identifies the impact
their behavior has on the teacher and the class.
11. Proactive Discipline. When setting out to define the rules you will use for your classroom, there are several factors to keep in mind. Rules that describe the behavior you expect or want are by far more effective than rules that list what students can’t do. For example, “no pushing and shoving” could be more effective if written as “learn personal space.” Instead of “no fighting” try “use your words before your fists.” Refer to rules as expectation. Each of these let students know how you expect them to act and behave when in physical education.
Techniques that could backfire if used inappropriately! • raising your voice unnecessarily • yelling • saying “I’m the boss here” • insisting on having the last word • using tense or aggressive body language, such as rigid posture, clenched fists, or shoulder • using degrading, insulting, humiliating, or embarrassing putdowns • using sarcasm • attacking the student’s character • acting superior • using physical force unnecessarily • drawing unrelated persons into the conflict
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • •
having a double standard making students do what I say, not what I do lack of consistent programming insisting that you right making assumptions about what occurred backing the student into a corner “I know you did it...” or “Why did you do it?” pleading or bribing bringing up unrelated events generalizing about students by making remarks such as “All you kids are the same” making unsubstantiated accusations holding a grudge nagging throwing a temper tantrum mimicking the student making comparisons with siblings or other students commanding, demanding, dominating rewarding the student
Addressing behavior must be conducted with the dignity of the student at the center of focus. Essentially, we hope to extinguish undesirable behavior but more importantly, understand the function of the behavior and why it occurs. Conducting a functional assessment is a process for looking at relationships between the teacher, the behavior, and the environment
Adapted Physical Education Invited Article
Modified Games/Activities Physical education majors enrolled in the course Special Physical Education at William Paterson University under the direction of Professor Karen Hilberg, complete an assignment that requires the development of a game/activity for students with disabilities. Shown below is the format used to modify the games/activities. This information is followed by six games/activities developed by WPU physical education majors.
WILLIAM PATERSON UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF EXERCISE AND MOVEMENT SCIENCES PEAC 255: SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION GAME/ACTIVITY FORM PROFESSOR KAREN HILBERG Name of the Game/Activity: Type of Game/Activity:
____ ____ ____ ____
gross motor fine motor physical fitness other
____ ____ ____ ____
gymnasium classroom lobby/hallway weight/fitness room
Age Level: Number of Participants: Approximate Time of Play: Facilities Needed:
____ pool ____ playground ____ field
Objectives (student learning outcomes):
Modifications for Special Needs:
Safety Considerations: 35
Adapted Physical Education Adapted Physical Education
Squirmy Wormy Body Twist Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, fine motor, physical fitness, Other – academics Age Level: Six years of age and older Number of Participants: Three to five participants on each team Approximate Time of Play: Five to ten minutes per round Facilities needed: Gymnasium, classroom, lobby/hallway, playground, field or any open space Objectives (student learning outcomes): By the end of the activity the student will: • Learn their numbers, letters, shapes, etc. • Demonstrate how to manipulate different parts of their body to work together to form a specific shape. • Demonstrate how to be physically creative with their body. • Demonstrate patience and cooperation with their teammates. • Demonstrate forming objects backwards or in mirror images. Equipment needed: • A container to hold the cards. • Cards with the needed objects, letters, numbers or shapes in regular, large, raised or textured print or in certain colors depending on the students specific needs. Directions: • The students are divided up into equal teams. Each team is placed a distance away from the other. The students should sit side-by-side facing the other side of the room. • When the teacher tells the students to go, one member from each team must get to the container and get one card. • They return to their team with the card and cannot allow the other members of their team to see the card. • Without using words the student manipulates his/her entire body to form the object on the card. • The team members must guess what the object is that the student is forming. • The first team to successfully have each member complete a turn wins that round of the game. Modifications for Special Needs: • The students can use specific parts of their body (hands, feet, head) to draw the object in the air. • The students can use buddies to help get the card and then make the object together or the student with special needs can manipulate their buddy’s body to form the object. • The students can use raised or textured objects on the cards to help them distinguish the object with their tactile skills. • The students can improve their fine motor skills by manipulating specific movements of an individual body part (fingers) into the shape of the object. Safety Considerations: • Beware that the students may collide into each other. Reinforce the idea of personal space. • Know what the limitations are of the students in your class. Game Designed by: Leia Rauchbach (2002) 36
Adapted Physical Education
Across the Map (A human board game) Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, fine motor, physical fitness, cognitive skills, social skills Age Level: ages 7 and up Number of Participants: 5 or more Approximate Time of Play: 45 minutes Facilities Needed: Gymnasium, classroom, or open field Objectives (student learning outcomes): By the end of the activity the student will: • Demonstrate knowledge of the 50 states and their capital cities. • Demonstrate spelling skills. • Demonstrate mathematical skills. • Demonstrate the concept of direction. • Improve cardiovascular fitness. • Improve motor skills. Equipment Needed: • large die • modified die with directions (north, south, east, west) • trampoline • small horsey • 2 jump ropes • hopscotch board • ball • hula-hoop • chalk board • microphone • large wooden puzzle of the United States of America Game set up: A large wooden puzzle of the United States is laid out on the floor. Each state is labeled with an activity that the child will try to complete during the game. The materials that are needed to complete the activity should be ready and waiting on the side. Directions: • At the starting point (designated by instructor), roll the pair of dice. • Count out loud the number of spaces the student is moving and in which direction (north, south, east, and west). • The student will move across the states until reaching his/her destination. • At the destination the student must say and spell the state and its capital city. • After spelling, the student lifts the state to find out which activity must be performed. • The task is completed in front of the class (or with the class, depending on the state). • After completing the task, the student receives a sticker of the American flag. • Each student gets a turn. • If the directional die is rolled and lands on a blank side or on a direction that is not possible for the student to move (i.e. north of Washington or south of Florida), the student will re-roll only the directional die. 37
Adapted Physical Education Modifications: • Dice: use large felt dice so that a student with a visual impairment can feel the letters and the dots on the die. • If no trampoline is available, the student can jump up and down on the floor. • If no horsey is available, the student can pretend to gallop. • If a student cannot double dutch, he/she can jump up and down, and side to side. • If a large enough puzzle or map is not available for a student to walk across the states, any size map will do, just use small figurines or different colored blocks in order to mark a space. • A chart may be given to learning disabled students to carry throughout the game with the symbols of the dice and their meanings. • For a student with a visual impairment, a chart may be given with the states and capitals typed in LARGE print. • For a student with hearing difficulties, the other students could use a microphone so that their words are easier (louder) to hear. • For a student that is non-verbal, he/she can write the state and the capital on a chalkboard so the other students can read it. Safety Considerations: Some children may not be able to perform some of the activities. Any modifications can be made to the different tasks assigned to each state. Occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech therapists and any other professionals can and should be consulted for further assistance. Note: Most of the activities assigned to each state are either related to something the state is known for, such as a class race in Indiana to symbolize the Indianapolis 500 or the activity begins with the same letter as the state, such as pull-ups in Pennsylvania. Game Designed by: Eilish Connolly (2003) Across the Map
STATE Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana
CAPITAL Montgomery Juneau Phoenix Little Rock Sacramento Denver Hartford Dover Washington Tallahassee Atlanta Honolulu Boise Springfield Indianapolis Des Moines Topeka Frankfurt Baton Rouge Augusta Annapolis Boston Lansing St. Paul Jackson Jefferson City Helena
ACTIVITY march in Montgomery jump rope in Juneau arm stretches in Arizona trampoline: a little rock doesn’t bounce! walk like a bear in California ski on a mountain in Colorado chin ups in Connecticut double dutch in Dover, Delaware climb stairs to the Lincoln Memorial flex muscles on a beach in Florida do a southern accent in Atlanta hopscotch in Honolulu bounce a ball in Boise trampoline in SPRINGfield race with the class at the INDY-500 double dutch in Des Moines click heels & say “there’s no place like home” ride a horse in Kentucky leg stretch in Louisiana arm stretch in Augusta march in Maryland double dutch in MaSSachuseTTs leg stretches in Lansing double dutch for the MiNNesota TWINS row a boat down the Mississippi River & sing jump on one foot in Jefferson City hula hoop in Helena
Adapted Physical Education Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Lincoln Carson City Concord Trenton Santa Fe Albany Raleigh Bismarck Columbus Oklahoma City Salem Harrisburg Providence Columbia Pierre Nashville Austin Salt Lake City Montpelier Richmond Olympia Charleston Madison Cheyenne
leap frog in Lincoln chin ups in Carson City hula hoop in Concord toe touches in Trenton skip through Santa Fe climb the stairs of the Empire State Building run in Raleigh bounce a ball in Bismarck hula hoop in Ohio hopscotch in Oklahoma 2 snaps up for Salem (snap fingers 2 times) pull ups in Pennsylvania run in Rhode Island skip on the hopscotch board in S. Carolina pull ups in Pierre toe touches in Tennessee be a cowboy in Texas (ride a horse) ski in Salt Lake City ski in Vermont run in Richmond hula hoop in Olympia chin ups in Charleston march in Madison chin ups in Cheyenne
Shape Toss Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, fine motor Age Level: 5 years and older Number of Participants: 2 or more Approximate Time of Play: 5 minutes + Facilities Needed: Gymnasium, playground, or classroom Objectives (student learning outcomes): By the end of the activity, the student will be able to: • Participate in the game by helping their team to achieve points and keep track of the score. • Throw or roll each object using the proper force needed to reach the targeted area. • Keep track of the score by counting by tens. Equipment Needed: Two bags of different objects to roll or toss, point shape sheet or chalk and blacktop to draw it on. Directions: Two teams are formed. Each team receives a bag of objects and stands approximately five feet from the targeted area. Each team must take turns and only one person may toss/roll at a time. The goal is to toss, roll, or however the team decides to get the object on to the targeted area. Different areas are worth different point values. Each team must keep track of their own score. Modifications for Special Needs: Hearing: Sign the directions. Visual: A teammate can guide the person to where the target is and how much force to use. Physical: Shorten the distance to the target. Student can kick the object at the target. Safety Considerations: Only one student is allowed to throw at a time, so all eyes are on the object in case it comes flying their way. Game Designed By: Christina Teal (2003)
Adapted Physical Education
Stretch Tag Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, physical fitness Age Level: 4-11 years Number of Participants: 6-35 Approximate Time of Play: 10 minutes Facilities needed: Gymnasium or field Objectives (student learning outcomes): By the end of the activity the student will: • Demonstrate good sportsmanship by following the rules of the game, at least 85% of the time. • Work cooperatively with fellow students, at least 90% of the time during the activity. • Improve cardiovascular endurance through running. Equipment needed: 10 cones, 2 foam nerf balls Directions:
X = Cones (used for boundary lines)
0 = taggers finish line
——————————————— X X X X X 0 0 X X X X X ——————————————— starting line Students line up on the starting line. Two taggers (each given a nerf ball) are selected by the teacher and start in the middle of the playing area (as diagramed above). The game begins when the taggers throw the nerf balls up in the air simultaneously. As soon as the taggers throw the nerf balls up into the air, students at the starting point attempt to run to the finishing line without being tagged with the nerf ball by one of the taggers. When a student gets tagged, he or she must sit at the exact location where he/she is tagged. Upon sitting, the student now can become a tagger, assisting the two original taggers. (Students can stretch as far as they can to tag other students, as long as they do not lift their bodies off the ground.) The game continues until there are two winners (two students who have not been tagged or the last two students to get tagged). The two winners now become the taggers and a new game can begin. Modifications for Special Needs: Use sign language or visual signs for students who are hearing impaired. Provide guides for students with mobility problems. Students with weak/fragile bones and/or muscles → Do not have taggers tag these students. Instead, have the tagger get these students out some other way (such as coming within an arm length of the student and yelling “out,” etc.). Students in wheelchairs do not have to sit on the ground after being tagged.
Adapted Physical Education Safety Considerations: • Advise students to run with their heads up. • Reinforce the concept of maintaining personal space. • Make sure the ground is level. • Make sure there are no obstacles are in the students’ path of travel. • Emphasize that the taggers are not allowed to throw the nerf balls at fellow students. Game Designed By: Kurt Ceresnak (2005)
Activity Dice Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, physical fitness, social skills Age Level: Ages 5 and older Number of Participants: 4 or more Approximate Time of Play: 30-40 minutes Facilities Needed: Gym or open field Objectives (student learning outcomes): By the end of the activity the student will: • Improve cardiovascular fitness through running. • Interact appropriately with a minimum of three classmates during the course of the activity. • Demonstrate at least one gross motor activity (skip, etc.) in an appropriate manner. Equipment Needed: cones, 2 dice (one with numbers and one with activities) Directions: The cones should be placed on the floor in the form of a path with a starting line and a finish line. A student starts the game by rolling the dice. One die is numbered from 1-6, and the other die has specific activities such as bunny hop, skip, jump and jacks, push-ups, sit-ups. One side of the activity die has “challenge.” If a player rolls a “challenge” he/she may dare a student to a foot race. If the challenger wins, he/she switches spots with the other student. After successful completion of the task, the student then moves the amount of spaces indicated by the number die. Whoever reaches the finish line first wins. Modifications: Visually impaired students should be given a guide. Cones will be placed far apart for students in wheelchairs. Safety Considerations: Objects in the path around should be removed as there should be no obstructions. Students should know when they are fatigued and therefore should stop. Students should also be prepared for physical activity. Designed by: Jennifer Yong Yow (2005) 41
Adapted Physical Education
Ultimate Hand to HeadBall Type of Game/Activity: Gross motor, fine motor Age Level: ages 8 and up Number of Participants: Minimum three students on each team, can go as high as 11 Approximant Time of Play: Play for 30 minutes with two 15 minute halves or play up to a certain number of goals Facilities: Soccer field, open field, or gym Objectives (student learning objectives): By the end of the game the student will: • Be familiar with his/her teammates and be able to call out teammates’ names comfortably. • Improve cardiovascular fitness by playing on both sides of the ball. • Improve fine motor coordination by catching a thrown ball or heading it. Materials: 1 soccer ball, 2 goals of any size, tape, or cones. Directions: This game is played with the hands and head. The game starts with the ball in the hands of one team. The object of the game is to score more goals than the other team using your teammates’ hands and head. There are two goals and one team defends each while there are no set positions. In order to score a goal, a team must complete three consecutive passes to three different players while calling their names out loud before the ball is thrown. You can throw it to a teammate but the only way to score is by heading the ball into the goal. Once the ball is in hand, that player must be stationary and cannot take more than three steps after receiving the ball. If the ball is dropped and touches the ground it automatically becomes the other team’s ball. Modifications: This game can be modified by making the goals bigger, the field smaller, and play being able to continue when the ball touches the ground. Safety Considerations: The main safety concerns are students watching where they are going as to not run into someone or something. The other major concern is getting hit with the ball. Mainly, if all the students participate fully then these dangers have a very low risk of occurring. Designed by: Brad English (2005)
86th Annual EDA/AAHPERD Convention Hartford Connecticut ~ March 1st – 5th, 2006 Complete and return to: Kathy Nauber
12 Sylvan Ridge
Rockfall, Connecticut 06481
EARLY BIRD RATE effective through January 1, 2006 PRE-REGISTRATION deadline February 10, 2006 Registration Type: Select the registration type below that corresponds with your membership. Single Member - membership required in either AAHPERD or Connecticut AHPERD (CTAHPERD) Dual Member - membership required in both AAHPERD and Connecticut AHPERD (CTAHPERD) Non-HPERD Family Member – may not be employed within the disciplines of HPERD and must accompany an HPERD registered member. Registration is good for entry into Exhibition Hall and all convention activities Collegial Member – must be member of approved collegial organization (e.g. ACSM, NATA) Non-Member – Registration fees adds the cost of AAHPERD membership ($125) to each category Single Member Dual Member AMOUNT (AAHPERD or CTAHPERD Member) (AAHPERD & CTAHPERD) Professional or Life Professional Daily Students - Full Time* Retired/Retired Life Collegial Member Non-Member – Full Convention Non-Member – Daily Non-HPERD Family Member
Early Bird $ 90 $ 60 $ 20 $ 20 $ 90 $215 $185 $ 60
Pre $100 $ 70 $ 20 $ 30 $100 $225 $195 $ 60
On Site $150 $ 80 $ 25 $ 40 $150 $275 $205 $ 60
Early Bird $80 $50
Pre $90 $60
On Site $140 $ 70
_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
PLEASE PRINT LEGIBLY Name: _________________________________________________________________________________________ AAHPERD Membership#: ______________________ Connecticut AAHPERD #/ Collegial #: ______________________ Address:
Phone: (H) ____________________ (W) ____________________ email: _____________________________ Badge Information: PRINT NEATLY Name (First/Last - do not include titles or initials): ______________________________________________________ Organization / Affiliation:
Non-HPERD Family Member Name (only needed if fee is paid):
Email (will be used for registration confirmation, print clearly):
Awards Banquet (Saturday, March 4th) _____ # Tickets @ $35 ________________ Sponsor a Student to Banquet _____ # Students @ $35 ________________ Pre-Convention Workshops Wednesday, March 1, 2006: (Pre-Registration ensures availability of materials) To participate in a pre-convention workshop, you must be registered for the convention. Physical Best Specialist Workshop 7 hour workshop (AAHPERD member fee) $155 (non AAHPERD member fee) $185 _____ Teaching Adventure Skills In The Gym All day CREC Metropolitan Learning Center $ 65 Step up to Technology I Movie, 12:30 pm - 4:00 pm $ 10 Dare to Share: Our favorite Adapted Activities 9:00 am - 4:00 pm $ 10
Make Checks payable to: EDA Convention
Cancellation Policy: Registrations are not transferable. Send all cancellation notifications in writing by January 30, 2006. Include a selfaddressed, stamped envelope. A $5.00 processing fee will be charged for all cancellations.
Adapted Physical Education
Rediscovering Your ABC’s Matthew Schinelli Livingston Public School When most people hear the term “Learning your ABC’s” they immediately reflect back to their early elementary school experiences. In the world of Adapted Physical Education the term “ABC” relates to the Achievement-Based Curriculum approach developed in the 1970’s by Dr. Janet Wessel of Texas Women’s University and Dr. Luke Kelly of The University of Virginia. The components of the ABC approach are:
1. Plan 2. Assess 3. Prescribe 4. Teach 5. Evaluate 6. Modify Each of the six components of the ABC approach represents one tool that is used by the teacher throughout the school year. Instruction does not begin until a long-term plan has been developed for the student. This followed by a through assessment period, which leads to well-defined motivational activities represented in the prescription component. Upon completion of the first three components, instruction begins in the teaching segment. The model provides specific instructional guidelines and an overall platform that helps to ensure a high level of effective
instructional practices. The evaluation component provides specific objective measures and techniques that assist the teacher in gaining a better understanding of where his/her program has succeeded. The final component of the model is modification. This is an integral part of quality instruction. By allowing the instructor to understand that one part or the entire model can be altered at any time, helps to empower the creativity of the entire process. If the ABC approach is more than just a framework and/or teaching tool, then it should provide an understanding of the complete process of a child’s education. But does it work? Does it achieve the goal of providing the teacher/instructor with an easy to follow, effective, and practical approach to education? In addition, does its structure constrict the teacher/instructor to follow a system that is unrealistic in both time management and in operation? Finally, does it leave out any vital components of successful instruction? Throughout my first few years of teaching, I followed the guidelines extremely closely and used most of the instructional components of the model. In order to individualize instruction as
much as possible, I developed an ABC model for each student. For example, each student has his/her own ABC folder. In this folder is a planning section, which provides a forecast of the skills the student should achieve by the end of the program year and tenure in the school. For students with extremely unique needs, I develop alternative activities from surveying what activities exist in the community and from what the student most likes. The second section of the folder contains all of the assessment records. Assessment information is classified by individual skills and their subskills. For example, if kicking is the test skill, I could break it down into four sub-skills. I then record how many components the student demonstrates successfully in 3 out of 5 trials. The third section includes a prescribed list of the core activities that will be followed for each unit covered throughout the year. Even though I plan some activities ahead of time, the majority are developed as the year proceeds. This section of the folder is difficult to start, but it grows easily with each year. Section four lists all of the motivational strategies and personal teaching cues that I found to be effective. As in the previous section, information is gained as time goes on. However, I do record sufficient starting information gathered from parents and previous instructors. The last section of the folder combines pre/post notes and evaluations for upcoming units. Following each unit I chart information that
Adapted Physical Education cally influenced his/her range of motion, endurance, motivation, number of skill trials attempted, peer interaction, and communiReflection on the ABC Approach cation with the instructor.
either helped or hindered the overall quality of the program in order to make modifications.
At the end of my fourth year of teaching, I decided to look for an alternative model to work with. Although the ABC model was effective, I felt as if I needed to challenge myself to discover different principles of education. In addition, I wanted to answer a few questions that I had regarding the ABC model assumptions. After reviewing numerous Special Education models, I decided
that trying to “reinvent the wheel’ was not practical. Instead I simply decided to shift my focus from an instruction-oriented approach to more of a “play and modeling” approach of instruction. As result of this change, previously unobserved student learning characteristics emerged. It became increasingly obvious that the affective domain of student development played a major role in the student’s success ratio. Simply put, the student’s feelings towards the games activities and skill tasks dramati-
Upon completion of the year, several observations came to light. Even though this new method revealed the importance of the affective domain, the lack of instructional organization ultimately limited the overall program’s success. In some cases, by allowing the students to direct their program outcomes via selected activities that they alone chose, it prevented a well-
rounded experience from occurring. During several units, important skill stations or essential components of an activity were neglected due to lack of student interest. Ultimately, although this approach provided students with a much more open/free learning environment, it removed important teacher control factors used to ensure a holistically and developmentally appropriate physical education program.
it does provide a structured foundation for one to build upon. Regardless of the grade level, unit concept, student disability, or nature of instructional style, the ABC model provides a successoriented framework. Ultimately, a teacher is judged not by how well his/her students learn, but rather by how well prepared he/ she is to teach all students. Organizational skills as well as understanding sequential levels of instruction are too often left for one to discover through trial and error alone. In most subject areas, an instructor is required to be able to demonstrate knowledge of what level his/her student was at the start of the year/unit and where he/she will be at the end of the year/unit. Too many times physical educators fail to answer these simple questions. Following the ABC model, a teacher will never have to worry. For more information on the Achievement-Based Curriculum (ABC) approach consult: Developing the Physical Education Curriculum: An AchievementBased Approach (2004) by Luke E. Kelly and Vincent J. Melograno published by Human Kinetics.
In conclusion, while the ABC model does not emphasize the vital role of the affective domain, 45
Adapted Physical Education
Adapted Physical Education Resources Lesson Plans/Equipment: www.pecentral.org An excellent resource for all physical educators. Also has a specific site for Adapted Physical Education with many lesson plan ideas. www.pelinks4u.org Review the Adapted Physical Education link for games, exercise, and sport opportunities for students with disabilities. www.flaghouse.com Check out the Special Populations link which includes exercise, gross motor, and recreation/ play equipment offered by FlagHouse. www.sportime.com Sportime offers a variety of Adapted Physical Education products.
Professional Organizations/ Programs: www.njape.com The NJ Adapted Physical Education website provides useful tools to develop and maintain developmental, adapted, inclusionary, and selfcontained physical education programs. www.twu.edu/inspire The Project INSPIRE website, sponsored by the Texas Woman’s University, includes much valuable information related to adapted physical education. Check out the following sections: Inclusion Strategies, Health and Safety, Laws, and Sports, Leisure/Recreation. www.cortland.edu/APENS This website details the Adapted Physical Education National Standards and gives information about taking the APENS exam.
www.aahperd.org/aaalf/ template.cfm?template=apac/index.html Visit AAHPERD’s Adapted Physical Activity Council which promotes physical activity and recreation for individuals with disabilities that will lead to active and healthy lifestyles. www.ncpad.org The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability is an information center concerned with exercise and physical activity for individuals with disabilities. www.specialedcareers.org The National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education is committed to enhancing the nation’s capacity to recruit, prepare, and retain well-qualified diverse educators and related service personnel for children with disabilities. www.cec.sped.org Visit the Council for Exceptional Children, “The voice and vision of special education,” website for public policy and legislative information. www.ifapa.net The International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity is a cross-disciplinary professional organization which supports, promotes, and disseminates information about adapted physical education and sport for individuals of all abilities. www.nichcy.org The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities serves as a source of information on: (a) disabilities in infants, toddlers, children, and youth; (b) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); (c) No Child Left Behind; and (d) research-based information on effective educational practices.
Adapted Physical Education
www.naric.com The National Rehabilitation Information Center is committed to providing information services and document delivery to the disability and rehabilitation communities across the United States. Search the large database entitled REHABDATA for adapted physical education documents and journal articles. www.palaestra.com Palaestra: Forum of Sport, Physical Education and Recreation for Those With Disabilities is a quarterly publication with the following mission: (a) to educate parents in all aspects of physical activity making them the best advocates for their childrenâ€™s IEP; (b) to increase the knowledge base of professionals working with persons with disabilities; and (c) to show the value physical activity holds for adult readersâ€™ increased wellness.
Recreation/Sports Programs: www.specialolympics.org Visit the website for the Special Olympics which provides sports training and athletic competition to more than 1.7 million people with intellectual disabilities.
www.nepassage.org This program, offered through the University of New Hampshire, provides recreational opportunities for persons with disabilities. www.wsusa.org The Wheelchair Sports USA organization is dedicated to the guidance and growth of wheelchair sports. www.usaba.org The United States Association of Blind Athletes offers competitive, world-class athletic programs for students who are blind or visually impaired. www.ndsaonline.org The National Disability Sports Alliance is the national coordinating body for competitive sports for individuals with cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injuries, and survivors of strokes. www.usdeafsports.org The USA Deaf Sports Federation offers sport programs for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. www,atlantic-district.org The Atlantic Amateur Hockey Association programs for disabled ice hockey participants.
www.sonj.org Visit the website for the Special Olympics New Jersey to review the four major events sponsored annually in New Jersey. www.nscd.org The National Sports Center for the Disabled is committed to positively impacting the lives of people with disabilities through quality adaptive recreation programs in over 20 sports. www.epva.org The Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association website is a good resource for ADA compliance information. 47
INNOVATIVE LESSON PLAN Marijuana and Driving: A Dangerous Combination Shari Willis, Kimberly Weiss, Brian Newton Rowan University Background Information: The effects of marijuana on the human body vary from individual to individual, but there are some general responses that most people will experience. The first time an individual smokes marijuana he or she may not feel anything, but others may have the feeling of being high, which can be somewhat similar to feeling drunk or intoxicated. It is also very common for someone to feel extremely relaxed and drowsy, as marijuana is a depressant. Other general side effects include enhanced vision of normally minor events, the feeling of time moving very slowly, and the feeling of non-concern. All of these effects are brought on by the ingredient in the marijuana plant known as THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Clinically, marijuana can affect all key areas of the body. Some of these areas affected are the lungs, heart, reproductive system, and the brain. In most cases marijuana is smoked and held in the lungs for several seconds. This results in serious damage to the lung tissue that can, due to the length of time the smoke remains in the lungs, be much worse than cigarette smoke. When smoking marijuana, a per-
son also risks experiencing heart failure because marijuana use can increase the heart rate as much as fifty percent, which will result in chest pain in some individuals. Researchers say that the use of marijuana during pregnancy may cause premature birth as well. Furthermore, marijuana is also known to cause temporary loss of fertility (Monroe, 1997). Recent studies have shown that driving under the influence of marijuana is a major safety concern in the United States. One study reports that approximately one in six high school seniors have admitted to driving while under the influence of marijuana (Health & Medicine Week, 2003). Another survey taken from “Monitoring the Future” data and teens surveyed by Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD)/Liberty Mutual reported they were not concerned about driving after using drugs (Health & Medicine Week, 2003, p. 696). The “Drugged Driving” report released from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicates that in 2002, between 10% and 18% of young drivers ages 17 to 21 years reported driving while under the influence of an illegal drug during the past year. Driving-age teens are four times more likely to use marijuana than younger adolescents (Health & Medicine Week, 2003). Further estimates based on “Monitoring the Future and Census Bureau” data also illustrated that of the nearly four million high school seniors in the United States, approximately 600,000 drove under the influ-
ence of marijuana. Coincidentally this figure very closely rivals the number of those who drove under the influence of alcohol, which was 640,000 in 2001. Additionally, an estimated 38,000 of these students reported that they crashed while driving under the influence of marijuana (Health & Medicine Week, 2003). Which is worse: driving while under the influence of marijuana or driving while under the influence of alcohol? Obviously, they are both dangerous, and if caught, individuals will be penalized through the American justice system. They both have different effects on the body and mind however, that can lead to dangerous driving. Marijuana use can tamper with certain aspects of depth perception and focus, which is also true with alcohol, but in a different manner. When under the influence of marijuana, a person will have difficulty concentrating on the areas around the sides and in the front or back of the vehicle (Monroe, 1997). Marijuana will also tamper with depth perception, which in turn could cause a driver to misjudge turns or run into parked cars. Dr. David Cook from both the Alberta Motor Association and the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission noted that drivers who are high may become more cautious, but that does not mean they are safe drivers. In fact, they are not safe drivers because they are easily distracted, which can lead to accidents (Pederson, 2003). A study conducted in Memphis, 48
Reviewed Article Tennessee showed that out of 150 reckless drivers who were tested for drugs at the arrest scene, 33 percent tested positive for marijuana use (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2004). Driving under the influence of marijuana is difficult to confirm. Unlike alcohol, which can be tested on the roadside using a breathalyzer, marijuana has no distinct chemical effects that can be assessed in that manner. It is true that when using marijuana the user will have large amounts of the chemical THC in their blood, but there is currently no easy test for a police officer to implement directly upon stopping a driver. Police officers rely on looking into the eyes of the drivers for pupil dilation and sniffing for the distinct smell of marijuana. They are also deploying tests like those used to test drunk drivers such as closing your eyes and touching your nose. Due to the mischievous nature of this drug, it has been very difficult for law officials to prosecute offenders. Recently there have been changes. The Office of National Drug Control Policy has been developing what they call a “Model State Drugs and Driving Act” (National District Attorneys Association, 2003). The policy is referred to as a model because driving and drugs laws are under individual state legislature and vary widely between jurisdictions. The policy is designed to cover two aspects of drugged-driving, those being drug-impaired driving and driving with a detectable amount of drugs in the body. It covers three
major areas of the crime: definition of the crime, treatment and punishment, and admissibility of evidence. This model is designed to be that, which states may follow when enacting their own laws and drug policies. New Jersey considers marijuana to be an illegal substance. Possession or being under the influence will get an offender 0-18 months in jail and a fine of 500-15,000 dollars. Along with this is a mandatory loss of license for at least six months and indefinitely longer if caught while driving. The state considers driving while under the influence of marijuana or alcohol to be in the same category of “Driving While Impaired.” If an individual is caught in New Jersey driving while impaired, he or she can receive a fine, imprisonment for up to thirty days, a six month to one year suspension of license, and twelve to forty-eight hours in an intoxicated resource driving center (NJ Department of Health and Senior Services, 2002). These potential penalties do not include the automobile insurance surcharge for three years. All of these repercussions are for a person’s first offense and will increase with subsequent offenses. The driver could also face possession charges.
amid or mixing with segments of society’s users. Its use is one way to “party,” to express our daring or dangerous behavior, or to be a part of a group. Children and teens may know more about marijuana than some of their parents or teachers. Merchandisers openly promote marijuana themed products. Some stores and other novelty shops often have a marijuana section totally devoted to such a theme, just like stores promoting “partying and fun” with alcohol themes. The teacher may ask the class where and when they have seen marijuana influences in our culture. Following the brief discussion and prior to the activity the teacher should talk about the background information relating to the affects of marijuana and the variety of non-desirable outcomes.
Introductory Lesson Prior to Activity: Marijuana is an all too familiar term in our society. This plant is glorified by many adults and by segments of professional or organizational groups. Even nonusers can detect the odor when
Equipment Needed: Strobe light, balls, toilet paper, other soft objects of choice for throwing and catching
Purpose of the Activity: This activity will imitate the modality in which marijuana slows the physical responses while driving by demonstrating delayed reaction similar to the delays encountered with marijuana use. Suggested Grade Level: 10, 11, and 12 Class size: up to 30 students
Directions: Pair each student with another individual. Each pair of students will need an item 49
Reviewed Article to toss. The students will then face each other with four to eight feet between them. The light is turned off. There may be external light coming in the windows or door. The external light will make catching the items easier, but there still will be delayed reaction time. Turn the strobe light on and ask the students to “play catch” with the item. The teacher may choose to have the students try to juggle the items. Safety: The strobe light must be set no faster than five flashes per second or 5 Hz. The flash must not be set in the frequency between 5Hz to 70 Hz. Furthermore, only one strobe light may be used as the flashes may increase in frequency with multiple strobe lights flashing at different times. Faster flashes have been shown to induce seizures in some individuals with photosensitive epilepsy. Photosensitive epilepsy is an uncommon condition that may be brought on by frequent flashes from strobe lights or other electronics such as video games or television programs. For further information see Jeavons and Harding’s book titled Photosensitive Epilepsy: New and Expanded Edition (1994). Assessment: The assessment is done with the teacher querying participants to elicit responses, which demonstrate understanding that behavioral outcomes of marijuana use parallels the strobe light experience regarding reaction time. As the strobe light flashes off and on, the person attempting to catch the item will
lose cues, which help define the trajectory; thus, missed catches increase. The oral processing of the activity may be considered using the questions listed below. Facilitator questions following the activity: 1. Was throwing the object to your partner an easy task? 2. Was catching the object thrown to you an easy or difficult task? 3. Why did some individuals in the class have difficulty catching the objects? 4. How does this activity simulate the response rate of marijuana use? 5. Individuals that make the choice to smoke marijuana and then drive a car are likely to encounter what type of driving errors? New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards: 2.3 By 12th grade B. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs CPI. 4. Describe the impact of alcohol and other drugs on those areas of the brain that control vision, sleep, coordination, and reaction time and assess how the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs impairs behavior, judgment, and memory. CPI. 5. Investigate the relationship between alcohol and other drug use and the incidence of motor vehicle crashes.
References: Health and Medicine Week. (2003, October 13). One in six U.S. high-schoolers admits driving under the influence of marijuana. NewsRx.com. p. 696. Jeavons, P. M., & Harding, G. F. A. (1994). Photosensitive epilepsy: New and expanded edition. Mac Keith Press: London, England. Monroe, J. (1997, May). How marijuana affects driving. Current Health 2, 23(9), 22-24. National District Attorneys Association. (2003. January 30). Drugs and Driving: Policy Statement. Office of National Drugs Control Policy. www.ndaa-apri.org/pdf/ drugs_driving_policy_statement.pdf National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2004). How does marijuana affect driving? www.nida.nih.gov/MarijBroch/ teenpg11-12.html New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. Center for Health Statistics. (2002). Fact Sheet. www.state.nj.us/health/chs/ monthlyfactsheets/ drunk_drug_prev.pdf Pederson, R. (2003, January 10). Cannabis slows drivers down: Police will have to develop ways to measure impairment: the big marijuana debate. The Edmonton Journal, A3.
New Jersey Urban Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Activity, Sport, Physical Fitness and Physical Education Carolyn Masterson, Nick Barese, and Deborah Hortas Department of Health Professions, Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies Montclair State University Introduction Fifteen percent of our youth between the ages 6-17 are obese and/or overweight. These rates have doubled among children and tripled among adolescents in the past twenty years. Sixty-one percent of children ages 5-10 who are overweight have one or more cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Twenty-seven percent of these children have two or more risk factors. A third of young people in high school do not regularly participate in vigorous physical activity. They watch more than 2 hours of TV a day, spend 1.9 hours a day on the internet browsing sites, visiting chat rooms, playing games and/or completing school projects (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). Promoting regular physical activity, eating healthy and creating a positive environment is therefore essential to reducing the obesity epidemic that faces this nation. African-American and Hispanic adolescents are at an even greater risk for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer. In New Jersey, 31 percent of the Black population and 40 percent of the Hispanic population stated that they do not participate in leisure time physical activity compared to 22 percent of the white population. Only 5 percent of the Bergen and Passaic County Black and Hispanic population stated they walk at least 5 times a week for 30 minutes (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001). Two northern New Jersey urban school districts applied for the Carol White Physical Education for Progress Grant to receive funds to buy equipment, professionally develop their physical education staff and to improve their fitness education curriculum. As part of the application process both districts investigated student health records and found that about 60 percent of their students were overweight and/or obese. As a result, the two school districts wanted to investigate what their students felt about physical activity, sport, physical fitness, and their physical education program. Method The grant application process enabled the two school districts to investigate a sample population of middle and high school students about their participation in physical activity, sports and exercise in and out of school. One school district (Paterson) gave the physical activity questionnaire to two middle school and four high school physical education classes or 291 students. The other district (Newark) gave the questionnaire to 407 students in four middle school and two high school physical education classes. The questionnaire consisted of 22 multiple-choice questions with the following choices: “Really Like Me,” “Sort of Like Me,” “Sort of Not Like Me” and “Really Not Like Me.” Question 23 asked students to rate from 1 to 100 their importance of being physically fit, with 1 being “Of No Impor51
tance” and 100 being “As Important as I Can Imagine.” Question 24 asked students to indicate the extent of their involvement in activities such as dance, gymnastics, martial art classes, individual sports, and team sports. Students also answered three open-ended questions about what they liked and disliked about their school physical education program. Results Attitudes toward Physical Activity, Sport, and Physical Fitness. About 40% of the Paterson students and 32% of the Newark students reported participation in organized physical activity or sport programs such as dance, gymnastics, martial arts, or individual/team sports. Students in both districts reported strong enjoyment related to this participation and a large majority wished they could participate more frequently. Both school districts reported participation for health reasons and to make friends (Table 1). Students in both districts also reported very positive attitudes toward physical fitness. Approximately 89% of the Paterson students and 71% of the Newark students agreed that being physically fit is important. A similar high percent (Paterson = 81%, Newark = 88%) reported that they tried hard to stay in shape. Interestingly, while most of the students in both districts reported feeling healthier after exercising, about half reported that they did not enjoy sweating while participating in physical activity or sport (Table 1). Table 1. Attitudes toward Physical Activity, Sport, and Physical Fitness Percent of Students Agreeing with the Item Item
Enjoy participating in physical activity/sport
Wish I could participate more frequently
Participate in physical activity/sport for health reasons
Participate in physical activity/sport to make friends
Playing sports makes me more popular
Feel I am good at sports
Desire to learn more about physical activity/sport
Being physically fit is important
I try hard to stay in shape
I feel healthier after exercising
I do not enjoy sweating while participating in physical activity/sport
Family Influence Related to Physical Activity and Sport Participation. Students were asked to indicate the extent to which family members influenced their participation in physical activity and sport. More than half of the students (Newark = 57%, Paterson = 67%) reported that at least one family member is physically active. Families encourage the students to be physically active and many families help buy sport equipment. Finally, approximately 71% of the Paterson and Newark students reported being told by family members they are good at sports (Table 2). Table 2. Family Influence Related to Physical Activity and Sport Participation Percent of Students Agreeing with the Item Newark Paterson
Item Family member participates in physical activity/sport
Family encourages your sport participation
Told you are good at sports by family member
Family helps buy sport equipment
Attitudes toward Physical Education Programs. Most of the students reported that their PE teachers emphasize the health benefits of physical activity/sport (Paterson = 78%, Newark = 80%) and that sport/ exercise skills are taught in PE class (Paterson = 75%, Newark = 80%). PE teachers frequently encourage and give positive feedback for the studentsâ€™ participation in physical activity. It appears that most of the PE teachers serve as positive role models because they are physically fit and they participate with the students in class (Table 3). Favorite activities during physical education class included basketball, tennis, volleyball, baseball, and gymnastics. Not surprisingly, the least favorite activities were running, conditioning, weight training, and dance. Other negative comments included that PE is boring, the gyms are too small, and better equipment is needed for the PE classes. Table 3. Attitudes toward Physical Education Programs
Percent of Students Agreeing with the Item Newark Paterson
Your PE teachers emphasize health benefits of exercise
Are taught sport/exercise skills during PE class
Teachers give positive feedback for physical activity participation
Your PE teachers are physically fit
Your PE teachers participate during PE class
Discussion A large percent of middle school and high school students in Paterson and Newark do not participate in organized physical activity or sport even thought they enjoy activity, value being physically fit, and have support from their families. Quality physical education programs help students to develop the knowledge and skills to be physically active for a lifetime. Students should be exposed to a wide variety of physical activities, learn knowledge and skills to become physically fit, set their own goals and monitor their own improvement in order to learn to be healthy and well (National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004). Many students in this study reported that their PE teachers encouraged them to participate in physical activity and to be physically fit. Eighty to ninety percent of the students want to learn new physical activities. Their teachers do an excellent job coaching them about physical exercise and sport skills. Family members support them, instruct them to be physically active and give them positive feedback about their skill levels. Considering the health and wellness issues brought to the attention of the public in the last ten years, it is critical to enable students to have the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices that enable them to be physically fit and to participate and value physical activity for a lifetime (AAHPERD, 1992). Physical education teachers, who value physical activity and fitness tend to include more moderate to vigorous physical activity in their instruction, allocate more time to fitness activities and spend more time promoting fitness (Deng, Kulinna, & Silverman, 1998). An outcome of this study is to instruct students and teachers and to work with families to fight the obesity/overweight epidemic. These results will be shared with the administrators and teachers in the two school districts involved. The researchers will continue to work with teachers who are willing to improve their physical education curriculums. An action research project will be developed in the future to investigate what happens in the physical education classroom concerning physical activity, sports, and physical fitness. References AAHPERD (1992). The outcomes of a quality physical education program. Reston, Va.: National Sport and Physical Education Association. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). U.S. Physical activity statistics: 2001 state demographic data comparison. Deng, X., Kulinna, P.H., & Silverman, S. (1998). Relationship between teachersâ€™ attitudes and actions toward physical activity and fitness. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED420655. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2004). Adults/teens attitudes toward physical activity and physical education. Survey conducted by Opinion Research Corporation International, Princeton, NJ. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Promoting better health for young people through physical activity and sports: A report to the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Government Printing Office. 54
Guidelines for Authors The following information should be used in preparing and submitting articles for The Reporter. Many different types of articles are appropriate including theoretical, practical, reactionary, controversial, historical, philosophical, technical, and “ideas that work,” etc. Articles should be written with the NJAHPERD membership in mind. Use a clear, simple writing style avoiding the use of first person pronouns and repeated references to one’s institution. References are not required but writing ethics dictate that quoted material as well as historical/research sources be cited in a reference section. Research studies will be considered if accompanied by practical suggestions. The Reporter is not a research journal however; a theoretical discussion of a research study would be appropriate. When reporting research results, try to maintain non-technical language and avoid complex tables that are not directly related to the text. Extensive discussion of methodology and statistical analyses would not be appropriate. Concentrate on the theoretical framework, discussion of the findings, and applications to the field. Upon receipt of the article, the author will be notified. Articles will be distributed to a minimum of two members of the editorial
review board for a blind review. When the editor receives each review, a decision will be reached regarding acceptance for publication, returning the article to the author for revision, or rejecting the article. Authors will be notified of the decision of the review process. However, it should be kept in mind that this process can take as many as two to three months. The most common reasons for rejection are: inappropriate subject matter; repetition of previously published material; topic too narrow or already common knowledge; poor documentation; and poor writing. An article submitted to The Reporter should not be simultaneously submitted to another publication. Additionally, an article that has been published in another journal should not be submitted to The Reporter. Authors will receive one copy of the journal in which their article appears. Submission Requirements: Style. The preferred style for The Reporter is that of the American Psychological Association (APA). APA stylebooks can be found in most libraries. Length. The article should be of sufficient length to cover the topic. However, articles exceeding 10 double-spaced typed pages are generally considered too long for The Reporter. Title Page. This page should include the title of the article and the author(s) name as preferred for publication. Drop
down a few spaces and type the complete name, address, phone number, and e-mail address of the author with whom the editor should correspond. Copies. Three (3) hard copies must be submitted, one original and two copies. Only the original copy needs a title page. Disk. In addition to the three hard copies, the article must be submitted on a 3-inch disk. The preferred format is Word. Text. Articles must be typed, single-spaced on 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper. Pages should be numbered consecutively. Photos. Black and white photographs may be submitted when available. Preferred photo size is 5 x 7 inches. Please identify any individuals appearing in the photo as well as information about the significance of the photo. Photos will not be returned unless specifically requested. Color photos showing action in sport are sought for the cover. Photographers will be acknowledged. Charts, Graphs, Illustrations. If you are unable to include your chart, etc. on the computer disk, please place these items on white paper in black ink, camera ready. Address. Articles should be submitted to: Dr. Kathy Silgailis Editor, The Reporter Department of Exercise & Movement Sciences William Paterson University Wayne, NJ 07470 56
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