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ANCIENT INDIAN TRADITION AND MYTHOLOGY SERIES [PURĀNAS IN T R A N S L A T I O N ] VOLUMES ŚIVA 1-4 LIŃGA 5-6 BHĀGAVATA 7-11 GARUDA12-14 NĀRADA15-19 KŪRMA 20-21 BRAHMĀNDA 22-26 AGNI 27-30 VARĀHA 31-32 BRAHMA 33-36 VĀYU 37-38 PADMA 39-48 SKANDA, PARTS I-XI, 49-59 VOLUMES UNDER PREPARATION SKANDA, PARTS XII-XXV BHAVISYA BRAHMAVATVARTA DEVĪBHĀGAVATA KĀUKĀ MARKANDEY\ MATSYA VĀMANA VISNU VISNUDHARMOTTARA


THE

KŪRMA - PURĀNA Translated and Annotated by

DR. G. V. TAGARE

PART n

M O T I L A L BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED • DELHI


First Edition: Delhi, 1982 Reprint: Delhi, 1997

© MOTTLAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED All Rights Reserved

ISBN: 81-208-0353-1

Also available at: MOTILAL BANARSIDASS 41 U.A. Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi 110 007 8, Mahalaxmi Chamber, Warden Road, Mumbai 400 026 120 Royapettah High Road, Mylapore, Chennai 600 004 Sanas Plaza, Subhash Nagar, Pune 411 002 16 St. Mark's Road, Bangalore 560 001 8 Camac Street, Calcutta 700 017 Ashok Rajpath, Patna 800 004 Chowk, Varanasi 221 001

UNESCO COLLECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE WORKS—Indian Series This book has been accepted in the Indian Translation Series of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, jointly sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Government of India.

PRINTED IN INDIA BY JAINENDRA PRAKASH JAIN AT SHRI JAINENDRA PRESS, A-45 NARAINA, PHASE I, NEW DELHI 110028 AND PUBLISHED BY NARENDRA PRAKASH JAIN FOR MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED. BUNGALOW ROAD, DELHI 110007


PUBLISHER'S N O T E T h e purest gems lie hidden in t h e b o t t o m of or in the d e p t h of rocks. O n e has to dive into the delve into t h e rocks to find t h e m out. Similarly, concealed in t h e language which with the passage of b e c o m e obsolete.

the ocean ocean or t r u t h lies time has

B u t he has neither the means n o r the leisure to embark on t h a t course. We have, therefore, planned to h e l p h i m acquire knowledge by an easier course. We have started t h e series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English T r a n s l a t i o n . O u r goal is to universalize knowledge t h r o u g h t h e most p o p u l a r international m e d i u m of expression. T h e publication of t h e P u r Ä n a s in English translation is a step towards t h a t goal.


PREFACE T h e present volume contains the Kūrma Purāna., P a r t II ( C h a p t e r s 1-46) completing the second half (Uttarārdha) of t h e text in English translation. T h i s is the Twentyfirst Volume in the series of fifty volumes which we have p l a n n e d on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. T h e project of the series was envisaged a n d financed in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lai J a i n of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. H i t h e r t o twenty volumes of the series, (comprising English translation of Śiva, Lińga, Bhāgaoata, Garuda, Nārada and Kūrma have been published a n d released for sale. T h i s volume, (Kūrma p t . I I , ) like all other volumes, is encycl­ opaedic in character. It deals with miscellaneous topics such as t h e P ā ś u p a t a Yoga, the V i b h ū t i Yoga, the Yoga of I ś v a r a as the means of crossing the ocean of Worldly existence. In Religion a n d Ethics, it places emphasis on the performance of duties of one's own profession (Varna-dharmd) in relation to one's stage of life (Āśrama). In Philosophy it follows the S ā ń k h y a system of thought in regard to the concept of Purusa a n d Prakrti and the evolution of Universe by the union of both. In Geography it describes t h e holy centres situated in the different parts of the country, on the N a r m a d ā river in parti­ cular. It comments u p o n the topics of creation, sustenance a n d dissolution. As a special feature, the present p a r t mentions some expiatory rites for t h e person who fails to observe duties prescribed for h i m in the Dharma-śāstra. For further specialities of this P u r ā n a , the reader is referred to Introduction prefixed to P a r t I of this P u r ā n a . T h e present translation is based on the Sanskrit text of the Kūrma Purāna as published by Messrs Ksemarāja Śrīkrsnadāsa, Veñkateśvara Press, Bombay. This text constructed on the colla­ tion of mss. a n d supported by the evidence of citations found in the Smrti granthas, is fairly a c c u r a t e . T h e present Part, the second half includes besides trans­ lation a n d notes of K ū r m a , t h e Preface, Abbreviations, C o n t e n t s a n d the General I n d e x t o the complete P u r ā n a .


(

viii

)

Acknowledgment of Obligation It is our pleasant duty to p u t on record our sincere thanksto Dr. R. N. D a n d e k a r a n d the U N E S C O authorities for their kind encouragement a n d valuable help which render this work very useful. We are extremely grateful to D r . G. V. T a g a r e who has meticulously and delightfully accomplished this onerous task. T h e critical Introduction, the lucid translation and explanatory notes are, in fact, his m o n u m e n t a l contributions to the studies in Indology. We must also thank Shri T. V. Parameshwara Iyer for his valuable assistance in the preparation of translation. We express our gratitude to all those who have offered suggestions for improving the same. — Editor


CONTENTS A.

PREFACE

B.

ABBREVIATIONS

C.

TRANSLATION AND N O T E S

Chapters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

vii xi

Part I I

T h e Dialogue between Sages a n d Vyāsa T h e Yoga of ī ś v a r a Prakrti and Purusa T h e Glory of Śiva Siva's D a n c e — Ś i v a eulogised by Sages T h e Glory of Śiva T h e Vibhūti-Yoga of Śiva : F u n d a m e n t a l s of Pāśupatism T h e M e a n s of Crossing the ocean of Worldly Existence T h e unsullied form of Siva T h e form of the Supreme B r a h m a n Ś i v a — t h e Parabrahman T h e P a t h of liberation of the individual soul from bondage The P a t h of Action—Duties of celibate students T h e Usages of Śistas. Good C o n d u c t Duties of Brahmacārins T h e Duties of the Householder T h e Duties of the Householder. Rules of Good C o n d u c t Decision about Acceptable a n d Prohibited Food Daily Duties of a Householder Daily Duties of a Householder : M o d e of taking meals Procedure of Performance of Ś r ā d d h a Rules governing Ś r ā d d h a

Pages 337 342 348 350 354 359 364 367 370 372 374 388 395 400 410 415 424 430 443 447 453


( 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

x

)

Rules for performance of Ś r ā d d h a Rules regarding Impurities caused by Birth or Death T h e Duties of Agni-hotrin T h e Means of Livelihood of a B r ā h m a n a Householder Rules of offering religious gifts Duties in V ā n a p r a s t h a (Hermit's) Stage Duties of Yatis (recluses) Duties of an Ascetic Rules of Expiation I m p o r t a n c e of K a p ā l a - m o c a n a T ī r t h a Expiatory rites Expiatory rites (continued) Expiatory rites (continued) Greatness of G a y ā and other sacred places Glory of Sacred Places : the d e a t h of K a l i Glory of M a h ā l a y a a n d other holy centres T h e Description of D ā r u v a n a T h e Entry into the forest of D e v a d ā r u T h e Glory of N a r m a d ā Glory of different sacred places on the N a r m a d ā river Greatness of holy centres on the N a r m a d ā river Greatness of Naimisāranya a n d J a p y e ś v a r a Description of sacred places (continued) Description of four types of Dissolution Dissolution of subsidiary creation INDEX

460 471 482 485 487 495 500 504 509 512 522 524 529 544 551 555 562 570 577 581 591 596 599 602 608 623


ABBREVIATIONS C o m m o n a n d Self-evident abbreviations such as c h ( s ) — c h a p t e r (s), p — p a g e , pp—pages, v—verse, w — v e r s e s , F t n — footnote, Hist. I n d . Philo—History of I n d i a n Philosophy a r e not included in this list. ABORI AGP AIHT

AP AV Bhā. P. Bh. P. Bm. P. Brn. Bs. P. Bv. P. GC DB De or G D A M I

D h . S. ERE GP GS

Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. S. M. Ali's The Geography of Purānas, P P H , New Delhi, 1973. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition F. E. Pargiter, Motilal Banarsidass ( M L B D ) , Delhi. Agni Purāna, G u r u M a n d a l Edition ( G M ) , Calcutta, 1957. Atharva Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l Aundh. Bhāgavata Purāna, M L B D , Delhi 1973. Bhāgavata Purāna, Bhagavat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad. Brahma Purāna, G M . 1954. Brhannāradiya P t . Hrishikesh Shastri, Chowk h a m b a , 1975. Bhavisya Purāna, Vishnu Shastri Bapat, W a i . Brahma Vaivarta Purāna, G M , 1955-57. Caturvarga Cintāmani by H e m ā d r i . Devi Bhāgavata, G M , 1960-61. The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India—N. L. De, Orienta R e p r i n t Delhi, 1971. Dharma Sūtra (preceded by the a u t h o r ' s n a m e such as G a u t a m a ) . Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics—Hastings. Garuda Purāna, E d . R. S. Bhattacharya, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1964. Grhya Sūtra (Preceded by the n a m e of t h e a u t h o r such as Apastamba)


( HD IA IHQ, KP

LP Mbh. MK MN M t . P. MW NP PCK P d . P. PE PJ.

*ii

)

History of Dharma Śāstra by P. V. tanc, G.O.S. The Indian Antiquary. The Indian Historical Quarterly. Kūrma Purāna, Venkateshwara Press E d t . Bombay, also Kashiraj T r u s t E d t . , Varanasi 1971. Liñga Purāna, G M , 1960. Mahābhārata, Gītā Press, G o r a k h p u r Vs. 2014. Mārkandeya Purāna. Mahābhārata Kāmānukramani, G ī t ā Press, Gorakhpur VS 2016. MaUya Purāna, G M , 1954. Monier Williams Sk. English Dictionary, M L B D , Delhi, 1976. N&radiya or Mārada Purāna, Venkateshwar Press, Bombay. BhāratavarsiyaPrācina CaritraKośa, Siddheshwar Shastri, Poona, 1968. Padma Purāna, G M . , 1957-2959. Puranic Encyclopaedia by V. M a n i , English, M L B D Delhi, 1975. Purāna ( J o u r n a l of the Kashiraj Trust) Varanasi.

PR or PRHRC

Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs R. C. H a z r a , Calcutta, 1948.

RV

Rg Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h

Śat. Br

Śatapatha Brahmana.

SEP

Studies in Epics and Purānas by A . D . Pusalkar Bharatiya Vidya B h a v a n ( B V B ) , Bombay.

SG or SGAMI

Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Mediaeval India—D. C. Sircar M L B D , Delhi, 1971.

SKD

Śabda-Kalpa-Druma—Raja R. C h o w k h a m b a , Varanasi.

Sk. P .

Skanda Purāna, G M . 1960-65.

K.

Dev.,


( SM SMC Smr

S v . P. V a . P. VP. VR VRK Yaj YSP

xiii

)

Sūdhana Mdlā—B. Bhattacharya, GOS, Baroda, 1928. Smrti Candrikā—Devanna B h a t t a . Smrti (preceded by the a u t h o r ' s n a m e or simply the author's n a m e e.g. M a n u Smrti or M a n u . All GM editions in the -SmrtiS a n d a r b h a . 1952-57. Śiva Purāna, P a n d i t Pustakālaya Kashi, V . S . 2020. Vāyu Purāna, G M , 1959. Vifttu Purāna, G ī t ā Press, G o r a k h p u r , V . S . 2026. Vālmiki R ā m a y a n a , G ī t ā Press, V-S. 2020. Vālmiki Rām&yana Kośa—Ramkumar R a i , ( C h o w k h a m b a Varanasi.) Tājñavalkya ( S m r t i ) , etc. The Toga System of Patañjali—}. H. W o o d . (MLBD)


CHAPTER ONE 1 The Dialogue Between Sages and Vyāsa The Sages said: 1. O holy Lord ! T h e creative activity of the self-born god B r a h m a has been duly recounted by y o u ; so also the earlier extent of the Cosmic Egg a n d the ascertainment of ( t h e n a t u r e a n d extent of) the M a n v a n t a r a s (periods of different M a n u s ) , 2. It has been mentioned* by you in that connection t h a t the Lord of Lords, the Supreme god, should be propitiated by persons of all castes who are exclusively devoted to D h a r m a a n d a r e always engaged in the paths of knowledge a n d Yoga. 3. You have expounded to us the excellent knowledge which has B r a h m a n as its only object a n d which leads to t h e complete annihilation of all the miseries of Samsāra (worldly existence) a n d where-with w e can perceive t h a t Supreme B r a h m a n . 4. O holy lord, indeed you have acquired the entire perfect wisdom from K r s n a Dvaipāyana who is N ā r ā y a n a him­ self. Hence we ask you again. 5. On hearing t h a t request of the sages, the holy lord Sūta who h a d heard the P u r ā n a s from K r s n a D v a i p ā y a n a , just began to n a r r a t e . 6. In the meanwhile, at t h a t j u n c t u r e , Vyāsa, K r s n a Dvaipāyana, himself, arrived there where the excellent sages were performing t h e satra (sacrificial session). 7. On seeing Vyāsa who W a s a deep scholar of the Vedas, whose lustre was like t h a t of a black cloud a n d whose eyes

1.

C h a p t e r s 1 to 11 of this p a w ( U t t a r ā r d h a ) of K P .

gUi—the song of I ś v a r a (god Śiva) j u s t as song

of

the

the

BG

c o n s t i t u t e livara-

(Bhagavadgitā)

is

"the

L o r d ( K r s n a ) " . T h e similarity i s n o t m e r e l y i n titles b u t i n t h e

c o n t e n t s as w e l l . T h e Ifvaragiii h a s i n c o r p o r a t e d a n u m b e r of verses m a i n l y from t h e B G . a n d n e x t t o t h a t f r o m U p a n i s a d s like K a t h a , Ś v e t ā ś v a t a r a .


338

Kūrma Parana

were like the petals of a lotus, the leading B r ā h m a n a s bowed to h i m (out of respect). 8. On seeing him, L o m a h a r s a n a fell on the ground like a staff. After bending down the head, he dedicated himself u n t o him (v.l. circumambulated Vyāsa a n d sat by his side) with the palms joined in reverence. 9. Śaunaka a n d other Brāhmanas were duly enquired after their health. T h e r e u p o n they assured the great sage (about their health) a n d offered him a befitting seat. 10. T h e n the holy lord, the son of Parāśara, addressed these words to them, "I hope there is no deficiency or difficulty in your penance, in your learning, a n d in your practice of the self-study of the V e d a s " . 11-13. After bowing down to his preceptor, the great sage Sūta s a i d : — " I t behoves you to recount to the sages the perfect knowledge pertaining to Brahman. Indeed, these sages are quiescent. T h e y are ascetics solely devoted to D h a r m a . T h e y have the keen desire to hear. It behoves you to explain (everything) precisely, the divine knowledge t h a t bestows liberation, t h a t has been directly t a u g h t to me by you and that h a d been formerly narrated to the sages by Visnu in the form (incarnation) of K ū r m a ( T o r t o i s e ) " . 14. On hearing the words of Sūta, t h e saintly son of Satyavatī, bowed down his head to R u d r a a n d spoke these pleasing words of discourse.

T h i s c h a p t e r presents t h e sages i n

the

Naimisāranya

setting for

wanted

to

the get

proposed dialogue. from

knowledge of t h e B r a h m a n which leads to t h e annihilation of Saińsāra. was

The

Sūta, the supreme Sūta

a b o u t t o tell w h e n his p r r c e p t o r V y ā s a c a m e t h e r e . S ū t a r e q u e s t e d h i m

t o e x p l a i n t o t h e sages t h e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t B r a h m a w h i c h V y ā s a t a u g h t h i m a s i t was e x p l a i n e d b y L o r d K ū r m a t o t h e sages o f old ( V e r s e 12.) V y ā s a n o w a t t r i b u t e s t h e k n o w l e d g e t o Śiva w h o

explained

it

t o ten

sages like S a n a t k u m ā r a a n d others ( V . 1 5 ) , w h o a t B a d a r i k ā ś r a m a a p p e a l e d t o N ā r ā y a n a for this s p i r i t u a l k n o w l e d g e about request

to speak of

god

t h e sages

Śiva c a m e there

(vv. 16-30). (v.

While Nārāyana

was

3 1 ) . N ā r ā y a n a conveyed

the

t o h i m ( v . 40) a n d g o d Śiva co-seated w i t h N ā r ā y a n a

b e g a n t o s p e a k . T h e P ā ś u p a t a twist i n this episode i s o b v i o u s .


339

11.1.15-25 Vyāsa said :

15. I shall n o w n a r r a t e to you what formerly Lord M a h ā d e v a was asked by t h e leading Yogins, the chief of w h o m was S a n a t k u m ā r a a n d w h a t he himsalf has expounded it. 1 16-18. T h e following sages viz. S a n a t k u m ā r a , Sanaka, S ā n a n d a n a (and S a n ā t a n a ) , Ańgiras, Bhrgu, the knower of the supreme D h a r m a a n d accompanied b y R u d r a , K a n ā d a , K a p i l a , Garga, t h e great sage V ā m a d e v a , Śukra a n d lord Vasistha—all of them h a d perfectly controlled their minds. T h e y consulted one another. * With full self-control on their minds, they performed terrible p e n a n c e in t h e holy Badarikāśrama. 19. T h e y saw the sage N ā r ā y a n a of great Yogic power, the son of sage D h a r m a , devoid of beginning a n d end, a n d accompanied b y N a r a . 20. T h e y eulogised him with various hymns taken from the Vedas. The Yogins, endowed with devotion, bowed down to the deity, the most excellent a m o n g the knowers of Yoga. 2 1 . After knowing their desire, the omniscient lord spoke in a majestic tone : " W h y is this p e n a n c e being performed by

you ?" 22. W i t h delighted minds, they bowed to the eternal ( l o r d ) , the A t m a n of the universe, lord N ā r ā y a n a himself who h a d arrived, indicating t h e Siddhi (achievement of their desires). 23. " W e have adopted the a t t i t u d e of self-control** even though all of us are expounders of the B r a h m a n . We have sought refuge in you, the only P u r u s o t t a m a . 24. You are Lord N ā r ā y a n a , the ancient sage, the u n manifest Being. You know the entire Supreme esoteric doctrine. 25. Excepting you, the great īśvara, there is no other knower. It behoves you, of such a n a t u r e , to dispel o u r formidable doubts. 1.

As

H a z r a points

out,

this

irrelevance

Pāśupata interpolation ( P R H R C p p . 62.63)

Sūta

of V y ā s a ' s a n s w e r has

n a r r a t e the spiritual knowledge which he (Vyāsa) beard

requested from

Lord

is

a

Vyāsa t o Kūrma

and taught him (Sūta). *In

view

of V. 25 below, a b e t t e r v.I. is Samfaya i n s t e a d of Samyata. v.l.

m e a n s , ' b u t h a d t h e i r m i n d s engrossed i n d o u b t . ' **v.l. samlayam āpannih

( A l t h o u g h a l l of us a r e e x p o u n d e r s of B r a h m a n )

we a r e entangled in a d o u b t .


Kūrma Purina

340

26. W h a t is the cause of all these (things in t h e world) ?* W h o undergoes worldly existence for ever ? W h a t is the A t m a n ? W h a t is salvation ? W h a t causes t h e rebirth or recurring worldly existence ? 27. W h a t is (the n a t u r e of this) worldly existence ? W h o is I ś ā n a , who perceives everything? W h a t is the s u p r e m e B r a h m a n ? It behoves you to explain everything". 28. After saying this, the sages stood looking at Purusottama, who shedding off his guise as an ascetic, was stationed there in his own brilliance. 29-30. He was shining free from impurity. He was embellished with a h a l o of brilliant splendour. He was t h e lord having the lustre of molten gold. He was m a r k e d by t h e Śrīvatsa m a r k on his chest. He was holding Ś a ń k h a , Gakra, mace a n d the Śarńga bow in his hands. He was enveloped by glory a n d splendour. T h a n k s to his brilliance, N a r a was not even seen from t h a t m o m e n t . 31. In the meanwhile, Maheśvara, t h e great lord, whose coronet was m a r k e d with the (crescent of the) moon, R u d r a (the deity) a p p e a r e d before them disposed to bestow G r a c e upon them.1 32. On seeing the three-eyed moon-bedecked lord of the universe, Parameśvara ( Ś i v a ) , they were delighted in their minds. W i t h devotion they eulogised the great lord : 33. "O Iśvara, be victorious, O M a h ā d e v a , O Śiva, the lord of t h e goblins, be victorious; Glory u n t o you, O Lord of the sages, O lord worshipped by means of penance. 34. O A t m a n of the universe, O G o d of thousands of forms, O activiser of the machine of the universe, O Infinite one, be victorious. Glory to you, O cause of the origin, sustenance a n d annihilation of the universe. 35. Be victorious O ī ś ā n a , O Ś a m b h u , O thousandfooted one, O deity bowed down by leading Yogins, O consort of Ambikā. O lord Parameśvara, obeisance to y o u . " •or ' W h a t is t h e ( n a t u r e of t h i s ) e n t i r e c a u s e ? 1.

T h i s u n i n v i t e d e n t r y of Śiva is a r u s e to P a ś u p a t i s e t h i s t e x t .


II. 1.36-48

341

36. On being thus eulogised, t h e three-eyed lord īśa, favourably disposed towards the devotees, embraced Hrslkeśa (lord Visnu) a n d addressed him in a majestic t o n e : 37. " O P u n d a r ī k ā k s a (lotus-eyed g o d ) , why h a v e these leading sages, the expounders of B r a h m a n , come to this place. O Acyuta, w h a t is to be d o n e for them by me ?" 38. On hearing those words of his, J a n ā r d a n a , the lord of Devas, spoke to M a h ā d e v a who was standing there welldisposed to confer grace. 39-40 "O lord, these sages a n d ascetics have shed off their sins. If the lord be delighted with the sages w h o have sought refuge in you, w h o are desirous of your perfect vision a n d whose Ā t m a n s are purified, it behoves you to impart to them t h a t divine wisdom in my presence. 4 1 . O Śiva, indeed, you know y o u r own A t m a n . No one else does so. You explain your own A t m a n yourself. Reveal your A t m a n to t h e leading sages". 42. After saying thus, Hfsikeśa ( N ā r ā y a n a ) looked at t h e bull-bannered Deity (Śiva) a n d exhibiting his accomplishments in Yoga, instructed the great sages (as follows) : 4 3 . " I t behoves you to realise precisely t h a t you are all blessed by the vision of the Trident-bearing Ś a ń k a r a , the g r e a t Iśa. You now deserve to know precisely ( t h e divine knowledge). 44. It behoves you to see t h e lord of devas who stands in front a n d who is visible in form. He alone is capable to say precisely everything in my p r e s e n c e " . 45. After hearing t h e words of Visnu a n d bowing down to the bull-bannered deity, those sages the chief of whom was S a n a t k u m ā r a , asked M a h e ś v a r a : 46. In the meanwhile, a holy auspicious divine seat shone there for the sake of īśvara. It appeared from the sky in an unimaginable way (lit. was beyond the ken of i m a g i n a t i o n ) . 47. T h e creator of the universe, the Yogic A t m a n , occupied it along with Visnu. Lord M a h e ś v a r a shone there filling the universe with his brilliance. 48. T h e n t h e expounders of the B r a h m a n saw Śańkara, t h e overlord of the chiefs of Devas, shining brilliantly on the faultlessly p u r e seat.


Kūrma Purina

342

49-50. T h e y saw the lord of t h e Bhūtas (goblins or living beings) seated on the throne, t h e lord, within w h o m all t h e universe exists, a n d from w h o m the universe does n o t exist separately. T h e y saw I Sana, the great ī ś a accompanied by Vāsudeva. On being asked, P a r a m e ś v a r a spoke to t h e sages a b o u t the excellent Yoga of the A t m a n , after glancing at Pundarīkāksa. "O sinless ones '. Listen ye all, with c a l m m i n d s the knowledge (as it is) recounted by m e . It is t h e pure know­ ledge pertaining to īśvara. Be ye all calm in m i n d s . "

CHAPTER TWO The Toga of īsvara. Iśvarasaid : 1. This perfect knowledge of mine is an eternal mystery a n d secret. It cannot be adequately expressed. Devas do not know it even though they strive for it, O twiceborn ones. 2. Resorting to this perfect knowledge, excellent Brāh­ m a n a s have become identical with B r a h m a n . They, the earlier expounders of B r a h m a n , do not undergo worldly existence i. e. Samsāra (cycle of births & deaths consequent to sufferings). 3. It is the secret of secrets. It must be strenuously guarded. I shall explain it to you who are expounders of B r a h m a n a n d endowed with devotion. 4. This A t m a n is absolute, pure, clean (v. 1. quiescent) subtle a n d eternal. It exists within everything. It is the pure consciousness itself. It exists beyond the darkness of ignorance. 5. According to Vedas He is the i m m a n e n t Being, the Purusa, the vital Breath, Maheśvara, K ā l a ( T i m e ) . H e r e he is unmanifest b u t He knows. 6. T h e universe is born of him. In him alone it gets dissolved. He is the master of the M ā y ā b u t unfettered by it ( t h e M ā y ā ) , he assumes various bodies ( o r forms).


343

II.2.7-16a

7. He does not u n d e r g o t h e process of worldly existence ( i . e. b i r t h a n d d e a t h ) . T h e lord is not identical with t h e phy­ sical world, He is neither the E a r t h nor the water nor t h e fire nor t h e wind nor the Ether. 8. He is not the Vital b r e a t h , nor the m i n d nor t h e P r a d h ā n a n o r t h e unmanifest. It is neither t h e sound n o r t h e touch n o r t h e colour nor the form nor t h e taste nor the smell nor t h e ego n o r the Agent of an act or speech. 9. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , t h e Atman is (not a sense organ as he is) n o r the foot, neither the anus n o r the genitals. He is neither the doer ( t h e agent of an action) n o r the enjoyer, neither the Prakrti nor t h e Purusa. 10-11. As a m a t t e r of fact, C a i t a n y a * (consciousness) or the Atman is neither M ā y ā n o r t h e Vital Breath. J u s t as t h e relation between light a n d darkness c a n n o t be deemed possible, so is the relation between P r a p a ñ c a ( t h e visual illusory world of diversity) a n d the supreme Soul. l i b - 1 2 a . J u s t as shade and the sunlight are m u t u a l l y distinct a n d different in this world, in the same m a n n e r , t h e world a n d the p u r u s a are intrinsically a n d factually different. 12b-13a. Should it be argued that the Atman is innately soiled or dirty, created and changeable, it can never be liberated even in hundreds of births. 13b-14a. T h e liberated sages visualize t h a t their Atman is intrinsically devoid of aberrations or change, free from Dvandvas (mutually chasing opposites). T h e y realise t h a t the Atman is blissful in form and unchanging. 14b-15a. T h e ideas that " I a m the doer", " I a m h a p p y " , " I a m u n h a p p y " , " I a m lean", " I a m stout" etc. are caused by the ego. T h e y are superimposed on the Atman by the people. 15b-16a. Vedic scholars assert that the Atman is t h e witness, beyond the range of Prakrti. It is the enjoyer, imperishable, enlightened and permeating everything. H e n c e , t h e worldly existence or Samsāra of all embodied beings originates from ignorance. *v.l. a c c e p t e d as mā caiva of t h e predicate.

venkt.

Edt.

gives no subject

to t h e


344

Kūrma Purina

17-19. D u e to ignorance a n d erroneous conception the reality gets mingled with Prakrti. T h e ever-rising self-luminous Purusa is the greatest a n d omnipresent. D u e to the thoughtless­ ness, non-discrimination of the ego, one considers himself, "I am the d o e r " . But the sages realize the unmanifest soul as eternal a n d Prakrti of the n a t u r e of sat a n d asat (existence a n d non-existence). He takes P r a d h ā n a to be Purusa and begins to argue that it is t h e B r a h m a n t h a t is the cause. Thereby t h e Atman, though steady a n d unsullied becomes (associated with it) by contact. 20. He (therefore) does not comprehend that his own Atman is in reality t h e imperishable B r a h m a n . ( W h a t h e has t h e n ) is the (erroneous) notion of t h e Atman in what is t h e non-Atman. H e n c e it is misery. 21. All defects such as passion, hatred etc., are brought about d u e to wrong notions. Its greatest defect is per­ formance of actions meritorious or otherwise. This is the state. 22. It is due to t h a t cause that everyone is invested with different kinds of physical bodies. T h e soul, however, lies con­ cealed within, yet it is everywhere, eternal a n d free from blemishes. 23. It stands* single by his M ā y ā power a n d not by its nature. H e n c e the sages say that non-dualism is the ultimate truth. 24-25a. T h e difference is d u e to the n a t u r e of Avyakta (the unmanifest). T h a t M ā y ā has the A t m a n for its support. J u s t as the sky does not become dirty or soiled due to the con­ tact with smoke, so also the Atman is not vitiated due to the effusions of the Antahkarana ( t h e inner sense-organ or m i n d ) . 25b-26a. T h e unattached (pure) crystal piece shines by d i n t of its own lustre, without any conditioning cause, so also does the pure Atman shine untouched by a n y conditioning

causes. 26b-27a.

Clever people call this universe as

being of the

•As this s t a t e m e n t is c o n t r a d i c t o r y , t h e o t h e r r e a d i n g ekah sa

bhidyate

is

preferable. I t m e a n s " A l t h o u g h t h e A t m a n i s o n e , i t a p p e a r s a s m a n y t h r o u g h his M ā y ā P o w e r a n d n o t d u e t o his i n h e r e n t n a t u r e " .


345

II.227b-35a

form of knowledge. O t h e r people with vitiated vision* (followers of heretic paths) see it in t h e form of m a t t e r or t h e objects. 27b-28a. T h e Atman o r spirit is b y n a t u r e steady, devoid of G u n a s , omnipresent a n d of t h e n a t u r e of consciousness. But it is looked u p o n as m a t t e r by m e n of wrong (heretical) outlook. 28b-29a. J u s t as the pure crystal when in contact with a red object like Guftjā seeds appears to be red, so also the great Being is seen (in the form of the objects or G u n a s ) . 29b-30a. H e n c e j h e Atman should be worshipped, pon­ dered over a n d heard by t h e seekers of liberation, as being i n the form t h a t is imperishable, p u r e , eternal, omnipresent a n d unchanging. 30b-31a. W h e n consciousness ever appears everywhere in the m i n d of a faithful Yogin, he attains t h e knowledge of the self. 31b-32a.** W h e n [one observes all living beings as abiding i n t h e Atman a n d t h e Atman in all living beings, t h e B r a h m a n is realised. 1 32b-33a. W h e n t h e Atman is in t h e state of Samādhi ( T r a n c e ) , he does not perceive the living beings. T h e n he has become o n e with t h e Supreme Soul. T h e Atman is absolute

then. 33b-34a. W h e n all the passions t h a t stick to the heart, d r o p off, the scholar becomes immortalised a n d attains welfare (moksa)^. 34b-35a. W h e n he realizes the whole variety or t h e separate states of the living beings as stationed in the O n e a n d as evolved from just t h a t O n e — h e attains t h e B r a h m a n . •The word

jñina-drffibhih in

the

text

is

unsuitable.

It s h o u l d

be

sqjnāna-drffibkih.) * * B G . 6.29 1 . T h e Y o g a o f I s v a r a i s based o n S ā ń k h y a p h i l o s o p h y . I ś v a r a e x p l a i n s t h e n a t u r e o f Atman (vv. 3-29) a n d e x h o r t s meditated

upon.

H e (Atman)

is in all

that

beings. W h e n

Atman s h o u l d b e this

specialised

k n o w l e d g e is realized, one becomes i d e n t i c a l w i t h Śiva. T h i s is t h e S ā ń k h y a P h i l o s o p h y (vv.-30-41). C o n c e n t r a t i o n o n this k n o w l e d g e i s Y o g a . Y o g a a n d k n o w l e d g e are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . t B G . 13.30


Kūrma Purina

346

35b-36. W h e n h e observes t h e absolute Atman factually, a n d the entire universe only an illusion, he experiences the greatest bliss. 37. W h e n one derives the perfect knowledge of the abso­ lute B r a h m a n , the sole panacea for the miseries of births a n d old age as well as ailments, he becomes Śiva. 38. J u s t as the rivers a n d rivulets get mingled with t h e ocean a n d become one, so also the A t m a n becomes one with t h e imperishable a n d the unsullied B r a h m a n . 39. H e n c e perfect knowledge alone exists. Neither t h e universe nor its existence is real. Perfect knowledge is enveloped by ignorance in this world, thereby the world gets deluded. 40. Perfect knowledge is blemishless, subtle, free from doubts a n d unchanging. Everything else is Ajñāna ( I g n o r a n c e ) . This entire ( t h o r o u g h ) realisation is considered Vijñāna (perfect knowledge). 41. T h u s the Sāńkhya which is called excellent know­ ledge has been recounted u n t o you. It is certainly the essence of all V e d ā n t a ( U p a n i s a d s ) . Yoga is the single-minded con­ centration on this knowledge. 42. Knowledge originates from Yoga a n d Yoga functions d u e to knowledge. T h e r e remains nothing unaccomplishable to one endowed with both Yoga a n d Knowledge. 43. T h a t which the Yogins a t t a i n is also a t t a i n e d by Sāńkhyas. He who sees Sāńkhya a n d the Yoga as one, is t h e knower of the real principle*. 44. O Brāhmanas, other Yogins, very m u c h attached to Aiśvarya (prosperity a n d glory), get submerged in those different activities. So also those whose intellects are impeded and blunted. 45. At the end of the body (i. e. on d e a t h ) , one who is endowed with Jñāna a n d Toga shall a t t a i n the great, pure a n d divine Aiśvarya (prosperity a n d glory of Brahmahood) which is approved by all. 46. This Atman is I myself, t h e unmanifest Master o f •BG. 5.5.


347

11.2.47-56

M ā y ā , the great īśVara. I am glorified in the Vedas, as being the Ātman of all a n d having faces in all directions.

47. I ( i . e. the Atman) have within me all forms, tastes fragrances. I a m free from old age and d e a t h . I have h a n d s and feet all r o u n d . I am the eternal i m m a n e n t soul. 48. T h o u g h handless a n d feetless I am the speediest grasper, and ana stationed in t h e h e a r t of all. ( T h o u g h ) eyeless I observe a n d (even if) earless, I do h e a r . * 49. I know all these. No one knows me. Persons of t r u t h ­ ful vision call me as being one, the only great Purusa. 50. Sages of subtle visions see t h e cause of t h e Atman (?) T h e y see t h e excellent Aiśvarya of t h e N i r g u n a form which is blemishless. 5 1 . I shall mention t o you what Devas, deluded b y my M ā y ā , do not know. Ye all t h e expounders of B r a h m a n , listen with concentration of your minds. 52. I am by n a t u r e beyond t h e ken of M ā y ā . H e n c e I c a n n o t be praised** (?) by all. I, however, urge it t h e reason of which the wise sages know. 5 3 . H e n c e , the Yogins w h o have visualised Reality get into my secretmost ( i n n e r ) personally which is o m n i p r e ­ sent, a n d a t t a i n complete identity with m e . 54. Those who have crossed my M ā y ā which is of u n i ­ versal forms, attain the great a n d p u r e Nirvana ( b e a t i t u d e ) along with m e . 55. T h e y have no return (to samsāra) even in h u n d r e d s a n d crores of Kalpas, thanks to my favour. O leading Yogins, this is the injunction of the Vedas. 56. T h e (perfect knowledge) should be imparted (only) to sons, disciples a n d Yogins. T h u s the perfect knowledge which is a synthesis of S ā ń k h y a a n d Yoga (lit. Sāńkhya based on Yoga) has been expounded by m e .

•Śvet. Up. śrnotyakarnah.

3.19

: apānipādo

javano

grahitā

paśyatyacaksuh

sa.

* * I f Praiastah i n t h e text i s a m e n d e d a s Praśdstā ( a s i n t h e C r t . E d . ) i t means, "I am n o t t h e ruler of all the w o r l d ) " .


348

Kūrma Purina

CHAPTER THREE Prakrti and Purusa Iśvara said : 1. K ā l a ( T i m e ) , P r a d h ā n a or Prakrti a n d the supreme P u r u s a originated from the unmanifest ( B r a h m a n ) . All these (objects of the universe) were b o r n of them. H e n c e the universe is identical with B r a h m a n . 2. All round it has (the extremities of) hands a n d feet; it has eyes, heads a n d mouths on all sides; all round, it has ears; it exists enveloping the world*. 3. It appears to possess the attributes of the sense or­ gans b u t it is devoid of all sense-organs. It is the support of all; it is perpetual bliss, unmanifest and devoid of duality. * * 4-5. It is non-comparable. It is beyond all means of valid knowledge and is yet comprehensible; it is devoid of all alterna­ tives; it is free from appearances ( ? ) ; it is the abode of all; it is the supreme deathless one. It is non-different (from the universe) yet it is stationed separately on a different footing). It is con­ stant, unchanging a n d eternal. It is devoid of G u n a s . It is the highest brilliance. Sages know t h a t to be.perfect knowledge. 6. I t is the Atman of all living beings; h e is both within a n d without; h e is the s u p r e m e (beyond a l l ) . I a m t h a t Atman, the omnipresent, quiescent, the great Iśvara a n d the embodi­ m e n t of knowledge (consciousness). 7. All this universe consisting of the mobiles a n d immobiles has been pervaded by me. All beings exist in me.f He who has realized this knowledge is the real knower of the Vedas. 8. T h a t entity is said to be both P r a d h ā n a a n d P u r u s a . K ā l a , manifesting through their union, is said to be the greatest a n d beginningless. 9. All these three are devoid of beginning and e n d ; they a r e stationed in the Unmanifest B r a h m a n , b u t the wise sages * B G . 13.13, Śvet. 3.16. * * B G . 13.14, Śvet. 3.17. f B G . ix. 4 .


II.3.10-19

349

knew that my form (person) is both identical with as well as different from them. 10. T h a t which is said to be Prakrti gives birth to the entire universe beginning with Mahal and ending w i t h ViSesas ( t h e particularised forms). It deludes all embodied beings. 11. Stationed in the Prakrti, the Purusa enjoys the a t t r i butes of Prakrti.* Since it is devoid of the ego, it is called Pañcavithśaka (the total of twenty-five Principles or the twentyfifth Principle). 12. T h e first evolute of Prakrti is called Mahal. T h r o u g h its knowledge of being endowed with knowledge, Aharhkāra (ego) was evolved out of it. 13. T h e principle called M a h a t is one a n d it is (also known as) A t m a n . He is also called A h a m k ā r a (the principle individuation). It is called jlva (the individual self) a n d t h e inner soul by the thinkers of the real principles. 14. It is through it (ego) t h a t ( t h e soul) experiences pleasure a n d misery in the (various) births. It is of the n a t u r e of Vijñāna (knowledge) a n d the Manas ( m i n d ) is its accessory. 15. Purusa identifies himself (with the world) even d u e to that (ego) a n d is involved in Samsāra. T h a t ignorance originates d u e to the u n i o n of Prakrti a n d K ā l a . 16. K ā l a ( T i m e ) creates the living beings, K ā l a a n n i h i ­ lates the subjects. Everything is dependent on K ā l a ; K ā l a is not u n d e r the control of anyone. 17. He is eternal a n d restrains everything from within. He is called P r ā n a ( t h e vital b r e a t h ) , omniscient, Lord Purusot­ t a m a ( T h e Supreme P u r u s a ) . 18. Learned m e n say that Manas ( m i n d ) is superior to a n d beyond the sense-organs. Aharhk&ra is greater t h a n a n d beyond Manas, a n d the principle Mahat is greater t h a n Aharhkāra.* * 19. Avyakta ( t h e unmanifest Prakrti) is greater t h a n a n d beyond Mahat, Purusa is Superior to a n d beyond Avyakta; L o r d * B G . xiii. 21 ^ * * B G . I I I . 4 2 ; also K a t h a U p . VI. 7 , 8 a n d I I I . 10, 11.


Kūrma Purāna

350

Prāna, the vital breath, is greater t h a n a n d beyond Purusa; all this universe belongs to a n d is controlled by h i m . 20. Vyoman ( t h e e t h e r ) is greater t h a n a n d beyond Prāna; t h e ñre-god is beyond Vyoman; I am that u n c h a n g i n g B r a h m a n ; the quiescent one. This universe is beyond Māyā (v.l. I am the embodiment of knowledge, the supreme l o r d ) . 21-22. T h e r e is no other living being greater t h a n I. By realising m e , one is liberated. T h e living beings including the mobile a n d the immobile ones in t h e universe are not eternal with t h e exception of m e , the unmanifest, M a h e ś v a r a of the form of the Vyoman, (the universe has no separate existence). I create everything; I annihilate the universe for ever. 23. T h e lord, master of M ā y ā a n d identical with it, is united with K ā l a . D u e to my presence this K ā l a , the infinite A t m a n , creates the entire universe a n d controls it (by propel­ ling it to w o r k ) . This is the injunction (teaching) of the Vedas.

CHAPTER FOURi The Glory of Śiva Īśvara said: 1. I shall recount the greatness of the G o d of the gods from w h o m everything is produced ( o r functions). Ye, expoun­ ders of the B r a h m a n , listen with concentration of the m i n d . 1 . I n tbis c h a p t e r full o f q u o t a t i o n s from t h e B G . , t h e a u t h o r describes t h e greatness of Śiva in V e d a n t i c e p i t h e t s emphasising t h e p a t h of Bhr kti for god-realisation. T h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f his o w n self b y ī ś v a r a c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d s o n e o f K r ? n a ' s d i s c o u r s e i n t h e B G . H e explains h o w t h e process o f this universe goes o n d u e t o his potencies called M ā y ā , V i d y ā , a n d T ā m a s i o r K ā l a (18-23). H e classifies t h e devotees a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a t h o f K a r m a , J ñ ā n a , B h a k t i a n d D h y ā n a ( m e d i t a t i o n o r Y o g a ? ) followed b y t h e m ( 2 4 - 2 6 ) . H e p r o c l a i m s his i d e n t i t y with H a r i b y s t a t i n g that devotees of H a r i also p r o p i t i a t e h i m .


II.4.2-11

351

2. I c a n n o t be realised by men, by means of the various kinds of penances or by means of charitable gifts or by means of sacrifices.* W i t h o u t a r d e n t and excellent devotion it is im­ possible to know m e . 3. Indeed I abide within all living beings, all r o u n d . B u t the leading sages, people do not know m e , the cosmic witness. 4. I am the Dhātr (creator) a n d Vidhātr ( t h e dispenser of destiny), K ā l a ( T i m e ) , the Fire-god with faces all round. All this universe exists in me a n d I am the transcendental a nn ihilator of all ( v . l . a n d 1, the supreme deity inherent in a l l ) . 5. T h e sages, the Pitrs a n d the heaven-dwellers do not see m e . N o r do the others of well-known prowess such as B r a h m a , the M a n u s , a n d Śakra (the king of gods) know m e . 6. T h e Vedas perpetually eulogise me as the only Supreme Lord (ParameSvara). T h e B r ā h m a n a s worship me with various kinds of Yajñas and Vedic Makhas (sacrifices). 7. All the worlds, god Brahma, the grand-sire of the world, do not perceive m e . T h e Yogins (however) meditate on m e , the luminous God, the lord of all creatures. 8. As everything gets submerged in me a n d as I am t h e Ātman of all, I assume the bodies of all the gods a n d become the enjoyer (recepient) of all Havis (sacrificial offerings §) a n d the dispenser of the fruits thereof. 9- Pious scholars, the expounders of the Vedas see me here itself. I am always present n e a r them who always worship m e devoutly. 10. Virtuous Brāhmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaiśyas worship m e . On t h e m I bestow t h a t supreme abode t h a t is the bliss of A t m a n itself. 11. Even the others (such as) Śūdras, other persons of low birth, who observe duties and are endowed with devotion a r e liberated even though they are united with Kāla (v. 1. liber­ ated in due course and become one with m e ) . •BG. 11.48. G . 9.24.


352

Kūrma Purina

12. My devotees do not perish. My devotees are devoid of sins. It has been promised by me at the very outset t h a t my devotees do not perish.* 13. T h e fool who censures my devotee actually censures me the lord of Devas. He who worships him with devotion, perpetually worships m e . 14. W h e t h e r it be a leaf, a flower or a fruit or m e r e water, if a n y devotee of mine regularly offers it by way of p r o ­ pitiating m e , is beloved of m e . * * 15. At the beginning of universe, I created Brahma, Paramesjhin a n d h a n d e d over to him the Vedas t h a t c a m e o u t of myself. 16. I alone am the unchanging (eternal) preceptor of all Yogins; I am the protector of-the virtuous a n d the slayer of those who hate t h e Vedas. 17. I am the liberator of Yogins here from all worldly bondage. I am the cause as well of worldly existence though I am bereft of all worldly ties. 18. I alone am the annihilator, the creator a n d the p r o ­ tector of the universe. Māyā, the enchantress of t h e worlds, is my own potency. 19. W h a t is called as Vidyā (knowledge) is my own trans­ cendental power. Stationed in the hearts of Yogins, I annihi­ late t h a t M ā y ā . 20. I am the originator a n d restrainer of all powers. I am the support of all potencies. I am the storehouse of n e c t a r (or immortality). 21. Presided over by me, one of my powers which inheres in all and is identical with me assumes the form of god Brahma a n d creates this world which is full of variety and diversity (O Brāhmanas who have resorted to the supreme Yoga, I am n o t the prime mover or propeller (of the universe). 22. Another immense power of mine becomes N ā r ā y a n a , the infinite, the Lord of a n d the pervader of the world, a n d sus­ tains (with stability) the universe. *BG. 9.31. • * B G . P.26.


353

II.4.23-33

23. T h e third great Śakti annihilates the entire universe. It is m i n e a n d is called Tāmasi as well as K ā l a . It is in the form of R u d r a . 24. Some perceive me through meditation, others through the p a t h of spiritual knowledge; others through the p a t h of devotion a n d still others t h r o u g h the p a t h of action. 25. A m o n g the devotees, he who always propitiates me through spiritual knowledge a n d not otherwise, is my most beloved devotee. 26. O t h e r s who are the devotees of H a r i b u t who (there­ b y ) propitiate me also, a t t a i n to m e . T h e y do not r e t u r n again to Samsāra. 27. This entire universe constituted of Prakrti a n d P u r u s a is pervaded by m e . 1 T h e Citla or mind (v.l. Visva or the uni­ verse) is stationed in me alone. T h e universe is impelled on ( o r directed) by me. 28. O Brāhmanas ! I am not the (direct) impeller b u t by a d o p t i n g the highest Yoga, I urge on the entire universe. He who realizes this is i m m o r t a l (i.e. is liberated from Samsāra) . 2 29. I (hereby) observe this entire universe as if existing of itself (naturally). It is Lord Kāla, the master of great Yogins who creates, maintains a n d destroys it. 30. It is I who am mentioned as Yogin a n d M ā y i n ( M a s t e r of M ā y ā ) in the scriptures by wise s a g e s ; ( I a m ) H e , the master of Yogins, Lord Iśvara of the great Yoga himself. 31. T h e greatness of p a r a m e s t h i n is d u e to his being t h e most excellent. of all Sattvas (living beings). Lord B r a h m a is mentioned as identical with the great B r a h m a n . He is free from blemish. 32. T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t he who knows me like this as the overlord of all the masters of Yoga is united w i t h me t h r o u g h the sure p a t h of Yoga (or by nirvikalpa m e d i t a t i o n ) . 33. Such am I the impelling God. Resorting to the sup­ reme bliss, I, the Yogin, d a n c e on for ever. He who knows it is the knower of Yoga*. 1. B G . 9 . 4 ; 18.46. 2 . Svet. U p . 3 . 1 ; 3.13. *v.l. I i m p e l t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e . H e w h o k n o w s it, the Vedas).

is

the

knower of


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354

34. This secret-most knowledge is the decision enshrined in the Vedas. This should be imparted to one of p u r e m i n d , to one who is virtuous, a n d to one who maintains the sacrificial fires (as an Āhitigni).

CHAPTER FIVE1 Siva's Dance—Śiva eulogised by Sages Vyāsa said : 1. After saying this m u c h to the Yogins, Lord Parameś­ vara began to dance demonstrating his supreme divine n a t u r e . 2. T h e y saw I ś ā n a , the greatest treasure-house of splend­ our, the sovereign lord, d a n c i n g along with Visnu in the clear firmament. 3. In the firmament, they saw t h a t lord of all living beings whom the Yogins, the knowers of the principles of Yoga w h o have their minds u n d e r control, realize. 4. T h e sovereign Lord of the universe who impels the world into action which is the creation of his M ā y ā , was verily seen dancing by Brāhmanas. 5. T h e y saw the lord oiBhūtas (creatures or elements) dancing, the lord by remembering whose lotus-like feet a m a n c a n eschew the fear originating from ignorance. 6. Those who have conquered their sleep and controlled their breath, who are quiescent and endowed with devotion, see him as full of brilliance, that is how Śiva the Yogin was seen. 7. In the firmament, they saw the great R u d r a , the liberator, the delighted lord, favourably disposed to his devotees a n d who instantaneously liberates the devotees from ignorance. 8. T h e y saw the lord with a thousand (i.e. innumerable) heads, a thousand feet, a thousand shapes, a n d a thousand arms, 1. T h i s c h a p t e r describes t h e C o s m i c d a n c e of Siva b u t e m p h a s i z e t h e i d e n t i t y o f Śiva a n d V i s n u ( V . 1 7 ) .

takes

c a r e to


11.5.9-20

355

with m a t t e d hair and with his coronet embellished wilh the crescent M o o n . 9. T h e lord was wearing the tiger's h i d e ; his mighty hand was holding the t r i d e n t ; he h a d a staff in his h a n d ; he had the sun, the moon and the fire as three eyes. 10. By his brilliance he h a d enveloped the whole of the cosmic egg; he was standing with a refulgence equal to t h a t of a crore of suns; he appeared terrible due to his fearful large teeth a n d was u n t h w a r t a b l e . 11. T h e y saw the Lord, the creator of the universe dancing a n d emitting flames of fire a n d thereby b u r n i n g (as it were) the entire universe. 12. T h e y visualised the great God, the veritable great Yoga incarnate, the divinity of celestial beings, the lord of all Paśus (individual souls), the supreme Ruler, the imperishable bliss a n d Light. 13. T h e y saw the Pināka-bearing Lord of large eyes : the antidote for those who ail from worldly existence (sarhsāra), the lord who was the soul of Kāla', the lord of Devas; the slayer of Kāla. 14. T h e y saw the consort of U m ā , the great deity of large eyes and full of Yogic bliss; the lord who is the abode of knowledge and d e t a c h m e n t ; the eternal lord of the p a t h of knowledge. 15-17a. T h e sages who were well-versed in Vedas, saw the lord of eternal prosperity and glory; the lord who is diffi­ cult to a p p r o a c h yet is the support of D h a r m a ; who is bowed to by U p e n d r a (Visnu) and M a h e n d r a who is honoured by groups of great sages; who abides in the hearts of Yogins who become united with Iśvara in a trice; and was enveloped by Yogic M ā y ā ; who was the source of the origin of the universe; who was identical with N ā r ā y a n a and free from all ailments. 1 7b-d. Having seen that Lordly form in which R u d r a was identical with N ā r ā y a n a (or which showed the identity of gods Śiva a n d V i s n u ) , the sages who were the propounders •of the Vedas felt t h a t they had achieved their ultimate goal in life. 18-20.

S a n a t k u m ā r a , S a n a k a , Bhrgu, S a n ā t a n a , S a n a n -


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d a n a , Ańgiras, Vamadeva, Śukra, Atri t h e great sage, K a p i l a a n d M a r i c i saw R u d r a , the lord of the universe with his left side being occupied by P a d m a n ā b h a ( V i s n u ) . T h e y meditated on h i m who was enshrined in their hearts. With palms joined in reverence, they bent down their heads again a n d again. H a v i n g uttered the sacred syllable O M , they saw the lord abiding in the cavity of the h e a r t . T h e i r minds were filled with bliss. T h e y eulogised the lord in the words of Vedic Sūktas. The Sages extolled : Eulogy of Śiva 2 1 . All of us bow down to you, the only supreme Ruler, the ancient Purusa, the lord of the Prānas (vital b r e a t h s ) , R U D R A of infinite Yogic Power. You are stationed in t h e cavity of the heart, you are Pracetas (of lofty m i n d ) , holy a n d identical with B r a h m a n . 22. After meditating within their self in their (physical) bodies on the absolutely immovable or unagitated Kavi (the seer or the wise) who is supremely superior to the greatest, the quiescent sages of perfect self-control perceive you, the p u r e , gold-complexioned God originating from the B r a h m a n ( o r the creator of God B r a h m a ) . 23. T h e m o t h e r of the universe (Prakrti) is born of y o u ; though minute like the atom, you experience (perceive) every­ thing. You are minuter t h a n the m i n u t e a t o m a n d greater t h a n the greatest being. * Sages say t h a t you alone are all. 24. Hiranya-garbha, the inner soul of the universe, t h e ancient Purusa was b o r n of y o u ; even as he was being born, he was immediately enjoined by you to create everything in a c ­ cordance with the injunctions. 25. T h e Veda3 are b o r n of y o u ; a n d ultimately they find stability in you alone. We see t h a t you are the cause of t h e universe. We see t h a t you who abide in our own hearts, a r e dancing. ^ 26. T h i s wheel of B r a h m a n (the creation etc. of Brahm ā n d a ) is m a d e to revolve by you alone. You are the master of M ā y ā a n d the only lord of the worlds . We seek refuge in you a n d bow into y o u ; the very soul of Yoga, w h o dance the divine dance. "

• K a t h a U p . 2 . 2 0 ; ś v e t ā . U p . 3.20


II.5.27-35

357

27. We perceive you who d a n c e in t h e middle of t h e highest firmament a n d we remember your grandeur. Experienc­ ing constantly t h e supreme bliss of t h e B r a h m a n , you who abide in the souls of all, permeate t h e universe on all sides. 28. T h e syllable O M , t h e seed of liberation, is your (expressive) symbol. Imperishable though you are, you lie concealed in the primordial N a t u r e ( P r a k r t i ) . Such as you are, saints h e r e aver t h a t you, t h e self-luminous one of such prowess a r e the Reality. 29. T h e Vedas perpetually eulogise you. T h e sages whose blemishes have b e e n wiped off, bow u n t o you. Ascetics engrossed in B r a h m a n , with quiescent souls a n d truthful as well enter u n t o you, the excellent one. 30. You are the destroyer of the e a r t h ; you a r e without beginning. You have t h e universal form. You a r e B r a h m a t h e P a r a m e s t h i n a n d Visnu t h e most excellent. Those who are n o t unsteady a n d those w h o are ever liberated, experience the bliss of their A t m a n a n d enter into you, t h e self-luminous one. 3 1 . T h o u g h one as R u d r a you are, you create t h e universe; you protect the entire universe; with all its forms;all these (visible worlds) a t t a i n to you as their ultimate abode. We seek refuge in you a n d m a k e obeisance u n t o you. 32. T h e V e d a which has m a n y branches a n d is infinite is one. It reveals you alone who are of a single form. Those Brāhmanas w h o seek refuge in you who a r e worthy of being respected, cross t h e M ā y ā in this very world. 33. T h e y call you the only poet ( k a v i ) , the Supreme R u d r a , eulogising the V e d a , H a r i , fire a n d ī ś a ; they call you the eternal R u d r a , the wind-god, the consciousness, the creator, the sun-god of m a n y forms. 34. You are the supreme imperishable one t h a t should be realised, You are the ultimate receptable of this universe. You are the u n c h a n g i n g one, protecting the eternal L a w ( d h a r m a ) . You are t h e most excellent Purusa, the eternal one. 35. You ( B r a h m a ) ; you verily the lord of You are the lord

alone are V i s n u ; you are t h e four-faced deity alone a r e R u d r a , the lord Iśa as well; you a r e t h e universe; you are Prakrti, t h e basis of all. of all, t h e supreme I ś v a r a .


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36. T h e sages say t h a t you are the ancient Purusa, one without a second, of the brillance of the sun beyond the darkness (of ignorance). T h e y call you, t h e consciousness itself the unmanifest, of infinite forms, the void, t h e firmament, the B r a h m a n , the P r a k r t i and the G u n a s (v. 1. above i. e. transcen­ dental to the G u n a s ) . 37. This form of yours is something t h a t cannot be con­ ceived of; within it all these (visible worlds) a p p e a r ; it is un­ changing a n d blemishless, b u t is one single form; it is beyond the ken of thought a n d indescribable; all t h a t appears within it is you alone, (or : your form is so wonderfully indescribable t h a t the Reality shines in i t ) . 38. Seeking refuge in you, all of us make obeisance to you, the gracious lprd of Yogas, the greatest goal of infinite power, the ancient one with the body of B r a h m a n , O Lord of Bhūtas, O Mahes'a, be gracious u n t o us 39. By remembering your lotus-like feet, the seed (cause) of the entire worldly existence becomes dissolved. After con­ trolling the body a n d concentrating the mind, we propitiate you, the only Supreme Lord. 40. Obeisance to Bhava, the source of origin of the worlds; to Kāla,to Śarva, to you the a n n i h i l a t o r ; obeisance be to R u d r a with m a t t e d h a i r . Obeisance to you. O Lord, who are the fire; obeisance to Śiva." 4 1 . Thereafter, the bull-vehicled Lord with m a t t e d hair delightedly withdrew his great cosmic form. Bhava (Śiva) manifested his normal (usual) form. 42. On seeing Bhava, the lord of everything past a n d future, remaining as before and lord N ā r ā y a n a (also in t h a t state), the sages were struck with wonder and they spoke these words. 4 3 . "O eternal lord, O lord of the past and future, O deity marked by the emblem of the bull ! On seeing your grand form we a r e delighted, (v. 1. attained quiescence). 44. T h a n k s to your grace, there is b o r n our unswerving devotion to you, the great S u p r e m e lord, the blemishless one. 45. O Ś a ń k a r a , now we wish to hear about your greatness as well as the eternal reality about P a r a m e s t h i n " .


359

11.5.46—6.8

46. On hearing their words the lord, the bestower of Yogic siddhi on the Yogins, glanced at M ā d h a v a a n d said in a majestic voice.

CHAPTER SIX 1

S

'

A

The Glory of Ś iva īśvara Said : 1. O Ye sages, listen all of you, I shall recount the greatness of the supreme Lord (Paramesthin) precisely as it is known by those who know the Vedas. 2. 1 am the sole creator of the entire universe, the sole protector of all peoples a n d the sole annihilator of all worlds. I am the eternal universal A t m a n . 3. I, Maheśvara, am the Antaryāmin ( t h e I m m a n e n t soul) of all subjects. Everything is stationed within me, but I am n o t everywhere in the universe. 4. A wonderful form of mine which has been seen by you is my sfmilitude. O. Brāhmanas, verily my M ā y ā has been demonstrated by m e . 5. Stationed within all beings, 1 propel t h e entire universe. This is my Kriyjśakti ( t h e power of a c t i o n ) . 6. This universe stirs a n d moves d u e to m e . T h a t follows my will. I am K ā l a and I urge t h e entire universe consisting of the elements.* 7. O leading sages, with one single p a r t of mine, 1 create the entire universe; by a n o t h e r form I annihilate, neverthless, my sameness (stability) is u n c h a n g e d . 8. 1 am devoid of beginning, middle a n d the e n d ; I am the activisor of the principle of M ā y ā ; at the beginning of creation, I make both Pradhāna a n d Purusa co-agitate.* 1. I ś v a r a e x p l a i n s hi3 i m - n a n e n c e Kriyā Śakti (Power of a c t i o n ) .

and

describes t h e w o r k i n g of h i s

•According t o P ā ś u p a t a s , K ā l a signifies t h e e l e m e n t s m a t e r i a l world ' v i d e Sarva-darśana-Stmgraha) 2.

K P . subscribes t o theistic S ā ñ k h y a .

of

the

gross o r


360

Kūrma Purina

9. W h e n the pair of t h e m become mutually united, the universe is born in the order of Mahat etc. My splendour a n d glory become manifested therein. 10. Hiranya-garbha, the Sun-god, who is the witness u n t o all worlds and w h o makes the wheel of T i m e function, is also born of my body. 11. O Brāhmanas, in the beginning of the K a l p a , I who am perfectly self-possessed, gave u n t o him the four Vedas, my own divine glory a n d the eternal p a t h of knowledge. 12. It is at my behest that god B r a h m a who has been created out of me permanently understood (v.l. always carries) my sovereign divine glory. 13. T h a t self-born omniscient god, the creator of all the worlds, becomes a four-faced deity a n d brings forth the creation 1 (of the universe) as per my c o m m a n d . 14. He who is called N ā r ā y a n a , the infinite one, the immutable source of all worlds a n d who is only a n o t h e r form of mine, performs the duty of protection. 15. Lord R u d r a , of the n a t u r e of K ā l a ( D e a t h ) , who is the annihilator of all living beings (is also) a manifestation of m i n e . At my behest, he will annihilate the universe for ever. 8 16. It is due to his being charged with my divine energy t h a t the Fire (god) carries (sacrificial) oblations to gods a n d food (Kavya) etc. to its consumers (viz. Pitrs) a n d carries out the function of cooking etc. 17. At the behest of īśvara the firegod Vaiśvānara (the fire of digestion) digests the food eaten by day or by night. 18. T h e leading god V a r u n a , who is the source of origin of all waters shall enliven everyone at the bidding of Iśvara. 19. Lord Prabhañjana (Wind god) who stays within a n d without the bodies of living beings, sustains the physical bodies of all living beings at my command. 1 . W . 13-15 describe h o w c r e a t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e a n d destruction o f t h e universe i s d u e t o Śiva. 2 . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e C h a p t e r , I ś v a r a tells t h a t all d e i t i e s function i n t h e i r respective spheres d u e t o his energy a n d a t his b e h e s t . N a y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n s i s a t his c o m m a n d .


II.6.20-31

361

20. Soma (the M o o n god) who is the enlivener of m e n a n d the storehouse of nectar for Devas, is activated through m y bidding. 2 1 . T h e sun who illuminates the entire universe every­ where through his own refulgence, brings about the rainfall through his own rays (at the bidding) of the self-born deity. 22. G o d Śakra, the lord of all i m m o r t a l beings, who rules over the entire universe a n d who is the bestower of fruits on those who perform sacrifices, functions at my bidding. 23. Y a m a , t h e son ofVivasvān, the god who chastises the wicked ones, abides regularly at the bidding of the Lord of Devas. 24. Even K u b e r a , who is the presiding deity of all riches a n d who is the distributor of all wealth, behaves so at the behest of Iśvara. 25. God Nirrti who is the lord of all Raksasas a n d who is the bestower of benefits on those who are Tāmasaic by n a t u r e , always behaves so at my c o m m a n d . 26. ī ś ā n a who is the lord of the groups of Vetālas (ghosts) a n d Bhūtas (goblins) a n d who is the bestower of the fruits of enjoyment of pleasures on his devotees, also abides at my bidding. 27. V ā m a d e v a who is the disciple of Añgiras, who is the leader of groups of R u d r a and who is the protector of Yogins does so far ever through my behest. 2 8 . Vināyaka who is worthy of the worship of all the worlds a n d who is the leader of obstacles (i.e. one who dispels (hem) is engaged in piety evidently at my instance. 29. T h e self-born god Skanda who is the most excellent among the knowers of the Brahman, and who is the lord of Dcvasenā (Goddess of that n a m e or the a r m y of Devas) behaves so always, on being urged by my c o m m a n d . 30. Marlci a n d other great sages w h o are progenitors of the world create different kinds of worlds, only through the bidding of the supreme Deity. 3 1 . Śrī the Goddess of Wealth who is the spouse of N ā r ā y a n a a n d who bestows large fortune on all living beings, behaves so through my blessings.


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32. Goddess SarasvatI who bestows ample fluency, functions, so, on being urged by the bidding of Iśvara. 33. Sāvitrī, 1 who, on being remembered will redeem all men from the terrible hell, is one who carries out my behests. 34. T h e supreme goddess Pārvatī who, on being specially meditated u p o n , is the bestower of the spiritual loye (Brahmavidyā) is also one who follows my Utterances. \ — 35. Ananta, the serpent Śesa who has infinite greatness, and is the lord of all immortal beings a n d w h o holds the worlds on his hoojds does so at the bidding of the lord. " 36T T h e Fire-god Samvartaka (destroyer of the universe at the time of dissolution of the worlds) who is stationed in t h e form of submarine fire eternally drinks up the entire ocean at the order of īśvara. 37. T h e fourteen M a n u s whose prowess is well-known, protect all subjects at his bidding. 38. Adityas (sons of Aditi or the sun-god), Vasus, Rudras, M a r u t s a n d two Aśvinī-Kumāras a n d all other divinities are created (v.l. are appointed) at my c o m m a n d . 39. G a n d h a r v a s , G a r u d a and others, Siddhas, Sādhyas C ā r a n a s , Yaksas, Rāksasas a n d Piśācas are created by a n d established there as per order of the self-born deity. 40. T h e (divisions of T i m e such as) Kalās, Kāsthās, Nimesas, M u h ū r t a s , days, nights, seasons, fortnights and months abide by the c o m m a n d m e n t of Prajāpati. 41. T h e Yugas and the M a n v a n t a r a s remain within my control. So also the Paras, P a r ā r d h a s and other varieties of time-units. 42. T h e four categories of living beings, both mobile and immobile, do abide by the bidding of the lord, the supreme Atman. 43. All the nether worlds, the u p p e r worlds and BraJb^BJ|ndjis/do follow the injunctions of the self-born deity.

the

44. T h e innumerable universes of the past which were all over endowed with floods (multitudes) of objects functioned a t m y command.

• K n o w n p o p u l a r l y a s G ā y a t r i M a n t r a ( R V . I I I . 62.10) .


II.6.45-52

363

45. T h e future Brahmāndas, along with the A t m a ń s present in them, will carry out the injunctions of the greatest Atman. 46. T h e Earth, the Waters, the Fire, the W i n d , t h e Ether, the mind, the intellect, the A h a ń k ā r a a n d the primordial Prakrti stay within my injunction.* 47. M ā y ā which is the source of origin of the entire universe a n d which fascinates all embodied beings, transforms itself for ever at the bidding of Iśvara. 48. P u r u s a who is the lord of all embodied beings, a n d who is cited as the supreme A t m a n , eternally exists a n d functions as per instruction of ī ś v a r a . 49. T h e intellect too, through which one observes t h a t region, (i.e. the supreme self), after eschewing all the confused delusions, invariably abides by the will of the great god (Maheśa). 50. W h a t need there is of prolixity, the entire universe is constituted of my potency (Śakti). T h e whole of the universe is urged on by me and in me does it dissolve in the end. 51. I am the lord īśa. the eternal entity t h a t is selfluminous. I am the great A t m a n , the supreme B r a h m a n . T h e r e is nothing other t h a n I. 52. T h u s , this greatest knowledge has been communicated to you by m e . After knowing this, a creature is liberated from the bondage of births and worldly existence.

* B G . V I I . 4.


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Kūrma Purāna

CHAPTER SEVEN1 The Vibhūti-Toga of śiva : Fundamentals of Pāśupatism JSvara Said: 1. Ye Sages, listen all of you to the prowess of Paramesthin on realising which m a n becomes liberated a n d does not fall i n t o the worldly existence again. 2. T h a t is my greatest abode, the B r a h m a n , which is g r e a t e r t h a n the greatest, eternal, steady and immutable, of perpetual bliss, devoid of doubts a n d alternatives. 3. Among the knower of Brahman, I am god Brahma the self-born deity with face all round. Among the wielders of M ā y ā , I am the ancient, imperishable god H a r i . 4. Among Yogins, I am Śambhu, among ladies I am god­ dess (Pārvatī), the daughter of the lord of mountains. I a m Visnu a m o n g sun-gods a n d am the fire-god among Vasus. 5. Among R u d r a s , I am Ś a ń k a r a ; a m o n g those who fly (i.e. birds), I am G a r u d a ; among the leading elephants, I am Airāvata and among those who bear weapons (warriors), I am Hāma. 6. Among the sages, I am Vasistha; a m o n g Devas, I am Śatakratu (one who has performed a hundred sacrifices i.e. D e v e n d r a ) ; a m o n g craftsmen I am Viśvakarman and among the enemies of Devas, I am Prahlāda. 7. Among ascetics I am Vyāsa; among the Ganas (at­ tendants of Śiva) I am V i n ā y a k a ; among heroes, I am VīraB h a d r a ; and a m o n g the Siddhas, I am ascetic Kapila. 8. Among the mountains, I am M e r u ; among constella­ tions, I am the M o o n ; among the weapons of striking potentiality I am the t h u n d e r b o l t ; a n d among holy rites, I am truthfulness. 1.

T h i s c h a p t e r c o r r e s p o n d s to C h . X of t h e B G . T h e list of t h e

p e r s o n , deity o r t h i n g i s c l a i m e d t o b e H i m s e l f b y Śiva h e r e , a s was

done

best by

Lord Krsna in BG. X. This

chapter

includes

also

the

fundamentals

of Pāśupatism. T h e

e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s like P a ś u , P ā ś a , K l e ś a

a r e given

in

the

latter part of the chapter. As most of t h e V i b h ū t i s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y

borrowed

from

n o t necessary t o give reference t o t h e i r parallels i n t h e B G .

the

BG.,

it is


II.7.9-16

365

9. A m o n g serpents, I am A n a n t a ( S e s a ) ; a m o n g generals of armies, I am lord Pāvaki (son of the firegod i.e. S k a n d a ) ; a m o n g the stages of life, I am the householder's stage a n d among Iśvaras (Rulers) I am M a h e ś v a r a . 10. Among Kalpas, I am M a h ā k a l p a (the greatest K a l p a ) ; a m o n g the Yugas, I am K r t a y u g a ; a m o n g the Yaksas, I am Kubera a n d a m o n g grasses, I am V ī r u d h a (plant which grows after being cut) (v.l. am Viruka a m o n g Ganeśas) 11. A m o n g the Prajāpatis (progenitors of the world), I am D a k s a ; among the Rāksasas I am N i r r t i ; a m o n g power­ ful persons, I am Vāyu, and among the continents, I am Puskara.1 12. Among the leaders of beasts, I am the lion; a m o n g mechanical devices (weapons), I am the bow; a m o n g the Vedas, I am Sāmaveda a n d a m o n g Yajur M a n t r a s I am Śatarudrīya (Vaj. S a m . X V I . 1-66). 13. Among the J a p y a s (Mantras for the purpose of J a p a ) , l a m Sāvitrī, ( R V . I I I . 62. 1 0 ) ; a m o n g mystic secret M a n t r a s , I am P r a n a v a (Om), among the hymns, I am t h e Purusasūkta ( R V . X. 90) a n d a m o n g the S ā m a n M a n t r a s I am J y e s t h a S ā m a n . 14. Among the scholars of Vedic topics, I am Svāyamb h u v a M a n u ; a m o n g territories, I a m B r a h m a v a r t a 2 a n d a m o n g holy centres, I am Avimuktaka ( V ā r ā n a s ī ) . 15. Among Vidyās (lores), I am the Atmavidyā (spiri­ tual science, leading to realization of A t m a n ) . Among types of knowledge, I am the greatest knowledge pertaining to I ś v a r a ; a m o n g the elements, I am the Ether, and a m o n g the entities (or realities) I am M r t y u ( D e a t h ) . 16. Among the nooses a n d fetters, I am Māyā, "artcf a m o n g the Calculators, I am K ā l a ( T i m e ) , a m o n g goals I am 1 . M . Ali identifies P u s k a r a d v i p a w i t h t h e r e g i o n n o w called J a p a n , M a n c h u r i a a n d S o u t h - e a s t e r n S i b e r i a (The Geography of the PurAñas, p. 4 4 ) , w h i l e D e ( p . 163) locates i t i n C e n t r a l Asia c o m m e n c i n g from t h e n o r t h o f t h e O x u s i n c l u d i n g W e s t e r n T a r t a r y . H e believes P u s k a r a I s d e r i v e d t r a m Bhushkara (Bokhara). 2. B r a h m a v a r t a — T h e country between the Sarasvati a n d DiSadvati l a t e r o n k n o w n a s K u r u k s e t r a ( D C . p . 4 0 ) . K P . does n o t i m p l y B r a h r o ā v a r t a T i r t h a n e a r B i t h u r C a w n p u r Dist. ( U . P . )


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366

liberation (from sarhsāra) a n d a m o n g the greatest ones, l a m Parameśvara ( t h e supreme) God. """T7. W h a t e v e r else be in the world that stands most pro­ m i n e n t by means of Sattvaguna, brilliance of power, you can vouchsafe for it t h a t it is a manifestation of brilliance.* 18. All the Atmans existing in the world are said to be PaSus. I am remembered as their lord, Paśupati by the wise sages. 1 19. In my sportive activity, I bind all these Paśus by means of the noose of the M ā y ā . Expounders of t h e Vedas say t h a t I am the liberator of the Paśus (Individual souls). 20. Excepting me, the great A t m a n , the unchanging overlord o f t h e B h ū t a s , there - is no other liberator of those who a r e bound with the noose of the M ā y ā . 2 1 . T h e twenty-four principles, the M ā y ā , the K a r m a n a n d the three G u n a s — t h e s e are the nooses ( i n the hands) of P a ś u p a t i ; and distresses are the bondages of individual souls (PaśusJ^ 22. T h e mind, the intellect, the ego, the firmament, the wind, the fire, the water, and the E a r t h — t h e s e eight are Prakrtis (causes) and the other things are Vikāras (effects). 23-24. T h e ears, the sense of touch, the eyes, the tongue a n d the fifth one the nose (these are the sense-organs of know­ ledge), t h e anus, the genitals, the hands, the feet a n d the o r g a n of speech (these are the organs of activity), sound, touch, colour, taste a n d smell (these are the five objects of pleasure)—these fifteen together with the eight objects mentioned before (Verse 22) constitute the twenty-three Prākrtas or Products of Prakrti. 25. T h e twenty-fourth principle is the Avyakta (unmani­ fest), P r a d h ā n a characterised by its G u n a s . It has neither beginning nor middle nor destruction. It is the supreme cause of the universe. * B G . x. 4 1 . 1. F r o m v. 18 to t h e e n d is t h e discussion on P ā ś u p a t i s m . T h o u g h t h e sect poses to be i n d e p e n d e n t , t h e influence of t h e S ā ń k h y a s is obvious (vide vv. 18-27).


II.7.26—8.1

367

26. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas—these are called the three G u n a i . T h e state of equilibrium of these, they know to be the Aoyakta Prakrti (the unmanifest Prakrti). 27. Sattva is knowledge; the Rajas and the T a m a s are ignorance (Ajñāna) (v.l. Rajas is) a mixture of knowledge a n d ignorance. T h e wise sages know that the inequality of the Gunas it due to the disequilibrium in intellect. 28. W h a t are called D h a r m a and A d h a r m a ( V i r t u e and Evil) are the binding nooses called K a r m a n s . But those K a r m a n s dedicated u n t o me are conducive to liberation and not to bondage. 29. Avidyā ( I g n o r a n c e ) ; Asmitā (Egotism), Rāga(Passion) Dvesa ( h a t r e d ) and Abhiniveśa (attachment) are called the KUśa (miseries) .* They are themselves the bonds that fetter the Atman. 30. M ā y ā alone is called the cause of these Pāśas. It is t h e original unmanifest Prakrti. T h a t Śakti (divine power) stays in m e . 3 1 . He alone is the primordial n a t u r e or P r a d h ā n a as well as Purusa and the product such as M a h a t etc. He is the eternal God of gods. 32- He alone is the bondage and the maker of bondage; He alone is the Pāśa and the sustainer of the Paśus. He knows everything but no one knows him. They call him the Primordial a n d ancient Purusa.

CHAPTER EIGHT The Means of Crossing the Ocean of Worldly Existence, īśvara said : 1. O leading Brāhmanas I shall tell you another esoteric knowledge whereby the creature (the Jīva) can cross the terri­ ble ocean of worldly existence. 1. T h e same as in the Fātañjala Yoga Sūtra I I . 3. T h e y are as 'bonds' or'fetters' ( P ā ś a ) in Pāśupatism.

regarded


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Kūrma Purina

2. This B r a h m a is quiescent thanks to p e n a n c e ( v . 1 I am t h e same as the B r a h m a n , eternal e t c . ) . He is eternal u n c h a n g ­ ing and blemishless. He is one without a second and is t h e absolute supreme Lord. 3. " M ^ w o ŕ h b is the great B r a h m a n ( P r a k r t i ) . I sow my seed therein a n d t h a t is n a m e d M ū l a m ā y ā {Original M ā y ā ) . This universe is born thereof. 4. All these were b o r n viz. P r a d h ā n a , Purusa, Atman, M a h a t , Bhūtādi (ahariikāra) the T a n m ā t r a s (subtle elements), the m i n d , the (gross) elements and the sense organs—all these -jyjexe_uQrji^from it viz. ( M u l a m ā y ā ) . 5. T h e n c e a golden Egg having the luster of a crore of suns was b o r n ; the great Brahma was born of it. He was invigorated through my Śakti. 6. I n n u m e r a b l e other Jīvas are all identical with him. Deluded by my M ā y ā they do not perceive me their father. 7. T h e sages know that (Māyā) is the supreme source ( M o t h e r ) a n d I alone am the father of the various species in which all those forms (creatures) are born in this world. 8. He who thus knows me as the sower of the seed, t h e lordly father, is a hero in all the worlds a n d he does not get deluded. 9. I am the lord of all lores, the supreme controller of all creatures, the veritable Pranava (the sacred syllable O M ) in­ carnate, the master endowed with six divine powers, god B r a h m a , the lord protector of all beings. 10. He w h o perceives Parameśvara present equally in all living beings, b u t as imperishable when they perish, perceives factually. 1 11. I n a s m u c h as he perceives the lord equally present everywhere, does not injure his real self (Atman by his (lower) self, he therefore attains the greatest goal. 2 12. He who, having realized the seven subtle principles* a n d t h e g r e a t God with his six limbs* (potencies), knows the role 1.

T h e same as BG., X I I I . 27.

2.

BG. X I I I . 28.

3.

v i d e v. 13 below..

4.

v i d e v. 14 b e l o w .


II.8.I3-I8

369

assigned to P r a d h ā n a (understands the distinction between the material principles and the self) reaches the highest B r a h m a n . 13. Omniscience, joy of satiety, eternal knowledge, inde­ pendence, ever-inexhaustible power a n d infinite s t r e n g t h — ^hete a r e the six 'limbs' of the great God for realization. 14. T h e y (the knowers) call the following as—-seven tubtle principles viz. the five subtle elements, m i n d a n d the soul. T h a t which is the cause (of this creation) is the Primordial M a t t e r (Prakrti). It is also called P r a d h ā n a , the bondage by moral discipline (a better v . l . viniyoga- a p p l i c a t i o n ) . r5rThere is a Śakti (power) latent in form in t h e Prakrti. It is mentioned in the Vedas as the cause (of the world) a n d the source of origin of Brahma. In front of her is her Purusa, Paramesthi, the great God, the very embodiment of t h e Reality. 16. He alone is B r a h m a , the great Yogin, the supreme A t m a n , the huge one pervading the sky, the ancient one com­ prehensible only t h r o u g h the Vedas. He alone is the only R u d r a , the cause of annihilation, the unmanifest, the sole seed, the universe itself. 17. Some say he is one : Others say t h a t he is m a n y . Some say t h a t you are the self. Some say t h a t he is another. T h e great God ( M a h ā d e v a ) is proclaimed as m i n u t e r t h a n an a t o m a n d greater t h a n the greatest and omniformed (with t h e universe as his f o r m ) . 18. T h e intelligent person who realizes t h a t supreme Master, i m m a n e n t in the cavity of the h e a r t , t h a t ancient Purusa, whose form is the manifested universe a n d is t h e highest goal of the wise a n d the intelligent, transcends the sphere oīBuddhi (intelligence).


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CHAPTER NINE The unsullied (Nifkala) form of śiva The Sages said : 1. O M a h ā d e v a , the Supreme G o d is unsullied, pure, eternal and devoid of activities. Hence, explain to us how you become identical with universe in form. Iśvara replied : 2. O Brāhmanas, I am n o t the Universe (in reality). N o r does the universe exist without m e . In this respect M ā y ā is the cause and she is supported by me in my A t m a n . 3. M ā y ā is a Śakti (a potency) which has neither begin­ ning nor destruction. It is supported in the Avyakta ( t h e u n m a n i ­ fest). This world is caused by it and is indeed b o r n of Avyakta. 4. T h e y ( t h e sages) say t h a t the unmanifest which is bliss luminous and imperishable is the cause. I am the Supreme B r a h m a n a n d nothing else exists without m e . 5. In my unity a n d diversity (or a p p a r e n t identity and separateness from the universe) the expounders of the Vedas have decisively concluded my being universe-formed. 6. I am t h a t greatest B r a h m a n , the eternal supreme A t m a n . O Brāhmanas. As I am said to be the non-cause, no fault can be attributed to A t m a n . 7. T h e divine powers are infinite, unmanifest, p e r m a n e n t a n d established by M ā y ā . T h e absolute Avyakta (unmanifest) which is abiding in the heavenly region (beyond the reach of this world) shines eternally. "87 T h e unmanifest eternal B r a h m a n which is without any beginning or end a n d which is p e r m a n e n t is united with Tvfāyā a n d thereby is called diverse and divided though it is an undivided whole. 9. J u s t as the manifestation of the Purusa's one power is n o t concealed or obscured by another, he functions through t h e power of knowledge without beginning, middle and the end. 10. T h a t is the supreme unmanifest, embellished with a h a l o of lustre. T h a t is the imperishable light. T h a t is the supreme a b o d e of Visnu.


II.9.11-19

f^'śi'

371

11. T h e r e i n the entire universe is woven as if in t h e w a r p a n d woof of cloth. T h a t alone is the entire universe. H a v i n g realised this, one is liberated. --~ T2T^Brahman is t h a t entity from which words along with m i n d recede d u e to their inability to reach it. He who has realized the joy of the B r a h m a n entertains no fear from any­ where at any t i m e . 1 13. I know this supreme P u r u s a with the refulgence of the sun in front of me (v.l. beyond the darkness of ignorance H a v i n g realized him as such, the knower is liberated (froŕñ^ S a m s ā r a ) . Becoming identical with the B r a h m a n , he enjoys perpetual bliss. 2 14. Realizing t h a t is his self from which there is nothing t h a t is greater, and that is the supreme light of the luminaries stationed in the heaven, the knower becomes identical with the B r a h m a n a n d attains perpetual bliss. 15. Knowers of t h e B r a h m a n (or B r ā h m a n a s ) who are established in the B r a h m a n , proclaim t h a t I am however impenetrable, subtle-bodied, joy of the B r a h m a n a n d the immor­ tal abode of the universe, a n d after attaining w h o m one never reverts to Sarhsāra. 16. T h e lustre t h a t appears to shine in heaven is the principle of t h e highest firmament of golden colour. T h e sages visualize it in their own supreme knowledge as the resplen­ d e n t , p u r e (spotless) abode of heaven. 17. Thereafter, the bold (self-possessed) m e n observe it, after experiencing the (cosmic) A t m a n directly in their individual A t m a n . Paramesthin, the lord himself, is the greatest one. T h e Lord has the bliss of B r a h m a n . 18. T h a t one Lord is lying h i d d e n in all living beings. He is omnipresent, the i m m a n e n t soul of all living beings. T h e self-possessed m e n who see him as one (without a second) enjoy permanent bliss a n d not the others. 19. He has heads and necks on all sides. He is the ultimate goal of all. He abides in the cavity of the heart of all

1.

Taittiriya U p . I I . 9.

2.

Ś v e t ā ś v a t a r a U p . I I I . 8 also, I I I . 2 1 .


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Kūrma Purāna

living beings. T h a t lord is omnipresent. T h e r e is n o t h i n g other than he. 20. O leading sages, thus the knowledge pertaining to īśvara has been related to you. It should be particularly guarded, as it is very difficult even for Yogis to a t t a i n .

CHAPTER TEN The form of the Supreme Brahman Śiva—the Parabrahman Īśvara said : 1. It has been concluded definitely t h a t B r a h m a n is Lińgas (Symbols) ; it is one (without a second) a n d unmanifest is its characteristic feature. It is self-luminous, supreme, premier. It is established in the sky (transcending the p h e n o ­ menal w o r l d ) . 2. T h e unmanifest which is the cause (of the p h e n o m e n a l world) is the imperishable supreme region. Learned m e n perceive it as devoid of G u n a s and perfect knowledge. 3. T h e Vedas declare t h a t to be the Lińga viz. t h e supreme B r a h m a n which is perceived by the sages whose concept of egotism ( a n d other doubts) is resolved (destroyed) a n d who are perpetually merged in its meditation. J ~ = 4r—©"leading sages, it is not possible to see me otherwise. T h e r e is no knowledge whereby t h a t great Ā t m a n is realized. 5^ O n l y sages can know this supreme abode (v.l. knowl­ e d g e ) . Since the universe is the product of M ā y ā , knowledge about it is enveloped by the darkness of ignorance. 1 1.

v.l.

ajñānam

itaraj

jñānam

for

ajñāna-timiram

C o m b i n e d w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s v.l. jñānam for sthānam

in t h e

jñinarh Veńk.

is b e t t e r . Text,

the

verse w o u l d m e a n : " T h i s is t h e s u p r e m e k n o w l e d g e w h i c h o n l y sages k n e w . T h e o t h e r k n o w l e d g e ( a b o u t t h e p h e n o m e n a l w o r l d etc.) i s really i g n o r a n c e , as this world is c o m p o s e d of illusion ( M ā y ā ) .


373

II.10.6-15

6. T h e knowledge that is immaculate, pure, free from doubts, a n d unsullied is my soul. T h e sages declare t h a t (supreme knowledge) to be this (my soul). 7. Even those who see t h a t greatest region as multifarious understand the unity of the unchanging principle after resorting to the greatest adherence to principles. 8. Those devotees who perceive me, the greatest principle, the Iśvara either as one or m a n y , should be known as identical with t h a t ( P r i n c i p l e ) . 9. T h e y directly perceive their own soul (Atman), the supreme lord full of perpetual bliss, above doubt, Reality incarnate. This is the exact position ( t r u t h ) . 10. T h e y who are established in their own self which is beyond Avyakta, are quiescent, resort to enjoy the supreme bliss which permeates everything a n d is identical with the universe. 11. This is t h e greatest liberation. This is my excellent Sāyujja ( I d e n t i t y with m e ) . Poets know this as Nirvana, identity with B r a h m a n a n d Kaivalya (absolute oneness) 12. H e n c e , the only entity devoid of beginning, middle a n d end a n d the supremely auspicious one, is L o r d M a h ā d e v a . After realising him, one is liberated. 13. T h e sun does not shine there, nor does t h e moon, nor the g r o u p of stars nor the lightning. Illuminated by it the entire universe shines. It shines with great refulgence a n d is devoid of impurities. * ,_ 14. T h a t which is called ' T h e All' (or universe) which is indivisible, immutable, pure, great, shines (brilliantly). T h e immovable principle which the knowers of the B r a h m a n (or t h e Vedas) p e r m a n e n t l y visualize within themselves is the Iśa (the Lord). 15. All the Vedas say t h a t the Purusa is pure, nectarean, perpetual bliss and embodiment of t r u t h . Those who have come lo a definite conclusion through the study of the Vedas

1. T h i s is a synthesis of S ā ń k h y a , Liberation.

Bauddha and

• K a t h a U p . i v . 1 5 ; Ś v e t ā ś v a t a r a U p . vi. 14.

Vedantic concept

of


Kūrma Purina

374

meditate on the lord by means of the P r a n a v a , as their vital breath. 16. Neither t h e E a r t h , nor the waters, nor the mind, n o r the fire, nor the vital breath, nor the wind, nor the sky, nor the intellect, nor the consciousness, nor does anything else shine in the firmament. O n l y the Lord Śiva alone shines in t h e great sky. 17. T h u s has been communicated to you this topmost supreme secret, the knowledge t h a t is sung in all the Vedas. T h e Yog! alone knows this. O n e should incessantly practise Yoga in a secluded place.

CHAPTER ELEVEN1 The Path of liberation of the individual soul from bondage, īśvara said : 1. Henceforth, I shall explain a Yoga t h a t is very diffi­ cult of access a n d whereby the devotees visualize the Atman, the Iśvara (brilliant) like the sun. 2. T h e fire of Yoga quickly burns the entire cage of sins. Pure a n d perspicuous knowledge which directly accords t h e attainment of Liberation (from Samsāra) arises thereby. 3. Knowledge originates through Yoga; Yoga functions through knowledge. T h e great God (Maheśvara) is delighted with one devoted to the practice of Yoga a n d knowledge. 4. Those w h o practise the great Yoga once, twice or thrice everyday or continuously should be known as Maheśvaras. 5. Yoga should be known as one of two kinds. T h e first one is called as Abhāva Yoga. T h e other one is known as the M a h ā y o g a ( t h e great Y o g a ) . It is the most excellent a m o n g all Yogas. 6.

T h e Yoga wherein one's own soul is meditated u p o n

1. T h i s c h a p t e r deals w i t h P ā ś u p a t a Y o g a ( f o r details vide I n t r o d u c t i o n : Section on P ā ś u p a t i s m ) .


II.11.7-15

375

as void a n d devoid of all false appearances is proclaimed as Abhāva Yoga whereby one realizes thoroughly one's own self. 7. T h e Yoga wherein one sees one's own self as imma­ culate, eternal bliss and identical with me is called by me as the highest Yoga. 8. Those other paths of Yogas practised by other Yogins a n d those Yogas which are h e a r d (described) in other extensive works ( o n Yoga) do not deserve to be even one-six­ teenth p a r t of the Brahma-Yoga (Yoga leading to the realiz­ ation of the B r a h m a n ) . 9. T h e Yoga in which the liberated souls directly perceive the universe as one with īśvara, t h a t Yoga is considered to be the greatest of all Yogas. 10. Thousands and numerous Yogins of controlled minds who consider themselves as excluded or different from Iśvara do not perceive me as one without a second. 11. O excellent sages, ( t h e following are the essential adjuncts of Yoga) viz. P r ā n ā y ā m a , D h y ā n a ( m e d i t a t i o n ) , P r a t y ā h ā r a (withdrawal of the sense-organs), D h ā r a n ā (reten­ t i o n ) , S a m ā d h i ( t r a n c e ) , Y a m a ( c o n t r o l ) , N i y a m a (Restraint a n d observance), Asana ( p o s t u r e ) . 12. T h e adjuncts of the same Yoga have been n a r r a t e d to you. Yoga is the concentration of the mind in me alone along with control of the intermediary urges. 13. Ahirhsā (non-violence), Satya ( t r u t h ) , Asteya (nonstealth), Brahmacarya (celibacy) a n d apańgraha (non-possession or non-acceptance of monetary gifts). These are the Yamas (controls). T h e y have been succinctly mentioned. T h e y brstow purity of mind u p o n m e n . 14. It has been declared by the great sages t h a t Ahirhsā (non-violence) is non-causation of distress to any living being at any time physically, mentally a n d verbally. 15. T h e r e is no greater Virtue t h a n Ahimsā; there is nothing more conducive to happiness t h a n Ahimsā. T h e Himsā (violence) t h a t is committed according to the injunctions (of the Vedas) is indeed glorified as Ahimsā. 1 1.

T h i s exception in t h e case of a n i m a l sacrifices is stoutly defended by

Mlmārhsakas.


376

Kūrma Purina

16. T h e act of stating precisely in conformity to w h a t is factual is called Saiya (truthfulness) by t h e twice-born ones. O n e obtains everything through Saiya. Everything is founded on Satya. 17. Removal of another m a n ' s wealth or property either by stealth or through force is called Steya, ( s t e a l t h ) . Refrain­ ing from doing it is Asteya. It is a means of Virtue of merit. 18. Eschewing copulation either physically, mentally a n d orally in all stages, at times, a n d in all places is called Brahmacarya (celibacy). 19. Nontaking of m o n e t a r y gifts voluntarily even during adversity is called Aparigraha. O n e should m a i n t a i n it strenu­ ously. 20. Tapas ( p e n a n c e ) , Svādhyāya (self-study of Vedas), Santosa ( c o n t e n t m e n t ) , Śauca ( p u r i t y ; , Iśvara-Pūjana (worship of G o d ) these arc mentioned as Niyatnas (observances) succinctly. T h e y are the bestowers of Yogic perfection (Siddhis). 2 1 . Ascetics call it the excellent p e n a n c e if t h e body is dessicated by means of fasts a n d observances of religious vows like Parāka, K r c c h r a , C ā n d r ā y a n a etc. 22. Learned m e n say t h a t this is Svādhyāya if one per­ forms t h e J a p a of the Vedantic passages, Śatarudriya (Vaj. Samhitā X V I . 1-66), Pranava ( O m ) etc. It brings about the achievement of Sattva G u n a in men. 23. T h e r e a r e three types of Svādhyāyas viz.* Vācika (verbal), Upāmśu (inaudible m u t t e r i n g ) a n d Minasa ( m e n t a l ) , those w h o know the meanings of the Vedas say t h a t the latter ones are better t h a n t h e earlier ones. 24. T h e Svādhyāya (recitation or study of the Vedas) the words of which are clearly audible (understandable)to other listeners is called Vācika (vocal). Now the characteristic of Upāmśu (inaudible) Svādhyāya is as follows : 25. T h a t which involves only the throbbing of lips but the words of which are inaudible to others is designated as Upāmśu (inaudible S v ā d h y ā y a ) . It is better ( m o r e efficacious) t h a n vocal J a p a . 26. T h e contemplation of all t h e words (of the text of (prayer) in the proper sequence of words a n d syllables


377

11.11.27-34

without throbbing of the lips, is called Mānasa Japa (mental Japa). 27. Sages say t h a t t h e praise-worthy a t t i t u d e of the m a n who regards whatever wealth is acquired t h r o u g h luck (without striving for i t ) a s sufficient (to h i m ) , is called contentment a n d it is characterised by a feeling of happiness. 28. O excellent Brāhmanas, Sauca (cleanliness) is said to be twofold—the external a n d the internal. T h e external clean­ liness is by means of clay a n d water, while the internal one con­ sists of the purity of the mind. 29. T h e extremely steady devotion to Śiva through t h e Verbal, m e n t a l and physical activities such as singing eulogy, recollection (of His N a m e etc.) a n d worship (of Śiva) is called ha Pūjana (Worship of G o d ) . 30. T h e Tamas and the Niyamas h a v e been expounded. Now understand t h e Prānāyāma. P r ā n a is t h e air circulating with­ in one's own body. Its restraint is called Ayāma. 3 1 . P r ā n ā y ā m a is three-fold, the Uttama (excellent), Madhyama (the middling) and the Adhama (lowly). Another two­ fold classification of P r ā n ā y ā m a is Sagarbha a n d Agarbha (i.e. P r ā n ā y ā m a with the repetition of Om or a n y other Mantra bija is Sagarbha and without it is called Agarbha). 32-33. T h e lowly type of P r ā n ā y ā m a is Manda a n d the duration (of retention of b r e a t h ) is twelve M ā t r ā s ; the middl­ ing is of the duration of twenty-four M ā t r ā s while the last type of restraint of P r ā n a is of thirtysix M ā t r ā s . In these three types, perspiration, shivering and gasping are generated in due order. This is the most excellent of the Yogas to even ordinary m e n d u e to bliss) [v. 1. T h e excellence of these should be judged by the bliss caused thereby]. 1

34. T h a t Yoga is called Śunapliā a n d is the triumph of Sagarbha type of P r ā n ā y ā m a . O learned ones, the sages say that this is the characteristic of the breath-control of Yogins. 1. Śunaphā is a p a r t i c u l a r configuration of t h e p l a n e t s ( w h e n a n y o n e of t h e p l a n e t s e x c e p t t h e S u n , o c c u p i e s a s e c o n d a r y position to t h e m o o n ) . T h i s configuration is called Śunaphā-Toga. B u t it is n o t clear w h y this a s t r o n o m i c a l t e r m is b r o u g h t in h e r e . T h e c r t . E d t . r e a d s : Sagarbham āhuh. sajapam agarbham vijapam budhih ' t h e P r ā n ā y ā m a w h i c h is a c c o m p a n i e d by m u t t e r i n g (of bīja mantras) is called sagarbha a n d t h a t w h i c h is devoid of japa ( m u t t e r i n g of m a n t r a s ) is k n o w n as agarbha, O l e a r n e d o n e s ' .


378

Kūrma Purāna

35. Controlling one's breath, one should repeat three times the Gāyatrī M a n t r a along with its Vyāhrtis ( O M Bhūh, Bhuvah, Svah) and its head. This is called the breath-control. 36. It is mentioned in all scriptures by Yogins of fully controlled minds, that the P r ā n ā y ā m a consists of three stages Recaka, Pūraka and Kūmbhaka. 37. Recaka is exhalation of breath while its retention (in­ halation) is called P ū r a k a . T h e state of equilibrium (between the two) is spoken of as K u j n b h a k a . 38. O excellent men, it is said by good m e n t h a t the res­ traint of the sense-organs which are naturally straying over t h e pleasurable objects is called Pratyāhāra. 39. Dhāranā is the fixation of the m i n d in t h e lotus of t h e heart, umbilical region, cerebral region limbs, forehead a n d such other spots. 40. Learned m e n called Dhyāna (contemplation) as t h e continuous concentration of m i n d which is fixed on p a r t i c u l a r spot ( p a r t of the body) and is undistracted by any other object nearby. 4 1 . T h e perception of one form (object of contemplation) alone is Samādhi (trance) wherein the awareness of the surround­ ing place is absent. O n l y the object is perceived. This is the excellent injunction in the Yoga. 42. Twelve P r ā n ā y ā m a s lead up to the D h ā r a n ā ; twelve D h ā r a n ā s lead into Dhyāna. Twelve such Dhyānas are said to constitute a S a m ā d h i . 43. Asanas (bodily postures) are (mainly three) Svastika, Padma a n d Ardha. This is the most excellent of all means. 44. O leading Brāhmanas, the soles of both the feet are placed over the thighs. Sitting thus is called the excellent Padma posture. 45. Both the soles of the feet are placed in between t h e knees a n d the things; seating oneself in this excellent posture is called Svastika. 46. O excellent Brāhmanas, when one sits placing one's foot on the other thigh (e.g. right foot on the left t h i g h ) , it becomes Ardhāsana. It is an excellent posture for t h e accomplishment of Yoga.


11.11.47-56

379

47. Yoga is not seen practised at in the i m p r o p e r time or in an unsuitable p l a c e ; n o r should it be practised near fire, in w a t e r or on dried leaf-stack. 48-49. T h e following places are also to be avoided for Yogic P r a c t i c e : places where vermins a b o u n d , cremation ground, dilapidated cowpen, the q u a d r a n g l e or place where four roads meet, a crowded noisy place or where there is an ant-hill or a Caitya (Buddhist place of worship), an unauspicious place full of wicked men, a n d places where mosquitoes are in plenty. N o r should one practise Yoga when the body is ailing or w h e n the m i n d is dispirited. 50-51. W i t h his m i n d devoted to H i m (Lord Śiva), o n e should always practise Y o g a * in a secluded place in an auspicious well-guarded place, in the cave of a m o u n t a i n , on t h e banks of a river, in holy place, in a temple or in a clean place in t h e house, or in an isolated place devoid of worms or vermins. 52. After bowing down to leading Yogins, 1 their disciples, Lord Vināyaka, his own preceptor a n d me, the Yogin shall begin the practice of Yoga with full concentration of the mind. 53-54. He should sit in any of the postures—Svastika** P a d m a or Ardhāsana with his equi-poised gaze fixed on the t i p of his nose a n d eyes partially opened. He shall be free from fear a n d c a l m ; the illusory worries of worldly n a t u r e should be eschewed. O n e should then meditate on P a r a m e ś v a r a abiding in one's own soul. 55-56. T h e mystic lotus should be conceived at the tip of t h e tuft of hair (on the crown of one's h e a d ) twelve Ańgulas in length. D h a r m a is its bulbous root from which it is originated. It is extremely beautiful a n d has spiritual knowledge as its stalk a n d eight divine potencies as its petals. It is white a n d has Vairāgya (Detachment) for its pericarp. O n e should contemplate

* B G . V I . 10. 1. Possibly a reference to Supra I. C h . 53 w h e r e t h e i n c a r n a t i o n s of Ś i v a ( a l l y o g i n d r a s ) a n d t h e i r disciples a r e listed. A b o w t o these a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f Y o g a i s p r o b a b l y advised. * * B G . V I . 13-14.


380

Kūrma Purina

gold-coloured calyx ( t h e greatest K o ś a ) in the pericarp of t h a t lotus. 57-59. Within it one should meditate on t h e Lord w h o m they call divine a n d unchanging, the Lord who is endowed with all Śaktis (divine potencies), who is directly expressed by Orhkāra, is unmanifest, enveloped in flames of rays (v.l. full of bril­ liance) ; one should meditate on the great brilliance, the im­ perishable one. He should deposit the bliss in t h a t brilliance. 1 He should meditate on Iśa t h e great cause stationed in t h e middle of the KoSa ( h e a r t ) . H a v i n g become (identical) with its Atman which is omnipresent, one should not think of any­ t h i n g else. 60-61. This is the secretrtnost knowledge. Now another type of meditation is described. After having contemplated as before on the excellent lotus in the heart, the Atman should be thought of as a doer, 2 with the lustre equal to t h a t of fire. In t h e middle of t h a t lotus, Purusa, the twentyfifth principle should be thought of as being of t h e form of the flame of fire. 62-63, He should meditate u p o n the supreme Atman in its m i d d l e — T h e P a r a m ā t m a n as the supreme firmament, the principle expressed by Orhkāra and called eternal, auspicious, the unmanifest, latent in Prakrti a n d the supreme light, the i n n e r highest principle, the basis of Atman a n d unsullied. 64. O n e should m e d i t a t e on it with concentration a n d think of M a h e ś v a r a as a single form, after purifying all the principles t h r o u g h P r a n a v a . 65. Or t h e Atman should be fixed in the greatest region which is free from impurity, after purifying one's own body with the self-same water of perfect knowledge. 66. O n e should dedicate one's soul u n t o me and •concentrate one's mind in me a n d take up the Bhasma from the

1.

v.l. I n m e d i t a t i o n h e s h o u l d establish his o w n soul i n t h a t brilliance

a s b e i n g perfectly i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t lustre. 2.

Kāntāram in V e ń k t . E d . is obviously u n a c c e p t a b l e .


381

I I . 11.67-73

Agnihotra fire. He should then dust all his limbs with it repeating t h e m a n t r a s of Agni 1 etc. a n d Aditya. 67. T h e n one should meditate upon Lord ī s a n a in t h e form of the supreme light within one's own Atman. This is t h e Yoga, pertaining to Paśupati. It is conducive to the liberation of the Paśu from t h e PāSa. 68. This is the p a t h of all the Vedāntas. T h e Śruti says t h a t it is beyond all Aśramas (stages of life). This is the greatest esoteric truth that should be concealed as it bestows Sāyujya with absorption in m e . 69-70. T h e observances for the twice-born celibate d e ­ votees have been recounted. 2 (Now I shall mention the obser­ vances) : Celibacy, non-violence, forgiveness, cleanliness penance, self-control, contentment, truthfulness, faith in Vedas, etc. These are the special ancillaries of the religious vows. Even if one of the holy vows is lacking it does n o t 3 affect it.* 71-72a Hence, one endowed with t h e attributes of the Atman deserves to take u p m y Vrata (holy v o w ) — M a n y people w h o are devoid of lust, fear a n d anger have identified them­ selves with me, have resorted to me and have been purified by this Yoga a n d have reached my state of being.** 72b As m e n a p p r o a c h me, so do I accept t h e m . J 73. H e n c e , you all should worship m e , the supreme Lord, by means of t h e p a t h of knowledge or the p a t h of devotion or by means of the greatest Vairāgya ( d e t a c h m e n t ) .

1.

agnir

āditya-mantratah—no

such

mantra

Vedic Concordance. It m a y be in some Āgama.

is

traced

I feel it is

agnir ityādi mantratah as in t h e crt. ed. of t h e K p . t h e

in

better

MS.

Bloomfield's

to

t a k e it

evidence

as

supports

that reading. 2.

T h o u g h I h a v e followed V e ń k . E d t . , I t h i n k

line along with the above esoteric d o c t r i n e )

has

verse

(no.

68).

b e e n conveyed

to

It

it

would

the

better then

to

mean

twice-born,

take :

this

'(This

devotees a n d

Brahma-cārins.* 3.

w . 70-90 a r e b o r r o w e d from t h e B G . ,

as

can

be

seen

from

the

footnotes. * T h i s is obviously a m i s t a k e v. 1. t h e lupyate 'is lost or v i o l a t e d ' is b e t t e r t h a n na in Veńkt. Edt. * * B G . I V . 10. JBG. I V . 11.


382

Kūrma Purāna

74. Ever pure, one should worship me with the m i n d endowed with enlightenment. He should renounce all K a r m a s , accept no monetary gift a n d should partake of the alms (volun­ tarily given). 75-76a. He then attains identity with m e . This secret has been communicated by m e . He who does .not h a t e any living being, who is friendly a n d sympathetic with all beings, who is devoid of myness and egotism and who is my devotee, is beloved to m e . * 76b-77a.** A Yogin who is ever contented, is always endowed with self-control, is firm in his resolution, who is my devotee, who has dedicated his mind and intellect u n t o me, is my beloved. 77b-78a. H e , by w h o m the world is not afflicted, he, who is not afflicted by the world, a n d he who is devoid of gaiety, anger, fear and anxiety is d e a r to m e . 78b-79a. He w h o has no expectations, is pure, p r o m p t a n d efficient, unconcerned a n d devoid of troubles a n d who has renounced all undertakings and is thus devoted to me is my beloved.*** 79b-80a. O n e who equally reacts to censure and praise, who is silent, who is contented with whatever comes to him ( h e gets), who has no fixed abode, whose mind is steady a n d who is my devotee will attain me.f 80b-81a. O n e w h o performs all rites always doing conti­ nually all action b u t taking refuge in me, he reaches by my grace the eternal supreme abode. J 81b-82a. O n e should seek refuge in me alone after men­ tally dedicating all actions unto me, after becoming devoid of hopes a n d myness (?) a n d considering me as the ultimate goal.i 82b-83a. By eschewing over-attachment to the fruits of actions and being ever contented a n d depending on nothing, one is enlightened by the action in which he is engaged. • B G . xii. 13. **BG.xii.l4-16 * * * B G . xii. 14-19. t B G . xviii. 5 6 . J B G . xviii. 5 7 a b I I I . 3 0 . §BG. I V . 2 0 a n d 22.


II.11.83b-93a

383

83b.-84a. O n e w h o is devoid of hopes, has his mind a n d self controlled a n d has a b a n d o n e d all possession, attains to t h a t s u p r e m e region by performing K a r m a by the body alone. 84b-85a. If one is contented with what he obtains* with­ o u t efforts, if one is beyond the scope of mutually opposed pairs, the action performed by him for propitiating me is destruc­ tive of worldly existence. 85b-86a. 'Fix your mind on m e ; be devoted to m e ; * * offer sacrifice to m e ; be solely absorbed in m e , knowing me as t h e supreme Deity, the Lord of Yoga, propitiate m e . 86b-87a. T h e y call me the supreme Light. T h u s enlight­ e n i n g each other a n d always speaking about m e , they a t t a i n S&yujya (union with m e ) . 87b-88a. By means of t h e shining l a m p of knowledge I destroy the entire darkness of those who are continuously attached to m e . * * * 88b-89a. Those w h o have concentrated their m i n d f in me a n d are always worshipping m e , I supply t h e m what they need a n d preserve w h a t is already possessed by them. J 89b-90a. Others seeking enjoyment of pleasures m a y wor­ ship other deities. T h e i r fruit should be known to t h a t extent according to the capacity a n d power of t h a t deity. § 90b-91a. Those w h o are devoted to other deities b u t are endowed with conceptions of me, are also liberated. 91b-92a. Hence, after a b a n d o n i n g all deities, one should resort to m e , the Lord. greatest region.

other transient He attains the

92b-93a. O n e must a b a n d o n love for sons and others. O n e should be devoid of sorrow a n d possessions. O n e should be detached a n d worship the Lińga of Parameśvara until d e a t h .

•BG. I V . 22. • * B G . xviii.15. •••BG. x.10-11. f B G . ix. 2 2 . J B G . vii. 2 0 . § B G . ix. 2 3 .


384

Kūrma Purāna

93b-94a. I give u n t o t h e m the greatest region within a single birth, if they worship the Lińga always, after eschewing all sensual pleasures. 94b-95a. T h e Lińga of the great A t m a n is the only Real (?) silver-line in lustre (v.l. stainless). T h e Liñga is spiritual knowledge and is stationed in the hearts of Yogins. 95b-96. Regular devotees worship M a h e ś v a r a in t h e Lińga anywhere, after sanctifying it duly. T h e y m a y worship it in water, in the middle of fire, in the sky, in the sun or in other places. 97. Lińga pertaining to ī ś v a r a must be conceived of in jewels e t c . , a n d the Lord m a y be worshipped. All this is one with Lińga a n d everything is within Lińga. 98-99a. H e n c e one should worship the Eternal Lord anywhere in the Lińga. T h e performers (of sacrifices a n d rituals) regard it as existing in the fire, the wise ones in water, the sky a n d in the sun, the fools in wood (i.e. idols m a d e of wood) but with Yogins the Lińga is in their hearts. 99b-100a. Even if the spiritual knowledge has not dawned, if one is detached, if one has sufficient love, one should perform the J a p a of P r a n a v a as long as one lives. Since it is Brahma's physical body. 100b-10la. Or a B r ā h m a n a should perform the J a p a of Śatarudrīya until death. He should have full control over the mind a n d r e m a i n single. He attains the greatest region. 101b-103a. O Brāhmanas, one should r e m a i n at Vārānasi with full concentration until d e a t h . By means of the grace of god Śiva, he attains the greatest region. T h e r e , the lord grants the greatest knowledge to all the embodied beings at the time of departure (passing away.) T h e r e b y they are liberated from bondage. 103b-104a. If a devotee fully dedicates himself unto me and performs the entire duties of the four castes a n d stages of life, he obtains perfect knowledge in the very same birth a n d attains the auspicious region. 104b-105. O Brāhmanas, all those people of lowly birth a n d sinful origin who reside there, cross the ocean of worldly existence, thanks to the grace of īśvara. But obstacles befall those persons whose minds are affected by sins.


11.11.106-117a

385

106. H e n c e , O Brāhmanas, one should always resort to virtuous activities for the sake of liberation. This is the secret of the Vedas. It should not be given (indiscriminately) to a n y one a n d everyone. 107-108. It should be given only to a virtuous one who is a devotee observing the vow of celibacy. Vyāsa Said : After imparting this excellent Yoga, the eternal L o r d spoke to N ā r ā y a n a who was seated there a n d who was free from ailments. " T h i s knowledge has been explained by me for the welfare of t h e expounders of B r a h m a n . 109. This auspicious knowledge of B r a h m a n should be imparted by you to the disciples of quiescent m i n d s " . After mentioning this matter, the u n b o r n Lord spoke to the leading Yogins. 110-111. "O excellent Brāhmanas, for the sake of the welfare of devotees of the twice-born caste, you too should im­ p a r t to all devoted disciples, my perfect knowledge at my instance. T h e r e is no doubt in this t h a t he who is Iśvara (Śiva) is N ā r ā y a n a . This greatest knowledge should be imparted to those who do not see a n y difference (between the two) viz. Śiva a n d Visnu. 112-113a. He who is called N ā r ā y a n a is my Supreme personality. It abides in the soul of all beings, is quiescent a n d established imperishably. 113b-114a. T h e people who see difference (in me a n d Visnu) and perceive me otherwise, do not see liberation. T h e y are b o r n again a n d again in the world. 114b-115a. Those who see this unmanifest Visnu a n d m e , Lord M a h e ś v a r a as identical are not b o r n again (in Samsāra). 115b-116a. H e n c e observe a n d worship Visnu, t h e u n c h a n g i n g A t m a n without beginning a n d end as the same as me. 116b-117a. Those who see otherwise a n d think about t h e difference in the deities pass on to terrible hells. I am n o t present in t h e m .


386

Kūrma Purina

117b-118a. I liberate the person who does not censure N ā r ā y a n a whether he is a fool or a scholar, or a Gāndāla or a B r ā h m a n a depending on m e . 118b-119a. H e n c e this great Yogin, the supreme person ( V i s n u ) should be worshipped a n d bowed to by my devotees in order to generate my pleasure." 119b- 120a. After saying this a n d embracing Vāsudeva, the Pināka-bearing Lord vanished even as all were observing. 120b-121a. Lord N ā r ā y a n a eschewed his excellent body a n d took up the excellent guise of an ascetic. 121b-122a. He said to the Yogins — "By the grace of Paramesthin (Śiva) the blemishless perfect knowledge has been acquired by you all. T h e perfect knowledge of Lord M a h e ś a is destructive of worldly existence. 122b-123a. O Lordly sages, go forth without mental affection. All of you propagate the perfect knowledge of Paramesjhin to virtuous disciples. 123b-124a. This perfect knowledge pertaining to īśvara should be given to a quiescent devotee, the virtuous one who maintains the sacriñcial ñre a n d particularly to a B r ā h m a n a . " 124b-125a. After saying this, N ā r ā y a n a , the great Yogin, the A t m a n of t h e universe, the most excellent among the knowers of Yoga and Yogins, vanished from the scene. 125b-126a. Those sages bowed to Maheśvara, the Lord of Devas and N ā r ā y a n a , the cause of the Bhūtas a n d went to their respective abodes. 126b-128. Holy lord the great sage Sanatkumāra gave t h e perfect knowledge pertaining to īśvara to Samvarta. W h o i m p a r t e d it to Satya-Vrata. T h e leading Yogin S a n a n d a n a gave it to the great sage Pulaha. Pulaha gave it to G a u t a m a . Prajāpati Ańgiras gave it to Bhāradvāja, learned in the Vedas. 129-130a. Kapila gave it to Jaigīsavya and pañcaśikha. My father Parāśara, the seer of all principles, acquired that great perfect knowledge from Sanaka. Vālmīki got it from him. 130b-131a. T h e great Yogi Vāmadeva, R u d r a , the controller of K ā l a a n d wielder of Pināka, the offspring of Safi a n d Śiva imparted this knowledge to me formerly. 131b-132a. Lord N ā r ā y a n a , H a r i , the son of Devaki, himself gave this excellent knowledge to Arjuna.


U.132b-145a

387

132b-134a. Ever since I acquired this excellent (perfect vledge) from R u d r a Vāmadeva, I have h a d a special „tion to Giriśa (Śiva, t h e Lord of m o u n t a i n s ) . I have sought ial refuge in Giriśa worthy of being the shelter, Giriśa the rd of the Bhūtas (goblins), the trident-bearing Sthānu, t h e rd of Devas. 134b-136a. Accompanied by your wives a n d sons, O G e n t l e Sirs, you too resort to Lord Śambhu, Śiva the bullvehicled deity. Exist by means of his grace. Worship Ś a ń k a r a t h r o u g h the p a t h of activity, worship M a h ā d e v a , the Lord of bulls (lord of speech) having serpents for his o r n a m e n t . " 136b-138a. W h e n this was narrated, Śaunaka and others bowed to Maheśvara, e t e r n a l S t h ā n u . Delighted in their minds they spoke to Vyāsa, the son of Satyavati t h e holy Lord K r s n a d v a i p ā y a n a , who was Lord Hrsīkeśa himself a n d Śiva, t h e īśvara of the worlds. 138b-140a. By your favour, steady devotion to the bullbannered deity worthy of being a refuge, has arisen. This is inaccessible even to Devas. O excellent sage, please n a r r a t e the excellent p a t h of action ( K a r m a - Y o g a ) 1 whereby Lord I ś a has to be propitiated by those who seek salvation. In your presence, S ū t a m a y h e a r the words of t h e holy Lord. 141b-143a. Hence, mention the epitome of virtue ( D h a r m a ) capable of protecting the entire worlds. This is w h a t h a s been narrated by Visnu the Lord of Devas, w h o h a d assumed the form of a tortoise, when he h a d been requested by Śakra along with the sages at t h e churning of the Nectar. On hearing the words of the sages, t h e son of Satyavati, explained the whole of the eternal p a t h of Action. 143b-144a. He who always reads this dialogue of t h e deity clad in Elephant-hide with the sages t h e Chief of w h o m was S a n a t k u m ā r a shall be liberated from all sins. 144b-145a. He who narrates this to pure Brāhmanas devoted to celibacy a n d he who ponders over the m e a n i n g attains the greatest goal.

1.

T h i s is h o w Vyāsā-giti, t h e n e x t section is i n t r o d u c e d .


Kūrma Purāna

388

145b-147. He who listens to this always with great devo­ tion a n d steady adherence to holy rites shall be freed from all sins a n d honoured in the Brahmaloka. H e n c e , this must be read with all efforts by learned m e n . It must be heard a n d subsequently pondered over particularly in the company of Brāhmanas.

CHAPTER TWELVE1 The Pa A of Action Duties of celibate students Vyāsa said : 1. All of you, sages, listen to t h e eternal K a r m a y o g a ( P a t h of action) t h a t brings about the everlasting benefit to t h e Brāhmanas. It is being narrated now. 2. To sages listening attentively to him, M a n u , the progenitor of t h e world formerly explained this ( p a t h of K a r m a ) t h a t has been established in the Vedas a n d all the details of which were t a u g h t to Brāhmanas. 1.

T h e present c h a p t e r is t h e first in

the Vyāsa

G i t ā w h i c h forms a

p a r t o f K P . ( I I chs. 12-24). I n t h i s section, V y ā s a e x p l a i n s Varnas a n d Āhamas ( t h e four m a i n stages

in

divisions

of t h e

the

society

duties

and

the

of all four

t h e life o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ) . A b o u t its i n t e r p o l a t o r y n a t u r e v i d e I n t r o .

—Pāśupatisation of the K P . This

chapter

(Brahmacārī).

The

describes

mainly

t h e duties

S m r t i s like M a n u I I . 36-249, Y ā j . I. 10-50 B h . P . V I I . 1 2 . 1 - 1 6 , V P . I l l 9.1-6 a n d a them a n d the K P .

&

Purānas

number

(as

religious

B u t t h e special feature

A . S . G u p t a does i t i n

M a n u simply b e c a u s e V y ā s a i s m a d e t o

like A P .

o f verses

of K P .

practically the whole of this chapter from Auianasa Smr. ch. propriety

of a

student

description of t h e duties of a B r a h m a c ā r i n a r e d e t a i l e d in

is I.

that

are

153.

1-16,

common to

it has incorporated

Hence

t h e r e is

no-

his E d t o f K P . p . 8 2 4 ) i n referring t o state

that

he

is reporting

what

M a n u e x p o u n d e d t o sages i n t h e d a y s o f y o r e . K P . h o w e v e r , h a d t h e status chapter

are

of a

Smrti

and

m a n y verses

from this,

q u o t e d a s a u t h o r i t y i n respectable works o n D h a r m a - Ś ā s t r a , l i k e

S M C , C C , Vira-mitrodaya, Nirnaya Sindhu a n d o t h e r s .


389

IM 2.3-11

3. As this p a t h dispels all sins a n d is meritorious a n d M it is resorted to by multitudes of sages, listen to it with Attentive mind, even as I n a r r a t e it to all of you. 4. O excellent Brāhmanas, in the eighth year of his life from the d a y of conception or from the d a y of b i r t h 1 one should be invested with the sacred thread in accordance with the injunc­ tions of one's own Sūtra. He should then study t h e Vedas. 5. He should have a ritualistic staff, wear a girdle a n d a secred thread a n d t h e skin of a black antelope, subsist on alms, observe celibacy and should stay happily in his hermitage (or •tage of life). 6. Cotton thread was created formerly by B r a h m a for the purpose of U p a v ī t a (sacred t h r e a d ) . It consists of thrices p u n y a r n . It should be m a d e of K u ś a grass or cotton. 7. A B r ā h m a n a should always wear the sacred thread a n d keep his tuft of h a i r ( o n the head) tied into a knot. Otherwise, whatever rite he performs shall be futile. 8. He should wear unmutilated (unsewn ?) cloth of cotton (which m a y be) ochre-coloured. White cloth without holes (i.e. not torn) is the excellent wearing a p p a r e l . 9. T h e skin of the black antelope makes an excellent u p p e r cloth. It is auspicious. If the hide of the antelope is not available, t h a t of R u r u deer is prescribed. 10. If the thread is placed over the left a r m and u n d e r the right a r m it is called Upavita.2 This is the way in which it is always worn. If it is worn r o u n d the neck (like a g a r l a n d ) it is called Nivita. 11. O B r ā h m a n a s , if the t h r e a d is worn over the right a r m and u n d e r t h e left a r m it is called Prācināvita. It should be followed at the time of the performance of the rites for the Pitrs. k. 1.

Vide A ś v a l ā y a n a G r . S. I. 19.1-6. T h i s is

endorsed

by A p a s t a m b a

(10.2-3) a n d even P a t a ñ j a i i ( M a h ā b h ā s y a I I p . 5 7 ) . 2.

W 10-13 e x p l a i n t h e t h r e e m e t h o d s

of w e a r i n g t h e sacred t h r e a d

a n d t h e occasions o n w h i c h t h e y a r e t o b e s o w o r n . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s

as old

as Tail. Samhitā ( I I . 5 . 1 1 . 1 ) w h i c h states : nivitam

manusyānām prācīnāvītam pitrnām pavitam

T h e m e t h o d of w e a r i n g t h e

thread

as

devānām

upavita, prācināvita is

G o b h i l a G r . S.I. 2.2-4. K P . endorses t h e s a m e .

given in


390

Kūrma Purina

12-13. O n e should always wear t h e sacred thread as Upavita in the following instances viz.—in the c h a m b e r of sacri­ ficial fires, in t h e cowpen, while Homa is performed or Japa is undertaken, during the recitation of the Vedic M a n t r a s , while taking food always in the presence of Brāhmanas, while respect­ fully worshipping the preceptors, at the two junctions (i.e. performing sandhyā-prayer at dawn a n d at dusk) and while meeting saintly men. This is the eternal injunction. 1 14. T h e girdle of the B r ā h m a n a should be m a d e of the M u ñ j a grass twisted three times. It shall be soft and of equal thickness throughout. T h e r e m a y be one or three knots. O Brāhmanas, (if Muñja grass is u n a v a i l a b l e ) , it m a y be m a d e of K u ś a grass as well. 2 15. A B r ā h m a n a should hold a staff m a d e of Bilva or Palāśa tree. It should come up to his head ( i n height). It can be m a d e of a n y other tree (prescribed as being) worthy of being used for sacrifices. It should be soft a n d devoid of crack in t h e middle. 16. A Brāhmana should perform the Sandhyā-Yt&ycn with full concentration in the morning as well as in the evening. By failure to perform it d u e to passion, covetousness, fear or delu­ sion, he shall become fallen. 17. Thereafter, he should perform the rites of the fireworship in accordance with the injunctions, both in the m o r n i n g a n d in the evening. He should propitiate Devas, the sages as well as the Pitrs only after taking b a t h . 18. He should worship the deities with flowers, leaves a n d water. He should invariably revere the elders, according to t h e prescription in dharma. 19. Desirous of* longevity and health but, excluding (request for) wealth, he should humbly bow down respectfully saying ( a t t h e same time his n a m e ) . "Sir, this I am (so and so) by name". 1.

Asvalāyana G r .

S.

1.19.11,

Manu

11.42; 11.43 allows o n e , t h r e e

o r f i v e w h i c h K u l l ū k a a t t r i b u t e s t o family u s a g e . 2.

B a u d h ā y a n a D h . S.II.5.17 is accepted here.

*anvicchan is a b e t t e r health)

v.l.

t h a n sinnidhyam

adopted in the Veńkt. Text.

(vicinity

to

longevity

and


.12.20-30

391

20. At the time of obeisance, the Brāhmana should be told: be longlived, O gentle one, at the end of his n a m e , t h e ig letter A should be added with the Pluta accent (of three res) on the penultimate syllable (i.e. the vowel is p r o l a t e d ) . 2 1 . If a B r ā h m a n a does not salute in r e t u r n when Mtluted, he shall not be honoured by learned m e n he is just like • Śūdra.1 22. T h e hands should be cross-wise w h e n touching t h e feet of a preceptor. His left foot should be touched with t h e left h a n d a n d the right foot should be touched with the right hand.2 23. O n e should in the first instance m a k e obeisance to that gentleman from whom one has acquired regular, Vedic or •piritual knowledge. 24. (While paying obeisance) one should carry in one's hands, water, alms, flowers, sacrificial twigs and such other things. N o w (should he do so ?) when performing the rites of gods. 2 5 . On meeting a B r ā h m a n a , one shall ask h i m about Kulala (welfare), a K s a t r i y a should be asked Anāmaya ( n o n ailment) ; Vaiśya should be asked about his Ksema (prosperity and security) a n d Śūdra should be asked about his health. 26-28. T h e preceptor, father, eldest brother, king, m a t e r n a l uncle, father-in-law, m a t e r n a l grandfather, paternal grandfather, one belonging to a superior caste a n d p a t e r n a l uncle—all these are remembered as Gurus (superiors). M o t h e r , m a t e r n a l grand-mother, teacher's wife, sisters of father a n d mother, the mother-in law, paternal g r a n d m o t h e r and elder brother's wife—these a r e elderly ladies. T h u s the elder ones on the side of m o t h e r a n d t h a t of the father have been detailed. 2 9 . Mentally, Verbally and Physically one should obey these. On seeing the preceptor, one shall get up a n d make obeis­ ance with palms joined in reverence. 30. O n e should not sit along with these; one should not argue with these for the sake of money (over money m a t t e r s ) . 1 . M a n u I I . 126. 2 . T h i s m e t h o d o f clasping t h e feet o f t h e p r e c e p t o r i s prescribed i n Dh. S. of V i s n u ( 2 8 . 1 5 ) , B a u d h ā y a n a (1.2.24) a n d M a n u 11.72.


392

KĹŤrma Pur&na

Even for the sake of remaining alive, no one should speak harsh­ ly to these out of h a t r e d . 31. Even a person who has risen up by dint of other good qualities, incurs downfall if he hates elders. Among all these elders, five are particularly to be revered. 1 32. Among them the first three are the most excellent, (viz.) he who procreates, she who gives birth to and he by whom learning is imparted a n d a m o n g these three ( a t first) the mother (should be) highly respected. 33-36. ( T h e three mentioned before a n d ) t h e eldest b r o t h e r and h u s b a n d — t h e s e five are remembered as Gurus. These five must be specially worshipped through every effort of oneself or even by sacrificing one's life, by one who wishes for prosperity. As long as the parents are devoid of observations t h e son should a b a n d o n everything else and should be solely devoted to t h e m . If the mother and the father are very well pleased with t h e good qualities of the son, t h a t son shall attain all dharma (religious merits) due to t h a t holy rite. T h e r e is no deity equal to t h e m o t h e r ; there is no preceptor equal to the father. 37. T h e r e is no way of fully repaying their debts (by helping t h e m in r e t u r n ) . O n e should continuously do everything physically, mentally a n d verbally t h a t pleases them. 38. Without being permitted by these two, the son should not perform any other holy rite excepting w h a t yields salvation as well as the JVitya a n d JVaimittika rites. 39-40a. T h e essence of dharma t h a t yields infinite benefit after death, has been related. After propitiating the expounder duly and dismissed by h i m with due permission, the disciple enjoys the benefit of learning. After death he is respected in t h e heaven. 40b-41a. T h e foolish person who disrespects the eldest brother who is on a p a r with his father, falls into a terrible hell after d e a t h , as a result of t h a t sin. 41b. If one is to follow t h e p a t h (of religion) the master ( h u s b a n d ) should always be honoured. 1.

V V . 31-37 e n u m e r a t e t h e persons w h o a r e to be

r e s p e c t e d as gurus

( p r e c e p t o r s ) . M a n u II. 227-237 a n d D e v a l a q u o t e d i n S M C I . p . 3 5 .


393

II.12.42a-52a

42a. Even if service is rendered to one's mother, one a t t a i n s greatness in the world. 42b-43a. Holy sage M a n u has said t h a t those m e n who lay down their lives for the sake of the master's doles attain ever­ lasting worlds. 43b-44. T h e younger people should stand up a n d greet 1 the folīowMg by saying Asau Aham (this I) — t h e people, viz.— uncles both m a t e r n a l a n d paternal, fathers-in-law, sacrificial priests a n d preceptors. T h e initiated, though he be younger shall not be addressed by n a m e . 45-46. T h e knower of virtue should address him with the prefix bho bhavān. T h e B r ā h m a n a shall be honoured, wor­ shipped a n d bowed to by Ksatriyas and others, seeking fortune. T h e y must be honoured with due respect. T h e Ksatri­ yas and others are not to be greeted first by a B r ā h m a n a . 47. Those who have vast learning a n d a r e endowed with perfect knowledge, holy rites a n d good attributes, do worship. T h e Śruti says t h a t the B r ā h m a n a should offer Svasti (Blessings, may it be well with you) to people of all castes. 48-49a. Between people of the same caste greeting a n d saluting is desirable. Fire-god is the preceptor u n t o the twiceborn ; a B r ā h m a n a is the preceptor u n t o the people of all castes. T h e husband is the preceptor unto the w o m e n a n d the guest is the preceptor u n t o all. 49b-50a. Learning, holy rites, penance, kinsmen and wealth the fifth in the series—they say t h a t these five are things worthy of honour. T h e earlier one is better t h a n the latter one. 50b-51a. Any m a n of three castes who possesses these both in n u m b e r and superiority, is worthy of being recepient of honour. A Śūdra in the tenth decade of life is also worthy of respect. 51b-52a. W a y should be given( priority should be accord­ ed) to the B r ā h m a n a , to a woman, to the king, to the blind, to the aged one^ to one bending down with b u r d e n , to the sick and to the weak. 1.

V V . 43b-50 d e a l w i t h t h e etiquettes of p a y i n g respects by

to a senior. Abhividana)

It consists of d e c l a r a t i o n of one's n a m e

etc.

a junior

(upasańgrahana

and


394

Kūrma Purina

52b-53a. ( T h e religious student) should, with purity of body and mind, bring alms everyday from the houses of decent people, offer it first to the preceptor a n d then p a r t a k e of it silently with his permission. 53b-55. T h e excellent B r ā h m a n a who has been invested with the sacred thread should beg for alms with the word Bhavati in t h e beginning—(i.e. Bhavati Bhiksārh dehi—O gentle lady give the a l m s ) ; the Ksatriya should use the word Bhavati in the middle (i.e. Bhikfim bhavati dehi—AlmsO gentle lady, give) a n d a Vaiśya should use the word Bhavati in the end (i.e Bhiksārh 1 dehi Bhavati—give alms O gentle lady) - O n e should beg for alms, at the outset, of his mother, sister, mother's sister or o n e who does not disrespect h i m . He should go to the houses of t h e people of his own caste for begging or indiscriminately to t h e houses of any person of any caste taking care to avoid t h e house of the fallen m a n . 56. A Brahmacārin (a religious student) should beg for alms everyday from the houses of persons not devoid of V e d a s a n d Yajñas and those who strictly adhere to their duties. He should be pure in mind and body. 57-58a. O n e should not beg for alms at the house of the preceptor or a cousin or near kinsman. If the other houses a r e not available, he should avoid the earlier houses, i.e. taking t h e last named first. 58b. Or if the houses mentioned before are impossible, he should r o a m the whole village with self control, exercising restraints over speech and not glancing at various quarters. 59-60a. Collecting the alms without any deceit, he should cook it (v.l. collecting alms just sufficient for his need) he should eat it always with self restraint, control over speech (i.e. silently) and with proper attention. 60b-61. An observer of the vow (of celibacy) should always subsist on alms a n d take food once a day. T h e subsistence of one who maintains himself on alms is remembered to be on a par with fast. He should honour the cooked food always a n d eat without despising it. 1.

B a u d h ā y a n a G r . S . I I . 5 . 4 7 - 5 3 , also M a n u I I . 49-50.


395

11.12.62—13.10

62. Looking at it, he should be delighted a n d contented. 63. Gluttonous eating is ill for health a n d destructive of longevity, a n d it does not secure heaven. It is non-meritorious a n d reproached by the world. H e n c e , one should avoid it. 64-65. O n e should eat food facing the east or t h e sun. He should n o t take food facing the n o r t h . This is the eternal injunction. After washing the hands a n d feet he should perform Ācamana r i t e 1 twice. He should sit in a clean place a n d take food. After taking food he should perform Ācamana twice.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN The usages of Śisfas. Good Conduct. Vyāsa said : 1-3. An excellent B r ā h m a n a should perform the Ācamana1rite (sipping w a t e r ) in these circumstances (even t h o u g h he h a d done so previously) : after taking food, after drinking any beverage, after sleeping, after bath, after walking in a street, on touching the lips without the hair, after wearing garments, after t h e dis­ charge of semen, urine or faeces, on uttering an i m p r o p e r word, after spitting, at the beginning of Vedic study, at t h e time of hiccough or sigh, on coming from a quadrangle or a cremation ground a n d at the time of the two Sandhyās i.e. d a w n a n d dusk. In the last case, he shall perform the Ācamana twice. 4-10. T h e Ācamana rite is to be performed in the following circumstances also :- After talking to a C ā n d a l a or a M l e c c h a ; 1.

S i n c e a n c i e n t times Ācamana or

s i p p i n g of w a t e r

before,

in

and

after c e r t a i n a c t s , occasions e t c . was r e g a r d e d essential from t h e purificatory p o i n t of view. E l a b o r a t e rules for Ācamana

rite

are

p r e s c r i b e d in

Dharma

S u t r a s e.g. A p a s t a m b a 1.5.15.2-11; 16.1-16) a n d S m r t i s like M a n u I I . 58-62, Yāj. I. 18-21. T h e occasions for Ācamana d e t a i l e d

here,

c r i b e d in A p a s t a m b a D h . S. 1.5.16.15-16, M a n u V. 138 v a l k y a 1.196.

were &

already 145

&

pres­ Yājña-


396

Kūrma Purina

after conversing with women, Ś ū d r a a n d a person defiled by Ucchisfa (stale leaving), after touching a person w h o is defiled by Ucchisfa as well as food-stuff of t h a t sort. W h e n one sheds tears or spills blood, after taking food, performance of the sandhyā prayer at d a w n a n d dusk, after taking a bath, after discharging urine a n d faeces a n d shall perform A c a m a n a twice; after sleeping, he should perform t h e rite only o n c e ; after touching fire, or cows. After touching women or after binding the knot of the waist-cloth, he should perform Ācamana. He should touch the grass, water or the earth, when he touches his hair or touches a cloth t h a t is not washed; for the purpose of Ācamana the water should not be hot nor shall it contain foam. It should be p u r e . He should be silent at t h a t time. A person seeking purity shall sit facing the east or t h e north at the time of A c a m a n a . If one performs Ācamana covering his head or neck with dhoti (waistcloth) w o r n loosely without knot or tucking a n d the knot of the tuft of the hair united a n d without washing feet, one remains im­ p u r e despite Ācamana. A wise person should not perform Ācamana with shoes on, standing in water, wearing a t u r b a n . 11 -15a. No sensible m a n should perform Ācamana when the h a n d is defiled by Ucchisfa (leavings of food) nor should he per­ form the Ācamana with t h e water by means of the shower, nor should he perform Ācamana with water supplied by a single h a n d . It should not be without the sacred thread. He should not be seated with shoes on (?) or on the knees. T h e h a n d shall not reach outside the knees. T h e water shall not be poured out by Vaiśya Śūdra etc. by means of their hands. N o r should they be defiled by Ucchisfa. Ācamana should not be performed by touching water with fingers. O n e should not produce sounds (at the time of Aca­ m a n a ) . His m i n d should not be dwelling on other topics. T h e water should not be defective in colour or taste. T h e water should n o t be in short supply. T h e water should not be agitated with the hands. It should not be performed outside the room (?). A B r ā h m a n a is sanctified when the water (of the Ācamana rite) reaches his heart. A K s a t r i y a is sanctified when the water reaches the throat. A Vaiśya is purified as soon as the water is d r u n k . A w o m a n a n d a Śūdra are purified by merely touching t h e water.


397

II.13.15b-24 1

15b-18. T h e Tirtha ( holy place) on the line at the root of the t h u m b is called Brāhmya (Brahma T ī r t h a ) (i.e. B r a h m a T ī r t h a is presumed to exist t h e r e ) . T h e root of the index finger is t h e excellent P i t r t i r t h a . T h e space after (beyond 1 ) the root of small finger is called Prājāpatya ( T i r t h a ) . At the tip of the fingers is remembered Daiva T i r t h a . It is glorified for the sake of the Deva (?). Or it is enjoined at the root (of the fingers) t h a r p e r ^ " taining to Agni is remembered in the middle finger. T h e s a m e itself is the Saumika (pertaining to Soma) T ī r t h a . Realising thus one is not deluded. A B r ā h m a n a should always perform the Ācamana rite through t h e B r a h m a T i r t h a . 19. He shall be p u r e if he performs the Ācamana rite by means of the body belonging to the divinity (i.e. Daiva T i r t h a ) Pure at the outset, a B r ā m a n a should perform Ācamana t h r e e times. 20. He should touch the m o u t h with the root of t h e t h u m b well-covered.* (?) He should then touch the eyes by means of the t h u m b a n d the ring finger. 2 1 . He should touch both the nostrils by joining together the tips of the index finger a n d the t h u m b . He should touch t h e ears by joining together the tips of the small finger a n d t h e thumb. 22. He should touch the a r m s with all fingers a n d t h e h e a r t with p a l m . He should touch the umbilical region a n d t h e head, with all fingers. Or he shall touch both of t h e m by means of the t h u m b . 23. He should drink water three times. T h e r e b y t h e deities are well delighted. We have h e a r d t h a t B r a h m a , Visnu a n d M a h e ś a are delighted thereby. 24. By the wiping off ( P a r i m ā r j a n a ) of m o u t h t h e G a ń g ā a n d the Y a m u n a are pleased. W h e n the eyes are wiped the m o o n a n d the sun are delighted. 1 . T h e r i g h t h a n d ( p a l m ) used for h o l d i n g w a t e r for Ā c a m a n a i s r e g a r d e d as a c o n g r e g a t i o n of h o l y Tirthas as given in V V . 15-18 h e r e . T h e i d e a t h a t h o l y T i r t h a s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e r o o t s a n d o r tips o f f i n g e r s i s a s o l d as Dharma Sutras ( e . g . V i s n u 62.1-4, B a u d h ā y a n a 5.14-18), t h o u g h t h e y differ r e g a r d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n T i r t h a s . •The Veñk. Text reads be a b e t t e r r e a d i n g .

Samvrta b u t Sammxjya

' h a v i n g w i p e d o u t ) will


398

Kūrma Purina

25. W h e n the two nostrils are touched, the Aśvin gods ( N ā s a t y a a n d D a s r a ) are delighted. Similarly, when the two ears are touched the wind god a n d the fire god are delighted. 26. W h e n t h e h e a r t is touched, the deities a r e pleased. By touching the h e a d , P u r u s a becomes delighted. 27. (While performing Ācamana) when the sprays (of w a t e r ) touch the limbs they do not defile by means of Ucchista. O n e shall be i m p u r e by touching the space between t h e teeth, when teeth are touched as well by means of the tongue a n d the lips. 28. If the drops of water touch on the feet when one per­ forms the Ācamana rite, they are not defiled. T h e y should be known as Bhūmikas ( v . l . Bhūmiga - existent in the e a r t h ) . 29. M a n u says t h a t there is no defect (of Ucchisfa) when M a d h u p a r k a (mixture of honey) or Soma is taken or when one chews the betel leaves. N o r is one defiled like this, when one eats fruits, roots or sugarcane. 30. If a B r ā h m a n a becomes defiled (while eating a n d d r i n k i n g ) food and water in plenty,* he should keep down on the ground the material ( t h a t he is c a r r y i n g ) , perform Ācamana (after eating) a n d (then purify t h a t material) by sprinkling w a t e r over it. 3 1 . While taking with him a bright metallic thing (such as a P o t ) , if B r ā h m a n a becomes defiled by Ucchisfa, he should place t h a t article on the ground. He should then perform Āca­ mana a n d take up t h a t again. 32. If he takes anything without c h a n t i n g the M a n t r a s a n d then becomes defiled by Ucchisfa, he should become p u r e on performing Ācamana even without placing t h a t article ( o n the ground). 33-34a. It is optional in the case of wearing apparel etc. where it is not touched (?)•** At night, in the forest-path infested with thieves and tigers, if anyone discharges urine a n d faeces with some article in his hands, he is not defiled. •v.l.

Pracaran'—while w a l k i n g .

••v.l. ( c l o t h , etc.)

tat samsprsyicamed Via s h o u l d p e r f o r m A c a m a n a after

t o u c h i n g it


399

II.13.34b-43

34b-35a. D u r i n g the day time, one should face the n o r t h a n d d u r i n g the night he should face the south a n d discharge urine a n d faeces, after placing the sacred thread on the right ear.1 35b-36a. He should cover the ground with wooden pieces, leaves, grass or lumps of clay before passing urine a n d faeces. He should cover the head at t h a t time. 36b-37. O n e should not evacuate t h e bowels or pass u r i n e in shady place, n e a r the wells or rivers, cowpens or m o n ­ asteries, in t h e middle of the p a t h , on ashes, in burning fire, w i t h i n t h e house or in the cremation ground. He shall not do so in the p a t h traversed by cows, in a ploughed field, in a place a b o u n d i n g in great trees, in a grassy meadow nor on the top of a mountain. 38-39. While answering the calls of n a t u r e one should not r e m a i n standing n o r shall he be in t h e n u d e nor on a m o u n ­ tain peak. He shall never pass urine etc. in a dilapidated tem­ ple or an a n t hill. He shall not do so in pits a n d ditches where there a r e animals. He shall not do so while passing through the t h e R o y a l road. He shall not discharge o d o u r on husks, ch~ār=~ coal or broken pots. 40. O n e shall not do so in a holy centre nor in the sac­ r e d water nor in a quadrangle. He shall not discharge faeces in a g a r d e n or a nearby place; nor in a b a r r e n land nor in a very d i r t y place. 41-42. O n e shall not discharge faeces etc. with shoes o n . W h i l e going in an aerial chariot ( v . l . while holding an u m ­ brella) or standing face to face with a woman, elders or Brāh­ m a n a s one shall not evacuate bowels. Neither in front of a shrine n o r t h a t of an idol shall one discharge urine or faeces. O n e shall not do so facing the luminaries or water n o r in front of the sun, m o o n a n d t h e fire. 4 3 . T h e purificatory rite shall be performed with clay brought from the banks. T h e stickiness a n d t h e odour shall be 1. hygiene. VI.

R u l e s r e g a r d i n g a n s w e r i n g calls But

Dharma

Sutras

(e.g.

10-19) a n d S m r t i s like M a n u ( I V .

of

nature

Apastamba 45-52,

should 1.11.30,

56),

Yāj.

P u r ā n a s like V ā y u (78.59-64) h a v e d e a l t w i t h this t o p i c i n r a t h e r AuSanasa Smfti. h a s s u m m a r i s e d t h e m h e r e concisely.

be

a

15-30, (I.

part

16-17)

details.

of

Vasistha KP.

and or


Kūrma

400

Purāna

removed. He shall perform carefully the purifacatory rite with water taken out from it (before h a n d ? ) . 44. A B r ā h m a n a should not bring clay from a dusty place, or a marshy place. He shall not bring it from the high way nor from b a r r e n land. Nor from the soil defiled by Ucchisfa of some one else performing Śauca (the purificatory rite.) 45. He should not bring t h e clay from a temple nor from a well nor from the open village nor from t h e waterbed. In accordance with the injunction mentioned before, he should always perform the Ācamana rite as well.

CHAPTER Duties

FOURTEEN 1

of Brahmacārins

Vyāsa said: 1. T h u s (the B r a h m a c ā r i n ) equipped with the staff etc. a n d strictly a d h e r i n g to Śauca (cleanliness) a n d Ācāra (good conduct) should start the study of the Vedas when called u p o n for it. He should look at his G u r u ' s face a n d start his study. 2. He should continuously keep the h a n d s lifted ( i n reverence) a n d should strictly abide by the rules of conduct at the time of dusk ( ? ) . * W h e n pei mitted (by the p r e c e p t o r ) 2 saying, " b e seated", he shall sit facing the preceptor. 3-4. T h e disciple should not remain lying down when he listens to or converses (with the p r e c e p t o r ) . While sitting or standing or getting up near the preceptor, the disciple should not keep his face averted from his guru. At no time should the 1.

M o s t o f t h e verses i n this c h a p t e r a r e t h e s a m e a s those i n

Ch. I l l

of Ausanasa SmrtL *Sandhyācāra b u t a b e t t e r v.l. is Sidhvicira, ' g o o d 2.

conduct'.

V V . 2-37 give t h e c o d e of c o n d u c t to be followed by a p u p i l d u r i n g

his stay a t G u r u ' s

hermitage. These

G a u t a m a I I . 13-25)

are

based

on

Dharma

& S m r t i s like M a n u ( I I . 177-179.)

Sutras

(e.g.


II.14.5-16a

401

disciple be seated on a couch in the preceptor's presence. With­ in the range of the vision of the preceptor, the disciple should not sit as he pleases. 5. Even when not seen by him (i.e. in the absence"of his guru), the preceptor's n a m e should not be directly mentioned by t h e disciple. N o r should he mimic t h e preceptor's mode of walking or behaviour. __ 6. If, at any place, the preceptor is found to be censured or refuted in argument, the disciple should close his ears or walk out of t h a t place to a n o t h e r place. 7. W h e n standing far away, the disciple need not worship the preceptor. He shall not revere h i m angrily or (while he is) in t h e vicinity of a w o m a n . T h e preceptor should not ī t e answere3~"gruŕHy. H e should not b e retorted. While t h e teacher is standing, the disciple should not r e m a i n seated. 8. For the sake of the teacher, the disciple should fetch potfulls of water, K u ś a grass, flowers a n d sacrificial twigs. He should anoint, wipe off or massage his limbs frequently. 9. He should neither tread over nor step across t h e garland previously worn by the teacher, his bedstead, his (wooden) sandals a n d (leather) shoes, seat, shadow a n d his oblong chair. 10. He should gather tooth-pick etc. for t h e sake of t h e preceptor. He should duly inform the preceptor a b o u t t h e duties carried out by himself. W i t h o u t taking leave of t h e preceptor, he should not go anywhere. T h e disciple shall be engaged in activities pleasing a n d beneficial to t h e p r e c e p t o r . , . 11-12. In his presence, the disciple should never stretch his legs. In the presence of t h e preceptor, t h e disciple should avoid yawning, loud laughter, covering of the neck etc. He should n o t speak words while cracking the joints of fingers. He~śhaīl study t h e Vedas at the proper time, as long as the preceptor is n o t dispirited. 13. At t h e preceptor's instance, he m a y sit on a plank^ with m e n t a l concentration. He should not by himself ever r e m a i n in the seat, bed or a vehicle ( a l o n g with t h e preceptor ? ) . be

14-16a. He should r u n after t h e preceptor, should he r u n n i n g a n d follow h i m when he goes. He should not sit


402

Kūrma Purāna

along with t h e preceptor in a bullock-cart, horse-carriage, camel-cart, top portions of mansions, mats, rock, planks a n d boats. He should always keep subdued t h e sense organs. He should not be angry, be p u r e , a n d should speak sweet a n d whole­ some words. 16b-18. T h e religious student should avoid using fragrānT garlands of white flowers and sweet beverages. He should refrain from injuring living beings. He should not take oil-bath or a p p l y collyrium to t h e eyes, nor should he hold umbrellas. T h e follow­ ing should be avoided very scrupulously by h i m : passion, covetousness, fear, slumber (during d a y t i m e ) , songs musical instruments a n d dancing, gambling, spreading of false remours, glancing at or seizing women, attacking others and calumny. 19. He should collect a n d fetch the following things as m u c h as necessary, viz., water pots, flowers, cowdung, clay a n d the K u ś a grass. Everyday, he should go begging for alms. 20. He should not witness dance-programmes. He should always be disinterested in songs etc. Artificial salt and all stale things shall be avoided. (All salted preparations, w h e n stale, shall be a v o i d e d ) . 2 1 . He shall not look at t h e sun (at the sunrise or sunset). He should not use tooth brush twigs. He should not go to a lonely spot in the company of unclean w o m e n nor should he have lengthy conversation with low castes a n d Śūdras. 22. He should do everything to please the preceptor and n o t o u t of passion or his sweet will. He should perform ablution somehow to remove impurities. 23. A B r ā h m a n a should not even think of a b a n d o n i n g his preceptor. If out of delusion or covetousness, he abandons (the p r e c e p t o r ) , he shall be fallen. 24. He should never antagonise that person from whom he receives knowledge, whether secular, Vedic or spiritual. 25. M a n u , however, has laid down t h a t even a Guru (preceptor) c a n be abandoned, should he take to wrong paths, be arrogant or not know w h a t should be done and w h a t should not be done. 26. W h e n the preceptor of the preceptor is nearby, the disciple should show as m u c h devotion as towards the preceptor;


11.14.27-36

403

unless specifically allowed by his preceptor, he should not pay obeisance to his own elders. 27. This very behaviour should be constant in regard to the preceptors of other lores to one's kith and kin, to those who prevent one from Adharmas and who give instructions in beneficial things. 28. It is better t h a t one should always behave towards the sons, wives a n d kinsmen of the preceptors as though towards the preceptors. 29. A young disciple should honour all persons worthy of honour (or shall help them) in the Tajùa rite. T h e son of the preceptor deserves honour like him ( t h e preceptor), if he also begins to teach. 30. T h e disciple should neither bathe the son of the preceptor nor apply cosmetics over his body. He should not partake of his leavings, nor should he clean his feet. 3 1 . T h e wives of the preceptors should be honoured and respected like the preceptor, if they are of his own caste. But if they belong to lower castes, they are to be honoured only by greetings and standing up (when they come). 32. T h e disciple should not perform the following personal . services to the wives of the preceptors, viz. : bathing them, anointing their bodies with oil, application of cosmetics over their bodies, and beautifying their tresses. 33. If the wife of the preceptor be a youthful maiden, she should not be bowed to by touching her feet. T h e disciple should touch the ground and make obeisance saying asau aham (This I a m ) . 34. After return from a journey abroad, the disciple should pay respect by touching the feet of the wives of his preceptor (on the first day but afterwards) on every day, he should bow by touching the ground, remembering the duty (of good men). 35. Mother's sister, maternal uncle's wife, mother-in-law, father's sister and the wife of the preceptor—all these are to be respected equally like his preceptor's wife. T h e y are equal to the wife of the preceptor. 36. Brother's wife of the same caste deserves greeting by touching the feet every day. T h e women folk of the


Kūrma

404

Purina

kinsmen a n d relatives are to be similarly worshipped by every Brāhmana. 37. O n e should behave towards the sisters of one's father a n d mother a n d his own elder sister as though towards his mother. Of course the mother is greater t h a n all of them. 38.*FEe preceptor shall teach such a self-possessed, modest (non-arrogant) disciple, endowed with decency of conduct. He should continuously teach h i m the Vedas, the D h a r m a s (Dharma-Śāstra or smrtis), the P u r ā n a s a n d the Ańgas (Ancillary subjects like Śiksā, g r a m m a r etc.) 39. If the disciple has lived a disciplined life (at his residence) for a full year b u t the preceptor fails to i m p a r t per­ fect knowledge to him, the preceptor incurs all the sins of t h e disciple. 40. As prescribed in the dharma-śāstra, a preceptor should teach the following ten persons : the preceptor's son, a person desirous of learning or one who serves the teacher, a person of the teaching profession, an abider by dharma, a (mentally a n d physically?) p u r e person, the explainer of sūk tas (subhāfitas ?), one disinterested in erotics a n d a saintly person. 4 1 . T h e following six should be duly instructed viz. : A grateful person, a non-malicious one, an intelligent one, a m a n who has rendered help, a trustworthy person and a beloved one. 42. T h e B r a h m a n (Vedas) should be gifted to these and to others together w h a t has already been mentioned (viz. P u r ā n a etc. Facing the north, one should begin the Vedic study after 1 performing Ācamana a n d remaining self-controlled. 43. After touching his feet and glancing at the face of the preceptor, the disciple shall say adhisva bho (Recite, O sir) . He shall indicate "cessation" by using the word iti a n d should stop there. 44. W h e n t h e disciple is favourably seated, sanctified by Pavitras a n d rendered holy through three Prānāyāmas, he deserves the.Omkāra. 45. A B r ā h m a n a should duly repeat the Pranava at the end. A B r ā h m a n a should always perform the Vedic study with the palms joined in reverence. 1.

V V . 4 2 f f . describe h a w t h e t e a c h i n g w o r k w a s d o n e i n those d a y s .


405

I I . 14.46-52

46. T h e Vedas constitute the eternal 'Eye' of all living beings. ( T h e B r ā h m a n a should recite the Vedas everyday. Otherwise he slips a n d falls off from Brahminhood. ~47V' He who recites the rk M a n t r a s everyday, pro­ pitiates the deities as if by the offerings of milk Āhutis. T h e contented Devas delight him for ever by granting him his wishes. 48-49. He who regularly recites Yajus M a n t r a s pro­ pitiates the deities as if by means of offering of curds. He who recites Sāman verses, everyday, propitiates (the deities as if) by m e a n s of the Āhutis of clarified butter. He who recites the Atharvāñgiras verses, propitiates the deities everyday as if by means of oblations of honey. He who reads the Vedāñgas a n d the P u r ā n a s , propitiates devas through m e a t . 50T A self-controlled person following the injunctions regarding daily religious duties should, after going to the forest a n d in the vicinity of water (a river, lake e t c . ) , continuously, recite the Gāyatrī M a n t r a with concentration of m i n d . 1 * 5 1 . Recitation of the Gāyatrī M a n t r a for one thousand times is the most excellent, for one h u n d r e d times is the m e d i u m a n d for ten times is the m i n i m u m . O n e should always m u t t e r Gāyatrī. This is declared as the Japa-Tajña (sacrifice in the form of Japa). 52. T h e lord weighed once the Gā y at r ī M a n t r a a n d the Vedas by means of a balance. On one side was the Gāyatrī M a n t r a a n d on the other side were the four Vedas.

1.

VV.

50-58

contain instructions

about

the

M a n t r a a n d its i m p o r t a n c e . W h y this p a r t i c u l a r verse c a m e t o b e v a l u e d s o m u c h even guess.

before

the

RV

calls i t m o t h e r o f t h e

(Vedamāia). N a t u r a l l y B r ā h m a n a , S ū t r a , S m r t i a n d P u r ā n a eulogising

it.

The

bhuvah svah (suvah) om tat savitur varenyam e t c . Japa

and

not

the

other

the Gāyatri ( I I I . 62.10)

B r ā h m a n a period, is anybody's

B u t even t h e A t h a r v a V e d a ( X I X . 71-1)

c o m p e t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r in

of

Japa in

KP

as t h e

works

regards Gāyatri

are :

Vedas as

om

Mantra

if

bhūh for

c o m b i n a t i o n s o f vyāhrlis a n d padas given b y Apas­

t a m b a a n d others. * D u e t o oversight o f t h e P r i n t e r , t h e

Veńkt. Text has omitted the N o .

51 a n d has printed Verse No 51 as 52 a n d the end.

mistake i s c a r r i e d o n t o t h e


406

Kūrma Purina

53. He shall first recite Orhkāra and thereafter t h e Vyāhrtis. Thereafter, he shall recite the Gāyatrī M a n t r a with full faith a n d great concentration. 54. T h e three eternal great Vyāhrtis, " B h ū h , Bhuvah, S v a h " originated in the former K a l p a . T h e y quell all inauspiciousness. 55. T h e three Vyāhrtis in their order are regarded as follows : (a) the P r a d h ā n a , Purusa a n d K ā l a . (b) Visnu, B r a h m a a n d Maheśvara, (c) Sattva, Rajas a n d T a m a s G u n a s . 56. O m k ā r a is t h a t great Brahman, Sāvitrī (i.e. G ā y a t r ī ) Is the imperishable one. This M a n t r a is of great potentiality. It is cited to be the essence of all essences. ^——57. Strictly observing the vow of celibacy, he who under­ standing the m e a n i n g of the M a n t r a , repeats Sāvitrī ( t h e Gāyatrī M a n t r a ) attains the greatest of goals. 58. Gāyatrī is the m o t h e r of the Vedas. Gāyatrī is the sanctifier of the worlds. T h e r e is no greater J a p a ( M a n t r a for the purpose of repetition) t h a n the Gāyatrī. After realising this, one is liberated. 59. T h e rite of Vedopākarman (inaugural ceremony of the academic year) is to be performed on the full M o o n day of the m o n t h of Śrāvana. Excellent Brāhmanas, it m a y be performed on the full m o o n day in the m o n t h of Asādha or B h ā d r a p a d a as well. 60. A B r ā h m a n a should a b a n d o n the village and the city for a period of two a n d a half months. Observing celibacy he should study the Vedas, seated in a clean place, with full concentration and purity of the mind. 61-62. (?) O Brāhmanas, the external utsarjana(ritualistic conclusion) of the Chandas (Vedas a n d metres) should be performed in the m o n t h of Pausa. Or it m a y be performed on the first day of the bright half of the m o n t h of M ā g h a in the forenoon. O Brāhmanas, the Vedas and the metres are to be propitiated in their respective constellations. A m a n shall propitiate the V e d ā ń g a s a n d the Purānas in the dark half of the m o n t h . 63. Persons studying the Vedas as well as those w h o


407

II.14.64-71a 1

teach t h e m should avoid the AnadhySya d a y (holidays) (i.e. they shall not recite the Vedas on those days) as follows. 64-66a. Prajāpati has mentioned that the following occasions must be considered untimely for studies (till the next d a y ) " viz. at night if the wind blows with audible sound a n d d u r i n g the d a y if columns of dust are raised : if there is lightning, t h u n d e r a n d rainfall, if there is subversion of great comets. 6§b-67a. If there is t h e loud sound of hurricane, if there is an e a r t h q u a k e a n d w h e n the luminaries are eclipsed, one should know t h a t these occasions are for discontinuation (i.e. Vedic studies should be stopped) till the next d a y even in t h e rainy season. 67b-68a. If, after (sacrificial) fires have been kindled, there is the ( r o a r i n g sound of) t h u n d e r a n d flashes of t h e lightning, there will be cessation of t h e Vedic studies till there is light (visibility). If this occurs out of season (anrtau), there should be complete stoppage of studies t h a t day ( ? ) . 68b-69a. For those w h o a r e desirous of religious merits a n d expertise (mastery over the subject), complete cessation of studies, b o t h in the villages a n d towns, is advised when putrid smell prevails. 69b-70a. ( T h e discontinuation of Vedic studies is prescribed) when a dead body lies in the village, in the vicinity of a Vrsala (an o u t c a s t e ) , d u r i n g t h e (public) feasting (v.l. wailing) _and in a crowd of people. 70b-71a. O n e should not even mentally think of (Vedic studies) in water, at dead of night, while discharging urine, 1.

V V . 63-84 discuss t h e anadhyāya d a y s i.e. t h e

days

on

which

new

p o r t i o n o f t h e V e d a s h o u l d n o t b e t a u g h t . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n does n o t a p p l y n o n - V e d i c texts like V e d ā ń g a s , I t i h ā s a , P u r ā n a s

and

Dharma-śāstra

to

(verse

82b-83a b e l o w ) T h e subject i s discussed

extensively

in

the

Dharma

1.3.94 t o 1.3.11), G r h y a (e.g. Ś ā ŕ i k h ā y a n a I V . 7 ) S u t r a s , I V . 102-128) a n d P u r ā n a s (e.g.

NP.

p r e t t y l o n g . T h i s cessation o f V e d i c (Aśauca)

I.

(e.g.

Apastamba

S m r t i s e.g.

studies

was

due

to personal

like

storms.

But

n o t affect m u c h t h e progress o f studies a s t h e restrictions w e r e n o t

is

impurity

a n d i m p u r i t y o f t h e p l a c e ( T a i t . A r . I I . 15) a n d t i m e like

lithis, occasions like eclipse, n a t u r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s to n o n - V e d i c studies.

Manu

2 5 . 4 5 - 5 7 ) . T h e list o f h o l i d a y s

certain

they

did

applicable


4 a

Kūrma Purāna

a n d faeces, one is defiled by r e m n a n t s of food a n d one who has p a r t a k e n of S r ā d d h a food. 71b-72a. A learned B r ā h m a n a should not repeat Vedic M a n t r a s for these days. After accepting the invitation for t h e Ekoddisfaśrāddha (funeral d i n n e r ) , when the king has Sūtaka (i.e. impurity due to birth or d e a t h of relatives) a n d w h e n there is R ā h u ' s Sūtaka (i.e. Eclipse), he shall not recite Vedic passages for three days. , ——*"72b-73a. As long as the viscidity and smell of the Ekoddisfa Śrāddha (the funeral dinner for one forbear) in the big body of the (v.l. l e a r n e d ) B r ā h m a n a remains, he shall not recite Vedic m a n t r a s . A person lying down or keeping the legs lifted up"or sitting down w i t h a cloth girt round the knees shall not repeat the Vedas. ~73h. A B r ā h m a n a should not study the Vedas in a pine position or sitting with feet raised or sitting with a cloth girt round the knees. 74-75a. O n e shall not study the Vedas after eating m e a t or the food offered by persons with impurity. W h e n there is fog, w h e n the arrows are discharged a n d during t h e two Sandhyās ( d a w n a n d dusk), on the new m o o n day, full moon day, Caturdaśī (fourteenth) and Astamī (eighth) days, Vedic M a n t r a s are not repeated (for study p u r p o s e ) . 75b-76a. T h e cessation of Vedic studies for three days is prescribed at the time of Upākarma (beginning of t h e academic session) and Utsarga, a n d for one day on the Asfakā days and last d a y (lit. n i g h t ) of t h e seasons. 76b-77a. T h e r e are three Asfaka days mentioned by learned m e n . T h e y fall on the eighth day during the d a r k half of the months of Mārgaśīrsa, P a u s a a n d M ā g h a . (The Astakā days are Anadhyāya d a y s ) . 77b-78a. O n e should not carry on Vedic study in the shade of the following trees viz. : Ślesmātaka (cordia Latifolia), Śālmali (silk-cotton), M a d h u k a (Baslia Latifolia), K o v i d ā r a (Bauhinia Variegula) a n d K a p i t t h a (Feronia E l e p t h a n t u m ) . 78b-79a. T h e r e is impurity for three days when a colleague or a fellow student or the preceptor dies. These days t h a t a r e called Anadhy&yas are holes (vulnerable points) for Brāhmanas.


II.14.79b-89

409

79b-81a. T h e Rāksasas attack at those points. Hence, one shall avoid these (Anadhyāyas). In regard to Nitya rites a n d the worship of the Sandhyās, U p ā k a r m a (initial ceremony of Vedic studies after the m o n s o o n ) , for completing a performance already commenced a n d Homa recitals, there is no Anadhyāya. 81b-82a. W h e n the wind is very strongly blowing on the Asjaka days, one m a y recite one M a n t r a out of the Rgveda or Yajurveda or Sāmaveda. 82b-83. T h e r e is no Anadhyāya in the case of the study of Vedāńgas, Itihāsas, Purānas a n d other D h a r m a Śāstras. But P a r v a n days should be avoided. T h u s the holy rites and duties of the religious students have been succinctly explained. 84a. Formerly, this had been recounted by god B r a h m a to the sages of purified souls. 84b-85a. O B r ā h m a n a , a person w h o does not learn the Vedas b u t continues his efforts in other fields in foolish. He is o u t of t h e Vedic fold. He should not be talked to by the twiceborn people. 85b-86a. An excellent B r ā h m a n a will n o t be contented merely by reading the Vedic texts. O n e w h o is devoid of practice (in accordance with the tenets of t h e Vedas) becomes dejected a n d dispirited like a cow stuck up in m u d . 86b-87a. If the disciple wishes to r e m a i n with his teacher for ever, he should practise Yoga and serve him till the death, for he may go to the forest a n d perform H o m a into the fire, as per prescribed m e t h o d . 1 87b-88. He who has duly learned the Vedic texts b u t does n o t p o n d e r over the meanings of the passage, is blind. He is like a Śudra. He does not understand the real meanings of the words. 89. W i t h absolute faith in t h e V e d a , he should always study V e d a with concentration of mind. Strictly adhering to 1. V V . 86-89 refer to life-long celibates. Ś a b a r a on J a i m i n i 1.3.3 remarks t h a t such perpetual celibacy is n o t approved by Śruti. But Visnu as ( q u o t e d b y S M C I . P . 63) allows i t t o a b n o r m a l p e o p l e w h o a r e n o t e n t i t l e d t o V e d i c rites.


410

Kūrma Purāna

(the procedure of) Bhasma-Snāna (smearing of the holy ashes all over the b o d y ) , he should be always self controlled and study especially Sāvitri ( t h e Gāyatrī M a n t r a ) Śatarudriya a n d t h e ancillaries of the Veda (like phonetics, prosody, g r a m m a r a n d others). 90. These injuctions are great and ancient ones. T h e y have been well recounted in t h e Vedic treatises. T h i s p r o c e d u r e is ancient a n d is in perfect accord with w h a t is given in t h e Vedas. This is what lord Svāyambhuva M a n u explained in days of old, when he was requested by great a n d excellent sages. 9 1 . He w h o dedicates himself to Iśvara a n d performs all duties in accordance with the injunctions shall ward off all t h e shackles of delusion and attain immortality. He shall attain t h e auspicious region devoid of ailment.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN The Duties of The Householder1 Vyāsa said : I. O excellent Brāhmanas, a B r ā h m a n a should obtain (i.e. learn well), one, two or all the four Vedas. After studying t h e m a n d comprehending the meanings, he should perform t h e ablution (signifying the conclusion of the period of religious studentship). 1.

T h e s t a g e o f h o u s e h o l d e r b e i n g t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e subsistence o f

o t h e r āśramas (stages) in life, h a s

b e e n c o n s i d e r e d as t h e best A ś r a m a at

least since t h e old S ū t r a p e r i o d ( G a u t a m a I I I . 3 , M a n u I I I . 77-78, M b h . Ś ā n t i . 2 7 0 . 6 - 7 ) . H e n c e t h e d u t i e s (dharmas) o f h o u s e h o l d e r s a r e discussed i n d e t a i l s i n S m r t i s , P u r ā n a s a n d digests o n D h a r m a - ś ā s t r a . F o r e x a m p l e v i d e M a n u I V . 3 3 ff. Y ā j ñ a - V a l k y a 1.96-127, N P .

I.

26.3-27,

VP.

I I I . 9.7-16,

P d . P . S v a r g a 54.2-42, S M C , P a r ā ś a r a - M ā d h a v a ( ā c ā r a k a n d a ) a n d o t h e r s .


411

\ II.15.2-10

2. After giving the fees to the preceptor, he should perform 1 t h e (concluding) ablution with his (guru's) permission. O n e who is self-possessed and has performed all the rites (prescribed vows of B r a h m a c a r y a ) becomes capable a n d hence deserves the the holy ablution. 3. He should hold the staff of b a m b o o . He should w e a r the undercloth and the u p p e r garment. He should have t w o 2 sacred threads, a water-pot ( K a m a n d a l u ) with water. 4. He should have an umbrella, an immaculately clean t u r b a n , sandals a n d shoes a n d golden earing a n d the Veda. He should be cleanly shaven, with nails clipped a n d thus shall be scrupulously clean. 5. He should continuously be engaged in the self-study of t h e Vedas. He should not wear garland outside. A B r ā h m a n a shall not wear a red garland except t h a t of K ā ñ c a n a flowers. 6. He should wear white garments every day. He should use perfumes and appear neat and pleasing. If he has enough means, he should not wear old dirty clothes. 7. He should not wear red clothes or those of gaudycolours. N o r should he use the following things used by others : T h e cloth, the water-pot, leather shoes, garland sandals. 8. ( H e should not wear the followingused by others, viz. r the sacred thread, ornaments as well as the skin of a black antelope. He should not wear the garment in the apasavya way ( o n the right shoulder and below the left arm) nor should he wear a loathsome garments. 9. He should duly m a r r y a girl similar to him (in caste ?) of auspicious characteristics, beauty and features and suitable to him, she should not have a n y defect in her reproductory organs. 10.

A B r ā h m a n a should accept as wife a girl who is not

T h e highest c o m p l i m e n t p a i d t o t h i i A ś r a m a i s b y kāras G a u t a m a I I I . 1 & emphatically tvācāryāh) 1.

state

that

35 a n d Baudhāyana this

is

the

only

the

(Dh. S.

one

real

ancient

Sūtra-

II.6.29.42-43)

Aśrama

wha

(aikāśramyam

A ś v a l ā y a n a G r . S . I I I . 9.4.

2 . W . 3-8 d e a l w i t h Snātaka-dharmas ( d u t i e s o f those w h o c o m p l e t e d t h e i r studies a n d desire to be h o u s e h o l d e r s vide M a n u IV 34 ff.


412

Kūrma Purāna j 1

born in the gotra of his m o t h e r and should be b o r n in the gotra dissimilar to his sage (his gotra) a n d who is endowed with purity (cleanliness) a n d good character. 11. He should go u n t o his wife only on those nights (sanctioned by scripture) after the monthly menses till the conception of a son. He shall scrupulously avoid the forbidden days. 12He shall observe the vow of celibacy a n d control over his senses on t h e sixth, eighth, twelfth, fourteenth a n d fifteenth days of the l u n a r fortnight. 13. He should m a i n t a i n the Āvasathya fire (i.e. one of the five sacred fires to be kept in the house a n d used in sacrifices). He shall perform H o m a in the sacrificial fire. A S n ā t a k a (house-holder) should observe all holy vows. 14. He should actively perform everyday his duty as ordained by the Vedas. By not doing so, he immediately becomes fallen a n d goes to terrible hells. 15. P u r e in b o d y a n d mind, he should daily practise t h e recitation of the Vedas. He should perform the holy rites as mentioned in the Grhyasūtras as well as t h e Sandhyā worship. 16. He should cultivate friendship with persons of equal a n d superior status. He should always worship Iśvara. He shall a t t a i n t h e blessings of deities. He should bedeck his wife with ornaments. 17. He should not loudly proclaim his religious acts nor should he conceal his sinful activities; he should always do those things t h a t increase his welfare and be sympathetic towards all living beings. 2 18. He should always perform activities a n d speech suitable to a n d becoming in accordance with his age, duties, learning, nobility of birth, intellect a n d the Vedic injunctions. 19. He should resort to t h a t way of life which has been invariably followed by good men, a n d ordained by t h e Śrutis a n d the Smrtis. He should not wish for anything contrary to it. 20. T h a t p a t h through which one's fathers a n d grand­ fathers have gone should be followed by one. T h a t is the p a t h 1. T h i s shows Mādhyandin. 2.

that

the

author

is

probably

a

In fact VV. 17 o n w a r d form a p a r t of Sadācāra.

north-Indian

or

a


11.15.21-29

413

of t h e good. Going by t h a t p a t h , one shall cross the ocean of worldly existence. 2 1 . He should regularly recite passages from ( o n e ' s b r a n c h of) t h e Vedas. He should always wear the sacred t h r e a d . O n e w h o is truthful in speech and who has conquered anger, deserves to realise B r a h m a n . 22. He who is interested in the performance of ablutions a n d Sandhyā-prayers everyday, who is devoted to BrahmaYajña r i t e ; the householder who is not malicious, who is soft a n d self-controlled, flourishes in heaven after d e a t h . 2 3 . A householder devoid of passion, fear and fury, who is free from covetousness a n d delusion, who performs Śrāddhas a n d who is always engaged in the Japa of the Śāvitrī M a n t r a , is liberated. 24. He who is engaged in the welfare of his parents, is interested in the well-being of cows a n d Brāhmanas, has his sen­ ses subjected, performs Yajñas and is a devotee of Devas, is honoured in t h e Brahmaloka. 25. He should always be engaged in the realisation of the three aims of life (Virtue, love and w e a l t h ) , should perform worship of the deities; he shall be p u r e in the mind a n d body a n d bow to the gods everyday. 26. O n e cannot be called a Grhastha (householder) merely because one has a house to live in. He who temperamentally always shares everything with others, is endowed with forgiveness a n d mercy, deserves to be called a householder. 27. These are the characteristic features of a B r ā h m a n a viz: forbearance, mercy, perfect knowledge, truthfulness, m e n t a l control a n d control over the sense-organs a n d interest in t h e spiritual knowledge. 28. An excellent B r ā h m a n a specially shall n o t err from all these. He should perform his duties in accordance with his c a p a c i t y ; a n d shall avoid all prohibited and censured activities. 29. No one need entertain a n y doubt for the fact t h a t if a householder, eschewing the confused state of delusion, attains the excellent Yoga, he is liberated from the bondage of Samsāra.


414

Kūrma Purāna

30. Forbearance is the ability to e n d u r e the defects originating from others' anger, such as censure, transgression, defiance, violence, imprisonment a n d killing. 3 1 . T h e sages say t h a t kindness is t h a t mercifulness d u e to friendship (gentleness of h e a r t ) in regard to miseries of others in the same way as (in the case of) one's own miseries. It is a direct means of D h a r m a (piety). 32. T h e actual retention in memory of the fourteen lores should be known as Vijñana (perfect knowledge. It is thereby that rjhanna_fjcdirjshes. ~~~ 33. IXafter duly studing the Vedas a n d comprehending the meanings, one is averse to religious activities, that {which he has acquired) is not considered to be Vijñāna (perfect knowledge). 34. O n e conquers the worlds through Satya (Truth) ; T r u t h is the excellent region. Learned m e n explain that the n a r r a t i o n in the same order in which something has happened is truthfulness. 35. Dama is the subjugation of the body, soma originates from the clarity of intellect. Adhyātma (spirituality should be known as that imperishable a t t a i n m e n t which one does not regret. 36. T h a t learning whereby the supreme lord M a h ā d e v a himself is known, is glorified as J ñ ā n a (knowledge). 37. T h e learned person who is absolutely devoted to him, wise, always free from anger a n d pure, is interested in (the five) " g r e a t sacrifices, becomes one with that supreme Deity. 38. O n e should m a i n t a i n one's physical body with great effort as it is the abode of D h a r m a . W i t h o u t one's physical body, R u d r a , the greatest lord, cannot be known by m e n . 39. A B r ā h m a n a should invariably be engaged in D h a r m a (Virtue), Artha (Wealth) a n d K a m a (Love). He should never mentally conceive of that type of love or wealth which is devoid of D h a r m a . 40. Even if one perishes d u e to practice of Virtue, one should never take to A d h a r m a . D h a r m a is the Lord himself. It is the goal of all creatures. 4 1 . O n e shall always be pleasing to all living beings, he should never think of doing acts of injury against others. O n e


415

31.15.42—16.4

should never censure the Vedas nor the deities. O n e should not even associate with those people (who do so). i 42. T h e p u r e B r ā h m a n a who invariably reads this c h a p ­ ter on D h a r m a , teaches it or narrates it ( t o others) is honoured i n the Brahmaloka.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN The Duties of the House Holder1 Rules of Good Conduct Vyāsa said : 1. O n e should not injure any living being. On no occasion should he speak falsehood. O n e shall not speak un­ p a l a t a b l e a n d unwholesome things. O n e should by no means be a thief. 2. T h e person who steals properties of others even if t h e y be a b l a d e of grass, a l u m p of clay, a p l a n t or water, falls into the hell. 3. O n e should not accept monetary gifts from a fallen king, Śūdra or a n y other person. A learned m a n should avoid b e i n g a suppliant in front of a blameworthy person. 4. O n e should never be a beggar; (if one has to beg) one should not beg the same person twice. This evil-minded beggar will deprive h i m of his life there-by.

1 . T h e ' d u t i e s ' o f h o u s e h o l d e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n n u m e r o u s works o n D h a r m a - Ś ā s t r a — D h a r m a S u t r a s (e.g. A p a s t a m b a I I . 1-11, V a s i s t h a V I I I . 1-17, X I . 1-48), S m r t i s (e.g. M a n u I V , Y ā j ñ a v a l k y a 1.96-127), Mbh-Anuśisana c h . 97, P u r ā n a s ( e . g . Bh. P . V I I . C h . 11, X I . C h . 17, N P . I . C h . 4 3 ) a n d digests ( e . g . S M C - I . p p . 88-282, S m r t y a r t h a s ā r a , p p . 18-48). A n u m b e r of these verses p r e s c r i b i n g ' D o ' s ' a n d ' D o n ' t s ' a r e a c t u a l l y subhījitās c u r r e n t a m o n g t h e a n c i e n t I n d i a n s a s a n u m b e r o f these a r e c o m m o n t o P a l i a n d P r a k r i t s . T h e s e verses shed light o n t h e customs, m a n n e r s , prejudices e t c . of t h e p e o p l e of those times. T h e D a i l y duties XVIII.

(Āhnika)

of

a

householder

a r e described in C h .


416

Kūrma PurSna

5. O excellent Brāhmanas, he should not be one w h o misappropriates especially the properties of t h e deity. Even in emergency, he should never take away the wealth of a Brāhmana. 6. T h e y say that poison is not dangerous b u t the p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a or t h a t of the deity is the .real poison. H e n c e one should scrupulously avoid these assets. 7. M a n u , the Prajāpati, has said t h a t the taking of a n y of these things, though not handed over to one ( b y the o w n e r ) , is not stealing viz. flowers, greens, water, firewood, roots, fruits a n d grass. 8-9. Flowers c a n be taken by B r ā h m a n a s at t h e time of the worship of the Lord. If they are taken without permission, they should not be taken from one single person. A sensible m a n should take away grass, firewood, fruits a n d flowers openly. T h e y must be taken only for the purpose of a religious rite. Otherwise he will face downfall. 10. O Brāhmanas, if deeply afflicted by hunger on t h e way while travelling, a handful of gingelly seeds, green gram, barley a n d other articles m a y be taken (even without the per­ mission of the owner) by persons knowing D h a r m a . T h e y should not do so otherwise. This is the established conventional practice. 11-12. U n d e r the pretext of a holy vow, one should not commit sins and perform holy rites. A B r ā h m a n a who conceals his sins by means of holy rites and depends on womenfolk a n d Śūdras, is despised here a n d hereafter by the expounders of the B r a h m a n . A V r a t a (holy rite) performed u n d e r a false pretext goes to the Rāksasas. 13. If a non-lińgin (a person who is not a Sannyāsin or Brahmacārin) maintains himself in t h e guise of a lińgin (ascetic) he shall incur the sins of those persons a n d shall be born as a lower a n i m a l . 14. T h e religious hypocrites a n d impostors are the worst sinners in the world. T h e y are the destroyers of D h a r m a . T h e fruit of their action is t h a t they sink into sins immediately. 15. O n e should not even verbally revere a n d honour t h e heretics, those who indulge in wrong actions, those who per­ form black magic, the Paftcarātras a n d the Pāśupatas.


11.16.16-27

417

16. O n e should not even mentally think of those people w h o censure the Vedas, Devas a n d the B r ā h m a n a s . 17. T h e creature (person) who officiates in their sacrifice, has m a t r i m o n i a l alliance with them, who talks to them a n d who stays along with them faces downfall. H e n c e , he should avoid it scrupulously. 18. Incurring the displeasure of the preceptor is a crore of times worse t h a n incurring the displeasure of Devas. Censuring of perfect knowledge a n d atheism is a crore of times worse t h a n t h a t . 19. Those families which become devoid of D h a r m a through (sale-purchase of) cows, (paid service of) deities, a n d priesthood, agriculture, king's service sink to a lower status. 20. Families decline in prosperity through these evil activities viz.—contracting despicable marriages, non-perform­ ance of holy rites, non-study of the Vedas as well as by slighting the B r ā h m a n a s . 21. A family perishes immediately d u e to uttering false­ hoods, committing adultery, eating forbidden foodstuffs a n d by not performing the holy rites enjoined by the Śrutis. 22. I n d e e d , a family perishes quickly by making chari­ table gifts to those who are not well-read (in the Vedas) as well as to Vrsalas (Śūdras), who do not strictly follow the regu­ lations of the conduct of life. 2 3 . O n e shall never stay in a village surrounded by unrighteous persons or afflicted by m a n y pestilences. O n e shall never stay in the kingdom of a Ś ū d r a , or in a place inhabited by heretics. 24. A B r ā h m a n a should not stay in a n y o t h e r place except in the land between the mountains H i m a v ā n a n d the V i n d h y a a n d between the Eastern and Western oceans. 25. A B r ā h m a n a m a y reside in a land naturally frequent­ ed by black-antelope or inundated by holy a n d well-known rivers. 26. An excellent B r ā h m a n a shall not stay anywhere else except within half a Kroia of the holy river (1 K r o ś a = 3 K m ) . He shall not stay near the village of the Śūdras. 27. He should not live in the same place with t h a t of fallen castes, Cāndālas, Pukkasas, foolish fellows, arrogant


418 persons, Śūdras Antyāvasāyins.

Kūrma Purāna and the people of the lowliest castes called

28-29. T h e following eleven defects caused by mingling of the castes are called sins of intermixture (Sāthkarya Dosas) viz.—sharing the same bed, sharing a common seat, sitting in the same row, sharing of t h e same vessel, partaking of the cooked food together, presiding over the sacrifices, teaching, marriage alliance, taking of food together, studying together, a n d jointly presiding over the sacrifices. 30. Even by staying near-by the sin is transmitted from one m a n to another. Hence a sensible m a n shall scrupulously avoid intermingling of the castes. 3 1 . If the people sitting in the same row do not touch one another and if ashes m a r k their boundary, there is no Saihkara defect. 32. T h e row c a n be separated by means of these six :— fire, ashes, water, door, pillar and a p a t h w a y . 33. O n e should not pursue enmity t h a t ends in sorrow, nor indulge in argument, nor in back-biting. Nor should one communicate to others if a cow is grazing in another m a n ' s field ( !) 34. O n e shall not have social intercourse with a person having the impurity d u e to b i r t h . O n e shall not touch the vulner­ able points of others. O n e shall not indicate and mention to others the eclipse of the sun n o r the rainbow nor the fire (con­ suming) the dead body. 35. A learned m a n shall never indicate and mention the m o o n . No m a n should ever incur the antagonism of the majority at the same time. 36. O n e should not do u n t o others what is unfavourable ( o r displeasing) to himself. He should not mention the T i t h i ( t h e serial n u m b e r of t h a t day in a lunar fortnight) of the fortnight nor should he point out the constellations (?) 37. An excellent B r ā h m a n a should not speak to a w o m a n in her monthly course or to an unclean person. No one should prevent anything from being given to Devas, preceptors or Brāhmanas.


I I . 16.38-49

419

38. No one should praise himself. O n e should avoid censuring others. O n e should scrupulously avoid blaspheming Devas a n d the Vedas. 39. O great sages, no atonement is seen ordained in the scriptures in the case of a B r ā h m a n a who censures Devas, sages, B r ā h m a n a s or the Vedas. 40. If a m a n loudly decries or censures the preceptors, Devas or the Vedas, he shall be cooked in t h e hell R a u r a v a for hundreds of crores of K a l p a s a n d even m o r e . 4 1 . If anyone rebukes or censures, it is better t h a t one keeps quiet without saying anything by way of reply (and still better) he should close his ears a n d go away. He should not stop even to glance at them. 42. A sensible m a n should g u a r d t h e secrets of others a n d r e f r a i n j r o r n d i y u l g i p g them. He should never enter into a r g u m e n t with his own kinsmen. 43. O excellent Brāhmanas, no one should call a sinner either a sinner or a sinless person. (In either case) he will be equally guilty of sins such as t h a t of uttering falsehood. 44. T h e tears shed by those (innocent) persons w h o are falsely accused a n d so cry, destroy the sons a n d animals of those false accusers. 4 5 . A way of expiation is mentioned by good m e n in the cases of B r ā h m a n a slaughter, addiction to wine, stealing and committing adultery with the preceptor's wife. But there is no a t o n e m e n t for false accusation. 46. O n e should not see the rising sun or the moon with­ out cause. He should not see them setting, reflected in the water, stationed in the middle of the sky or u n d e r eclipse. 47. He should not see ( t h e sun or the m o o n ) covered with a cloth (i.e. screened b y a c l o t h ) , norreflected in a mirror. No one should even see a n a k e d w o m a n or a m a n . 48. No one should see anyone passing urine or discharg­ ing faeces or a couple in the act of copulation. No sensible m a n shall glance at the planets, the sun, the moon etc. while he is unclean.

j J <»,"i"A*

( 49. O n e should not glance at a fallen person (outcaste) a m a i m e d person, a C ā n d ā l a or a Person defiled by ucchisfa. If V


Kūrma Purāna

420

one is denied by Ucchisfa ( o r veiled) one should not glance a t others arrogantly. * 50. O n e should not touch a person w h o has touched a dead body. O n e should not look at the face of the angry p r e ­ ceptor. O n e should not see one's reflection in oil or w a t e r ; one should not touch one's wife d u r i n g dinner or while her limbs are exposed d u e to untying of k n o t ; one should not look at a m a d a n d elated person. 51. O n e should not take food along with one's wife. N o r should one look at one's own wife urinating, sneezing or yawning, nor shall one see h e r cosily seated at ease. 52. O n e should n o t look out one's own reflection in water;, one should not j u m p from one bank to a n o t h e r ; one should not j u m p across a deep p i t ; one should never tread over urine or stand on it. 53. O n e should not i m p a r t intellect (i.e. topics of lore) to a Śūdra. N o r shall these things be given to h i m v i z . — T h e Kriara (rice cooked with gingelly seeds), t h e milk-pudding, curds; n o r the leavings Ucchisfa), ghee, honey, black-antelope hide or Havis (sacrificial offerings). 54. Instructions regarding observance of holy vows should not be given to a S ū d r a : a learned m a n should not expound D h a r m a u n t o him. No one should submit to anger a n d avoid hatred a n d passion. 55. Covetousness a n d arrogance should be avoided. O n e should avoid ridiculing religious travels a n d scorning perfect knowledge. O n e should desist from haughtiness a n d delusion, fury a n d h a t r e d . 56. O n e should not inflict pain on anyone : one m a y however b e a t his son a n d disciple. O n e should never serve the m e a n a n d t h e base n o r should he serve sharp-witted persons. 57. O n e should not dishonour should scrupulously avoid dejectedness, ( o r should try to conceal one's miserable c o n d i t i o n ) , one should not fail to h o n o u r one w h o is not one's disciple ( ? ) , a learned m a n should not praise himself. 'veiled'.


I I . 16.58-68

421

58. O n e should not scribble on the ground with the nails; one shall not cohabit (or lie) with a cow ( ? ) ; one should not speak of (another river while bathing in one) river nor should he speak (in praise of) other mountains while resting on one m o u n t a i n (?) 59. O n e should not abandon a fellow traveller whether one stays with him overnight or n o t ; one should not enter water in the n u d e state; nor should he walk over fire. 60. O n e should not anoint the limbs with the oil left over after applying it over the h e a d ; one should not play with weapons or serpents; one should not touch (i.e. scrape) the private parts of one's body (with a w e a p o n ) . 61-62. (One shall not touch) the hairs on the private parts; one should not travel in the company of an uncultured fellow; one should not ( w a r m ) hands and feet in the fire, one should not indulge in unsteady act of the penis, belly a n d ears. O n e should not scratch oneself with nails. O n e should not drink water with palms joined together. 6 3 . O n e should not keep water (in tanks or rivers) with the leg or strike it with the h a n d ; one should not fell down fruits by hurling bricks or other fruits at them. 64-65. O n e should not learn the language (mode of speech) of the alien tribe; one should not d r a g a seat by means of the leg; one should not create dissension (among friends). O n e should not crack the finger joints or snap the fingers; one should not cut or scrape aimlessly. T h e sensible m a n should not thrash suddenly or aimlessly. O n e should not keep food on the lap while eating; one should not indulge in purposeless movements of the limbs. 66. O n e should neither dance, nor sing, n o r play on musical instruments. O n e should not scratch one's head with all the fingers joined together. 67. O n e should not try to propitiate the deities with worldly hymns or medicine; one should not play with dice; one should not rush against others for assaulting them (?) ; one should not urinate or discharge faeces into water. 68. O n e should not cohabit when defiled by Ucchisfa; one should not bathe in the n u d e : one should not read or touch one's head, while walking.


422

Kūrma Purina

69. O n e should not cut the hairs or nails by means of t h e teeth; one should not waken the sleeper. O n e should not bask in the early morning sun; one should avoid smoke arising from the dead body. 70. O n e should not sleep alone in an e m p t y a b o d e ; one should not bring shoes by oneself (with the h a n d s ? ) . O n e should not spit without reason; one should not cross the river by means of the arms. 71. A learned m a n should not wash legs with the legs; one should not w a r m legs in the fire; one should not wash (his feet) in a bellmetal vessel. 72. O n e should not extend his feet towards the idols of gods, the Brāhmanas or t h e cow, the wind, the fire, t h e precep­ tor, the Brahmins, t h e sun or t h e moon. 73. By no means should an unclean person go to bed, travel, study the Vedas, take food without b a t h i n g or set out from t h e house. 74. O n e should avoid the following during the two Sandhyis (dawn a n d dusk) as well as at m i d d a y :—sleeping, study of the Vedas, travelling, excrement, taking food a n d walking. 75. A B r ā h m a n a defiled by Ucchisfa shall not touch cows, Brāhmanas a n d the fire, with t h e h a n d , nor should he touch cooked rice or the divine idol with the foot. 76. No unclean person should circumambulate the fire: nor should he glorify the gods or the sages; one should not enter deep waters; one shall not hold fire on one side ( ? ) 77. O n e should not drink water by lifting it up with t h e left h a n d a n d nor shall he drink with the m o u t h directly; o n e shall not reply (when impure) without performing the Ācamana r i t e ; nor should one discharge semen virile into the water. 78. O n e should not cast into water any other thing sme­ ared with Amedhya (filth, rubbish), blood or poisons. O n e should not cross a river; one should not indulge in sexual intercourse in water. 79. O n e should not chop off the trees in a monastery; one should not spit into w a t e r ; one should not tread on bone, ashes, skulls, hair, thorn, burning charcoal or dry balls of cowdung.


I I . 16.80-89

423

80. No sensible m a n should cross the b u r n i n g fire, nor should he keep it anywhere b e n e a t h ; No sensible m a n should kick it with the leg nor blow it with the m o u t h . 8 1 . O n e should not descend into the well; an unclean person should never look into a well; one should not throw fire into fire, nor extinguish it with water. 82. No one should himself tell others about the distress or d e a t h of a friend; one should not utilise for sale any article or merchandise which is unsaleable ( d u e to its q u a l i t y ) . 83. No sensible m a n , if unclean, should kindle fire by means of wind blown from the m o u t h ; He should plough (i.e. transgress*) a land in a holy centre, near water or on the border (of a village ? ) . 84. O n e shall not break an earlier agreement accom­ panied by a promise; no one should rouse up animals, serpents or birds (?) 85. O n e should not inconvenience others through water­ sheds etc., one should not cause the artisans etc. to do great jobs a n d then forsake them. O n e should keep the doors of the house shut in the morning a n d in the evening to prevent the beggars. 86. O n e should avoid outside (over his dress) garland, alien scents, dining in the company of one's wife, argument with quarrels a n d entry by t h e b a d way ? 87. A B r ā h m a n a should not stand up while eating. A sensible m a n should not spend m u c h time prattling a n d laugh­ ing. O n e should not touch the fire with the h a n d ; one should not stay too long under water. 88. O n e should not kindle the fire by generating the wind with a wing, a winnowing basket or the h a n d . He should blow the air with his m o u t h a n d kindle the fire. ( I t is said in t h e Vedas) t h a t Agni was born of his m o u t h . 89. O n e shall not speak to another m a n ' s wife. No B r ā h m a n a should perform the Yajña on behalf of one not worthy of it. O n e should not enter an assembly singly. O n e should avoid a crowd of B r ā h m a n a s ; one should never go to the shrine of a deity in an anti-clockwise direction. • F t . n o t e 7 in t h e V e n k . T e x t .


424

Kūrma Purāna

90. O n e should not fan with the cloth, one should not sleep in a temple; one should hot undertake a journey alone; nor should he travel with unrighteous people. 9 1 . O n e should not undertake a journey in the company of persons defiled by sickness, or of Śūdras or of fallen m e n (out­ caste) . O n e should never travel without shoes or without taking water and other requisites. 92. At night one should not travel in the company of one's enemy. O n e should not travel without a waterpot. O n e should not go between fires, Brāhmanas, cows etc. 93. O excellent Brāhmanas, o n e should not transgress a w o m a n longing for sexual intercourse. O n e should not censure Siddhas, Yogins a n d ascetics of good qualities. 94. In the temple a n d in t h e presence of devas, one should not wantonly tread on t h e shadow of the Brāhmanas a n d t h e cows. 95. O n e should not let one's own shadow to be tread on by sick persons, fallen people or others. O n e should never stand on b u r n i n g coal or ashes or hair or similar things. 96. O Brāhmanas, one should avoid the dust particles rising from the broom and the water that remains in a pot after washing clothes or taking b a t h . Forbidden foodstuffs should not be eaten nor should one drink impotable water.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN 1

Decision about Acceptable and Prohibited Food Vyāsa said :

1. A B r ā h m a n a should not eat food offered by a Śūdra whether out of delusion or otherwise. He who eats it, except in an emergency, is born as a Śūdra. 1. G r e a t i m p o r t a n c e h a s b e e n a t t a c h e d t o p u r i t y o f food since a n c i e n t t i m e s . C h ā n d o g y a U p . (vii. 26.2) emphasizes t h e p u r i t y o f food a s i t i s conducive to the r e m e m b r a n c e or meditation of the A t m a n . T h e Smrtis deal extensively w i t h this t o p i c . S o d o M b h . Anuśisana chs. 135 a n d 136 a n d P u r ā n a s like B m . P . 221-109-112 Bv. P . I . 2 7 . 3-45 a n d o t h e r s .


425

II.17.2-6

2. T h e B r ā h m a n a who partakes of the condemned food of a Śūdra for six months becomes a Śūdra even while he is alive, a n d after d e a t h he becomes a dog (v.l. as a Ś ū d r a ) . 3. O leading sages, a person is reborn as a B r ā h m a n a , a Ksatriya, a Vaiśya or a Śūdra according as the food offered by these is still in his belly when he dies, (e.g. he dies with the food of a B r ā h m a n a in his stomach, he is reborn as a B r ā h m a n a , so o n ) . 4. O n e should avoid the cooked food of six groups of people viz. : the actor, the dancer, the carpenter, the smith, a gang of rogues a n d the prostitute. 1

^ J^,

5. O n e should avoid food offered by an oil-monger, ' washerman, thief a n d the vendor of spirituous liquors. He should avoid t h e food of a minstrel, a blacksmith or an impure person. • • -—— , 6. He should avoid the food offered by a potter, a painter, a usurer, a fallen m a n , a goldsmith, a dancer, a hunter, an imprisoned fellow or an ailing person. / fi\jt' n ''/ Vrddha-Hārita XI. (P.

241)

122-123 a n d Bs.

P . as q u o t e d

prohi­

articles:

1.

Jāti-duffa ' i n h e r e n t l y

2.

Kriyā-dusfa 'polluted by a c t i o n '

or by n a t u r e p o l l u t e d ' e.g. e.g. served w i t h

onions, bare

garlic.

hands,

seen

by a d o g or an out-caste. 3. e.g.

Kāla-duffa—'polluted by

passage

of or i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s

stale food, e a t i n g d u r i n g solar or 4.

Sarhsarga-dus

(a

'polluted

by

of

time."

l u n a r eclipse. contact'

e.g.

contacted

with

a

dog,

insects or w i n e . 5.

Sahrllekha 'disgusting to t h e

6.

Parigraha-duffa ' p o l l u t e d

p e r s o n ' e.g.

m i n d ' e.g.

d u e to

its

faeces.

belonging

to

an

undesirable

a n out-caste.

T h e i n t a k e of ' p o l l u t e d ' food b e i n g a sin, t h e topic

is t r e a t e d in

details

b y D h a r m a - Ś ā s t r a - writers o f o l d . ( v i d e K P . 17-15b a n d 16a b e l o w ) . T h e K P does n o t d e a l exhaustively w i t h this t o p i c . 1. That

food

V V . 4-15 give t h e list of is Parigraha-duffa

as

persons food f r o m w h o m is n o t a c c e p t a b l e .

explained

above. T h e

belief was

that the

e a t e r of t h a t food eats up t h e sins also of t h e giver ( v i d e v. 16a b e l o w ) . We

find

this belief a n d

the

S u t r a s of A p a s t a m b a ( I . 6. 18. 16-33), like M a n u I V 205-220 Y ā j . I . 160-165.

list

of

such

polluters in the D h a r m a

V a s i s t h a 14. 2-11

^ r) '

b y A p a r ā r k a £*,<*f,!*

give t h e following classification o f " p o l l u t i o n s " a n d h e n c e

bition of food

j

a n d in o l d S m r t i s


426

Kūrma Purina

7. He should avoid the food offered by a physician, an unchaste woman, a staff-bearer (a police-man ? ) , a thief, an atheist or a person who blasphemes gods. 8. O n e should avoid the food offered by a person who sells Soma juice a n d especially of C ā n d ā l a . He should avoid food offered by one who is hen-pecked or one who allows t h e p a r a m o u r of his wife to remain in his house. 9. O n e should avoid taking these cooked-stuff, viz.; t h a t of one who is defiled by Ucchisfa, t h a t of miser, t h a t of one who partakes of the leaving of others' food-stuffs, the cooked food of a person who is inferior—not worth allowing to sit in row for dinner, the cooked food m e a n t for a multitude a n d t h a t of one who maintains himself by means of weapons. 10. O n e should avoid food offered by an ascetic, by a eunuch, the food of an insane or a d r u n k a r d fellow, of a fright­ ened one or a crying person, the food t h a t is of inferior quality and t h a t offered as charitable gift. 11. O n e should avoid food offered in Śrāddha or, offered by an hater of Brāhmanas, one who is interested in sins a n d a m a n who is defiled by the impurity of birth (sūtaka, t h e food of one who cooks in vain (?) the food of a rogue a n d t h a t of the shrewd fellow, (v.l. father-in-law). 12. O n e should avoid the cooked food of all these:—viz: women without children, a servant, a mason a n d one who sells weapons. 13. T h e cooked food served by these should be avoidedone who is addicted to drinking wine, a murderer, t h e physi­ cian, one whose organ of generation is mutilated and person who, though a younger brother, married earlier t h a n the elder brother. 14. O n e should particularly avoid the food served by a widowed w o m a n who has remarried, nor should he partake of the food served by one who carnally enjoys the wife of his d e a d brother. Similarly, he should avoid partaking of the food served with contempt or anger, spurning, dislike or arrogance or astonishment. 15. Even the cooked food served by the preceptor should not be eaten if it is devoid of due consecration. All the evil deeds of m a n are stabilised in his food.


427

11.17.16-23

16-17. If a person partakes of the food of anyone he shares his sins too. T h e following persons viz. : A farm-labourer, a friend of the family, cowherd, barber, musician, potter, p l o u g h m a n of the fields. After eating food a m o n g these Śūdras, some money is given to t h e m by the wise. T h e following 1 things can be taken on payment, from a Ś ū d r a v i z . : — M i l k pudding, articles fried in oil, Milk products, Saktu (Powdered fried g r a i n ) , oilcake and oil. 2 18-23. O n e should avoid these p l a n t s : Vrntāka (a kind of Brinjal), Jālikāśāka (a kind of g r e e n ) , the Safflower, the ASmantaka (the p l a n t ) the fibres of which are used to make t h e girdle (Mekhalū) of a B r ā h m a n a . He should avoid onion, garlic, sour articles a n d thick exudations from trees. He should avoid Chatraka ( M u s h r o o m ) , Vidvarāha (a p l a n t growing in filth), śaila (Ślesmāhtaka fruit ? ) , beestings, Vilaya (a milk product ? Simukha andKavaka ( M u s h r o o m s ) . A B r ā h m a n a eating Grñjana (the meat of an animal killed by a poisoned a r r o w ) , a fowl, t h e gourds, the Kimśuka, the U d u m b a r a etc. undergoes downfall. O n e must scrupulously avoid (purposelessly prepared i.e. not for offering to d e i t y ) , the Kńara (rice cooked with gingelly seeds), the wheatcake, Milk pudding, pie, cooked m e a t but not conse­ crated, food offerings to gods, Tavāgu (rice g r u e l ) , Mātuliñga ( C i t r o n s ) , non-consecrated fish, the K a d a m b a tree, wood-apple and Plaksa ( I n d i a n fig tree). During daytime* he should avoid

*divadhana as v.l. 1.

is p r o b a b l y a m i s t a k e for deva-dhānya ' G o d ' s

V V . 16-17

give

t h e list

of Ś ū d r a s whose

food

grain', recorded was

a c c e p t a b l e to-

B r ā h m a n a s , cf. su (sva-) dāso nāpito gopah kumbhakārah krsīvalah / Brāhmanairapi bhojyānnāh pañcaiie iūdra-yonayah // —Devaīa Smr. also Cf. P a r ā ś a r a S m r . X I . 20-24 In fact realities of life forced t h e D h a r m a - ś ā s t r a to a c c e p t these e x c e p ­ tions. 2. V V . 18-23 c o n t a i n s t h e list of articles of food, vegetables, h e r b s e t c . w h i c h w e r e b y t h e i r n a t u r e r e g a r d e d a s ' p o l l u t e d ' a n d a r e k n o w n a s Jātidufla. T h e list of ' p o l l u t e d ' h e r b s , vegetables e t c . is found in o l d works l i k e t h e D h . s . o f A p a s t a m b a ( I . 5 . 17.25-27) V a s i s t h a 14.33. K P . a s s i m i l a t e d t h e following verses from M a n u V. 5-7, 12, 14, 19.


428

Kūrma Purāna

the oilcake from which oil has been extracted as well as fried barley. 24. D u r i n g night, he should scrupulously avoid every­ thing connected with gingelly seeds as well as curds. O n e should not take in milk a n d b u t t e r milk together. 25. O n e should avoid food polluted by action, served indifferently (bhāva-dusta) a n d polluted by b a d contact (as with dogs) a n d by falling therein of hair, insects a n d dis­ 1 respectfully given. 26. O n e shall avoid an article once smelt by a dog a n d cooked again. So also the article seen by a C ā n d ā l a , or a w o m a n in her menses, or smelt by a cow, or seen by fallen men, shall be avoided. 27-28a. He should avoid these articles as w e l l — t h a t with which no worship has been performed, that which is stale, that which has been touched by crows a n d fowls, that which is infested by germs, that which is smelt by men or touched by a leper. 28b-30a. O n e should not make use of any article given by a women in her menses, or by an unchaste woman, or by a w o m a n angrily. M a n u has said t h a t the milk of a cow whose calf has died should not be drunk. Similarly, the milk of a camel, within ten days of her calving, shall not be drunk. So also the milk of a ewe and that of a cow milked unseasonably. 2 30b-33. T h e following birds and animals shall not be eaten viz. 3 the crane, the swan, the watercrow, the sparrow, the parrot, the osprey, the tusk of a hog, the webfooted birds, the cuckoo, the Cāsa (blue j a y ) , the Khañjarita (the wag-tail), the falcon, the vulture, the owl, the ruddy goose, the cock, the d o v e , the pigeons, the Tittibha ( l a p w i n g ) , the village fowl, the 1. V V . 25 ff give t h e list of Kriyā-dusfa foods. 2. Sandhinī—Mitāksarā on Yāj. I. 17—explains it as (i) a cow in h e a t (2) a cow t h a t gives milk once a d a y (3) a cow w h i c h yields milk on a c c o u n t o f a n o t h e r calf b r o u g h t t o it, its o w n b e i n g d e a d . 3. D h a r m a S u t r a s give a n u m b e r of rules a b o u t t h e flesh of beasts, b i r d s a n d fish, vide. G a u t a m a 17. 27-31, 34-35 V i s n u 51.6, 29-31. Smrtis like M a n u v. 12-14 Y ā j . I. 172-175 give long lists of such b i r d s e t c . fit to be e a t e n . K P b a s e d its list o n t h e S m r t i s .


II.18.34a-41

429

lion, the tiger, the cat, the dog, the hound, the jackal, the monkey a n d the donkey. 34a. All types of deer should not be eaten nor should wild birds be eaten whether the living beings move a b o u t in t h e w a t e r or on t h e land. T h i s is the established convention. 34b-35a- M a n u the Prajāpati has said t h a t these five1 clawed animals m a y be eaten viz. G o d h ā ( a l l i g a t o r ) , Kūrma (tortoise), Saśa ( h a r e ) , Śvavijand Sallaki ( t h e small a n d the big p o r c u p i n e ) . 35b-36a. O excellent men, one m a y eat those fish with thorny scales (?) a n d the flash of the deer R u r u . T h e y can be eaten after offering t h e m to the deities a n d the Brāhmanas a n d not otherwise. 36b-37a. T h e Prajāpati has said that the peacock, the francoline partridge, the Kapiñjala (a variety of the r u d d y goose), the rhenocero and the panther can be eaten. 37b-38. O leading sages, among fishes, these are mentioned as worthy of being eaten, viz. : the Rājlvas (lotus-like ones) the S i m h a t u n d a s (lion-snouted), the Pāthīnas a n d the R o h i t a s . 2 T h e flesh of these must be sprinkled with holy water a n d conse­ crated before eating if the B r ā h m a n a so desires. 39. O n e shall eat m e a t in accordance with the injunc­ tions or as enjoined at a time when life js in danger. O n e w h o eats the remainder (i.e. w h a t is left after worship) or as a medi­ cine or when one is powerless or is deputed, he is not affected by sin. 40. If a person invited for the S r ā d d h a or the worship of a deity eschews m e a t he m a y have to be in the hell as m a n y years as there a r e hairs on t h e body of the a n i m a l . 8 4 1 . T h e established rule is that, wine should not be drunk, should not be touched a n d should never be thought of by the twice-born. 1. This injunction a b o u t the eatability of five-clawed animals a p p e a r s i n V R , K i s k i n d h ā 17.39, cf. M K . P . 3 5 . 2-4 which shows a c o m m o n s o u r c e of K P . a n d M K . 2 . Cf. M a n u V . 1 6 3 . A l t h o u g h K P insists o n a c c e p t a n c e o f n o n - v e g e t a r i a n food w h e n served in a Ś r ā d d h a , it s t a u n c h l y p r o h i b i t s w i n e u n d e r all c i r c u m s t a n c e s . D h . S . o f A p a s t a m b a 1.7.21:8, V i s n u 35.1 a n d M a n u X I . 5 4 a n d Yāj. XII. 227 h o l d t h a t w i n e - d r i n k i n g is a very g r a v e sin.


Kūrma Purāna

430

42. Hence, one shall scrupulously avoid wine which is despicable. By drinking it, one incurs downfall a n d loses his merits (good acts) n o r should he be talked to by B r a h m i n . 43-44. ( P a r t l y defective) By eating foodstuffs t h a t should not be eaten a n d drinking t h a t should not be d r u n k , a Brāh­ m a n a loses his rights. He then faces downfall. 45. H e n c e , one should scrupulously avoid forbidden food­ stuffs. He goes alone after elevation* ( ? ) . A n d after d e a t h goes to the hell R a u r a v a .

CHAPTER NINETEEN Daily Duties of a Householder The Sages said : 1. O G r e a t sage, please describe all t h e duties of a Brāh­ m a n a , which h a v e to be performed every d a y a n d whereby one is liberated from b o n d a g e of Sarhsāra. Vyāsa said : 2. Listen attentively all of you, while I recount the daily duties of B r ā h m a n a s a n d the order of their performance. 3. G e t t i n g up in the B r a h m a M u h ū r t a ( t h e closing p a r t of t h e night just before d a w n ) , one should think about one's duties a n d m o n e t a r y affairs wherefore he has to exert his body. He should then meditate on Iśvara in his m i n d . 4. W h e n the d a w n sets in, the learned m a n should per­ form all requisite activities (answer the call of n a t u r e ) a n d t h e n carry out the purificatory rites duly. He should then take his b a t h in the p u r e ( h o l y ) rivers. 1 * V e ń k . T e x t , āropya yāti caiveko is n o t satisfactory as t h e t e x t A p e y ā n i c a v i p r o . . . t h e B r ā h m a n a avoids f o r b i d d e n d r i n k s .

reads

:

1V V . 4-16 describe t h e i m p o r t a n c e of m o r n i n g - b a t h in cold w a t e r . T h e six types of b a t h s d e s c r i b e d in vv. 12-16 a n d its e m p h a s i s of Taugika b a t h in Atma-ttrtha is significant.


431

II.18.5-13

5. Even those peoplewho commit sins are purified, thanks to the morning ablution. Hence, one should assiduously perform the m o r n i n g ablution. 6. T h e y praise the early morning ablution which brings forth visible a n d invisible benefits; there is no d o u b t in this t h a t t h e sagehood of the sages is d u e to their daily ablution in the early morning. 7. W h e n a m a n is asleep, the saliva drips constantly from his m o u t h . Hence, no one should perform any holy rite without taking b a t h at the outset. 8. T h e r e is no doubt a b o u t it t h a t poverty (alaksmi), a misfortune (Kālakarni), * an inauspicious d r e a m a n d evil t h o u g h t s — a l l these a n d sins are purified by means of a morning bath. 9. H e n c e , without the morning ablution, no m o r n i n g d u t y is prescribed, especially in H o m a and J a p a activities. So one shall take morning b a t h regularly. 10. In case of inability, a b a t h keeping the head dry is enjoined. Wipping off with a wet cloth is remembered as sancti­ fying. * * This is called Kāpila b a t h . 11. W h e n A y a t y a * * * ( D e p e n d e n c e ? ) is generated, one should perform ablution like this :- Learned men have mentioned these ablutions (viz.) B r a h m a etc. in case of inability ( t o bathe). 12. Ablution can be briefly divided into six types viz. : 1) B r a h m a , 2) Āgneya, 3) Vāyavya, 4) Divya, 5) V ā r u n a a n d 6 ) Yaugika. 13. Sprinkling with the Kuśa grass dripping with water while repeating the M a n t r a s , is called the B r a h m a ablution. Dusting of the whole body from foot to h e a d with Bhasma is called Agneya ablution.

"alaksmako jalam kiftcit in V e ñ k . alaksmi Kālakarni ca is a c c e p t e d .

text,

is

confusing.

Hence

t h e v.l.

**v. 1. Pāvanam ' N o o t h e r a c t is r e g a r d e d (lit. r e m e m b e r e d ) as sanctify­ ing t h a n t h e m o r n i n g b a t h . ' * * * v . 1. asamarthye ' i n case of i n a b i l i t y ' .


Kūrma Purina

432

14. T h e excellent b a t h by means of t h e dust particles raised by t h e kine is called Vāyavya ablution. T h e b a t h in the r a i n accompanied by sunshine is called Divya ablution. 15. Plunging into the water is t h e ' ' V ā r u n a " ablution. T h e dedication of t h e m i n d by the Yogins is called Yaugika ablution, as t h e Yogins think about Viśva -(the universe, God in t h e Cosmic form) etc. in the course of t h e practice of Yoga. 16. T h a t is called Ātma-tlrtha a n d it is resorted to by the expounders of the V e d a (or knowers of B r a h m a n ) . It is purifier of t h e minds of m e n . O n e should always perform his ablution (there-in). 17-18a. If he is competent, the learned m a n should perform V ā r u n a ablution, arid t h e act of atonement also. He should wash the tooth brush twig a n d then chew it duly. There­ after he should perform the Ācamana rite, a n d perform t h e early morning ablution every day. 18b-19a. T h e toothbrush twig shall be as thick as t h e middle finger. It shall be twelve Ańgulas long. T h e tooth brush twig shall have its bark in tact. O n e should clean (the teeth) with its t i p . 1 19b. It must be cut out from a tree of milky exudation. T h e twigs of t h e M ā l a t ī tree are auspicious. A p ā m ā r g a , * Bilva a n d K a r a v ī r a a r e particularly good. 20. He should avoid the forbidden (trees). He should avoid t h e sinful (forbidden) days also. In the m a n n e r mentioned, he should chew the twig. T h e knower of the pro­ cedure of (washing the teeth) should do this. 2 1 . O n e should not split the toothbrush twig, nor should clean the teeth with the tips of the fingers. After cleaning (the t e e t h ) , he should break it and cast it carefully in a clean place.

1.

There

seems

no regular arrangement

the topic o f ' b r u s h i n g the teeth' in w.

18-21

o f duties i n

comes after

laid d o w n d e t a i l e d rules a b o u t t h e n a m e s o f trees t h e selected, t h e l e n g t h o f t h e twig e t c . But

KP.

Hence

b a t h . Smrtis

twig o f w h i c h i t s o

have be

t h e view o f K P i s generally a c c e p t e d .

• A p ā m ā r g a ( t h e p l a n t A c h y r a n t h e s A s p e r a ) , Bilya Aegle m a r m e l o s a n d Karvīra (Oleander, Nerium o d o r u m ) .


11.18.22-31

433 1

22-24. After taking b a t h , he should perform T a r p a n a rites to Devas, sages a n d the groups of the Pitrs. T h e knower of the M a n t r a should perform Ācamana twice silently. He should repeat the M a n t r a s a n d sprinkle his b o d y with K u ś a grass dripping with water. He should repeat the auspicious M a n t r a s of Lord V a r u n a beginning with Āpo hi sfhā a n d the Sāvitrī M a n t r a along with the Vyāhrtis. He should perform the J a p a of Gāyatrī, the m o t h e r of the Vedas. T h e Sāvitrī M a n t r a should be prefixed with the O m k ā r a , Vyāhrti. W i t h t h e m i n d fixed on the sun he should offer a handful of water to the sun. 25. Smrti has prescribed t h a t he should then be seated on the D a r b h a grass with the concentration of mind a n d he should then perform three P r ā n ā y ā m a s a n d meditate on t h e Sandhyā. 26. W h a t is termed Sandhyā is the source of origin of the universe. It is beyond M ā y ā , entire a n d absolute power of God, originating from the three T a t t v a s (principles). 27. T h e learned devotee should meditate on Sāvitrī stationed in the solar sphere and repeat the M a n t r a of Sāvitrī. A B r ā h m a n a should always perform t h e worship of Sandhyā, facing the East. 28. A B r ā h m a n a devoid of ( t h e worship of) S a n d h y ā is impure. He does not deserve performance of any of the rites. Even if he does anything else, he shall not derive the benefit thereof. 29 Quiescent B r ā h m a n a s of yore who were masters of ten Vedas a n d who did not think of anything else, duly wor­ shipped the Sandhyā a n d attained the greatest goal. 30. If an excellent B r ā h m a n a eschews the worship of the Sandhyās a n d puts in his effort in other religious activities, attains N a r a k a (Hell) a n d remains there for ten thousand years. 3 1 . Hence, one should assiduously perform the worship of Sandhyā. T h e greatest Deity, the Yoga incarnate, would be worshipped by him in t h a t case. 1. Tarpana ( s a t i a t i o n by offering w a t e r ) of gods, sages a n d a n c e s t o r s (Pitrs) is o b l i g a t o r y u all. F o r m o r e instructions vide vv. 85-88 below. So is t h e sandhyā-prayer ( b o t h i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d e v e n i n g ) . V V . 22-32 e m p h a s i z e t h e s u p r e m e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s a n d h y ā - p r a y e r t h e sine qua non of B r a h m i n h o o d , t h e m o s t essential p a r t of it is t h e J a p a of Sāvitri.


434

Kūrma Purāna

32. T h e learned m a n should with perfect purity, be seated facing the east and perform the J a p a of Sāvitrī of which the repetition for one thousand times are regarded as the m a x i m u m a n d best, one hundred times as average and ten times as the m i n i m u m . 33. He should then, with concentration and mental purity worship the sun, repeating the various kinds of M a n t r a s pertaining to the sun a n d taken from the Rgveda, Yajurveda a n d the Sāmaveda. 1 34. After respectfully approaching the sun, the lord of Devas of great Yoga, one shall make a great bow touching the ground with the head repeating those M a n t r a s . Sūrya-hrdaya Hymn : 35. Om obeisance u n t o you K h a k h o l k a (the sky-meteor), the quiescent, the source of the three causes. I dedicate myself u n t o y o u ; the embodiment of the universe I bow to you. 36. Obeisance u n t o you, the compassionate o n e ; salute to you the Sun the manifest form of B r a h m a n . You alone are the greatest Brahman, the waters, the Brilliance, the essence, the nectar or i m m o r t a l ; you are the Vyāhrtis Bhūh, Bhuvah, Svah. You are O m k ā r a , Śarva, R u d r a , the eternal great god. 37. You are Purusa of glory and brilliance. I bow u n t o K a p a r d i n (god of m a t t e d h a i r ) , the i m m a n e n t soul. You alone are the universe, t h a t h a d originated in m a n y ways and t h a t is yet originating. Obeisance, to you, R u d r a , the sun. I seek refuge in you. 38. Obeisance to you Pracetas; salutation to the most bountiful god. Obeisance, obeisance to you, R u d r a . I seek refuge in you. Obeisance to you H i r a n y a b ā h u (of golden a r m s ) ; obeisance to H i r a n y a p a t i (the lord of g o l d ) . 1.

T h e worship of the Sun is to be immediately done after Sandhyā.

It appears that the cult of solar-worship has popularised

become

popular, or was being

at the time of K P . H e n c e this special h y m n called

Sūrya-hrdaya.

In this hymn the identification of the sun mainly with god Śiva is significant. In the compulsory six duties of a Brāhmana as given by Parās'ara I. 39, this worship is not mentioned specifically unless we extend devatātithi-pūjanam to cover this worship.

the

meaning of


IM8.39-47

435

39. Bow to you the lord of Ambikā; obeisance to the contort of U m ā ; salutation to the blue-necked. Obeisance tO you, the holder of the Pināka Bow. 4 0 . Hail to you Vilohita (very r u d d y ) , Bharga (Brilliant) obeisance to you the thousand-eyed one. Obeisance to you for r, to the dispeller of darkness, obeisance be to you Aditya. 4 1 . Obeisance to you Vajrahasta (one with the thunderIt in the h a n d ) . Obeisance, again and again to T r y a r a b a k a (the three-eyed g o d ) . I resort u n t o you, Virūpāksa, the great supreme Lord. _ 42. I bow to the A t m a n well-preserved in the golden abode. I bow down to the supreme brilliance, to you, Brahma, the great and the immortal one. 43. I bow to Paśupati ( t h e master of individual souls), t h e universe, the terrible one, having (simulaneously) the male a n d female forms. Obeisance to the sun, to R u d r a , the shining one, to Paramesthin ( t h e highest d e i t y ) . 44-46. Obeisance to Ugra, the destroyer of all. I resort to you for ever. After performing the J a p a (the repetition) of tin's excellent Sūrya-Hrdaya hymn, one should bow down to the sun both in the morning and at M i d d a y . This h y m n to Sūrya-Hrdaya, (as) pointed out by B r a h m a , should be im­ parted to one's own son, disciple a n d to a virtuous twiceborn. It subdues all sins; it has originated as the essence of the Vedas. It is meritorious a n d beneficial unto the Brāhmanas, and is resorted to by the multitudes of great m e n . 47. Thereafter, the B r ā h m a n a should r e t u r n home, perform the Ācamana rite in accordance with the injunctions, 1 kindle the fire duly and perform the Homa in the fire. But this which

worship of the sun

is to be performed at the place of bath

is presumed to be out of the house. H e n c e the words "after returning

h o m e " (alhāgamyagrliam) 1.

Homa

or

in v. 47 vide also vv. 56-57 below.

Fire-worship

and offering oblations

essential to pay off the debt of gods. Daksa in be performed after completing

into the fire was

(II, 2 8 ) prescribes that H o m e

is

the Sandhyā-worshīp (Sandhyā-karmāvasāne),

but KP advises it after the worship of the sun. V V . 47-50 give general instrucliini about the worship of deities, recitation of V e d i c passages and Japa. is ihe order presribed in KP.

This


436

Kūrma Purina

48. T h e H o m a can be performed by the Rtvik's son, wife, disciple or brother after obtaining t h e permission. It c a n particularly be performed by the Adhvaryu in accordance with the injunction. 49. (Whoever performs it) he should wear P a v i t r a ( K u ś a grass m a d e in t h e form of a ring with a tail) in his h a n d , wear white cloth, be pure in mind and body a n d have full control over the sense-organs. He should perform the H o m a with full concentration of the m i n d (which does not wander elsewhere). 50. T h e rite t h a t is performed without the D a r b h a grass or without the Sūtra (sacred thread) shall be demonic. It does not yield any benefit either here or hereafter. 5 1 . He should m a k e obeisance to all deities, should offer presents; flowers etc. should be given. He should t h e n prostrate before elders. 52. He should then honour a n d revere his preceptor; he should do what is beneficent u n t o h i m ; O Brāhmanas, he should then recite the Vedic passages as m u c h as he can, with assiduity. 53. He should perform the J a p a ; he should teach his disciples; retain everything in memory and ponder over every­ thing ; O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , he should view D h a r m a etc. in the light of the scriptures. 54. He should go through the Vedic Nigamas and all Vedāńgas (Ancillary subjects of the V e d a s ) . For the ac­ hievement of Togaksema (Toga—attaining what has not been a t t a i n e d ; Ksema—preserving what has been attained) he should resort to Iśvara. 55. Thereafter, the B r ā h m a n a should gather together the various articles for his household. T h e n at midday, he should fetch clay for the b a t h . 56. He should also fetch flowers, raw rice grains, K u ś a grass, gingelly seeds as well as pure cowdung. He should always perform his ablution in rivers, in tanks, dug up by gods (i.e. n a t u r a l ) , in lakes, in puddles or in fountains. 57.

O n e should never take b a t h in a water reservoir


I I . 18.58-67

437

belonging to others. In emergency, he should take out at least five lumps of m u d from it, before b a t h . 58. (He should divide the clay into m a n y small l u m p s ) . W i t h one of the lumps of the clay, the head is to be cleaned, with two (such lumps) he should clean the portion above the umbilical region a n d with three lumps he should clean the lower region. T h e legs a n d the feet shall be cleaned with six lumps of clay. 59. It is enjoined t h a t the clay should be wet a n d of the size of a big myrobalan. T h e size of the cowdung is also t h a t m u c h . O n e should smear it over one's limps. 60. While standing on the bank, he should first smear the body c h a n t i n g the relevant M a n t r a s . After washing his h a n d a n d performing Acamana, he should t h e n carefully take his b a t h . 61. Sanctifying the water with auspicious M a n t r a s per­ taining to V a r u n a a n d symbolic of water, he should meditate u p o n the unmanifest eternal Visnu a n d get purified at heart while b a t h i n g . 62. T h e waters have been originated from N ā r ā y a n a . Waters alone constitute his Ay ana (receptacle). Hence a learned m a n should r e m e m b e r lord N ā r ā y a n a at the time of ablution. 63. After glancing at the sun with the repetitions of the Orhkāra, he should dip himself in the water three times. 64. After performing the Ācamana rite twice, the knower of the M a n t r a s should repeat the following M a n t r a . 65. " Y o u move about within the living beings, in the cavity of the heart, you have faces all round. You are Yajñaj you are V a s a t k ā r a ; O waters, you are the brilliance, the nectarine j u i c e " . 66. He should then repeat the Drupadā M a n t r a three times, or he shaH repeat the Vyāhrtis along with the P r a n a v a . T h e learned m a n should repeat the Sāvitrl M a n t r a or the Agkamarsana mantra. 67. T h e n he should perform the Sammārjana rite (wip­ ing off) by repeating the M a n t r a , Āpo hi sfhā mayo bhuvah


438

Kūrma Purāna

(RV. X.9.1) or the M a n t r a , Idam āpah Pravahato" ( R V . I . 2 3 . 22), or by means of the Vyāhrtis. 68. With the three M a n t r a s beginning with " A p o hi s t h ā " R V . X . 9.1) etc. he should sanctify the water a n d then dip him­ self under. He should t h e n repeat the Aghamarsana M a n t r a ( R V . X. 190-3) three times. 69. He should also repeat the Drupadā (Vāj. Sam. 2 0 . 2 0 ) or the Sāvitri M a n t r a . T h a t is the greatest world of Visnu. Or he should repeat the P r a n a v a or remember Lord H a r i . 70. (Defective) After repeating three times the M a n t r a established in the Yajurveda like Drupadāiva (Vāj. Sam-20.20) under the water, one is liberated from all sins. 71. He should take water in the palm, perform J a p a a n d the Mārjana1 rite a n d place that water (sprinkle it over t h e head. He is liberated from all sins. 72. J u s t as the horse-sacrifice is the king of all sacrifices a n d dispels all sins, so also the M a n t r a Aghamarsana is said to be destructive of all sins. 73. He should then pray u n t o the sun 2 . He should throw up flowers along with the Aksatas (raw rice grains) and glance at the lord who is above and beyond darkness. 74-75. Any of these M a n t r a s pertaining to the sun a n d destructive of sins can be repeated 3 : — M a n t r a s beginning with Udu tyam ( R V . I. 150.1) and Citram ( R V . I . l 15.1.) Taccaksuh ( R V . VII.66.16) the M a n t r a ending with Hamsah Sucisat, ( R V . I V . 40. 5) particularly the Sāvitrī M a n t r a and other Vedic M a n t r a s addressed to the Sun. Afterwards, he should repeat the Sāvitrī M a n t r a . This is remembered as Japayajña ( T h e sacrifice called Japa). 76-77. He should repeat various other holy Mantras as well, such as the esoteric Vidyās, Śatarudrīya, Atharvaśiras and all solar M a n t r a s . He should be seated on the D a r b h a grass with their tips towards the east. He should be pure and he should face 1.

mārjana—sprinkling of water with

Kuśa

grass

and

repeating

the

three RV verses āpo hi sthā (Rv. X. 9. 1-3). 2.

T h e second ( m i d - d a y ) bath is also followed by the sun-worship.

3.

V V . 74-83 give instruction about the performance of J a p a which

mentioned by the glorificatory term Japa-yajña.

is


11.18.78-87

439

the east himself. He should repeat the J a p y a with great con­ centration a n d glance at the sun. 78. He should make the rosary with crystal beads, I n d r ā ksas, R u d r ā k s a s or Putrajīvas (Putrañjīva : Rox burghii). T h e later ones are better than the earlier ones. 79. (Defective) while repeating J a p a , the sensible m a n should not speak, not look at any external thing, not shake the head or the neck, nor show the teeth outside. 80. Since the Guhyakas, Rāksasas and the Siddhas remove the benefit, one should perform the Japa-rite in an isolated, p u r e place. 8 1 . On seeing a C ā n d ā l a or a fallen m a n or one with A śauca ( i m p u r i t y ) , one shall perform the J a p a once again. If he talks to t h e m , he should b a t h e again a n d perform the J a p a once again. 82. If one sees anything impure, one should immediately perform the Acamana rite and perform the J a p a with purity. He should repeat M a n t r a s pertaining to the sun in accordance to his capacity a n d the " P ā v a m ā n ī " hymns as he likes. 83. If he happens to wear wet cloth, he can perform the J a p a in the middle of water. Otherwise he should sit in a pure, clean place on the D a r b h a grass with great concentration. 84. He should circumambulate, prostrate on the ground, perform the Ācamana rite in accordance with the scripture and then begin his self-study of the Vedas with devotion. 85-86. Thereafter, he should perform Tarpana rite for Devas, sages and the groups of the pitrs. He should utter O i h k ā r a at the outset a n d then the n a m e . At the end he should say Tūrayām vah." (I propitiate y o u ) . T h e Tarpana rite for Devas and the Brahminical sages shall be performed with raw rice grains a n d water. T h e Tarpana rite for the Pitrs shall be performed with gingelly seeds and water. T h e Tarpana rites should be performed with great devotion in accordance with his Gyhyasūtra. 87. While performing the rite of Tarpana to Devas and the sages, he should do so with his right hand supported by the left h a n d (below). T h e intelligent m a n should perform Tarpana rite of the Pitrs with handfuls of water. While per­ forming Deva-Tarpana the sacred thread is worn (savya) as usual;


440

Kūrma Purina

during t h e Rsi-Tarpana ( t o the sages), he should wear the sacred thread like a garland. 88. D u r i n g t h e Pitrtarpana, he should wear the sacred thread on the right shoulder a n d under the left a r m . After squeezing out the water from the cloth with which he takes b a t h , he should perform Ācamana silently. He should worship Devas with their own M a n t r a s by means of flowers, leaves a n d water. 89. An excellent m a n with good conduct a n d devotion should worship Brahma, Śańkara, Visnu ( t h e slayer of M a d h u ) a n d the sun. He should worship other deities also according to his desire. 90. He should offer them flowers with the Purusa Sūkta. All the deities are well worshipped with water, as waters are all deities. 9 1 . O n e should meditate on the deities along with the P r a n a v a , with great concentration : R e p e a t i n g the word Namah (obeisance), he should offer the flowers one by one. 92. T h e holiness of all Vedic rites īs due to the propitia­ tion of Visnu. Hence, one should propitiate for ever H a r i , the deity without beginning, middle, or end. 93. (One should propitiate Hari) with the M a n t r a beginning with t h e words Tad Visnoh (RV-I.22.20 or with the Purusa Sūkta). He should do so with great concentration of mind, T h e r e is no other m a n t r a mentioned in the four Vedas, which c a n be equal to these two. His soul a n d mind should be dedicated u n t o the lord. He will be calm (in m i n d ) by ( t h e power of) the M a n t r a Tad Visnoh. 94. Or he should propitiate the eternal Lord ī ś ā n a , M a h ā d e v a , Maheśvara. He shall.be sanctified by means of good feelings a n d thoughts. 95. W i t h great concentration he should propitiate M a h e ś v a r a by means of the P r a n a v a M a n t r a , Rudragāyatrī, Iśāna Mantra, Tryambaka Mantra or Rudra Mantras. 96. He should worship M a h e ś v a r a with flowers, leaves, water or sandal-paste a n d other articles. Or he should perform J a p a by means of this M a n t r a Namah Śiviya (Obeisance to Śiva).


11.18.97-107

441

97. O n e should make obeisance u n t o M a h ā d e v a , Iśvara, the conqueror of D e a t h . He should dedicate his own self u n t o Iśvara with the M a n t r a To Brahmānam. (AV. 5.18.49). 98. A B r ā h m a n a should circumambulate for five years (?) * He should meditate on god īśāna, Śiva who is in the middle of the firmament. 99. Afterwards, he should repeat the RK Harhsah, Śucisat (RV-IV.40.5) and look at the sun, etc., After going home, he should perform the five great Yajña with great attention. 100. T h e y are Deva yajña, Pitr yajña, Bhūta yajña, Mānusya-yajña ( h u m a n beings i.e. guests) and B r a h m a yajña (study of the V e d a s ) . 101. If, after the t a r p a n a rite B r a h m a yajña rite is not performed, he should begin self-study of Vedas after performing M ā n u s y a yajña (hospitality to guests). 102. At the end of B h ū t a Yajña, he should sit on a heap of K u ś a grass in a spot to the west of the fire. He should be pure in mind a n d body a n d hold K u ś a grass in his h a n d . 103. T h e Vaiśvadeva rite must be performed in the sacrificial or secular fire or in water or on the ground. This is remembered as Deva Yajña. 104. If the rice to be offered as oblation is cooked on secular fire, it (the oblations) be offered to that fire. If one w e r e to cook that on sacrificial fire, that food is oblated to that sacrificial fire. This is the eternal procedure. 105. With the cooked food that remains after the offering unto Devas, one should offer Bhūta Bali. This should be known as Bhūta Yajña. It is the bestower of prosperity unto all embodied beings. 106. O excellent Brāhmanas, the cooked food should be given to dogs, cookers of dogs (i.e. C ā n d ā l a s ) , fallen persons ( i . e . outcastes) and birds, on the ground outside. 107. In the evening, his wife shall offer cooked food as Bali (offering to all beings) without uttering any M a n t r a s . This is the Bhūta-Yajña to be performed both in the morning a n d in the evening. *v.l. Paftca-brahmāni vai japan ' m u t t e r i n g five B r a h m a n s ( V e d i c M a n t r a s ) ' .


442

Kūrma Pur ana

108. With the Pitrs in view, one should feed one Brāh­ m a n a daily. This Nitya Śrāddha ( w i t h respect to manes) is called Pitr yajña. It is the bestower of good goals. 109. O n e should take up some cooked rice according to his capacity and offer it to a B r ā h m a n a scholar who knows t h e meanings of Vedic passages. 110. O n e should honour one's guest verbally, mentally and physically. T h e lord (guest) should be bowed to and wors­ hipped. He should be calm a n d should welcome the guest who has come to his house. 111. A B r ā h m a n a should offer the alms of any of t h e 1 three types. Hantakāra, Agra or Bhiksā by means of his right h a n d supported by the left (below), in accordance with his capacity. 112-113. He should give this u n t o the guest every day. He should consider him ( t h e guest) as the great god. If one mouthful is given as alms it is called Bhiksā. Four times that quantity is called Agra. F o u r times t h a t which is a considerable quantity, is called Hantakāra. T h e guest should be awaited up to the time of milking a cow. 114. O n e should always honour and worship the guests coming to his house, in accordance with his capacity. O n e should give Bhiksā u n t o the m a n d i c a n t and the Brahmacārin duly. O n e should be devoid of covetousness a n d give as m u c h food as he can, u n t o the suppliants. 115. If no guest is available, he should offer food unto the cows. O n e should be silent, while taking food. O n e should not find fault with the food served. O n e should take food along with m a n y persons (v.l. with relatives). 116. O excellent Brāhmanas, if a B r ā h m a n a takes food without performing the five great Yajñas, the foolish soul shall be reborn among the animals. 117. Daily study of the Vedas, the performance of M a h ā Yajñas ( t h e above-mentioned five great sacrifices)—an imperishable act—and the worship of gods quickly dispel all sins. 1. T h e three types of alms are described below in (vv. 112-113). T h e importance of feeding the hungry before one takes one's meals—one of the great sacrifices 'Mahā-yajña'—was a commendable feature of the old tradition.


443

11.18.118—19.4

118. T h e r e is no doubt in this t h a t a person who, out of delusion or ignorance takes food without performing the wor­ ship of the deities, attains the hell called Sūkara ( B o a r ) . 119. H e n c e , O B r ā h m a n a , one should assiduously per­ form all rites and take food along with his own kinsmen and he attains the greatest goal.

CHAPTER NINETEEN of taking meals1

Daily Duties of a Householder : Mode Vyāsa said :

1. Facing the east or the sun, one should be seated on a good clean seat with his feet resting on t h e ground a n d take food. 2. O n e who takes food facing the east, enjoys longevity; facing the south, one enjoys good fame; facing the west, one enjoys glory and prosperity and facing the north, one enjoys t r u t h and orderliness. 2 3. O n e should take food with five things wet. T h e p l a t e should be placed on the ground. M a n u , the Prajāpati, says t h a t it (such m a n n e r of eating) is on a p a r with the observance oi fasts. 4. O n e should take food with five things wet as follows : the place should be well smeared (with cowdung) and clean; the hands and the feet should be washed; he should perform Ācamana a n d keep the face wet, and he should not be furious. 3 1.

As purity of m i n d depends on the purity of food

consumed (Chān-

dogya U p . V I I . 26. 2 ) , Bhojana or meals has been o n e of the most important subject in Dharma Śāstra. 2.

M b h . Anuśasana 104.57 and

3.

Pañcārdra—One whose five limbs

Manu II. 52. (viz. hands, feet and

wet. This instruction is found in M b h . Sānū 193-6, I. p. 2 2 1 .

Vyāsa

mouth)

quoted

in

are

SMC.


444

Kūrma PurSna

5. He should sprinkle food with water repeating the 1 great Vyāhrtis. He should sip water ritualistically repeating the M a n t r a Amrtopastarartamasi (you are the seat of A m r t a ) 6-7. He should then take in particle by particle as oblations repeating (therewith) the Orhkara Svāhā (as Orh Prānāya Svāhā). This is the Āhuti of P r ā n a etc. He should then say Apānāya Svāhā, Vyānāya Svāhā, Udānāya Svāha a n d finally Samānāya Svāhā as the fifth one.* T h e B r ā h m a n a should know the reality of these and perform Homa offering oblations to the Atman. 8. He should eat the remaining food as he pleases, mixing it with side dishes, pickles etc. After meditating on the Devas with full concentration, he should meditate on Atman, the Prajāpati. __-^T Tie should then sip water ritualistically repeating the M a n t r a Amrtāpidhānam asi. You are the cover of the N e c t a r ) . After performing Ācamana rite, he should perform the rite once again, repeating the M a n t r a Ayarh gaufr etc. 10. Or he should repeat the D r u p a d ā M a n t r a three times. It is destructive of all sins. He should then stroke his belly repeating the M a n t r a Prānānām granthirasi (you are t h e knot of vital airs). 11. (Defective verse). After performing the Ācamana rite, he should let go some water on t h e toe of the right foot from the t h u m b of the right h a n d held u p . ( H e should do this) with concentration. *12. With the M a n t r a Śandhyāyām he should perform the the Krtānumantrana rite. He should then unite his self with the imperishable B r a h m a n with the M a n t r a Brahmāna. 1.

This sipping of water is called āposana (Yāj.

Smr. I.

purpose is to make food beneficial as nectar and this sipping

106)

and its

is taken at

the

beginning and the end of the dinner. 2.

T h e s e five morsels taken in

for different vital airs (like prāna, Apāna

e t c . ) are called Prānāhutis 'oblations to Prānas'

K P . does not mention

that

the 6th morsel is taken for Brahman (Brahmane svāhā). •The Veńkt. hutānumantranarh

T e x t is

kuryāt

corrupt. T h e verse

in the Crt. T e x t reads :

Śraddhāyām iti mantratahj

'With the mantra ' Ś r a d d h ā y ā m ' o n e should perform the post sacrificial recitation.'


445

11.19.13-21

13. Among all Yogas, Atmayoga is the greatest. He who shall perform everything in accordance with these injunctions is himself a wise sage.* 14. O n e shall take food with the sacred thread on (his left shoulder—Upavita fashion) a n d embellished with scented garlands. He should not take food in the twilights of t h e m o r n i n g and evening especially at dusk. 15. O n e should not take food immediately before the Solar eclipse. If there is a lunar eclipse, he should not take food in that evening. In the course of the duration of the eclipse also, one should not take food. After the liberation (i.e. close of the eclipse), he should (first) take bath and take food. 1

16. W h e n the moon is liberated, one m a y take food unless it happens in the second or the third watch of the night. If the sun or the moon sets before liberation (i.e. if the eclipse is not over when they set), he should take food only the next d a y after seeing ( t h e liberated sun or the moon as the case m a y be). 17. O n e should not be wicked-minded enough to take foodwithout giving anything to the lookers-on. He should partake of the remainder after the Yajña. O n e should not take food while one is angry or when the mind is elsewhere. 18. Indeed, one's life is in vain, if the food is solely taken only by oneself, if the intercourse is solely for sexual pleasure, if the sole purpose of learning is to take up an avocation. 19. If one takes food with the head covered with a cloth, or facing the north or with the shoes on, it is an Asuraic (demonic) practice. 20. O n e should not take food at midnight or midday or when the food taken before is not digested. O n e should not eat food wearing a wet cloth, or sitting in a moving vehicle 2 1 . O n e shall not take food from a broken vessel or from the ground or in the hands (keeping the foodstuffs in the h a n d s ) . * v . l . sayāti Brahmanah ksqyam ' H e goes to t h e a b o d e of B r a h m a . ' 1. V V . 15-23 give a n u m b e r of rules a b o u t t a k i n g food. We find similar rules i n S m r t i s like M a n u V I . 207-223, Y ā j ñ a v a l k y a I . 167-181.


446

Kūrma Purūna

If one is defiled by Ucchista one should not take in ghee, nor should he touch his own head then. 22. (If one is defiled by Ucchista) one should not glorify (repeat) the Vedic passages. O n e should not take food with­ out leaving something behind. O n e should not take food along with one's wife. O n e should not take food "in darkness, or in the twilight periods or in temples (and similar places). 23. O n e should not take food with a single garment o n ; one should not take food in a moving vehicle or lying down in the couch; one should not take food without slipping off the sandals nor one should take food while laughing or crying. 24. After taking food, one should rest comfortable so that the food is well digested. O n e should elaborately ascertain further the meanings of the Vedic passages through (or with the help of) Itihāsas (Epics) a n d Purānas. 25. T h e n he should perform the worship of the Sandhyā in accordance with the procedure mentioned before. He should be pure. Seated and facing the west, one should perform J a p a of the goddess Gāyatri. 26. He who does not worship either the morning Sandhyā or the evening Sandhyā is on a p a r with a Śūdra in this world. He is devoid of all holy rites. 27. After performing the Homa duly, repeating the requisite M a n t r a s after partaking of the remainder of the Yajña, one shall retire to sleep along with the attendents and kinsman. At that time his feet should be dry. 28. O n e should not sleep facing (i.e. with the head in t h a t direction) the north or the west. Nor should he lie under the open sky. O n e should not sleep in the nude, nor unclean (in b o d y ) , nor should one sleep on a seat. • 29. O n e should not sleep in a tottering cot nor in a deserted house; one should never lie down on a bed of Palāśa ( w o o d ) or of bamboos. 30. T h u s the various daily activities and duties of the Brāhmanas have been wholly described by mc. T h e y bestow the benefit of Apavarga (salvation). 1

1.

Visnu D h . S. cli. 7 0 ; M a n u IV, 175-176;

V P . I I I . 11.

107-109.

j


447

n . 1 9 . 3 1 — 20.1

31. If any B r ā h m a n a does not practise his d u t y either d u e to atheism or due to lethargy, he falls into the terrible hells and is reborn as a crow. 32. T h e r e is no other way for liberation excepting perfor­ m a n c e of the duties of one's own Āśrama (stage of life). H e n c e one should perform the holy rites for the satisfaction of P a r a m e s t h i n (god B r a h m a ) .

CHAPTER TWENTY1 Procedure of Performance of Śrāddha1 Vyāsa said : 1. W h e n it is the New M o o n day, the Ś r ā d d h a called Pindānvāharyaka2 should be devotedly performed by excellent Brāhmanas. This bestows worldly pleasures a n d salvation (as its fruit) . 1. Chapters 20-22 constitute the Śrāddha Kalpa or the procedure of performing a Śrāddha. It is based on the belief of after-death survival of deceased forefathers and the existence of a separate world of manes (Pitr-loka) This belief is current since the Indo-Iranian period a n d hence pre-Vedic (vide S. B. E. IV-p. 262 for the Iranian belief). R g v e d i c people believed in and performed ancestor-worship for prosperity and continuity of one's race. As this topic forms an integral part of H i n d u Dharma-Śāstra, we find it discussed in a number of Purānas also e. g. Ap. 163. 2-42, GP. I. 210, N P . I. 28, Pd. p (Srsti-Khanda) 9. 140-186, V. P. I I I . 15. 13-49. Most of these prescribe the same procedure as prescribed in Grhya Sutras and old Smrtis like Manu, Yājñavalkya and others; thus there is a repetition of c o m m o n verses in varīovs Smrtis and Purānas. But in the case of KP., the author has borrowed en mass practically the whole of Śrāddha Kalpa from the Auśanasa Smrti (ch. III. 110 to the end of the Chap­ ter and chs. I V and V. 2.

Pindinvāhāryaka:

Anvāhārya or Pindānvāhāryaka offerings) Medhātithi.

(=that

which

is

performed

after

Pinda-


448

Kūrma Purina

2. T h e Śriddha called Pindānvāhāryaka is recommended when it is the dark half of the m o n t h (lit. the m o o n is on the w a n e ) . To the twice-born it is better if it is performed in t h e afternoon with m e a t . 3. All other tithis in the dark half of the m o n t h beginn­ ing from the first, except the fourteenth day, are excellent b u t the later T i t h i is more commendable t h a n the former. 4. T h e three new-moon days a n d the eighth day in the dark half of the three months beginning with Pausa are good days. T h e three Astakās are holy as well as the fifteenth d a y ( t h e new moon day) in the m o n t h of M ā g h a . 5. Particularly in the rainy season, the Trayodaśī (thir­ teenth day) united with the M a g h ā constellation is good when the corn is ripe. These are prescribed as suitable for obligatory (Nitya) Śrāddha. 6. D u r i n g the eclipse of the moon and the sun, the Naimittika (occasional) Śrāddha must be performed extensively among relatives. Otherwise, one is likely to be consigned to hell. 7. T h e Kāmya (urged by a desire for benefit) śrāddhas are recommended during eclipse etc. a n d during the Vernal a n d equinotical transit of the sun a n d during Vyatīpāta the last giving infinite merit. 8. T h e Śrāddha at the time of Samkrānti (tropical transit of the sun) as well as on birthdays is of everlasting benefit. It is so particularly in all the Naksatras (constella­ 1 tions) a n d m u s t be performed at the proper time.

It was to be performed after Pitr-yajña by an Agni-hotrin on the Amāvāsyā day ( M a n u I I I . 122-123). This funeral sacrifice is not n o w in vogue a m o n g the Agnihotris in the D e c c a n . 1. After describing the three varieties of Śrāddha—Nilya (daily), NaimxUika (occasional) and Kāmya (for attaining a desired object), for such Śrāddhas vv. 9-15 enumerate the fruit one derives by performing a Śrāddha on a particular constellation (Naksatra). It is V i s n u D h . S. 7 8 . 8-15 first, which mentions what rewards follow from the performance of Śrāddha on 28 Naksattras from Krttikā to Bharani. KP follows the same order though not always with the same rewards. Cf. Bd. P. upodghāta-pāda 18. 1 ff, Bm. P. 220.33-42.


II.20.9-18

449

9. By performing the Ś r ā d d h a in the constellation K r t t i k ā the excellent B r ā h m a n a attains h e a v e n ; by performing it in R o h i n ī , he obtains progeny; by performing it in Mrgaśiras constellation, he obtains Brahminical splendour. 10. By performing the Śrāddha in the Ā r d r ā constel­ lation, one attains the benefits of the holy rites pertaining to R u d r a as well as heroism; by performing it in the Punarvasu star, he attains lands, a n d by performing it in Pusya he obtains glory a n d prosperity. 11-12. By performing the Śrāddha in the Āślesā constella­ tion, one attains all desires; in the constellation pertaining to the Pitrs (i.e. M a g h ā ) , one attains good fortune. In the conste­ llation to A r y a m a n ( U t t a r ā Phālgunī) one attains w e a l t h ; in the ( P ū r v ā ) Phālgunī star, the sins are quelled; if the Śrāddha is performed in H a s t a , one attains excellence a m o n g K i n s m e n ; by performing Śrāddha in the Citrā constellation, one attains m a n y sons. If Śrāddha is performed in Svātī conste­ llation one attains the greatest achievement in trading trans­ actions; by performing Śrāddha in the Viśākhā star one obtains gold. 13. By performing Śrāddha in the constellation A n u r ā d h ā , one attains m a n y friends; in the constellation Jyesthā, one attains k i n g d o m ; by performing Śrāddha in M ū l a , one attains (flourishing) cultivation; by performing Ś r ā d d h a i n P ū r v ā s ā d h ā , one attains perfect knowledge a n d achievement. 14. By performing Śrāddha, in Vaiśvadeva ( U t t a r ā s ā d h ā ) constellation one attains all desires; in the Śravana constellation, one attains excellence; by performing Śrāddha in D h a n i s t h ā one attains all desires; and in Śatabhisak star, one attains the greatest strength. 15. By performing Śrāddha in the Pūrvābhādrapadā constellation, one shall obtain the base metals; in the conste­ llation of U t t a r ā B h ā d r a p a d ā , one attains excellent house; by performing Ś r ā d d h a in the Revatī constellation, one attains m a n y cows; a n d in the constellation Aśvini one attains horses. If one offers Ś r ā d d h a in the Bharanī constellation, one's life becomes perfect. 16-18. By performing Śrāddha on Sunday, one attains h e a l t h ; on M o n d a y , good fortune; on Tuesday, success every-


450

Kūrma

Purāna

where and by performing Śrāddha on Wednesday, one attains all desires; by performing Śrāddha on Friday, one attains wealth and by performing Śrāddha on Saturday, one attains longevity. 1 By performing Śrāddha on the P r a t i p a t 2 (i.e. first d a y in the lunar fortnight), one attains auspicious sons. On t h e second day, one begets d a u g h t e r s ; a n d on the third day, one gets animals, on the fourth day, he attains small animals or things and by performing Srāddha on the fifth day, one attains splendid sons. 19. A person performing Srāddha on the sixth day, attains lustre as well as good cultivation; the m a n who gives Śrāddha on the seventh day, attains wealth; he who offers Śrāddha on the eighth day, obtains good trading transactions. 20. He who performs Śrāddha on the ninth day, obtains single-hoofed a n i m a l s ; he who performs Śrāddha on the tenth d a y , obtains double-hoofed animals in plenty. O n e who per­ forms Śrāddha on the eleventh day, obtains silver a n d sons of B r a h m a nical splendour. 2 1 . O n e who performs Śrāddha on the twelfth day, obtains gold, silver and base metals. O n e who performs Śrāddha on the thirteenth day, obtains excellent kinsmen a n d one who performs Śrāddha on the fourteenth day, obtains ignoble progeny. O n e who performs Śrāddha on the fifteenth d a y (i.e. on the new moon d a y ) , always obtains all desires. 22. H e n c e Śrāddha should not be performed by the twiceborns on the fourteenth day. T h e Śrāddha pertaining to those killed by means of weapons should be assigned to that day. 23. T h e r e is no restriction as to the time, if B r ā h m a n a s a n d the materials are available. Hence, the twice-borns should perform Śrāddha for the purpose of worldly enjoyment as well as salvation.

1.

V V . 16-17 m e n t i o n t h e r e w a r d

for p e r f o r m i n g Ś r ā d d h a on several

w e e k - d a y s . Cf. V i s n u D h . s. 7 1 . 1. 7. 2. V V . 18-21 state t h e fruit of p e r f o r m i n g Ś r ā d d h a on e a c h d a y from t h e 1st to t h e 15th d a y of t h e d a r k half. A p a s t a m b a D h . S. I I . 7. 10. 8-22. M b h . A n u ś ā s a n a 87, V ā y u P . 8 1 . 10-19, Bd. P . I I I . 17. 10-22, B m . P . 220. 15-21 d e a l with s a m e topic, t h o u g h with s o m e difference a b o u t t h e r e w a r d s .


451

I I . 20.24-36

24. T h e Śrāddha should be performed at the beginning of all noble enterprises. It should again be performed on the achievement of prosperity, or when a son is born a n d in similar instances. T h e Pārvana Śrāddha is to be performed in Parvans (particular holy d a y s ) . 25-26. Śrāddha t h a t is to be performed every day is the Nitya Srāddha; t h a t which is performed for achieving a desirable object is occasional (Naimittika). T h e r e is Ekoddisfa-Śrāddha (intended for one forebear) and others Bahūddista (?) (v.l. Vrddhi-Srāddha) Śrāddha a n d Pārvana-Śrāddha. These five kinds of Śrāddha are glorified by M a n u . In the course of journey, the s i x t h kind is prescribed a n d it should be performed assiduously (or regularly). 27. A seventh Śrāddha has been enunciated by B r a h m a for the achievement of purity. T h e eighth Śrāddha is Daivika (divine) by t h e performance of which, one is liberated from fear. 28. A Śrāddha is n o t to be performed either in the evening or at night except at the time of eclipse. T h e merit of performing Śrāddha at particular (holy) place is infinite. 1 29.

The

Śrāddha on t h e G a ń g ā ,

A m a r a k a n t a k a is of everlasting

benefit.

at Prayāga The

and

Pitrs

at

sing the

religious verse and the learned m e n dance. 30. " M a n y sons of good conduct endowed with attributes should be sought by one. Perhaps (at least) one a m o n g all those m a y go to Gayā. 31. After reaching G a y ā if one performs Śrāddha incidentally, the Pitrs arc redeemed by h i m . He attains the greatest g o a l " . 32-36. In the following holy centres, the Pitrs are per­ petually delighted, v i z . : — V a r ā h a m o u n t a i n , G a y ā in particular, in Vārānasī where lord H a r a himself is present, at the source 1. property.

A s K P . ( i n f r a I I . 22. 17) states, holy p l a c e s a r e n o o n e ' s p r i v a t e H e n c e , vv.

28-36 r e c o m m e n d a list of holy places

mountains, etc) where performance

V i s n u D h . S . c h . 8 5 , Ś a ń k h a S m r . H . 27-29, 22 for t h e lists of s u c h holy

(rivers, forests,

of ś r ā d d h a is m o r e efficacious.

Vide also

Vāyu P. Ch. 77 and M a . P. ch.

places for Ś r ā d d h a .


452

Kūrma

Purina

of Gańgā, Prabhasa, Bilvaka, on the Nila m o u n t a i n , K u r u k s e t r a , K u b j ā m r a , Bhrgutuñga, M a h ā l a y a , K e d ā r a , Phalgu tīrtha, in the Naimisa forest, particularly in Sarasvatī a n d Puskara, in t h e N a r m a d ā , a t K u ś ā v a r t a , Śrīśaila, B h a d r a k a r n a k a i n t h e VetravatI, ( t h e Betwa in M.P.) t h e Visākhā (v.l. Vipās'ā i.e. t h e Beas), particularly in the G o d ā v a r i a n d on t h e banks of t h e other holy rivers. 37. O n e propitiates the Pitrs for a m o n t h , if the Śrāddha. is offered with grains, barleys, pulses, water, fruits a n d roots, Śyāmāka grains, Kāśas, Nīvāras, Priyańgus, wheat, gingelly seeds and green g r a m . 1 38. At the time of t h e Śrāddha, one should offer t h e juice of mango, sugarcane, bunches of grapes a n d pomegranates. He shall also give Vidaśvas a n d Kurandas* (different kinds of grass). " 39. He should give fried grains with honey, powdered fried grains with sugar, assiduously at the time of the Śrāddha. He should give water caltrops a n d water c h e s t u n t (Śrńgāfaka kaśerukas (?) ) . 40. M a n e s are satisfied with the m e a t of fish for two m o n t h s ; with Venison for three m o n t h s ; w i t h the m e a t of t h e r a m for four m o n t h s ; with the m e a t of birds for five m o n t h s ; with t h e m e a t of goats for six months and w i t h t h e m e a t of t h e spotted antelope for seven m o n t h s . 4 1 . T h e Pitrs are propitiated for eight months, if Śrāddha is offered with the m e a t of Ena ( d e e r ) a n d for nine months w i t h the m e a t of R u r u deer. W i t h t h e m e a t of the b o a r a n d t h e buffalo they a r e propitiated for ten months. 42. W i t h t h e flesh of rabbit a n d tortoise, he should propitiate them for eleven months. W i t h t h e cow's milk a n d 1.

V V . 37-39 s h o w t h a t P i t r s a r e satisfied

v e g e t a r i a n food a n d fruit b u t vv. 40-45

state the

P i t r s a r e gratified w h e n t h e f l e s h o f c e r t a i n a t t h e t i m e o f S r ā d d h a . W e h a v e similar list 272, Y ā j . 258-260, V ā y u P . 8 3 . 3-9,

M t . P.

for

a

month

periods

animals is

by articles of

of t i m e

served

o f this t y p e i n 17. 31-35,

t h o u g h t h e r e i s s o m e d i v e r g e n c e i n s o m e details. Refusal

Manu

Bm. to

for w h i c h

to B r ā h m a n a s III.

267-

P . 220. 23-29

eat

flesh

would

p u n i s h t h e refuser b y b i r t h a s a b e a s t i n t h e n e x t b i r t h , stay i n t h e h e l l for m a n y years

as

t h e killed a n i m a l h a d h a i r o n

r e l i c o f a n old n o n - v e g e t a r i a n a g e . •v.l. vidārīñca bharandām (?)

its b o d y

(supra I .

as

18-40) — A


453

11.20.43—21.2

milk p u d d i n g he shall propitiate them for a year. T h e satisfac­ tion d u e to the Śrāddha with the m e a t of V ā r d h r i n a s a (rhinoceros or old white goat) extends to twelve years. 4 3 . T h e Kālaśāka, (?) the M a h ā ś a l k a (sea-crab), the m e a t of rhinoceros a n d the red goat a n d t h e honey, — t h e food-stuffs of t h e sages are capable of being beneficent endlessly. 44. W h e t h e r by buying or securing oneself or bringing the d e a d b o d y (of the a n i m a l ) , the B r ā h m a n a should assi­ duously offer it in the Śrāddha. It is called everlasting for h i m . 45-47. T h e following articles are used in the Śrāddha, viz. : — ( l o n g pepper) Pippalī, R u c a k a , M u s ū r a k a (lentil), K ū s m ā n d a (pumpkin) Alābu (gourd), Vārtāka, B h ū t r n a (a fragrant grass), the juicy root of K u s u m b h a P i n d a a n d Tandulīyaka. At the time of t h e Ś r ā d d h a , an excellent B r ā h m a n a should avoid seven articles assiduously, viz. :— R ā j a m ā s a pulse, buffalo's milk, goat's milk, Adhakīs, Kovidāras, P ā l a k i s a n d Maricas (chillis).

CHAPTER

TWENTYONE

Rules governing Śrāddha (contd.) Vyāsa said : 1. On t h e new m o o n day, a B r ā h m a n a should take his b a t h a n d propitiate the Pitrs as mentiond before. W i t h purity a n d gentlemanliness, he should perform t h e Ś r ā d d h a called Pin dānvāhāryaka. 2. At the very outset, he should look up for a B r ā h m a n a who is a master of the Vedas. 1 He is the holy centre (deserves 1. T h e s e verses describe the qualifications of the Brāhmana to be invited for the Śrāddha. Heredity, personality, learning, character are some of the m a i n considerations of such an invitee. Cf M t . P. 16. 8-10, N P . I. 28-6-10; also Smr. C. (Smrti Candrikā) I I I (SrāddhaKānda) pp. 389-394. An­ cient Smrtis insist on purity of Character. Says M a n u ( I I . 1 1 8 ) . "Better a ISrāhmana w h o knows only the Gāyatri M a n t r a but is self-controlled, than a knower of three Vedas but lacking in self-control, eats everything and sells anything (despite the prohibition of dharma").


Kūrma Purina

454

to be the recepient of offerings m e a n t for gods a n d Pitrs). 3. T h e B r ā h m a n a s to be invited must be Soma-imbibers, ( i n Yajñas), free from passion (Rajas q u a l i t y ) , knowers of D h a r m a , of calm mind, performing holy rites, observers of rules restraining the mind, those who approach u n t o their, wives only on the prescribed days after menstruation. 4. T h e B r ā h m a n a must be one who maintains the five (sacrificial) fires. He must be a student of the Vedas, a knower of Yajurveda, conversant with m a n y Rk m a n t r a s 1 Trisauparna a n d Trimadkus* 3

5. He must know the m a n t r a s of Trināciketas, be a chanter of the Sāma-veda a n d must know the Jyesfka Simons* 6 He must have studied Atharvaśiras especially the section called R u d r a Adhyāya m a n t r a s . 6. He must be devoted to the performance of Agnihotra. He must be a scholar knowing Nyāyas a n d the six Ańgas

1.

three

Trisuparna—The

beginning

Anuvākas

from

Brahmametu

mām

(Uit. Ar. X. 41-50) 2.

Tri-madhu—Three

Vedic

verses

( R V . I.

9 0 . 6-9, V ā j . S. 13. 27-29.

T a i t . S. I V . 2. 9. 3.) in w h i c h t h e w o r d Madhu o c c u r s t h r i c e . 3.

Tri-nāciketas—variously

explained

as:

1.

A p e r s o n w h o k n o w s t h e N ā c i k e t a fire

2.

A person w h o has thrice kindled the Nāciketa fire.

3.

O n e w h o h a s s t u d i e d t h e Anuvāka called 11. 7-8 w h i c h describes t h e

Virajas, T a i t .

Br.

III.

N ā c i k e t a f i r e a n d t h e story o f

Naciketas. 4. Jyeffha-sāman—Two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s the Sāma-veda. i.

Talavakāra śākhā:

Sāman

according

sung

on

Udu

to

the

tvam

branches

of

( R v . I. 50. 1)

Citram devānām ( R v . I. 115. 1) ii.

Chāndoga Śākhā:

T h r e e sāmans

s u n g on

mūrdhānam divo

(Rv.

V I . 7. 1, S ā m , V. P ū r v ā r c i k a 67, ibid u t t a r ā r c i k a 1 1 4 0 ) . vv. 4 a n d 5 of KP r e p e a t A p a . D h . S. 7. 17-22 w h e r e pāvana'

qualification

Sutra) of a

II.

'Pañkti-

(purifier of a r o w of 'fallen' persons by sitting in t h e i r

r o w for m e a l s ) . 5.

(Āpastamba-Dharma

it is r e g a r d e d as a

N. of an Upanisad.


455

11.21.7-11

(auxiliary studies of t h e V e d a ) . He must be a knower of t h e M a n t r a B r ā h m a n a s a n d a reciter of D h a r m a Śāstra. 7. He must be observing vows of sages a n d a (lit. a minor sage) prospective sage of calm m i n d who has subdued sense-organs. He must belong to family of hereditary Vedic Teachers. He must be p u r e ever since the conception. He must be a bestower of a thousand cows. 8. He must regularly perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. He must be truthful in speech, a knower of the P u r ā n a s , devoted to t h e worship of the preceptor, Devas a n d t h e fire-god. He must be devoted to the perfect knowledge. 9. O n e liberated from all sides, of firm mind, an excellent B r ā h m a n a who has realised the B r a h m a n , a n d who is selfpossessed, a devotee of Visnu, engaged in the worship of M a h ā deva a n d one called P a ń k t i p ā v a n a 1 (one who sanctifies the row in which he sits for meals.) 10. A person w h o is as follows, should be known as a P a ń k t i p ā v a n a ; one who is engaged in non-violence, one w h o never accepts m o n e t a r y gifts; one who performs Satra (sacrificial sessions) a n d one who is engaged in charitable gifts. Additional Verses in Brackets A. B r ā h m a n a s who are young and healthy a n d well versed in Śrutis or Vedas, devoted to the performance of great Yajñas a n d those Brāhmanas who are engaged in the J a p a of the Sāvitri M a n t r a are Pańkti-Pāvanas. B. Those who belong to good families, are endowed with Vedic learning, those who are of good conduct, performers of Penance, a B r ā h m a n a householder who m a i n t a i n s (sacrifical) fires—these should be known as Pańktipāvanas. 11. A B r ā h m a n a who is engaged in what is beneficial to his parents, who regularly takes his b a t h early in the morning, a sage knowing spiritual topics a n d a person of self control should be known as Pańkti-Pāvana. 1.

Pańkti-pāvana;

P e r s o n s w h o sanctify o t h e r s by t h e i r p r e s e n c e

r o w of d i n e r s ( e v e n at funeral r e p a s t ) . T h i s Dh.

S.

(Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra)

belief is p r e t t y

I I . 8. 2. M a n u I I I

185-186.

s u c h B r ā h m a n a s given h e r e ( v v . 1-14) i s f o u n d i n t h e M b h . also cf. M t . P. 16. 7-13, V ā y u p. 79. 56-59.

old,

vide The

Anu.

in t h e Baudh. list

of

90-25-31,


456

Kūrma Purāna

12. A great Yogin, well-stabilised in perfect knowledge, one who ponders over t h e meanings of V e d ā n t a s ; one who has faith, one who is engaged in Ś r ā d d h a — s u c h a B r ā h m a n a is Pańkti-Pāvana. 13. A B r ā h m a n a who is engaged in the Vedic lore, one always devoted to celibacy, who is well versed in the Atharvaveda a n d who desires liberation is a Pańkti-Pāvana. 14. A B r ā h m a n a who has no common Pravaras (with the performer of the Srāddha) and who belongs to a different Gotra1 a n d who is thus unrelated, should be regarded as Pańktipāvana. 15. O n e shall feed a quiescent Yogin 2 engaged in the perfect knowledge of the reality. In his absence, he m a y feed a Naisthika (perpetual) celibate sage or a religious student who has completed his religious studentship and who takes to the life of a householder. 16. In his absence, he shall feed a householder who is desirous of salvation and who has no a t t a c h m e n t . If all these are not available, one shall feed a householder who is an aspirant. 17. If an ascetic who knows the Gunas of the Prakrti and all the principles ( t a t t v a s ) partakes of one's Havis, the merit t h a t one attains exceeds feeding even a thousand knowers of Vedānta. 18. Hence, with great effort, one should feed a leading Yogin engaged in the pursuit of perfect knowledge of īśvara ( i n rites pertaining to gods and Pitrs) by means of Havyas and Kavyas. In case he be not available, he should feed other Brāhmanas. 19. This is the best alternative in t h e m a t t e r of giving Havya and Kavya. T h e Anukalpa? (next alternative) which is always practised by pious m e n should be known as follows : 1. Cf. B a u d h D h . S. I I . 2. 7. 2. V V . 15-18 cf. V i s n u D h . S. 8 3 . 19-20. It specially r e c o m m e n d s Yogins a s invitees t o Ś r ā d d h a a n d q u o t e s a G ā t h ā i n w h i c h Pitrs express t h e i r y e a r n i n g for a B r ā h m a n a Y o g i n fed at t h e i r Ś r ā d d h a . P u r ā n a s vie w i t h each other in describing the quantitative a n d q u a l i t a t i v e efficacy i n feed­ ing a Y o g i n at a Ś r ā d d h a t h a n o t h e r B r ā h m a n a s in different SSramas (stages o f life). Cf. B d . P . I I I . 9 . 7 0 M k . P . 2 9 . 29. 3. course:

M e d h ā t i t h i o n M a n u I I I 147 explains this a s mukhyābhāveyo 'nuffiyatepratinidhi-nyāyena

t h e second best


457

11.21.20-27

20. O n e should ( t h e n ) feed (one's) m a t e r n a l grandfather, 1 m a t e r n a l uncle, sisters' son, father-in-law, preceptor, daughter's son, a king, a kinsman, as well as a Rtvik and a Yājya (one on whose behalf a Yajña can be performed) 2 1 . O n e should not feed a friend in the Ś r ā d d h a . He should be pleased with w e a l t h ( ? ) . D e s i r e for Daksināsis demonic a n d is not conducive to a n y benefit either here or hereafter. 22. In case of non-availability of a suitable B r ā h m a n a one m a y very well feed a n d honour a friend b u t not an enemy, even though he may be learned and enlightened. T h e Havis p a r t a k e n of by an enemy becomes futile after d e a t h . 2 3 . A B r ā h m a n a who has not learned the Vedas becomes extinct like the fire of (dry) grass. Havya shall not be given u n t o him, for Homa is not performed in the ashes indeed. 24. J u s t as by sowing seeds in a barren land, the sower -does not r e a p any fruit thereof, similarly, by offering Havis to one without Rk mantras (i.e. one who has not learned Rk mantras) one does not reap the fruit of t h a t offer. 25. If a non-knower of M a n t r a s partakes of foodoblations in Havya a n d Kavya (offered to gods a n d Pitrs), the performer of t h a t S r ā d d h a is compelled to swallow after death as m a n y b u r n i n g thick balls of iron ( i n n u m b e r ) as the riceballs swallowed by t h a t non-knower 3 (of mantras). 26. O B r ā h m a n a , t h a t abode ( p l a c e of sacrifice) becomes Asura (unholy a n d demonaic) where these base m e n of evil conduct p a r t a k e of the Havya, though they m a y b e endowed with the knowledge a n d birth in noble family. 27.* If the Vedas a n d Vedis (sacrificial platforms)are in disuse upto three generations, that person becomes an evil B r ā h m a n a ; He never deserves invitation to feeding in Ś r ā d d h a s 4 etc. 2

1. Yāj. S m r . I. 220, M t . P. 16. 10-11. 2 . V V . 21-22. Cf. M a n u I I I . 138-139 b u t h e modifies his view a n d allows i n v i t a t i o n to a friend in e m e r g e n c y b u t n o t an e n e m y h o w e v e r l e a r n e d I I I . 144. 3.

M a n u I I I . 133.

•Auśanasa S m r t i . 4. Most

V V . 27-47

describe t h e disqualifications for i n v i t a t i o n to a Ś r ā d d h a .

o f these verses a r e c o m m o n t o M a n u I I I .

151-166 Cf. Y ā j . S m r . I . 222-


458

Kūrma Purāna

28. T h e person mentioned above, a servant of a Ś ū d r a , a salaried a t t e n d a n t of the king, the sacriñcial priest of Śūdras, a person who sustains himself by killing a n d a person whose livelihood is imprisoning others—these six are B r a h m a b a n d h u s (not true B r ā h m a n a s — n o m i n a l B r ā h m a n a s ) . 29. (Defective verse) M a n u says that they are fallen for the sake of wealth. These sellers of Vedas are not approved of for the Śrāddha. 30. Those who sell their sons, those who are born as sons of a remarried widow, those w h o perform the Yajñas of even ordinary persons—all these are spoken of as fallen ones. 31.** Those teachers who are not cultured, those who r e a d and teach Vedas for salary—are called fallen ones. 32-33. T h a t Srāddha wherein the wicked Tāmasikas such as old Śrāvakas (Buddhists), Jainas, knowers of Pañcarātra, followers of Kāpālika a n d P ā ś u p a t a sects, atheists, a n d others like them eat food offered to gods, does not bestow excellent benefit here and hereafter. 1 34. A B r ā h m a n a n o t belonging to a n y Aśrama, or a nonperformer of t h e prescribed duties of his own Aśrama (stage o f life) and who falsely poses as belonging to a particular A ś r a m a — all these should be known as defilers of rows of people participat­ ing in a feast. 224, B r h a d - Y a m a S m r . I I I . 34-38, M b h . Anuśāsana 90. 6-11, M t . P . 16. 14-17, B m . P. 220. 127-135. Bd. P. U p o d g h ā t a 15. 39-43, 19. 39-41, N P . I. 3 0 - 4 1 . T h e textual similarity b e t w e e n these verses from different works is Out

of these,

A reference to Smr. CandrikS I I I , p p . Sutras,

significant-

M a n u ' s list of disqualifications is t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e o n e . 394-403 shows

Smrtis a n d P u r ā n a s a t t a c h e d

B r ā h m a n a s for Ś r ā d d h a . A s M a n u I I I 149. m a n a s to test for w o r k

h o w writers on D h a r m a

g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e selection o f p u t s it, o n e

m a y not put Brāh­

p e r t a i n i n g to gods, b u t in t h e case of Pitrs (i. e. for

Ś r ā d d h a ) o n e m u s t b e scrupulously c a r e f u l — a view

endorsed

by

most

other

writers o n D h a r m a Ś ā s t r a . 1.

Here the

followers o f

a r e disqualified as these sects were fold d u e

to

Pañca-rātra,

Kāpālika

r e g a r d e d to h a v e

P ā ś u p a t a sects t h e vedic

their r e c o g n i t i o n of their s e c t a r i a n A g a m a s as a g a i n s t t h e Vedas-

P ā ś u p a t a s of t h e vedic fold d e s c r i b e d so elaborately different. Cf.

and

b e e n outside

Bd. P. I I I . 14. 38-39, V ā y u 78. 30-31

in

this

Purāna are


11.21.35-45

459

35-42. T h e following persons are shunned in Ś r ā d d h a a n d similar rites : A person with a hideous skin; one with ill-formed rotten nails, a leper, one with white leprosy, one with black teeth, one whose penis is mutilated, a thief, an impotent person, an atheist, a drink-addict, a p a r a m o u r of a Ś ū d r a woman, a murderer of a hero, one who indulges in sexual intercourse with 1 one's brother's widow, one who commits arson, a p i m p , the seller of Soma, the young brother who marries before the elder brother,* the violent m a n , the elder brother who remains u n m a r ­ ried when the younger brother has married, non-performer of Mahā-yajñas, an expelled one, a widow's son, a usurer, a stargazer) one indulging in songs and musical instruments, a sickly person, a one-eyed fellow, one deficient in a n y limb, an Avakirnin (a religious student who breaks his v o w ) , one who has an a d d i tional limb, a person who defiles food, bastard, a person accused of a crime, a Devala (a person maintaining himself by worshipping idols) ; a person who injures his friend; a back-biter, a henpecked h u s b a n d ; a person who has abandoned his parents and the preceptor, a wife-forsaker, the creator of discord in one's clan, one w h o is impure, a worthless fellow; an issueless person, a perjuror, a beggar, a person living by means of dramas, a seafarer, an ungrateful person, a person committing breach of promise, and one who censures Vedas, Devas and the B r ā h m a n a s . All these should be avoided in a Ś r ā d d h a . 43. T h e following are defilers of rows : — a n ungrateful person, a back-biter, a ruthless person, an atheist, a person w h o censures the Vedas, a person injuring friends and a cheat. 44. All these should not be fed (in a Ś r ā d d h a ) . T h e y c a n n o t be given any gift in holy rites A m u r d e r e r of a Brāh­ m a n a a n d a person who is accused should be avoided scrupulously. 45. A B r ā h m a n a who has fattened himself on the food and drink offered ^y Śūdras a n d a person not performing Sandnyā 1. deceased

didhisūpati—one

who

lasciviously

b r o t h e r even t h o u g h h e b e

dallies

appointed

with

the

widow

of h i s

t o p r o c r e a t e a son from h e r

a s p e r l a w (dharma), M a n u I I I . 173. 2.

Parivettā—a y o u n g e r

brother

who marries

before his elder b r o t h e r — M a n u I I I . 1 7 1 .

or kindles sacred fires,


Kūrma Purāna

460

prayers and five great Yajñas—are the defilers of the rows (in feasts). 46. A B r ā h m a n a who destroys w h a t he has learned, one devoid of an ablution and charitable gifts and a B r ā h m a n a with predominance of T a m a s and Rajas G u n a s — a l l of these are defilers of rows. 1 47. Of w h a t use is an expiation beyond limit. Those who do not perform the enjoined duties b u t perform those acts which are forbidden a r e to be scrupulously avoided in t h e Śrāddha.

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO Rules for performance of Śrāddha2

(contd.)

Vyāsa said : 1-2. H a v i n g purified the ground with cowdung a n d water on the d a y previous to t h a t of Śrāddha, the performer of Śrāddha should invite the Brāhmanas with the above-mentioned quilifications, through good persons with the invitation : " T o m o r r o w there will be Srāddha at my p l a c e . " If this is not possible, he m a y invite on the next d a y 3 (i.e, on the d a y of Śrāddha. 3. H e a r i n g t h a t the time of Śrāddha has arrived, his manes will mentally communicate with each other a n d with the speed of the m i n d , they gather near him. 1.

Though

ween one w h o

K P . d o e s n o t explicitly discuss it t h e r e is a distinction

should

not be

invited a s

a

B r ā h m a n a for Ś r ā d d h a

bet­

because

b e i n g Sagotra a n d those w h o a r e apāńkteyas or Pańkti-dūsakas i. e. w h o s e presence defiles t h e r o w of d i n e r s . T h e list of s u c h defilers

(Pańkti-dūsakas)

is

given

a b o v e i n this c h a p t e r . 2.

As this

chapter

is

verbatim t h e s a m e

as Auśanasa Smrti c h . V, p a r a ­

llels for c o m p a r i s o n from this Smrti a r e n o t cited. 3.

Cf. M t . P. 16.

17-20; P r a j ā p a t i S m r . 6 3 .


II.22.4-13

461

4. T h e Pitrs take food along with those Brāhmanas, though they (themselves) are in firmament. 1 T h e y r e m a i n in their airy state. After taking food, they a t t a i n their greatest goal. 5. T h e B r ā h m a n a s w h o have been invited shall invariab­ ly observe celibacy, be self-controlled when t h e time for the Śrāddha has arrived. 2 6. T h e person w h o performs Śrāddha must certainly avoid anger, hurry, carelessness; should speak the t r u t h a n d have concentration of the mind, refrain from carrying heavy weight, sexual intercourse and long journey. 7. If a B r ā h m a n a , invited by one accepts the invitation of another, he falls into the terrible hell a n d becomes a pig. 8. If the B r ā h m a n a (householder), after inviting o n e B r ā h m a n a for the Ś r ā d d h a invites a n o t h e r also out of delusion he is a greater sinner. He is reborn as a w o r m in the faeces. 9. If a B r ā h m a n a invited for partaking of the Ś r ā d d h a indulges in sexual intercourse, he incurs the sin of a B r ā h m a n a slaughter. He is reborn as an animal. 10. If a B r ā h m a n a invited for a Ś r ā d d h a (accepts t h e invitation a n d ) goes on a journey, the Pitrs of the wicked B r ā h m a n a subsist on sinful food that m o n t h . 11. If a B r ā h m a n a , invited for a Ś r ā d d h a were to quarrel, the Pitrs of t h a t B r ā h m a n a become the eaters of filth that month. 12. Hence, the B r ā h m a n a invitee for a Ś r ā d d h a should control himself, be free from anger a n d devoted to cleanliness. T h e performer (of the Śrāddha) also shall be one w h o h a s conquered his sense-organs. 13. (Defective verse). On the morning of the next d a y (i.e. on t h e Śrāddha d a y ) he should go in the southern direction and with great concentration bring the K u ś a grass alongwith their roots, a n d (he shall place t h e m ) with their tips to t h e South a n d water ( ? ) . T h e y shall be clean. 1.

T h e i d e a of a n c e s t o r s h o v e r i n g in t h e sky for

p a r t i c i p a t i o n of food

o n t h e Ś r ā d d h a d a y a n d e n t e r i n g t h e b o d y o f B r ā h m a n a s i n v i t e d for Ś r ā d d h a is f o u n d e l s e w h e r e also,vide P d . P. Sr?ti K h a n d a 9. 85-86, V ā y u P. 75. 13-15. 2.

About

t h e religious

Ś r ā d d h a cf. Laghu Śańkha Smr.

restrictions o n

the inviter

a n d t h e invitee t o


462

Kūrma Purāna

14. He shall select a clean isolated spot of all auspici­ ous characteristics. It shall be smooth a n d sloping towards the south. He shall scrub it a n d smear cowdung over i t . 1 15. T h e Pitrs- are always delighted with t h e Śrāddha offered in holy centres, on the banks of the rivers, on his plot of land in isolated places b u t not in waters." 16. O n e shall never perform Śrāddhas in a plot of land belonging to others. W h a t is done, by men m a y be obstructed by the owner out of delusion. * 17. Forests, mountains, sacred holy centres and shrines — t h e y say t h a t these are without owners. No one c a n claim these as theirs. 18. (Defective verse). He shall scatter gingelly seeds there all round, b u t see t h a t they do not grow (i.e. germinate ?) A Ś r ā d d h a affected by t h e Asuras becomes purified through the gingelly seeds if they do not germinate. 19. He shall t h e n prepare various kinds of cooked food with diverse pickles a n d side dishes. In accordance with his ability, he should p r e p a r e lambatives, beverages a n d cooked food. 20. (Defective verse). T h e n , after midday, he should a p p r o a c h t h e B r ā h m a n a s w h o have shaved their hairs a n d pared their nails a n d give u n t o t h e m the tooth-brush twig. 21. When requested ''Ye be s e a t e d " , they will sit separately. He should give t h e m oil for anointing themselves with as well as water for b a t h , a n d various other necessary requisites. These shall be given in vessels m a d e of U d u m b a r a wood. Everything shall be given with Vaiśvadaivatya rites (i.e. uttering Vaiśvadeva h y m n s ) . 22. W h e n they r e t u r n after taking b a t h , he should greet them with palms joined in reverence. He should offer them P&dya a n d Ācamaniya, (water for washing the feet a n d the A c a m a n a ) sipping water-rite in d u e order.

1.

I. 2 2 7 .

F o r t h e selection of a spot for Ś r ā d d h a , cf. M a n u I I I 206-207, Yāj,


H.22.23-33

463

23. T h e seats of those Brāhmanas who h a d been pre­ viously invited on behalf of Viśve-Devas, are covered with t h r e e blades( ?) of D a r b h a grass with their tips towards the East. 24. T h e seats of the B r ā h m a n a s on behalf of the Pitrs a r e the D a r b h a grasses facing the South. T h e y must be sprini l e d with water and gingelly seeds. 25. He should m a k e t h e m sit on these. T o u c h i n g the seat he should request : " Y e be seated", T h e y shall seat separately. 26. T w o (Brāhmanas) shall represent Viśvedevas ( ? ) T h e y shall face the east. T h r e e Brāhmanas represent t h e Pitrs T h e y face the n o r t h . O n e shall represent Pitāmaha (grandfather) a n d one shall represent M ā t ā m a h a (maternal grandfather) O r o n e B r ā h m a n a represents gods and one paternal a n d m a t e r n a l grandfather. 27. Five things are spoiled if performed elaborately in a crowd, viz.-hospitality, purity of the place (of respect), t h e t i m e of respect, cleanliness, and t h e selection of a B r ā h m a n a . H e n c e one shall not wish for elaborateness and a big gathering. 28. Or one shall feed only one B r ā h m a n a who is a m a s t e r of the Vedas, endowed with learning, good conduct etc. a n d devoid of evil characteristics. 29. O u t of all articles of food thereof, he should take a portion (in a vessel a n d offer it to the B r ā h m a n a representing gods, in the shrine, a n d then pass it to others. 30. He shall consign t h a t cooked food to the fire. He should give t h a t to a Brahmacārin. Hence, one shall feed only one B r ā h m a n a b u t he should be an excellent scholar. 3 1 . If a mendicant or a Brahmacārin be present for the purpose of food and he seats himself in the Śrāddha, one should feed him also. 32. Ś r ā d d h a wherein the guest does not partake of the food, is not praised. Hence, guests should be worshipped in the Śrāddhas by the B r ā h m a n a s . 33. Those twice-born ones who partake of the food in a Śrāddha devoid of hospitality ( t o a guest), are reborn as crows. T h e r e is no d o u b t about this. T h e performer of the Śrāddha too (is reborn as a c r o w ) .


464

Kūrma Prāuna

34. T h e following shall be shunned and kept at a great distance from Śrāddhas viz. one who is deficient in a n y limb, a fallen one, a leper, one with running sores, an atheist, a cock, a pig a n d a dog. 35. O n e shall avoid a loathsome fellow, an unclean fellow, the naked one, the intoxicated one, the rogue, a women in her monthly course, the blue-garmented, the ochre-garmented a n d the heretic. 36. Whatever rite is performed in a Śrāddha towards the Brāhmanas shall be performed alongwith Vaiśvadeva rites or invoking Viśvedevas. 37. Even as they are seated, one should bedeck t h e m in ornaments, garlands, coronets, fumigating incenses a n d unguents. 38. T h e n with the permission of the Brāhmanas, he should invoke Devas by means of the Rk Viśvedevāsah ( R V . I I , 4 1 . 13) etc. He shall duly recite it and face the north. 39-40. He shall wear two Pavitras (the D a r b h a grass m a d e to resemble a ring with a t a i l ) . R e p e a t i n g t h e m a n t r a Śarmo devih, etc. he shall (RV-X. 9.4) pour water in the cleaned vessel. R e p e a t i n g the m a n t r a Tavosi (Vāja V- 26) etc. he should place Yavas (barley grains) there. Repeating t h e m a n t r a " Y ā D i v y ā " (Tait. Br. I I . 7. 15. 4) he should p o u r t h e Arghya on to t h e h a n d . He should t h e n offer scents a n d garlands, incense etc. according to his ability. 4 1 . He shall then t u r n round anticlockwise a n d face t h e south, repeating t h e R k . Uśanlas Tvā ( R V . X. 16. 12) etc. t h e learned m a n shall invoke the Pitrs, 42-43. After invoking the Pitrs and being permitted by the B r ā h m a n a s he shall perform the J a p a of the M a n t r a Āyantu nah: Pitarah (Vāj. S a m 19. 58) etc. R e p e a t i n g the M a n t r a Śanno Devih etc. he should p o u r water in the vessel a n d place gingelly seed, repeating the m a n t r a Tilosi etc. Pouring Arghya on the hands as before, he should, with concentration, p u t the Sarhsravas (mixing of waters from the Argha-vessel a n d vessel for Pitrs). 44-45. At the seat of the Pitrs, he should place the vessel face downwards. He should take the cooked rice soaked in ghee. Desirous of consigning it into the fire, he shall ask the B r ā h m a n a s ' permission for the same. On being permitted by t h e m saying


11.22.45-53

465

" D o s o " , he should perform Homa, wearing the sacred thread in the usual m a n n e r . 45. Homa should be performed by one with the K u ś a grass in the h a n d , wearing the sacred thread in the n o r m a l m a n n e r . All the rites of the Pitrs should be performed with t h e sacred thread worn over the right shoulder and u n d e r the left a r m . T h e Vaiśvadeva rite is performed like Homa. 46. While rendering homage to Devas, one shall always kneel u p o n the right knee; a n d during the obeisance a n d service to the Pitrs one shall kneel u p o n the other knee. 47. At the time he should repeat the M a n t r a Somāya vai pitrmate svadhā namah [svadhā a n d obeisance into Soma (the deity) with t h e P i t r s ] . T h e n he shall perform Homa by saying Agnqye kavya-vihūya svadhā [svadhā u n t o Agni (firegod) the bearer of Kavyas]. 48. In case fire is not available one should m a k e use of the right h a n d of the Brāhmanas. Or he shall perform it n e a r god M a h ā d e v a or in a cowshed with d u e concentration. 49-51. Thereafter, on being permitted by them he should go to the southern direction. After cleaning and smearing the place with cowdung, he should cover it with sand. It shall be inclined towards the South a n d be auspicious. W i t h a D a r b h a grass he shall scratch and scrape its middle thrice. On t h a t spot he should strew D a r b h a grass, the tips of which are turned to t h e south. With the remainder of the Havis he shall make three Pindas there a n d offer them with great concentration. 52. After placing the Pindas he shall wipe off t h e h a n d on the D a r b h a grass to remove the greasiness to Pitrs w h o 1 partake of the Lepa. He should then perform the Ācamana rite thrice. He shall smell the cooked rice thrice slowly. T h e knower of the M a n t r a s then shall make obeisance u n t o t h e Pitrs. 53. T h e remainder of the holy water, he should pour r o u n d a n d near the Pindas. After offering the Pindas he shall smell the Pindas with great concentration. 1 . M a n u I I I 216 M t . P . 18. 2 9 s t a t e t h a t ancestors from t h e f o u r t h a r e e n t i t l e d to this lepa (food stuck to the- h a n d of t h e performer of Śrāddha).


466

Kūrma Purāna

54. He shall t h e n feed the Brāhmanas duly with the rice other t h a n that of the Pindas. He should also offer them meat, pies, etc. of various kinds, auspiciously prepared in accordance with the Srāddha K a l p a . 55-56. After they have started taking food, he should strew the cooked rice of the Piudas in front of them on the ground. He should ask them " W h a t shall I do with this rice ? (?) W h e n they are satisfied, he should make t h e m perform the Ācamana rite. After they have performed t h e Ācamana, he should urge them saying "Be diverted all r o u n d " . T h e Brāhmanas will say then Svadhā be to you. 57. T h e n w h e n they have finished taking food, he should inquire of them about t h e remainder of the food. On being per­ mitted by those Brāhmanas he shall do so as they say. 58. In the Pitr rite one shall say Svaditam ( M a y it be well tasted). In the cow-sheds it shall be mentioned thus—Suśrtam (well-cooked). In [prosperity it shall be mentioned thus : Sampannam—well endowed. In regard to a Deva Sevitam (served) should be mentioned. 59. After bidding farewell to the B r ā h m a n a s he should stand before the Pitrs silently facing the southern direction. He shall then beg of the Pitrs t h e following boons : 60. " M a y the liberal person flourish. M a y the Vedas and our progeny flourish. M a y not our faith slip off. M a y there be m u c h with us for giving." 6 1 . T h e Pindas m a y be given to cows, goats, or Brāhmanas or cast into fire or water. T h e wife, desirous of a son, m a y eat the middle P i n d a . 1 62-64. He shall wash his hands and perform Ācamana. W i t h t h e remainder of the foodstuff, he should propitiate kinsmen. He shall give u n t o the Brāhmanas whatever is liked by them viz: cereals, vegetables, fruits, sugarcane, milk, curds, ghee, honey, cooked rice as m u c h as they w a n t a n d various kinds of edibles a n d beverages. He should give them various kinds of grains and gingelly seeds of all kinds and different kinds of sugar. Except in the case of fruits, roots and Pānakas (sweetened 1.

M a n u I I I . 260-261, Y ā j . I . 257, M t . P , 16. 52-53.


11.22.65-73 cold w a t e r ) , hot food should be given to o n e w h o wishes for welfare.

467 the twice-born by

6 5 . O n e shall not rest t h e knee on t h e ground nor shall be furious. He shall not u t t e r a falsehood. He shall not touch food with the foot. Nor shall he shun a n d reject it. 66. T h e demons take away the benefit of w h a t is partaken of in fury or against t h e conventional procedure or w h e n served by one w h o prattles. 67. O excellent Brāhmanas one should not stand near if one perspires profusely, he should not see* the crows and other birds going contrary to the n a t u r a l order. T h e Pitrs desirous of eating, come there assuming those forms. 68. He should not directly give salt into t h e h a n d . Nor should the food be served in an iron vessel. It should never be served with carelessness. 69. W h a t is offered in the following types of vessels yields everlasting benefit viz.—golden, silvery, m a d e of U d u m b a r a wood or m a d e of h o r n of rhenoceros. 70. He who feeds Brāhmanas in m u d pots at t h e time of of the Śrāddha falls into the terrible hell. He w h o partakes of the offerings too falls into the hell. 7 1 . O n e should not discriminate between persons sitting in the same row a n d serve irregularly. O n e shall not beg nor force anyone to give (?) . He w h o begs, w h o forces anyone to give a n d w h o serves with partiality falls into t h e terrible hells. 72. T h e y should eat the most excellent things prior to others, (v. 1. vāgyatah 'observing silence'). But they should not speak out their material good qualities ( ? ) . T h e Pitrs p a r t a k e of food only as long as t h e qualities of the Havis are not mentioned. 73. T h e B r ā h m a n a occupying the seat of priority should not eat it at t h e very outset. If he eats while m a n y look on, he will incur the sin of all sitting in the row.

* ' p a ś y e t ' in this i n s t r u c t i o n is u n s u i t a b l e as it s t a n d s , T h e v.l. na pratisedkayet, o n e s h o u l d n o t d r i v e a w a y crows e t c . i s b e t t e r . "


Kūrma Purāna

468

74. An excellent B r ā h m a n a engaged in the Śrāddha should not avoid a n y t h i n g served. He should not refuse even the m e a t offered. O n e should not look at t h e food served to a n o t h e r person. 75. If the B r ā h m a n a who engaged in the Pitr rite, does n o t partake of t h e m e a t served, he is r e b o r n as an a n i m a l for twenty-one births. 76. O n e shall r e a d or n a r r a t e unto these Vedic passages of self-study, the D h a r m a ś ā s t r a s , Itihāsas, Purānas a n d the auspicious Śrāddhakalpas. 77. T h e n the p a r t a k e r of the food should strew t h e cooked food in front on the ground. He shall ask t h e m Soaditam ? " W e l l tasted ?". If they a r e satisfied, he should m a k e t h e m perform the Ācamana rite. 78. If they have performed the Ācamana rite, he should p e r m i t t h e m saying 'Be diverted'. Thereafter, the B r ā h m a n a s shall say t o h i m — " M a y S v a d h ā b e u n t o y o u . " 79. W h e n they h a v e p a r t a k e n of the food he should inform t h e m a b o u t r e m a i n i n g cooked food. On being permitted by those B r ā h m a n a s , he should do as they mention. 80. In the Pitr rite, t h e wordSvaditam is to be mentioned, in t h e gosfha-Śrāddha word, it shall be mentioned thus Śuśrtam. In Ābhyudayika Śrāddha,1 Sampannam is mentioned a n d in regard to Deva, Sevitam shall be m e n t i o n e d . 8 1 . After eulogising a n d bidding farewell to the Brāmanas, he should stand silently before the Pitrs facing t h e s o u t h e r n direction a n d beg of the Pitrs these boons. 82. " M a y those charitable donors a r o u n d f l o u r i s h . M a y the Vedas a n d progeny flourish. M a y n o t o u r faith decrease. M a y there be m u c h w i t h us to be given." 8 3 . He shall give the Pindas to the cows, goats or B r ā h ­ manas. Or he should consign them to the fire or to the water. T h e wife who is desirous of a son shall p a r t a k e of the middle Pinda. 1. prosperity

Ābhyudayika or Vrddhi Srāddha is or g o o d

luck

e.g.

p e r f o r m e d in

recognition

of

b i r t h of a son, m a r r i a g e of a son or d a u g h t e r .

T h e Pitrs a r e called h e r e N ā n d ī m u k h a s . I t i s also called N ā n d i - Ś r ā d d h a .


11.22.84-93

469

84. He should then wash his hands a n d perform the Ācamana rite. W i t h the food t h a t remains, he shall feed his own servants. 85. Afterwards he himself should take t h e remaining food alongwith the womenfolk. O n e should not remove their leavings before sunset. 86-87. T h e husband a n d wife should observe celibacy on the night. After performing the Śrāddha or partaking of it, he w h o indulges in sexual intercourse falls into t h e hell M a h ā r a u r a v a a n d t h e n attains the birth of a worm. 88. H e should b e p u r e a n d c l e a n ; quiescent a n d truth­ ful. He should not be furious. He shall have good concentration. T h e performer a n d t h e p a r t a k e r should avoid self-study and travel. 89. T h e Brāhmanas, w h o p a r t a k e of another Śrāddha (immediately) after partaking of a Śrāddha, are on a p a r with the great sinners. T h e y fall into m a n y hells. 90. T h u s t h e Śriddhakalpa has been explained briefly but clearly to you. A B r ā h m a n a in difficulties shall prosper by performing it. 9 1 . W h e n he performs Amāśrāddha (i.e. ś r ā d d h a without cooked food) the knower of t h e procedure endowed w i t h faith should perform t h e Agnaukarana1 rite (consigning offerings into t h e fire) as well as the offerings of Pindas with t h a t alone (i.e. the material u s e d ) . 92. He whose m i n d is quiet, w h o is devoid of sins, a n d w h o performs Śrāddha in accordance with this procedure shall a t t a i n t h e region of ascetics. 93. H e n c e , an excellent B r ā h m a n a should assiduously perform t h e Śrāddha rite. T h e r e b y t h e eternal ī ś v a r a would be well-propitiated by him. 1.

Agnaukarana

literally

means

offering u n t o

Y ā j . I . 2 3 6 q u o t e s M ā r k a n d e y a ' s decision t h a t i f is an Agnihotri, he should oblate the the

performer

keeps

neither

offering i s t o b e m a d e i n t h e r i g h t

of Ś r ā d d h a

offerings i n D a k s i n ā g n i ; i f h e does n o t

k e e p Ś r a u t a f i r e b u t o n l y A u p ā s a n a f i r e (grhyāgni) h e fire; if

t h e fire. M i t a k s a r ā on

the performer

(as in

hand

of

should oblate in

that

t h e case w i t h m o s t o f u s ) , t h e the

Brāhmana

(invited

for

Srāddha). — V i s n u d h a r m o t t a r a I . 140. 1 8


470

Kūrma Purāna

94. An indigent B r ā h m a n a m a y perform Śrāddha even with fruits a n d roots after taking t h e ablution, with great concentration a n d performing the Pitr-Tarpana rites with w a t e r a n d gingelly seeds. 95. A person whose father is alive should n o t perform śrāddha. Some say t h a t he c a n perform Ś r ā d d h a to those Pitrs to w h o m his father offers Śrāddha. Or he c a n perform those rites u p t o the H o m a . 96. O n e can offer Śrāddha u n t o one's father, grandfather a n d great grandfather. He should offer Ś r ā d d h a u n t o h i m w h o is his beloved* a n d n o t to anyone else. 97. O n e must feed him with devotion who is alive a n d to his satisfaction. O n e who is p u r e a n d self-controlled does not give u n t o the d e a d by transgressing the living one. 98. Dvyāmusyāyanika1 son of two fathers i.e. n a t u r a l as well as father by a d o p t i o n ) shall offer Śrāddha to both. Similarly a son b o r n of the Niyoga rite should perform śrāddha to hU progenitor as well as the dead husband of his mother. T h e n he shall be t h e true heir. 99. If a son is b o r n out of t h e semen virile without the sanction of Niyoga. the son should offer Pindas to the progenitor. However, he m a y perform Śrāddha to the Ksetrin (mother's husband). 100. He should p r e p a r e two separate Pindas to the Ksetrin (mother's h u s b a n d ) a n d to t h e Bijin ( p r o g e n i t o r ) . He shpuld proclaim the Ksetrin a n d the Byin in the course of the rite. 1 T h e Ekoddisfa type of Śrāddha is to be performed on the (anni­ versary) day of t h e d e a t h in accordance with the procedure. W h e n the ĀSauca (impurity) period is over, he can perform any K ā m y a rite as he pleases. •v.l. mryate 'is d e a d ' , is b e t t e r as Srāddha is to be offered to t h e d e a d . 1.

V V . 98-100 refer to sons h a v i n g t w o f a t h e r s : T h o u g h Niyoga is n o w

a n obsolete c u s t o m , t h e i n j u n c t i o n r e g a r d i n g Pinda-dāna giving p r i o r i t y t o t h e procreator(6f/tn) f i r s t a n d t o t h e Kfetrin ( m o t h e r ' s h u s b a n d ) n e x t i s s u p p o r t e d by Hārita: UsSm utpidayituh

prathamah pravarah bhavati!

q u o t e d in M a d a n a - P ā r i j ā t a , p p . 607-608.


471

11.22.101—23.1

101-103a. The Ābhyudayika Śrāddha should be performed in the forenoon by one who seeks prosperity. All the rites should be performed as though towards Devas. No rites should be performed with gingelly seeds. T h e D a r b h a s shall be m a d e straight. He should feed the B r ā h m a n a s in even n u m b e r . As an auspicious beginning, he should recite — " M a y the Pitrs be pleased." 103b. T h e Śrāddha to t h e mothers should be performed at the outset. T h a t to the Pitrs should be performed thereafter. 104. Thereafter, the Śrāddha to the m a t e r n a l grandfather shall be performed. These three Śrāddhas are to be performed when there is a prosperous occasion in the family, such as a birth of a son. This shall be offered along with Vaiśvadeva rites. T h e anti-clockwise circumambulation is not performed. 105-107. T h e scholar should sit facing the east a n d wear the sacred thread in the n o r m a l m a n n e r with good concentration and t h e n perform Śrāddha. T h e mothers alongwith the Ganeśvaras should be worshipped at the outset, with devotion, either on t h e ground coloured in diverse ways or in idols or in B r ā h m a n a s . O n e should worship with incense, food offerings a n d o r n a m e n t s . A B r ā h m a n a should perform the three Śrāddhas after worshipping the groups of M ā t r s (mothers). If a n y o n e performs Śrāddhas without the worship of the M ā t r s , they become infuriated a n d cause injuries.

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE Rules regarding Impurities caused by Birth or Death1 Vyāsa said : 1. enjoined 1. relative.

O excellent Brāhmanas ! T h e y (the authorities) t h a t if Sapindas ( t o w h o m Pindas are to be offerd—six Āfauca

or t h e i m p u r i t y caused by b i r t h (Sūtaka) or d e a t h of a close

It is a sort of u n t o u c h a b i l i t y

e n t a i l i n g a t e m p o r a r y loss of privilege


Kūrma Purāna

472 generations) are b o r n or die, B r ā h m a n a s impurity for ten days.

have

to

observe

2. Neither t h e Mtya (daily) rites nor t h e Kāmya rites (for attaining desired ends) shall be performed, nor shall a n y other prescribed d u t y be done. As to Svādhyāya (Vedic recitation), it should not be even mentally a t t e m p t e d during this period. 1 3. O n e shall a p p o i n t p u r e , unragable (quiescent) Brāhmanas of the earth (local a r e a ) , for offering oblations in the fire in t h e sacrificial hall, ( o r ) he should perform H o m a in the sacrificial fire by means of dry rice-grains or dry fruits. 4. D u r i n g the days of impurity others should not touch these. N o r should they take, their food along with them. Since t h e fourth or fifth day, touching them is permitted by learned men. 5. In the case of Sūtaka (impurity d u e to birth) ex­ cepting the w o m a n who has given birth a n d her child (?), there is no h a r m in touching each other a m o n g the Sapinda members. 6. If the father be teaching the Vedas a n d be the knower of the Vedas, all these m a y be touched after they have performed a b a t h . T h e mother ( w h o has delivered the child) however, becomes so after b a t h i n g after the period of t e n days. 7. T h e Āfauca is said to be for ten days in the case of Nirguna (devoid of qualities) a n d Atinirguna (extremly devoid of qualities). O n e w h o is endowed with one, two or three gunas becomes p u r e in four, two or one days respectively.

t o p e r f o r m religious acts, t o p r o s e c u t e V e d i c s t u d y a n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e freely i n social functions like d i n n e r s e t c . T h e r e is

a distinction

about

the periods

of Āśauca a n d t h e persons

affected b y t h e m . Āśauca o n d e a t h h a s m a n y distinctions e.g. after a b o r t i o n before t h e 4 t h m o n t h a n d after t h a t , d e a t h o f a child before a n d after c u t t i n g t h e t e e t h , before o r after p e r f o r m a n c e o f U p a n a y a n a o r m a r r i a g e . T h e d u r a ­ t i o n of āśauca d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e n e a r n e s s of blood r e l a t i o n ,

p l a c e of

death

a n d t h e t i m e - l i m i t o f b e i n g informed a b o u t it. K P deals w i t h these topics i n a loose P u r ā n i c way. 1.

W . 2-5 d e s c r i b e t h e loss o f privileges d u r i n g t h e Āśauca p e r i o d .


II.23.8-15

473

8. After ten days, one c a n very well pursue t h e study of the Vedas and perform H o m a s . M a n u t h e Prajāpati says t h a t he c a n be touched on t h e fourth day. 9. In t h e case of the following, the i m p u r i t y ends with the d e a t h of the person concerned : — o n e w h o is devoid of holy rites, a fool, a person attacked by a grave ailment (foul disease), a n d one w h o does as he pleases. 10. Āśauca, in the case of B r ā h m a n a s is for three days or t e n days. If the dead one is less t h a n a year in age, the impurity is for three days. If the age is beyond one year, t h e impurity is for ten days. 1 Extra verse in brackets : A. W h e n t h e dead one is less t h a t two years old, the Āśauca is (for ten days) to the parents. Others become clean in three days, if the dead one is extremely devoid of qualities. If t h e child dies before cutting the teeth, the parents have Āśauca for one day. 11. If the child has cut teeth, t h e Āśauca is days, if both of the parents a r e Nirgunas ( ? ) .

for three

12. As for the Sapindakas (kinsmen), the impurity is only for t h a t nonce, if the dead child has not cut t e e t h ; the impurity is for one day, if the tonsure ceremony has not been performed. It is for three days, if the Upanayana (sacred thread investiture) rite has not been performed. 13. If the child dies immediately after t h e birth, t h e impurity is limited only for the father a n d the mother. But the father m a y be touched. 14. In t h e case of a brother, the Sapindas (near kinsmen) should always observe Āśauca (for the prescribed p e r i o d ) . If the b r o t h e r is (not qualified) (?), the impurity is for one m o r e d a y after ten days. 15. After the cutting of teeth, the impurity Sapindas is for one day if they are Nirgunas. After the ceremony, t h e impurity is for three days.

of t h e tonsure

1. V V . 10-17 d e a l m a i n l y w i t h t h e Āśauca after a b o r t i o n , d e a t h of an infant, e t c .


474

Kūrma Purina

16. O excellent ones, if the death of the child before t h e cutting of teeth takes place, the impurity for the Sapindas is for one day, if they are extremely Nirgunas (?) Verses in Brackets : B. If there is abortion in the first four m o n t h s (srāva) or miscarriage in the 5th or 6th m o n t h (pita), V r a t a is enjoined on the Sapindas. In the case of all Gunins, the contrariness is beyond t h a t . ( ? ) C. If the miscarriage is before six m o n t h s of pregnancy, the Āśauca is for as m a n y days as the n u m b e r of m o n t h s t h a t have gone by. D. If the miscarriage is after t h a t (i.e. after six m o n t h s ) t h e Āśauca for women is for twelve days. In the case of (Srivaabortion u p t o the fourth month) the Sapindas get purity instantaneously. 17. If the Sapinda is extremely Nirguna, the impurity is for one day a n d one night as a result of miscarriage. If t h e kinsman is one who does as he pleases, the impurity is for three days. This is the conclusion. 18. In the case of Āśauca-sannipāta—that is if there is another impurity d u e to birth when already one is current or if there is another d e a t h when already one impurity d u e to d e a t h is current, the purity is after the remaining impurity is over. If the remainder is only a day, the impurity continues for three days. 19. W h e n death a n d birth overlap, the conclusion (of t h a t period) is with the end of the d e a t h impurity. If the first Āśauca is with Vrddhi (bŕrth of a s o n ) , it becomes clean by means of the previous one (?)* Verse in the Bracket : E. T h e n the impurity m a y go beyond the fifth day. 20. A m a n is impure after hearing the birth or death occurring in a n o t h e r land as long as the remainder of t h a t period is to be concluded. 1.

Regarding

Āśauca-sannipāta or Sampāta cf. G a u t a m a D h . S.

M a n u V . 7 9 also L a g h u - H ā r i t a verse 8 0 .

14. 5-6,


475

11.23.21-26 Verse in Bracket (4 verses)

F. to If the period of Sūtaka (birth impurity) is over it is said I. t h a t the Sapindakas must observe it for three days. If the d e a t h is of one above one year in age only a b a t h is needed. O n e shall be immediately p u r e if one is a knower of t h e meanings of t h e Vedas, or is a student of the Vedas, or maintains fires (sacrificial fires) or is emaciated d u e to livelihood. It shall be so in all states a n d for ever. If the daughters are ndt married, the Aśauca for t h e Sapindakas is for three days; if they are married, t h e impurity is for the h u s b a n d alone. It is also said t h a t t h e impurity due to the d e a t h of girls not given in m a r r i a g e is for a day. On the d e a t h of a girl less t h a n two years, t h e purity is instantaneous after b a t h . U p t o t h e cutting of teeth, no impurity even to t h e brother, u p t o the tonsure ceremony the impurity is for a day. 2 1 . U p t o the marriage, the impurity is for three days a n d beyond t h a t it is for ten days. 22- On the d e a t h of m a t e r n a l grandfather, t h e Aśauca is for three days. In the case of Sūtaka (birth) impurity to t h e same is the case. 2 3 . In the case of relatives t h r o u g h marriage, the p r e ­ ceptor a n d a classmate (i.e. disciple of the same p r e c e p t o r ) , t h e impurity is said to be for one Paksinī i.e. two days with a night between or vice versa . 24. W h e n t h e king dies, everyone in t h e kingdom observes i m p u r i t y till the coming of the day or night next to t h a t on which the king dies. 1 If the daughters die in his house, the father observes impurity for three days. 25-26. If the wife who h a d previously married another, dies or if an adopted son dies, the impurity is for three days. If t h e wife of t h e preceptor, whether of the same caste or of a n o t h e r caste dies, if the son of the preceptor dies, t h e impurity 1.

Vide M a n u

V.

82. Yāj.

III.

2 5 , M i t ā k s a r ā e x p l a i n s sa-jyotih a s

follows: If t h e king's d e a t h takes p l a c e at d a y , t h e n next sunrise;

if at

the

āśauca

is

till

the

n i g h t , till t h e stars a p p e a r n e x t n i g h t (ahni cedyāvat sūtya-

darśanam, rātrau ced yāvan

nakfatra-darśanam).


476

Kūrma Purina

is for a d a y and a night. If a priest, or a learned P a n d i t a dies in one's own village, t h e impurity is for one day. 27. If t h e Asapindas die in one's own house, the impurity to be observed is for three days only. 28. On t h e death of the mother-in-law or the fatherin-law, the impurity is for three days. If a n y one belonging to one's own G o t r a dies, the impurity is only for the m o m e n t (after b a t h ) . 29. A B r ā h m a n a becomes free from impurity within ten days, a king within twelve days, a Vaiśya within fifteen days a n d a Śūdra becomes free from impurity within a m o n t h . 1 30. If a B r ā h m a n a were to have a Ksatriya, a Vaiśya or a Ś ū d r a as his kinsman a n d if he were to die, t h e B r ā h m a n a becomes free from impurity in ten days.* 3 1 . A Ksatriya as well as a Vaiśya should observe impurity in t h e case of t h e death of kinsmen of the lower castes a n d should certainly perform the rites prescribed (for their respective caste) for purification. 32. All people should observe i m p u r i t y for the d e a t h of a higher caste m a n with respect, in accordance with the rules governing t h a t caste. In regard to people of his own caste, he should observe his own purity according to rules of their caste. 33. T h e impurity to be observed in the case of ( b i r t h or death) of a S a p i n d a (?) Ś ū d r a kinsman, for Vaiśyas, Ksatriyas a n d Brāhmanas is for six nights, three nights, and one night respectively. 34. T h e impurity to be observed in the case of a Sapinda Vaiśya, O excellent leading Brāhmanas, by Śūdras, Ksatriyas a n d Brāhmanas is for half a month, six nights and three nights respectively. 35. O leading Brāhmanas, the impurity to be observed in the case of ( b i r t h or death of) B r ā h m a n a kinsman by Ksattriyas a n d Vaiśya is six nights (i.e. days) a n d ten days respectively. 1.

M a n u V . 8 3 , Yāj.

2.

V V . 30-36 r e c o r d t h e p e r i o d of āiauca to be observed in t h e case of

I I I . 2 3 , M t . P . 18. 2-3.

A n u l o m a a n d P r a t i l o m a m a r r i a g e s . Cf. 22. 22-24.

D a k s a S m r . V I . 12, V i s n u D h . S .


477

11.23.36-45

36. T h e consort of K a m a l ā (i.e. V i s n u ) ordains t h a t a B r ā h m a n a becomes p u r e within ten days from t h e impurity of a Śūdra, a Vaiśya and a Ksatriya. * 37. 1 If a B r ā h m a n a carries the dead body of a B r ā h m a n a w h o is not his Sapinda, to the b u r n i n g g h a t like one of his kinsmen, a n d takes food as well as stays with t h e m ( t h e kinsmen jof the d e a d m a n ) , he shall become p u r e within ten days. 38. If he takes their food, he becomes pure in three nights. If he does not take food (he becomes purified in one d a y but) he should not stay in that house. 39. T h e same thing shall be in the case of t h e samānodakas a n d t h e kinsmen of the mother a n d other close relatives. T h e p e r s o n — a s a p i n d a — w h o touches the dead body becomes p u r e within ten days. 40-41. If one (belonging to B r ā h m a n a , Ksattriya, Vaiśya or Ś ū d r a caste) carries the dead body out of covetous­ ness, t h e B r ā h m a n a becomes p u r e within ten days a n d the king or Ksattriya within twelve days. T h e Vaiśya becomes free with­ in half a m o n t h a n d the Ś ū d r a within a m o n t h . Or all of t h e m become p u r e in six days, or they shall be p u r e in three days. 42. If B r ā h m a n a s and others carry the d e a d body of an o r p h a n or a helpless B r ā h m a n a devoid of wealth, they become p u r e by taking b a t h a n d drinking ghee. 4 3 . If a m a n of the lower caste touches one of the u p p e r caste or if a m a n of t h e u p p e r caste touches one of the lower caste during impurity, a n d if he does so out of friendship, he becomes p u r e by ordinary purificatory procedure (bath, etc.) 44. If a B r ā h m a n a were to follow t h e dead body of a B r ā h m a n a out of his own will, he becomes p u r e by taking b a t h alongwith t h e clothes he wears at t h e time, touching t h e fire a n d taking in ghee. 4 5 . ( I f one follows the dead body) the p u r i t y in follow­ ing the corpse of a Ksattriya is within a d a y ; t h a t in the case •but t h e v.l. brāhmaat samsthiU sati c h a n g e s t h e 'In

t h e case o f ( t h e b i r t h o r d e a t h o f )

impurity to be

w h o l e verse :

It m e a n s ,

a Brāhmana (Sapinda kinsman), the

observed by Ś ū d r a , Vaiśya

and

K s a t t r i y a i s for

ten nights

(days). 1. 101-102.

V V . 37-42 d e a l w i t h āiauca by c a r r y i n g a d e a d b o d y . Cf. M a n u V.


478

Kūrma Purina

of a Vaiśya shall be within two days; it is said t h a t three days impurity should be observed if the d e a d body of a ś ū d r a is followed. But one must perform a h u n d r e d prānāyāmas (breathcontrol exercises) (in addition to all these cases) . 46. W h e n the bones of the dead Ś ū d r a have not been collected and if the B r ā h m a n a cries along with his own people over t h e death of the Ś ū d r a , the impurity shall be for three nights. Otherwise, it is only a single day. 47. ( U n d e r the same circumstances) if he laments the death of a Ksattriya or a Vaiśya before the bones are collected, the impurity is observed for one d a y ; otherwise it is till the rise of the sun or of stars (as the case may b e ) . In the case of ( l a m e n t a t i o n o n ) the death of a B r ā h m a n a (before bone-collec­ t i o n ) , the impurity lasts till the performance of b a t h . 48. If a B r ā h m a n a cries over the death of a B r ā h m a n a before his bones are collected, he becomes pure by means of an ablution alongwith the clothes worn. T h e r e is no doubt about this. 49. He who takes food alongwith them a n d associates closely with them by sharing their bed, seat etc., he becomes pure in ten days irrespective of his being a kinsman. 50. He who takes food alongwith t h e m even once, out of his own free will, becomes free from impurity by taking b a t h w h e n the period of impurity ceases. 5 1 . If a m a n overwhelmed by famine, takes their food, he should observe impurity for as m a n y days as he h a d taken their food. Thereafter, he should observe religious atonement. 52. In the case of the B r ā h m a n a who maintained AgniHotra (a sacred fire), the impurity is to be observed from t h e time of his cremation. In the case of Sapindas the impurity begins at d e a t h a n d in cases other t h a n death (i.e. b i r t h ) . 53. S a p i n d a relationship ceases from the seventh genera­ tion. T h e Samānodakabhāva (state of offering water oblation) ceases if the birth a n d the names are not known. 54. T h e father, the grandfather and the great-grand father—these three should be known as Lepabhāks (enjoyersof the portion of Pindas sticking to t h e h a n d of t h e performer of Śrāddha). (Actually the ancestors of fourth, fifth a n d sixth


479

11.23.55-63

generations are the Lepabhāks. T h e Sapinda relationship lasts till the seventh generation. 55. T h e Sapinda relationship of women not given in marriage extends to seven generations of the family of their b i r t h . Lord P i t ā m a h a says that the Sapinda relationship of those ( m a r r i e d ) women is the s a m e * as that of their husbands. 56. Among the m a n y descendants of the same m a n b u t of different castes ( t h r o u g h mothers of different castes), t h e Sapinda relationship extends upto the third generation in descent. 57. In the case of artisans, craftsmen, physicians, servantm a i d s a n d attendants, regular donors, the knowers of t h e B r a h m a n , the Brahmacārins (celibates), the Sattrins (performers of Yajñas) of long-durations) and the Vratins (those who have regular observance of holy rites), the purity is instantaneous. 58. In the case of a crowned king, and the performers of Annasatras (?) at the time of Yajñas and marriage as well as during divine intercession (?) during famine and chaotic upheavals, the purity is instantaneous. 59-60. In the case of those who are killed in Dimbāhava (petty warfare a n d skirmishes), in the case of the d e a t h of jfñātis (near cousins) due to serpent bite etc., the purity is instantaneous. (Defective verse) If a n y one dies in fire or whirlwind, if any one dies in an unforgettable (lit. imperishable) heroic p a t h ; if one dies for the sake of cows or B r ā h m a n a s or if one dies after renunciation, the purity is instantaneous. 1

6 1 . In the case of JVaisfhikas (life-long celibates), forest dwellers, ascetics a n d religious students, no impurity is enjoined by good men. When a fallen m a n dies, there is no impurity. 62. In the case of fallen m e n there is no cremation, no obsequies, no collection of bones; no tear is shed, no Pinda is offered a n d no Śrāddha or similar rite is performed. 6 3 . If a m a n kills himself by means of fire, poison etc., no impurity is to be observed, no cremation is performed, no water libation is offered to him. * v i d e M t . P. 13-29 : Ltpa-bhājas caturthādyāh pitrādyāh pinda-bhāginahl 1.

VV.

57-62 e n u m e r a t e

t h e cases

of Sadyah-iauca i.e.

w h o s e d e a t h purification i s o n t h e s a m e d a y after b a t h .

those

after


480

Kūrma Purāna

64. If one dies through fire, poison etc. d u e to over­ sight, impurity should be observed a n d water libation should be offered to h i m . 65-66. (?) W h e n a son is born, one m a y very well accept t h e following as gifts viz. gold, cereals, cow, cloth, gingelly seeds alongwith jaggery a n d ghee, fruits, flowers, vegetables, salt, firewood, buttermilk, curds, ghee, oil, medicine and milk. O n e m a y take r a w grains every d a y from the house of one w h o has impurity. 67. A person who maintains t h e three sacrificial fires duly, should be cremated by means of the three fires. A person w h o has not m a i n t a i n e d the three fires shall be, cremated by t h e Grhya (household) fire and the other people shall be crema­ ted by means of the secular fire. 68. If the dead body is not available, a representative figure should be m a d e by means of Palāśa leaves a n d twigs a n d t h e cremation shall be duly performed by S a p i n d a relations endowed with faith. 69. He should sprinkle t h e figure with w a t e r utter­ ing t h e n a m e a n d G o t r a (of t h e dead m a n ) . H e shall not speak unnecessarily. All t h e kinsmen should exercise self-control and should perform Śrāddha for ten days. 70. Everyday, they should offer the P i n d a b o t h in t h e m o r n i n g as well as in t h e evening to t h e d e a d m a n at t h e entrance to the house. On t h e fourth day, they shall feed t h e Brāhmanas. 71. On t h e second day, t h e shaving rite should be performed alongwith t h e kinsmen. O n the f o u r t h d a y , t h e bones should be collected, (?) by all t h e kinsmen. W i t h g r e a t faith, t h e y should employ p u r e B r ā h m a n a s (as priests) in even n u m b e r s (v.l. feed B r ā h m a n a s ) . 72. B r ā h m a n a s should be fed in even (?) n u m b e r s on t h e fifth, n i n t h a n d eleventh days. O B r ā h m a n a s , this is called Navaśrāddha. 73. This rite shall be performed on behalf of t h e d e a d one, on the eleventh, twelfth or the n i n t h d a y . T h e rite shall be performed with great faith. O n e Pavitra (Kuśa-grass r i n g ) , one Argha (vessel of offerings), a n d one vessel for t h e Pindas should be used.


481

11.23.74-82

74. T h i s rite shall be performed every m o n t h for a year on t h e d a y of d e a t h , at t h e end of which should be per­ formed the rite called Sapindikarana.1 75. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , four vessels should be assigned to t h e four ancestors from t h e dead person. On behalf of t h e d e a d one, w a t e r shall be poured in t h e vessels of t h e Pitrs. 76. While t h e Pindas are joined together, the mantras recited are the two stanzas beginning with Te sarnānū (Vāj. Sam. 19.45) etc. T h e Śrāddha of Sapindikarana is performed after the Śrāddha m e a n t for gods. 77. He should invoke the Pitrs there. T h e n he should point out the dead m a n (?) T h e r e a r e no separate rites (Śrāddha) in the case of those dead whose Sapindikarana rite has been performed. He w h o separates the Pindas (i.e. offers separate ones) becomes t h e slayer of t h e Pitrs. 78. W h e n t h e father dies, t h e son should offer t h e Pindas for a year. He should offer food a n d t h e pot with w a t e r every day, in accordance with t h e rites of t h e d e a d . 79. Every year this should be performed in accordance with t h e injunctions governing Pārvana Śrāddhas. T h i s is t h e eternal traditional rite. 80. T h e offering of Pindas a n d other rites to parents should be performed by the son. If there is no son, the wife should perform these rites. If there is no wife, the co-uterine b r o t h e r should perform it. 8 1 . O n e should with g r e a t faith a n d concentration perform t h e rites of D a n a etc. a n d perform the Śrāddha in accordance with this procedure. 82. T h u s , the procedure for t h e rites of householders h a s been clearly explained to you. As for women, their holy rite is rendering of service to their husbands. No o t h e r holy rite is prescribed for t h e m .

1. V V.74-77 Sapindikarana is a symbolic process of u n i t i n g t h e d e c e ased p e r s o n w i t h his Pitrs. F o u r P i n d a s a r e p r e p a r e d , o n e for t h e Prtta person)

a n d t h r e e for his d e c e a s e d p a t e r n a l

(deceased

ancestors. T h e n t h e performer of

Śrāddha d i v i d e s t h e preta-pinda i n t h r e e p a r t s a n d p u t s e a c h t h i r d t h e t h r e e P i n d a s w i t h t h e t w o m a n t r a s y e samānā

into each

( Y ā j . s a m . 19. 4 5 ) .

of


482

Kūrma Purāna

83. T h e y should be devoted to their duties for ever. T h e y should dedicate their minds u n t o God. T h u s they attain the greatest abode t h a t has been described by the expounders of the Vedas.

CHAPTER

TWENTYFOUR

The Duties

of Agniholrin

Vyāsa said : 1. O n e should perform the Agnihotra rite b o t h in the m o r n i n g a n d the evening. On Darśa (the new moon) days after t h e conclusion of a beneficial rite a n d on reaping t h e harvest afresh this rite shall be performed. * 2. At the close of a season, the B r ā h m a n a should duly perform sacrifices. At the close of an Ayana, he should perform an animal sacrifice. At the end of a year he should perform the sacrifices in the fires (?) (v.l. the Soma sacrifice). 3. A B r ā h m a n a maintaining sacred fires and desirous of living for a long time should not eat cooked food or meat with­ o u t performing the Yajña of fresh harvest and the animal sacrifice. 4. Without performing the sacrifice with fresh grains or with animals as Havyas (oblations), those people who are desirous of fresh grains and meat, actually desire to eat their own vital airs. 5. He should always perform the Śāntihomas (pro­ pitiatory Homos) for peace pertaining to Savitr ( t h e sun-god) d u r i n g the Parvans. D u r i n g the Asfakā and Anvastakā days, he should worship the pitrs. *A b e t t e r v.l. dariena caiva paks&ntt paurnamāsena caiva Ai/'He form the Agnihotra rite pn t h e new m o o n a fortnight.'

should

per­

a n d full m o o n d a y a t t h e e n d o f


II.24.6-14

483

6. This is the greatest D h a r m a of three higher castes, in t h e stage of householders. All other rites are called Āpaddharmas, (non-righteous). 7. Either d u e to atheistic feelings or due to lethargy, if anyone does not wish to maintain sacrificial fires, nor does he perform Yajñas, he falls into m a n y hells. Verses in Brackets : A-B). T h e evil-minded person falls into the following hells viz. :—Tāmisra, Andhatāmisra, R a u r a v a , M a h ā r a u rava, K u m b h ī p ā k a Vaitaranī, Asipatravana and m a n y other terrible hells as well. O Brāhmanas, he is reborn in the families of outcastes or as a Śūdra. 8. Hence, a B r ā h m a n a should particularly maintain the sacrificial fire very assiduously. W i t h his soul sanctified, he should worship Parameśvara. 9. T h e r e is no greater D h a r m a t h a n Agnihotra in the case of Brāhmanas. Hence, one should always worship by means of Agnihotra. 10. He w h o is one w h o maintains sacrificial fires b u t does n o t wish to perform sacrifice to the lord by means of meditation, is a confused person. He should not be conversed with. W h a t more (need be said) t h a t m a n is an atheist. 11. He who possesses enough foodstuff to m a i n t a i n his servants for three years or more, deserves to drink Soma juice. 12. T h e Soma sacrifice is considered first a m o n g all Yajñas. O n e should propitiate lord M a h e ś v a r a of t h e Region of Soma, through Soma. 13. T h e r e is no sacrifice equal to or greater t h a n the Soma sacrifice that propitiates M a h e ś a . Hence, one should propitiate the greatest one through Soma* (sacrifice). 14. T h e sacrificial animal has been taken a n d enjoined on the B r ā h m a n a s by P i t ā m a h a (god B r a h m a ) . T h e r e are two types of D h a r m a conducive to salvation—the Ś r a u t a a n d the Smārta. • D u e t o oversight t h e V c ñ k t . T e x t h a s given o n e a n d t h e s a m e n u m b e r t o t w o verses. H e n c e verse N o . 1 4 i s i n c l u d e d u n d e r 1 3 t h e r e . T h e m i s t a k e is rectified h e r e .


484

Kūrma Purāna

15. Śrauta is t h a t rite which is connected with the three fires. Smārta has been mentioned by me before. T h e Śrauta is more beneficial. Hence, one should perform t h e Śrauta rite. 16. Both of t h e m are beneficial. T h e y are holy rites prescribed in the Vedas. Śisfācāra (the conduct of good m e n ) shall be the third source of religion 1 when Śruti a n d Smrti a r e not available. 17. T h e y by w h o m the Vedas have been acquired along with their supplementary works, are Śisfas (good m e n ) . T h e y are so called because they are always endowed with t h e qualities of the Atman. 18. W h a t is approved by t h e m for ever is called D h a r m a by good m e n . And not t h e behaviour of anyone else. T h i s is w h a t should be retained in the m i n d . 19. T h e P u r ā n a s and t h e D h a r m a ś ā s t r a s augment t h e Vedas (as amplification). F r o m one t h e B r a h m a n is realised. F r o m t h e other D h a r m a (rituals of religion) is realised. 20-21.* T h e y have been mentioned as t h e greatest authority by those w h o wish to know m o r e of D h a r m a . T h e y are t h e Dharmaśāstras and t h e Purānas. T h e knowledge of B r a h m a n is from t h e other. D h a r m a is not b o r n of anything else. T h e knowledge of B r a h m a n is from the Vedas. Hence, t h e D h a r m a and P u r ā n a should be believed (as divine revelation) by the learned men.

1 . V V . 16-19 Cf. M a n u X I I . 108-109 w h e r e i n m a t t e r s n o t d e c i d e d i n D h a r m a - Ś ā s t r a texts t h e o p i n i o n o f Sisjas i s r e g a r d e d a s D h a r m a . " v i d e ft. n o t e o n verse 13. T h e t o t a l N o . o f verses i s 2 1 t h o u g h t h e V e ñ k . T e x t , gives N o . 2 0 t o t h e last verse.


485

II.25.1-7 1

CHAPTER TWENTYFTVE

The Means of Livelihood of a Brāhmana Householder Vyāsa said : 1. T h u s t h e entire great D h a r m a of a B r ā h m a n a house­ holder has been described to you. (Now listen and) understand t h e m e a n s of livelihood (of a B r ā h m a n a h o u s e h o l d e r ) . 2. T h e householder is of two types. O n e is to be known as Sidhaka (one w h o works and achieves) and the other as Asādhaka ( n o n - w o r k e r ) . T h e y say t h a t the means of livelihood of the former is teaching, presiding over Yajña or acceptance of m o n e t a r y gifts. He can practise usury and look after agriculture or t r a d i n g activities himself or t h r o u g h agents. 3. If agriculture is not possible, undertaken. In its absence usury m a y be a r r a n g e m e n t in time of emergency. W h a t before (viz. teaching, priesthood a n d desired to be the m a i n occupation.

trading activity be pursued. This is the has been mentioned acceptance of dSna) is

4. He should himself pursue cultivation, business, activities or usury. Usury (of course) is a sinful activity involving pain and strain. O n e should (if possible) avoid it. — 5. Some say that martial activity as the greatest (occupation) and cultivation of the field by the B r ā h m a n a s themselves should be avoided. A B r ā h m a n a c a n pursue martial activity even w h e n there is no emergency (?) 6. If t h e B r ā h m a n a does not maintain himself by t h a t (i.e. m a r t i a l activity), he should pursue the means of livelihood of a Vaiśya. But a B r ā h m a n a should by no means plough or till himself. and

7. Acquiring profit in these activities, he should worship propitiate t h e Pitrs, Devas and t h e Brāhmanas. 1.

T h i s c h a p t e r describes t h e

means

B r ā h m a n a s — S ā d h a k a s a n d Asādhakas w h i c h

of livelihood of b o t h

correspond

to

the

types

of

classification

i n t o Śālīna a n d Tāyāvara given in B a u d h ā y a n a D h . S. I I I . 1. 1. 3-5. T h e verses i n Parāśara

this

chapter

are

quoted

M ā d h a v a — Ā c ā r a Kānda, p . 3 0 9 .

in

SMC.

pp.

454-56,

and


486

Kūrma Purāna

T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t if they are satisfied they will quell his defects. 8. A B r ā h m a n a who pursues agricultural occupation should offer one-twentieth of the produce to Devas a n d t h e Pitrs and one thirtieth to t h e B r ā h m a n a s . He shall then incur no sin. 9. If he is engaged in trading activities, he should offer twice the previous offerings a n d one who practises usury should offer three times of w h a t an agriculturist offers. He shall then be not involved in sin. T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this. 10. A Sādhaka householder m a y also live on gleanings of corns or by irregular occupations. T h e r e a r e m a n y other means of livelihood like learning, craftsmanship, etc. 11. T w o means of livelihood have been prescribed by t h e great sages in regard to t h a t type of householder who is mentioned as Asādhaka. T h e y are gleaning of corns a n d irregular occupations. 12. Or he should maintain himself by Amrta or Aŕrte. W h a t he gets without begging is called Amrta a n d the alms received by begging is Mrta. 13-14. T h e r e are four types of Asādhaka B r ā h m a n a s 1 w h o g a t h e r grain thus : 1. KusūladhMyaka (i.e. one who has h o a r d e d grain for three years (Medhātithi) in his granary.

enough

2. Kumbhidhānyaka (i.e. one w h o has hoarded grain sufficient for six days—for one year (according to the M e d h ā t i t h i ) . 3. Tryāhnika (i.e. one w h o has food-grains for three days, and 4. AJvastanika (i.e. o n e w h o has t h e grain sufficient for t h e day b u t not f o r the m o r r o w ) . T h e later ones a r e better t h a n the earlier ones among these B r ā h m a n a householders. By means of piety he conquers the worlds (i.e. the last o n e ) . 15. T h e first one shall be Satkarman (i.e. one w h o performs all the six duties viz. study of Vedas, teachings of the 1.

T h e same as

M a n u I V . 7. T h e explanation of the terms herein a r e

based on Medhātithi's com. of M a n u .


487

11.25.16—26.1

Vedas, performance of the Yajñas, presiding over the Yajñas of others, gifts a n d acceptance of gifts). T h e second one shall perform three of them, the third, two of t h e m and the fourth, one. He should m a i n t a i n himself by Brahmasatra (study of the Vedas). 16. He who maintains himself by gleaning corn (and such other irregular professions) a n d is devoted to Agnihotra should perform ordinary sacrifices ending with these on the New M o o n a n d Full Moon day. 17. A B r ā h m a n a should not pursue ordinary worldly professions. He should not pursue agriculture for livelihood. He should m a i n t a i n himself with non-cooked, non-roguish (straight­ forward, honest) p u r e Brāhmana-like profession. 18. After begging of moneyed good persons for alms, he should p r o p i u a t e the Pitrs a n d Devas. Or he should beg of p u r e person with self-control. He should be himself satisfied thereby. 19. He who after earning sufficient wealth does not duly propitiate Devas a n d the Pitrs, is reborn as a lower animal such as a dog etc. 20-21. T h e four things—virtue, wealth, love a n d salvationare beneficial. In the case of B r ā h m a n a , the love shall not be against D h a r m a a n d not the other. T h a t wealth which is for the propagation of D h a r m a is real wealth a n d not one which is used for t h e self. H e n c e after attaining wealth a B r ā h m a n a should offer it to others a n d perform sacrifices to gods.

CHAPTER TWENTYSrX Rules of offering religious gifts Vyāsa said : 1. N o w I shall recount the excellent dharma of charit­ able gifts, 1 formerly n a r r a t e d by B r a h m a to the sages, expounders of Brahman. 1. A p a r t f r o m t h e Dāna-stutis i n R V ( I . 125, V . 6 1 , V I I 1 8 e t c ) Dinadkarma (offering of religious gifts) is r e g a r d e d as the principal aspect o


488

Kūrma Purāna

2. T h e h a n d i n g over of riches with faith to the deserv­ ing persons is pointed out as Dana (charitable gift). It yields worldly pleasures a n d salvation. 1 3. I consider t h a t as a wonderful (gift)* which is given with great faith to good men of distinction. W h a t he keeps without giving is protected (saved) for others. 4. T h e r e are three types of charitable gifts t h e Nitya, the Naimittika and the Kāmya. A fourth type of charitable gift is also mentioned viz. Vimala3 (the p u r e one) which is the most excellent of all the charitable gifts. 5. T h e Nitya charitable gift is as follows : Everday some­ thing is given to a B r ā h m a n a who does not give anything in r e t u r n . Nor does the donor expect a n y fruit thereof. 6. T h e Naitnittika (occasional) charitable gift is t h a t which is given to scholars for the purpose of wiping off one's sins. This is Dana (charitable gift) practised by good m e n . 7. W h a t is given for the purpose of obtaining childern, success, prosperity and heaven is called a Kāmyad&na (charitable gift for the achievement of the desired object) by sages who have pondered over topics of piety. 8. W h a t is handed over to the knowers of the Brahman for the propitiation of īśvara, with a righteous mind, is called the auspicious Vimala (pure) Dana. 9. O n e should resort to the dharma of charitable gifts in accordance with one's capacity, after getting the deserving persons. Indeed, a deserving person will be available and he will enable one to cross the entire ocean of Existence. religious life i n t h e K a l i a g e ( M a n u I . 96, M b h . Sānti. 232. 2 8 , V ā y u P . 8 . 6 5 - 6 6 ) . N a t u r a l l y , this topic is discussed in details in S m r t i s a n d P u r ā n a s , such as Tājñavalkyal. 198-216, Vyāsa IV 17-23, Āp. chs. 209-213, NP.

I. C h .

12,

31.

'that

1.

Cf. D e v a l a q u o t e d by A p a r ā r k a , p. 2 8 7 .

2.

Cf (Veda) Vyāsa-smr. I V . 16. T h e r e a d i n g tac

is w h a t

I

regard

ca

is his real w e a l t h or p r o p e r t y '

vittam

aham manye

is b e t t e r t h a n tad

viciiram in V e ñ k . text. 3.

V V . 4-8 give t h e classification of Dānas as

Nitya

(daily),

naitnittika

( o c c a s i o n a l ) , Kāmya (dāna for o b t a i n i n g a d e s i r a b l e object) a n d Vimala ( p u r e ) t h e last is a special class specified in t h e K P .


489

11.26.10-20

10. W h a t remains after providing food, clothing etc. to t h e family should be given as charitable gift. If it is given otherwise, t h a t charitable gift does not yield any fruit. 11. Dana should be given to a noble-born B r ā h m a n a well-versed in the Vedas. He should be h u m b l e a n d performer of p e n a n c e . He shall be indigent a n d one who maintains holy rites. Everything given shall be offered with due devotion. 12. He who gives with great devotion a plot of l a n d 1 to a B r ā h m a n a who maintains the sacrificial fires, attains t h a t great a b o d e after reaching which one has no cause for sorrow. 13. He who gives to a great scholar of Vedas a very fertile land producing barley a n d wheat a n d overgrown with s u g a r c a n e plants, is not b o r n again. 14. He who gives at least a plot of land extending to a Gocarman* (cow's hide) to an indigent B r ā h m a n a is liberated from a l l sins. 15. T h e r e is no o t h e r gift greater t h a n t h e gift of lands h e r e . T h e gift of cooked food is on a p a r with it. T h e gift of learning excels it. 16. He w h o duly i m p a r t s learning to a B r ā h m a n a of p u r e , pious conduct a n d excellent c h a r a c t e r , is honoured in Brahmaloka. 17. If one gives cooked food w i t h due faith everyday to a B r a h m a c ā r i n (religious s t u d e n t ) , one shall be freed from a l l sins a n d shall a t t a i n the abode of Brahma. 18. A m a n obtains great benefit by giving cooked food to a householder. It must be given u n t o h i m ( i m m e d i a t e l y ) on arrival. After giving thus one attains t h e greatest goal. 19-20. O n e should observe fast on the full m o o n day in the 4 m o n t h of Vaiśākha . He should then duly worship seven or five B r ā h m a n a s of clean habits, quiet temper a n d p u r e minds. He 1.

VV.

like Aitareya

12-15

d e s c r i b e t h e g r e a t n e s s of l a n d - g r a n t t h o u g h B r ā h m a n a s

( 3 9 - 7 ) , Satapatha

(XIII.

7.

1. 15)

prohibit

kings

from s u c h

g r a n t s , Vasis(ha s m r t i . (29. 2 0 ) a n d M b h . AnvJisana ( 6 2 . 2) eulogise it as atidāna

( s u p e r i o r gift). •According

to Vasistha G o c a r m a n is that plot of land

which

extends

t o h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y Hastas ( h a n d s ) all r o u n d . 2.

VV.

19-34 describe t h e r e w a r d from dāna on p a r t i c u l a r days.


490

Kūrma Purina

should propitiate t h e m with black gingelly seeds and honey in, particular. He shall h o n o u r t h e m w i t h the application of sweet scents a n d u n g u e n t a n d m a k e t h e m spell out (blessings) or shall say oneself. 2 1 . " O D h a r m a r ā j a b e pleased." W h a t e v e r i s i n one's mind (shall be realised). Every sin committed in t h e course of whole life shall perish at t h a t very m o m e n t . 22. He w h o places gold, honey a n d ghee, gingelly seeds on t h e hide of a black antelope a n d gives it to a B r ā h m a n a , surmounts all evils. 23. Particularly on the full m o o n d a y in t h e m o n t h of Vaiśākha, one should ritualistically offer cooked food a n d w a t e r pot to D h a r m a r ā j a a n d h a n d it over to B r ā h m a n a s . He s h a l l be relieved of fear. 24. O n e shall propitiate seven or five B r ā h m a n a s w i t h water-pots accompanied by gold a n d gingelly seeds. O n e c a n thereby expell t h e sin of even B r ā h m a n a slaughter. 25. On the Dvādaśī (twelfth) d a y in the m o n t h of M ā g h a a B r ā h m a n a should observe fast. He should wear white garments. He should perform H o m a with black gingelly seeds in the holy fire. With great concentration he should offer gifts to the Brāh­ m a n a s well-versed in the Vedas. Whatever sin he might have committed ever since his birth, the B r ā h m a n a shall surmount it. 26-27. On the New M o o n Day, one should offer a n y t h i n g u n t o a saintly B r ā h m a n a after dedicating the same to Śańkara, lord of Devas a n d their chiefs, by s a y i n g — " M a y the eternal M a h ā d e v a , the lord accompanied by U m ā , be pleased." T h e sin accumulated in the course of seven births perishes at the s a m e moment. 2 8 . He w h o takes his holy d i p on t h e fourteenth day in the dark half of the m o n t h a n d propitiates the Pināka bearing lord Śiva through B r ā h m a n a s is not r e b o r n again in t h e world. 29-30. Particularly on the eighth day in the dark half of the m o n t h , one should take ablution and honour a righteous B r ā h m a n a duly by means of washing the feet etc. He should


11.26.31-41.

491

t h e n say " M a y M a h ā d e v a b e pleased with m e . " H e should t h e n h a n d over his own wealth to h i m . He shall be relieved of all sins. 3 1 . T h e three-eyed deity is to be particularly worshipped by B r ā h m a n a devotees on t h e fourteenth a n d eighth of the d a r k half a n d on the new moon day. 32. O n e should observe fast on t h e eleventh d a y a n d wor­ ship P u r u s o t t a m a on the twelfth day through a B r ā h m a n a . He shall a t t a i n the greatest region. 3 3 . T h e twelfth d a y in the bright half is a T i t h i belong­ ing to Visnu. One should assiduously propitiate lord J a n ā r d a n a on that day. 34. Whatever is offered to a pure B r ā h m a n a after dedi­ cating"'the same to lord ī ś ā n a or Visnu yields endless (i.e. eternal) benefits. 35. A m a n m a y wish to propitiate a n y deity. If he is a wise scholar he should worship B r ā h m a n a s in order to satisfy t h a t deity. 36. All deities assume the forms of t h e Brāhmanas;: they always exist. If Brāhmanas a r e not available, they a r e worshipped in idols etc. in some places. 37. Hence, the deities must be particularly worshipped in the B r ā h m a n a s always a n d very assiduously by those w h o wish to a t t a i n the different kinds of benefits. 38. A person desirous of prosperity should always wor­ ship P u r a n d a r a (god I n d r a ) . A person desirous of attainingBrahman a n d B r a h m a n i c a l splendour should worship B r a h m a . 39. A person desirous of good health shall worship t h e sun god; one who is desirous of cows shall worship fire a n d one who is desirous of the fruition of holy rites shall w o r s h i p Vināyaka. 40. O n e w h o is desirous of worldly pleasures should wor­ ship t h e m o o n ; a person desirous of power a n d strength should worship t h e wind-god a n d a person desirous of being liberated from t h e entire worldly existence shall worship H a r i . 4 1 . He w h o wishes for Yoga, salvation a n d that perfect knowledge of Iśvara shall assiduously worship Virūpāksa Maheśvara.


492

KUrma Purāna

42. He who wishes for perfect knowledge through the the great Yoga should worship M a h e ś v a r a . T h e y shall become enjoyers of pleasures, they who worship Bhūteśa a n d Keśava. 43. A person who freely gives water attains satisfac­ tion, 1 a person w h o gives cooked food attains inexhaustible happiness; a person who gives gingelly seeds obtains desirable progeny a n d a person who gives lamps attains excellent vision. 44. A person who gifts away lands obtains everything, a giver of gold attains longevity; a giver of a house a t t a i n s excel­ lent abodes a n d a person who gives silver attains excellent comeliness. 45. A person who gives clothes, attains t h e same world as the M o o n ; a person who gives horses, attains the same world as t h a t of the Aśvins; a person who gives oxen, attains well nour­ ished glory a n d riches and a giver of cows attains the world of B r a d h n a (the s u n ) . 46. A person who gives vehicles a n d coaches attains a good wife; a person who offers relief from fear, attains pros­ perity; a person who offers food grains, obtains perpetual happiness a n d a person who gives B r a h m a n (Vedas), attains identity with B r a h m a n . 47. O n e should give food-grains to the B r ā h m a n a s in accordance with one's capacity a n d especially to excellent ones knowing the Vedas. After death, he shall a t t a i n heaven. 48. By giving away cows one is relieved of all sins ; by the gift of fuel, a m a n becomes like a blazing fire. 49. O n e should give fruits, roots, vegetables a n d food­ stuffs of various kinds to the Brāhmnas, he shall himself be h a p p y and rejoicing. 50. A person who gives medicine, diets, oil, ghee etc. to a sick person in order to cure him of it, shall himself be free from ailments. He shall enjoy longevity a n d be h a p p y . 5 1 . A m a n who makes gifts of umbrellas and shoes escapes the p a t h to hell called Asipatravana (full of edges as sharp as the edge of a r a z o r ) and surmounts severe scorching pain. 1.

V V . 4 3 - 5 1 . F r u i t s a c c r u i n g f r o m p a r t i c u l a r dānas.


11.26.52-63

493

52. Whatever is most pleasing to h i m in t h e world a n d whatever is excessively cherished by one in the house, should be given to a meritorious person by one w h o wishes the same for himself to be inexhaustible. 53. W h a t e v e r is given during t h e equinotical or tropical transit of t h e sun or d u r i n g the eclipse of t h e sun or t h e m o o n or d u r i n g the time of the transit of the sun from o n e zodiac to a n o t h e r , shall become everlasting. 54. By m a k i n g gifts in the holy centres such as P r a y ā g a e t c . in the sacred shrines a n d n e a r t h e holy rivers a n d forests, one obtains everlasting benefits. 55. T h e r e is no greater or meritorious act t h a n t h a t of m a k i n g gifts in the case of a n y living being. H e n c e gifts should be m a d e over to a B r ā h m a n a well-versed in t h e Vedas, by t h e twice-born. 56. Gifts should be m a d e by one w h o wishes for heaven, longevity a n d prosperity a n d for subduing sins. Everday charitable gifts should be m a d e u n t o B r ā h m a n a s by one w h o wishes for salvation. 57. If out of delusion, any sinful soul prevents the gift from being given to the Brāhmanas, fire-god or the Devas, shall be r e b o r n as an animal. 58. If after earning m u c h wealth, anyone does not wor­ ship B r ā h m a n a s a n d Devas, he must be banished from t h e kingdom after confiscating his property. 59. A B r ā h m a n a w h o does not give cooked food e t c . during famines w h e n animals die, is a despicable person. 60. No one should accept m o n e t a r y gifts from him n o r should anything be given u n t o him. T h e king should s t a m p h i s seal on h i m a n d banish him from his kingdom. 6 1 . T h e m a n who does not give w e a l t h to good persons n o r means of piety, is a greater sinner a n d he is cooked in t h e hell. 62. O excellent Brāhmanas, gifts m u s t be m a d e to those Brāhmanas who regularly study the Vedas, w h o are endowed w i t h learning, who have conquered their sense-organs a n d w h o a r e endowed with full self-control. 63. O n e shall feed a learned a n d righteous B r ā h m a n a a g a i n even if he has already taken a h e a r t y m e a l ; one should n o t


Kūrma Purāna

494

feed a fool who has no good conduct even if he is starving for ten days. 64. If a n y one makes a n y gift overlooking the learned B r ā h m a n a of the locality, he becomes a sinner by means of t h a t action. He burns his family u p t o the seventh generation. 65. If the B r ā h m a n a outsider were to be superior in conduct, learning etc., gifts must be m a d e over to h i m even by overlooking the m a n a t h a n d . 66. T h e person who accepts w h a t is offered with d u e respect a n d the person who offers with d u e respect—both of t h e m go to heaven. If it is the contrary, both of t h e m go to hell. 67. A person who knows D h a r m a should not offer even water to an atheist or a heretic or to a sceptic or to a person who does not know the Vedas. 68. If a person who is not learned accepts the gifts of sweet pies, gold, cow, horse, land or gingelly seeds, he is reduced to ashes like a log of wood. 1 6 9 . An excellent B r ā h m a n a shall wish to receive wealth only from high class praise-worthy Brāhmanas or from all twice born persons b u t by no means from a Śūdra. 70. A B r a h m a n a should try dimunition of his expenditure for livelihood b u t should not wish for the expansion of wealth. O n e who is in the clutches of covetousness for wealth falls off from Brahmanahood. 71. Even after studying the Vedas a n d after perfor­ ming 11 Yajñas, one does not a t t a i n t h a t goal which one attains by means of diminution of avocation (i.e. curtailment of expenses). 72. No B r ā h m a n a shall be excessively interested in mone­ tary gifts; one m a y accept the a m o u n t required for a religious journey. A B r ā h m a n a accepting more t h a n w h a t is required for sustenance faces downfall. 73. O n e who perpetually begs cannot attain heaven. J u s t as a thief annoys all living beings, so also the perpetual beggar. 74. A person desirous of uplifting preceptors, elders or servants, a person desirous of worshipping deities a n d guests, can 1.

M a n u I V . 188.


495

31.26.75—27.1 a c c e p t gifts from everywhere. respect by himself.

He should not be satiated in this

75. A householder with his soul absorbed in meditation, •who worships deities a n d guests and who remains endowed with self-control, attains t h e greatest region. 76. Or he should entrust everything to his son a n d go to t h e forest. As a knower of reality, he should w a n d e r alone. He should be indifferent to worldly affairs a n d endowed with g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n (in spiritual activities). 77. O excellent Brāhmanas, the d u t y of t h e householders has been expounded to you thus. O n e should abide by these after knowing t h e m a n d shall make other Brāhmanas follow t h e same. 78. T h u s , one should always worship the only primordial lord by following the duties of the householder. He shall sur­ m o u n t t h e Prakrti, t h e source of origin of all living beings a n d he does n o t take another b i r t h .

CHAPTER TWENTYSEVEN Duties in Vānaprastha (Hermit's) Stage1 Vy&sa said : 1. After staying in t h e householder's stage of life thus in t h e second p a r t of life, one should pass on to t h e stage of t h e forest h e r m i t , accompanied by his wife or ( a l o n e b u t ) m a i n t a i n i n g the sacrificial fires. 1 . T h i s i s n o r m a l l y t h e t h i r d s t a g e i n life a n d t h e rules e t c . p e r t a i n i n g to it a r e given in the D h a r m a S u t r a s of A p a s t a m b a ( I I . 9. 2 1 . 18), B a u d n ā y a n a ( I I I . 3 ) , V i s n u (95) a n d S m r t i s like M a n u V I . 1-32, Y ā j ñ a v a l k y a I I I . 4 5 - 5 5 , in M a h ā b h ā r a t a Sinli 245-1-14, AnuiāsanaUl a n d P u r ā n a s like AP. c h . 160., Bh. P. V I I . 12. 17-31, JVP. I. 2y. 85-106. M a n y verses a r e c o m m o n to S m r t i s a n d P u r ā n a s inttr st b u t t h a t is i n e v i t a b l e in s u c h w o r k s d e a l i n g with the same topic.


Kūrma Purāna

496

2-3. Or he should go to the forest after entrusting his 1 wife to the care of the sons. After seeing his grandchild, the old m a n with his body weak and shattered should go to t h e forest in the course of TJttarāyana ( N o r t h e r n transit of the sun) on any auspicious morning in the bright half of the m o n t h . After going to t h e forest, he should observe all regulations a n d per­ form penance with great concentration. 4. He should take to a fruit diet after collecting holy fruits and roots. He should worship the Pitrs a n d the deities with w h a t constitutes his controlled diet. 5. He should always worship the guests; after taking b a t h he should worship the gods. W i t h great composure, he should eat only eight mouthfuls out of what he brings from the house. 6. He should always wear the m a t t e d hair. He should not cast off (i.e. pare off) nails and hairs. He should always m a i n t a i n (continue) the study of the Vedas; on o t h e r occasions he should observe restraint on his speech. 7. It is with food proper for sages, with various vege­ tables, fruits and roots grown in the forest t h a t he should perform his daily fire-worship and also the five (great) sacrifices (pañca-maha-yajnas). 8. He should always wear bark-garments. He should be pure, taking b a t h three times a day. He should be kind and considerate towards all living beings. He should avoid taking Pratigrahas (monetary gifts). 2

9-10a. T h e B r ā h m a n a should perform regularly t h e sacrifices (specifically m e a n t for) on D a r ś a and P a u r n i m ā (New M o o n a n d Full Moon) days, on the proper N a k s a t r a , as also the Agrayana isfi Cāturmāsya sacrifices. He should observe (the holy rites) in the period of summer a n d winter solstices. 10b-12a. He should p r e p a r e separately Purodāśas (sacri­ ficial offerings of ground rice offered in earthen dishes— Kapālas) a n d Caru (oblation of boiled rice a n d barley) with p u r e (oflerable as oblations in sacrifice) wild grains (rice grown naturally in spring a n d Autumn) and gathered by himself. 1.

Cf. M a n u V I . 3, Y ā j ñ a v a l k y a I I I . 4 5 .

2.

Cf. M a n u V I . 5 a n d 7 , Y ā j . I I I . 4 6 .


II.27.12b-20

497

H a v i n g offered those highly sacred Havis (oblations) of t h e products of the forest to the deities, he should partake of t h e r e m a i n d e r for himself w i t h the salt p r e p a r e d by himself. 1 12b-13. He should avoid wine a n d m e a t a n d the mush­ rooms growing on the E a r t h ; 'earth-grass' i.e. Andropogon Schoenanthus; t h e fruit of t h e trees Śiśuka (Śigruka and Slesmātaka (Cordia Latifolia) ; he shall never eat a n y t h i n g cultivated (after ploughing t h e eart'h) with the ploughshare. N o r shall he eat anything a b a n d o n e d by anyone. 14. Even when distressed, he should not m a k e use of the flowers a n d fruits produced in the villages. 2 He should m a i n t a i n a n d v e n e r a t e the holy fire as per injunctions in t h e V a i k h ā n a s a Sūtra. 15. He should not cause injury to any living being. He should be free from Dvandvas ( m u t u a l l y clashing opposites like pleasure a n d p a i n ) a n d be free from fear as well. He should not take food d u r i n g t h e night a n d be engaged in meditation d u r i n g t h e night. 16. He should be one w h o has conquered the sense-organs a n d restrained anger. He should p o n d e r over t h e perfect know­ ledge of Reality. He should always be celibate a n d not a p p r o a c h carnally even his wife. 17. T h e B r ā h m a n a , who, after going to the forest indulges in sexual intercourse with his wife passionately, violates his holy vow a n d has to perform expiation. 18. T h e child born thereby c a n n o t be touchable by B r ā h m a n a s . He is not authorised in the study of t h e Vedas. All t h e persons b o r n in his family shall also be so. 19. He should invariably sleep on the ground below. He should be devoted to the Japa of the Sāvitrl M a n t r a . He should afford shelter u n t o all living beings and share things with others. 20. He should avoid slandering a n d falsely accusing others; he should avoid (too m u c h of) sleep and lethargy; he should m a i n t a i n one single fire. He should have no fixed a b o d e ; he shall resort to a ground purified by sprinkling w a t e r . 1. 2.

M a n u V I . 14 V V . 13-14; cf. M a n u V I . 16.


Kūrma Purāna

498

2 1 . O n e should freely r o a m about alongwith the deer or take rest alongwith them. W i t h very great concentration, he should lie down on a slab of stone or on the gravels. 22. He should be one w h o washes off immediately (i.e. o n e who does not hoard anything) or he can hoard things necessary for a m o n t h ; or he c a n have all the requisite things for six months or he m a y be one who hoards things necessary for a year. 23. In the m o n t h of Aśvayuja (September-October) one should throw away all one's hoarded things. 1 * He should also discard t h e old worn clothes, vegetables, roots a n d fruits. 24. He should be a Dantolūkhalika ( o n e w h o uses the teeth as m o r t a r for chewing the grains a n d eating t h e m ) . He should follow the practice of a pigeon. He should be an Asmakuffa breaking or pounding corns etc. on stones) or he should be one w h o eats only w h a t is ripened in t h e course of time. 25. He should eat food at night w h a t he gathered during t h e day, in accordance with his capacity. He should be a CaturthakSlika (i.e. one w h o eats after missing three meal-times) or he shall be an Asfamakālika (one who eats after missing seven meal-times.) 26. He should perform expiatory rites in accordance with t h e C ā n d r ā y a n a rites during the bright a n d dark halves of t h e m o n t h . He should take once in a fortnight boiled rice (or barley) g r u e l ) . 2 * * 27. Established in t h e doctrine of Vaikhānasas one should always subsist on merely flowers, roots or fruits which have naturally fallen a n d withered. 28. O n e should roll on the ground or stand on the fore p a r t of the foot (i.e. tip-toe) throughout the day. O n e should 1.

W . 22-23, M a n u V I . 15, Y ā j . I I I . 4 7

•v.l. Pārva-saftcitom is b e t t e r a n d h e n c e a c c e p t e d . V e ñ k t . Press r e a d i n g pūrva-cintitam 'as t h o u g h t of b e f o r e ' does n o t give t h e p r o p e r sense. 2.

M a n u V I . 20-21

and 31

• • V e ñ k t . text : duijigrān kathitān ' r e p o r t i n g to foremost i r r e l e v a n t . H e n c e t h e v.l. Taaigūh kvathitih is a c c e p t e d .

B r ā h m a n a s ' is


II.27.29-38a

499

be continuously engaged in standing or sitting but should not lose courage on any account. 29. Gradually increasing his intensity in austere penance, he should get himself scorched in five fires; in the rainy season he should expose himself to showering clouds {for his shelter). He should put on wet clothes during the winter. 30. He should take ablutions thrice a day and propitiate the Pitrs a n d Devas or he should stand on a single foot and imbibe the rays then. 3 1 . He should get himself surrounded by five fires. He should be an imbiber of smoke, heat or Soma juice. He should drink milk (or water) in the bright half a n d Pañcagavya (cowd u n g , urine etc. of cows) during the dark half of the m o n t h . 1

32. Or he should eat fallen and withered dry leaves or observe penance called Krcchra. He should always practise Yoga a n d recite R u d r a ( S ū k t a ) . 33. He should study Atharvaśiras and be interested in practising the principles of V e d ā n t a ; 2 he should resort restraints (Tamas) continuously; a n d he should alertly practise Niyamas (observances a n d r i t e s ) . 34-35. He should wear the skin of a black-antelope, the u p p e r g a r m e n t and the white sacred t h r e a d . He should then impose sacred fires on his A t m a n ; a n d be devoted to meditation. He should be devoid of fire (i.e. give up fire-wor­ ship etc.) and a fixed a b o d e ; he should be a silent sage engaged in endeavour for salvation. He should take alms necessary for his journey from saintly B r ā h m a n a s . 36. He should receive the same from other B r ā h m a n a householders residing in the forest. Himself residing in the forest, he should eat eight mouthfuls of what he brings from the village. 37-38a. In a cup of leaves or holding the palms like n c u p or on a potsherd (Sakala) ( h e should receive those things). For the realisation of the A t m a n , he should perform J a p a of the different Upanisads, different M a n t r a s , the Sāvitri M a n t r a or 1.

M a n u V I . 23-24, Y ā j . I I I . 52.

2.

M a n u V I . 29-30.


500

Kūrma Purina

R u d r a Adhyāya. 38b-39. He should resort to t h e great D e p a r t u r e (mahāprasthūna) or observe fast u n t o d e a t h . He should abide by t h e procedure of dedication u n t o the B r a h m a n , and m a y enter fire. 1 Those who resort to this stage of life duly, this state of life t h a t destroys unholy things, a t t a i n t h e region of ī ś v a r a ; they go tot h a t region after their d e a t h .

CHAPTER TWENTYEIGHT Duties

of Tatis (recluses)

Vyāsa said : 1. After staying in t h e stage of life as the forest-hermit d u r i n g t h e third period of his life, thus, he should spend t h e fourth period of his life by renunciation. 2. After having established t h e fires in t h e A t m a n , the B r ā h m a n a should renounce a n d g o away a s a n anchorite. H e should be engaged in t h e practice of Yoga, be quiescent a n d be devoted to Brahmavidyā (the lore of the B r a h m a n ) . 3. People wish for S a n n y ā s a ( r e n u n c i a t i o n ) w h e n Vaitrsnya (absence of thirst i.e. a t t a c h m e n t ) towards all worldly objects surges lip in t h e mind. Otherwise one would be a fallen fellow. 4. After performing the Is ft of p e r t a i n i n g to Prajāpati or Agneya 2 (pertaining to t h e fire g o d ) , he should become a Dānta (one with self control.) His passions a n d sins get perished. He should then resort to the Brahjnāśrama (the stage of ren­ unciation i.e. Sannyāsa) 1.

M a n u VI 31. Yāj

III.

55.

d o n o t f a v o u r s u c h suicides. Also M b h . 2.

But

the

writers

on

Dharmaśastra

Ādi 779. 2 0 .

M a n u V I . 3 8 , Y ā j I I I . 5 6 r e q u i r e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f Prājāpatye?ti>

while J ā b ā l o p a n i s a d 4 r e c o m m e n d s Āgneyi if It. KP synthesized b o t h t h e views, b y giving a n o p t i o n .


501

II.28.5-14a

5. Various types of Sannyāsins are mentioned : some of t h e m are Jñāna-scmnyāsins, others are Veda-sannyāsins while some others a r e Karma-sannyāsins.1 6T* He who is free from all attachments, devoid of D v a n d v a s ( m u t u ally clashing opposites) a n d who is fearless is called the renouncer of J ñ ā n a type (Jñānasannyāsin). He is stabilised in his own A t m a n . 7. He w h o studies the Vedas solely every day, is devoid of Dvandvas a n d who accepts nothing ( o r is propertyless or has n o t h i n g ) is called t h e renouncer of the Veda type (Veda-Sannyāsin). He is one who has conquered the sense organs a n d is desirous of liberation* 8. T h e B r ā h m a n a w h o absorbs t h e sacrificial fires into the A t m a n a n d who is interested in dedicating everything to B r a h m a n , should be known as the renouncer o f ŕ K a r m a n s — a s one devoted to great Tajñas. 9. A m o n g these three, the J ñ ā n i n is considered to be the superior-most. He is a scholar w h o has no function to be per­ formed nor has he any symbol. 10. He would be devoid of myness; should be fearless and quiscent; he should be above Dvandvas and free from acceptance (of gifts) (or possession-less). He should wear only a ragged loin cloth or he m a y be naked, b u t he is devoted to meditation. 11. He should be a celibate; take in only limited mouthfuls of food. He should get his food from the village. He should be engaged in reflecting on the spirit. He should not have worldly attachments. Nor does he tal'e meat. 12. He should seek happiness a n d move about here with only the A t m a n to assist him. He should not speak in appreciation of either death or life. 13-14a. He should wait only for the time of his death just as a servant waits for (his master's) order. He has never any­ thing worth studying or hearing. He thus qualifies himself to be identical with Brahman. 1.

VV.

5-9 KP gives

a different

classification of

Sannyāsins.

Mbh.

AnuMsana 141. 89 followed by A P . 1 6 1 . 18 give ( 1 ) K u f i c a k a , ( 2 ) B a h ū d a k a (3) H a r h s a a n d ( 4 )

P a r a m a h a r h s a as t h e

usual

classification of S a n n y ā s i n s .


502

Kūrma Purāna

14b-16. Either he m a y wear a single cloth or he m a y wear a loin cloth. T h e scholar m a y have either a tonsured head or a tuft of hair on t h e head. He should have three staffs. He should be free from acceptance of gifts. He should always wear ochre-robes. He should be engaged in the p a t h of medita­ tion. He should stay at the outskirts of the village or at t h e root of a tree or in the temple. He should view the enemy and t h e friend alike. He should face both h o n o u r a n d disrespect equally. 17-18a. He should m a i n t a i n himself on alms. He should not take t h e food of only one m a n at a n y place. If, out of delusion or for a n y other reason, t h e ascetic takes the food from o n e person, no expiation has. been mentioned for h i m in the Dharmaśāstras. 18b-19a. He should consider a l u m p of clay, a stone and a piece of gold (of t h e same value) equally. His soul should be free from passion a n d hatred. He should desist from injuring living beings a n d observe silence. He should be devoid of desires. 19. O n e should set foot after purifying t h e place with the vision (look carefully before treading on a p l a c e ) ; he should drink water purified by means of a cloth; he should speak words purified by a knowledge of the scriptures; he should act with a p u r e conscience. 20. Except during the rainy season, a mendicant should not stay for long in a single place. He should take ablutions regularly a n d observe cleanliness. He should always have the waterpot in the h a n d . He should be clean. 2 1 . He should perpetually be devoted to celibacy a n d should always stay in the forest. He should be devoted to the scriptures on salvation. He should be celibate a n d should keep his sense-organs fully conquered. 22. He should be free from haughtiness and egotism; he should be devoid of censure a n d backbiting. An ascetic endowed with the quality of the (realization of) knowledge of the A t m a n shall attain salvation. 23. After taking b a t h he should perform the Ācamana rite according to injunctions. T h u s purified he should always study (ponder over) the eternal Veda called Pranava i.e. OM (sitting) in a temple, etc.


503

11.28.24-31

24-25. Wearing a sacred thread, with t h e K u ś a grass in his h a n d , wearing a clean washed ochre-coloured g a r m e n t a n d his body smeared with ashes covering the hairs and with a quiescent soul a n d concentrated m i n d , he should continuously perform Japa of B r a h m a n (Veda) pertaining to Yajña (sacrifice) or pertaining to divinity or concerning the soul described in t h e Upanisads. 26. T h e ascetic observing silence and celibacy m a y stay with his sons also. If he practises the study of Vedas always, he shall attain the greatest goal. 27. These are particularly his vows viz. : non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, greatest p e n a n c e ; (austeremost) forbearance, mercifulness and contenment. 28. He should a d h e r e to the Vedantic knowledge with great concentration; he should perform the five Yajñas (Pañcam a h ā Yajñas) It is not for the sake of alms t h a t he should be endowed with J ñ ā n a arid meditation. 29. He should always perform t h e J a p a of t h e H o m a m a n t r a s at t h e proper time with great concentration. He should read t h e Vedic passage every day. He should repeat t h e Sāvitr! M a n t r a at the junctions (morning a n d evening). 30. Thereafter he should m e d i t a t e on L o r d P a r a m e ś v a r a in a secluded spot. D u r i n g secluded life one should avoid passion, fury a n d acceptance of monetary gifts. 3 1 . T h e scholar who wears one or two garments, a tuft of h a i r (on t h e h e a d ) , a sacred thread a n d holding a K a m a n d a l u (water-pot) in h a n d a n d three staffs attains t h e greatest Being. 1

1 . T h i s i s s t r a n g e . T h e recluse h a s p r o p e r t y e t c . vide M a n u V I - 4 1 , 43-42.

t o leave

home,

wife,

children,


504

Kūrma Purāna

CHAPTER TWENTY-NINE Duties of an Ascetic Vyāsa said : 1. In this way the sustenance of ascetics of restrained soul (mind) w h o strictly adhere to the stage of their life, has been declared to be on begging alms or on fruits, roots etc. 2. . H e should beg for alms only for once. He should not indulge in it for long. Since, if an ascetic is attached to alms, he becomes involved in worldly affairs. 3. He should beg for alms only at seven houses. 1 If nothing is received he should begin begging for alms once again. He should wash t h e vessel and take food in it. T h e n once again, he should wash it with water. 4. Or he should take another vessel for collecting t h e alms a n d another for taking food everyday. After taking food he should wipe off t h a t vessel a n d take food only to facilitate the journey of life. He should n o t be covetous. 5. T h e ascetic should go to collect alms w h e n t h e r e is no smoke or b u r n i n g coal, at a house where all the people have taken food a n d where t h e threshing rod is kept resting a n d the^potsherds a r e disposed off.2 6. After saying " B h i k s ā " (alms) once, t h e m e n d i c a n t ascetic should stand with the head bent (facing d o w n ) for a period of a Godoha (i.e. t h e time taken to milk a c o w ) . (After receiving the alms) he should eat it silently. He should be pure a n d restrained in speech. 7. He should wash his hands a n d feet a n d perform the Ācamana rites in accordance with the injunctions. He should show food to the sun-god and p a r t a k e of it facing the east. H e should r e m a i n p u r e . 8. He should take in the five Prānāhutis (i.e. take the five particles of food while uttering Prānāya svāhā e t c . ) . With concentration he should take in only eight mouthfuls of food. 1.

V a s i s t h a D h . S . X . 7 , Ś a ń k h a Smr. V I I . 3

2.

M a n u V I . 56, Ś a ń k h a V I I . 2

J{

po

((try


II.29.9-18

505

After performing the Ācamana rite he should medjtate on L o r d B r a h m a , the g r e a t Iśvara. 9. M a n u , t h e Prajāpati, says t h a t t h e following four types of vessels m a y be used (for begging alms) by ascetic* viz. : a gourd, a wooden vessel, a mud-pot or a b a m b o o pot. 1 10. He should think of Iśvara always early in the night, in the middle of t h e night, at the close of t h e night a n 4 d u r i n g the Sandhyās (i.e. d a w n a n d d u s k ) . D u r i n g the Sandhyas, he should particularly m a k e use of sacrificial fires.* 11-13. He should keep within t h e abode of the lotus of his h e a r t , t h e deity n a m e d Viśva who is the cause of the b i r t h of the Universe. He should r e m e m b e r t h e A t m a n of all living b e i n g s — t h a t which is stationed beyond darkness, t h e A t m a n t h a t is t h e support of all the brilliance, t h e u n c h a n g i n g bliss, t h a t w h i c h is beyond P r a d h ā n a a n d Purusa, Śiva (stationed in t h e ) cavity of the sky, ī ś v a r a of the form of B r a h m a n , present w i t h i n all beings. He should meditate on the lord devoid of beginning, middle a n d the end, the abode of the qualities such as bliss, e t c . 14-15. . H e should m e d i t a t e on t h e great Purusa, the B r a h m a n , B r a h m a , the unchanging t r u t h , the universal formed M a h e ś a resembling t h e mid-day sun. He should stabilise t h e A t m a n i n the Supreme A t m a n t h r o u g h O m k ā r a . H e should meditate on Lord ī ś ā n a present in the middle o f t h e A k ā ś a (firmament). 16. O n e meditating on the ancient p u r e Purusa, the cause of all beings^ t h e only receptacle of bliss, shall be released from b o n d a g e . 17-18. Or he should ponder over the great firmament, the sole cause of all living beings, t h a t which is present in the cavity of the h e a r t , t h e abode of illusion for the universe; he should m e d i t a t e on the enlivening force of all living beings, where the world gets dissolved; which, those desirous of liberation, see as the subtle bliss of B r a h m a n . 1. M a n u V I . 54 but there it is attributed to Svāyambhuva M a n u •v.). Sandhyāsvahni ' ( e s p e c i a l l y ) i n t h e d a w n , t h e d u s k a n d a t d a y ' i s better.


506

Kūrma Purāna

19. After p o n d e r i n g over t h e infinite real, ī ś ā n a , t h e B r a h m a n t h a t is lying hidden in its middle, the B r a h m a n characterised by perfect knowledge, he should sit with perfect self-control. 20. This is t h e greatest secret of all secrets i m p a r t e d to ascetics by M a h e ś a . He who brings into practice the perfect knowledge, shall experience Yoga pertaining to Ī ś v a r a . 2 1 . H e n c e , he should always be devoted to m e d i t a t i o n ; he should be devoted to the Atmavidyā {knowledge of t h e soul). He should resort to t h e perfect knowledge of B r a h m a n , whereby he shall be released from b o n d a g e . 22. Realising the non-identity of the self from all o t h e r things, a n d t h a t t h e self is pure bliss, devoid of old age, o n e should meditate again on t h a t Supreme knowledge. 23. He is, therefore, t h e Supreme Lord as from him all beings originate, by attaining him one is not born again. He is the G o d who transcends a n d rules over all. 24. T h a t L o r d is Maheśvara, t h e journey u n t o whom is mentioned to be perpetual a n d auspicious, and whom they call as the greatest. 25. Whatever holy m a i n vows a n d subsidiary vows of t h e mendicant ascetics have been mentioned, if a n y of these a r e transgressed, expiatory rites are enjoined. 1 26. After approaching a w o m a n carnally, he should m a k e amends as follows : He should control his mind, remain p u r e and perform P r ā n ā y ā m a . H e should then perform t h e expiatory rites called Krcchra* a n d Sāntapana. 27. Thereafter he should remain with perfect mental control a n d regularly perform the Krcchra (expiatory) rite according to injunctions. T h e mendicant should come to t h e hermitage again a n d perform his regular duties with alertness. 28. Learned m e n say that a falsehood uttered for fun does not affect one adversely. Still it should not be pursued, as this is a serious incident. 1 . V V . 25-36 e n u m e r a t e t h e a t o n e m e n t s o r e x p i a t i o n s for transgression of rules by a S a n n y ā s i n . *a b e t t e r v.l. ; 3 prāyaścittam samahitah w i t h c o n c e n t r a t e d m i n d

take

the

prāyaścitta, as this avoids t h e d u p l i c a t i o n of Krcchra prāyaicitta in t h e n e x t verse.


507

11.29.29-38

29. (If one speaks a lie even in joke) an ascetic desirous of piety should fast for one night and perform one h u n d r e d Prānāyāmas. 30. O n e should not commit theft even if one loses one's interest* ( ? ) . T h e Smrti states t h a t there is no other act of irreligion t h a n theft. 3 1 . It is spoken of as a n o t h e r kind of violence. It deprives one of the knowledge of the self. W h a t is called wealth is the externally wandering life of m a n . 32. He who deprives a m a n of his wealth, deprives h i m of his life. If one commits it, that extremely wicked person, fallen from his pious way of life, gets his sacred vow violated. ( R e p e n t i n g again if) he feels despondent, he should perform Cāndrāyana vow. 33. Śruti says t h a t he should perform ( t h e Cāndrāyana rite) for a year in accordance with the injunctions in t h e scriptures. If the mendicant ascetic should repent again, he should perform his vow alertfully. 34. If the m e n d i c a n t ascetic commits violence acciden­ tally he should perform the expiatory rite of Krcchrātikrcchra or Cāndrāyana. 35. If, on seeing a woman, an ascetic involuntarily discharges his semen virile d u e to his weakness, he should perform sixteen P r ā n ā y ā m a s . 36. If the involuntary emission of the semen takes p l a c e d u r i n g the d a y time, he should perform h u n d r e d P r ā n ā y ā m a s every d a y for three days. If one takes to wine a n d flesh in secret, or takes salt openly during N a v a ś r ā d d h a (first S r ā d d h a after a person's death) Prājāpatya vow is the expiatory rite. 37. All the sins of a person engaged always in m e d i t a t i o n perish. H e n c e , one should be engrossed in meditation on M a h e ś v a r a after realising him. 38. T h a t which is the greatest B r a h m a n , the brilliantmost light, the imperishable and unchanging support of all a n d is i m m a n e n t in everything, should be known as Maheśvara. *A

better

v.l.

is

param

āpadgatenipi

na

kāryam

steyam

anyatah One

s h o u l d n o t p e r f o r m theft f r o m o t h e r s even if he is in e x t r e m e difficulty'.


Kūrma Purāna

508

39. This lord M a h ā d e v a is t h e p u r e a n d t h e greatest Śiva. He alone is the non-dualistic imperishable deity within the orb of the sun. 40.* (Defective verse) Since the lord is very great a n d is stationed in the principle called Atmayoga a n d termed Svadhā, Agni (fire) and (knowledge) J ñ ā n a , he is known as Mahādeva. 4 1 . He who does not see a n y other lord t h a n M a h ā d e v a , h e who realises h i m as the Atman, attains the greatest region. 42. Those w h o consider their o w n Atman different from Parameśvara do not realise tne lord. T h e i r effort is futile. 43. T h e only B r a h m a n is the supreme B r a h m a n . T h a t should be known as the unchanging principle. T h a t lord is M a h ā d e v a . By not realising this, one is fettered. 44. Hence, an ascetic of controlled mind should worship invariably. He should be quiescent, devoted to M a h ā d e v a a n d engaged in the p a t h of knowledge. 45. O Brāhmanas, thus the auspicious stage of life of the ascetics has been detailed to you. This has been formerly expounded to the sages by lord P i t ā m a h a (god B r a h m a ) . 46. This excellent knowledge, the auspicious thing based on the duties of the ascetics, imparted by the self-born deity, shall not be given to anyone else except to sons, disciples and Yogins. 47. T h u s the rules governing the rites of the ascetics have been described. It shall be the sole cause of the propitiation of Paśupati. Those who practise this every day with concentration of the m i n d are not reborn nor shall they face destruction.

* V e ñ k t . Press text is full of m i s p r i n t s : T h e C r t . edition mahīyate devah svadhāmni smrtah

'Inasmuch

ledge a n d

ātma-yogāhcaye

tattve

a s t h e l o r d enjoys i n his a b o d e called

the reality

"great God".

jñāna-suñjñini called

the

Yoga

of

Atman,

reads

: yasmān

Mahādevas (spiritual) he

tatah know­

i s said t o

be


509-

II.30.1-7

CHAPTER THIRTY Rules of expiation Vyāsa said : 1. Henceforth I shall expound auspicious procedure of expiation 1 for the welfare of all Brāhmanas ( v . l . people) a n d for dispelling sins. 2. By not doing the enjoined holy rite a n d by doing w h a t is prohibited, a person incurs sin. T h e expiatory rite is the way of absolvement from sin. 3. No B r ā h m a n a should ever r e m a i n (anywhere) without performing the expiatory rite. He should perform w h a t quiescent, scholarly B r ā h m a n a s advise. 2 4. W h a t a quiescent Brāhmana, who is t h e most excel­ lent a m o n g the knowers of the meanings of the Vedas, w h o loves dharma (virtue) a n d who maintains (sacrificial) fires, does, shall be t h e greatest virtue even if it be t h a t he a l o n e performs it. 5. If there are three Brāhmanas who t h o u g h they do not m a i n t a i n sacrificial fire are b u t past-masters of Vedic interpretation a n d love D h a r m a , w h a t they say should be r a g a r d e d as means of D h a r m a . 6-7. If there is a group of seven Brāhmanas who a r e experts in m a n y scriptures on D h a r m a - i ā s t r a a n d a r e proficient 1.

Chs. X X X — X X X I V of KP

d e a l w i t h rules

o f PrāyaScitta o r

expia­

t i o n f r o m sin. T h e c o n c e p t o f sin i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f a n n o t a t i o n s ( F o r t h e c o n c e p t of sin vide H a s t i n g ' s Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics on " s i n " ) .

T h e c o n c e p t o f sin w a s well-developed i n

B. K e a t h — T h e Religion and Philosqyhy of the

Veda

vol. XI

Rgvedic times

article (vide A.

and Upanishads, p p .

245-9,

264-8, 310-12 e t c . ) . The

term

PrāyaScitta m e a n s ' t h a t w h e r e b y t h e citta ( t h e m i n d )

r e p e n t a n t is g e n e r a l l y the

P a r s a d assembly

(prāyah) free (from t h e oppressive of Brahmin

Pandits;

a

sense

of the

of guilt)

smrti quotation in

by

Parāśara

M ā d h a v a I I . 1. p. 3) The

idea

t h a t a sin c a n be w i p e d o u t by PrāyaScitta g a v e rise to

l i t e r a t u r e from t h e t i m e o f a n c i e n t D h a r m a - s ū t r a s d o w n t o of digests (Nibandhas).

P u r ā n a s as a p a r t of

Dharma-śāstra

a

vast

mediaeval writers had

dealt

with

t h e m in details vide AP c h s . 169-174, V P . I. chs. 14, 15 a n d 3 0 . 2.

V V . 3-8

state

w h o should be

regarded

m a t t e r (as t o w h a t a t o n e m e n t b e m a d e etc.)

as

authority

i n religious,


510

Kūrma Purāna

in logical reasoning of pros and cons a n d endowed with Vedic studies, these seven are glorified as a u t h o r i t y on D h a r m a Śāstra. 8. If there be twenty-one B r ā h m a n a s w h o know the t r u t h about the knowledge of Mīmārhsā a n d are experts in V e d ā n t a , can lay down the expiatory rite. 9. He who associates with the fallen sinners for one year by sharing their vehicles, beds a n d seats, with full knowledge thereof, shall also become fallen 1 10. A B r ā h m a n a w h o officiates as a priest contracts a m a r r i a g e with the fallen out-caste a n d teaches t h e m V e d a or dines with t h e m , instantly becomes fallen. 11. T h e B r ā h m a n a w h o teaches t h e m out of delusion or n o t knowing ( t h e i r sins) or learns alongwith t h e m shall become fallen in the course of a year. 12. T h e slayer of a B r ā h m a n a 2 should construct a h u t in t h e forest a n d live therein for twelve years. For self-purifi­ cation, he should beg alms with the skull of the dead as a symbol on the flag. 13. He should avoid the abodes of t h e Brāhmanas a n d t h e shrines of deities. He should r e m e m b e r t h a t B r ā h m a n a constantly a n d censure himself. 14. He should quietly a n d slowly enter seven houses (for begging) t h e worthiness of which was not (previously) con­ sidered a n d which are free from smoke a n d fire (extinguished) a n d inmates whereof have taken their meals. 15. He should beg for alms only once. He should pro­ claim his sin to all m e n . Or he should m a i n t a i n himself with fruits a n d roots obtained from the forest and subsist on them. 16. He should hold the skull and the K h a t v ā ń g a (a staff with a skull at the top) in his hands. He should observe celibacy. W h e n the twelfth year is completed in this manner, he shall become free from the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 1 . V V . 9-11 s t a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h e v e n is t r e a t e d as 'falllen'. 2.

S l a y i n g of a B r ā h m a n a was r e g a r d e d

an

innocent

as a serious sin

V V . 12-26 d e s c r i b e different a t o n e m e n t s for this g r e a t sin.

man

(mahā-pāpa).


11.30.17-26

511

17. W h e n the sin has been committed unintentionally, this is the auspicious expiation. It should be remembered t h a t if the sin is done intentionally, the purification is only after d e a t h , a n d not b y any other means. 18. He should observe Anaśana (fast u n t o d e a t h ) or Bhrgupatana (fall off from a precipice) or he shall enter t h e b u r n i n g fire or water. 19. In order to wipe off the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter, he should discard his life for t h e sake of a B r ā h m a n a or a cow or for t h e sake of the dead. 20. T h e sin of Brāhmana-slaughter is dispelled by curing a B r ā h m a n a of his chronic illness or by giving food to a very learned person. 2 1 . Or a B r ā h m a n a is absolved of the sin of B r ā h m a n a slaughter by taking the concluding ablutions of a horse sacri­ fice or by giving all his possessions to a B r ā h m a n a who has mastered the Vedas. 22. A B r ā h m a n a should observe fast for three nights a n d t h e n take three b a t h s in the world-famous confluence of t h e river Sarasvatī with the A r u n ā a n d he shall be purified. 2 3 . By going to the holy place R ā m e ś v a r a , a n d by taking b a t h in t h e great ocean or by seeing R u d r a , he shall be rid of t h e sin if he observes celibacy. 24. T h e r e is the holy centre of lord Śūlin (Śiva) n a m e d K a p ā l a m o c a n a . By taking b a t h a n d propitiating t h e Pitrs a n d Devas, one dispels the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 25. It was there t h a t the skull of P a r a m e s t h i n B r a h m a was formerly deposited by Bhairava, the overlord of Devas, of u n m e a s u r e d splendour. 26. By worshiping M a h ā d e v a there, in the form of Bhairava, after the b a t h a n d after performing the Tarpana rites to the Pitrs one is freed from the sin of B r ā h m a n a slaughter.


Kūrma Purāna

512

CHAPTER THTRTYONE Importance of Kapāla-mocana Tirtha? Emplacement of God Brahma's Skull The sages said : 1. Formerly, how was t h e skull severed from t h e b o d y of B r a h m a , placed on t h e E a r t h by Lord R u d r a , Śańkara, of excessive brilliance ? Sūta narrated : 2. O sages, listen ye all to the meritorious story t h a t dis­ pels sins, a n d t h e greatness of t h e intelligent M a h ā d e v a , the lord of Devas. 3. Formerly, on the peak of M e r u , the great sages bowed to the lord P i t ā m a h a , the primordial cause of the worlds, a n d said :- " W h a t is t h a t one immutable Principle ?" 4. T h e deity from w h o m the worlds originated was delud­ ed by the M ā y ā of M a h e ś a . Not realising the greatest Being, he was over-bearing (enough) to say t h a t he was (the unchanging principle). 5. "I am the Creator, the source of t h e origin of t h e Universe. I am the single self-born īśvara. I am t h e beginningless greatest B r a h m a n . By worshipping me, one is liberated. 6. I am t h e deity who makes all Devas function as well as desist (from functioning). T h e r e is no one in t h e worlds superior t o m e . " 7-8. While he was professing like this, a portion of N ā r ā ­ y a n a was b o r n a n d spoke these words laughingly- " T h e threeeyed lord is annoyed. O B r a h m a , w h a t is the reason for this ? 1.

T h a t Vyāsa Gīlā is an i n t e r p o l a t i o n by P ā s ' u p a t a s

becomes

evident

w h e n i n p l a c e a n d o u t o f p l a c e t h e y b r i n g t h e i r favourite D e i t y . T h i s c h a p t e r illustrates h o w t h e sin of Brahma-hatyā (killing a B r ā h m a n a ) taking a b a t h in a holy centre named cation

as Kapāla-mocana (reliever of

Śiva

by

f r o m t h e c o n t a c t of a

and

to be

s k u l l ) . T h e glorifi­

embodiments of Vedas a n d amputation of the arrogant

h e a d of god B r a h m a a n d the final emancipation from t h a t Brahma

was absolved by

(Tirtha) at Vārānasi a n d w h y it came

physical

sin o f b e h e a d i n g

s e p a r a t i o n o f B r a h m a ' s skull f r o m B h a i r a v a ' s h a n d —

a l l is for t h e glorification of Siva.


II.31.9-17

513

You are overpowered with ignorance. T h e qualities you have been boasting a r e not present in you. (v.l. This is n o t proper). 9-10. I am lord N ā r ā y a n a , the primordial maker of t h e worlds, t h e Yajña incarnate. Without me, the whole universe cannot exist at all anywhere. I alone am the Supreme brilliance. I alone am the greatest goal. It was after being urged by me that the sphere of the Universe has been created by you. 11. While these two deities were arguing with a desire to subdue the other, the four Vedas came to the place where these two deities were present. 12. On seeing lord B r a h m a and the lord identical with Yajña (i.e. N ā r ā y a n a ) seated ( t h e r e ) , ( t h e Vedas) with a pain­ ful h e a r t declared t h e reality of t h e Supreme Lord. Rgveda said : 13. It is lord Maheśvara, within w h o m are stationed all living beings from w h o m everything functions a n d which they call t h e S u p r e m e principle. Tajurveda said : 14. It is the Pināka-bearing deity Śiva who is worshipped by means of all the Yajñas and t h e Yoga and whom they call Lord Iśvara. Sāmaoeda said : 15. T h a t great Deva is Ś a ń k a r a by w h o m this Universe revolves, w h o is t h e auspicious deity within t h e firmament a n d who is the principle Reality known a n d realised by the Yogins. Alharvaveda said : 16. T h a t is lord Bhava w h o m t h e ascetics visualize a n d worship as the great lord of Devas, as the great P u r u s a , as the great R u l e r R u d r a . 17. On hearing this auspicious utterance of the Vedas, lord B r a h m a laughed utterly deluded, t h e Atman of the Universe (i.e. B r a h m a ) t h e n said :


514

Kūrma Purāna

18. " W h y does that great B r a h m a n who ought to be devoid of all attachments, sport about alongwith his wife a n d the excessively arrogant P r a m a t h a s (attendants) ?" 19. W h e n this was uttered, the eternal lord, of the nature ofPranava ( O M ) , who is really formless, became embodied and spoke these words to P i t ā m a h a (god B r a h m a ) . Pranava said : 20-21. " I n d e e d this lord īśa, R u d r a never sports about with a goddess who is different from himself. Maheśvara is of that sort. He is t h a t lord Iśa, the eternal a n d the self-lumi­ nous. T h e goddess Śivā is one who has become his Bliss (i.e. his aspect called blissfiilnesś) and not extraneous (coming from •outside)." 22. Even when this was explained, the ignorance of Aja ( B r a h m a ) whose body is Yajña, was not dispelled due to the M ā y ā of Iśvara. 23. In the meanwhile Viriñca (i.e. god B r a h m a ) the conceiver of the universe saw a divine wonderful and great brilliance filling up the space of the sky. 24. In the middle of it (that light) was stationed a sphere •of brilliance shining with splendour. O excellent Brāhmanas, a divine splendour in the middle of the firmament appeared in front of him. 25. On seeing that divine face over his head, the grand­ father of the worlds saw a sphere of splendour spotless a n d terrible. 26-27. T h e fifth head of B r a h m a blazed with great fury. Instantaneously the great Purusa, Nīlalohita, the tawny coloured trident-bearing lord, having the serpents for his sacred thread was seen. Lord B r a h m a spoke to Śańkara, Nīlalohita. 28. (Defective verse) * O Śańkara, you are born of my forehead formerly for the sake of knowledge (?) You are called M a h e ś ā n a . Hence, seek refuge in m e . " 29. On hearing the arrogant words of the lotus-born deity, Iśvara depatched his m a n Kālabhairava, the burner of worlds * K P . C r t . e d . r e a d s jānāmi bhavatah pūrvath lalātād eva Śañkara prādur-

bhavam / "O Ś a ń k a r a , I k n o w y o u r b i r t h from my f o r e h e a d f o r m e r l y . "


11.31.30-40

515

30. After fighting a great battle with Brahma, KālaBhairava slit the fifth face of Viriñca (Brahma.) 3 1 . Brahma whose face was cut by lord Śambhu, d i e d ; b u t by means of the Yogic power of Iśa, the holder of the universe ( B r a h m a ) regained his life. 32. T h e n he saw Iśāna, the eternal M a h ā d e v a seated alongwith the great goddess a n d stationed in an other sphere of light. 33. He h a d the royal serpents for his bracelet; the cre­ scent-moon as an o r n a m e n t ; he resembled a crore of suns (in brilliance), he shone with his matted hair. 34. He was clad in the hide of a tiger; he was bedecked in divine garlands; he held the trident in his h a n d ; he was a Yogin who could not be looked at (due to his brilliance.) 35. He saw the primordial deity, the first deity, great lord w h o m those who a r e stabilised in Yoga see within their hearts as ī ś v a r a and B r a h m a n . 36. Verily, the great Lord whose supreme power, the god­ dess, is designated as the sky (v.l. established in the firmament) a n d whose Yogic soul (?) infinite aifvarya (divine potencies like omniscience, omnipresence etc.) is seen indeed. 37. T h a t Rudra, on merely bowing to w h o m once, the deluding seed of the entire universe gets dissolved, is seen indeed. 38. (Defective Verse). Those who do not strictly abide by rules of good conduct b u t who are only great devotees of him are liberated by the A t m a n of the worlds. T h a t Lord is now seen, indeed. 39. T h a t Śiva whose Lińga is always worshipped by B r a h m a and other Devas as well as by the sages, the expoun­ ders of B r a h m a n , has indeed become visible. 40. T h a t Śańkara is seen whose side (i.e. proximity) is never left offJby_ ī ś v a r a * , the cause of origin of the entire / universe a n d whose body is Vijñ&na (Perfect knowledge). \ p r o x i m i t y of Ś a ń k a r a is confusing. Iśvañ w o u l d be a b e t t e r r e a d i n g as t h a t w o u l d qualify tarn ' b o d y ' a n d m e a n 'whose divine body.'


516

Kūrma Purāna

41. That īśvara is indeed seen—Isvara, the son of Hiranyagarbha, in whose circular halo of light is seen the Lord who is accompanied by Vidyā. 42. Indeed that Rudra is seen—Rudra at whose feet (if) anyone were to pour water or place a flower or a leaf, he crosses the ocean of existence. 43. Due to his presence, the eternal Time controls the entire universe (and Time-units ?). The god whose soul is Yoga and who is the governor of Kāla* 44. That Soma (god Śiva who is accompanied by U m ā ) is seen—the god whose ornament is Soma (the moon)—the life of all the worlds and an ornament unto the three worlds. 45. T h e great God (Mahādeva) whose natural eternal union with goddess U m ā is ever seen and the great liberation ( o n seeing him) is extolled (as being attained) is now seen. 46. (Defective) Yogins, well-versed in the principles of Yoga, always meditate upon his union with the goddess, though he always faces separation** from the world (?) That Yogin is indeed seen. 47. On seeing the eternal Mahādeva seated in an excel­ lent seat along with the great goddess, he attained the greatest perfect recollection. 48. Gaining the divine recollection pertaining to Maheivara, lord Aja (Brahma) propitiated the moonbedecked lord, the bestower of boons who was accompanied by U m ā . Brakmā said : 49. Obeisanceg[to the great God. Repeated bows to the great goddess. Hail to Śiva the quiescent; perpetual obeisance unto Śivā (goddess U m ā ) . 50. Om bow unto you the Brahman, obeisance, obeis­ ance to you who are the Vidyā ( M ā y ā ) , Obeisance to you *Kilah KH» in Venkt. Edt. is rather obscure. If emended as Kila-kilo it means 'God who is the KUa (destroyer and hence controller) of kāla (of time or god of death.)' *'viyogikhiaadtJto'niSam (Veńk. T e x t ) . If emended as vpafdMimaMd tmiom will mean "yog"** who set their face against (the world)'. T h e metrical defect can be condoned by a doubleiandhi mukhānilam.


11.31.51-60

517

the great Iśa. Hail to the Primordial P r a k r t i — t h e root cause of the universe. 5 1 . Salutation to one whose body is Vijñāna; obeisance, obeisance to you Cintū (goddess of c o n t e m p l a t i o n ) ; H a i l to the destroyer of K ā l a ; obeisance again a n d again to ī'śvara (the goddess). 52. Obeisance, again a n d again to R u d r a ; salutations again a n d again to R u d r ā n ī ; obeisance, obeisance to you, K ā l a ( T i m e or D e a t h ) ; Repeated bows to you, the M ā y ā (the Deluding P o t e n c y ) . 53. Obeisance to the controller of all effects; obeisance to her w h o agitates. Hail to you, the Prakrti a n d obeisance to Nārāyana. 54. Obeisance to you the bestower of Yoga. Salutations to the preceptor of Yogins; obeisance to one abiding in the w o r l d * ( ? ) . Bow to the source of origin of the world. 55. Obeisance be to the lord of perpetual Bliss; H a i l to one whose very form is Bliss; obeisance to one devoid of actions; salutation to the material cause of the universe. 56. Obeisance to you whose body is O r h k ā r a ; obeisance to you stationed therein. H a i l to you stationed in the firma­ m e n t ; obeisance, again and again to the Śakti (potency) of the firmament. 57. M a k i n g obeisance thus to I ś a by means of " S o m a s t a k a " (eight verses eulogising the lord accompanied by U m ā ) god B r a h m a fell on the ground like a piece of log, repeating the mantras of Śatarudriya. 58. T h e n Lord Mahādeva, H a r a , the remover ofthe distress of those who bow to him, raised h i m by means of his hands a n d said : "I am now pleased with y o u . " 59. After bestowing great Yoga and the great unequalled Aiśvarya (prowess) on him (Brahma) he (god Śiva) spoke to R u d r a , Lord Nīlalohita who was standing in front of him. 60. This is god Brahma. He is the most venerable one u n t o this universe. He is the first one to stay in this universe; He is elder to you by means of the G u n a ; He is to be protected by you. He is your father. 'v.l. samsāra-nāSaka 'destroyer of s a m s ā i a ) .


518

Kūrma Purāna

6 1 . He is t h e ancient P u r u s a ; O sinless one, he should not be killed by you. T h a n k s to t h e greatness of his Yoga a n d Aifvarya (divine powers a n d faculties), he has sought refuge in me alone. 62. A n d he is sacrifice a n d t h a t is his pride (v.l. He is the venerable sacrifice himself). His pride is to be chastened by you. You have to carry with you Brahma's head. 63. Demonstrating to the world the expiatory rite for dispelling the sin of the slaughter of a B r ā h m a n a , go abegging. You should establish Devas a n d the B r ā h m a n a s . " 64. After addressing these words to Parameśvara (i.e. R u d r a ) , the supreme lord went to his divine n a t u r a l abode, t h e greatest region. 65. Thereafter, lord Iśa, Nīlalohita of m a t t e d hair m a d e K ā l a b h a i r a v a hold god B r a h m a ' s head. 66. For t h e purpose of quelling the sin (of B r ā h m a n a slaughter) you perform the beneficial holy rite in the world. W i t h the skull in the h a n d , you beg for alms all r o u n d . " 67. After saying thus, he sent his d a u g h t e r well known as Brakmahatyā whose face was terrible d u e to t h e curved fangs and w h o h a d clusters of flames for ornaments. 68. Assuming a terribly hideous form follow t h e tridentbearing deity as long as he enters the divine city of V ā r ā n a s ī . " 69. After saying this, he spoke to Kālāgni ( K ā l a b h a i r a v a ) t h e great I ś v a r a of the w o r l d s — " A t my behest, w a n d e r over all the worlds seeking alms. 70. W h e n you will meet N ā r ā y a n a , the lord of Devas, free from ailments, he will tell y o u clearly the means of expiation for the sin." 71. On hearing t h e statement of t h e Lord of the deities, Lord H a r a , the A t m a n of the universe wandered over the three worlds with the skull in his h a n d . 72. He assumed a hideous dress a n d form. He shone by means of his own brillance. His form was holy, comely a n d endowed with glory. He h a d t h r e e eyes. 73. T h a t great god with eyes like the fire of universal destruction, who was surrounded by Siddhas and the leaders of P r a m a t h a s ( a t t e n d a n t s ) shines (shone dazzling) like crore of suns.


519

11.31.74-85

74. After imbibing t h e divine nectar, t h e bliss of Paramesthin, t h e lord full of shining sports a n d pastimes, c a m e d o w n to t h e world. 75. On seeing Śańkara, the black-faced K ā l a Bhairava, endowed with b e a u t y and comely form, hosts of women followed him. 76. T h e y began to sing different kinds of songs; they began to d a n c e in front of the lord; looking at his smiling face, they knitted their eyebrows. 77. After passing through the lands of Devas, D ā n a v a s a n d others, the trident-bearing lord went to t h e region of Visnu where P u r u s o t t a m a stayed. 78. After reaching the divine abode, Śańkara, the bene­ factor of the worlds, began to enter it along with t h e P r o m i n e n t Bhūtas. 79. W i t h o u t knowing the divine and great being of Parameśvara, t h e powerful gatekeeper prevented the tridentbearing lord. 80. He was famous by the n a m e of Visvaksena. He was born of a p a r t of Visnu. He held conch, discus a n d the m a c e in his h a n d s ; he was mighty a r m e d a n d clad in yellow robes. (Verse in t h e b r a c k e t ) T h e n t h e gatekeeper, b o r n of Visnu fought with the terriblelooking a t t e n d a n t of Śiva, called Kālavega (who attacked him) by t h e order of Bhairava. 8 1 . After routing Kālavega, the gatekeeper with his eyes turned red d u e to fury, rushed against R u d r a a n d hurled the S u d a r ś a n a disc against him. 82. Lord M a h ā d e v a , the conqueror of foes, the tridentbearing god, the destroyer of the Tripuras, contemptuously looked at him, as he rushed against him 83. In the meanwhile, a great goblin comparable to the fire at the end of the Yugas, pierced his heart by means of t h e trident a n d felled h i m to the ground. 84. Mortally struck down by t h e trident (the gatekeeper) lost all his great strength a n d a b a n d o n e d his life like persons afflicted by sickness on seeing d e a t h . 85.

After killing

the

servant of

Visnu and taking his


520

Kūrma Purāna

body with him, R u d r a entered the inner a p a r t m e n t alongwith the leading P r a m a t h a s . 86. On seeing īśvara, t h e cause of the universe, Lord H a r i broke a vein in his forehead and let t h e blood flow out. 87. "O suppressor of the Tripuras, O excessive splendoured, (O deity of unmeasured splendour), accept alms(offered) by m e . No other kind of alms is worthy of y o u . " 88. T h e blood continued to flow out in a continuous stream for a thousand divine years. Still t h a t skull of Brahma, P a r a m e s t h i n could not be filled u p . 89. After eulogising h i m with different emotional ways (?) (v.l. with various Vedic mantras) a n d great respect, lord H a r i N ā r ā y a n a spoke to K ā l a r u d r a . 90. " W h y are you carrying this skull of B r a h m a ?" Maheśvara, the lord of Devas, recounted everything that happened. 9 1 . Acyuta ( V i s n u ) , Hrsikeśa (Lord of senses) called B r a h m a h a t y ā (the evil spirit of the slaughter of a Brāhmana) a n d requested her "Please let go t h e trident-bearing deity." 92. T h o u g h requested by the enemy of M u r a (i.e. V i s n u ) , she did not leave off his ( R u d r a ' s ) side. After meditating on the source of origin of the universe, the omniscient Lord spoke to Śańkara. 93. "O lord, go u n t o the auspicious divine city of Vārānasī where Iśvara (god Śiva) quickly destroys the sins of the worlds." 94. Thereafter, t h e lord sportively went to the holy centres and shrines with a desire for the welfare of all the worlds. 95. H e r e a n d there, he was eulogised by the P r a m a t h a s of great Yogic power. T h e great Yogin with the dead body on his hands danced. 96. Assuming another form, lord H a r i , N ā r ā y a n a followed him, desirous of seeing his dance. 97. On seeing Govinda, the bull-bannered lord of infinite Yogic soul, danced again a n d again smilingly. 98. Following R u d r a , H a r i with t h e D h a r m a as his carrier, reached the city of M a h ā d e v a , well-known as Vārānasī. 99.

As soon

as the lord of the universe with m a t t e d h a i r


11.31.100-108

521

entered t h e city, B r a h m a h a t y ā cried out, "Alas, Alas !" a n d entered the nether-worlds highly distressed.

loudly,

100. After entering the greatest abode, lord H a r a , Śańkara, placed t h e skull of B r a h m a in front of t h e a t t e n d a n t s . 101. After placing it ( t h e skull), M a h ā d e v a , the ocean of mercy, h a n d e d over the dead body to Visnu with the words " M a y this come to life." 102. " T h o s e who always r e m e m b e r this K ā p ā l a dress of m i n e find their sin here a n d hereafter perish quickly. 103. After coming to the excellent holy centre a n d performing the ablutions duly, one should propitiate the Pitrs, manes a n d Devas after which one is liberated from the sin of slaughter of B r ā h m a n a . 104. Realising t h a t t h e world is transient, ye all go to t h e greatest city. At the time of d e a t h the perfect knowledge i m p a r t e d by me yields t h e highest region." 105. After saying this a n d embracing Janārdana (Visnu), t h e lord instantaneously vanished alongwith t h e leading a t t e n d a n t s . 106. After regaining trident-bearing lord, t h e l a n d . (?)

his servant Visvaksena from the lord K r s n a silently w e n t back to his

107. T h u s t h e meritorious story t h a t quells great sins has been recounted to you. T h e holy centre K a p ā l a m o c a n a is very auspicious a n d is extremely liked by S t h ā n u . 108. He who reads this c h a p t e r in the B r ā h m a n a s is released from all sins m e n t a l , physical.

presence of verbal and


522

Kūrma Purāna CHAPTER THIRTY-TWO Expiatory rites

Vyāsa said : 1. An (otherwise) excellent B r ā h m a n a taking to winedrinking 1 should drink it fiery-red (i.e. red h o t ) . His body being scorched with the same, he shall be liberated (from t h a t sin). 2. He should drink cow's urine of the colour of fire or the diluted cow's d u n g or milk, water or ghee. T h e n he shall be liberated from the sin. 3. Clad in a wet cloth, he should meditate on N ā r ā y a n a , H a r i , with great (mental a n d physical) purity. For t h e absolvement of sin, he should perform the holy rite in expiation for the sin of B r a h m a h a t y ā (Brāhmana-slaughter). 4. A B r ā h m a n a stealing gold 2 should approach the king and confess his guilt. He should request, " Y o u r Majesty should chastise m e . " 5. T h e king should take a threshing rod a n d should him­ self strike him with it once. O r d i n a r y thief becomes pure on being killed a n d a B r ā h m a n a by means of penance. 6-7. He should take a threshing rod or a staff of K h a d i r a wood, or a sharp pointed Śakti (spear) or an iron club on his shoulders. He should then rush to the king with dishevelled hair. He should confess t h a t sin of his saying "I have committed such and such a sin. Chastise m e . " 8. Either by chastisement or through release the thief is liberated of the sin of theft. By not chastising him, the king incurs the sin of the thief. 9. A B r ā h m a n a desirous of wiping off the sin incurred from the theft of gold by means of penance should wear barkgarments and perform the expiatory rite of a slayer of a Brāhmana.

1.

V V . 1-3 w i n e - d r i n k i n g is a n o t h e r g r e a t sin (mahāpāpa), its

expia­

tion b e i n g b y t h e s a m e r i t e a s o f B r a h m a - h a t y ā . 2.

V V . 4-11 d e a l w i t h t h e e x p i a t i o n for t h e t h i r d g r e a t s i n — s t e a l t h .


523

11.32.10-18

10. Or t h e B r ā h m a n a should become purified by " t a k i n g b a t h in the Avabhrtha (concluding ablution) of the horse-sacrifice. Or he should give his own weight in gold to Brāhmanas. 11. T h e B r ā h m a n a who has stolen gold should observe celibacy a n d perform t h e Krcchra} rite for a year, in order to quell t h a t sin. ... 12. If a B r ā h m a n a being infatuated with lust commits adultery with the wife of his preceptor, 8 he should embrace a red hot a n d fiery image of a w o m a n m a d e of black iron. 13. Or he should himself cut off his penis and scrotum, hold t h e m in his palms a n d walk straight towards the southern direction till he falls down dead. 14-15. T h e defiler of a preceptor's bed should perform t h e expiatory rite of a slayer of a B r ā h m a n a for the purpose of purification; or he should lie on the ground for a year embracing the thorny b r a n c h of any tree with mental purity. T h e defiler of the preceptor's bed is then absolved of the sin. Or the B r ā h m a n a should wear bark-garments a n d with great concen­ tration, he should perform the K r c c h r a rite for a year. 16-17. Or having taken the Avabhrtha b a t h in a horsesacrifice, the B r ā h m a n a becomes pure. He should take his meal on the eighth occasion after missing seven meals. He should observe celibacy a n d perform Sadāvrata (perpetual r i t e ) . * H e should pass three days by standing a n d sitting strenuously. He should then lie down on t h e bare ground. Within three years, t h e sin is dispelled. 18. 1.

Or he should observe four or five C ā n d r ā y a n a

3

vows.

Krcchra or Prājāpatya is a g e n e r a l t e r m for several k i n d s of e x p i a t i o n s .

I t h a s a b o u t 1 2 varieties.

( F o r details

vide

K a n e — H . D . V o l . I V , p p . 120,

132-133). 2.

A d u l t e r y (esp. w i t h o n e ' s p r e c e p t o r ' s wife)

was

another

great

sin.

V V . 12-18 give v a r i o u s e x p i a t i o n s of u n e q u a l i n t e n s i t y for it. 3. (lunar

In this expiation the i n t a k e of f o o d — o n e day)

morsel

on

the

1st

tithi

increases every d a y b y o n e morsel u p t o 1 5 morsels o n t h e full-

m o o n d a y a n d decreases b y o n e morsel every d a y i n t h e d a r k h a l f w i t h c o m ­ p l e t e fast o n

amāvāsyā

(the n e w m o o n ) d a y . A s this e x p i a t i o n d e p e n d s

on

t h e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f t h e digits o f t h e m o o n i t i s c a l l e d C ā n d r ā y a n a . *Veńk. aiana

is

text

reads

:

Sthānāianibhyām

viharanstrirahno'bhyupa yatnatah

e m e n d e d as āsana ( C r t . ed. s u p p o r t s this r e a d i n g ) .

f


524

Kūrma Purina

I shall now mention t h e expiation for a person w h o is in intimate contact with fallen persons 1 (or out-castes). 19. If a B r ā h m a n a has close intimacy with a fallen fellow, he should perform the expiatory rite enjoined for t h a t person, for the purpose of wiping off t h a t sin. 20. If the close intimacy is of six months duration, he should perform Taptakrcchra rite alertfully for a year, as an expiatory rite. 21. T h e great sinners, wipe off their sins a n d impurities by means of these holy rites. Or the expiation on the E a r t h ( c a n be achieved) by visiting holy centres. 22-24. A B r ā h m a n a who commits heinous sins like Brāhmana-slaughter, drinking of wine, theft of gold, sexual intercourse with the wife of the preceptor or contact with the sinners of these crimes (will-fully) should observe fast. He should then remain in the holy centre with concentration of mind. He should meditate on lord Śiva (god with matted h a i r ) a n d enter the blazing fire. No other means of expiation is observed by sages, the expounders of D h a r m a . Hence by burning his body in holy centres he shall become pure.

CHAPTER

THIRTYTHREE

Narration of Expiatory rites (continued) Vyāsa said : 1. T h e definite decision is this that a B r ā h m a n a who knowingly indulges in sexual intercourse with his daughter, sister or daughter-in-law should enter the blazing fire. 2. If one cohabits with one's mother's sister or the wife of the m a t e r n a l uncle, or the sister of one's father or a niece, one should perform the expiatory rites of K r c c h r a a n d Atikrcchra. 1.

V V . 19-24 p r e s c r i b e p r a c t i c a l l y

the same

those w h o live i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e g r e a t sinners

rites

of e x p i a t i o n

a n d a r e fallen.

for


II.33.3-12

525

3. In order to quell t h a t sin, one should observe the C ā n d r ā y a n a vow m e d i t a t i n g on lord H a r i , t h e source of origin of the universe, the lord devoid of beginning a n d end. 4. F o r the destruction of the sin of cohabiting with one's own brother's wife, one should, with great concentration perform four or five C ā n d r ā y a n a rites. 5. If one commits adultery with father's niece or mother's niece or the d a u g h t e r of the m a t e r n a l uncle one shall perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. 6. If one cohabits with the wife of friend or the sister of one's own wife one should observe fast for a d a y a n d a night a n d then perform the K r c c h r a rite. 7-8a. If a B r ā h m a n a carnally approaches a w o m a n in h e r m o n t h l y course, he becomes p u r e only after three days. T h r e e T a p t a k r c c h r a rites have been enjoined (as atonement for) sexual 1 intercourse with a C ā n d ā l a w o m a n . By observing Sāntapana vow (in a d d i t i o n ) , he becomes p u r e . Otherwise no expiation is prescribed in Smrtis. 8b-9. For committing adultery with a w o m a n from his m a t e r n a l gotra (line of ancestors) or one belonging to his o w n Pravara lineage, he becomes p u r e if he observes with selfcontrol a n d concentrated attention, the C ā n d r ā y a n a vow. If a B r ā h m a n a has sexual intercourse with a B r ā h m a n a w o m a n ( o t h e r t h a n his wife), he should perform one K r c c h r a expiation. 10-11. After committing the sin of raping a virgin, one should perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a expiation. For the sin of dis­ charging the semen virile in the lower animals, in a m a n , in a w o m a n in her monthly course, in non-vaginal parts or in t h e water, one should observe the K r c c h r a rite. If a B r ā h m a n a ravishes an old w o m a n , he shall be pure only in three days. 12. If one cohabits with a cow, one should observe t h e C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. By cohabiting with a prostitute, a B r ā h m a n a (incurs sin a n d ) , he should perform the P r ā j ā p a t y a vow. 1. Sāntapana is g e n e r a l l y e x p i a t i o n for acts of J ā t i b h r a r h ś a k a r a (pollu­ t i o n o f c a s t e s ) . I t lasts for t w o d a y s a n d o n e h a s t o t a k e i n pañcagavya o n t h e f i r s t d a y a n d observe a fast o n t h e s e c o n d d a y .


526

Kūrtna Purāna

13. By carnally approaching a fallen woman, one shall become sinful a n d be purified only by three K r c c h r a rites. To wipe off the sin of cohabiting with a Pulkasī ( C ā n d ā l a w o m a n ) , one shall observe the vows of K r c c h r a and Cāndrāyana. 14. By cohabiting with a dancing woman, or an actress, or a washer-woman selling bamboos or working in hides for livelihood, one should perform C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. 15. If a religious student being deluded by passion indul­ ges in sexual intercourse with a w o m a n , he should wear t h e skin of a donkey a n d beg for alms at seven houses. 16. He should perform ablutions three times a day, pro­ claiming his sin. He should be released from t h a t sin in t h e course of a year. 17. An Avakirnin (a religious student violating the rules of chastity) should perform the expiatory rite for B r ā h m a n a slaughter for the period of six months. Such a person gets relieved of the sin if he abides by t h e advice of Brāhmanas. 18. O n e should perform the expiatory rite for the sin of discharging semen virile. He should not beg for alms for seven days nor should he worship the fire. 19. He should repeat always (the seven) great Vyāhrtis beginning with O m k ā r a , for the period of a year. He should take food only at night. He should not be p u r e a n d should partake of the alms received after begging. 20. With his anger shed off, he should perform the J a p a of Sāvitrī (Gāyatri, M a n t r a ) rapidly (?) on the b a n k of t h e river or holy places. He is thereby absolved of his sin. 21. If a B r ā h m a n a unintentionally m u r d e r s a Ksatriya, he should perform the expiatory rite of a Brāhmana-slayer for six months or make a gift of five h u n d r e d cows. 22. Or he should r e m a i n in a forest performing medita­ tion with great concentration and perform Prājāpatya, 1 S ā n t a p a n a or T a p t a k r c c h r a rite for a year. 1. Prājāpatya—the s a m e as Krcchra, b u t it is n o r m a l l y p r e s c r i b e d for u n i n t e n t i o n a l sexual offences. H e r e it is p r e s c r i b e d for h o m i c i d e ( F o r details v i d e H D I V , p p . 145-146).


11.33.23-31

527

23. Either by mistake or wantonly, if he h a p p e n s to kill a Vaiśya, he should perform the expiatory rite of a Brāhmana-slayer a n d make gifts of a thousand cows a n d a fourth of it (i.e. two h u n d r e d a n d fifty). 24. After killing a Ś ū d r a by mistake, one should perform expiatory rites for a year. He should perform the rites K r c c h r a a n d Atikrcchra or t h e rite of C ā n d r ā y a n a . 25. For wipping off the sin of killing a Ksatriya, a Vaiśya or a Śūdra, the expiatory rite in order is the gift of a thousand or five h u n d r e d or two h u n d r e d a n d fifty cows. Or he shall perform t h e expiatory rite of a Brāhmana-slayer for eight or three years. 26. After killing a B r ā h m a n a w o m a n , a B r ā h m a n a should perform t h e expiatory rite for eight years; after killing a Ksa­ triya w o m a n , he should perform the expiatory rite for six years; after killing a Vaiśya woman, he should perform t h e expiatory rite for three years. 27. After killing a Ś ū d r a woman, an excellent B r ā h m a n a shall become p u r e within a year. A twice-born should give something as a gift for a twice-born to wipe off t h e sin of killing Vaiśya w o m a n . 28. After t h e m u r d e r of the outcaste also, one should per­ form the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. G o d B r a h m a says t h a t he will regain purity by means of the expiatory rite called P a r ā k a . 1 29. After killing a frog, a mungoose, a crow, a cat, a m u l e or a mouse or a dog, a B r ā h m a n a should perform a sixteenth of t h e M a h ā v r a t a (great v o w ) . 30. After killing a dog, one should alertfully drink milk (or w a t e r ) for three days ( ? ) . After killing a cat or a mungoose, one should walk a distance of a Yojana (=-12 k m ) . 31. On killing a horse, a B r ā h m a n a should perform the expiation called K r c c h r a for twelve nights. On killing a serpent, the excellent B r ā h m a n a should make a gift of an image m a d e of iron. 1. Parāka is called Krcchra by s o m e a n d is said to r e m o v e all sins. It c o n s t i t u t e s o f n o t t a k i n g food for t w e l v e d a y s a n d r e m a i n i n g self-controlled a n d v i g i l a n t ( M a n u X I . 215, A P . 171. 1 0 ) .


528

Kūrma Purāna

32. On killing a eunuch one should make a gift of a palāla (weight) of straw a n d a M ā s a weight of lead. On kill­ ing a boar, one should gift away a j a r or ghee a n d on killing a Tittira bird, one should make a gift of a Drona measure of gingelly seeds. 33-34. On killing a parrot, a calf of two years, a K r a u ñ c a bird of three years, a swan, a crane, a stork, a peacock, a monkey, a vulture, or the bird Bhāsa, one should give away a cow to a B r ā h m a n a . On killing beasts of prey, one should gift away a milch-cow. 35. (Defective) On killing non-meat-eating (herbivorous) animals, one should gift away a heifer. On killing a camel one should gift away gold weighing a Guñjā seed (?). On killing animals with bones (? backbones), some gift must he m a d e over to a B r ā h m a n a . 36. On causing violent injury to the boneless animals, o n e becomes p u r e by performing " P r ā n ā y ā m a ; for wiping off the sin of cutting fruit-bearing trees, one should perform the J a p a of h u n d r e d Rks. 37. Drinking of ghee is the expiatory rite for the sins of cutting hedges, creepers a n d t u r n i n g plants, flower-laden plants a n d trees, of killing birds of all types a n d t h e living beings b o r n of sweat a n d destroying t h e outcome of fruits a n d flowers. 38b-39. On killing elephants, the expiatory rite is T a p t a k r c c h r a . On killing a cow d u e to mistake, the expiatory rite is C ā n d r ā y a n a or P a r ā k a . T h e r e is no atonement if the cow is killed wantonly.


11.34.1-lOa

529 CHAPTER

THIRTYFOUR 1

Expiatory rites (continued) Vyāsa said : 1. F o r t h e sin of abducting m e n or women, of seizing a house, well, tank or a water (reservoir), the purificatory rite is Cāndrāyana. 2. After committing the petty theft, of article of no great w o r t h from the houses of others, one should perform t h e expiatory rite of S ā n t a p a n a a n d K r c c h r a for the purpose of selfpurification, after the restitution of t h e same ( t o t h e o w n e r ) . . 3. After committing the theft of grains, cooked food and cash intentionally from t h e houses of his fellow-caste men, an excellent B r ā h m a n a shall become purified by K r c c h r ā r d h a (half a K r c c h r a ) vow. 4. Drinking t h e P a ñ c a g a v y a is the expiation for the theft of food-stuffs and edibles, of vehicles, beds and seats, of flowers, roots a n d fruits. 5. T h e expiation for the theft of grass, fuel a n d timber, of raw r k e a n d jaggery, of robes, hides and meat, is fasting for three nights. 6. T h e expiation for the theft of jewels, pearls and coral, of copper a n d silver and of magnetic stones is eating of foodparticles for twelve days. 7. As an expiation for the sinful act of stealing cotton, eleven-hoofed or single-hoofed animals, of flowers, scents a n d medicines, one should drink water (or milk) for three days. 8-9a. After eating h u m a n flesh, one should perlorŕrrtheexpiatory rite of C ā n d r ā y a n a . After eating a crow, a d o g , an elephant, a boar, or a cock, one becomes purified through Taptakrcchra. 9b-10a. After taking in the flesh of beasts ( a n d birds) of prey, their faeces or urine, as well as those of cow, jackal a n d 2

1. T h i s c h a p t e r prescribes e x p i a t i o n for p e t t y sins. It is interesting as it t h r o w s a flood of light on w h a t t h e a n c i e n t elites in I n d i a r e g a r d e d as u n b e c o m i n g , offensive o r , a n d sinful, before t h e 10th c e n t . A . D . 2. Paftcagavya is a l i q u i d p r e p a r a t i o n of five p r o d u c t s of t h e c o w , viz. c o w ' s u r i n e , d u n g , milk, c u r d s a n d g h e e . I t i s t o b e t a k e n a t t h e e n d o f e a c h Prāyaścitta. I t r e m o v e s all p e t t y sins ( F o r details v i d e H . D . V o l . I I . , p p . 773-774).


530

Kūrma Purāna

monkey one should perform the same (viz. Tapta-krcchra) rite of expiation. 1 0 b - l l . After eating the Gangetic porpoise a n d the blue j a y as well as fish, one should observe fast for twelve days a n d perform H o m a with ghee a n d K ū s m ā n d a (white g o u r d ) . After eating a mungoose, an owl a n d a cat, one should perform S ā n t a p a n a rite. 12. After eating a beast of prey, camel or a mule (or donkey), one is purified by means of T a p t a k r c c h r a vow. He shall perform all rites in accordance with t h e procedure mentioned before. 13. After eating the flesh of a crane, a stork, a swan, the K ā r a n d a v a duck a n d t h e Cakravāka (ruddy goose) bird, one should not take food for twelve days. 14. After eating the dove, the T i t t i b h a , the parrot, the drake, the owl and t h e web-foot, one should perform the same expiatory rite. 15. After eating the Gangetic porpoise, t h e blue jay, t h e flesh of fish a n d K a t ā h ā r a (i.e. a jackal or a crow that is feasting on d e a d bodies), one shall perform this expiatory r i t e alone. 16. After eating the cuckoo, the fish (animals and birds), the frog a n d the serpent, one shall become p u r e within a m o n t h , if one takes in barley boiled in cow's urine as food. 17. On eating a c q u a t i c beings, animals born in water, gallinaceous birds (such as domestic owl, porridge etc.) redfooted parrots, one should observe this vow for seven days. 18. On eating dog's flesh a n d dried m e a t and on even getting them m a d e r e a d y for oneself, one should perform this expiatory rite for a m o n t h , in order to quell t h a t sin. 19. On eating brinjals, earth-grass, horse-radish, a tree called K u t a k a , Gataka (a s p a r r o w ) , t h e K h a d g a (rhinoceros) a n d K u m b h ī r a (a plant Rottleria tinctoria), one shall perform the expiatory vow called Prājāpatya. 20. On eating garlic and onion, one should observe the G ā n d r ā y a n a v o w , ( o n eating) Nālikā (lotus-stalk) a n d T a n d u l ī a , •one becomes p u r e by means of the Prājāpatya rite.


II.34.21-31a

531

2 1 . O n eating the A ś m ā n t a k a p l a n t and the young shoot of any plant, one becomes pure by means of T a p t a k r c c h r a rite. On eating safflower, one shall become p u r e by means of the expiatory rite of Prājāpatya. 22-23a. On eating the bottle-gourd a n d Kirhśuka also one should perform the same (above) rite. On drinking t h e squashes a n d decoctions (?) of these out of delusion, one should subsist on barley cooked in cow's urine for seven days, after which o n e would become pure. O n eating U d u m b a r a ( I n d i a n f i g ) a t will, one becomes purified by means of T a p t a k r c c h a . 23b-24a. After eating in a Ś r ā d d h a at the end of the 1st year or during the period of impurity d u e to d e a t h or birth, a B r ā h m a n a of great concentration a n d purity shall become purified by means of the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. 24b-25a. In case a B r ā h m a n a eats the food of a person w h o performs H o m a everyday b u t does not make (even the slightest) gift of cooked food, he shall perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite neatly. 25b-26. On eating the cooked food t h a t is forbidden or t h a t is served by low-caste fellows), one becomes p u r e by means of T a p t a k r c c h r a . On eating the food of a Cāndāla, a B r ā h m a n a shall observe the C ā n d r ā y a n a vow properly. 27. If he takes t h a t food wantonly a n d deliberately, he should perform the K r c c h r a rite for a year a n d he has to undergo consecration rites once again. (Defective) After taking in an intoxicating drink other than wine, he should perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a expiation. 28. On eating forbidden food, one becomes p u r e by means of the Prājāpatya vow. If one (unknowingly) drinks urine, semen virile or faeces, one shall perform this rite in expiation. 29a. If (the duration of expiation or fast) is not enjoined the expiatory rite must really be performed everywhere for one day. 29b-30a. On taking in the faeces and urine of the filthy pig, donkey, camel, jackal, monkey and crow, a B r ā h m a n a should perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a expiatory rite. 30b-31a. T h e three twice-born castes (i.e. the B r ā h m a n a , t h e K s a t r i y a a n d the Vaiśya) deserve to be consecrated once


532

Kūrma Purāna

again, if they unwittingly take in the urine a n d faeces in contact with urine. 31b-32. If out of delusion, an excellent B r ā h m a n a takes in the faeces a n d urine of the carnivorous birds, he should per­ form the expiatory rite of M a h ā s ā n t a p a n a . If he takes in t h e urine a n d faeces of the vulture, frog, sparrow a n d the domestic fowl, he should perform the K r c c h r a rite. 33-34a. A person ( B r ā h m a n a ?) is purified by observing the Prājāpatya vow, if he happens to eat the leavings of food (ucchisfa) of a B r ā h m a n a . ( I n case he eats) the ucchisfa of A Ksattriya, Tapta-krcchra expiation should be performed, a n d Ati-krccha expiation, after eating a Vaiśya's ucchisfa. H a v i n g eaten the leavings of food of a Śūdra, a B r ā h m a n a should observe the C ā n d r ā y a n a vow. 34b. After drinking water from the p o t of wine, o n e should perform the vow of C ā n d r ā y a n a . 35. If a B r ā h m a n a eats the leavings of the food ( o f unspecified persons), he becomes purified by drinking cow's urine, eating (for food) barley cooked in cow's urine or by drinking the water t h a t remains after cows have drunk. 36. If one takes in water defiled by urine, faeces etc., the expiatory rite for the sin is S ā n t a p a n a or K r c c h r a . 37. If a B r ā h m a n a , knowingly, drinks water from t h e well of a C ā n d ā l a or his water-pot, he should perform the rite of S ā n t a p a n a or K r c c h r a . T h a t is the way to atone for the sin. 38. On drinking the water touched by a Cāndāla, an excellent B r ā h m a n a becomes purified by means of Pañcagavya (preparation of the five products of cows viz. urine, faeces, milk, curds and ghee) as well as the chief expiatory rite for three days. 39. If a B r ā h m a n a knowingly or out of delusion touches a great sinner a n d takes food with him, he should take b a t h and perform T a p t a k r c c h r a . 40. If one touches a great sinner, a Cāndāla, or a w o m a n in her monthly courses a n d unwittingly takes food, he shall become p u r e (after observing fast for) three nights. 4 1 . If a m a n fit to take b a t h (i.e. one w h o should t a k e b a t h ) takes food, without b a t h i n g ) , he shall become p u r e (by observing a fast) in the course of a day a n d a night. If he does


11.34.42-51

533

so wilfully, the lotus-born lord says t h a t he should perform the r i t e of K r c c h r a . 42. On eating stale food-stuffs or those defiled by cows, etc, one should observe fast or perform a fourth of the K r c c h r a expiation. 4 3 . At the end of every year, a B r ā h m a n a should observe the K r c c h r a vow again for the purification of the sin d u e to t h e eating of forbidden things unwittingly a n d particularly those taken in wantonly. 44. After performing the Yajñas on behalf of Vrātyas (the people of the three castes who have become outcaste) a n d t h e obsequies of others as well as for exorcising (for malicious p u r p o s e ) , one becomes purified by means of three KŕCchras. 4 5 . O n performing the cremation a n d other r i t e s for B r ā h m a n a s a n d others who a r e killed, a B r ā h m a n a becomes p u r e by means of Prājāpatya expiation a n d eating barley cooked in cow's urine. 46. A person who has besmeared himself with oil or vomitted, passes urine or discharges faeces or shaves himself or indulges in sexual intercourse, becomes purified by observing a fast for a d a y a n d a night (i.e. one full d a y ) . 47. If one abandons fire (worship) or makes another to neglect it for one day, he becomes purified ( b y fasting) for three nights. And (for the negligence of fire-worship) for three nights, he (should observe fast) for six days. 48. If out of blunder he forsakes the fire worship for ten days or twelve days, he should perform the K r c c h r a a n d the C ā n d r ā y a n a expiatory rites to quell t h a t sin. 49. On accepting a gift of wealth from a fallen m a n , one will become p u r e by a b a n d o n i n g the same. But lord M a n u says t h a t he should observe K r c c h r a vow duly. 50. Persons who have desisted from (and hence violated) the vow of fasting (before its completion) a n d those who have finished (i.e. abandoned) their order of mendicancy (i.e. Sannyāsa) should perform three K r c c h r a a n d three C ā n d r ā y a n a vows. rites

5 1 . T h e y should again get consecrated by purificatory beginning with Jāta-karma. Sanctified thus the Brāhmanas


534

Kūrma Purāna

become purified. Persons knowing D h a r m a should observe t h a t vow properly. 52. A person w h o did not perform the Sandhyā worship should observe fast for the day a n d remain controlled in mind. If he does not perform the Sandhyā worship at night the same (i.e. fast at night) should be continued for that night. 53. A person w h o has not gathered sacrificial twigs a n d performed the Yajña should, for the purpose of purification, repeat the Gāyatrī M a n t r a a thousand and eight times taking b a t h a n d remaining pure, with concentration of mind. 54. (Defective verse) If out of blunder, a householder does not perform the Sandhyā prayer he should take b a t h a n d observe fast. He shall become pure immediately. If he be exhausted (and does not perform Sandhyā-prayer), he should remain perfecdy self-controlled. 55. Having dropped off the daily (sacred) duties prescrib­ ed in the Vedas, a Sn&laka (one who has completed the period of studentship a n d is d u e for marriage) who (thus) violates his vow, should observe fast on t h a t day. 56. An excellent B r ā h m a n a who exterminates another* (?) should perform the K r c c h r a vow for one year; A Vrātya should observe the C ā n d r ā y a n a V r a t a and give a cow a gift whereby he becomes purified. 57. If a B r ā h m a n a does anything (indicating) atheism, he shall perform the Prājāpatya rite. If he does anything injurious to Devas or the preceptors, he will become p u r e by means of Tapta Krcchra. 58. If one willingly travels by a camel-cart or a donkey cart, or enters water in the nude, he shall become pure only ( b y fasting for) three nights. 59. T h e expiatory rite for Apāñktas (outcastes i.e. those who are not eligible to sit in the same rows for meals with others) is missing five meals and taking meal only on the sixth occasion, for one month. T h e J a p a of the Samhitā a n d the H o m a s as per procedure laid down by Śākala, every day. •The r e a d i n g s h o u l d b e p r o b a b l y agnyutsādl a n d n o t anyotsādi a s i n V e ń k . E d . agnyutsādī m e a n s ' o n e w h o h a s destroyed (given u p f i r e w o r s h i p b y extinguishing) t h e sacred f i r e . "


11.34.60-70

535

60. On wearing a blue or red cloth, a B r ā h m a n a should observe fast for a d a y and a night a n d drink Pañcagavya. He shall then be pure. 6 1 . If one explains the Vedas, the Dharmaśāstras a n d the P u r ā n a s to a C ā n d ā l a , he shall become pure only by means of the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. T h e r e is no other means of expiation for him. 62. On touching a B r ā h m a n a killed by hanging etc. the purity can be regained by C ā n d r ā y a n a or Prājāpatya vows. 63. If a B r ā h m a n a defiled by Ucchista (i.e. with food particles in the m o u t h and on hands and) has not pertormed Ācamana (the concluding sipping of water after m e a l ) touches a Gāndāla a n d others unwittingly, he should take b a t h a n d repeat the Gāyatrī M a n t r a a thousand a n d eight times. 64. Or he should repeat the D r u p a d ā M a n t r a a h u n d r e d times. He should m a i n t a i n celibacy a n d good concentration of mind. He should observe fast for three nights stricdy. He shall then become p u r e by means of the Pañcagavya. 65. A B r ā h m a n a , while Ucchisja (with particles of food in the m o u t h or on h a n d ) willfully touches Cāndālas or fallen persons (outcastes) should observe the Prājāpatya vow for purification. 66. On touching a Cāndāla, a Sūtakin ( o n e having the impurity d u e to birth or death of a relative) or a dead body, a w o m a n in her monthly course a n d a fallen fellow a person touched by them, one should take b a t h for the sake of purity. 67. If one touches a person touched by a C ā n d ā l a , Sūtakin a n d a corpse, one should take b a t h a n d perform A c a m a n a a n d J a p a with great concentration. 68. An excellent B r ā h m a n a who knowingly touches these persons or is touched by them, should take b a t h a n d perform Ācamana rite for the sake of purity. So says lord P i t ā m a h a . 69. If a B r ā h m a n a , taking food is accidentally touched, he should perform Śauca (purificatory rite) a n d then observe fast. After that he should take b a t h a n d perform H o m a . This is the holy rite. 70. On touching the dead body a n d a C ā n d ā l a (v.l. dead body of a C ā n d ā l a ) one shall perform the K r c c h r a rite,


536

Kūrma Purāna

one shall become p u r e . On touching a person who has anointed his body.* (?) one becomes pure within a d a y a n d a night (after observing fast). 71. On touching liquor, a B r ā h m a n a should perform three P r ā n ā y ā m a s and he shall become p u r e . On touching garlic a n d onion, he should drink ghee a n d he shall become p u r e . 72. If a B r ā h m a n a is bitten by a dog, he should drink milk for three days in the evening. If he is bitten above t h e umbilical region, he should increase ( t h e q u a n t i t y of milk) twofold. 73. This quantity of milk shall be increased threefold if he is bitten on t h e arms a n d if bitten on t h e head, this shall be fourfold. Or an excellent B r ā h m a n a bitten by dogs, should take b a t h a n d perform J a p a of the Sāvitri M a n t r a . 74. If an excellent B r ā h m a n a who is not sick a n d who has the means b u t does not perform great Yajñas b u t p a r takes of food ( a n d enjoys) he shall become pure by performing half of a K r c c h r a rite. 75. If a m a n maintaining sacred fires does not worship t h e m on the Parvan days or if a person does not go unto his wife during the prescribed days after menstruation, he should perform half a K r c c h r a . 76. (Defective) If person even though not sick (simply) puts his body into the water without using w a t e r (for washing h i m s e l f ? ) , he should take a d i p into water alongwith clothes a n d touch a cow and then he becomes pure. 77. (If any sin is committed) knowingly, a B r ā h m a n a should perform the j a p a after the sun has arisen, remaining in the water itself. He should then repeat t h e Gāyatrī a thousand a n d eight times. He should observe fast for three days. 78. On following t h e dead body of a Ś ū d r a out of his own free will, an excellent B r ā h m a n a should take ablutions, in rivers and perform t h e J a p a of a thousand a n d eight Gāyatrī Mantra. *v.l. Samspriyam himself w i t h o i l ) .

(after t o u c h i n g ) a n u n t o u c h a b l e

(who has

besmeared


11.34.79-88

537

79. After swearing an o a t h with the delimitation of a n o t h e r B r ā h m a n a * (?), a B r ā h m a n a should perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite by means of cooked barley food. 80. After serving food irregularly (partially to persons sitting) in t h e same line, one becomes purified of the sin by means of krcchra rites. On treading the shadow of a Cāndāla, o n e shall take b a t h a n d drink ghee. 8 1 . If in the stage of impurity, one looks at t h e fire or t h e m o o n he should look at the sun (for expiation). On touching a h u m a n bone, one should take b a t h a n d he becomes p u r e thereby. 82. H a v i n g done a false study, one should beg for alms for a year. An ungrateful person should stay in a B r ā h m a n a ' s house a n d perform sacred rites for five years. 83. After producing Hum sound against a B r ā h m a n a a n d after using Tvam (you in singular) in respect to elderly persons (i.e. instead of using B ha van—your ' h o n o u r ' ) , one should take b a t h a n d spend the remainder of the day without taking food. He should then bow down a n d propitiate those persons. 84. If one beats (the elders) even with t h e blade of a grass, if one binds their neck with a piece of cloth and if one conquers t h e m in an argument, one should propitiate the other one. 85. On intimidating ( b y threat) a B r ā h m a n a with the intention of killing him, one should perform t h e krcchra rite; on felling a B r ā h m a n a to the ground, one should perform the Atikrcchra rite, and on spilling the blood of a Brāhmana, one shall perform b o t h the expiatory rites of krcchra a n d Atikrcchra. 86. After uttering a lie to or for reviling an elderly person (or a teacher) one should perform the expiatory rite by refraining from taking food for one night (v.l. or three nights) for dispelling t h a t sin. 87. If one spits at or reviles in front of Devas and the sages, one should b u r n one's tongue by means of a firebrand. Gold too should be given as gift. 88. If a n y B r ā h m a n a passes urine in t h e garden of Devas (i.e. in the precincts of shrines) even for once, his penis •v.l. vadha-samyutam ' ' c o n c e r n i n g t h e m u r d e r o f . . ."


538

Kūrma Purāna

should be cut off for the sake of expiation a n d he should perform C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. 89. If out of delusion, an excellent B r ā h m a n a passes urine in the sanctum sanctorum of a temple; his penis should be cut off. He should perform the C ā n d r ā y a n a rite. 90. After blaspheming and rebuking the deities, Devas a n d the sages, an excellent B r ā h m a n a must duly perform the Prājāpatya vow. 9 1 . On conversing with t h e m (i.e. such) sinners one incurs sins for which he should take b a t h a n d worship the Lord. On seeing them, he should look at the sun a n d on remembering t h e m he should remember Viśveśvara (in order to wipe off the respective sins.) 92. Even in hundreds of years it is impossible to redeem t h a t person from sin w h o censures god Śiva, t h e ruler of t h e universe, the over-lord of all living beings. 93. At t h e outset, he should observe the C ā n d r ā y a n a vow, then Kpcchra as well as t h e Atikrcchra. He should then seek refuge in t h e Lord whereby he shall be released from that sin. 94. T h e gift of all (one's) of expiation for all sins. He C ā n d r ā y a n a duly, as well as Atikrcchra. 95a. T h e pilgrimage to expiation for all sins.

possessions duly is the means should perform the rites of those of K r c c h r a and the holy centres is the means of

95b-96. T h e person who propitiates Bhava (Śiva) on the New M o o n day, is released from all sins on worshipping the Brāhmanas. 97. By worshipping M a h ā d e v a on the eighth day a n d the fourteenth d a y in t h e d a r k half of a m o n t h through a Brāhmana, one is released from all sins. 98. By seeing the three-eyed Iśa with offerings in the first Y ā m a (period of three hours) of the night on t h e thirteenth day, one is released from all sins. 99-101a. O n e should observe fast on t h e fourteenth d a y in the d a r k half. W i t h great concentration, he should t h e n offer seven libations of water along with gingelly'seeds in each handful to Y a m a , D h a r m a r ā j a , Mrtyu, Antaka, Vaivasvata, K ā l a a n d


11.34.101b-l 10

539

S a r v a p r ā n a h a r a . He should offer these libations in the forenoon after taking his b a t h . He is then released from all sins. 101b-102a. D u r i n g the performance of all holy rites one should be quiescent with controlled mind. He should observe celibacy a n d fast. He should worship Brāhmanas. He should lie down on t h e ground at night. 102b-103a. W i t h god Brahma, the grandsire of the world, in view, one should worship three B r ā h m a n a s on the new m o o n day. He is released from all sins. 103b-104a O n e should observe fast on the sixth Tithi in the bright half of the m o n t h , with great concentration a n d worship lord sun on the seventh Tithi. He is released from all sins. 1 0 4 H 0 5 a . O n e should worship Y a m a on the fourth d a y (Tithi) or in the constellation Bharanī or on Saturday (s) a n d he is released from the ( a c c u m u l a t e d ) sin of seven births. 105b- 106a. O n e should refrain from taking food on the EkādaH (eleventh) Tithi a n d worship lord J a n ā r d a n a on t h e twelfth d a y of the bright half. He is released from great sins. 106b-107a. T h e following, during eclipse and other (auspicious) occasions, is the means of expiation for great sins : penance, J a p a , visiting holy centres a n d the worship of Devas a n d the Brāhmanas. 107b-108a. Even though a m a n be defiled by all sins, if he abandons his life after the holy observances in the holy centres, he is absolved of all sins. 108b-109. A w o m a n who enters the funeral pyre along with her husband, shall uplift him even if he is a B r ā h m a n a slayer, an ungrateful fellow or one defiled by great sins. Learned m e n know this to be the greatest expiation for women. 110. If a w o m a n is chaste a n d is engaged in serving her husband, she does not incur any sin either in this world or in the other. (Verse in brackets) No hesitation need be felt in this m a t t e r t h a t if a w o m a n is endowed with the quality of chastity a n d is eager to serve her husband, she has no sin either in this world or in the other a n d t h a t , she is relieved of all sins.


540

Kūrma Purina

111. A chaste w o m a n devoted to piety (dharma) shall always a t t a i n welfare a n d happiness. No m a n can, by a n y means, create discomfiture for her. 112. J u s t as in the case of Śītā, 1 well-known in the three worlds, as t h e c h a r m i n g and beloved wife of R a m a , the son of D a ś a r a t h a , she conquered t h e king of Rāksasas. 113. U r g e d by K ā l a ( D e a t h ) , R ā v a n a , t h e king of Rāksasas, desired Sītā, t h e wide-eyed beautiful wife of R ā m a . 114. It is reported t h a t by means of his M ā y ā , he disguised himself (as) an ascetic a n d determined to abduct t h a t beautiful lady while she was strolling (solitarily) in the tenantless forest. 115. T h e lady of pure smiles realised his intention. R e m e m b e r i n g her husband, the son of D a ś a r a t h a , she sought refuge in the Avasathya (household) fire. 116. W i t h her palms joined in devotion, R a m a ' s wife worshipped t h e great Yogi, (the fire-god), t h e destroyer (scorcher) of t h e worlds, as if he was h e r husband R ā m a incarnate (and prayed) : JSulogy of the Fire-god. 117. I bow u n t o K r ś ā n u (fire) of the form of K ā l a , of great Yogic power, the greatest riddle, the destroyer of all living beings. 118. I take shelter in lord Pāvaka (the purifying d e i t y ) , t h e eternal deity of universal forms, the Yogin who wears the ( e l e p h a n t ) hide, the lord of the goblins the Supreme god. 119. I resort u n t o t h e A t m a n of radiant blazing body abiding in t h e hearts of all living beings. I seek refuge in t h e Lord whose form is t h e universe, the source of all t h a t fiery, brilliant, I resort to the fire-god, the Lord of great Yogins, the sun, the supreme god. 1.

V V . 111-140 tell us a different story of t h e a b d u c t i o n of S i t ā t h a n

t h e o n e given b y V ā l m i k i . A c c o r d i n g t o K P . real S i t ā w a s p r o t e c t e d b y A g n i (the

fire-god)

the

Avasathya

( H o u s e h o l d sacrificial)

illusory S ī t ā ) c r e a t e d b y A g n i t h a t

F i r e a n d i t was t h e

was a b d u c t e d b y R ā v a n a .

T h e Chāyā-

sitā e n t e r e d t h e f i r e for ' p u r i f i c a t i o n ' a n d r e a l Sitā c a m e o u t o f t h e Fire-god .and was a c c e p t e d b y R ā m a .


I I 34.120-131

541

120. I seek refuge in R u d r a , t h e great swallower (destroyer), t h e trident-bearing Lord, t h e fire of t h e Universal destruction, t h e Lord of Yogins, t h e dispenser of fruits ( i n t h e form) of enjoyment a n d liberation. 121. I resort u n t o you t h e diverse-eyed deity w i t h t h e forms of Bhūh, Bhuvah a n d Svah, one w h o is lying h i d d e n in t h e golden abode, t h e great one of unmeasured splendour. 122. I resort to V a i ś v ā n a r a abiding in all living beings, t h e lord w h o conveys Havyas a n d Kapyas (i.e. offerings) (to gods a n d P i t r s ) . I resort to Lord V a h n i . 123. I resort to t h a t Supreme reality, t h e excellent a n d auspicious principle of t h e sun. I resort to the Agni ascending to heaven, t h e greatest splendour, t h e imperishable conveyor of oblations to gods. 124. After repeating (the prayer i n ) these eight (?) verses on V a h n i , t h e famous wife of R ā m a mentally meditated on R ā m a a n d remained silent w i t h her eyes closed. 125. T h e n out of the Avasathya (household) fire,, Lord M a h e ś v a r a (the great g o d ) , the bearer of sacrificial oblations, of resplendent soul manifested himself as if b u r n i n g with his own refulgence. 126. Desirous of getting R ā v a n a killed he created an illusory Sitā. T a k i n g t h e real Sītā t h e beloved of R ā m a , t h e fire-god vanished there. 127. On seeing such a Sītā (i.e. the illusory o n e ) R ā v a n a the lord of Rāksasas, took h e r a n d went to L a ń k ā situated with­ in t h e ocean. 128. After killing R ā v a n a , R ā m a took Sītā a n d (came back) accompanied by L a k s m a n a . His m i n d b e c a m e agitated d u e to suspicion. 129. For convincing t h e living beings, t h e illusory Sītā entered t h e fire; immediately she was consumed by t h e fire. 130. After b u r n i n g t h e illusory Sītā, t h e of hot rays, showed t h e real Sītā to R ā m a . ( t h e purifier) b e c a m e a beloved of Devas.

lord fire-god T h e fire-god

131. Catching hold of t h e feet of her husband, t h e daughter of J a n a k a t h e lady of beautiful middle, m a d e obeisance t o R ā m a o n t h e g r o u n d .


542

Kūrma Purāna

132. On seeing it R ā m a was delighted in mind. Surprise was evident in his eyes. After bowing to t h e V a h n i w i t h bent head, R ā g h a v a propitiated him. 133. T h e lord spoke to V a h n ī ; Was this fair-complexioned lady b u r n e d by you before, as she has been seen come to my side again ? 134. Lord Fire-god, the scorcher of t h e worlds, spoke to the son of D a ś a r a t h a , telling him everything as it had h a p p e n e d in t h e presence of all living beings. 135. " T h i s beloved of yours is highly chaste as goddess Pārvatī. She is the greatest favourite of t h e goddess w h o m she h a d propitiated by means of penance (?) 136. This chaste lady of good conduct is endowed w,ith t h e readiness to serve her husband like Bhavānī in regard to Iśvara. She was protected by me because she was desired by Rāvana. 137. But Sītā who was abducted by the lord of Rāksasas was the illusory Sītā created by me with a desire to get R ā v a n a killed. 138. On t h a t account, R ā v a n a , the wicked king of the Rāksasas a n d the destroyer of the worlds, h a d been killed. T h e M ā y ā has also been withdrawn. 139. ''Accept this p u r e J ā n a k ī at my instance. See lord N ā r ā y a n a your own self the source of origin a n d t h e place of everything". 140. After saying this, the fierce lord fire-god whose flames spread everywhere a n d w h o h a d faces on all sides was d u l y honoured b y R ā g h a v a a n d the other people a n d h e vanished. 141. T h u s the greatness of chaste ladies has been described by m e . This ( n a r r a t i v e ) is remembered to be the expiatory rite for ladies. It absolves o n e from all sins. 142. Even a person full of all sins shall be released from sin, if he controls himself well a n d a b a n d o n s his body in the holy centres. 143. A B r ā h m a n a or a n y m a n is released from all sins accumulated by h i m by taking b a t h in all holy centres in t h e world.


11.34.144-152

543

Vyāsa said : 144. T h u s , the D h a r m a propounded by M a n u has been p r o p o u n d e d to you by m e . T h e eternal p a t h of knowledge (has also been narrated) for propitiating M a h e ś a . 145. O n e should pursue the p a t h of knowledge with the assistance of Yogic practice. He then sees M a h ā d e v a . No one else c a n see H i m even in hundreds of K a l p a s . 146. A person who establishes the great D h a r m a a n d t h a t J ñ ā n a (knowledge) pertaining to Parameśvara (Supreme G o d Śiva) is considered to be the greatest Yogin a n d there is no one in the world superior to h i m . 147. If a person is competent to establish b o t h D h a r m a a n d J ñ ā n a , b u t does not do so out of delusion, he is not a great favourite with the Lord, though he m a y be endowed with Yoga (Yogic Powers). 148. H e n c e gifts should always be given to B r ā h m a n a s particularly to those who are endowed with piety a n d faith a n d those who are quiescent. 149. He who reads this dialogue between you all a n d me shall be free from all sins a n d shall a t t a i n the greatest goal. 150. A wise a n d intelligent person should read this in the presence of B r ā h m a n a s d u r i n g Śrāddhas a n d d u r i n g rites con­ cerned with gods. It should be listened to by all twice-born ones. 151. A person w h o ponders over the m e a n i n g a n d nar­ rates this with concentrated mind to pure Brāhmanaś shall be released from the coverings of sins a n d faults a n d attains Lord M a h e ś v a r a . 152. After saying this much, the holy son of Satyavati, sage Vyāsa, consoled the sages a n d Sūta a n d went away in the same m a n n e r as he h a d arrived.


544

Kūrma Purina

CHAPTER THIRTYFrVE The Greatness of Goya and other sacred places1 The sages requested : 1. O R o m a h a r s a n a , now please recount to us the g r e a t Tīrthas (sacred places) t h a t are well-known in t h e world. Romaharsana narrated '• 2. Ye all listen. I shall recount the different kinds of holy centres described in t h e P u r ā n a s by sages, the expounders of Brahman. 3. O excellent sages, every one of these holy rites, viz. Ablution, Japa, Homa, Śrāddha, Dana (charitable gift) etc. per­ formed ( a t these places) sanctifies t h e family u p t o t h e seventh generation. 4. T h e well-known holy place of B r a h m a t h e Supreme god Paramestiiin viz Prayāga extends to five Yojanas (1 Yojana = 12 k m s ) . Its greatness has already been described (vide S u p r a I. chs 36-39). 5. Another excellent T ī r t h a is t h a t of t h e K u r u s (i.e. K u r u k s e t r a ) . It is respected by Devas. It is spotted with t h e hermitages of t h e sages a n d it dispels all sins. 6. After performing ablution therein, one becomes puresouled, devoid of arrogance a n d rivalry. W h a t e v e r litde he gives as gift, sanctifies both (paternal a n d maternal) families. 7. T h e holy centre of G a y a 2 is highly mysterious. It is a r a r e spot for t h e rites of t h e Pitrs. A m a n w h o offers Pindas there is not b o r n again. 1 . After t h e section c a l l e d V y ā s a - G ī t ā ( c h s . 12-34), K P . describes v a r i o u s h o l y p l a c e s a n d T i r t h a s . Visit to T i r t h a s is a w a y of e x p i a t i o n of sins, h e n c e t h i s s e c t i o n . All t h e s e T i r t h a s b e l o n g t o N o r t h o r r a t h e r A r y a n s p e a k i n g a r e a i n I n d i a . I n P a r t I c h s . 30-39 K P describes m a i n l y V ā r ā n a s i a n d s e c o n d a r i l y o t h e r h o l y p l a c e s like P r a y ā g a . 2 . V V . 7-15 d e s c r i b e G a y ā . B y G a y ā , K P . implies t h e a r e a b e t w e e n R a m a ś i l ā hill o n t h e N o r t h a n d B r a h m a y o n i hill o n t h e s o u t h a n d o n t h e b a n k o f t h e P h a l g u . T h e a n c i e n t t o w n o f G a y ā i s o n t h e s o u t h e r n side. V i s n u p a d a (which i s c a l l e d R u d r a p a d a h e r e ) i s i n t h e a n c i e n t p a r t . T h e p r e s e n t t e m p l e w a s b u i l t s o m e two c e n t u r i e s a g o b y t h e M a r a t h a q u e e n A h a l y a b a i Holkar of Indore.


II.35.8-17

545

8. All the Pitrs are redeemed by h i m w h o goes to G a y ā a n d offers Pindas even once. T h e y will a t t a i n the greatest goal. 9. For t h e welfare of t h e worlds, his foot h a d been imprinted by R u d r a 1 the great A t m a n . O n e shall propitiate the Pitrs t h e r e . 10. If a person w h o is competent to go to G a y ā does not go there, the Pitrs bewail him because all his efforts will be in vain. 11. T h e Pitrs sing songs a n d the great sages glorify— " W h o e v e r goes to G a y ā will redeem u s . " 12. " E v e n if he is endowed with sins, even if he is devoid of adherence to his own duties, if anyone goes to Gayā, he will r e d e e m us. 13. M a n y sons endowed with good behaviour and virtues should be sought after so t h a t at least one in t h a t g r o u p m a y go to Gayā."* 14. Hence one, especially a B r ā h m a n a , shall assiduously a n d duly offer Pindas with great concentration, after going to Gayā. 15. Blessed are those men w h o offer Pindas at G a y ā . T h e y shall uplift seven generations of b o t h the families (i.e. of the father a n d of the m o t h e r ) a n d shall a t t a i n t h e greatest goal. 16. T h e r e is a n o t h e r excellent T i r t h a which is called t h e residence of t h e Siddhas. It is well known as P r a b h ā s a 2 a n d Lord Siva abides there. 17. By performing ablutions there a n d thereafter Ś r ā d d h a a n d the worship of the Brāhmanas, a B r ā h m a n a attains t h e ever-lasting a n d excellent world. 1. KP cannot be charged with Brahmanising an ancient Buddhist locality, a s i t w a s a l r e a d y B r a h m a n i s e d before t h e C h i n e s e traveller H i u e n T s i a n g visited i t i n A . D . 6 3 7 . B u t v i c i n i t y o f Bodh-gayā, A s o k a ' s d e d i c a t i o n o f caves i n B a r a b a r H i l l t o Ajīvakas a n d t h e caves i n N a g a r j u n i hills t o Ś r a m a n i c A s o k a ' s g r a n d s o n D a ś a r a t h a show t h a t formerly i t was a c e n t r e o f Ajivakas b y religion. It is, h o w e v e r , called Visnupada for t h e last m a n y c e n t u r i e s . • T h e s a m e a s Y a m a q u o t e d i n Tristhalīsetu, p . 330. 2. Prabhāsa ( D e v a p a U a n a , Verwal) in Saurastra (Gujarat) has t h e f a m o u s s h r i n e o f S o m a n a t h a , o n e o f t h e twelve j y o t i r - l i ń g a s . T h e s h r i n e w h i c h was d e m o l i s h e d b y M a h m u d o f G a z n i i n A . D . 1025 was r e c o n s t r u c t e d a g a i n after I n d i a n I n d e p e n d e n c e .


546

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Purāna

1

18. T h e r e is the holy place named Traiyambaka which is bowed to by all Devas. After worshipping R u d r a there, one shall get the fruit of the Jyoti stoma sacrifice. 19. After worshipping the golden-eyed M a h ā d e v a , the god with m a t t e d hair, and honouring Brāhmanas, he will obtain the chieftainship of the attendants of Śiva. 20. Someśvara is the excellent holy T ī r t h a of R u d r a , the Paramesthin. On seeing R u d r a , the ultimate cause,* it shall remove all ailments. 2 1 . T h e r e is an auspicious sacred place, the holiest a m o n g all other holy places, known as Vijaya. T h e r e is a famous L i ń g a of the great Lord, known as Vijaya. 22. O excellent Brāhmanas, having stayed there for six months on regulated abstemious diet, observing celibacy and with great concentration of mind, the person goes to the supreme position (viz. liberation). 23. T h e r e is another auspicious excellent T ī r t h a in the eastern lands. It is the solitary (v.l. Ekāmra) 2 holy centre of the lord of Devas. It bestows t h e benefit of chieftainship of Siva's a t t e n d a n t s . 24. By giving some auspicious plot of land to the devotees of Śiva at this place, a king shall become an emperor. O n e who is desirous of liberation, shall a t t a i n salvation. 25. T h e waters of M a h ā n a d ī are holy and destructive of all sins. By plunging therein at the time of eclipse, one is released from all sins. 26. T h e r e is another river named Virajā. 3 It is wellknown in the three worlds. By taking b a t h there, a B r ā h m a n a or any m a n , is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 1 . T r y a m b a k e ś v a r a n e a r Nasik a t t h e s o u r c e o f G o d ā v a r i . T h i s i s o n e o f twelve J y o t i r l i ń g a s i n I n d i a . •v.l. rudra-sñyujya-kāranam ' t h e cause of giving t h e i d e n t i t y w i t h god Rudra.) T h e site o f Krsija's d e a t h i s n e a r h e r e . 2. E k ā m r a — t h e same as m o d e r n . B h u v a n e s h w a r i n Orissa. I t i s a R u d r a T ī r t h a also c a l l e d K r t t i v ā s a ( B m . p . 3 4 . 6 ) . T h i s p l a c e , e q u a l t o V ā r ā n a s i i n s a n c t i t y , c a m e t o b e called Ekdmra(ka) d u e t o a f a m o u s m a n g o t r e e i n t h e p r e v i o u s k a l p a . B M . P . 4 1 . 12. 3.

A r i v e r in Orissa.


547

11.35.27-35

27. T h e r e is a n o t h e r holy centre of N ā r ā y a n a n a m e d 1 P u r u s o t t a m a . It is there t h a t N ā r ā y a n a the glorious a n d great Purusa resides. 28. By taking b a t h there and worshipping the great Visnu as well as by worshipping Brāhmanas, an excellent B r ā h m a n a shall a t t a i n Visnu's region. 2

29. T h e holy centre n a m e d G o k a r n a is the greatest of all holy centres and is well-known. It is destructive of all sins. It is the abode of Śambhu, P a r a m e s t h i n . 30. On seeing the greatest a n d excellent Lińga G o k a r n a of the lord, one shall a t t a i n all cherished desires a n d shall be a favourite of R u d r a . 3 1 . By worshipping the Lińga of the trident-bearing lord M a h ā d e v a in the n o r t h e r n Gokarna, one shall attain Sāyujya (identity) with Śiva. 32. Lord M a h ā d e v a there, is well known as Sthānu. On seeing him, a m a n is released from all sins instantaneously. 33. Another holy centre of Visnu, the great A t m a n , is K u b j ā ś r a m a . 3 By worshipping the Purusa, Visnu, one is honoured in the Śveta Dvīpa. 34. It was here that Lord N ā r ā y a n a was let off by R u d r a , the enemy of the T r i p u r a s , after destroying the Yajña o f D a k s a . 35. All around it, within the radius of one Yojana, is a sacred place resorted to by multitudes of Siddhas and sages. T h e r e is a holy shrine of Visnu where the Supreme Person resides.

J a g a n n ā t h a F u r i i n Orissa.

1.

Its glory i s described i n

Bm.

P.

Chs.

4 5 - 5 1 , 6 9 , 177. 2.

A place sacred

N o r t h K a n a r a Dist.

to

Śiva

on

die

West-coast

while being taken away by R ā v a n a , was d u p e d away by lished

in K u m t a

Tehsil

of

( K a r n a t a k a ) . T h i s i s t h e A t m a - l i ń g a o f g o d Śiva w h i c h Ganeśa and

estab­

here. T h e r e are two G o k a r n a s — N o r t h e r n a n d Southern ( L P . I.

92-134-135).

K P . mentions n o r t h e r n G o k a r n a in v. 31 below. 3.

The

m e n t i o n o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f D a k s a ' s sacrifice shows

m u s t be K a n a k h a l a near

Haridwar.

t h a t this


Kūrma Purāna

548 1

36. At K o k ā m u k h a there is a n o t h e r holy centre of Visnu of miraculous activities. If a person dies h e r e * a m a n is freed from sins, a n d he attains t h e Sārūpya (similarity in form) of Visnu. 37. Ś ā l i g r ā m a 8 is a great holy centre t h a t increases t h e pleasure of Visnu. A m a n a b a n d o n i n g his life there, observes Hrsīkeśa (the lord of sense-organs). 38* T h e r e is an auspicious a n d beautiful abode of t h e Siddhas, well-known as Aśvatīrtha. Lord N ā r ā y a n a himself stays there always as Horse-headed deity. 39. T h e r e is a holy centre well known in t h e t h r e e worlds. It is a very auspicious abode of the Siddhas. T h a t m e r i t bestowing holy place of Brahma, the Paramesthin is there. 40-41a. ( t h e holy centre) Puskara 8 is destructive of all sins. It accords Brahmaloka to persons w h o die here. T h e excellent B r ā h m a n a who mentally remembers Puskara is purified of all sins. He rejoices alongwith god I n d r a . 41b-42a. T h e r e , Devas, G a n d h a r v a s , Yaksas, serpents, Rāksasas a n d Siddhas worship the lotus-born deity viz. B r a h m a . 42b-43a. H a v i n g performed ablution, one should become p u r e a n d after worshipping god B r a h m a , t h e highest deity and also an excellent B r ā h m a n a , he sees god B r a h m a . 43b-44a. Approaching lord of Devas, I n d r a , the blameless one, a m a n assumes his (Indra's) form and attains all desires. 44b-45a. T h e Saptasārasvata 4 holy centre is the greatest one, resorted to by B r a h m a and others. By worshipping R u d r a there, one derives t h e fruit of a horse-sacrifice. 1 . V a r ā h a - K s e t r a i n t h e district o f P u r n e a i n Bengal o n t h e T r i v e n ī ( t h e confluence o f T a m b a r , t h e A r u n ā a n d S u n a ) a b o v e N a t h p u r . •the v.l. mrto'tra pātakair muktah is preferred h e r e t o muktotra martyah j 2 . A sacred p l a c e n e a r t h e s o u r c e o f t h e G a n d a k a river. Sages B h a r a t a a n d P u l a h a p r a c t i s e d p e n a n c e h e r e . T h e sacred p e b b l e s called Ś ā l a g r ā m a s are obtained here. 3. than).

A

lake, sacred

to g o d B r a h m a . It is six miles from Ajmer

(Rajas-

4. In K u r u k s e t r a , the s t o r y of M a ń k a n a k a is r e p e a t e d in M b h . Vana. 83-115, ŚtUya 3 8 . 4-13. T h e collective n a m e seven Sarasvatis is given in M b h . ibid a s follows: S u p r a b h ā , K ā ñ c a n ā k s i , V i ś a l ā , M a n o r a m ā , O g h a v a t i ,


II.35.45b-59

549

45b-46. It was here that (sage M a ñ k a n a k a propitiated t h e bull-bannered Śiva, R u d r a , the Supreme Lord, by means of penance. Thereafter, sage M a ñ k a n a k a blazed by means of his penance. 47. On knowing that R u d r a had come, he danced due to ecstatic delight. Lord R u d r a spoke to h i m — ' ' W h y did you dance ?" 48-49. Even after seeing the god I ś ā n a (Śiva), he danced again and again. On seeing h i m puffed with pride Lord Iśa, in order to subdue his arrogance, slit open his own body a n d pointed out the h e a p ofBhasma a n d said "O excellent B r ā h m a n a , see this h e a p of Bhasma originating from my b o d y . " 50. "O leading sage, this is the greatness of penance, there is also another person like you, wherefore did you d a n c e ? 51-53a. This is not proper in an ascetic. I am even superior to y o u . " After saying this to the excellent sage R u d r a , the seer of the entire universe, narrated to h i m the great reality of the universe. H a r a then danced, taking up a form with a thousand (i.e. innumerable) heads, a thousand eyes a n d a thousand feet. His face was terrible due to the curved fangs. He appeared ferocious with wreaths of names. 53b-54. T h e n he saw by the side of that Trident-bearing Lord, a gracious-looking, wide-eyed auspicious goddess Śivā with resplendent charming sportfulness, comparable in size (v.l. brilliance) to crores of suns. 55. On seeing the lord of the Universe smiling and standing there resplendently, the heart of the leading sage became agitated due to fright a n d he trembled. 56. He bent down his head before R u d r a a n d w i t h selfcontrol he repeated the verses of R u d r ā d h y ā y a . T h e three-eyed lord Iśa, favourably disposed towards his devotees, became delighted. 57-59. He assumed his previous form. T h e goddess dis­ appeared. Embracing the devotee who was bowing to him, S u r e n u , a n d V i m a l o d a k ā . T h e s e a r e sacred rivers i n different p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y viz. P u s h k a r , N a i m i s ā r a n y a , G a y ā , K o ś a l a K u r u k s e t r a H a r i d v ā r a a n d t h e H i m a l a y a s respectively b u t t h e S a r a s v a t i i s supposed t o h a v e b e e n t h e r e i n t h a t river-form.


Kūrma Purāna

550

Śiva, the lord of Devas himself, said "O d e a r one, do not be afraid. W h a t shall I give u n t o you ? T h e n the delighted sage desirous of asking him bowed down his head before god H a r a , the Lord of mountains, a n d the slayer of t h e Tripuras, and sub­ mitted "Obeisance be to you O M a h ā d e v a ; salutations to you 0 Maheśvara. 60-61. W h a t is this lordly form with faces all round, yet very terrible ? W h o has t h a t lady who stood shining by your side a n d w h o vanished very suddenly. I wish to know every­ t h i n g . " W h e n this was enquired of, Lord H a r a spoke to Mańkanaka : 62. T h e great Lord, t h e fire ( t h e destroyer) of t h e three cities, explained to him ( M a ń k a n a k a ) his own (path of) Yoga a n d about t h e goddess : " l a m t h e thousand (innumerable)-eyed of all a n d have faces on all sides.

god, the soul

63. I am t h e scorcher of all bonds. I am K ā l a (Time, D e a t h ) , H a r a a n d the cause of K ā l a . Everything consisting of t h e sentient and t h e non-sentient is urged by myself. 64. I am t h a t Person (soul) who is i m m a n e n t in all and 1 am verily t h e Supreme Person. T h e deluding Potency (Greatest M ā y ā ) is the Prakrti consisting of t h e three Gunas. 65- She is described by the sages as Śakti (Potency), t h e eternal source of origin of the universe. T h e creator of t h e universe enchants t h e universe by means of the M ā y ā . 66. T h e Śruti states t h a t the Supreme, unmanifest N ā r ā y a n a is of t h e form of M ā y ā . In this way, I always establish the entire world. 67-68. I U n i t e with Prakrti, the twentyfifth Principle known a s Purusa. T h a t p u r e , omnipresent, immovable u n ­ born god in union with her, Prakrti creates this whole universe from Prakrti which is his own form. He is t h e illustrious god Brahma, Universe, the grandsire of the world.

of the form of t h e

69. This creatorship of the great A t m a n has been clearly n a r r a t e d to you. I am the sole lord, beginningless, the primordial K ā l a . the all-pervading lord, the destroyer (of t h e Universe).


551

11.35.70—36.1

70. (While creating a n d destroying) I assume the greatest form. I am mentioned as R u d r a by the learned m e n . T h a t supreme Potency ( P a r ā Śakti), well-known as goddess Vidyā, belongs to me alone. 7 1 . T h e person of Vidyā has indeed been visualised by you. So also these principles the P r a d h ā n a , the Purusa a n d īśvara. 72. T h e Śruti says : Visnu, Brahma and lord R u d r a (are) K ā l a ( ? ) . These three deities are beginningless and end­ less. T h e y are stabilised in t h e B r a h m a n alone. 73. T h e Śruti says that it is unmanifest, imperishable a n d everything has that as its soul. T h e great principle is A t m a n a n d Bliss. It is consciousness alone, the greatest region 74-75. It is the entire firmament, the Brahma, nothing is other t h a n it. After realising this a n d resorting to the p a t h of devotion, I should be honoured and worshipped. Thereafter you will see ī ś v a r a . " After saying this much, Lord H a r a disappeared. 76. T h e sage propitiated R u d r a in t h a t very same place by means of the path of devotion. This holy centre is u n ­ equalled, sacred a n d resorted to by Brahmarsis. By resort­ ing to this, a scholarly B r ā h m a n a is released from all sins.

CHAPTER THIRTYSIX Glory of Sacred Places : the death of Kāla Sūta said : 1. T h e r e is another large and highly sacred place of the Supreme deity R u d r a . It is famous as Rudrakoti 1 , in all the three worlds.

and

1.

A s a c r e d p l a c e of this n a m e is found

the

Narmadā.

It

is

under

Kuruksetra,

Vārānasi

probably the one at Kuruksetra. T h a t is implied

h e r e as Śiva a s s u m e d o n e c r o r e forms for sages. T h i s is vana. 8 2 . 118-124, P d . P . I . 2 5 . 25-30.

mentioned

in

Mbh.


552

Kūrma Purāna

2. Formerly, in the holiest of the times, a crore Brahmanical sages of great self-control (desirous of seeing the lord) c a m e to that great land. 3. "I will see the Pināka-bearing lord Giriśa at first" (Thus they vied with one a n o t h e r ) . A great dispute arose thus a m o n g them who were endowed with devotion. 4. On seeing their devotion, R u d r a , the Lord of moun­ tain, the preceptor of Yogins, assumed a crore forms. T h u s he became Rudrakoti (A crore of R u d r a s ) . 5. All of them saw the consort of Pārvati, the great god H a r a , resident in the mountain cavity. T h e y became delighted a n d well-nourished in their minds. 6. With the devotional feeling : "O I have seen at the outset the Lord, the great god devoid of beginning and e n d " all of them dedicated their minds u n t o R u d r a with devotion. 7. T h e n they saw a mass of brilliance in the firmament. T h e y were desirous of attaining the greatest region. 8. Where the lord thus revealed himself and stayed, it is considered to be an auspicious and very holy centre. After visiting this a n d worshipping the R u d r a the devotees shall a t t a i n the Sāmīpya (nearness) of R u d r a . 9. T h e r e is another auspicious a n d excellent T i r t h a by the n a m e of M a d h u v a n a . 1 A person who observes rules and regulations after going there, shall attain half the throne of Indra. 10. T here is another city n a m e d P a d m a n a g a r l . T h e land is auspicious and highly meritorious. After going there and worshipping the Pitrs, one will redeem a h u n d r e d members of his family. 11. K ā l a ñ j a r a is a great holy centre in the Rudraloka* M a h e ś v a r a is the deity, H a r a is fond of the devotees who worship lord Kālañjara. 2

1 . N e a r M a t h u r ā , s o called a s i t was o n c e t h e h a u n t o f d e m o n M a d h u . I t i s identified w i t h p r e s e n t M a h o l i f i v e miles t o t h e south-west o f M a t h u r ā . 2. A hill a n d a fort in B u n d e l k h a n d , t h e c a p i t a l of C h a n d e l l a s . If t h e t e m p l e o f K ā l a B h a i r a v a i n t h e fort b e r e l a t e d t o t h e story o f K i n g Śveta g i v e n h e r e , this identification i s p r o b a b l e . K a n e includes this T i r t h a u n d e r V ā r ā n a s i ( H D I V . 766) T h e story of Śveta is n a r r a t e d i n L P . chs. I. 30-34 b u t he is a sage t h e r e . * V e ń k t . t e x t r e a d s : rudra-loke maheśvarahll! e m e n d e d as loke rudro mahtivarah i n t h e w o r l d w h e r e R u d r a i s t h e g r e a t g o d . '


11.36.12-22

553

12. Formerly there was an excellent saintly king named Śveta. He was a devotee of Śiva. He worshipped t h e tridentb e a r i n g lord with obeisances u n t o h i m and expecting his blessings. 13. He installed R u d r a in accordance with the injunc­ tions, given priority to the p a t h of devotion. W i t h his m i n d dedicated u n t o R u d r a , he performed the Japa of R u d r a always. 14. Seizing a dazzling terrible trident m a d e of steel, K ā l a c a m e to t h a t spot where the king was standing, in order to take h i m away. 15. On seeing the terrible a n d ferocious K ā l a , t h e des­ troyer of all, approaching with the trident in his h a n d , the king was overwhelmed with fear. 16. With both of his hands the K i n g c a u g h t hold of t h e excellent Lińga a n d bowed down to R u d r a with his bent h e a d . H e repeated the Śatarudrīya M a n t r a . 17. Standing in front of the K i n g , K r t ā n t a ( G o d of D e a t h ) latighingly said to the king w h o was bowing down a n d performing the J a p a of Bhava mentally " C o m e away, come away." 18. T h e king who was terribly afraid but was devoted to R u d r a requested h i m , ''Kill others after leaving off one w h o is engaged in the worship of I ś a . " 19. T h e lord (i.e. K ā l a here) said to him who was frightened a n d spoke as mentioned a b o v e — " W h o is there w h o does not stand u n d e r my control whether he is engaged in worshipping R u d r a or not? 20. After saying thus, K ā l a , the destroyer of t h e worlds, b o u n d t h a t king by means of nooses. T h e king on his part continued the J a p a of Śatarudrlya. 2 1 . T h e n he saw in the F i r m a m e n t the enormous and brillant ancient mass of splendour of the lord of goblins. It was surrounded with clusters of flames and pervaded t h e universe. 22. In the middle thereof he saw a brilliant form a Purusa of golden colour. T h e lord was accompanied by the goddess. His body shone with t h e digit of the moon. He became m u c h delighted. He thought t h a t the Lord was coming to him.


554

Kūrma Purāna

23. On seeing R u d r a , the great Lord, the lord of every­ thing, coming at not a great distance, accompanied by the goddess, the royal sage became free from fear. K ā l a rushed at the saintly king to take him away. 24. (Defective verse) On seeing him, Lord R u d r a , t h e ancient leader of t h e goblins, of fierce activities said to K ā l a — " G i v e u n t o me my devctee quickly, t h e devotee who remembers me, O K ā l a . He remembers my form ( ? ) " 25. On hearing the statement of Śiva (lord of t h e B u l l ) , the Atman of K ā l a of t h e form of R u d r a * (?) considered (his n a t u r e (himself) too high. He bound the devotee again by means of nooses. T h e n R u d r a * * rushed at him with great velocity. 26. On seeing him ( K ā l a ) coming towards (himself to a t t a c k ) , the Lord t h e n glanced at U m ā , the daughter of the m o u n t a i n ( H i m a l a y a ) . T h e knower of the procedure of all M ā y ā s (Śiva) contemptuously struck K ā l a with his left foot, while he ( K i n g Śveta) was looking on. 27. T h a t extremely terrible fellow died on being struck by the foot of M a h e ś a . T h e Pināka-bearing great God stood shining alongwith U m ā . 28. On seeing the Lord Iśvara, H a r a , the imperishable deity, the prominent saintly king became delighted in his m i n d t h e n a n d bowed u n t o him. Eulogy of Śiva 29. " O b e i s a n c e to Bhava, the cause (of the universe)^ to H a r a , who wishes for the welfare of the whole universe. Salutation to Śiva, the intelligent one. Obeisance to the bestower of Salvation. 30. Obeisance again a n d again (innumerable times) to the great s u p e r h u m a n power and prosperity. Obeisance to you, the overlord of m e n , of the form that is devoid of division. 31. O lord of Ganas, obeisance be to you. Hail to you, O deity t h a t dispel the misery of those who resort to you, salutation to you of eternal ( p r i m o r d i a l ) beginningless prosperity, to one that holds the horn of a boar. *v. 1. ugra-bh&vah 'of t e r r i b l e i n t e n t i o n . ' * * I f e m e n d e d a s Rudram ' K ā l a rushed a t R u d r a ' , i t will verse a n d o b v i a t e t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h e r e w i t h .

suit t h e

next


555

11.36.32—37.1

32. Obeisance to you the bull-bannered Lord, bow to one t h a t has a wreath of skulls. Salutation to you of great m o u n t a i n (v.l. great a c t o r ) ; obeisance to you auspicious Śańkara." 3 3 . Śańkara then blessed the king engaged in obeisance; then he bestowed on him the chieftain-ship of his own G a n a s and then (finally) his own form (identity with h i m ) . 34. Instantaneously H a r a who was saluted by the leading ascetics and the Siddhas became invisible along with U m ā , his a t t e n d a n t s a n d the leading king. 35. W h e n K ā l a was killed by M a h e ś a , god B r a h m a the lord of the worlds, begged of R u d r a the b o o n — " M a y he ( K ā l a ) come back to life. 36. O bull-bannered ī ś ā n a , it is not the slightest fault of Kvtānta the god of D e a t h . He was appointed on that j o b (of taking away the lives of beings) by y o u . " 37. At the instance of the lord of Devas, H a r a , the lord of the chief of Devas, the A t m a n of the universe s a i d — " S o be i t . " He ( K ā l a ) too became like t h a t (i.e. revived). 38. T h u s is the holy centre well known as Kālañjara. On going there and worshipping M a h ā d e v a one attains the chief­ tain-ship of the G a n a s .

C H A P T E R THTRTYSEVEN The Glory of Mahālaya and other holy centres Sūta said : 1. This is a n o t h e r holy spot t h a t is very great a n d very mysterious and full of miracles, pertaining to Lord Mahādeva. It is well known as M a h ā l a y a . 1 1.

M a h ā l a y a — T h e s a m e as O r h k ā r a n ā t h a . 2 in V ā r ā n a s i , De ( p . 117) _


556

Kūrma Purāna

2. T h e r e , on a rocky surface, his footstep was imparted by R u d r a , t h e enemy of the T r i p u r a s , the primordial lord of Devas. It is a proof pointed to the atheists. 3. T h e quiescent devotees of Paśupati, with their bodies dusted with holy ashes and engaged in the study of the Vedas, worship M a h ā d e v a there. 4. O n e w h o takes his b a t h , sees t h e foot-print of god Śiva with great devotion a n d makes obeisance with bowing head, shall a t t a i n R u d r a ' s proximity (i.e. liberation called Samipatā). 5. T h e r e is another abode of Ś a m b h u , t h e great A t m a n t h e lord of Devas. It is very auspicious a n d is well known 1 as K e d ā r a . It is the home of Siddhas. 6. O n e w h o takes b a t h there, worships the bull-bannered M a h ā d e v a and drinks the pure water, shall a t t a i n the chief­ tainship of the Ganas. 7-8. After performing Śrāddha, Dana (religious gifts) a n d other rites, one attains everlasting benefit. T h e r e is a holy centre called P l a k s ā v a t a r a n a 2 t h a t destroys all sins. It is resorted to by excellent twice-born ones and the Yogins who have sub­ d u e d their minds. By performing the worship of god Visnu, one is worshipped in Visnu's region. 9. goal on On going heavenly

Another holy spot is M a g a d h ā r a n y a . It bestows good all the people (v.l. giving access to heavenly r e g i o n ) . there, an excellent B r ā h m a n a attains everlasting pleasures.

10. T h e meritorious holy centre K a n a k h a l a 3 is destructive of great sins. It was here t h a t the sacrifice of D a k s a was destroyed by R u d r a .

1. K e d ā r a n ā t h a , a Jyotir-liñga in t h e district of G a r h w a l in U. P. a n d o n t h e s o u t h e r n side o f t h e M a n d ā k i n i a n d D ū d h a g a ń g ā — D e . p . 97. 2. P l a k s ā v a t a r a n a — t h e s o u r c e of t h e river S a r a s v a t i , in S i r m u r hills of Sewalik r a n g e o f t h e H i m a l a y a s . T h e f o u n t a i n from w h i c h t h e river takes its rise w a s at t h e foot of a P l a k s a t r e e , h e n c e it is called P l a k s ā v a t a r a n a or Plaksa^prasravana. 3 . K a n a k h a l a — t h e p l a c e o f D a k s a ' s sacrifice d e s t r o y e d b y R u d r a . I t is at a d i s t a n c e of t w o miles to t h e east of H a r d w a r on t h e confluence of t h e Gańgā and Niladhārā.


II.37.11-21a

557

11. By bathing in the river G ā ń g ā there, a p u r e m a n endowed with noble feelings, is freed from all sins and he shall stay in the region of god Brahma. 12. T h e holy centre well-known as M a h ā t i r t h a is sacred a n d a favourite of N ā r ā y a n a . O n e who worships Hrsīkeśa (Visnu) there goes so Śvetadvīpa (the abode of N ā r ā y a n a ) . 13. Another excellent holy centre is the auspicious one by the n a m e Śrlparvata. 1 On a b a n d o n i n g the vital airs here, one shall become the beloved of R u d r a . 14. R u d r a , M a h e ś v a r a , is ever present there accom­ panied by the goddess. Bathing there and offering Pindas etc. shall be excellent and everlasting. 15-16a. T h e river Godāvarī is holy a n d destructive of all sins. On bathing there a n d duly performing T a r p a n a rites to the Pitrs a n d Devas, one shall purify one's soul of all sins and shall a t t a i n the benefit of the gift of a thousand cows. 16b-17. T h e sacred river Kāverī has holy waters a n d is very large. After observing fast for three days or (at least) one day, one should b a t h e there and offer water libations. O n e is released from all sins. 18-19a. T h e mode of resorting to holy centres by the twice-born is now n a r r a t e d . He whose mind a n d speech a r e pure a n d whose hands a n d feet are stabilised (i.e. do their respective functions,) is non-greedy a n d celibate shall a t t a i n the benefit of holy centres. 19b-21a. T h e great holy centre called Svāmitīrtha 2 is well-known in the three worlds. Skanda respectfully bowed to by the immortal beings, is ever present there. On bathing in the K u m ā r a d h ā r ā and performing the T a r p a n a rites for Devas a n d others, a n d one propitiating lord S a n m u k h a (the six-faced d e i t y ) , one rejoices with Skanda.

1 . Ś r i p a r v a t a o r Ś r i ś a i l a — A hill i n K a r n o o l district o n t h e s o u t h e r n s i d e o f t h e river K r s n ā w h i c h m a k e s h e r w a y t h r o u g h a g o r g e i n E a s t e r n g h a t s . It is t h e site of M a l l i k ā r j u n a , a famous J y o t i r - l i ń g a . It was o n c e a c e n t r e of Tāntrikas. 2 . S v ā m i - t i r t h a . D e ( p . 107) identifies i t w i t h t h e t e m p l e o f K u m ā r a s v ā m i s i t u a t e d a b o u t a m i l e from t i r u t t a n i o n t h e S o u t h e r n R a i l w a y .


558

Kūrma Purāna

21b-22. T h e river named T ā m r a p a r n ī is well-known in the three worlds. T h e r e is no doubt in this that on taking b a t h there and on performing the T a r p a n a rites to the Pitrs in accordance with the injunctions, one shall redeem even those Pitrs who h a d committed sins. 23. At the source-place of Kāveri, there is a well-known holy centre n a m e d G a n d r a t i r t h a . W h a t is given in t h a t holy centre is of ever-lasting benefit. It yields good goal i.e. the heaven to those who die there. 24. O B r ā h m a n a , those devotees who see Sadāśiva the lord of Devas at the foot of the Vindhyas, do not see the face of Y a m a ( t h e god of D e a t h ) . 25. At Devikā 1 ( ? ) , there is the holy centre n a m e d Vrsa. It is resorted to by Siddhas. O n e who takes b a t h there and libation, attains perfection in Yoga. 26. T h e holy centre Daśāśvamedhika is destructive of allusions. A m a n obtains the benefit of performing ten Aśvamedhas (horse-sacrifices) therein. 27. T h e holy centre n a m e d P u n d a r i k a is beautified by the B r ā h m a n a s . A person of self-control approaching it, shall obtain the benefit of P u n d a r i k a (sacrifice). 28. T h e grestest a m o n g the holy centres is n a m e d Brahmatīrtha.2 On worshipping god B r a h m a here, one is honoured in t h e world of B r a h m a . 3 29. T h e r e are some holy centres as these: T h e Vinaśana where the river Sarasvatī lost itself in the sand, the auspicious Plaksa-prasravana (the source of the Sarasvatī), t h a t which is known as Vyāsatīrtha* a n d the excellent m o u n t a i n M a i n ā k a . 5 1. D e v i k ā — M o d e r n D e i g , a t r i b u t a r y of t h e Ravi in P u n j a b p . 746, D e . p . 5 5 ) .

(HD IV

2. It is m e n t i o n e d as a s u b - t i r t h a u n d e r v a r i o u s h o l y places a n d rivers like V ā r ā n a s ī , G a y ā , N a r m a d ā ( K P . I I 4 1 . 56) G o d ā v a r i , S a r a s v a t i . D e . ( p . 4 0 ) identifies i t w i t h P u s k a r a l a k e i n R ā j a s t h ā n . 3 . V i n a ś a n a — t h e spot i n t h e s a n d y desert o f A m b a l a a n d S i r h i n d district o f P u n j a b . T h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f V i n a ś a n a i s p r e s u m e d t o b e n e a r Sirsa. 4 . V y ā s a - t i r t h a — K a n e locates this i n K u r u k s e t r a H D I V . 8 2 4 . I t i s u n d e r t h e N a r m a d ā infra c h . 4 1 . 25-27. 5 . M a i n ā k a i s l o c a t e d a t B a d a r i , west o f G u j a r a t a n d n e a r t h e S a r a ­ svati. D e y ( p . 121) r e g a r d s t h e r a n g e o f Sewalik hills from t h e G a ń g ā t o t h e Beas.


II.37.30-39a

559

30-3la. T h e source of origin of Y a m u n a is destructive of all sins. T h e river, the daughter of the Pitts, is well known as goddess G a n d h a k ā l ī . He who bathes in it goes to heaven, after death. He will be able to remember his previous birth. 3lb-32a. T h e holy centre of K u b e r a t u ń g a 1 is resorted to by the Siddhas a n d t h e C ā r a n a s . O n e who abandons his life therein, shall become a follower of K u b e r a . 32b-33a. T h e holy centre well known as U m ā t u ń g a is the place where the beloved of R u d r a (performed h e r penance) . On worshipping the great goddess there, one shall attain t h e benefit of the gift of a thousand cows. 33b-34a. It is my opinion t h a t the penance or Śrāddha performed in Bhrgutuńga, or the charitable gifts m a d e there sanctifies seven generations in both the families (i.e. that of the father a n d that of the m o t h e r ) . 34b-35a. T h e great holy centre of K ā ś y a p a is well known as Kālasarpis. With the desire for the diminution of sins, one should offer Śrāddhas there every day. 35b-36a. T h e Ś r ā d d h a , D a n a , H o m a , J a p a and penance performed in D a ś a r n a are of everlasting benefit a n d inexhaustible for ever. 36b-37a. T h e T ī r t h a named Kurujāńgala 2 resorted to by the twice-born is famous. On making charitable gifts there in accordance with the injunctions, one is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 37b-39a. Whatever is offered in the great T I r t h a , in Vaitaranī, 3 in the Svarnavedī, in the D h a r m a p r s t h a , 4 in the great a n d auspicious h e a d of Brahma, in the holy hermitage of B h a r a t a , in the auspicious a n d sacred G r d h r a v a n a , in

1. K P . and Vāyu mention Kubertuñga, Umātuńga, Bhrgu-tuńga t h e best places for Ś r ā d d h a b u t t h e i r l o c a t i o n is u n c e r t a i n .

as

2. It is between t h e Sarasvati and Drsadvati, Sirhind in Punjab ( H D IV. 773). 3 . V a i t a r a n i — A r i v e r i n Orissa rising i n t h e V i n d h y a - m o u n t a i n J a i p u r s t a n d s o n t h i s river. 4 . D h a r m a - p r s f h a , t h e s a m e a s D h a r m ā r a n y a o f B u d d h i s t s — 4 miles f r o m B o d h a G a y ā , D e . p . 56.


Kūrma Parana

560 1

2

M a h ā h r a d a a n d in the Kauśiki —whatever is offered in these places—is of everlasting benefit. 39b-41a. His footstep was imprinted on Mundaprstha, 3 by t h e intelligent M a h ā d e v a , for t h e welfare of all living beings a n d as a proof to be pointed out to the non-believers. A m a n devoted to D h a r m a shall within a short time, a b a n d o n his sin like the serpent casting off its slough. 41b-42. T h e holy centre n a m e d K a n a k a n a n d ā 4 is wellknown in the three worlds. It is to the N o r t h of B r a h m a p r s t h a a n d is resorted to by groups of B r ā h m a n a sages. On taking holy dip there, the twice-borns go to heaven along with their physical bodies. 43. T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered there is cited to be everlasting. On taking the b a t h , a m a n reduces his sins and he is freed from the threefold indebtedness to god, sages a n d manes. 44. By means of ablution in the Mānasa-lake one shall obtain half t h e throne of god I n d r a . On going to the U t t a r a m ā n a s a one achieves very excellent Siddhis (mystic powers). 45. H e n c e , one should perform Ś r ā d d h a in accordance with one's capacity a n d physical strength, thereby he obtains divine pleasures a n d attains the means of salvation. 46. T h e m o u n t a i n n a m e d H i m a v ā n is bedecked with different kinds of minerals. T h a t m o u n t a i n is eighty thousand Yojanas in length. 47. Siddhas and C ā r a n a s live therein a n d the m o u n t a i n is resorted to by the groups of Devas a n d sages. T h e r e is a beautiful Puskarinī (holy lake) there n a m e d S u s u m n ā . 48. On going there, a scholarly B r ā h m a n a leaves off (is relieved of the sin of) B r ā h m a n a slaughter. T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered there is inexhaustible and highly flourishing. 49. He shall redeem the Pitrs of ten previous generations and ten later generations. T h e H i m a v ā n is sacred everywhere. T h e G a ń g ā is sacred all r o u n d . 1. 2. joins the 3. river a t 4.

M a h ā - h r a d a — n e a r B a d r i n a t h ( a l s o M b h . Anuśāsana 2 5 . 1 8 ) . Kauśiki, M o d . Kusi (Kosi) which flows through Nepal, T i r h u t and G a ń g ā below P a t n a . M u n d a - p r ? t h a — A hill s i t u a t e d o n t h e W e s t e r n b a n k o f t h e P h a l g u Gayā. K a n a k a n a n d ā — a river t o t h e n o r t h o f M u n d a - p r s t h a a t G a y ā .


11.37.50-59

561

50. All the rivers ñowing into the ocean are sacred a n d those oceans a r e particularly holy. On reaching the hermitage 1 — B a d a r y ā ś r a m a , one is released from all sins. 5 1 . T h e r e stays the eternal lord N ā r ā y a n a along w i t h N a r a . T h e charitable gift as well as the Ś r ā d d h a offered there, is of everlasting benefit. 52. T h a t is a holy centre liked by M a h ā d e v a . It is particularly sanctifying. On offering Ś r ā d d h a with g r e a t concentration, one shall redeem the Pitrs. 53. T h e holy centre D e v a d ā r u v a n a 2 is sacred. It is resorted to by the Siddhas a n d the G a n d h ar v as as well as by the great lord of Devas. W h a t is offered there is highly flourishing.* 54. After fascinating the sages a n d on being worship­ ped by everyone, the delighted lord Iśa spoke to the leading sages who h a d been sanctified. 55. " Y o u all shall always stay here in this beautiful a n d excellent hermitage, with the devotion centering on m e . T h e r e ­ by you shall obtain Siddhi. 56. Those who are devoted to D h a r m a in the world worship m e . I grant u n t o them the eternal great chieftainship of the G a n a s . 57. I will stay here for ever alongwith N ā r ā y a n a . A m a n a b a n d o n i n g his life here, is not reborn. 58. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , those people who have gone to the other lands b u t who remember this holy centre, will h a v e all their sins dispelled by m e . 59. H e r e all these holy rites are to be performed. If performed, Śrāddha, Dana, Tapas (penance), Homa, Pindas, meditation, Japa a n d o t h e r observances are of everlasting benefit.

1. B a d a r y ā ś r a m a — T h e same as Badrināth in Garhwal, U . P . 2 . D e v a d ā r u v a n a — K a n e r e g a r d s this i n t h e H i m a l a y a s n e a r B a d r i ­ n ā t h . ( H D I V p . 7 4 5 ) . D e ( p . 54) t h i n k s i t t o b e t h e s a m e a s D ā r u v a n a i n w h i c h B a d a r i k ā ś r a m a i s s i t u a t e d . T h e story a b o u t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f P h a l l u s - w o r s h i p i n t h e n e x t t w o c h a p t e r s shows t h a t this D ā r u v a n a m u s t b e in t h e Himalayas. *a better

v.l. mahad-varam ' a g r e a t b o o n was given b y t h e g r e a t g o d . '


562

Kūrma Purina

60. H e n c e the holy Devadāruvana, resorted to by M a h ā d e v a should be visited by the twice-born by every means. 6 1 . Wherever there is M a h ā d e v a or Visnu, the Supreme Person, the G a ń g ā , the holy centres a n d the shrines are present there.

CHAPTER THIRTYEIGHT1 The description of Dāruvana The sages said : 1. O Sūta, how did the bull-bannered lord reach D ā r u v a n a a n d how did he fascinate the leading Brāhmanas ? It behoves you to n a r r a t e it. Sūta said : 2. Formerly, in the beautiful D ā r u v a n a resorted to by Devas a n d Siddhas, thousands of sages performed penance a n d lived along with their wives, sons, a n d other kinsmen. 3. T h e y were engaged in doing various religious rites in accordance with the scriptural injunctions. T h e great sages performed various sacrifices a n d penances there. 4. Desirous of pointing out their defects as they were attracted to the p a t h of action, the trident-bearing H a r a went to D ā r u v a n a . 5. In order to establish Nivrttivijñāna (the perfect knowledge of r e n u n c i a t i o n ) , lord, the great god Śańkara, went there keeping Visnu, the preceptor of the universe, at his side. 1.

T h i s c h a p t e r t r a c e s h o w w o r s h i p o f Siva's P h a l l u s ( L i ñ g a ) c a m e t o

be established. T h e story of falling of Siva's P h a l l u s in in Śiva V. I V . 12. 4. 54 a n d B r a h m ā n d a P. c h . 2 7 .

Dāruvana

is

found


II.38.6-18

563

6-8. T h e Lord of the Universe disguised himsel as a m a n of twenty years with a majestic (respectable) personality (v.l. mysterious disguise), sportive languidness (?), big arms, stout ( m u s c u l a r ) limbs, beautiful eyes, golden complexion, glory and face like the full moon. His gait was like an intoxicated ele­ p h a n t . T h e naked L o r d of the world was wearing gold necklace embellished with all kinds of precious stones. L o r d Iśa (Śiva) arrived there smilingly. 9. H a r i , the infinite Purusa, the unchanging source of origin of the worlds, Visnu, assumed the guise of a lady and followed the trident-bearing lord. 10-12. T h e female form (disguise) h a d the face resembling the full moon, the breasts p l u m p a n d elevated, face lit up with bright smiles. T h e two anklets produced tinkling sound. It was clothed in Divine yellow garment. It was dark complexioned a n d beautiful-eyed; t h e gait resembled t h a t of the ele­ g a n t swan. It was very c h a r m i n g a n d coquettish. T h u s the lord H a r a , I ś a roamed about the forest of Devadārus alongwith H a r i fascinating t h e universe by means of his M ā y ā . 13. On seeing the Pināka-bearing lord of the universe walking here a n d there, the women were deluded by his M ā y ā . T h e y followed the lord of Devas. 14. All those chaste ladies being afflicted w i t h passion, a b a n d o n e d their sense of bashfulness a n d with their o r n a m e n t s slipping down, those coquettish women b e g a n to go w i t h h i m . 15. T h e sons of sages, the youngsters w h o h a d not yet subdued their minds, followed Hrsīkeia (who was dressed like a w o m a n ) , "afflicted by passionate love. 16. On seeing the sole hero Iśa, very comely a n d loveable, accompanied by his wife, t h e groups of women b e g a n to sing a n d d a n c e in their sportive dalliance. T h e y embraced him too. 17. T h e sons of sages too coming in groups began to singsongs smilingly; on observing the consort of P a d m ā , of auspicious limbs, the primordial God, others in a g r o u p began to walk a r o u n d with him. 18. Visnu ( t h e slayer o f M u r a ) , t h e son of Vasudeva, t h e master of M ā y ā (illusive potency) entered their minds,


564

Kūrma Purāna

whetted their inclination to enjoyment. T h e y seemed to ex­ perience M ā y ā as if it was real. 19. T h e lord of the universe a n d all the immortal beings, accompanied by M ā d h a v a a n d seated in t h e midst of t h e g r o u p of women appeared to be accompanied by all Śaktis, although t h e lord of Devas (is usually) accompanied by only one Śakti ( U m ā ) . 20. T h e n again m o u n t i n g back, he created t h e p e r m a n e n t great principle P r a d h ā n a . * L o r d Visnu also re-assumed his original n a t u r e (followed?) such (dancing) primordial Deity. * * 2 1 . On seeing t h e groups of women, R u d r a , their sons a n d Keśava w h o fascinated them, the excellent sages b e c a m e excessively angry. 22. Deluded by bis M ā y ā , they spoke extremely harsh words to lord K a p a r d i n (Śiva), they swore at and cursed h i m with various words. 23. J u s t as t h e stars in the sky remain invisible in t h e presence of t h e sun, so also w h e n Śańkara c a m e there their penances were repelled. 24. After reproaching him, t h e B r ā h m a n a ascetics a p ­ proached the bull-bannered deity. Deluded by h i m they asked t h e lord of D e v a s — " W h o are you, Sir ?" 2 5 . T h e lord r e p l i e d — " O sages of holy rites, I h a v e now come here to your land to perform penance alongwith my wife." 26. On hearing his statement Bhrgu and other leading sages said: " P e r f o r m penance after putting on a g a r m e n t a n d after abandoning your wife." 27. Thereafter, t h e Pināka-bearing lord Śiva (Nīlalohita) srnHed. T h e n looking at J a n ā r d a n a who was sitting by his side a n d w h o was t h e source of origin of t h e worlds, he said: — 28. " H o w is it t h a t you, knowers of religion, quiescentminded sages, are eager to m a i n t a i n your wives, while you advise me t h a t I should a b a n d o n my wife ?" '

* v . i . ' ' nxtyanparama-prabhāvam is

better.

It m e a n s " A g a i n re-gaining

his

original great nature, he began to d a n c e . " <(.:•»•*>i

taditaotttātnttam&didevak " f o l l o w e d t h e a c t of d a n c i n g of t h a t


11.38.29-38

565

The sages said : 29. " T h i s has been stated by us t h a t wives who lead a lecherous life should be abandoned by the husbands. Loyal wives of good features a n d behaviour like these ( o u r women) d o n o t deserve a b a n d o n m e n t . " Mahādeva said : 30. "O Brāhmanas, this lady never even mentally wishes for anyone else. N o r do I leave her off at any t i m e . " The sages said: 3 1 . "O base m a n , she was seen by us, behaving in an unchaste m a n n e r . You have told a lie. Go away quickly." 32. W h e n addressed thus, M a h ā d e v a replied: " O n l y t r u t h has been spoken by m e . It is your imagination t h a t she a p p e a r s to y o u . " Leaving them, he moved away. 33. I n t h e company o f H a r i , P a r a m e ś v a r a (Śiva) who sought for alms, went to the holy hermitage of Vasisdia, t h e g r e a t souled leading sage. 34. On seeing the lord arrived begging for alms, Arund h a t ī , the beloved wife of Vasistha, respectfully welcomed h i m a n d bowed to him. 35. She washed his feet a n d offered h i m excellent seat. On seeing his body languid and enfeebled as a result of the thrashing indulged in by the Brāhmanas, the chaste lady, with c o u n t e n a n c e cast down ( d u e to dejection) in her face, applied medicines a n d healed his wounds. 36. She worshipped h i m richly and imploringly asked h i m , — " W h o are you, Sir ? Where did you come from, in the c o m p a n y of your wife ? W h a t are your customs a n d manners ? M a y these things b e m e n t i o n e d . " T h e Lord replied: ' I a m the most excellent a m o n g the siddhas. 37. You see yonder, the pure shining sphere of the Brah­ m a n . This is my deity. I owe to this always." 38. After saying this a n d blessing the chaste lady, the glorious lord to whom the Brāhmanas beat with sticks a n d their own fists a n d lumps of clay, went away.


566

Kūrma Purāna

39. On seeing Giriśa walking about in the n u d e a n d characterised by hideousness, they s a i d — " O wicked m i n d e d fellow, uproot this your Lińga ( p h a l l u s ) . " 40. Śańkara, the great Yogin, said to t h e m — " I will do so if you have hatred towards my Lińga ( p h a l l u s ) . " 4 1 . After saying so, the lord who had gouged the eyes of Bhaga, uprooted the Lińga. Instantaneously they could see neither the lord nor Keśava nor the Lińga. 42. Evil omens occurred indicating danger a n d fear to t h e worlds. T h e thousand-rayed sun did not shine. T h e e a r t h quaked again a n d again. T h e planets became lustreless. T h e great ocean was agitated. 4 3 . Anasūyā, t h e chaste wife of Atri, saw a d r e a m . Highly agitated in all her senses, she n a r r a t e d it to t h e Brāhmanas. 44. " I l l u m i n a t i n g everything with his lustre, indeed it was Śiva who was seen in our abodes begging for alms, accompanied b y N ā r ā y a n a . " 45. On hearing her words the sages who became terrified, went u p t o B r a h m a of great Yogic power, the creator of t h e universe. 46. T h e lord was being worshipped by p u r e Yogins w h o were the most excellent a m o n g the knowers of B r a h m a n . He was accompanied by the four Vedas in their embodied form as by Sāvitrī. 47. He was seated on a beautiful seat full of miracles : it shed forth myriads of rays a n d it was associated with J ñ ā n a (perfect knowledge), Aiśvarya (prowess a n d glory) a n d o t h e r qualities. 48-49. He was shining in his body, w i t h gentle smiles a n d brilliant eyes. On seeing the four-faced, mighty-armed, great Aja ( u n b o r n ) identical with the Vedic metre, possessing divine body with delighted face, they knelt on the ground, touching the E a r t h with their heads and propitiated the Lord. 50. W i t h delighted mind the four-faced deity of four forms spoke to t h e m — " O excellent sages, w h a t is the reason for your visit ?"


11.38.51-61

567

5 1 . W i t h palms joined in reverence above their heads, all intimated to the Supreme-souled B r a h m a of w h a t happened. The sages said: 52. A certain highly brilliant person has entered the holy D ā r u v a n a alongwith his wife, who was very beautiful in all her limbs. But he was naked. 53. T h e Lordly person fascinated our entire women a n d daughters, with his charming personality. While his beloved* defiled our sons. 54. We heaped various imprecations a n d curses on him b u t they were defied a n d set at nought. He was beaten soundly by us. His L i ń g a was struck down. 55. T h a t lord vanished alongwith his wife a n d the Liñga. Terrible omens ensued, terrifying all the living beings. 56. O excellent among men, who is this lordly person ? We are all frightened. O Unerring being, we have sought refuge in you. 57. Indeed, you know whatever happens in this universe. Protect a n d save us with your blessing." 58. T h u s informed by the groups of sages, the lotus-born deity, t h e A t m a n of the universe meditated on the trident-bearing lord with palms joined in reverence and said : Brahma said : 59. Alas ! Woe unto you ! W h a t happend today is destructive of everything of yours. Fie upon your strength and power. Fie upon your penance. It has become useless and false in regard to you in this matter. 60. After obtaining greatest of all treasures, thanks to the favourable impressions (results) of all (previous) merits it has been neglected by you all who are deluded and whose practice of good conduct has become useless. 6 1 . It is for this treasure that all yogins seek and desire and all the ascetics aspire. Alas ! after obtaining that very same treasure, you have neglected and lost it. *Priyt> in t h e T e x t s h o u l d be Priyā in this c o n t e x t .


568

Kūrma Purāna

62. A great treasure, to acquire which, t h e pro pounders of the Vedas worship by means of various Yajñas, has been neglected and lost by you, after attaining it. 63. I have acquired this lordship of the universe after continuously worshipping the lord. But after seeing t h a t lord you have missed him like those who are devoid of good luck ( w h o m a y see) a treasure (but lose it instantaneously.) 64. You had come across that treasure-^raAman in whom divine Supremacy has been vested and who is t h e imperisha b l e deity; but alas you have rendered it futile after attaining it. 65. This god M a h ā d e v a is the great deity w h o should be known a n d realised. T h e r e is no other greater region t h a n his that can be attained. 66-67. He is the most eternal of all deities, sages a n d the Pitrs. At the end of a thousand Yugas, at t h e time of t h e final dissolution, M a h e ś v a r a , assuming the form of K ā l a , destroys all embodied beings. It is he alone who creates the subjects by means of his splendour. 68. He is Cakrin (one a r m e d with the discus); he is t h e Supreme Ruler. He is characterised by the Śrīvatsa mark. This god is a Yogin in Krta-yuga, Yajña (sacrifice) in T r e t ā , the Lord K ā l a in D v ā p a r a and in the Kaliyuga, he is t h e b a n n e r of virtue (Dharmaketu). 69. R u d r a has three Mūrtis (forms) by w h o m the uni­ verse is pervaded. T h e Smrti says : "Agni ( T h e fire god) is the T a m a s form, B r a h m a is the Rajas form a n d Visnu is the Sattva form. 70. It is stated in Smrti t h a t he has another eternal aus­ picious form having the quarters for garments(i.e. n u d e ) , where abides B r a h m a n endowed with Yoga. 71. T h e lady, his wife, who was seen by you n e a r his side, a n d who was conversed with ( v . l . seen) by you is lord N ā r ā y a n a , the eternal Supreme Atman. 72. All this is b o r n of him. It shall get dissolved only in him. He (alone) can liberate all. He alone is the great goal. 73. T h e Śruti says t h a t N ā r ā y a n a is the thousand- (i.e.


11.38.74-83

569

i n n u m e r a b l e ) h e a d e d Purusa, with thousand eyes a n d thousand feet. He has one h o r n a n d is the great Ā t m a n . 74. T h e semen virile* becomes t h e foetus in h i m . T h e lord is of iirusofy - aquatic body ( ? ) . He is being eulogised by means of various kinds of M a n t r a s by B r ā h m a n a s w h o seek salvation. 75. At the end of the K a l p a , the S u p r e m e Person with­ draws t h e entire universe in h i m a n d after drinking the Yogic nectar, he lies down to sleep in the greatest region of Visnu. 76. Viśvadrk (the seer of the universe) is neither b o r n n o r dies nor increases in size. T h e u n b o r n deity is sung about as the unmanifest original Prakrti, by the followers of the Vedas. 77. W h e n t h e night passes on, M a h e ś v a r a becomes desirous of creating the entire universe a n d t h e n sows the seed in the umbilical region of t h e u n b o r n . 78. K n o w me to be the Supreme A t m a n , B r a h m a with faces on all sides, the great Purusa, Universe, the excellent foetus of water. 79. Y o u h a d been deluded by his M ā y ā , so you do not realise t h a t progenitor, M a h ā d e v a , the lord of Devas, H a r a , t h e lord of all living beings. 80. T h i s lord M a h ā d e v a is t h e beginningless Lord H a r a . In association with Visnu, he creates a n d dissolves the Universe. 8 1 . Actually he has no task to be performed; there is no greater being t h a n he. H e , of illusory Yogic body, gave the Vedas u n t o me, formerly. 82. He is the wielder (master) of M ā y ā a n d through M ā y ā , he makes a n d dissolves everything. Seek refuge in t h a t Siva a l o n e ; after realising t h a t he alone is conducive to salvation." 8 3 . On being advised thus by the lord, t h e sages, the chief of w h o m was Marīci, bowed down to lord B r a h m a a n d asked him with great concentration.

b e t t e r v . l . : rtasya

T h e n t h e line

m e a n s " i n t h e w o m b of R t a . "


570

Kūrma Purāna CHAPTER

THIRTY-NINE

The Entry into the forest of Devadāru The sages said : 1. O lord of all immortal beings, tell us, how we can see t h a t Pināka-bearing lord once again. You are the saviour of of those who seek refuge. Brahma said1 : 2-3. M a k e an excellent Lińga of the Lord resembling the Lińga which was seen by you all and struck down on to t h e ground, and observing celibacy, worship it with respect along with your wives a n d sons, through the various Vedic observances. 4-5. Instal it with the M a n t r a s pertaining to Śañkara a n d taken from Rk, Yajus and Sāman Samhitās. U n d e r t a k i n g great penance a n d reciting the Śatarudrīya M a n t r a s , all of you worship the trident-bearing deity with great concentration, alongwith your sons a n d kinsmen. With the palms joined in reverence, seek refuge in the trident-bearing lord. 6. Thereby, you will see the lord of Devas, rarely visible to those who are not self-possessed. On seeing him, all ignorance and unrighteousness p e r i s h . " 7. Thereafter, they bowed down to B r a h m a of unmeasured prowess and the granter of boons. Delighted in their minds, they went to the forest of D ā r u v a n a once again. 8. Although they did not know the great Being, they with their passions a n d jealousy eschewed, began to propitiate Śiva as instructed by god Brahma. 9. T h e y (stationed themselves) in the different kinds of pieces of grounds, caves of mountains a n d the auspicious lonely banks of the rivers. 10-11. Some maintained themselves by eating the moss; some of t h e m lay beneath the water; some of t h e m exposed themselves to the rainy clouds a n d some stood on the tips of their big toes. Some were Dantolūkhalins (eaters of food-grains I.

V V . 2-6 e x p l a i n briefly

t h e m e t h o d of t h e w o r s h i p of Śiva-liñga.


11.39.12-22

571

using the teeth as m o r t a r ) . Others were Asmakuffas ( w h o p o u n d grains, etc. by means of stones, for e a t i n g ) ; some h a d only vegetables and leaves to eat. Some performed prescribed ablu­ tions, while some were drinkers of rays. 12. Some h a d their abodes at the roots of trees; others used rocky grounds as their beds. Worshipping Maheśvara, they spent their days in penance. 13. Thereafter, the bull-bannered lord H a r a felt inclined to favour them with enlightenment, since he is one who removes t h e distress of those who seek refuge in him. 14. In the K r t a Age, God Śiva the delighted Supreme Lord arrived at the forest of D e v a d ā r u trees on the auspicious peak of the Himalayas. 15. He was naked and bore hideous marks. He h a d smeared ashes (Bhasma) all over his body. He held firebrands in his h a n d s . His eyes were red and tawny-coloured. 16. At some places he used to laugh terribly; in some places he used to sing in surprise; sometime he used to d a n c e with amorous passion; sometimes he cried frequently. 17. T h e m e n d i c a n t roamed round the hermitages a n d begged for alms frequently; the lord took up an illusory guise a n d c a m e to that forest. 18. T h e Pināka-bearing lord kept Gaurī, the d a u g h t e r of the m o u n t a i n , by his side. As before, the goddess of Devas, c a m e to the forest of D e v a d ā r u s . 19. On seeing the lord with m a t t e d hair arrived along with the goddess, they bowed down their heads to the ground a n d propitiated īśvara. 20. T h e y worshipped Bhava (Śiva) with various Vedic M a n t r a s a n d auspicious hymns pertaining to Maheśvara, as o t h e r sages propitiated him with M a n t r a s of Atliarvaśiras : Eulogy of Śiva 2 1 . " O b e i s a n c e to the overlord of Devas, H a i l to you, M a h ā d e v a . Salutation to you the three-eyed deity holding the excellent trident. 22. Obeisance to you having the quarters for clothes, Bow to the Pināka-bearing lord of hideous forms. Obeisance to


572

Kūrma Purāna

t h e lord bowed to by all b u t not bowing down himself to anyone. 23. Obeisance to you the annihilator of the god of d e a t h . H a i l to you, the destroyer of all. Obeisance to one whose sport is dance. Bow to one of terrible forms. 24. Obeisance to one with the form, (body) of a m a n as well as of a w o m a n (i.e. half m a n a n d half woman) .Obeisance to one with self control. Salutations to the quiescent ascetic Hara. 25. Obeisance to you, R u d r a , the terrible; obeisance to you clad in elephant h i d e ; salutation to Lelihāna (frequently licking the t o n g u e ) . Obeisance to you Ś r ī k a n t h a . 26. Obeisance to one of Aghora a n d G h o r a (nonterrible a n d terrible) form. Obeisance to V ā m a d e v a ; salutation to one of golden necklace; obeisance to one who does things pleasing to the goddess. 27. Obeisance to the highest deity Ś a m b h u , the supportter of the waters of the G a ń g ā ; obeisance to the overlord of the Yoga a n d the over-lord of living beings. 28. Obeisance to the Prāna (vital airs), obeisance to one who bearsBkasma marks on the b o d y ; obeisance to you Havyavāha (the fire-god) with curved fangs; obeisance to Havyaretas (having H a v y a as the semen virile). 29. Obeisance to one who cut off the head of B r a h m a ; •obeisance to you Kālarūpin (having the form of K ā l a ) . Never, never do we know either your arrival or your d e p a r t u r e . 30. O ! Lord of the Universe, O M a h ā d e v a ! whatever you m a y be, our obeisance be to you. Obeisance to the lord of the P r a m a t h a s and the bestower of auspicious riches. 3 1 . Obeisance to you, holding skull in the h a n d . Obeisance to you, the most pleased one. Obeisance to the gold-complexioned one. Obeisance to you having the aquatic Lińga. 32. Obeisance to one having fire a n d the sun for his Lińga. Obeisance to you with Jñāna Lińga; obeisance to one having serpents as g a r l a n d s ; to one who is fond of the K a r n i k ā r a ; obeisance to you, wearing crown a n d earrings; salutation to t h e destroyer of K ā l a .


573

11.39.33-44

33. O M a h ā d e v a , O M a h ā d e v a , O three-eyed lord of Devas. M a y w h a t is d o n e d u e to delusion be forgiven; you alone are the refuge u n t o us. 34. Your activities are wonderful, mysterious a n d inscrutable. Indeed Śańkara is incomprehensible to B r a h m a a n d all others. 35. Knowingly or unknowingly whatever a m a n does is actually done by the lord through his Yogic M ā y ā . " 36. After eulogising M a h ā d e v a conscientiously a n d with concentration like this, they bowed to Giriśa a n d said — " M a y we see you as before." 37. On hearing their eulogy, the moon-bedecked lord accompanied by U m ā , Śańkara himself showed his great form to t h e m . 38. On seeing the Pināka-bearing lord alongwith t h e goddess, those Brāhmanas stood delighted in their minds as before a n d bowed to him. 39-40. All those sages viz : —Bhrgu, Ańgiras, Vasistha, Viśvāmitra, G a u t a m a , Atri, Sukeśa, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , M a r ī c i , K ā ś y a p a a n d Samvartaka of great p e n a n c e bowed tothe lord of the chief of Devas a n d spoke these words : 4 1 . "O Lord of Devas, how shall we worship y o u always, by means of t h e p a t h of action or by m e a n s of the p a t h of knowledge ? 42. By means of w h a t divine p a t h is the lord to be worshipped here ? W h a t is it t h a t should be resorted to ? W h a t is it t h a t should not be resorted to ? Please mention all these to us : Śiva said1 : 4 3 . O great sages, incomprehensible secret Mahādeva. 44. 1.

I shall expound to you t h e excellent formerly n a r r a t e d by B r a h m a to

T h e means of salvation

of m e n

should

be known

V V . 43-65 e x p l a i n t h e P u r a n i c P ā ś u p a t a Y o g a . K P . d i s a p p r o v e s

t h e 'left' o r ' n o n - V e d i c P ā ś u p a t a , d v a i t a o n K P . i s obvious.

of

a n d o t h e r sects. T h e influence o f K e v a l ā -


574

Kūrma Purāna

as two-fold, one of Sārhkhya a n d the other of Yoga. Sārhkhya associated with Yoga is the bestower of liberation on m e n . 45. T h e great P u r u s a is not seen by Yoga alone. But J ñ ā n a (knowledge) by itself is the bestower of salvation. 46. Eschewing the pure Sāmkhya a n d depending solely on Yoga, ye all m a d e your attempts for salvation. 47. F o r this reason, O Brāhmanas, I c a m e here to this land to point out t h e delusion arising in those m e n who depend o n K a r m a n alone. 48. Hence, the perfect knowledge t h a t is devoid of impurity a n d that is the means of salvation should be seen, h e a r d a n d realised assiduously by you all. 49. T h e Ā t m a n is one a n d only one, omnipresent. It is of the nature of pure consciousness a n d bliss, free from impurity a n d eternal. T h i s is indeed the Philosophy of t h e Sāmkhyas. 50. This alone is the greatest knowledge. This is being sung about as Liberation. This is described as the p u r e Kaivalya a n d Brahmabh&va (the state of B r a h m a n ) . 5 1 . Resorting to this greatest stand-point, the greatsouled ascetics strictly adhering to it a n d holding on to it, see me the Viśva (the universe), the Iśvara. 52. This is t h a t greatest knowledge, the absolute Sat (Reality) t h a t is unsullied. I alone am the lord to be realised. T h i s Śivā is my form. 53. O leading B r ā h m a n a s , m a n y means to Siddhi (realisation) have been m e n t i o n e d ; of t h e m all, my perfect knowledge is t h e most superior. 54-55. Ascetics strictly adhering to the p a t h of knowledge, a r e quiescent, w h o sincerely seek refuge in me, who apply the sacred Bhasma over t h e m (their bodies) and who always medi­ tate on me in their hearts a n d who are interested in my devotion have exhausted all their sins. Ere long, I annihilate their terrible cavity of worldly existence (?) (v.l. ocean of S a m s ā r a ) . 56. Indeed the holy P ā ś u p a t a vow has been formerly designed by me for the achievement of liberation. It is the gteatest of all secrets. It is the subtlest essence of t h e Vedas. 57. O n e w h o performs P ā ś u p a t a vow, shall be quiescent; he must have perfect self-control; he should dust his body with sacred ashes; he should observe celibacy and r e m a i n naked.


575

11.39.58-68a

58. Or he should wear a loin-cloth or a single g a r m e n t ; he should be silent a n d engaged in the study of Vedas. T h e scholar shall meditate on Śiva as Paśupati. 59. Śruti states that this P ā ś u p a t a Yoga should be resort­ ed to by the seekers of liberation; that those who m a i n t a i n P ā ś u p a t a rite should be free from desire. 60. Freed from passion, fear and anger, filled with m e , taking refuge in me, purified by penance in the fire of spiritual knowledge, m a n y have entered my Being. 6 1 . T h e r e are other scriptures opposed to the Vedic view. T h e y have been p r o p o u n d e d by me a l o n e a n d they are very fascinating in this world. 62. Those cults a r e — V ā m a , Pāśupata, the Soma cult, the L ā k u r a (Lākula) a n d the Bhairava a n d such other cults which are opposed to V e d a should not be resorted to. 63. O Brāhmanas, I am the embodiment of Vedas. My form c a n n o t be understood by those w h o know the meanings of other scriptures. Except the eternal l o r d * no one knows it. 64. Ye all establish this p a t h ; worship Maheśvara. T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t ere long the perfect knowledge will d a w n . 65. O excellent ones, m a y ye h a v e extensive a n d deep devotion u n t o m e ; O excellent sages, I shall grant you my presence, the m o m e n t I am meditated u p o n . 66. Having said this, the lord vanished there itself along with U m ā . T h e sages remained in D ā r u v a n a and continued the worship of Śańkara. 67-68a. (Some) noble-souled sages, engaged in strict observance of celibacy, quiescent, interested in the p a t h of knowledge, c a m e together a n d held m a n y discussions concern­ ing the knowledge of the soul : W h a t is the cause of this world : O u r Soul. T h e r e must be a cause of creating these things. W h a t c a n it be : God ( I ś v a r a ) . *deva i n V e ń k . T e x t . v.l. Veda i s b e t t e r : of the eternal Vedas none knows it'.

It m e a n s

'with the exception


576

Kūrma Purāna

68b-69. While they were pondering over this, after resorting to the p a t h cf meditation, the great goddess, t h e daughter of the most excellent mountain, appeared before them. 70. She resembled a crore suns. She was engulfed in a cluster of names. With her pure brilliance, she filled t h e whole firmament. 71. T h e y sought a n d saw the incomprehensible d a u g h t e r of t h e m o u n t a i n , encircled in t h e halo of a thousand flames. T h e y bowed to this lady, t h e wife of the lord of all. T h e y knew h e r as t h e seed of the Supreme. 72. " T h i s is the spouse of o u r S u p r e m e L o r d . She is o u r abode (goal) a n d soul. H e r ( o t h e r ) n a m e is F i r m a m e n t ; see­ ing in h e r their own selves a n d the entire universe, t h e sages were overjoyed. 73. T h e y were seen by t h e wife of the great lords. In t h e meanwhile, they saw the lord, t h e cause of everything, Ś a m b h u , the wise sage R u d r a , t h e lord, the ancient P u r u s a . 74. On observing the goddess a n d the lord ī ś a t h e y bowed down a n d attained the greatest bliss. T h a n k s to t h e favour of t h e lord, t h e perfect knowledge, the cause of t h e destruction of subsequent births, dawned in them. 75. This potency of Lord Śiva is t h e only source of t h e universe, is the A t m a n of all; controller of everything a n d beginningless, she is termed Vyoma (firmament) and she a p p e a r s to shine in the heaven. 76. T h e great P a r a m e s t h i n , M a h e ś v a r a who is beyond everything, t h e sole Śiva, R u d r a , the lord of Devas created the universe in her after m o u n t i n g over the M ā y ā t h a t is existing in the g r e a t Śakti. ( ? ) 77. T h e Lord is one. He is h i d d e n in all living beings. R u d r a , t h e wielder of M ā y ā , is entire a n d undivided. He a n d the goddess are not different or separate. On realising this, people a t t a i n immortality. 78. Lord M a h e ś a then vanished. T h e over-lord of the Devas vanished alongwith the goddess. T h e dwellers of t h e forest propitiated again R u d r a , the primordial lord. 79.

T h u s the story of all the former exploits of the lord


11.39.80—40.1-4

577

Devas in t h e forest of Deva-Dārus has been n a r r a t e d to you according as I have h e a r d about t h e m in the Purānas.

all

80. He who reads or listens to this everyday, is liberated from all sins. He who recounts this to quiescent B r ā h m a n a s , a t t a i n s t h e greatest goal.

CHAPTER FORTY The Glory of Narmadā Sūta said : 1. This highly meritorious river goddess N a r m a d ā , 1 resorted to by Devas a n d G a n d h a r v a s , is famous in the worlds. It is a river t h a t is the most sacred of all holy rivers. 2. Listen ye all to its greatness as recounted by M ā r k a n deya to Yudhisfhira. It is auspicious a n d destructive of all sins. Tudhisfhirasaid : 3. O sage, thanks to your favour, various items of virtue (Dharma) have been h e a r d by m e ; so also the greatness of P r a y ā g a a n d different kinds of holy centres. 4. T h e N a r m a d ā has been mentioned by your holiness as t h e most i m p o r t a n t of all sacred rivers. O excellent sage, it behoves you to recount its glory n o w . "

1. N e x t to G a ń g ā , N a r m a d ā is a v e r y s a c r e d river, glorified in v a r i o u s P u r ā n a s like A P . c h . 113, P d . P . Svarga Khanda c h . 13, M t . P . c h s . 185-193, N P . I I . 77. T h e S k a n d a h a s d e v o t e d o n e b o o k ( P a r t ) t o its glori­ f i c a t i o n . A s c o m p a r e d w i t h Sk. P . o r M t . P . K P . t r e a t s i t briefly b u t s u c ­ c i n c t l y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t m o s t o f t h e verses o n t h e glory o f N a r m a d ā i n P d . P . are the same a s those o f M t . P . Even the K P . h a s b o r r o w e d a n u m b e r of verses from t h e M t . P. as s h o w n below.


578

Kūrma Purāna

Mārkanoleya said : 5. T h e N a r m a d ā is the most excellent of all rivers; it flowed out of R u d r a ' s body. It shall redeem all living beings mobile a n d immobile. 1 6. I shall now recount the greatness of N a r m a d ā , which I have heard from the Purānas. It is auspicious. Listen with single-minded attention. 7. G a ñ g ā is auspicious in K a n a k h a l a a n d Sarasvatī is meritorious in Kurksetra. But whether in the village or in the forest, N a r m a d ā is meritorious everywhere. 2 8. T h e holy water of Sarasvatī sanctifies one in three d a y s ; the water of Y a m u n a sanctifies one in seven days; the water of G a ń g ā sanctifies immediately; b u t the water of N a r m a d ā sanctifies one at its very sight. 3 9. In the western half of Kalińga, on the m o u n t a i n A m a r a k a n t a k a (it has its source). It is very holy. It is the most beautiful and c h a r m i n g in the three worlds. 4 10. O leading king, Devas, Asuras, G a n d h a r v a s , saints and the ascetics have attained the highest Siddhi by performing p e n a n c e on her banks. 11. O king, a person who takes his b a t h there, maintains all religious observances and has conquered the sense-organs shall redeem a h u n d r e d members of his family after observing fast for a night. 12. O leading king, it is heard t h a t the excellent river is m o r e t h a n h u n d r e d Yojanas in length a n d its width is two Yojanas ( 1 Y o j a n a = 1 2 k m s ) . 5 13. Sixty thousand holy centres a n d sixty crores of t h e m a r e situated in A m a r a k a n t a k a all r o u n d the m o u n t a i n . 6 1.

T h e s a m e as M t . P. 190. 17.

2.

V e r s e 7 i n K P . i s t h e s a m e a s M t . P . 185.10.

3 . T h i s shows h o w N a r m a d ā i s s u p e r i o r t o G a ñ g ā , S a r a s v a t i . A b o r r o w a l f r o m M t . P . 185.11. 4.

Yamuna and

M t . P . 185.12.

5 . T h e s a m e M t . P . 185. 23b-24a ( M o r e ' s e d t . ) Cf. A P 113. 2 . T h o u g h t h e l e n g t h of N a r m a d ā is c o r r e c t , its w i d t h viz 2 Y o j a n a s , is w r o n g . 6.

A P . 113. 2 a n d N P . I I . 7 7 .


11.40.14-24

579

14-15. O Sinless K i n g ! Attentively listen to t h e fruit acquired if a person of very p u r e conduct—celibate, with anger controlled a n d sense-organs subdued, refrained from all types of Hirhsā (violence) a n d engaged in the welfare of a l l — a b a n d o n s his life ( t h e r e ) in a state of purity. 1 16. O son of P ā n d u , he rejoices in heaven for a h u n d r e d thousand years. He will be s u r r o u n d e d by divine damsels, the groups of Apsaras. 17. He will smear himself with divine scent and unguents. He will shine with divine flowers. He sports in the divine world a n d he rejoices alongwith Devas. 18. After falling off from heaven, he shall be born as a righteous king. He will obtain a house embellished in different kinds of gems a n d jewels. 19. T h e house shall be shining on being bedecked in d i a m o n d s a n d Lapis Lazuli. T h e columns therein shall be m a d e of jewels. It shall be endowed with paintings, vehicles of brilliant a p p e a r a n c e as well as h u n d r e d of maid-servants. 20. He shall be t h e emperor ruling over kings. He will be elegant a n d glorious a n d loved by all women. He will live for more t h a n a h u n d r e d years enjoying all pleasures. 2 1 . W h e n (for ending his life ) he enters fire or water or w h e n he observes fast, his d e p a r t u r e shall be with no r e t u r n ( t o S a m s ā r a ) like t h a t of the wind absorbed in the sky. 22. On the ridge of the western m o u n t a i n , there is a lake n a m e d Jaleśvara. It is well known in the three worlds a n d is destructive of all sins. 2 23. If one offers Pindas there a n d performs the Sandhyā worship, it is as good as propitiating the (Pitrs) for ten thousand years. T h e r e is no d o u b t about this. 24. On the southern b a n k of N a r m a d ā , there is a great river n a m e d K a p i l ā . It is stationed not very far. It is covered by J u i c y Arjuna trees. 3 1.

C o m m i t t i n g suicide in a h o l y p l a c e was r e g a r d e d

L i b e r a t i o n . M t . P . 193. 2 8 b - 2 9 c . 2.

M t . P . 185. 5 0 b - 5 1 .

3.

M t . P. 185. 5 3 .

as

a

m e a n s for


Kūrma Purina

580.

25. T h a t is meritorious a n d highly blessed. It is wellknown in the three worlds. O Yudhistiiira, the holy spots there n u m b e r to m o r e t h a n a h u n d r e d crore. 1 26. T h e trees t h a t fall into t h e holy river after growing for m a n y years, a t t a i n great goal d u e to the contact of waters of N a r m a d ā . 8 27. A second holy river is t h e blessed a n d auspicious Viśalyakaranī. A m a n taking b a t h in t h a t holy river becomes free from pains, sins a n d grief.* 28. K a p i l ā a n d Viśalyā are heard as the two excellent rivers mentioned by I ś v a r a formerly with a desire for t h e wellbeing of the worlds. 29. O lord of m e n , he w h o gives up food until d e a t h in t h a t T i r t h a , shall have his soul purified of all sins. He goes to the region of R u d r a . * 30. O king, on taking his b a t h there a m a n shall a t t a i n t h e fruit of a horse-sacrifice. Those who reside on the n o r t h e r n b a n k reside in t h e region of R u d r a . 6 3 1 . As Śańkara told m e , O Yudhisthira, the b a t h a n d the charitable gift at Sarasvatī, G a ñ g ā , a n d N a r m a d ā a r e of equal efficacy.* 32. He who a b a n d o n s his life on the m o u n t a i n A m a r a k a n t a k a is honoured in t h e R u d r a l o k a for hundreds of crores of years a n d m o r e . 7 33. On sprinkling the head with the holy a n d sacred water of N a r m a d ā along with its foam one is relieved of all sins.

1. M t . P . 185. 5 3 . 2. M t . P. 185- 54b-55a. 3. 4.

M t . P . 185. 5 5 b - 5 6 a . M t . P . 185. 6 2 .

5. 6.

M t . P . 185. 63b-64a. M t . P . 185. 64b-65a.

7.

M t . P . 185-65b-66a.

T h e a b o v e e x a m p l e ! a r e e n o u g h t o show t h a t K P . h a s freely b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e M t . P . o r b o t h t h e P u r ā n a s h a d used a c o m m o n Narmadā-māhitmya a n d h e n c e t h e a b o v e t e x t u a l i d e n t i t y o f verses.


581

11.40.34-40—41.1

34. N a r m a d ā is holy everywhere. It dispels sins of Brāhmana-slaughter. By observing fast for a d a y a n d a night, o n e is absolved of the sin of B r ā h m a n a slaughter. 35. T h e most excellent holy c e n t r e jaleśvara is destruc­ tive of all sins. A m a n who observes religious regulation a n d restraints on going there, attains all desires. 36. On going to A m a r a k a n t a k a d u r i n g the l u n a r or solar eclipse, a m a n attains ten times the merit of an Aśvamedha (horse-sacrifice). 37. This excellent m o u n t a i n is meritorious. It is resorted to by Devas a n d G a n d h a r v a s . It is full of various kinds of trees a n d creepers. It shines with different kinds of flowers. 38. O King, M a h e ś v a r a (the great G o d ) is present there alongwith the goddess ( U m ā ) . B r a h m a , Visnu, a n d R u d r a ( I n d r a ? ) (are present there) alongwith t h e groups of Vidyādharas. 39. T h e m a n who circumambulates the m o u n t a i n Amara­ k a n t a k a attains the fruit of P a u n d a r l k a sacrifice. 40. T h e river Kāverī 1 is well-known as the destructive of sins. O n e should take b a t h there a n d worship t h e bull-bannered M a h ā d e v a . ( O n e who takes bath) at the confluence of N a r m a d ā is honoured in the F udraloka.

CHAPTER FORTYONE The Glory of different sacred places 2 on the Narmadā Mārkandeya said : 1. It has been told formerly by sages as well as by the self-born deity t h a t N a r m a d ā , the destroyer of all sins, is the best a m o n g all rivers. 1. T h i s Kāverī is the northern branch of the N a r m a d ā where the i s l a n d O m k ā r a i s s i t u a t e d ( H D I V P . 705 f o o t n o t e 1 6 0 4 ) . 2 . T h i s c h a p t e r gives o n l y t h e i m p o r t a n t s a c r e d p l a c e s o n t h e N a r m a d ā . M t . P . a n d P d . P . states t h a t t h e r e a r e t e n crores o f s a c r e d p l a c e s o n


582

Kūrma Purāna

2. T h e excellent river N a r m a d ā has been eulogised by the sages. It flowed out of the body of R u d r a with a desire for the well-being of the worlds. 3. It is destructive of all sins for ever. It is bowed to by all Devas a n d is eulogised by Devas a n d G a n d h a r v a s as well as by Apsaras (heavenly ladies). 4. On the n o r t h e r n b a n k is t h e T ī r t h a well-known in the three worlds, by the n a m e Bhadreśvara. 1 It is holy, auspicious a n d destructive of all sins. 5. O king, m a n taking b a t h there, rejoices with Devas. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the excellent sacred place Vimaleśvara. 6-7a. O King, a m a n taking b a t h there shall attain the the benefit of the gift of a thousand cows. Thereafter, with self-control a n d regulated diet, one should go to Ańgāreśvara. He shall wipe off all sins a n d be p u r e . He is honoured in the Rudraloka. 7b-8a. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to t h e meritorious spot n a m e d K e d ā r a . O n taking b a t h and drinking the water, one shall obtain all desires. 8b-9a. Thereafter, one should destructive of all sins. O great king, one is honoured in the R u d r a l o k a .

go to Nisphaleśa. It is on taking b a t h there,

9b-10a. O leading king, one should thereafter go to the excellent B ā n a t ī r t h a . O n e forsaking the life there, shall a t t a i n Rudraloka.

N a r m a d ā , w h i l e A P . (113.2) a n d K P . supra 40.13 raise t h e n u m b e r t o sixty crores a n d sixty t h o u s a n d a n d t h e N P . I I . 77. 4 a n d 27-28 limits this n u m b e r to t h r e e c r o r e s a n d a half. T h o u g h m a n y o f t h e verses i n this c h a p t e r a r e also c o m m o n t o M t . P . a n d N P . I I . 77, t h e similarities a r e n o t p o i n t e d o u t a s t h i s p o i n t h a s b e e n p r o v e d i n t h e last c h a p t e r . 1. T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r of T i r t h a s the geographical location of which i s a s y e t t o b e a s c e r t a i n e d a n d T i r t h a o f t h e s a m e n a m e o c c u r s i n different s a c r e d p l a c e s like V ā r ā n a s i , P r a y ā g a , K u r u k s e t r a o r G a y ā . F o r e x a m p l e K e d ā r a i n v . 7b-8a i s a t V ā r ā n a s i , G a r h w a l U P . ( t h e f a m o u s J y o t i r l i ń g a ) , i n K a s h m i r a n d a t G a y ā . H e n c e only out-standing T i r t h a s are noted.


11.41.10b-23a

583

l O b - l l a . Thereafter, one shall go to Puskarinī a n d per­ form t h e rite of holy ablution there. O king, on taking b a t h there a m a n shall be the lord of a throne. l i b - 1 2 a . Thereafter, one should go to Śakra tīrtha on t h e southern b a n k . Immediately after the b a t h therein, a m a n shall a t t a i n half the seat of I n d r a . 12b-13a. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to Śūlabheda, so says the Śruti. On bathing a n d drinking water there, one shall derive the benefit of a thousand cows. 13b-14. A p u r e m a n should observe fast d u r i n g the night after duly performing the ablution rite. T h e n he should propi­ tiate the lord of Devas of great Yogic power. After attaining t h e t h e fruit of a gift of thousand cows, he goes to Visnu's region. 15. Thereafter, he should go to R si tīrtha which is des­ tructive of all sins of m e n . As soon as a m a n takes his b a t h therein, the m a n is honoured in Śivaloka. 16. T h e r e itself is the holy centre of N ā r a d a . It is very auspicious. Immediately after the b a t h therein, a m a n obtains the fruit of a gift of a thousand cows. 17. It was here that formerly the divine sage N ā r a d a per­ formed p e n a n c e . Maheśvara, the lord of Devas, became delighted a n d g r a n t e d h i m Yoga. 18. A Lińga installed by Brahma is known as Brahmeśvara. O king, a m a n who takes his holy b a t h there is honoured in t h e Brahmaloka. 19. Thereafter, one should go to R n a t ī r t h a (by visiting w h i c h ) t h e m a n shall certainly be relieved from indebtedness. Thereafter, one should go to Vateśvara. He shall derive sufficient benefit of the current life. 20. Thereafter, one should go to Bhīmeśvara. It is des­ tructive of all ailments. Immediately after the b a t h there, a m a n is relieved of all miseries. 2 1 . O leading king, thereafter one should go to the ex­ cellent Pińgaleśvara. By observing fast for a day a n d night, one shall a t t a i n the benefit of T r i r ā t r a sacrifice. 22-23a. O leading king, he who makes a gift of a tawnycoloured cow, there, is honoured in the Rudra-loka as m a n y thousand years as there are hairs on its body a n d on t h a t of its calves.


584

Kūrma Purāna

23b-24a. O ruler of m e n , he who a b a n d o n s his life there, rejoices indefinitely as long as t h e moon a n d t h e sun shines. 24b-25a. Those who stay on the banks of N a r m a d ā go to heaven when they die just like the saintly m e n of good activities. 25b. Thereafter, one should go to Dīpteśvara. It is a penance grove otherwise called Vyāsatīrtha. 26. Formerly, t h e great river N a r m a d ā h a d become afraid of Vyāsa. On being rebuked by H u r h k ā r a (i.e. the sound H u m ) (by V y ā s a ) , t h e river receded from t h a t place immediately (v.l. daksinena (flowed) to the S o u t h ) . 27. O Yudhisthira, if a devotee circumambulates t h a t place, Vyāsa becomes delighted a n d he obtains t h e benefit desired. 28-29a. O leading king, thereafter, one shall go the confluence of the river Iksu. It is meritorious a n d well-known in the three worlds. Śiva is present there. O king, on taking b a t h there, a m a n shall obtain the chieftain-ship of G a n a s . 29b-31a. Thereafter, one should go to S k a n d a t ī r t h a t h a t dispels all sins. * O n e w h o takes b a t h there dispels sins com­ m i t t e d by h i m ever since his birth. Devas and G a n d h a r v a s wor­ ship lord Skanda, the bearer of Śakti, the noble-souled excellent son of Śiva. 31b-33a. Thereafter, one should go to Ańgirasatīrtha a n d perform t h e rite of ablution there, getting thereby the m e r i t of a gift of a thousand cows, he goes to R u d r a ' s region. It was here t h a t Ańgiras, the son of Brahma, propitiated the bullb a n n e r e d lord of Devas a n d the universe by means of penance a n d obtained the excellent Yoga. 33b-34a. Thereafter, one should go to K u ś a t ī r t h a t h a t dispels all sins. O n e should take the holy plunge there (where­ by) he will obtain t h e benefit of a horse-sacrifice. 34b-35a. Thereafter one should go to K o t i t ī r t h a t h a t dispels sins committed by him ever since his b i r t h .

• T h e V e ń k . T e x t h a s a n i r r e l e v a n t line h e r e : rna-tirtham tato gacchet sa fnān mucyate dhruvam " o n e s h o u l d go to R n a - t i r t h a ; o n e definitely gets rid of indebtedness."


11.41.35b-47

585

35b-36a. Thereafter, one should go to G a n d r a b h ā g ā a n d perform the rite of ablution there. Immediately after t h e b a t h there, t h e m a n is honoured in the region of the moon. 36b-37a. T h e excellent T i r t h a Sańgameśvara is on the s o u t h e r n bank of N a r m a d ā . O king, on taking b a t h there, t h e m a n derives t h e benefit of all Yajñas. 37b-40a. On the northern b a n k of N a r m a d ā is the extremely splendid T i r t h a , the beautiful Adityāyatana, as m e n ­ tioned by Iśvara. O leading king, on taking b a t h there, a n d offering Dānas religious gifts according to one's capacity, one attains inexhaustible benefit, thanks to the power of the T ī r t h a . T h o s e who are indigent a n d sickly, those who commit evil deeds, a r e released from all sins. T h e y go to Sūryaloka (the world of the S u n ) . 40b-41a. Thereafter, o n e should go to M ā t r t ī r t h a a n d perform the rite of ablution there. Immediately after the b a t h there, the m a n shall a t t a i n the heavenly world, 41b-43a. Thereafter, one should go westward to the excellent holy centre M a r u t ā ś a y a . O leading king, one should take b a t h there and w i t h purity a n d sound concentration one should give gold to an ascetic in accordance with the extent of his riches. He goes to Vāyuloka by means of the aerial chariot Puspaka. 43b. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the excellent Ahalyātīrtha. Merely by taking b a t h there, one rejoices with the Apsaras for an indefinite period. 44-45. On the K ā m a d e v a day which falls on the thirteenth day in the bright half of the m o n t h C h a i t r a , one should worship Ahalyā. Wherever he is b o r n , the m a n shall be excessively loved by all. He shall be endowed w i t h glory a n d will be loved by women like K ā m a d e v a . 46. Approaching the Saridvarā ( t h e excellent river) (?) one should go to the well-known T ī r t h a of I n d r a . I m m e d i a t e l y after taking b a t h there, one attains the benefit of the gift of a thousand cows. 47. Thereafter one should go to Somatīrtha a n d per­ form the rite of ablution there. Immediately after t h e b a t h therein, the m a n is freed from all sins.


586

Kūrma Purāna

48. During the lunar eclipse, it is destructive of sins. O king, the Somatīrtha is wellknown in t h e three worlds a n d it yields great benefits. 49. He who observes the vow of C ā n d r ā y a n a with great concentration in t h a t holy centre, shall have his soul purified of all sins. He shall go to the Somaloka. 50. O ruler of men, he w h o immolates himself by entering fire at this holy c e n t r e ; he who drowns himself in t h e water thereof or he who observes fast u n t o d e a t h there, is never reborn as a m o r t a l being. 51. Thereafter, one should go to S t a m b h a t ī r t h a a n d perform the rite of ablution there. Immediately after the b a t h there, the m a n is honoured in the Somaloka. 52. O king, thereafter one should go to the excellent Visnutīrtha. T h a t excellent abode of Visnu is called (Yodhī-) Yodhanīpura. , 53-54a. Crores of Asuras were fought therein by Vāsudeva (Visnu) a n d so a sacred place c a m e into being there. (One who bathes there) shall have the glory a n d splendour of Visnu. By observing fast for a day a n d a night, one dispels the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 54b-56a. On the southern b a n k of N a r m a d ā there is an extremely splendid T ī r t h a well-known as K ā m a t ī r t h a . It is the place where K a m a worshipped H a r i . A m a n , taking b a t h in t h a t holy centre a n d devoutly engaged in observing fast, is honoured in the form of K a m a . 56b-57. O leading king thereafter one shall go to t h e excellent Brahmatīrtha. It is well-known as U m ā h a k a (?) (v.l. A m o g h a ) . O n e should perform a Tarpana rite (offering of libations of water) there for Pitrs. O n e should duly perform Śrāddha on the full moon day a n d on the new moon day. 58. In the middle of the water there is a rock in t h e form of an elephant. O n e should offer Phulas therein, with great concentration ( o n any d a y ) during the m o n t h of Vaiśākha. 59. After taking b a t h , with concentrated mind a n d being devoid of arrogance and jealonsy (if the above rite is


11.41.60-70

587

performed), his manes are satisfied as long as the earth exists (i.e. up to the end of the w o r l d ) . 60. Thereafter, one should go to the T ī r t h a called Viśveśvara and perform the rite of ablution there. Immediately after the b a t h there, the m a n shall obtain the chieftainship of the G a n a s ( a t t a n d a n t s of Śiva). 6 1 . O leading king, thereafter one should go where J a n ā r d a n a (Visnu) is ( i n the form of a) Lińga. A m a n w h o takes b a t h there devotedly is honoured in the Visnuloka. 62. It is here t h a t N ā r ā y a n a manifested himself to the sages of sanctified souls, in the form of a Linga which is t h e highest abode. 63-64a. Thereafter, one shall go to Akolla which is destructive of all sins. T h e ablution, the D a n a rite, the feeding of the B r ā h m a n a s a n d the offering of Pindas performed h e r e bestow infinite benefit after d e a t h . 64b.65. If a B r ā h m a n a prepares Caru with T r a i y m b a k a ( N a r m a d ā ) water a n d offers the Pindas duly at the root of Ankolla p l a n t (Alangium H e x a p e t a l u m ) the Pitrs shall be redeemed. T h e y are satisfied as long as the moon a n d the stars shine. 66. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to t h e excellent T ī r t h a Tāpaseśvara. O leading king, on taking b a t h therein, one shall attain the benefit of penance. 1 67. Thereafter, one shall go to Śuklatīrtha t h a t is destructive of all sins. O Yudhisthira, there is no other holy centre on a p a r with it on N a r m a d ā . 68. Its sight, the touching, the ablution ( t h e r e i n ) , D a n a , T a p a s , J a p a , H o m a , a n d observance of fast in the holy centre Śuklatīrtha yield great benefits. 69. T h e holy centre well known as Śuklatīrtha is said to be a Yojana in extent. It is resorted to by Devas a n d G a n d h a r v a s . It is destructive of all sins. 70. Even if the holy centre is seen from the t o p of a tree from far, it dispels the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. G o d Sańkara, Bharga, stays there always with the goddess. I . V V . 67-84 d e s c r i b e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f Ś u k l a t i r t h a — o n b a n k o f N a r m a d ā a b o u t 1 0 miles n o r t h - e a s t o f B r o a c h .

the north,


588

Kūrma Purāna

71. O king of holy rites, in the fourteenth d a y in the dark half of the Vaiśākha m o n t h , H a r a comes out of his own world to be present here. 72. T h e leading gods, demons, divine minstrels, Siddhas, Vidyādharas, the attendants of Śiva a n d celestial damsels a n d the leading Nāgas stay there. 73. O n e dispels sins committed ever since one's birth in the Śuklatīrtha just as a coloured cloth turns white by washing in water. 74. T h e ablution, D a n a , penance a n d Ś r ā d d h a a p p e a r to be infinite. T h e r e will never be a holier T i r t h a t h a n the Śuklatirtha. 75. A m a n who commits sinful deeds earlier in his life dispels them by observing fast for a d a y a n d a night in Śuklatīrtha. 76-77a. O n e should observe fast on the fourteenth day in the dark half of the m o n t h of K ā r t t i k a a n d perform the ablution of god, the Supreme deity (Śiva) with ghee. He shall never fall off from the abode of Iśvara in t h e company of twenty one generations of his family. 77b-78a. O n e does not obtain by means of penance, celibacy or Yajñas or even Dānas t h a t goal which one attains in the Śuklatīrtha. 78b-79a. T h e Śuklatīrtha is a great holy centre resorted to by the sages a n d Siddhas. O king, a m a n who takes b a t h there is not reborn. 79b-80. During the vernal a n d equinotical transit of the sun and on Caturdaśī (fourteenth) days, the devotee should, after the b a t h , observe fast. W i t h good self-control a n d great concentration, he should m a k e charitable gifts in accordance with his capacity. H a r i a n d Ś a ń k a r a will become delighted. 81-83a. By the power of the single T i r t h a , every thing shall be endless. Listen to the merit accruing to one who helps a helpless poor B r ā h m a n a or one with kinsmen to celebrate a marriage at this holy centre. He is honoured in the Rudraloka as m a n y thousand years as there are hairs on his body a n d in those of his progeny. 83b-84. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to the excellent Y a m a t ī r t h a . O Yudhisthira, one who takes b a t h here


11.41.85-95

589

in the fourteenth d a y in the d a r k half of the M ā g h a m o n t h a n d takes food only at night, never experiences the p a i n of being in the w o m b (i.e. is l i b e r a t e d ) . 85-87. O leading king, thereafter one shall go to the excellent E r a n d l t ī r t h a . 1 T h e m a n (devotee) should take b a t h at the confluence a n d observe fast. If he should t h e n feed a single B r ā h m a n a , it has the benefit of feeding a crore m e n . O n e endowed with the feelings of devotion should take b a t h at E r a n d ī confluence. He should enter the w a t e r with clay applied to the head. W h e n the waters of N a r m a d ā (in t h e confluence) too touch him, he is freed from all sins. ' 88. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the h o l y centre Kallolakeśvara. T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t G a ń g ā descends into it on the auspicious days. 89. After b a t h i n g in it and drinking its water, one should m a k e charitable gifts in accordance with the injunctions. He shall be freed from all sins a n d be honoured in the Brahmaloka. 90. Thereafter, one should go to N a n d i t ī r t h a a n d per­ form the rite of ablution there. N a n d l ś a is pleased a n d the devotee is honoured in the Somaloka. 9 1 . O leading king, thereafter one should go to t h e auspicious T i r t h a Anaraka. O king, a m a n taking a b a t h there never sees hell. 92. O leading king, one shall deposit one's bones in t h a t holy centre. He is b o r n in the world again as a beautiful person endowed with riches a n d worldly pleasures. 93. O leading king, thereafter one shall go to the excellent Kapilatīrtha. O king, a m a n taking b a t h there shall obtain the benefit of the gift of thousand cows. 94-95. D u r i n g the m o n t h of J y e s t h a , particularly on the fourteenth day, the m a n devotee should observe fast. He should make charitable gifts of lamps, along with ghee. He should perform ablution of R u d r a with ghee. T h e n he shall a t t a i n riches as a benefit thereof. He should m a k e the gift of a tawny-coloured cow embellished w i t h bells a n d ornamens. 1.

E r a n d i is a t r i b u t a r y of N a r m a d ā in B a r o d a Dist. It is n o w called

Uri or Or. I t s confluence w i t h t h e N a r m a d ā is E r a n d i - t i r t h a .


590

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96. He shall himself become endowed with all ornaments, a n d will be respected by all Devas. He shall become strong as Śiva, and will be sporting always like Śiva. 97. On Tuesdays a n d C a t u r t h i days in particular, one should perform ablution rite of Śiva a n d feed B r ā h m a n a s . 98-99a. In an aerial chariot desired by all, he shall travel accompanied by all Devas. He shall go to the abode of I n d r a a n d rejoice alongwith him. After falling off from heaven, he shall be one endowed with fortitude a n d worldly enjoyments. 99b-100a. O n e shall perform t h e ablution rite of Śiva on Tuesdays, on the n i n t h d a y a n d on the new m o o n day assiduously. O n e shall become handsome a n d endowed with comely features. 100b-101. O leading king, thereafter one shall go to the excellent T ī r t h a Ganeśvara on the fourteenth day in the dark half of the Ś r ā v a n a m o n t h . Immediately after the b a t h , there t h e m a n is h o n o u r e d in t h e R u d r a l o k a . 102-103. After performing the T a r p a n a rite of the Pitrs, he is freed from the three debts. N e a r Gańgeśvara is the excel­ lent T ī r t h a called G a ń g ā v a d a n a . A m a n who takes his b a t h there entertaining any desire of fruit or not, is freed from all sins committed ever since his b i r t h . 104. N e a r it on the western side, not very far from it, is the T ī r t h a Daśaśvamedhika which is well-known in the three worlds. 105. After observing fast for a night in the auspicious m o n t h of B h ā d r a p a d a , one should perform the ablution rite a n d t h e worship of the bull-bannered deity H a r a on the new moon day. 106. He shall then go to R u d r a ' s city by means of golden aerial chariot decorated with clusters of tinkling bells. He shall then rejoice with R u d r a . 107. He should perform the rite of ablution on any day at any place. After performing T a r p a n a rites for the Pitrs, he shall derive the benefit of horse sacrifice.


591

II.42.1-10 CHAPTER FORTYTWO The greatness of the various holy centres on Narmadā Mārkandeya said : 1. O leading king, thereafter, excellent Bhrgutīrcha. 1 Formerly holy R u d r a there. 2. By visiting that lord, one is sins. This holy centre is very large a n d

one should go to the lord Bhrgu propitiated immediately freed from destructive of all sins.

3-4. Those who take b a t h there go to heaven. Those who d i e here are not reborn. In accordance with his (donor's) capacity, a p a i r of shoes, a chariot horse, gold, cooked food and full meal should be given. It ( t h e dāna given here) is said to be everlasting. All (other) dānas, offerings, sacrifices a n d penance a n d rituals perish. 5-6a. O Yudhisthira, the p e n a n c e performed in the Bhrgutīrtha is imperishable. O Yudhisthira, the presence of R u d r a , the enemy of the Tripuras, there, is d u e to his Bhrgu's own severe penance. It is said so by R u d r a , the enemy of the Tripuras. 6b-8a. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the excellent T ī r t h a G a u t a m e ś v a r a . It was here t h a t G a u t a m a pro­ pitiated the Trident-bearing lord a n d attained Siddhi. O king, a m a n who takes b a t h there a n d is devoted to t h e observance of fast, goes to Brahmaloka by means of a golden aerial chariot. He is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 8b-9a. Thereafter, one should go to the Vrsotsarga T ī r t h a . He shall a t t a i n the eternal region. Those foolish m e n deluded by the M ā y ā of Visnu do not know the glory of this Tīrtha. 9b-10. Thereafter, one should go to the D h a u t a p ā p ā holy centre where the sins are washed by means of this meritorious act. It is situated on N a r m a d ā . O king, it is

1 . B h r g u T i r t h a — B h e r a - g h a t , 1 2 miles t o t h e W e s t o f J a b a l p u r ( D e , p . 3 4 ) . I t h a s n o w a t e m p l e o f 6 4 Yoginis. H e r e P a r a s u r ā m a r e g a i n e d his e n e r g y t a k e n a w a y b y R ā m a t h e son o f D a s ' a r a t h a .


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destructive of all sins. A m a n taking b a t h in t h a t holy centre, dispels the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 11. O leading king, he who abandons his life there in t h a t holy centre, shall be blessed with four arms a n d three eyes. H e shall b e a s mighty a s H a r a . 12. He shall reside in t h e Śivaloka for ten thousand K a l p a s a n d more w i t h exploits similar to t h a t of Śiva. After a long time, he is b o r n on the E a r t h . He shall t h e n be a sole E m p e r o r over the world. 13. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to t h e excellent T ī r t h a called H a s t a t ī r t h a (v.l. H a m s a - T ī r t h a ) . O king, a m a n w h o takes b a t h there, is honoured in t h e Brahmaloka. 14. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to t h a t holy centre where J a n ā r d a n a is settled. It is called V a r ā h a tīrtha. It yields t h e capacity to go to Visnuloka. 15-16a. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to t h e excellent C a n d r a t ī r t h a . O n e should perform the rite of ablution there, particularly on the full m o o n day. I m m e d i a t e l y after t h e b a t h , a m a n shall be the sole emperor on the E a r t h . 16b-17a. Thereafter, one should go to D e v a t ī r t h a which is bowed by all the other holy centres. O leading king, on t a k i n g b a t h there, one rejoices alongwith t h e deities. 17b-18a. O leading king, thereafter one should go to t h e excellent Śañkhatīrtha. W h a t is given as charitable gift t h e r e shall become a h u n d r e d million times ( m o r e beneficial). 18b-19a. O leading king, thereafter one should go to t h e auspicious P a i t ā m a h a t ī r t h a . T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered there shall wholly become inexhaustible in merit. 19b-20a. He who abandons his life after reaching t h e holy centre Sāvitrītīrtha shall shake off all sins. He is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 20b-21a. T h e r e itself the M a n o h a r a ( c h a r m i n g ) T ī r t h a is extremely splendid. O king, a m a n taking b a t h there is honoured in the R u d r a l o k a . 21b-23a. O leading king, thereafter, one should go to the excellent K a n y ā t ī r t h a . O king, a m a n taking b a t h there is freed from all sins. O n e shall perform the rite of ablution here


593

II,42.23b-33

on the third d a y in the bright half of the m o n t h . Immediately after the b a t h , the m a n shall become the sole Sovereign ruler over t h e E a r t h . 23b-24a. Thereafter, one should go to the holy centre Sarga Bindu which is bowed to by Devas. O king, a m a n who takes b a t h there, never sees mishaps a n d ill fortune. 24b-25a. Thereafter, one should go to Apsareśa. He should perform the rite of ablution there. He sports in t h e heavenly world a n d rejoices alongwith celestial damsels. 25b-26. O leading king, thereafter one should go to t h e excellent holy centre B h ā r a b h ū t i . He should worship t h e lord after the observance of fast. He is honoured in t h e R u d r a l o k a . O king, one who dies in this holy centre, shall a t t a i n t h e chieftainship of the Ganas. 27. In the m o n t h of K ā r t t i k a , one shall worship the lord of Devas, t h e consort of Pārvatī. Learned m e n assert t h a t it is ten times m o r e beneficial horse-sacrifice. 28-29. He who gifts away a bull as lustrous (white) as the K u n d a flower a n d the m o o n goes to the R u d r a l o k a by means of a vehicle to which a bull is yoked. He who a b a n d o n s his life after reaching the holy centre, shall be freed from all sihs. He goes to R u d r a l o k a . 30. O ruler of men, he who enters water ( a n d drowns himself) in t h a t holy centre goes to t h e heavenly world by means of a vehicle to which swans are yoked. 1

3 1 . T h e Confluence of the rivers E r a n d i and N a r m a d ā is well-known in the world. T h a t holy centre is also highly meritorious a n d destructive of all sins. 32. O n e who regularly observes fasts a n d performs holy rites devotedly, O king, is freed even from the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter after taking b a t h there. 33. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the con­ fluence of N a r m a d ā a n d the ocean. It is famous as J a m a d a g n i a n d there J a n ā r d a n a is present. 1 . E r a n d i - s a ń g a m a — t h e confluence o f E r a n d i ( m o d . U r i ) a n d t h e N a r m a d ā n e a r K a r n a l i i n former B a r o d a State (now G u j a r a t ) — D e , P . 59.


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Kūrma Purina

34. O king, a m a n who takes b a t h in t h e meeting point of N a r m a d ā a n d the ocean obtains three times t h e benefit of a horse-sacrifice. 35. O leading king, thereafter one should go to the excellent Pińgaleśvara. O king, a m a n who takes his b a t h there, is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 36. He who visits Vimaleśvara after observing fast there, dispels sins committed in seven births a n d goes to Siva's abode. 37-38a. O leading king, thereafter, one should go the excellent Ali tīrtha (v.l. Alakā-tīrtha). He should observe fast for a night with regulated conduct a n d diet. T h a n k s to the greatness of this holy centre, he is freed from the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 38b-39a. These holy centres have been recounted to you in brief and in view of their importance. O son of P ā n d u , the n u m b e r of the holy centres is big. T h e y cannot be n a r r a t e d in detail. 39b-41a. This large sacred river is well-known in the three worlds. N a r m a d ā is the most excellent of all rivers. It is the beloved of M a h ā d e v a . O Yudhisthira there is no doubt in this that he who mentally remembers N a r m a d ā , obtains the benefit of a h u n d r e d C ā n d r ā y a n a rites, or even m o r e . 41b-42a. Those persons who do not have faith, those who have resorted to terrible non-belief, do fall in the terrible hell. So says Parameśvara. 42b. Lord M a h e ś v a r a himself resorts to N a r m a d ā . H e n c e , this river should be known as very meritorious, and destructive of the sin of Brāhmarja-slaughter.


595

II.43.1-8 CHAPTER FORTYTHREE 1

Greatness of Naimisāranya

and Japyesvara

Sūta said : 1. This excellent holy centre N a i m i s a is well known in the three worlds. Being more liked by M a h ā d e v a ( t h a n a n y other T i r t h a ) , it is destructive of great sins. 2. O excellent Brāhmanas, it is the place created by the highest deity, god B r a h m a for the performance of penance by the sages desirous of seeing M a h ā d e v a . 3-4. T h e six B r ā h m a n a families viz : the Marīcis, the Atris, the Vasisthas, t h e K r a t u s , the Bhrgus a n d the Añgiras formerly approached the lotus-born deity Brahma, the four-faced, the four-formed god who bestows boons on all ( o r all boons). Bowing down to the unchanging creator of the universe they 2 asked h i m . Satkulīyas (the sages belonging to the six families) said : 5. (Defective verse) O lord, obeisance to you. Please recount, by w h a t means can we see the only lord ī ś a n a , the g o d with m a t t e d hair. Brahma said : 6. "Perform a Satra (a sacrificial session) of the d u r a t i o n of one thousand years with your speech a n d m i n d free from defects. I shall tell you the place where you will perform t h e same." 7. He touched the mind-wheel a n d let it go. Thereafter, he told t h e m " T h i s wheel has been discharged by m e . Follow it. Do n o t delay. 8. W h e r e the r i m of this wheel gets shattered is the auspicious place for the purpose of p e n a n c e . " 3 Thereafter he let the wheel go a n d they followed it. 1. N a i m i s ā r a n y a is in a way ' t h e b i r t h - p l a c e ' of all P u r ā n a s . I t s i m p o r t a n c e is d e s c r i b e d in B d . P. I. 1. 156-174, śiva Vāyavīya Sarhhilā 3. 52-63, V a . P . 1 . 1 . 166-167. K P . e n d o r s e s w h a t o t h e r P u r ā n a s s t a t e a b o u t this. 2 . Satkuliyas a r e B r ā h m a n a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e families o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d six sages viz. M a r i c i , A t r i , V a s i s t h a , K r a t u , B h r g u a n d A ñ g i r a s . 3. H e r e N a i m i s a U etymologically c o n n e c t e d w i t h nemi ' r i m ' of a wheel. Bd. P. and other P u r ā n a s mentioned above endorse the same.


596

Kūrma Purāna

9. As it rolled on, its r i m got shattered at a place which came to be remembered by the n a m e Naimisa. It is very holy a n d is honoured everywhere. 10. It is full of Siddhas a n d Cāranas. It is resorted to by Yaksas a n d G a n d h a r v a s . This excellent holy centre Naimisa is the abode of lord Ś a m b h u . 11. Formerly, Devas, alongwith G a n d h a r v a s , Yaksas, serpents a n d the Rāksasas performed their p e n a n c e here a n d attained excellent boons. 12. Resorting to this place, the Safkulīyas (the Brāhmanas. of t h e six families) propitiated the lord of Devas with g r e a t concentration, by means of Satra a n d perceived Maheśvara. 13. E a c h of t h e following holy rites here shall destroy the sin committed in the course of seven births viz. = the Dana rite, the penance performed, the Śrāddha offered a n d the Yajña performed. 14. Formerly, it was here t h a t the lord, (Brahma) recounted the B r a h m ā n d a P u r ā n a 1 purified (sanctified) by t h e (description of the) B r a h m a n , to the sages who were performing the Satra. 15. Even till this day, lord M a h ā d e v a of universal vision sports about alongwith his spouse R u d r ā n i , while the P r a m a t h a s surround h i m as a t t e n d a n t s . 16. Giving up their lives here by means of obser­ vances, the twice-born will go to the Brahmaloka, after which they a r e not b o r n again. 17.

Another excellent holy centre is w h a t is

Sridhara on Bh. P. I. 1. 4 quotes from Vr. P. a n d

states

well-known that here L o r d

V i s n u killed t h e a r m y o f A s u r a i w i t h i n t h e t w i n k l i n g o f t h e e y e

(nimisa) a n d

h e n c e , i t c a m e t o b e called " N a i m i s a " . Geographically it is t h e area r o u n d m o d e r n N i m s a r at a distance of 20 miles from S i t a p u r a n d 4 5 m i l e s t o t h e N o r t h west o f L u c k n o w . N i m s a r i s a railway station. B u t K P emphasises its i m p o r t a n c e a s a sacred P e n a n c e , p e r f o r m a n c e o f yajña a n d o t h e r religious r i t e s . 1.

place

p r o p e r for

Obviously K P i s c o m p o s e d l a t e r t h a n t h e B r a h m ā n d a P u r i n a .


11.43.18-25

597

as J a p y e ś v a r a . 1 It was here t h a t N a n d i n the great G a n a ( a t t e n d a n t ) continuously performed the Japa of R u d r a . 18. M a h ā d e v a , the Pināka-bearing lord, b e c a m e pleased with h i m alongwith the goddess. He granted h i m similarity with himself a n d ability to defy d e a t h . 19. T h e r e was a virtuous pious-souled sage n a m e d Śilāda. In order to acquire His blessing, he worshipped the the bull-bannered M a h ā d e v a . 20. At the end of a thousand years since (Śilāda) he began his austere penance. Śarva, the sustainer of the universe, c a m e t o h i m accompanied b y U m ā a n d surrounded b y t h e G a n a s a n d s p o k e — " I a m the g r a n t e r o f b o o n s . " 2 1 . Of Iśāna, the foremost deity, the consort of the d a u g h t e r of the m o u n t a i n , he begged as follows : — ' I request for a son like you who is not born from a womb a n d who is deathless ( i m m o r t a l ) . 22. Lord Maheśvara accompanied by the goddess s a i d — 'So be it'. Even as the Brahminical sage was looking on, H a r a vanished from t h e scene. 23-25. Śilāda, 2 the most excellent a m o n g t h e knowers of D h a r m a , m a d e use of that land. He ploughed the ground with a ploughshare. Breaking open the ground a splendid son with the brilliance of S a m v a r t a k a fire (i.e., the fire at the time of dis­ solution) came into view. He was smiling as it were. With this lustre he illuminated t h e quarters. He was richly endowed with handsome features a n d comeliness. He was on a p a r with 1. T h e location of Japyeśvara or Jāpyeśvara is doubtful. According to D e , P . 8 1 , J a p y e ś v a r a o f t h e L P I . c h . 4 3 & Śiva P . i s t h e s a m e a s J a l p i ś a o f t h e K ā l i k ā P . (ch. 7 7 ) a n d i s s i t u a t e d t o t h e west o f t h e river T i s t a i n t h e J a l a p a i g u r i dist. o f B e n g a l . K ā l i k ā P u r ā n a l o c a t e s i t t o t h e n o r t h w e s t o f K ā m a - r ū p a a n d t h e f i v e rivers f o r m i n g P a ñ c a - n a d a a r e J ā t o d a k ā , T r i s r o t ā , V r s a d v a n i , S v a r n o d a k ā a n d J a m b u n a d i . B u t K P . h i n t s ( v . 29) t h a t i t i s n e a r t h e sea. I n t h a t case P a ñ c a - n a d a m u s t b e t a k e n a s t h e l a n d o f f i v e rivers ( P u n j a b ) w h e r e t h e f i v e rivers m e e t . B u t t h e T i r t h a m u s t b e n e a r t h e sea w h e r e S i n d h u falls in t h e sea as N a n d i n w e n t n e a r t h e sea (v. 29) for his Japa. 2. F o r t h e story of Ś i l ā d a cf. L . P . I. c h s . 41-44. B u t a c c o r d i n g to L . P . I . 4 2 . 11-15, i t w a s g o d Śiva w h o w a s b o r n a s N a n d i n .


598

Kūrma Purāna

K u m ā r a ( K ā r t t i k e y a ) . W i t h a grave tone N a n d i n repeatedly said to Ś i l ā d a " 0 father, O father." 26. On seeing t h a t son born, Silāda embraced him. He showed him to the sages who resided in the hermitages there. 27. He performed the post-natal a n d all other rites for h i m . After investing h i m with a sacred thread in accordance with the Śāstras, he t a u g h t his son the Vedas himself. 28. Holy lord N a n d i n , after the study of the Vedas c a m e to an excellent decision. "After seeing lord M a h e ś v a r a , I will conquer M r t y u ( d e a t h ) . " 29. Endowed with faith a n d concentration of the m i n d , he* went to the holy ocean a n d continuously performed the J a p a of R u d r a with his m i n d attached to M a h e ś a . 30. W h e n he h a d completed a crore of J a p a s , Śańkara, favourably disposed to his devotees, came there accompanied by all his G a n a s a n d s a i d — " I a m the granter o f b o o n s . " 31. He requested lord M a h ā d e v a the supreme God. Please grant me the boon. I shall perform again a crore of this J a p a , which will completely consume worldly existence. 32. After saying " S o be i t " the lord vanished from the scene. T h e holy one (i.e. N a n d i n ) performed a crore of J a p a with his m i n d centred on him. 33. W h e n the second crore was completed, the bullbannered lord came there surrounded by the groups of Bhūtas (goblins) a n d s a i d — " I am the granter of b o o n s " . 34. ( N a n d i n said) "O Śańkara, I wish to perform the third crore of J a p a t o o " T h e A t m a n of the universe s a i d — " S o be i t . " a n d vanished alongwith the goddess. 35. When the third crore of J a p a was completed, the lord was m u c h delighted in the m i n d . He came there surrounded by the Bhūtas and s a i d — " I am the granter of b o o n s " . 36. ( N a n d i n s a i d ) , "I shall perform a crore more of the J a p a with thy brilliance". W h e n this was said the lord said :— You must not perform the J a p a further. 37-38. You shall be immortal and devoid of old age. You shall stay at my side forever. You shall be the great chieftain of the G a n a s , the son of the goddess. You shall be a great lord, t h e lord of Yoga, a great Yogin a n d the chief lord of G a n a s .


599

11.43.39-42—44.1-2

You shall be glorious and the overlord of the worlds. You will be the benefactor, identical with the Yajñas. 39. T h e perfect knowledge pertaining to me and named after me shall be accessible to you as easily as the fruit of the myrobalan in the p a l m . You will be alive till the dissolution of all living beings. Thereafter you shall attain my region." 40-41. After saying this, M a h ā d e v a Ś a ń k a r a called the G a n a s together a n d got Nandīśvara duly crowned and conse­ crated. T h e Pināka-bearing lord himself m a d e h i m marry the blessed d a u g h t e r of the M a r u t s ( S u y a ś ā according to Sivap u r ā n a ) . H e himself a t t a i n e d Visnuhood. 42. This J a p y e ś v a r a is the abode of t h e trident-bearing lord of Devas. T h e m a n w h o dies here is honoured in t h e Rudra-loka.

CHAPTER

FORTYFOUR

Description of sacred places (contd.) Sūta said : 1. N e a r the holy centre J a p y e ś v a r a there is a n o t h e r excel­ lent T ī r t h a n a m e d P a ñ c a n a d a . It is sacred a n d destructive of all sins. 1

2. O n e who observes fast there for three nights a n d worships M a h e ś v a r a gets his soul purified of all sins a n d is honoured in the Rudraloka. 3. T h e r e is another excellent T ī r t h a pertaining to I n d r a (king of gods) of unmeasured splendour. It is called M a h ā b h a i r a v a 2 a n d is destructive of great sins. 1. V i d e n o t e 1, p. 5 9 7 . 2 . T h o u g h K P . calls t h i s T i r t h a a s ' p e r t a i n i n g t o I n d r a ' , i t i s o n e o f t h e e i g h t Śiva K s e t r a s ( H D . I V . 7 7 5 ) , b u t K a n e ' s reference t o M t . 181.29 is about a T i r t h a of the same n a m e at Vārānasi.


600

Kūrma

Purāna

4. T h e great river Vitastā ( m o d . J h e l u m ) is the holiest of all holy tirthas. It is sacred a n d it removes all sins. Itself it is born of the king of mountains. 5. T h e r e is the T ī r t h a belonging to Ś a m b h u of unlimited splendour. Its n a m e is Pañcatapas. It is here t h a t Bhava (Śiva) was worshipped by the overlord of Devas (?) for the purpose of being mighty. 6. Offering of Pindas etc. at t h a t holy centre is the bestower of pleasure a n d happiness after death. O n e who dies there as a result of observance of holy rites, is h o n o u r d in the Brahmaloka. 7. T h e r e is a splendid shrine of M a h ā d e v a called Kāyāv a r o h a n a 1 where holy d h a r m a s or religious doctrines pertaining to god M a h e ś v a r a have been promulgated by the sages. 8. T h e Śrāddha, the charitable gift, the penance, the H o m a or the fast there is of ever-lasting benefit. He who a b a n d o n s his life there goes to the R u d r a l o k a . 9. T h e r e is another excellent T i r t h a called K a n y ā - T ī r t h a 2 t h a n which there is no better holy centre. O n e should a b a n d o n one's life after going there, whereby one attains eternal worlds. 10. T h e r e is the splendid holy centre of R ā m a , the son of J a m a d a g n i a n d of unimpaired activity. On taking b a t h there in the excellent holy centre, one shall a t t a i n the benefit of gifting away a thousand cows. 11. T h e T ī r t h a well-known as M a h ā k ā l a 3 is famous in the worlds. After going there a n d a b a n d o n i n g the life, one shall a t t a i n the chieftainship of G a n a s . 12. T h e T ī r t h a of great mystic efficacy is the excellent Nakulīśvara 4 T ī r t h a . Lord Nakulīśvara, the glorious deity is present there. 1. K ā y ā v a r o h a n a is m o d e r n K ā r v ā n , 15 miles S o u t h of B a r o d a in t h e D a b h o i Tehsil. T h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f ' d h a r m a ' special t o M a h e ś v a r a p r o b a b l y refers t o t h e P ā ś u p a t a d o c t r i n e s p r o p a g a t e d b y N a ( L a ) kuliśa ( i n t h e 2nd cent. A . D . ) . M a t h u r a inscription of C a n d r a g u p t a II dated A . D . 3 8 . ( G u p t a e r a y e a r 61) m e n t i o n s L a k u l i . 2. T h i s is n e a r t h e sea a n d as such is different from n a m e but under N a r m a d ā (Supra I I . 42.21).

o n e of t h e s a m e

3 . P r o b a b l y refers t o M a h ā k ā l e ś y a r a o f U j j a y i n i . 4 . N a k u b ś a , t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e P ā ś u p a t a sect probably finally settled i n H i m a l a y a s . H e n c e , his dwelling p l a c e c a m e t o b e r e g a r d e d a s a s a c r e d p l a c e . Its e x a c t l o c a t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n .


501

11.44.13-24

13. On the beautiful peak of H i m a v ā n in the splendid (spot called) G a ń g ā d v ā r a , lord M a h ā d e v a is present for ever a l o n g with the goddess a n d accompanied by his disciples. 14. On performing the rite of ablution there a n d after •worshipping the bull-bannered M a h ā d e v a one is purified of of all sins. On d e a t h , one shall a t t a i n the perfect knowledge. 15. T h e r e is another abode of the lord of Devas. It is extremely meritorious a n d splendid. It is well-known as BhīmeśVara. 1 On visiting it one eschews sins. 16. T h e r e is another confluence of river C a n d a v e g a . 2 It is destructive of sins. On b a t h i n g there a n d drinking the waters, one is freed from the sin of Brāhmana-slaughter. 17. T h e great city n a m e d Vārānasī is very divine. It is a t e n thousand times, nay, a h u n d r e d million times m o r e auspicious t h a n all these holy centres. 18. Formerly, its greatness h a d been n a r r a t e d to you by m e . Nowhere else does one a t t a i n salvation in a single birth even by means of Yoga. 19. These sacred places t h a t remove sins of m e n have b e e n m e n t i o n e d in view of their i m p o r t a n c e . By visiting holy centres, one should wash off one's sin (accumulated) at least in h u n d r e d s of births (?) 20. T h e holy centres a r e not fruitful to h i m who forsakes his duties a n d goes on pilgrimage to various holy centres. T h e holy centres do not benefit h i m either in this world or in the o t h e r world. 2 1 . A person performing expiatory rites, a widower, a w a n d e r i n g mendicant, or a householder or a person of their ilk should go on pilgrimage to holy centres. 22. O n e m a y go on a pilgrimage alongwith one's wife as well as the sacrificial fires. If he assiduously performs the pilgri­ m a g e , he shall be freed from all sins. He shall a t t a i n the goal as mentioned before. 23-24. A person desirous of going on pilgrimage shall wipe off the threefold indebtedness (viz. to gods, sages a n d one's 1.

One

BhimeśVara

in

mentioned

under

N a r m a d ā (vide

I I . 41.20). T h i s is p r o b a b l y a different T i r t h a . 2.

M t . p . 2 2 . 2 8 . T h e r e also i t i s r e g a r d e d s a c r e d t o P i t r s .

Supra


602

Kūrma Purāna

manes). He shall assign proper means of sons a n d entrust his wife to their care.

livelihood

for t h e

In the context of expiatory rites the greatness of the holy 1 centres has been recounted. He who reads this or listens tothis is freed from all sins.

CHAPTER FORTYFTVE The description offour types of Dissolution* Sūta said : 1. After hearing these words or wisdom uttered orally by N ā r ā y a n a , the sages asked the lord who h a d assumed the form of a Tortoise. The sages said : 2-3. knowledge

D h a r m a * has been recounted by you. T h e perfect (leading t o ) salvation has been explained in detail.

1. VV. 20-24 give i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t eligibility to go on a p i l g r i m a g e . P i l g r i m a g e to s a c r e d p l a c e s is a sort of a t o n e m e n t for sins. H e n c e t h e s e c h a p t e r s followed t h e section o f e x p i a t i o n . 2. Description of the dissolution of the world a n d recreation (Pratisarga) i s o n e o f t h e m a i n Characteristics o f a P u r ā n a . T h e K P . a n y h o w forgot t o i n c l u d e i t i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . S o before e n d i n g t h e K P . t h i s c h a p t e r w a s i n c l u d e d . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e dissolution o f t h e u n i v e r s e i s f o u n d i n t h e M b h . Ś ā n t i , c h s . 2 3 3 , 312 a n d m o s t P u r ā n a s e.g. A P . 368-1-27, Bh. P . X I I . 4 . 1 . - 4 3 , Va. P . 100-118-199. A s usual t h e r e are common descriptions c o n t a i n i n g s o m e c o m m o n verses. 3 . T h e w o r d dharma i n this verse i m p l i e s S m r t i c h a p t e r s i n K P . I , a n d Moksa jñāna implies t h e so-called livara-gitā a c c o r d i n g t o H a z r a , a n d h e n c e Vyāsa-gttā i s a n i n t e r p o l a t i o n b y P ā ś u p a t a s . T h e t o p i c s i n t h e Vyāsa-gitā c a n be c a l l e d dharma t as t h e y d e a l w i t h j e x p i a t o r y rites, p i l g r i m a g e e t c . , b u t t h a t does n o t m e e t H a z r a ' s objections. Vyāsa-gītā is a n i n t e r p o l a t i o n i n t h e strict sense o f t h e t e r m .


II.45.4-12

603

T h e detailed explanation of the worlds, the genealogies of king* a n d sages a n d the M a n v a n t a r a s have been explained. O lord of the chief of Devas, it behoves you now to describe t h e dissolution of the living beings, as n a r r a t e d by you before. O lord of the past a n d the future. Sūta said : 4. On hearing their words, the lord who h a d assumed the form of a Tortoise, the great Yogin, recounted the Pratisañcara (dissolution) of all living beings. Kūrma said : 5. In this P u r ā n a the dissolution mentioned is of four types viz.: Nitya, Naimittika, Prākrta a n d Ātyantika ( e a c h type is described b e l o w ) . 6. T h e destruction of the living beings t h a t is witnessed every d a y in this world is called Nitya dissolution by the sages. 7. T h e dissolution of the three worlds at the e n d of the K a l p a (a d a y of B r a h m a ) caused by B r a h m a ( d u e to his sleep at the e n d of his day) is called Naimittika dissolution by learned men. 8. W h e n the ultimate causes of the universe (i.e. beginning with M a h a t a n d ending with Viśesa) u n d e r g o dissolution it is called Prākrta Pratisarga (dissolution pertaining to P r a k r t i ) by those who ponder over K ā l a . 9. T h e final absorption of the Yogin into the Supreme Ā t m a n as a result of the realisation (Jñāna) is called Ātyantika Pratisarga (ultimate dissolution) by those B r ā h m a n a s who p o n d e r over K ā l a . 10. T h e Ātyantika Pralaya achieved t h r o u g h J ñ ā n a has already been recounted. Now I shall tell you the Naimittika Pralaya succinctly. 11. At the end of the thousand sets of four Yugas, when the t i m e of dissolution arrives, Prajāpati sets a b o u t to stabilise all subjects within his Ā t m a n (i.e. withdrawing them into himself). 12. T h e n for a period of h u n d r e d years, a severe absence of rain takes place. This terrible d r a u g h t destructive of beings destroys all living beings.


604

Kūrma Purāna

13. O lord of the E a r t h , those beings of deficient strength a r e dissolved at the outset. T h e y a t t a i n the state of Bkūmi ( b e c o m e one with the E a r t h ) . 14. T h e n the sun rises up a n d begins to blaze with its seven refulgent rays. His rays become u n b e a r a b l e . T h r o u g h t h e m he drinks up water. 15. T h e seven rays of the sun drink up the water from the great ocean. T h a n k s to this intake, they become brilliant a n d change themselves into seven suns. 16. T h e n those seven rays (the seven suns) dry up the four quarters. Like the fires, they b u r n the four worlds entirely. 17. Those seven brilliant suns spread up a n d down by means of their rays. Brightened up by the fire at t h e end of t h e Yugas, they blaze forth. 18. Those suns become illuminated by means of the water (sucked up by t h e m ) . T h e y shed forth thousands of rays enveloping t h e whole sky; they scorch and b u r n t h e E a r t h . 19. Being b u r n t by their brilliance, t h e E a r t h alongwith t h e mountains, rivers, oceans a n d continents becomes devoid of moisture. 20-21. These blazing rays which have spread down, above a n d obliquely on all sides so powerfully a n d envelop everything t h a t all these form one mass of flame mixed with solar fire a n d form one fiery unit. 22. T h e fire that crops up thus becomes destructive of all worlds. T h e fiery sphere immediately burns up the four worlds by its brilliance (burning c a p a c i t y ) . 23. T h u s when all things movable a n d immovable are destroyed, t h e e a r t h being devoid of trees a n d grass looks like t h e back of a tortoise. 24. T h e entire universe appears like a frying p a n . rays completely b u r n everything down again a n d again.

The

25. Thereafter, the animals in t h e netherworlds as well as those in the great oceans become destroyed a n d dissolved. T h e y crumble a n d get mixed into t h e earth. 26. L o r d Fire, with seven souls, reduces everything to ashes—the continents, t h e mountains, the Varsas (subconti­ nents) a n d the great oceans.


605

11.45.27-39

27. T h e flourishing Are drinks up the waters from t h e oceans a n d rivers. It blazes up resting on the E a r t h . 28. T h e n the great Samvartaka fire being ablaze a n d expanded by the power of the wind (Māruteya)* crossing over the m o u n t a i n s burns down t h e worlds. 29. After b u r n i n g the E a r t h , it b u r n s up Rasātala. After b u r n i n g the E a r t h down below, it burns the heaven above. 30. T h e flames of t h a t Samvartaka fire leap up hundreds, thousands a n d ten thousands of Yojanas. 3 1 . Becoming more brilliant by being urged by K ā l a r u d r a 1 ( R u d r a , the destroyer) it burns the Gandharvas, Piśācas, Yaksas, serpents a n d Rāksasas. 32. T h e K ā l ā g n i (the fire of destruction) whose b o d y has been pervaded by K ā l a entirely consumes Bhūrloka, Bhuvarloka a n d M a h a r l o k a . 33-34. W h e n all these worlds a r e pervaded on the sides above by the fire, it shines a n d illuminates everything hidden. It enters the entire Universe. T h e n the terrible S a m v a r t a k a clouds rise up in the sky. T h e y have the shapes of h u g e elephants. T h e y are embellished with lightning. 35-38. T h e r e arise in the sky the terrible Samvartaka clouds of world destruction. Some are dark like the blue-lotus; some resemble the water-lilies; some are smoke-coloured; some a r e yellow, some have the colour of donkeys, a n d others resemble the red lac juice. Others are white like conch a n d the K u n d a flowers. Some clouds are like t h e finest variety of collyrium. Others are like the red arsenic and a few resemble pigeons. Some a p p e a r like glow-worms and others resemble yellow orpiment. Some a r e like rainbows. Such clouds rise up in the heaven. 39. Some are like m o u n t a i n s ; some are comparable to huge herds of elephants. Others are like heaps of b u r n i n g coal a n d some like shoals of fishes. *v.l. rudra-tejo-vijrmbhitah " e x p a n d e d b y t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f R u d r a . " 1. Rudra,

E v e n i n this c h a p t e r , t h e c r e d i t o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e w o r l d i s given vide

to

t h e n e x t c h a p t e r for R u d r a ' s Tāndava d a n c e . B u t i n V . P . V I . 4 ,

i t i s V i s n u w h o dissolves t h e w o r l d .


606

Kūrma Purāna

40. T h e n all these types of clouds of terrible form a n d loud report fill up the whole of the firmament. 4 1 . T h e n those terrible roaring clouds of seven types b o r n of the sun release torrents of water a n d extinguish the fire. 42. Like a flood water gushes out from them as rain. T h e terrible a n d inauspicious r a i n destroys t h e fire. 4 3 . T h e entire universe is filled with water of enormous quantities. On being thus overpowered by w a t e r t h e fire merges itself into the water. 44. D u e to the waters showered by the clouds the fire is subdued in hundreds of years. T h e flood envelops t h e entire universe with h u g e currents of water. 4 5 . Impelled by the self-born deity, these showers fill t h e e a r t h with huge floods of water like the flow-tide of an ocean. 46. T h e whole E a r t h alongwith the m o u n t a i n s a n d continents is slowly covered with water. T h e water d r u n k by the rays of the sun remains in the clouds. 47. filled u p .

Again it falls on the E a r t h whereby the oceans are Thereafter the oceans go beyond their shores

everywhere. 48-49. T h e mountains become submerged. T h e e a r t h too sinks u n d e r the water. In t h a t vast a n d terrible sheet of water, all t h e mobile a n d immobile beings get lost. Lord Frajāpati adopts the Yogic slumber a n d lies down therein. Learned m e n say t h a t a K a l p a consists of a thousand cycles of four Yugas. 50. T h e present K a l p a is the V ā r ā h a . Its detailed description has been given. T h e r e are innumerable K a l p a s pertaining to B r a h m a , Visnu and Śiva. 5 1 . These have been recounted in the P u r ā n a s by the sages w h o p o n d e r over K ā l a ( T i m e ) . T h e greatness of H a r i predominates in the Sāttvika K a l p a s . 52. It is said t h a t (the greatness) of H a r a (predominates) in the T ā m a s a K a l p a s a n d (the greatness) of Prajāpati ( p r e ­ dominates) in the Rājasa K a l p a . T h e V ā r ā h a K a l p a t h a t is c u r r e n t now is considered to be Sāttvika.


11.45.53-61

607

53-54a. T h e r e are other Sāttvika K a l p a s also. I (Lord K ū r m a V i s n u ) predominate in t h e m . After acquiring medita­ tion, penance a n d perfect knowledge, the Yogins propitiate <Jiriśa a n d a t t a i n t h a t great region. 54b-55a. I am the wielder (master) of M ā y ā . I adopt M ā y ā a n d Yogic slumber in the whole universe as it submerges into the sheet of water. 55b-56a. At t h a t time, during the period of my sleep the g r e a t sages of noble souls staying in the Janaloka see me with t h e i r Yogic vision. 56b. I am the lord a n d the ancient Purusa, the origin {creator) of B h u h ( t h e E a r t h ) a n d Bhuvah (the e t h e r ) . 57-58. I am the glorious one with thousand feet, thousand eyes a n d thousand legs. I am the M a n t r a , the Brāhmanas, the cows, the sacriñcial twigs, the Proksanīya (that which should be sprinkled), the Soma, the Vrata, (religious vow) the Samvartaka fire, the great A t m a n , the great a n d sacred glory. 59. I am the intellect, the master of senses ( t h e l o r d , protector of cowherds), Brahma's face, the infinite redeemer, t h e Yogin, the goal, the most excellent a m o n g those who afford t h e goal. 60. I am the H a m s a (swan), the vital breath, K a p i l a , of universal form, the eternal one, the i m m a n e n t soul, Prakrti, K ā l a ( T i m e ) , the seed of the universe, the i m m o r t a l nectar. 61. T h e r e is no mother, father or great lord other t h a n I. N ā r ā y a n a of the colour of the sun is the protector of the universe. I am the purusa of Yogic form. T h e Ascetics who abide by the Yogic practice see me. After realising the A t m a n they attain my reality.


Kūrma Purāna CHAPTER FORTYSIX Dissolution and subsidiary creation Kūrma said : 1.

Henceforth, I shall explain the P r ā k r t a d i s s o l u t i o n 1

It is excellent. Even as I recount it succinctly, listen to it. 2. W h e n the two P a r ā r d h a periods pass by (i.e. after the life time of god B r a h m a ) , K ā l a , the r e c k o n e f o f the worlds," ffitT dark fire of dissolution, sets out to reduce the entire universe to ashes. 3. After projecting the A t m a n (his self) into A t m a n , a n d having become lord M a h e ś v a r a , he ( K ā l a ) burns t h e entire cosmic egg including Devas, Asuras a n d h u m a n beings. —i. H a v i n g entered into h i m ( K ā l ā g n i ) , lord M a h ā d e v a , Nīlalohita, assumes a terrible form a n d annihilates the worlds. „~ 5. Entering t h e solar sphere a n d manifesting himself in various ways, he assumes t h e form of the seven-steeded deity (i.e. t h e sun) a n d b u r n s the entire world. 6. After b u r n i n g t h e entire universe, he discharges t h e g r e a t miraculous w e a p o n Brahmaśiras, t h a t b u r n s everything, on t h e bodies of deities. 7. W h e n all Devas h a d been b u r n t , t h e goddess, t h e d a u g h t e r of the most excellent of the mountains, stands by as t h e sole witness of Ś a m b h u . So says t h e Vedic Śrutis. 8. T h e lord makes an excellent g a r l a n d of t h e skulls of the heads of Devas a n d decorates himself w i t h it. He fills the sphere of the firmament by the multitudes of suns a n d moons etc.

1. This concluding chapter u n i v e r s e after t h e d e a t h o f B r a h m a contents of the P u r ā n a .

d e a l s w i t h t h e dissolution o f t h e (Prākrta Pralaya) a n d t h e t a b l e o f

T h e Prākrta Pralaya—The i n v o l u t i o n of t h e universe till a l l t h e gunas a t t a i n e q u i l i b r i u m , i s b a s e d o n t h e S ā ń k h y a , a l l t h e c r e d i t o f this P r a l a y a i s g i v e n t o g o d Śiva. I a . V V . 8-12 describe t h e T ā n d a v a d a n c e o f Śiva.


II.46.9-20

609

9. T h e lord has a thousand (i.e. i n n u m e r a b l e ) eyes a n d a thousand eyelids ( v . l . thousand forms), a thousand h a n d s a n d feet a n d a thousand rays of splendour. He is mightily-armed. 10. His face is terrible due to the curved fangs. His eyes shine like blazing fires. Holding the trident a n d wearing the elephant hide, he is established in his lordly Yoga. 11. I m b i b i n g the great Bliss, the prolific effusion of the nectar, īśvara glances at the goddess a n d performs a T ā n d a v a dance by himself. 12. T h e goddess imbibes the highly auspicious N e c t a r of dances of h e r lord. She adopts Yoga a n d becomes one with the body of the Trident-bearing Lord. 13. After b u r n i n g the sphere of the cosmic egg, which is n a t u r a l l y fiery, the Pināka-bearing Lord enjoys the pleasures of T ā n d a v a d a n c e out of his own will. 14. W h e n Devas h a d been annihilated a n d B r a h m a , V i s n u a n d the Pināka-bearing lord Śiva (are unified in a resting position), the element of e a r t h gets dissolved in the waters alongwith its attributes. 1 15. Havyavāhana (Fire) swallows the principle of water alongwith its attributes. T h e element of Tejas (fire) accompa­ nied by all its attributes undergoes dissolution in the element of Vāyu (wind). 16. T h e wind, the sustainer of (livings beings in) the universe alongwith (its) attributes gets dissolved in the Ether. T h e E t h e r accompanied by its attribute gets dissolved in the Bhūtādi (Tātnasa A h a r h k ā r a ) . 17. All the sense-organs become dissolved in the Taijasa (Rājasa A h a r h k ā r a ) . O excellent ones, the Vaikārika (Sāttvika Aharhkāra) gets dissolved alongwith the groups of Devas. 18. T h e three types of A h a m k a r a (ego) get dissolved in the principle Mahat. T h e Mahat (Intellect) principle gets dissolved in B r a h m a of unmeasured prowess, alongwith these. 19-20. T h e unmanifast imperishable source of origin of the universe which is single a n d unchanging annihilates

1. ascribed

V V . 14-21 describe t h e process of involution, t h e c r e d i t of w h i c h is t o Śiva.


Kūrma Purāna

610

things. After annihilating the living beings a n d the prin­ ciples thus, M a h e ś v a r a separates P r a d h ā n a a n d the great Purusa, from each other. This is said to be the annihilation of the u n b o r n P r a d h ā n a a n d Purusa. 2 1 . T h e dissolution does not exist by itself. It originates from the will of M a h e ś v a r a . W h e n P r a d h ā n a is in a state of equilibrium of gunas, it is mentioned as unmanifested Prakrti. 22. P r a d h ā n a , the principle of Māyā, is insentient and the source of origin of the universe. T h e A t m a n , the twentyfifth (principle) is stationed within the hearts of all. It is the p u r e consciousness and knowledge. 23. It is sung about by sages as the Sāksin (cosmic Wit­ ness), the great P i t ā m a h a (grandfather). T h e power of Annihilation is certainly the Śakti of M a h e ś v a r a . 24a. T h e Śruti says that everything beginning with Pra­ d h ā n a a n d ending with Viśesa is present* in the physical body of R u d r a . 24b-25. God Śañkara brings about the eternal Laya (dissolution) of all Yogins whose hearts are dedicated to spiritual knowledge. In this way this self-controlled (or the controller of all) R u d r a brings about the annihilation of the Universe. 26-27a. T h e Śruti says that the slumbering a n d the enchanting Śakti is N ā r ā y a n a . Lord Hiranyagarbha, the twentyfifth principle, creates the entire universe Consisting of the manifest a n d the non-manifest, through Prakrti after identifying himself with it. 27b. (Defective) T h e Śaktis of Brahma, Visnu a n d Iśa, latent within the A t m a n itself are weak* * (?) [v.l. all^pervading, quiescent, and omnipresent. T h e y are the beslowers of worldly pleasures a n d salvation. 28. T h e y are all powerful, binding everything, (v.l. worthy of salute by all) perpetual a n d infinite in their enjoy­ ments of pleasures. T h e y form one imperishable principle in the n a t u r e of Lord Purusa, P r a d h ā n a . •v.l. daliet

"will b u r n d o w n "

everything

b e g i n n i n g w i t h Mahat a n d

e n d i n g w i t h Viiesa. **obviously

a

m i s p r i n t v.l.

sarvatah—all-round,

all-pervading.


11.46.29-40

611

29-30a. T h e r e are thousands of other divine Śaktis there­ in. Aditya (Sun) a n d other immortal beings are worshipped through different kinds of Yajñas. For each of these Śaktis there are thousands a n d hundreds of physical forms mentioned. T h e r e is only one attributeless potency described variously d u e to its greatness. 30b-31a. Lord Maheśvara himself adopts that Śakti (in his activities). ( W i t h that Śakti) he creates m a n y bodies. He is seen sporting about. 31b-32a. In all the Yajñas it is he who is worshipped by the B r ā h m a n a s , the expounders of the Vedas. It is heard in the Vedas t h a t R u d r a is the bestower of all desires. 32b-33a. Among the Śaktis of the great Atman the deities of Brahma, Visnu a n d M a h e ś v a r a are remembered as the most important. 33b-34a. It is sung (stated) that the Lord, the eternal great Atman, the Atman t h a t wields all Māyās, the tridentbearing M a h e ś v a r a is beyond these three. 34b-36a. Some speak of H i m as Agni (as the sole lord) ; others call it N ā r ā y a n a . Some speak of it as I n d r a . Others speak of it as P r ā n a and still others speak of it as Brahma. (Really sperking) Brahma, Visnu, Agni, V a r u n a , all Devas as well as sages are glorified as the variants of the same single entity viz. R u d r a . 36b-37a. Śiva bestows benefits after assuming respect­ ively those forms by resorting to which they worship Parameśvara. 37b-38a. Hence, by resorting to one eternal form, one should propitiate M a h ā d e v a . O n e attains thereby the greatest region. 38b-39. But you propitiate the eternal Lord M a h ā ­ deva, the omnipotent, lord Giriśa whether Saguna or Nirguna (with or without attributes). T h e Nirguna (attributeless) form of Yoga has already been explained to you by me before. 40. T h e devotee desirous of climbing (or attaining) to the Yoga of Saguna type should worship p a r a m e ś v a r a (the supreme R u l e r ) in the Saguna f o r m — t h e form with three eyes, bearing Pināka with m a t t e d hair and clad in elephant hide.


612

Kūrma Purāna

4 1 . Or he should meditate on R u d r a with golden lustre or shining like a thousand suns : So it is h e a r d (mentioned) in the Vedas. O leading sages, this is pointed out as Sabija Toga (i.e. the Yoga with the seed). 42-43a. O n e who is incompetent to perform this should worship H a r a as Vifva (the universe) or as B r a h m a . O leading sages, if one is incapable of even this, one should devotedly worship Vāyu ( w i n d ) , Agni (fire), I n d r a a n d others. 43b-44a. Hence, one should forsake all Devas begin­ ning with B r a h m a a n d propitiate Virūpāksa (three-eyed) i.e. Śiva who is present at t h e beginning, in the middle a n d the end.* 44b-46a. He should be p u r e , devoted to his own D h a r m a or K a r m a n . He should a d o p t the p a t h of devotion. He shall ulti­ mately a p p r o a c h Śiva of such a splendid form. This is pointed out as Sabija Toga. It is extremely sanctifying. 46b-47. O n e who practises Yoga in accordance with the injunctions shall attain the region of Iśvara. T w o other pure Bhūvanās(meditations) have been mentioned to you. M o r e ­ over, t h e Nirblja a n d Sabija Yoga has been mentioned. T h e perfect knowledge which is the Nirbija one has been mentioned to you before by m e . 48. A sensible m a n should practise the worship of Visnu, R u d r a a n d Viriñci in the Sabija Toga, or he m a y worship Vāyu and other Devas with d u e a t t a c h m e n t to t h e m a n d with his self controlled. 49. He should worship Visnu, H a r i , who assumes the four Mūrtis (vyūhas) who has neither beginning nor destruction and who is the eternal lord Vāsudeva. 50. He should worship N ā r ā y a n a who is the source of origin of the universe, whose greatest region is in the firmament.

1. V V . 43b-53 describe t h e sabija Yoga p a t h l e a d i n g t o Brahma-bhāvand ( m e d i t a t i o n of B r a h m a n ) . A synthesis of V a i s n a v b m a n d Saivism is a t t e m p t e d i n this f i n a l discourse b y K ū r m a , a s t h e w o r s h i p o f V i j n u , R u d r a a n d B r a h m a i n p r a c t i c e of sabija Yoga is e x h o r t e d t h e r e i n ( v i d e vv. 48-50). T h e f i n a l S i d d h ā n t a o f K ū r m a P u r ā n a i s t h e U p a n i s a d i c f o r m u l a Sarvam khalvidam Brahma p a r a p h r a s e d by K P . : tasmād Brahma-mayarh jagat ( V . 5 3 a ) . 0

[i

~ •

r . 4*vu.<

.

..

"


H.46.51-60

613

He should invariably wear his Liñga (symbols), he should be devoted to him and resort to him. 5 1 . T h e same procedure is to be followed in the final Brahma-Bhāvanā (meditation of B r a h m a n ) . T h u s the perfect knowledge related to Bhāvanā (meditation) has been explained by m e . 52-53. It is this t h a t had been narrated formerly by me to the sage I n d r a d y u m n a . This universe of the n a t u r e of the manifest is born sentient a n d non-sentient. T h e Supreme B r a h m a n is its Iśvara ( L o r d ) . Hence, the universe is identical with the B r a h m a n . Sūta said : After saying this much Lord J a n ā r d a n a stopped. Accom­ panied by I n d r a , the sages eulogised Visnu the consort of Mā (i.e. L a k s m ī ) . Eulogy of Visnu The sages said : 54. Obeisance to you, to Visnu, the great A t m a n of the form of the tortoise. Hail to Vāsudeva, to omnipresent Nārāyana. 55. Obeisance, again and again to you, to K r s n a , a n d to Govinda, Obeisance always to you, to M ā d h a v a , to the lord of Yajñas. 56. Obeisance to you with a thousand (i.e. innumerable) heads. Salutation to you with a thousand eyes. Obeisance to one with a thousand hands and to one with a thousand feet. 57. Om ! Hail to Visnu of the embodiment of perfect knowledge, to the great Atman. Obeisance to you, the Bliss. Bow to you who are beyond the pale of M ā y ā . 58. Salutation to you of concealed body (or O K ū r m a Tortoise), to you the attributeless (Nirguna) one, to the ancient Purusa, of the form of only p u r e Existence. 59. Obeisance to Sāńkhya; Bow to the p u r e Yoga, obeisance to you, comprehensible through the meditation on D h a r m a ; salutation be to the unsullied one. 60. H a i l to you the principle of Yoga; obeisance to the I ś v a r a of great Yoga; obeisance to the lord of the greater a n d


614

Kūrma Purāna

the lesser beings. Obeisance to you, comprehensible through the™V_e4as. 61. "Obeisance to the enlightened o n e , 1 to the p u r e o n e ; Bows again a n d again to you, t h e wielder of M ā y ā . Obeisance to Vedhas. 62. H a i l to you V a r ā h a ; obeisance to you N a r a simha; bow to you V ā m a n a ; obeisance to you Hrsīkeśa. 63. Obeisance to the bestower of heavenly pleasures and salvation; salutation to one whose A t m a n is un-obstructed. Obeisance to one a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h Yoga; obeisance to the Yogin, to the bestower of Yogas. 64-65a. Obeisance to the lord of Devas. H a i l to you, the suppressor of the distress of Devas. O lord, the perfect knowledge t h a t is destructive of all worldly existence (Samsāra) has been acquired by us, thanks to your g r a c e — t h e perfect knowledge on realising which one attains immortality. 65b-67a. By your grace different kinds of D h a r m a were heard, the detailed n a r r a t i o n of the races a n d the M a n v a n taras, the Sarga, t h e Pratisarga and the detailed description of this cosmic egg—everything was understood; indeed you are the witness of all the universe; you are the cause of the universe; you are the great N ā r ā y a n a . It behoves you the Infinite A t m a n , to save us, who have sought refuge in you alone." Sūta said : 67b-68a. O Brāhmanas, the whole of the K ū r m a P u r ā n a , that bestows worldly pleasures a n d salvation has been related lo you. It is the same as was narrated by G a d ā d h a r a (Visnu). 68b-69. In this P u r ā n a , 2 at the outset, the birth of Laksmī has been n a r r a t e d . In order to fascinate the living 1. namo buddhāya, t h o u g h t r a n s l a t e d here as ' o b e i s a n c e to the e n l i g h t e n e d one, it c a n be t a k e n as ' o b e i s a n c e to Buddha'. Purānas did try ( a n d successfully s o ) t o a c c o m m o d a t e B u d d h a i n B r a h m a n i s m b y r e g a r d i n g h i m as an incarnation of Visnu. 2 . V V . 69-118 give t h e m a i n c o n t e n t s o f this P u r ā n a . I t i s n o t a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i n t h e m o d e r n sense b u t a n e n u m e r a t i o n o f t h e m a i n topics i n this P u r ā n a . E v e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g this s u m m a r y is said to absolve o n e of all sins a n d s e c u r e h o n o u r i n B r a h m a l o k a ( v . 1 1 9 ) .


11.46.70-81

615

beings, h e r birth has been intended by Vāsudeva. T h e crea­ tions of the Prajāpatis, the duties of different Varnas (castes) a n d their avocations have been described. 70-73a. T h e splendid characteristics of D h a r m a , Artha, K a m a a n d Moksa have been mentioned. T h e identity, the separateness a n d the special characteristics of Brahma, Visnu a n d the intelligent M a h e ś a have been recounted. T h e charac­ teristics of the Devotees have been mentioned. T h e behaviour, the d i e t * a n d the characteristics of the castes and stages of life have been narrated precisely. O leading sages, the primordial creation, the seven coverings of the A n d a (i.e. cosmic Egg) and the creation of H i r a n y a g a r b h a have been related. 73b-77. T h e period a n d units of time have been enume­ rated, then the greatness of I ś v a r a ; the lying down in the waters by B r a h m a ; the derivation of the n a m e s ; the uplift of the Earth by Visnu in the form of a Boar; the n a r r a t i o n of M u k h y a a n d other creations, then the creation of the sages; narration of the creation of R u d r a a n d Rsis and of sages; the creation of the subjects by D h a r m a before the Tāmasa creation; the argument between B r a h m a a n d Visnu; the entry of B r a h m a into the body of Visnu the birth from the lotus of the intelligent lord a n d his delusion; the vision of M a h e ś a a n d the greatness of M a h e ś a recounted by Visnu. 78. T h e granting of divine vision unto Brahma, the supreme god (Paramesthin) ; the eulogy of the lord of Devas by Brahma. Paramesthin. 79-80. T h e grace of Śiva a n d the granting of boons; the dialogue between Visnu a n d Śańkara the great A t m a n ; the granting of boons at the outset a n d then the disappearance of the Pināka-bearing lord. O Brāhmanas, thereafter, the slaying of M a d h u a n d K a i t a b h a h a s been n a r r a t e d . 81. The incarnation of lord B r a h m a from the umbilical lotus of Visnu is described. So also the uniñcation of the lord with B r a h m a formerly has been narrated. * T h i s a p p e a r s to be a m i s p r i n t as the strangeness of t h e m e a n i n g shows. T h e v.l. iobhanam for bhqjanam is better. W i t h t h a t v.l. t h e line m e a n s 'excellent b e h a v i o u r of t h e devotees has been d e s c r i b e d '


Kūrma Purāna

616

82. T h e delusion of B r a h m a a n d then the recognition of H a r i has been described j the performance of the penance by the intelligent lord of Devas has been narrated. 83. T h e appearance of M a h e ś a from the forehead of B r a h m a is mentioned thereafter; the creative activity of the R u d r a s a n d its prohibition of the same by B r a h m a is told. 84-85. T h e glory of the lord of Devas, the granting of the boons a n d the instruction, the vanishment of the lord, the performance of penance of the egg-born; the appearance of the lord of D e v a s ; R u d r a ' s possession of half-male a n d half-female form; the narration of separation of the goddess from the Pināka-bearing lord of Devas. 86. Afterwards the daughtership of the goddess of Daksa as well as that of Himalaya is described alongwith the reality of the goddess. 87. T h e manifestation of the divine a n d the universeform, the thousand names of the goddess are e n u m e r a t e d by the father H i m a v a n himself. 88. T h e advice given by the great goddess; the grant­ ing of the b o o n s ; T h e creation of subjects by Bhrgu and o t h e r s ; the detailed n a r r a t i o n of the race of kings. 89. T h e Practtasatva (the state of being the son of Pracetas) of Daksa, the destruction of Yajña of Daksa, the dispute between D a d h ī c a a n d Daksa is then narrated. 90. O leading sages, thereafter the imprecation of the sages (by Dadhīca) has been m e n t i o n e d ; then the arrival of R u d r a , his grace a n d the vanishment of the Pināka-bearing lord. 9 1 . T h e n the advice to P i t ā m a h a for the protection is described (ranāya* 'for fighting'), the creation of the subjects by D a k s a a n d Kaśyapa, the great A t m a n . 92. T h e slaying of Hiranyakaśipu and then that of Hiranyāksa, thereafter, the curse to the dwellers of the D e v a d ā r u forest is mentioned. 9 3 . T h e n the subjugation of A n d h a k a a n d the (granting of) the excellent chieftainship of the Ganas. T h e curbing of P r a h l ā d a a n d the binding over of Bali. v.l. rakfaniya i n s t e a d of ' r a n ā y a ' is a c c e p t e d .


11.46.94-105

617

94. T h e defeat o f B ā n a and t h e grace shown to him by the trident-bearing l o r d ; the detailed n a r r a t i o n of t h e families of the sages; the races of t h e king are glorified. 95. T h e birth of H a r i , Visnu out of his own free will from Vasudeva, visit to U p a m a n y u a n d t h e performance of penance. 96. T h e acquisition of the boon after seeing t h e threeeyed M a h ā d e v a accompanied by A m b ā ; t h e d e p a r t u r e to Kailāsa a n d staying there by Śārńgin ( K r s n a ) . 97. T h e n the fear of the dwellers of Dvārāvatī, their protection by G a r u d a after conquering the powerful enemies are described. 98. T h e arrival of N ā r a d a a n d the j o u r n e y of G a r u t m a n ( G a r u d a ) , thereafter the arrival of K r s n a to t h e hermitage of the sages. 99. T h e daily routine of Vasudeva. His worship of Śivalińga. Thereafter, the questions p u t by t h e sage M ā r karujeya have been mentioned. 100. T h e n a r r a t i o n of t h e precise n a t u r e of the L i ń g a a n d t h e Lińgin as a sequel to the n a r r a t i o n of t h e worship of Lińga, the fear arising out of Lińga. * 101. O leading sages, in t h e middle, t h e delusion of B r a h m a a n d Visnu has been described and their d e p a r t u r e up a n d down t h e L i ń g a has been related. 102. T h e eulogy of the lord of Devas, the grace of supreme deity Śiva, vanishment of the Lińga a n d t h e birth of S ā m b a thereafter. 103. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , thereafter A n i r u d d h a ' s birth has been glorified, (then) the inclination of K r s n a to­ wards d e p a r t u r e ( t h e n c e ) , a n d the arrival of t h e sages. 104. T h e laying down of precepts by K r s n a ; the grant­ ing of the boons by the great A t m a n , K r s n a ' s d e p a r t u r e a n d visit of P ā r t h a (Arjuna). 105. N a r r a t i o n of t h e eternal characteristics of Yugas by K r s n a d v a i p ā y a n a ; the benediction to P ā r t h a a n d his d e p a r t u r e to V ā r ā n a s I thence. ' M i s p r i n t for āvirbhiva ' m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e L i ń g a . '


618

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106. (The d e p a r t u r e to Vārānasī) by Vyāsa the saintly son of Parāśara, the worker of miracles, the greatness of Vārānasī a n d the description of holy centres. 107. Vyāsa's pilgrimage, vision of the goddess, his banishment and g r a n t i n g of the boons (have been m e n t i o n e d ) . 108. T h e greatness of Prayāga; the n a r r a t i o n of various holy centres, O Brāhmanas, a n d the enormous benefit therefrom a n d the going away of Mārkandeya, O B r ā h m a n a s . 109. T h e n a t u r e of the worlds, the a r r a n g e m e n t of the luminaries, the decisive position of the sub-continents a n d the rivers therein. 110. T h e e n u m e r a t i o n of the m o u n t a i n s ; the abodes of heaven-dwellers; the classification of continents a n d the description of Śveta D v ī p a . 111. T h e lying (sleeping) of Visnu, the greatness of the great Ā t m a n ; the n a r r a t i o n of the M a n v a n t a r a s a n d the grandeur of Visnu. 112. T h e classification of the Vedas into Śākhās ( b r a n c h e s ) ; the e n u m e r a t i o n of Vyāsas; O leading sages, (the details) of non-vedas ( P u r ā n a s etc.) a n d Vedas have been mentioned. 113. T h e story of Yogeśvaras a n d the glorification of their disciples. T h e various mystic Gītās of Iśvara have been glorified. 114. T h e conduct of life of the castes a n d stages of life; the mode of expiatory rites; the Kāp&litva (the state of holding the skull) of R u d r a and his begging for alms. 115. T h e n a r r a t i o n of the chaste ladies a n d the discussion ( a n d decision) about sacred places, t h e restraint of M a ń k a n a k a . All these have been described. 116. O B r ā h m a n a s , the killing of K ā l a is succinctly mentioned. So also the entry of Śambhu as well as of Visnu into the forest of D e v a d ā r u trees. 117. T h e manifestation to the sages of the six clans by the intelligent lord of D e v a s ; the granting of boons by the lore to N a n d i n has been glorified. 118. Thereafter, the Naimittika dissolution has been described; subsequently the P r ā k r t a dissolution as well as the Sabija yoga has been explained.


11.46.119-131

619

119. He w h o is glorified in the P u r ā n a after understanding its summary, thus, becomes freed from all sins a n d is honoured in t h e Brahmaloka. 120-121. After saying this and taking goddess Śrī (with h i m ) , P u r u s o t t a m a (lord Visnu) a b a n d o n e d the form of the tortoise a n d w e n t ; a n d then H a r a (also) (v.l. Hari is relevant in t h e c o n t e x t ) . After saluting Visnu, the Supreme person, a n d drinking the nectar, Devas and sages went over to their respective abodes, O B r ā h m a n a s . 122. T h e whole of this P u r ā n a was directly n a r r a t e d by Visnu who h a d assumed the form of the tortoise, who is t h e over­ lord of Devas a n d the source of origin of the universe. 123. O Brāhmanas, he who regularly reads this (through) succinctly becomes freed from all sins and is honoured in the Brahmaloka. 124. U n d e r s t a n d the merit accruing to the person who copies this a n d presents it to a B r ā h m a n a well versed in the Vedas, in the m o n t h of Vaiśākha or K ā r t t i k a . 125-126. He shall be freed from all sins. He will be endowed with every type of riches and glory. After enjoying the extensive divine a n d splendid pleasure (in the h e a v e n ) , w h e n he falls off from the heaven, he is born in the family of Brāhmanas. T h a n k s to the great efficacy of the previous impression, he attains Brahmavidyā. 127. On reading even a single chapter, he is freed from all sins. He who ponders over the meaning properly attains the greatest region. 128. This holy text should be studied by the B r ā h m a n a s at every P a r v a n (festive occasion). O excellent B r ā h m a n a s it should be heard also, as it is destructive of great sins. 129. If all the Purānas a n d the Itihāsas were placed on one p a n a n d the greatest V e d a * on a n o t h e r p a n , the former alone is the weightier. 130-131. If this P u r ā n a were to be excluded, there is no other means of dispelling sins. O sages of holy rites, in no

•This d e n i g r a t i o n of V e d a s is u n e x p e c t e d . T h e v.l. ctdam is b e t t e r vedam ( p r o b a b l y a confusion b e t w e e n c a n d v in D e v a n ā g a r i s c r i p t ) .

than


620

Kūrma Purina

other P u r ā n a is lord N ā r ā y a n a , H a r i , Visnu glorified so m u c h as in this. T h e Brāhmī Sarhhitā of this P u r ā n a is destructive of all sins. 132-133. T h e greatest B r a h m a n is glorified in this (Purina) precisely. T h e greatest of all holy centres, the greatest of all penances, the greatest of all perfect knowledges a n d the greatest of all holy rites are glorified in this. This scripture should not be studied in t h e presence of a Śūdra. 134. If a n y one of deluded souls studies so, he falls into m a n y hells, In the course of a Ś r ā d d h a or a n y other rites per­ taining to gods, this scripture must be caused to be read by the twice-born. 135. Especially, at the end of a Yajña (it should be r e a d ) . It wipes off all defects. This scripture must particularly beAtudied by those w h o seek salvation. 136-137a. It should be h e a r d and pondered over. It explains and supplements the meanings of Vedic passages. After understanding it oneself, one should n a r r a t e it to the leading B r ā h m a n a s endowed with devotion. He shall be rid of sins a n d shall attain identity with B r a h m a n . 13 7b-138a. If anyone were to give it to one who has no faith a n d to one who is sinful, he will fall into hells after d e a t h . Thereafter, he will be b o r n in the lowly w o m b of dogs. 138b-140a. O n l y after making obeisance to H a r i , Visnu the eternal source of origin of the universe, should this scripture of K r s n a d v a i p ā y a n a be studied. This is the c o m m a n d of Visnu, the lord of Devas of unmeasured splendour as well as of Vyāsa, the noble-souled B r ā h m a n a sage, the son of P a r ā s a r a . 1 140b-142a. After hearing this from lord N ā r ā y a n a , N ā r a d a , the holy sage, gave this to G a u t a m a at the outset. F r o m h i m P a r ā ś a r a obtained it. T h e holy lord P a r ā ś a r a recounted this ( P u r ā n a ) t h a t yields the Purusārthas viz D h a r m a , Artha, K a m a a n d Moksa, to the sages, at G a ń g ā d v ā r a , O great sages. 142b-144. At the outset, this was narrated to the in­ telligent Sanaka by Brahma as well as to S a n a t k u m ā r a . It is 1. V V . 122-140a g i v e t h e Phala-Śruti a n d reading etc. of the P u r ā n a .

other instructions regarding


621

11.46.145-147

destructive of all sins. T h e holy lord, the foremost among those who know Yoga, sage Devala got it from Sanaka. Pañcaśikha obtained this excellent (sacripture) form Devala. T h e saintly son of Satyavatī got this from S a n a t a k u m ā r a . 145-146a. (From S a n a t k u m ā r a Vyāsa got this P u r ā n a in which all topics have been brought together. I heard this ( P u r ā n a ) t h a t is destructive of sins from him a n d related it to 1 you all. This should be given to the righteous people by you all. 146b-147. Obeisance unto that sage, Vyāsa the great sage a n d omniscient son of Parāśara, the quiescent sage, a form of N ā r ā y a n a . Obeisance u n t o t h a t Visnu, lord of Devas, in the form of tortoise, from whom everything is born a n d in w h o m every­ thing gets dissolved.*

1 . V V . 140b-146a describe t h e t h r e e o r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e K P a s follows : I N ā r ā y a n a - * N ā r a d a — > G a u t a m a — » - P a r ā ś a r a — u s a g e s at G a ń g ā d v ā r a . I I Brahrnā—>Sanaka (and Sanat-Kumāra)—>Devala->Pañcaśikha. I I A Sanatkumāra—*• V y ā s a — > S ū t a — ^ N a i m i s ā r a n y a sages. 2 . T h e c o n c l u d i n g verse this P u r ā n a .

confirms

the

original

Vaijnavite

form

of


INDEX I n t h e following I n d e x , t h e 1st ( R o m a n ) f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f the p a r t (Ardha), t h e n e x t ( A r a b i c ) f i g u r e , t h e n u m b e r o f t h e c h a p t e r a n d t h e n e x t ( A r a b i c ) f i g u r e o r f i g u r e s t h e n u m b e r o f t h e v e r s e o r verses. In c a s e n o n u m b e r i s given after t h e n u m b e r o f t h e c h a p t e r , i t shows t h a t t h e whole c h a p t e r deals with t h a t topic. For example on p . 623 t h e e n t r y is Aditi 1.17.14-42. It m e a n s t h a t t h e story of A d i t i is g i v e n in t h e I P a r t , 17th c h a p t e r a n d verses 14-42. Agnihotra 11.24 m e a n s t h e t o p i c of Agnihotra is dealt with in the 24th c h a p t e r of the II Part. I f t h e t o p i c covers m o r e t h a n one chapter, the abbreviation Chs. precedes the n u m b e r s denoting the chapter. T h u s Avimukta I . C h s . 31-35 m e a n s t h e t o p i c i s d e a l t w i t h i n chapters 31 to 35 in Part I. W h e n the reference belongs to the same P a r t , the repetition of the n u m b e r of the p a r t is omitted and simply the n u m b e r s of t h e c h a p t e r a n d t h e v e r s e (s) a r e g i v e n . F o r e x a m p l e Agni ( i i ) A Tirtha (a sacred P o o l ) 1.35.7; 39.4 m e a n s t h a t the second reference belongs to t h e s a m e p a r t ( I ) b u t is m e n t i o n e d in t h e 4th verse of the 39th c h a p t e r . A A d i t i — M o t h e r of gods—performed p e n a n c e t o h a v e V i s n u a s son to punish Bali—1.17.14-42; mother of the Sun-god—1.20.1 Aditya—The Sun-god—Born of Kaśyapa a n d A d i t i 1.20-1—His p r o ­ g e n y , a p r o g i n a t o r of t h e S o l a r race—1.20-4 ff.—Description of the chariot of the Sun—1.41-27-33, —Movements of T h e Sun—1.413 6 - 4 1 — T h e T w e l v e Adityas 1.414 4 ; 4 2 . 2 - 3 — F u n c t i o n s o f Adity­ a s — 1 . 4 2 — S e v e n rays o f t h e S u n god—1.43.3-4—Functions of the Solar rays—1.43.1-27—His Eulogy (.Sūrya-hrdaya)—II. 18.35-45 Agni (1) T h e Fire-god—Identified with Rudra—1.13.14—Agni's pro­ g e n y — 1 . 1 3 . 1 5 - 1 8 — P r o t e c t e d Śītā 11.34.125 E u l o g i z e d b y S i t ā — 1 1 . 3 4 . 116-123—Destroys the universe as Samvartaka—11.45.27-33 A g n i (ii) A s a c r e d P o o l (Tirtha)—I. 35.7; 39.4 Agnidhra—Original King of J a m b ū dvīpa—divides Jambūdvipa in nine P a r t s (varsas) & gives o n e to e a c h of his s o n s — 1 . 4 0 . 3 0 - 3 5 ; R e t i r e s for penance 1.40.36 Agni-hotra—Fire-worship— Rules and duties p e r t a i n i n g t o — 1 1 . 2 4 Ahalyi (i) G a u t a m a ' s w i f e — 1 1 . 4 1 . 4 4 — ( i i ) A Tirtha 11.41.43-45 A l a k a n a n d ā — a sacred r i v e r — 1 . 4 6 . 3 1

A m a r a k a n t a k a — a m o u n t a i n 11.20.29 —11.40-32, 3 9 ; 40.9-13 A m a r ā v a t i — a celestial city of Indra—1.46.10-12 Anadhyāya days (on w h i c h studies a r e prohibited)—11.14. 64-87 Anakadundubhi—A k i n g proficient in music—penance at Govardhana 1.24.49-62 A n d h a k a — a demon 1.16.95-96 — F i g h t s for U m ā 1.16.131-193 — S u r r e n d e r s a n d accepted as a Śiva-gana—1.16.215—Accepted as a son by U m ā 1.16.219 Andhras—N. of a p e o p l e (Tribe)— 1.47.41-44 A ń g i r a s a — ( i ) Siva's disciple—1.1516. (ii) A T i r t h a — 1 1 . 4 1 . 3 1 - 3 3 A p a r ā n t a — N . of a p e o p l e — 1 . 4 7 . 4 2 Arjuna—A Pāndava—After Krsna's death m e e t s V y ā s a a n d discusses 1.29 A r u n ā — a sacred r i v e r — I I . 3 0 . 2 2 Arundhati—(i) Vasistha's wife—I. 1 9 , 2 0 , 2 3 — a n i d e a l chaste w o m a n X : 1 . 1 2 . 2 2 3 (ii) Wife o f D h a r m a — 1.16.7-11 As'auca—Impurity due to birth or death—Rules for—11.23.1-68 As'rama—stage (s) in life—classifica­ tion a n d duties of—1.3.2-28 Asuri—Siva's disciple—1.53-15 Aśva-tirtha—A Tirtha—11.35-38 A ś v i n a — N . of a t w i n g o d — I I . 7 . 3 8 A ś v i n ī — N . of a constellation—11.20.15 A v i m u k t a (see V ā r ā n a s i ) — I . C h s . 31-35; II.7.14


624

Kūrma Purina B

B a d a r ī , also B a d a r ī k ā ś r a m a — A s a c r e d place beloved of Śiva—11.37.50-52 — Ś i v a i m p a r t e d ISvara-gUS t o S a n a t K u m ā r a a n d o t h e r s h e r e — I I . 1.18-31 Bali—A pious D e m o n - K i n g — Story of—1.17 Bali's c o n q u e s t s — 1 7 . 1 2 ff Donates land to Vāmana—17.50ff Established i n the nether-world 17-63 B ā n a ( i ) A d e m o n - k i n g a b s o r b e d as Siva's g a n a — 1 . 1 8 . 1 - 7 (ii) A Tirtha u n d e r Narmadā— II.41.9-10 B h a d r ā — A b r a n c h of divine G a ń g ā in Uttara-kuru (Mod. Y a r k a n d — De)—1.46.33 Bhadra-Karna—A Tirtha under Nar­ m a d ā ( M o d . K a r n a l i — D e ) — 1.31. 4 6 ; 11.20.35 B h a d r ā ś v a — A V a r ś a east o f Meru 1.40.30-35; 4 5 . 2 0 - 2 1 ; 47.2 Bhārata-varsa—India—1.47 Moun­ tain-ranges a n d river-systems i n — 47.21-40; P e o p l e in 1.47. 41-44 B h ā v a n ā — A kind o f meditation— classification of—1.2.93-96 B h i m a r a t h i o r B h i m ā — a s a c r e d river in M a h a r a s h t r a 1.47.36 Bhrgu T i r t h a — a sacred place, (mod. Bhera g h ā t ) — I I . 4 2 . I - 6 B h r g u T u ń g a — A Tirtha specially meritorious for irāddha—11.20.33; 3 7 . 33-34 B r a h m a — T h e c r e a t o r o f t h e universe (sometimes identified with V i s n u a n d also w i t h Ś i v a ) — B r . called N ā r ā y a n a sleeps on cosmic w a t e r s 1.6.1-5—Uplifts the earth as a Divine Boar ( V a r ā h a ) — 6.6-25;16.79-84 — B o r n from t h e lotus i n Visnu's n a v e l — 1 . 9 . 1 0 - 3 6 ; 9.25-36 —Eulogised by Vasumanas—E.— 1.20.53-55 —Controversy with Visnu about p e r s o n a l greatness—1.9.12-49 — C r e a t e d n i n e P r a j ā p a t i s for w o r l d creation—1.10.88-89 —Proudly criticises Śiva—11.31. 1-22 — C h a l l e n g e s Śiva t o f i g h t — 1 1 . 3 1 . 23-28 — B h a i r a v a cuts off Brahma's head—11.31. 29-31—Brahma's h e a d sticks t o B h a i r a v a ' s h a n d — 11.31. 65ff

Brahma—Eulogizes Śiva—H.31.49-57 Brahmacārin—a religious (celibate) student—Duties of I I . 14—Duties in relation with t h e p r e c e p t o r — 1 1 . 1 4 . 1-16; 22-27—with preceptor's family—11.14.28-37 D u t i e s while l e a r n i n g — I I . 14.42-49 J a p a of Gāyatri—11.14.50-59 Anadhyāya d a y s — I I . 14.64-87 Brahma Tirtha : u n d e r various important Tirthas e.g. under Vārānasi—1.35.9; H.37.28; under Narmadā—H.41-56 Brahmāvarta—The best (sacredmost ) — l a n d — I I . 7.14 C C a n d r a (i) T h e M o o n (See u n d e r P l a n e t a r y System in 1.41, 1-43) (ii) AKula-parvata in P l a k s a - d v i p a — —1.49.3 (iii) A D v ī p a — 1 . 4 7 . 7 (iv) C a n d r a S t h ā n a — 1 . 4 8 . 5 3 - 5 4 (v) N. of a T i r t h a u n d e r V ā r ā n a s i 1.35.il, K ā v e r i — 1 1 . 3 7 . 2 3 , N a r ­ madā—11.42.15-16 Carmanyavati—River (Mod. Chambal)—1.47.31 Chariots of P l a n e t s — (i) T h e M o o n — 1 . 4 3 . 3 2 — 4 1 (ii) B u d h a — 4 3 . 4 2 (iii) Ś u k r a — 4 3 . 4 3 (iv) B r h a s p a t i ( J u p i t e r ) — 4 3 . 4 4 - 4 5 Creation of the w o r l d — (i) By V i s n u t h r o u g h B r a h m a 1.2. (ii) By R u d r a — 1 . 1 0 (iii) T h r o u g h P r a k r t i — 1 . 4 (iv) Different creations by B r a h m a 1.7 & 8 vide I n t r o , p p . xxii-xxv (v) M u k h y ā d i c r e a t i o n (By Svāyambhuva M a n u and Daksa)-1.8 C y a v a n a — ( i ) a sage—1.19.4 (ii) Siva's disciple—1.53-19 D D a d h i c a — a sage, a d v o c a t e s Siva's p r e s e n c e in P r ā c e t a s a D a k s a ' s sacri­ fice;—1.15.6-27—Curses anti-Śiva B r ā h m a n a s I . 15.28-32 D a k s a — ( 1 ) Prajāpati—God Brahma's son a n d S a t i ' s f a t h e r — I n s u l t s Śiva — S a t i ' s Yogic self i m m o l a t i o n a n d R u d r a ' s curse—1.14.54-65 ( 2 ) S e c o n d t i r t h a as son of P r a c e t a s — 1.14.53—Performs sacrifice at G a ñ g ā d v ā r a — Q u a r r e l with D a ­ d h i c a o n Siva's Share—1.15.8-27


Index —Daksa's sacrifice destroyed at Devi's request—1.15.34-79 Daksa pardoned by Śiva a n d advised by B r a h m a 1.15.79-98 Progeny of Daksa's daughters— 1.13 a n d 16 (chs.) Dāksinātya—People of the Deccan (of B h a r a t a v a r s a ) — 1 . 4 7 . 4 2 Dāruvana and Deva-dāruvana—II. 3 7 . 5 3 - 6 1 ; L e g e n d of Siva's L i ñ g a dropping—ILChs. 38 and 39 Dāna-dharma—Charity—Its four varieties d e f i n e d — I I . 2 6 . 2 - 8 Q u a l i ­ f i c a t i o n s o f t h e d o n e e a n d fruit o f D a n a o n specific d a y s — I I . 2 6 . 9 - 7 4 Daśāśvamedhika—A T i r t h a award­ ing merit of T e n Aśvamedhas to the b a t h e r — m e n t i o n e d under : G a ñ g ā 11.37.26; N a r m a d ā — 1 1 . 4 1 . 104-107 Devi [ U m ā , P ā r v a t ī ] Siva's consort (i) B i r t h from Daksa—1.11.8-10 ( F o r h e r self-immolation vide Daksa (ii) S e c o n d b i r t h from H i m a v ā n — 1.10.11-13 O n e T h o u s a n d e p i t h e t s of—1.12, 2-324 Eulogised by Andhaka—1.16. 216-218 D e v i k ā — a r i v e r — 1 . 4 7 . 2 9 ; 11.37.25 D h a r m a - p r s t h a — A holy place under Gayā—H.37.38 Dhātaki-Khanda—1.40.15 D h r u v a — ( i ) King, Son of Medhātithi—1.38-24 (ii) K i n g , S o n o f U t t ā n a p ā d a — 1.14.2-3 (iii) a g o d — 1 . 1 6 . 11-13 (iv) T h e P o l a r s t a r — 1 . 4 1 . 5 , 26, 3 1 , 4 2 — 1 . 4 3 . 30, 46 Drsadvati—River (Mod. Ghaggar?) —1.47.29 Durjaya—King. Descendant of Jayadhvaja — D a l l i a n c e withOrvaśi—1.123.4-47 — A s p e r K a n v a ' s a d v i c e expiates sins at V ā r ā n a s i — 1 . 2 3 . 41-44 Duties (Dharmas)—Cf. different Castes (Varnas) a n d Stages in life (Āśramas)—1.2.38-74 ĀSramas classified as p e r T r i n i t y of gods—1.2.101-111 Dvārakā or Dvārāvati—Krsna's capi­ t a l city—1.26.18-29; 47-35 D y n a s t i e s of kings 1.20 of sages 1.19

625 E Erandī sañgama—Confluence Narmadā—11.43.31-32

with

F Food-articles—Prohibited a n d m i t t e d for e a t i n g — 1 1 . 1 7

per­

G Gandha-M ādana— ( 1 ) A division (varsa) of J a m b ū dvīpa—1.40.35 (2) Forest t o t h e s o u t h o f I l ā v r t a — 1.45.22 ( 3 ) a m o u n t a i n (a p a r t of K a i l ā s a - r a n g e ) — 1 . 4 5 . 15, 31 G a ń g ā — (heavenly)—1.46.28-33— F o u r s t r e a m s of—1.36.29-37 G a ń g ā — A River—1.37.33-36; 1.39. 8-10; I I . 20.29 e t c . ; confluence w i t h Y a m u n a 1.37.6-8 G a u t a m a (i) A sage—Protects Brāhmaijas in a d r a u g h t — 1 . 1 6 . 97-103 — D e a t h of a fake c o w — 1 . 1 6 . 1 0 4 105 —Curses ungrateful B r ā h m a n a s — — 1 . 1 6 . 109-110 Gautama—(2) O n e o f t h e seven sages i n V a i v a s v a t a M a n v a n t a r a — 1.51.25-26 (3) V y ā s a i n t h e 19th D v ā p a r a — 1.52.7 (4) An incarnation of Śiva—1.53.7 G a y ā — ( 1 ) A holy place—1.31.36— Greatness of—II.35.7-15—Pitrs e x p e c t Srāddha a t — H . 2 0 . 3 0 - 3 2 ( 2 ) A Tirtha u n d e r V ā r ā j j a s i — 1 . 3 5 . 5 G ā y a t r i — I m p o r t a n c e o f — I I . 14.53.59 G o d ā v a r ī — R i v e r — H o l y for b a t h a n d irādiha—1.47.36; 11.37.15-16 G o k a r n a (i) A sacred place—1.41.48, U t t a r a Gokarna—11.35.29-32 (ii) A n i n c a r n a t i o n o f Ś i v a — 1 . 5 3 . 8 G o v a r d h a n a — a mountain—Place of king P r t h u ' s p e n a n c e — 1 . 1 4 . 1 8 H Harivarsa—a sub-continent—1.47. 10-19 H a s t i n ā p u r a — C a p i t a l city o f K u r u s —1.36.6 H i m a v a t (i) a m o u n t a i n — 1 . 4 5 , 9 , 30 K i n g Suśila m e t Ś v e t ā ś v a t a r a a t — 1.14.25-29;—Śveta, an incarna­ tion of Śiva, lived o n — 1 . 5 3 . 1 - 3 etc. (ii) A T i r t h a o r S a c r e d p l a c e — I . 35.13


626

Kūrma Purāna

Tirtha—11.44.10 Hiranyakaśipu—A Demon king—Prah- Jāmadagnya l ā d a ' s f a t h e r — s t o r y of—1.16.21-75 J ā p y e ś v a r a — P l a c e o f N a n d i ' s p e n a n c e (Story of Ś i l ā d a ) — 1 1 . 4 3 . 1 7 - 4 2 Hiranyāksa—A demon king—Hiranyakaśipu's brother—killed by VisnuK Varāha—1.16.22, 60-63, 77-83 Kailāsa—Mountain-abode of Śiva— House-holder (Grhastha)—Duties of— 1.26.19, 14, 6 4 (Krsna's stay at 11.15 K . 1.26) I n d r a ' s m a n s i o n o n K . — H o u s e h o l d e r ' s d r e s s — I I . 15.3-8 1.48.3-12 H i s m a r i t a l d u t i e s — I I . 15.9-13 K ā l a — T i m e - c a l c u l a t i o n of—1.5 v i d e O t h e r religious d u t i e s — 1 1 . 1 5 . 1 4 - 4 2 Intro.pp.xxv-xxvi Etiquettes a n d Rules of C o n d u c t — Kālañjara Ksetra—Kāla killed b y —11.16 Śiva (see Ś v e t a ) a n d r e v i v a l — P r e s c r i b e d d a i l y r o u t i n e of a grha11.36.11-38 stha—UAñ K a l i ñ g a — ( i ) A deśa a n d people in R u l e s r e g a r d i n g t a k i n g food—11.19 Bhārata Varsa—1.47-42; II.40.9 H u n a — A people in Bhārata-Varsa— (ii) A hill e a s t of l a k e A r u n o d a — 1.47.43 1.45.28 K ā m a r ū p a — A people in Bhārata I Varsa—1.47.41 K a n a k h a l a — A h o l y place-II.37.10-12 I k s v ā k u — D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e r a c e of— Kapāla-mocana-tirtha—story how 1.21 R u d r a ' s h a n d w a s freed f r o m g o d I l ā v r t a — A s u b c o n t i n e n t (var/a) 1.40. 3 0 - 3 5 ; 45.14-16. 22-24—1.47.20 B r a h m a ' s skull—11.31.69-103 Indra (i) K i n g of gods—1.1.123; Kapardiśvara—A Lińga and a Tirtha 17.43 e t c . , under Vārānasi—1.33 ( i i ) V y ā s a in t h e 7 t h Dvāpara yuga Kas'yapa a sage—Description of —1.52-4 Kaśyapa's race—1.18 K ā v e r i — a s a c r e d river—11.37.16-17 (iii) A Dvipa—1.47.29 —its source—Candra Tirtha—II. I n d r a d y u m n a — T h e k i n g — s t o r y of-— I . 1.43-48—Born a s a B r ā h m a n a — 37-23 1.1-50—Propitiates V i s n u a n d is Kāyāvarohana—A sacred place— enlightened by him—I.i.51-122 (Birth p l a c e of N a k u l i ś a ) — m o d . Karvan in Gujarat—II.44.7-8 K e d ā r a — A h o l y s h r i n e i n t h e Hima­ J layas—II.37.5-6 J a i g ī s a v y a — ( 1 ) A sage—His hermit­ K e t u m ā l a — N . of a V a r s a (sub­ a g e — 1.48.17-22 continent)—1.47-1 ff (2) An incarnation of Śiva—1.53.5 Kimpurusa—(1) King of HemaJ a m b ū d v i p a — A continent of which kūta Varsa—1.40.30-35 I n d i a — B h ā r a t a - V a r s a is a part. (2) N. of a V a r s a — 1 . 4 7 . 8 - 9 D e s c r i p t i o n (e.g. V a r s a - p a r v a t a s — Kokāmukha—Varāha Tīrtha at W.6-10, p e o p l e — w . 13-20 etc) Triveni in Purnea district—1.31in 1.45.6-41. Also 1.46 (for rivers 4 7 ; 11.35-36 e t c . V V . 1-33, Boundary-moun­ Krauñca-dvipa—Founder King— t a i n s V V . 34-40 e t c ) . See I. 48 Dyutimān—1.40.19-21; Descrip­ also—Its divisions—1.40. 3 0 - 3 5 . — tion—1.49.26-32 Founder king A g n i d h r a — 1 . 4 0 . 1 0 , Krsna—Visnu's incarnation—reques­ 30 t e d for a s o n by J ā m b a v a t i — 1 . 2 4 . 8 3 - 8 6 — K r s n a ' s penance—1.25.1-50 J a y a d h v a j a — A king, story of—1.22. (Śiva manifested a n d p r a i s e d — K r s n a 2 1 -87 (e.g. killing o f d e m o n V i d e h a — praised W . 5 1 - 7 7 — B o o n to Krsna V V 51-65, a d o r e s V i s n u as per —W.78-90—Krsna accompanies Viśvāmitra's advice—VV.74-87) Śiva to K a i l ā s a ] K r s n a ' s stay at Race of Jayadhvaja—1.29 Kailāsa a n d return to D v ā r a k ā — J a l e ś v a r a or J ā l e ś v a r a — A Tīrtha 1.25.92 a n d C h . I . 2 6 ; K r s n a explained under Narmadā—11.40.22-23 Lińga w o r s h i p 1.26.50—109 J a m a d a g n i T ī r t h a — A t t h e confluence K r s n a ' s r e t i r e m e n t from t h e w o r l d — of N a r m a d ā and the Sea—11.43. 1.27' 33-34


Index

627

Krttivāseśvara—A Tirtha under Vārā­ nasi—1.32-14-29 (named after Siva's killing of an elephant-for­ med demon) K u b j ā ś r a m a — (also K u b j ā m r a a s p e r De, p. 105)—Sacred place near H a r i d w a r — I I 20-33,11.35.33-35 K ū r m a — (1) Tortoise incarnation of Visnu — S u p p o r t e d M t . M a n d a r a while c h u r n i n g t h e Sea—1.1-29 — G u i d e s spiritually I n d r a d y u m n a —1.1.51-122—Narrates Kūrma P u r ā n a t o sage N ā r a d a and others—1.1.126 ff — E u l o g i z e d by sages—11.46-54-67 (2) N . o f a P u r ā n a n a r r a t e d b y Kūrma to Indradyumna and N ā r a d a (vide a b o v e ) — s e c t i o n s o f the K ū r m a Purāna.1.1.22-23— Contents of the KP.—1.1.23-25; 11.46.67-119 T r a d i t i o n a l reciters of K P — 1 1 . 4 6 . 1 4 0 147 F o r p r o b l e m s i n K P see I n t r o d u c ­ tion, p p . xix-xxix; xli-xlvi K u r u — A Varsa (subcontinent) N o r t h o f m t . Ś r ń g a v ā n 1.40.30-35; 47.6 K u r u k s e t r a — A h o l y p l a c e — G l o r y of— II.35-5-6 Kuru-jāñgala—A Tirtha—11.37-3637 K u ś a - d v i p a — D e s c r i p t i o n of—1.49. 19-26; R u l e d b y K i n g J y o t i s m ā n — 1.40-12 L L a k s m i — ( 1 ) A d a u g h t e r of B h r g u — 1.13-1 (2) A d a u g h t e r of D a k s a — 1 . 8 . 1 5 ( 3 ) C o n s o r t of Visnu—1.1-123 etc. L a ń k ā — R ā v a n a ' s capital (Location still u n c e r t a i n ) — 1 . 2 1 - 3 7 - 3 8 , 44— 11.34.127 L i v e l i h o o d — t h e m e a n s of: — R u l e s regarding the L. of Twiceb o r n house-holders—11.25 Loka—World(s)—Seven—1.41.2 Lo­ c a t i o n of h i g h e r worlds—1.44. 1-8 T h e W o r l d o f Visnu—1.44.9-10 T h e w o r l d of Ś i v a — 1 . 4 4 . 11-14 Lokāloka—Mt.s demarcating the b o u n d a r y of this world—1.50.14-16 L u n a r r a c e — T h e d e s c r i p t i o n of—1.22 M Madhya-desa ( A r y ā v a r t a ) — N. of a region i n I n d i a ( B h ā r a t a V a r s a ) — 1.47.41

M a d h y a m e ś v a r a L i ń g a s h r i n e (un­ d e r V ā r ā n a s i ) — T h e glory of—1.34 M a g a d h a — N . of a p e o p l e in B h ā r a t a Varsa—1.47-42 M a h ā b h a d r a — A lake i n I l ā v r t a — I . 45.23-24; 31-35 Mahālaya (Oñkāra or Amareśvara?) —11.37,1-4, 20, 30 Mahānadi—(1) A Tirtha under Vārānasi—11.35.25,—1.35.5 (ii) A river rising from m t . Rksavat—1.47.32-33 (iii) A river rising from t h e Vindhyas—1.47-34 Mahātirtha—A Tirtha dear to Nārā­ yana—H.37-12 Mahendra—A mountain (Kula-parvata) of B h ā r a t a V a r s a — 1 . 5 0 . 5 M a h e ś v a r a Y o g a — A special Śaiva Yoga—11.46.30-51 M a l a y a — A m o u n t a i n (Kula-parvata) of I n d i a — 1 . 4 7 - 2 3 M ā n a s a — A lake (in t h e H i m a l a y a s ) —1.23-29; 45.23-24; 11.37-44 M a n d ā k i n i — A sacred river—1.14. 27-29—1.47.32; 48.4-8 M a n d ā r a (i) A m o u n t used as a c h u r n i n g r o d for o b t a i n i n g A m r t a from t h e sea—1.1-67; (ii) A Kula-parvata in K u ś a - d v ī p a — 1.49-21 (iii) A m o u n t a i n in I l ā v r t a V a r s a —1.14-25 Mańkana—A sage—Danced with elation at t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of his p e n a n c e — Ś i v a s u b d u e d his p r i d e — 11.35.45-76 Manu-periods (Manvantaras)—1.51 (1) S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n u 1.51-6 (2) Svāroci?a (verses)—7-9 (3) U t t a m a — 1 0 - 1 2 (4) T ā m a s a — 1 3 - 1 5 (5) R a i v a t a — 1 6 - 2 0 (6) C ā k s u s a — 2 0 - 2 3 (7) V a i v a s v a t a — 2 3 - 2 6 M a n u Periods—(Future) Enume­ r a t e d : (8) S ā v a r n a (9) D a k s a s ā v a r n a (10) B r a h m a - S ā v a r n a (11) Dharma-Sāvarna (12) R u d r a S ā v a r n a (13) R a u c y a ( 1 4 ) B h a u t y a —1.53.29-31 M ā r k a n d e y a — a sage;—meets Y u d h i s ­ t h i r a — 1 . 3 6 . 6 ff — n a r r a t e s t h e glory o f P r a y ā g a — 1.36.15-48; C h s . 37 a n d 38 M e r u (or M a h ā - m e r u ) : a m o u n t a i n (mod. Pamirs as per S.M. A l i ) — D e s c r i p t i o n — b r a n c h e s , lakes, l a n d s around—1.45.6-40; M e r u — L i k e a


628 Lotus—Border mountains—1.46. 34-40; Abodes of guardians of the world on Meru e.g. (1) of Brahmā1.46.1-4; (6) of Ś i v a — W . 5-9. In this way of (3) I n d r a — W . 1012 (4) Agni (called Tejovati) VV. 13-14 (5) Yama (N. of the abode—Sarhyamani) VV. 15-16; (6) Nirrti (Named Raksovati)— W . 17-18. Meru (Mahā Meru) 7) Abode of Varuna (called u d d h a v a t i ) — W . 19-20 (8) of Vāyu (called Gandhavati) —V.21-22; (9) of Soma (named Kantimati)—W.23-24; (10) of Saokara (V.25) and Iśāna (V.26)

Kūrma Purina Nisadha—A mountain south of Meru in Ilāvrta—1.45-28 Nrsimha—The incarnation of Visnu — H i s story—1.16.23-77 O Oceans—Seven—Names of—1.45.4 Ońkāresvara—A Tirtha under Varānasi—1.32.1

P Paflca-nada—A Tirtha—near Jāpeśvara (near the mouth of the Indus?)—II.44.1-2 [See Jāpye­ śvara] Pāñcala—A people in India (Bh&rata N Varsa)—1.47.41 Pañca-śikha—(1) A disciple of one Nābhi—King of Hima-varsa, father of the incarnations of Śiva—1.53-15 of R$abha—His descendants—1.40 . (2) A sage in the line of teachers 30, 37ff (transmitters) of livara Gttā— Naimisāraiiya—Etymological Story— 11.11-129 and of the KūrmaII.43.1-15 Purina—11.46-144 Naisadha—A Varsa ruled by H a r i — Parāśara—(1) A sage—grandson of 1.40.30-35 sage Vasistfia—I. 19-23 Nakuliśa—An incarnation of Śiva— (ii) A disciple of Siva's incarna­ 1.53-9 tion—1.53.16 Nakulisvara—A Tirtha sacred to Pāriyātra (also Pārijāta, Pāripātra) Nakulīśa Śiva—11.44.12-14 —A Kula-parvata (identified with NandiśVara—Story of—11.43.17-42 Western Vindhya) in Bhirata(see Jāpyeśvara also) Varsa—1.47.24; 48.39 N a r a — ( 1 ) N. of a king—1.40-43 Pārvati (see Devi, U m i J (2) N. of a god— II.1-30 Pātāla—the netherworld!—the loca­ (3) A divine sage—11.38-51 tions of—1.44.15-26; 50.15-16 N ā r a d a — ( 1 ) A divine sage—1.1-18 Pativratā—A chaste lady—greatness (2) A Gandharva—1.42-12 ofaPativratā—11.34.110-141 (This (3) A Kula-parvata in Plaksa-dvipa covert the abduction of SItā's sha­ —1.49.3 dow) Nārāyanapura (also Vaikuntha)— Payosni—A sacred river rising in the city of Nārāyana in Śveta-dvipa— Vindhyas—1.47-34 1.49.50-71 Phalaśruti—The 'fruit' of littening to N a r m a d ā — ( i ) A holy river—The — P a r t I of KP—1.53.31-34—The glory of—II.Chs.40-42;Holy places whole of KP—11.46.122-139 under Narmadā are separately Phalgu (orPhālguni): A river (under noted. Many names of such places Gayājsacred for Śrāddhas—H.20-34 under Narmadā e.g. BhadresVara, Piśāca-mocana—A Tirtha—1.33-2, Bāneśvara, Kedāresvara etc. are 16 (See śańkukarna) common under other placet like Plaksa-dvipa—A continent—Descrip­ Vārānasi, Prayāga etc. tion of the—1.49-1-19—Its king (ii) Wife of Trasadasyu—1.21-26 Medhātithi, son of Priyavrata— Navaratha—A king—story of—Pro­ 1.40.26-27 tected by Sarasvati (and her Eu­ Plaksa-Prasravana (On the Saras­ logy)—I. 24.12-28 v a t i ) — 11.37.29 N i l a — ( i ) A mountain North of Plaksāvatāra—The Source of the M e r u — I . 45-9, 37 Sarasvati—II.37.7-8 (ii) T h e Haridwar hills—11.20-33 (The) Planetary system—The posi­ Nilācala—A mountain in Ramya tion, extent etc. of planets like the Varsa—1.40.33 Sun, the Moon etc.—1.41.5-26


Index

629

P r a b h ā s a ( i ) ( S o m a n ā t h a , t h e JyotirRāmes'vara—A Tirtha—11.30.23 lińga i n S a u r a s h t r a ) — C o m p a r a b l e R a m y a k a — A varfa(Sub-continent) to t o V ā r ā n a s i — 1 . 3 1 - 4 8 ; 11.35.16-17 the north of Meru—1.45.12 (ii) A T i r t h a u n d e r V ā r ā n a s i — R a s ā t a l a — N a m e of a nether-world 1.35-12 (Pitāla)—1.47.3-4 (iii) A V a s u - g o d — 1 . 1 6 . 1 6 R ā v a n a — A d e m o n - K i n g killed by P r a h l ā d a — ( a l s o P r a h r ā d a ) — A saintR ā m a — 1 . 2 1 . 1 8 - 4 5 ; 11.34.113-127 ly d e m o n king—Son of HiranyaRksa or Rksavat—A Kula-parvata Kaśipu—fights against Nrsirhha (identified w i t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e a n d gets discomfited—1.16.42-63 V i n d h y a m o u n t a i n ) in Bh&rataD i s s u a d e s H i r a n y a K a ś i p u from varsa—1.4.7-23 fight against Nrsirhha—1.16.65-72 R n a - m o c a n a — A Tirtha u n d e r P r a c r o w n s H i r a n y ā k s a after H i r a n y a yāga—1.38.14 K a ś i p u — 1.16.77-78 — P r a h r ā d a R s a b h a — S o n of King Nābhi and rules after Hiranyāksa—1.16.84 father of B h a r a t a — a devotee of — P r a h l ā d a f i g h t s against V i s n u — Paśupati—1.40.38-40 1.16.86-90—Converted as Visnu's R o h i n i (i) V a s u d e v a ' s wife, Baladevotee—Performs Yoga Sādhanā r ā m a ' s m o t h e r — 1 . 2 4 , 71,73, 7 7 —1.16.93-94 (ii) A c o n s t e l l a t i o n — I I . 2 0 . 9 Pratisañcara ( P r a l a y a ) — E n d of the Romaharsana—Sūta, the narrator universe;—Description o f t h e — of the P u r ā n a s — r e c o u n t e d the K. 11.45; Pr&krta P r a l a y a — I I . 4 6 . 1 - 6 5 P.—(1.12-4)—Derivation of the (Atyantika—11.46.26) vide Intro. n a m e — 1 . 1 . 5 ; B o r n o n Sutyāha d a y p. xxv i n g o d B r a h m a ' s sacrifice. R e q u e s Prayāga—(Allahabad)—A sacred t e d for [—1.1-6 n a r r a t i n g t h e p l a c e — T h e glory of I. C h s . 3 6 - 3 9 — K P . — 1 . 1 . 7 , 9 ff. ; 1.1.9 ff II.35-4 R u d r a k o t i — A Tirtha e q u a l i n m e r i t Area 5Yojanas—11.35.4—Procedure to Vārānasi—1.31.47 of pilgrimage of—1.37; Suicide R u d r a - l o k a — T h e region of R u d r a — recommended at—I.38.3-14;Tirthas 1.36.47-48; 3 7 . 9 - 1 1 ; 49-14 under Prayāga—1.39 R u d r a - s ā v a r n a (See M a n u s — f u t u r e P r ā y a ś c i t t a — ( E x p i a t i o n for a w r o n g Manvantaras) or sinful a c t s ) — I t s n e e d — 1 1 . 3 0 . 1 - 3 s Tlu. deciding authorities—II.30.4-7 Five great sins—The perpetrators S a h y a — T h e Western Ghats in Indiaa n d t h e i r associates a r e s i n n e r s — A Kulaparvata i n B h ā r a t a V a r s a — II.30.8-11 1.47-23 Expiation for K i l l i n g a B r ā h m a n a — S a i n d h a v a — A p e o p l e (on t h e l o w e r 11.30.12-26 Indus)in Bhārata Varsa—1.47.43 —for Liquor-drinking—11.32.1-3 Ś ā k a - d v i p a — o n e o f t h e Seven island—for Theft—11.32.4-11 c o n t i n e n t s (identified w i t h a n c i e n t for defiling T e a c h e r ' s b e d I I S c y t h i a ) — 1 . 4 9 . 33-39 32.12-24 T h e i r founder king Havya—1.40.13 —for Adultery—11.33.1-20 Śālagrāma or Śāligrāma—A sacred — f o r K i l l i n g m e n o f different place equal in merit to V ā r ā n a s i — castes—II.33.21-2 1.31-47; H . 3 5 . 3 7 ; P l a c e of S u c c h ā Prāyaicitta ( E x p i a t i o n for S i n s ) — ya's p e n a n c e — 1 . 1 4 . 4 — f o r killing different a n i m a l s a n d Ś ā l m a l i d v i p a — O n e o f Seven islandc u t t i n g d o w n trees—11.33.29-39 continents—Vapusmān, Their —for minor thefts—II.34.1-7 first king—1.40.11 — f o r e a t i n g f o r b i d d e n articles o f Samvartaka— food—II.34.8-39 (1) A T i r t h a — 1 . 3 5 . 6 — f o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s sins—11.34.40(2) N . o f W o r l d - d e s t r o y i n g f i r e — 109 11.45.28-33 (3) Clouds deluging the w o r l d — R 11.45.34-35 Sanat K u - u ā r a — (1) A divine s a g e — R ā m a ( D ā ś a r a t h i ) — S t o r y of—1.21. 1.7. 2 0 - 2 1 ; 10.13 e t c . 16-55 (2) N a m e of an Upa-purāna—1.1.17


630 Sańgameśvara—A Tirtha under Narmadā—11.41.36-37 Śani—Saturn—I. 43.8-9, 29; —1.41.11, 17, 19, 26 Śańku-karna—A Brāhmana devotee of Kapardiśvara—redeems a ghost —1.33.15-49 A female deer becomes a chief of Śiva-ganas—1.33.4-6 Sannyāsa Aśrama— When to adopt—H.28.1-4 Rules and observances for a Sannyāsin—1.28.5-31 and Ch. 29 Sapta-dvipas—Seven Island continents of the World (with Priyavrata's sons enthroned on each)—1.40.10-13 Sapta-Mahālokas—Seven higher sphe­ res or worlds—1.41.2 Sapta-Sārasvata—A sacred place— Place of Mańkanaka's Penance— 11.35.44-76 (see Mańkanaka) Sarasvati—(i) a godders—Eulogized by Navaratha—1.24.17-20 Protects Navaratha—1.24.20-23 (ii) A holy river in Kuruksetra— H.40.7; 37.29 etc. Sarayū—A sacred river—1.47.28 śatadru—Sutlej—a sacred river—a tributary of the Indus—1.47.28 Śatarūpā—Wife of Svāyambhuva Manu—1.8.7-10 Sauvira—Inhabitants of Bhārata Varsa (dwelling on the lower I n d u s ) — 1.47.43 Sāvasti (Śrāvasti)—A king, founder of Śrāvasti—Son of Yuvanāśva— 1.20.18-20 Setu—at Rameśvara—Rāma estab­ lished a Lińga here—1.21.44-49 Śilāda—a sage, father of N a n d i n — T h e story of—11.43.19-27 S i t ā — ( 1 ) Rama's spouse—story of her protection by the Fire-god, sending out her shadow for abduc­ tion—11.34.112-140 Sitā prays to Agni (VahnyasSaka)— 11.34.117-124 (2) The eastern branch of the heavenly Gańgā—1.46.29-30 Śiva—Born as Brahma's son—1.9.7187; 10.18-89 Eulogies of Śiva: —by god Brahma—1.10.49-73 —by Sky-dwellers—1.16.186-189 —by Andhaka—1.16.194-206 —by Vasumanas—1.20.66 —by Krsna—1.25.60-77; 26.103105 — b y Brahma & Visnu—1.26.78-87

Kūrma Purāna —by Vyāsa—1.30.44-52 (?) —by Śańkukarna—1.33.36-45 —by sages—II. 1-33-35 —by Vedas—11.31.13-16 Śiva—called Rudra 'The crier", after birth from Brahma—1.10.22-25 Seven names of Śiva—1.10.26 Eight forms of Śiva—1.10.27 —Eight wives of Śiva—1.10.29 —Eight sons of Śiva—1.10.30 —Created deathless Progeny— 1.10. 31-37 — T e n undiminishing attributes of Śiva—1.10.40-42 Creadon of Trinity of gods by Śiva—1.10.75-87 Śiva incarnates to delude cursed Brāhmanas—a founder of Pāśupatism—1.16.111-125 —Wanders as a Kāpālika—1.16. 120-128 —Incarnations of Śiva—1.53 —Fall of Lińga in Dāruvana—11.38. 1-83 —Repentant sages favoured by sages—11.39 Śiva and Pārvatī—Eulogised by Brahma—11.31.49-56 (Somāftaka) —Eulogised by Śveta—11.36.29-32 — „ by sages—11.39.21-36 Śrāddha-Kalpa—11.20-22 —Qualifications of invitees—11.21. 1%7 —Procedure of Performance—II. 22.1-107 —Articles of food and Meat —recommended for Ś r ā d d h a — I I . 20.37-47 —Fruits of Śrāddha performed under various constellations and days of the Week—11.20.1-17 —Fruits of Śrāddha on various Tithis—11.20.18-22 —Holy places for Srāddha—11.20. 29-36 Śrī—( Generally identified with Laksmi) —Churned out of the Ocean—1.1. 30-40 —Advises Indradyumna to propi­ tiate Visnu—1.1.58-65 —Identified with Māyā and Prakrti—1.1.34-40 Śri-Parvata or Śri-Śaila (Mt. in Andhra)—A sacred place equal to Varānasi—1.31.46 —Holy for performance of Śrāddha —11.20.35; 37.13-14


Index

631

Śuka—Son of Krsna-dvaipāyana Śuka's progeny—1.19.25-26 Śukla or Ś u k r a — A Śiva T i r t h a u n d e r Narmadā—11.41-67-83 S ū t a — P u r ā n a - r e c i t e r — T h e b i r t h of— 1.14.12-16 S ū r y a — T h e Sun-god—Sūrya-hrdaya (Eulogy of—)—11.18.35-45 Suśila—A king—Son of Śikhandin— S t o r y of—1.14.23-50 — M e e t s Śvetāśvatara & adopts Pāśupatism—1.14.32 S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n u — C r e a t i o n from half the body of Brahma, T h e other half Ś a t a r ū p ā , M a n u ' s wife— T 8.6 ff — T h e race of Svāyambhuva M a n u —1.14 Ś v e t a — ( 1 ) A k i n g — S a v e d from D e a t h b y Śiva—11.36.12-38 (2) N. of a m o u n t a i n — 1 . 4 5 . 9 (3) An i n c a r n a t i o n of Śiva—1.53.2 (4) N. of a disciple of an i n c a r n a ­ tion of Śiva—1.53.12 T T a l a & T a l ā t a l a — T w o nether worlds — 1 . 4 4 . 2 0 , 2 1 ; 24-25 T ā m r a p a r n i — A s a c r e d river—effica­ cious for T a r p a n a — 1 . 4 7 . 3 7 ; Ī I . 3 7 . 21-22 T a p o l o k a — O n e o f t h e seven M a h ā lokas—1.44.3 T r a i y a m b a k a — A sacred place (mod. T r i m b a k in Nasik Dist.)—11.35. 18-19 T r i k ū t a — A m o u n t a i n east o f lake Arunoda—1.47.30 T r i v i k r a m a ( o r V ā m a n a ) — A n incar­ nation of Visnu—1.17 Tuñga-bhadrā—A sacred r i v e r — A tributary of the K r s n ā —1.47.36 U U d a y a — A mountain in Śākadvipa— 1.49-34 U p a m a n y u — A sage—initiated Krsna in Pāśupatism—1.25.3-49 U p a - p u r ā n a s — A list of—1.1.17-20 U r v a ś i - p u l i n a — A sacred place u n d e r Prayāga—1.37.26-27 Uśanas— (1) T h e preceptor of D a i t y a s — 1.48-58-59 ( 2 ) N. of a k i n g - d e s c e n d a n t of Krostu—1.25.5 (3) A

Vyāsa—1.52.3

( 4 ) N. of a disciple of o n e of S i v a ' s incarnations—1.53-19 U t t ā n a p ā d a — A king in the Solar r a c e — M a n u ' s son a n d D h r u v a ' s fathrr—1.8.12 Uttara-Kuru— A Var?a (Subcontinent) ofjambūdvipa—1.45.12-13 V V a i k u n t h a (See N ā r ā y a n a p u r a ) ; Visnu's abode—1.49.64-71 Vāmana—Incarnation of Visnu— 1.17.46-69 Vānaprasthāśrama Forest-herm i t s h i p — T h i r d s t a g e in Life of a twice-born— — W h e n to adopt—II.27.1-3 — R u l e s and observances f o r — I I . 27.4-38 V a r ā h a — A m o u n t a i n W e s t o f Asit o d a — 1 . 4 5 . 3 8 , 11.20.32 V ā r ā h a — A Tirtha u n d e r N a r m a d ā — 1.35.6; 11.42.14 V ā r ā n a s i — T h e Sacred-most place of the Hindus. — T h e glory o f — I C h s . 3 1 t o 3 5 —Krsna-Dvaipāyana's pilgrimage to V. described—1.31. — Ś i v a glorifies V ā r ā n a s i o r Avim u k t a k a — 1 . 3 .22 f f . — L i s t of t h e sacredmost places —1.31.46-48 —Tirthas under Vārānasi—1.35 (also 1.31.46 ff) Vasudeva ( K r s n a ) — I n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u — s t o r y of—1.24.70 f f . [ F o r details, see K r s n a ] V a s i s t h a — ( 1 ) Ā ' s a g e — 1 . 2 . 2 2 ; 14.4 etc. ( 2 ) O n e of t h e S e v e n Sages (Saptarsis) in V a i v a s v a t a M a n v a n tara—1.51-25 (3) A Vyāsa—1.52-4 ( 4 ) A disciple of o n e of t h e i n c a r ­ n a t i o n s of Ś i v a — 1 . 5 3 . 1 8 Vasisfhāśrama—Śiva kindly treated at—11.38.33-38 Vasumanas—A king—His Aśvam e d h a , p e n a n c e & Sāyujya with Siva—1.20.29-76 Vedas—Classification of—1.52.12-27 V i n a ś a n a — T h e place of t h e dis­ appearance of the Sarasvati—Holy for Ś r ā d d h a — 1 1 . 3 7 . 2 9 Vindhya—A Kula-parvata in I n d i a — I . 47.24 V i p ā ś a — T h e river Beas—1.47.29


632

Kūrma

Virocana—A demon king—The story of 1.17.1-11 Becomes a Yogi as per Sanatkumāra's advice Vi?nu '• —Kills demons Madhu and Kaitabha—1.10.2-6 —Eulogized by I n d r a d y u m n a — 1.1.69-79 —Uplifts the earth in Varāha incarnation—1.6.1-10; 23-25. Visnu eulogised by the sages.1.6.11-21 — G o d Brahma—1.16.28-31 —Aditi—1.17.19-23 —Prahlada—1.17.32-39 Incarnations of Viinu—1.5 .27-50 Y Yadu—King—Dynasty of—1.24.1 ff Y&jfiavalkya—a sage, composed Yoga Sāstra as per Siva's advice' —1.25-44 Y a m a — ( 1 ) God of death—1.20.3; 33.23; 41.34-35 etc. (2) A Tirtha under Vārānasi— 1.35-6 „ under N a r m a d ā — 11.41.83-84

Purina

Yamuna—a very sacred river—1.47. 28 —Sister of Yama—1.20.3 — H e r importance—1.36.23, 44-48 —Tirthas under Yamuna—1.38. 14-15; 39.4-6 (cf. 36.44-48) Yaiodā—Nanda's wife—Krsna'" fos­ ter-mother—1.24.74 Yavana—A People to the West of Bhirata Varsa—1.47-26 Yayāti—A king—The story of— 1.22.6-11 Yudhisthira—Pāndava king—His dia­ logue with Mirkandeya about the glory of Prayāga—I.Chs. 36-39 Yuga—Nature of the Yugas—1.29 —Yuga-dharmas (Characteristics ofYuga.)—1.29.8 « —Conditions: in the Krta Yuga— 1.29.16-18 — I n Treta-Yuga—1.29.19-41 — I n Dvāpara Yuga—1.29.42-5 —Conditions in the Kali Yuga«1.30 Yogins—Duties of and classification of—1.2.75-85 Yuvaniiva—A king — Propitiated Nārāyana for a Son—1.2 .12-19

Kurma Purana I  
Kurma Purana I  

Vedas, Puranas, Wisdom

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