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S K A N D A , P A R T S XV-XXIII BHAVISYA BRAHMAVAJVARTA DEVĪBHĀGAVATA KĀLIKĀ MĀRKANDEYA MATSYA VĀMANA VISNU VISNUDHARMOTTARA


THE

BRAHMĀNDA PURĀNA Translated and Annotated by

DR. G.V. TAGARE

PART II

M O T I L A L BANARSIDASS P U B L I S H E R S PRIVATE LIMITED • D E L H I


First

Edition:

Reprint:

Delhi,

Delhi,

1983 1999

© MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED All Rights Reserved 1

ISBN: 81-208-0355-8

Also available at:

MOTILAL

BANARSIDASS

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PUBLISHERS' N O T E T h e purest gems lie hidden in t h e b o t t o m of the ocean or in the d e p t h of rocks. O n e has to dive into the ocean or delve into t h e rocks to find t h e m out. Similarly, t r u t h lies concealed in t h e language which with the passage of time h a s become obsolete. M a n has to learn t h a t language before he discovers t h a t t r u t h . But he has neither the means n o r the leisure to embark on t h a t course. We have, therefore, p l a n n e d to help h i m acquire knowledge by an easier course. We have started the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in 'English Translation. O u r goal is to universalize knowledge t h r o u g h the most p o p u l a r international m e d i u m of expression. T h e publication of t h e P u r Ä n a s in English translation is a step towards t h a t goal.


PREFACE T h e present volume contains the'BrahmSnda Purāna, P a r t II ( C h a p t e r s 1-43) of the third section, Upodghātapāda, of t h e text in English Translation. This is t h e T w e n t y - t h i r d volume in the Series which we have planned on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. T h e project of the Series was envisaged a n d financed in 1970 by L a l a S u n d a r Lai J a i n of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. H i t h e r t o twenty two volumes of the Series (comprising English translation of Siva, Lińga, Bh&gavata, Garuda, Nārada, Kūrma a n d Brahmānda Purānas) have been published and released for sale. T h e text of this P u r ā n a is divided into 3 parts : T h e p r e l i m i n a r y (pūrva), the middle (madhya) a n d t h e concluding (uttara). T h e p r e l i m i n a r y p a r t consists of two sections namely Prakriyā a n d Anusańga. Tb.e former consists of 5 chapters, t h e l a t t e r contains 33. T h e c h a p t e r Nos. of t h e 2 sections r u n serially. T h e middle p a r t consists of section 3 n a m e d Upodghāta. T h e serial nos. of chs. in this section start afresh with the n u m ber 1 a n d e n d with the n u m b e r 74. T h e final p a r t (JJttarabhāga) consists of Section 4 n a m e d Upasarhhāra consisting of 4 chapters a n d an a p p e n d i x namedLalitāmāhātmya ( t h e Glorification of t h e Goddess Lalitā) in 40 chapters. In this p a r t too, t h e serial order of chapters begins with the fresh n u m b e r . T h e division into p a r t s — P ū r v a , Madhyama and Uttara—seems to be a r b i t r a r y . F o r instance, the middle p a r t , t h o u g h it starts w i t h t h e fresh n u m b e r of chapters, continues the topic of t h e previous p a r t right u p t o t h e chapter 8 of this p ā d a . T h e present volume contains t h e third section Upodghāta ( C h s l to 4 3 ) . T h e remaining chs (44-74) of this section a r e t r e a t e d in t h e next volume. T h u s the third section Upodghāta has been split i n t o 2 volumes. Chapters 1-10 of this section deal with the groups of sages such as Bhrgu, Ańgiras, Atri, a n d t h e i r progeny as well as the creation of Prajāpatis a n d t h e race of D a n u a n d others. C h . 10 takes up additionally, t h e Dynasties of Pitrs, their propitiation by performing Ś r ā d d h a . T h e Ś r ā d d h a


(

viii

)

K a l p a consists of 11 chapters beginning with t h e 10th c h a p t e r a n d ending with the c h a p t e r 20. It states why B r ā h m a n a s are to be worshipped, fed and gifted at the time of Ś r ā d d h a and endorses the belief t h a t Pitrs enter the bodies of Brahmins in gaseous form. It describes t h e Ś r ā d d h a ritual in detail and provides the philosophical background thereof. C h . 21 onwards deal with the narrative of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a a n d depict the history of H a i h a y a K i n g K ā r t t a v ī r y a known as Sahasrārjuna. Ghs r 32, 33 are very i m p o r t a n t as they depict the religious condition of t h e period when different sects of I n d i a n Religion h a d reached a compromise. B r a h m a ' s sending P a r a ś u r ā m a to Śiva to receive the knowledge of weaponry, Siva's g r a n t i n g P a r a ś u r ā m a the perfect missile effective of world conquest, as well as the protective a r m o u r (kavaca) a n d 108 names of lord K r s n a are t h e instances in point. A n o t h e r remarkable feature of this section is the reference to Mrtasamjivani lore t h a t revives t h e d e a d to life a n d which Bhrgu is said to possess. We have included Abbreviations in this p a r t as well. T h e y are repeated in each a n d every p a r t with such additions as a r e m a d e in t h e footnotes. T h e general I n t r o d u c t i o n is prefixed to t h e first p a r t ; the general Index will be a p p e n d e d to the last p a r t . Acknowledgement of Obligations It is our pleasant d u t y to p u t on record our sincere thanks t o D r . R . N . D a n d e k a r a n d t h e U N E S C O authorities for their kind encouragement a n d valuable help which render this work m o r e useful t h a n it would otherwise have been. We are extremely grateful to D r . G. V. T a g a r e for his critical I n t r o d u c t i o n , lucid translation and comprehensive a n n o ­ tations. We t h a n k Shri T. V. P a r a m e s h w a r Iyer for his valuable assistance in t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of this work. We should also express o u r g r a t i t u d e to all those persons w h o have offered suggestions for improving t h e same. —Editor


CONTENTS Publishers' Note Preface Abbreviations

v vii xi PART n

SECTION I I I UPODGHĀTAPĀDA CHAPTERS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

C r e a t i o n of Sages—Birth of Seven Sages: R a c e of Bhrgu a n d . A ń g i r a s Progeny of Prajāp^ti : R a c e of D a k s a R a c e o f D h a r m a : T h r e e Attributes of t h e Self-born God. Creation of Gods a n d Sages P r o n u n c i a t i o n of i Curse on J a y a s Nrsirhha I n c a r n a t i o n . Hiranyakaśipu slain : R a c e of H i r a n y a k a ś i p u : Birth of M a r u t s Glorification of the R a c e of D a n u Different Dynasties E n u m e r a t e d R a c e of the Sages : Atri a n d Vasistha Propitiation of Pitrs Birth of S k a n d a Offering Rice-Cake to the M a n e s : F e e di ng B r ā h m a n a s . Establishing Fire Rules r e g a r d i n g Ś r ā d d h a R i t u a l s . Five M a h ā yajñas E n u m e r a t i o n of Holy Spots for Ś r ā d d h a Purification R i t e s ; Ś r a d d h a R i t u a l ; Sight of a N u d e Ascetic to be avoided Test for a B r ā h m a n a deserving for Ś r ā d d h a invitation Praise of C h a r i t a b l e gifts in S r ā d d h a A p p r o p r i a t e Tithis for performing Ś r ā d d h a Performance of Ś r ā d d h a u n d e r different Constellations Qualifications of a B r ā h m a n a for Ś r ā d d h a Gifts; M e r i t s of Ś r ā d d h a performance , at Gacred Places

395 407 410 422 426 435 438 477 486 494 505 517 521 537 549 557 563 566

569


(

20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

X

)

Seven Classes of Pitrs : Rites of Propitiating them A Dialogue between Aurva a n d P a r a ś u r ā m a

Paraśurāma's Penance Penance of P a r a ś u r ā m a (Continued) Penance of P a r a ś u r ā m a : His acquisition of t h e Knowledge of Astras 25. P a r a ś u r ā m a protects a boy from a tiger 26. K ā r t t a v i r y a visits the H e r m i t a g e of J a m a d a g n i 27. H a i h a y a Arjuna's R e c e p t i o n a n d H a l t at night 2 8 . H a i h a y a ill advised to confiscate J a m a d a g n i ' s Kāmadhenu 29A Q u a r r e l over the Cow : J a m a d a g n i murder­ ed : T h e Cow disappears 30. L a m e n t a t i o n of R e n u k ā : P a r a ś u r ā m a ' s vow to slay all Ksatriyas. J a m a d a g n i resuscitated 3 1 . P a r a ś u r ā m a advised by B r a h m a to a p p r o a c h Śiva a b o u t H a i h a y a 32P a r a ś u r ā m a ' s P e n a n c e : Receives missiles from Śiva 33. Protective M a n t r a for World Conquest 34. Story of an antelope and his beloved : A h y m n eulogising K r s n a 3 5 . P a r a ś u r ā m a visits Agastya's H e r m i t a g e 36. Agastya recites the H y m n K r s n ā m r t a 37. T h e N a r r a t i v e of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a 3 8 . N a r r a t i v e of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a ( C o n t i n u e d ) 39. Story of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a (Continued) 40. K i n g K ā r t t a v ī r y a slain 4 1 . Story of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a ( C o n t i n u e d ) 42. Story of Bhārgava P a r a ś u r ā m a ( C o n t i n u e d ) 4 3 . Story of Bh^rgava P a r a ś u r ā m a ( C o n t i n u e d )

579 581 588 597 604 611 620 626 633 641 643 650 654 660 664 669 675 683 687 692 698 704 709 715


ABBREVIATIONS

C o m m o n a n d self-evident abbreviations such as c h ( s ) — c h a p t e r (s), p — p a g e , p p — p a g e s , v—verse, w — v e r s e s , F t n — footnote, Hist. I n d . Philo—History of I n d i a n Philosophy are n o t included in this list. ABORI

Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute, P o o n a .

AGP

S. M. Ali's The Geography of Purānas, P P H , New Delhi, 1973.

AIHT

Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, F. E. Pargiter, Motilal Banarsidass ( M L B D ) , Delhi.

AITM

Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, M L B D , Delhi, 1972 onwards. Agni Purāna, G u r u M a n d a l Edition ( G M ) , Calcutta, 1957-

AP

Oriental

Research

Arch. S. R e p .

Archaeological Survey R e p o r t .

AV

Atharva Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h .

Bd. P.

Brahmānia Purina, M L B D , D e l h i 1973.

BG

Bhagavadgitā.

Bh. P.

Bhāgavata Purāna, Ahmedabad.

Br.

Brāhmana (preceded Śatapatha).

Bhagavat by

Vidyapeeth,

name

such as

Bs. P.

Bhavifya Purāna, Vishnu Shastri B a p a t , W a i .

Bv. P.

Brahma Vaivarta Purāna, G M , 1955-57.

CC

Caturvarga Cintāmani by H e m ā d r i .

CVS

Carana Vyūha Sūtra by Ś a u n a k a ; C o m . by

DB

Devi Bhāgavata, G M , 1960-61.'

Mahidāsa.


(

*H

)

De or G D A M I

The Geographical Dictionary Mediaeval India, N. L. R e p r i n t , Delhi, 1971.

D h . S.

Dharma

(preceded

Sūtra

of Ancient and De, Orienta

by

the a u t h o r ' s

n a m e such a s G a u t a m a ) . ERE

Encyclopaedia

GP

Garuda

GS

Grhya Sūtra (Preceded by t h e n a m e of t h e

HD

History of Dharma

of Religion

Purāna,

and Ethics—Hastings.

E d . R. S. B h a t t a c h a r y a ,

C h o w k h a m b a , Varanasi, 1964.

IA IHQ. KA KP

a u t h o r such as Apastamba) by P. V. K a n e ,

Sāstra

G.O.S. The Indian

Antiquary.

The Indian Historical Quarterly. Kautiliya Arthaśāstra. Kūrma Purāna, Venkateshwara Press Edt. Bombay, also Kashiraj T r u s t E d t . , V a r a n a s i 1971.

LP Manu

Lińga Purāna, G M , 1960; also M L B D , Delhi, 1981. Manu Smfti.

MKP

Mahābhārata, Gltā Press, .2014: Mārkandeya Purāna.

MN

Mahābhārata

Mbh.

Gorakhpur,

Nāmānukramanl,

Gitā

VS

Press,

G o r a k h p u r , VS 2016. M t . P. MW NP

Matsya Purāna, G M , 1954. Monier Williams Sk. English Dictionary M L B D , Delhi, 1976. Nāradiya

or Nārada

Purāna, Venkateshwar

Press, Bombay. PCK

BhāratavarsiyaPrācina Caritrakośa, Siddheshwar Shastri, Poona, 1968.

Pd. P.

Padma Purāna, G M , 1957-59.

PE

Puranic Encyclopaedia by V. M L B D , Delhi, 1975.

M a u i , English,


(

xiii

)

PJ.

Purāna ( J o u r n a l of the Kashirāj Varanasi.

PR or P R H R C

Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and R. C. H a z r a , Calcutta, 1948.

RV

Rg Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h

Śat. Br

Śatapatha Brāhmana.

Trust), Customs

SC or S M C

Smrti

SEP

Studies in Epics and Purānas by A. D. Pusalkar Bharatiya Vidya B h a v a n ( B V B ) , B o m b a y .

Candrikā—Devanna

Bhatta.


PART II S E C T I O N III MADHYABHĀGA UPODGHĀTAPĀDA


CHAPTER ONE Creation of Sages Birth of Seven Sages ; Race of Bhrgu and Ańgiras Now begins Brahmānda Purāna.

t h e Madhyabhāga

(middle section)

of t h e

Ś&mśapāyana requested : 1. " T h e Second Pāda (section) has already been n a r r a t e d to us along w i t h its a p p e n d i x (Anusańga). ( K i n d l y ) recount in details the T h i r d Pāda along with its I n t r o d u c t o r y P a r t (Upodghāta)." Sūta said : 2. "I shall n a r r a t e to you all the T h i r d Pāda (called) Upodghāta in details a n d in aggregate, O B r ā h m a n a s . U n d e r ­ s t a n d it even as I r e c i t e . 3. Listen to t h e present creative activity of t h e noble•ouled Vaivasvata M a n u in details a n d in the p r o p e r order, O Brāhmanas. 4 - 6 . I t ( t h e present M a n v a n t a r a ) has a l r e a d y been reckoned before as consisting of seventy-one sets of four Yugas. After p a y i n g obeisance to t h e Suii-god (Vivasvān) I shall n a r r a t e to you t h e creative activity of Vaivasvata M a n u r i g h t from the beginning of M a n u to t h e end of 'Prophecies of the future' (Bhavisya). T h e n a r r a t i v e consists of m a n y episodes of t h e groups of Devas, Sages, D ā n a v a s , Pitrs, G a n d h a r v a s , Yaksas, Rāksasas, Bhūtas (Evil Spirits), great serpents, h u m a n beings, animals, birds a n d immobile beings. 7 - 9 a . T h e seven great sages, w h o were the initiators of c r e a t i o n formerly i n t h e f i r s t M a n v a n t a r a n a m e l y S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a , passed away. W h e n the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a was over a n d t h e V a i v a s v a t a M a n v a n t a r a set in, owing to t h e curse of L o r d Śiva, t h e r e was t h e re-birth of D a k s a a n d those (spiri-


396

Brahmānda Purāna

tually) mighty seven sages like Bhrgu a n d others w h o were t h e n (existent) in t h a t S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . 9b-1 Oa5 Again the seven sages who were re-born t h u s , were accepted as his m e n t a l sons by t h e self-born god ( B r a h m a ) himself. 10b-12. T h e creative activity was duly m a d e to function as before by those noble sons w h o evolved a continuity of progeny. I shall describe t h e progeny of those (sages) of p u r e knowledge a n d holy rites. I shall n a r r a t e in details or in b r i e f (as w a r r a n t e d by relevancy), in a serial order, factually as before. T h i s cosmos consisting of mobile a n d immobile beings a n d adorned with planets and stars, has become filled up again, completely by persons b o r n of their race. The sages said : — 13. O excellent one ! Please n a r r a t e ( e x p l a i n ) to us how t h e seven sages, w h o were previously b o r n as m e n t a l sons of god Brahma, were m a d e his own sons ( a g a i n by B r a h m a ) . Sūta said :— 14-15. T h o s e seven sages w h o h a d been mentioned as existing in Svāyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a , b e c a m e overwhelmed by t h e curse of Bhava (i.e. Siva) when they r e a c h e d the Vaivas­ v a t a M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y were u n a b l e t o a t t a i n t h e (previous) power of p e n a n c e . T h e y lingered after r e a c h i n g t h e J a n a l o k a from where they could r e t u r n b u t once. 16-17 T h o s e great sages began to tell one a n o t h e r con­ stantly in t h e J a n a l o k a — " W e shall be b o r n as these noble souls, when t h e holy sacrifice of V a r u n a will be elaborately performed d u r i n g t h e Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a . We shall all be b o r n as the sons of P i t ā m a h a (i.e. B r a h m a ) . T h a t shall be conducive to o u r great r e n o w n " . 18-20. After saying thus, they, w h o h a d been cursed by B h a v a in t h e course of Svāyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a , b e c a m e born in the C ā k s u s a M a n v a n t a r a , for further creation. T h e y r e t u r n e d from J a n a l o k a a n d were b o r n here once again. T h e y were b o r n in t h e sacrifice of t h e g r e a t lord who h a d assumed t h e physical form of V a r u n a . T h i s has been h e a r d


397

2.3.1.21-26

by us t h a t the sages h a d t h e i r second birth, even as B r a h m a , w i t h a desire for begetting children, was performing t h e H o m a in t h e fire by m e a n s of his semen. 2 1 . T h e r e were t h e eight sons of B r a h m a 1 — v i z . Bhrgu, Ańgiras, M a r i c i , Pulastya, Pulaha, K r a t u , Atri a n d Vasistha. 22-23. In his elaborate sacrifice all t h e Devas h a d arrived a n d were present. So also t h e various ancillaries of sacrifice. V a s a t k ā r a was there in an embodied form. T h e S ā m a n M a n t r a s a n d thousands of Yajur M a n t r a s were there in an e m b o d i e d form. T h e R g v e d a embellished w i t h t h e specific o r d e r of words called Krama2 also a p p e a r e d t h e r e . 24. Yajurveda endowed with ( r e l e v a n t ) metres brilli­ a n t w i t h O r h k ā r a as its m o u t h (face) was stationed here along w i t h t h e Sūktas, B r ā h m a n a s a n d M a n t r a s a n d intermingled w i t h t h e Arthas (objects, purposes) of the Yajña. 25. S ā m a v e d a endowed w i t h relevant metres a n d w i t h all mantra-songs ( w h i c h could be sung) at the head was present t h e r e along w i t h Viśvāvasu a n d o t h e r G a n d h a r v a s . 26. T h e B r a h m a v e d a (Atharvaveda) was (present t h e r e ) a c c o m p a n i e d by terrible rites. D u e to the a c c o m p a n i m e n t of Pratyańgirasas, it a p p e a r e d as if it h a d two bodies a n d heads.3 1.

Apart from the discrepancy in number (here actually eight sons of

Hrahmā are enumerated instead of seven under Saptarsis), the n a m e s of the Saptarsis of this M a n v a n t a r a as given Supra I. ii 3 8 . 26-29 are different viz. Viśvāmitra, J a m a d a g n i ,

Bharadvāja, Śaradvāna

(of G a u t a m a g o t r a ) , Atri

ali;is Brahma K o ś a , V a s u m ā n (son of V a s i s t h a ) , Vatsara (son of K ā ś y a p a ) . V. 30 thereof states: these seven sages enumerated n o w exist in the present (Vaivasvata) Manvantara

(etc Saptarsayakoktā vartante sSmprate'ntare j )

T h i s previous list tallies m o r e closely w i t h V P . I I I . 1. 32 if the n a m e s thrre-in are taken as gotras of the sages. 2.

Krama is a peculiar m e t h o d or m a n n e r of reciting V e d i c texts. It is

to called because t h e reading proceeds from the 1st member, either word or I n t e r to the 2nd, then the 2 n d is

repeated a n d connected w i t h

the

3rd,

the

the auspicious

one

3rd is repeated a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h the 4 t h a n d so on. 3.

T h e AV consists

(Athawans)

and

destruction

of

and .heads.

the

of

terrible

enemies

two ones

{Ańgiras).

sets of M a n t r a s connected

with

:

imprecations for the

H e n c e AV. is said to h a v e t w o bodies


398

Brahmānda

Purātia

27. T h e following ( t e c h n i c a l details a b o u t t h e recitation of V e d a ) were present ( i n their bodily forms) : Laksanā (use of a cognate woyd for a n o t h e r ) , Vistara (extension, e l o n g a t i o n ) , Stobha ( c h a n t e d interjection in a S ā m a n ) , Mirukta (etymologi­ cal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) , Svarabhakti (phonetically inserted vowelsound) āśraya, Vasatkāra, nigraha andpragraha (vowel not subject to sandhi-rules). 28. ( T h e following divinities were present in person there) T h e goddess I l ā ( t h e E a r t h ) of brilliant form, t h e quarters a n d t h e lords of quarters, celestial girls (devakanyā), wives a n d mothers of gods. 29. All these, in their beautiful e m b o d i e d forms arrived at t h e sacrifice w h e n god V a r u n a assuming a physical b o d y was performing t h e sacrifice. T h e y were all endowed w i t h b e a u t y a n d splendour. 30. On seeing t h e m t h e semen of t h e self-born lord fell on t h e g r o u n d . 1 T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this t h a t this took place on account of t h e dispensation of t h e inevitable fact, the b i r t h of B r a h m a n i c a l sages. 3 1 . P i t ā m a h a held i t w i t h b o t h t h e h a n d s a n d performed t h e H o m a . He held it by means of t h e Sruvā (sacrificial ladle) a n d performed the H o m a as it oozed o u t . He performed t h e •Homa c h a n t i n g t h e Mantras (simultaneously). 32. T h e n P r a j ā p a t i (Lord of t h e subjects) created,the collection of Bhūtas (Living beings or E l e m e n t s ) . F r o m his lower tejas (Brilliance), t h e Taijasa B r a h m a n was b o r n in t h e worlds. 33. (Defective T e x t ) T h e Āpyatva ( L i q u i d i t y ) is possible by m e a n s of Tamas, Sattva a n d Rajas. He held his own semen in t h e Ājyasthāli ( G h e e - p a n ) a n d performed t h e Homa. 34. W h e n t h e Homa was performed by m e a n s of semen t h e g r e a t sages manifested themselves. T h e y shone with brilliant bodies. T h e y h a d their own i n h e r e n t good qualities a n d potentialities. 1.

T h e story of the births of Bhrgu, Añgiras a n d Atri is based on Bxhad

devatā V. 97-101

and the etymologies of these names follow that

grammarians offer different derivation.

text though


2.3.1.35-46

399

35-36a. W h e n the semen was once poured i n t o the fire by way of Homa, K a v i came o u t of t h e flame. On seeing h i m coming out after splitting t h e flame, H i r a n y a g a r b h a (i.e. B r a h m a ) s a i d — " Y o u a r e B h r g u " . Since it was said, so he b e c a m e Bhrgu. 36b-37. M a h ā d e v a t h e n a p p e a r e d a n d spoke to B r a h m ā "O lord, I h a d been desirous of a son a n d h a d been invited by you, O lord. Let this boy who is born at the outset be my son, O l o r d " . 38. Saying " s o be i t " , M a h ā d e v a was consented to by the Self-born iord. T h e n M a h ā d e v a a d o p t e d Bhrgu as his son. 39. H e n c e Bhrgus a r e V ā r u n a s (those p e r t a i n i n g to t h e race of V a r u n a ) . T h a t lord is his child. (For a) second (time) t h e lord performed Homa over t h e b u r n i n g charcoal (ańgāra) by means of semen virile. •40. T h e limbs of Ańgiras were firmly united together over t h e charcoals ( a ń g ā r a ) . H e n c e , he is ( k n o w n a s ) Ańgiras. On seeing his nativity, V a h n i (the fire-god) spoke to god Brahma. 4 1 . ' I t was I w h o bestowed t h e semen u p o n t h e e . H e n c e , let this second one be my ( s o n ) . ' " L e t it be s o " , thus Sadasaspati ( t h e fire-god) was replied to by B r a h m a . 42-43. Agni (the fire-god) accepted ( h i m as his s o n ) , We have h e a r d t h a t t h e descendants of Ańgiras are Āgneyas. T h e semen virile was further divided i n t o six by B r a h m a , t h e m a k e r of the worlds a n d deposited i n t o the fire by way of Homa. It is m e n t i o n e d in t h e Vedas t h a t Brahmās were b o r n of it. Marīci rose therefrom at the outset from t h e rays. 44 In t h a t Kratu (sacrifice), K r a t u t h e sage was b o r n . H e n c e he is ( c a l l e d ) K r a t u . T h e sage Atri was b o r n (saying) " I a m the t h i r d (Aham-Trtiya)". H e n c e h e i s n a m e d a s Atri. 45. ( T h e fourth sage) was b o r n w i t h overspreading hairs. H e n c e he is r e m e m b e r e d as Pulastya. ( T h e fifth sage) was b o r n w i t h long h a i r s . H e n c e he is r e m e m b e r e d as P u l a h a . 46. ( T h e sixth sage) was b o r n from a m o n g t h e V a s u s a n d was himself self-controlled a n d m a s t e r of Vasu ( w e a l t h ) .


400

Brahmānda

Purāna

H e n c e , he is called Vasistha by the expounders of the B r a h m a n ( V e d a ) who are conversant with reality. 47 T h u s , these a r e the six g r e a t sages, the m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a . T h e y are t h e cause of t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of worlds. It is because of t h e m t h a t these subjects flourish a n d grow. 48-49. T h e sons of B r a h m a are cited as Prajāpatis ( t h e Lords of subjects or creation) also. O t h e r s n a m e d Pitrs have been procreated by these great sages; (they have c r e a t e d ) seven groups of D e v a s * well known in all the seven worlds. T h e y a r e t h e Ajeyas (those who could n o t be c o n q u e r e d ) . T h e y are seven in n u m b e r and they are well-known in all the seven worlds. 50-51. T h e y are well-known as M ā r ī c a s , Bhārgavas, Añgirasas, Paulastyas, P a u l a h a s , Vāsisthas a n d Atreyas. T h e y m a k e the worlds of the Pitrs flourish. T h e s e have been succinct­ ly r e c o u n t e d . T h e r e are three m o r e groups. 52. T h e y a r e Amartas, Aprakāśas a n d the renowned J y o t i s m a n t s . T h e i r king is Lord Y a m a w h o has got rid of all sins by means of Tamas ( t h e famous t e n qualities of restraining influence such as celibacy, non-violence, non-stealth etc. {Brahmacaryā, Ahirhsā, Asteya, etc.) 53-54. T h e r e a r e other Prajāpatis. Listen to their ( e n u m e r a t i o n ) attentively. 1 T h e y are K a ś y a p a , K a r d a m a , Śesa ( ? ) , V i k r ā n t a , Suśravas, B a h u p u t r a , K u m ā r a , Vivasvān, Śucivrata, P r a c e t a s , Aristanemi a n d Bahula. 55-56. These a n d m a n y others are Prajeśvaras (Lords of subjects). Kuśoccayas a n d Vālakhilyas have become great sages. T h e y h a d the velocity of the m i n d . T h e y could go every­ w h e r e . T h e y could enjoy all kinds of pleasures. A n o t h e r set of B r a h m a n i c a l sages have b e e n b o r n of Bhasman (sacred ashes). T h e y are respected by other groups of B r a h m a n i c a l sages.

*

Vā.P.

65.49

reads

rji-ganas "groups of s a g e s " . In view of the next

verse ( N o . 5 0 in B d . P ) w h i c h enumerates the groups of sages, rsī-ganas is a better reading. 1.

T h e r e is a variation in the lists of Prajāpatis in different Purānas.

T h u s though V ā . P . a n d our text agree a b o u t the n a m e s a n d number o f Prajā­ patis, the lists in M b h . , M t . P or G a r u d a differ from our text and inter se.


2.3.1.57-69a

401

57. T h e groups of sages (called) Vaikhānasas are earn­ estly devoted to p e n a n c e a n d higher Vedic learning. T h e two (Devas) Aśvins whose b e a u t y is widely a p p r e ­ ciated were b o r n of his nose. 58. T h e y know t h a t t h e b i r t h of Rksarajas was from the m o v e m e n t of his eyes. O t h e r Prajāpatis were born of his ears. 59-60. (Some) sages were b o r n of t h e pores at t h e roots of his hairs. (Some) were b o r n of his sweat-dirt. T h e two Ayanas (transits of t h e S u n ) , t h e seasons, t h e m o n t h s , t h e half-months (i.e. fortnights), t h e j u n c t i o n s of fort­ n i g h t s — ( a l l these were b o r n of h i m ) . Years a r e his days a n d nights. T h e Jyotis ( L u m i n a r i e s ? ) a r e his terrible b i l e * ( ? ) . T h e y call his blood R a u d r a ( p e r t a i n i n g t o R u d r a ) . His blood is r e m e m b e r e d as Kanaka (gold) (?) 6 1 . T h a t is said to be Taijasa. T h e smokes a r e remem­ bered as animals. W h a t c a m e o u t as his flames were R u d r a s . Similarly, t h e Adityas (i.e. twelve suns) c a m e out. 62-63. Sparks of divine a n d h u m a n (nature) were gene­ r a t e d from t h e charcoals. T h e n B r a h m a , t h e p r e c e p t o r of t h e Devas (gods), was p r o p i t i a t e d by t h e Devas. T h e y spoke these words : — " Y o u a r e t h e P r i m o r d i a l one in this world. You a r e B r a h m a b o r n of B r a h m a n . You a r e t h e bestower of all desires". 64-66. These lords of subjects will p r o c r e a t e subjects. All of t h e m a r e Prajāpatis. All of t h e m a r e sages who h a v e performed austerities. These holy rites will sustain these worlds •due to your grace. T h e y will cause your family to flourish. T h e y will m a k e your splendour increase for ever. All those born of prajāpati will become scholars in the Vedas. All of t h e m will be masters of speech. All of them will be holders of V e d i c Mantras. 67. L e t all of t h e m resort to B r a h m a n , t h e truthful a n d t h e greatest p e n a n c e on t h e E a r t h . All of us a n d these a r e , O lord, your own progeny. ^ 68-69a. T h i n k i n g t h a t , B r a h m a n , t h e B r ā h m a n a s , t h e worlds consisting of the mobile a n d t h e immobile beings, t h e *

V ā . P . 6 5 . 5 9 reads Pitryam—'ancestral'

(light ?) for Pitta of this text.


402

Brahmānda

Parana

Devas a n d the sages with Marīci as their first one (leader), are your own progeny. We desire for your progeny. 69b-70. T h e Devas a n d the sages of great honour, w h o were present in t h a t Yajña were born of your race. T h e y identify themselves with the places and times (of their d u t y ) . These subjects will establish themselves in your own form. 71. T h e B r ā h m a n a s shall thus establish the beginnings a n d ends of the Y u g a s " . T h e r e u p o n , the preceptor of the worlds spoke thus after d u e reflection. 72. It is after deciding like this t h a t these great sages b o r n of your race have been created by m e . T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this. 73. Of them, I shall n a r r a t e at the outset the race of the noble-souled Bhrgu w h o was the first Prajāpati. "I shall n a r r a t e it in detail a n d in d u e order. 74-76. T h e two wives of Bhrgu were of excellent nobility of b i r t h . T h e y were unrivalled a n d splendid. (One of them) was the d a u g h t e r of Hiranyakaśipu, well-renowned by the n a m e of Divyā. T h e second was Paulomī, the d a u g h t e r of excellent complexion, of P u l o m a n . Divyā give b i r t h to the son of Bhrgu. He was the most excellent a m o n g those w h o are conversant with Brahman. ( V e d a ) . He was Śukra, the preceptor of. the Devas (?) a n d the Asuras. He was the planet, the most excellent of the wise sages. Śukra himself was U ś a n a s . He was always known by t h e n a m e of K ā v y a . 77. T h e m e n t a l d a u g h t e r of the M a n e s n a m e d Somapās (imbibers of the S o m a juice) was well-known by the n a m e of G a u . She became the wife of Śukra a n d gave b i r t h to his four sons. 78. T h e y were T v a s t r , V a r a t r i n , Ś a n d a a n d M a r k a . I n splendour they resembled t h e Sun a n d in prowess they were as good as god B r a h m a . * 79. T h e following were the sons of V a r a t r i n v i z . — R a j a t a , P r t h u , R a ś m i a n d the scholarly Brharhgiras. T h e y were t h e priests performing the Yajñas of the Daityas. T h e y were extremely skilled in sacred knowledge.


403

2.3.1.80-92

80. In o r d e r to destroy t h e holy r i t e of Ijyā (sacrifice), they a p p r o a c h e d M a n u a n d began to perform Yajñas ( i n a distorted m a n n e r ) . O n seeing D h a r m a vitiated, I n d r a said t o Manu. 8 1 . " I shall m a k e these people alone properly perform your Y a j ñ a " . On hearing those words of I n d r a , they (the sons of V a r a t r i n ) slipped away from t h a t place. 82. W h e n they disappeared, I n d r a came t o M a n u ' s wife who had become senseless a n d freed her from t h e evil planet. T h e n h e pursued t h e m . 8 3 . Thereafter, those sages began to strive for t h e d e s truction of I n d r a . On seeing those vicious persons come, I n d r a laughed derisively. 84-85. T h e n , becoming furious he b u r n e d t h e m in t h e southern half of the sacrificial platform. T h e r e they b e g a n to resist h i m along with their Śālāvrkas (dogs, wolves). Even as they resisted h i m thus, their heads d r o p p e d d o w n a n d b e c a m e date-palms. It was t h u s t h a t t h e sons of V a r a t r i n were killed by I n d r a formerly. 86-87. Devayānī was b o r n of J a y a n t ī , as t h e d a u g h t e r of Śukra. Triśiras alias V i ś v a r ū p a was t h e great (elder) son of T v a s t r . He was b o r n of Y a s o d h a r ā , d a u g h t e r of V i r o c a n a . He b e c a m e very famous. He w h o is r e m e m b e r e d as Viśvakarm a n was t h e younger b r o t h e r o f V i ś v a r ū p a . 88. Divyā gave b i r t h to a d a u g h t e r , t h e younger sister of lord Śukra ( K ā v y a ) . Twelve resplendent (godly) sons w e r e b o r n to Bhrgu a n d they were known as Bhrgus ( o r Bhrgu g o d s ) . 89-90. T h e y were Bhuvana, B h ā v a n a , Antya, A ń t y ā y a n a , K r a t u , Śuci, S v a m ū r d h a n , Vyāsa, Vasuda, P r a b h a v a a n d Avyaya. T h e twelfth one is r e m e m b e r e d as A d h i p a t i . T h e s e a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Bhrgus. T h e y are Devas (shining ones) w o r t h y of Y a j ñ a s . 91-92. Paulomī gave b i r t h to a son engrossed in B r a h m a n He was a B r ā h m a n a of perfect self-control. ( W h i l e he was in t h e womb) in t h e e i g h t h m o n t h , he was swallowed by a cruel 1

1.

M t . P. gives a different list of these 12 D e v a Yājñīka Bhrgus in t h e

list of Gotras and Pravaras.


404

Brahmān,da Purāna

R ā k s a s a . He slipped off a n d is therefore k n o w n as C y a v a n a . He is Pracetas as well, because he was conscious and alert. Cyavana alias Pracetas b u r n e d t h e man-eaters (demons) d u e to anger. 9 3 . T h a t scion of t h e family of Bhrgu begot two sons of Sukanyā. Those two sons, viz. Apravāna a n d D a d h ī c a were h o n o u r e d by good people. 94. Sārasvata t h e son of D a d h ī c a , was b o r n of Sarasvatī. T h e m i g h t y virtuous Rcī, d a u g h t e r of N a h u s a , was t h e wife of Āpravāna. 9 5 . T h e sage Aurva of great renown w a s b o r n of h e r after piercing t h r o u g h t h e thigh. 1 Rcīka was t h e son of Aurva. He shone w i t h a brillance equal to t h a t of fire. 96. J a m a d a g n i was born of satyavatī as t h e son of Rcīka, formerly when t h e Cams (sacrificial offering) pertaining to R u d r a a n d Visnu (? p r e p a r e d by) Bhrgu were i n t e r c h a n g e d . 97-98. J a m a d a g n i was so called because he devoured t h e fire p e r t a i n i n g to Visnu. R e n u k ā gave b i r t h to R ā m a t h e son of J a m a d a g n i . H e h a d unlimited splendour. H e h a d t h e valour on a p a r w i t h t h a t of I n d r a . He h a d t h e i n h e r e n t character­ istics of b o t h Brāhmanas a n d Ksatriyas. Aurva h a d a h u n d r e d sons beginning w i t h J a m a d a g n i . 99-100. D u e to inter-alliance, t h e families of Bhārgavas h a d thousands of sons. External Bhārgavas, it is r e m e m b e r e d , are b o r n amongst o t h e r sages also. T h e y are m a n y such as Vatsas, Vidas, Ārstisenas, Yāskas, Vainyas, Śaunakas a n d t h e seventh g r o u p t h e M i t r e y u s . These clans a r e to be known as Bhārgavas. 101. Now, listen to t h e family of Ańgiras, t h e intelli­ g e n t son of Agni. It was ih his family t h a t Bhāradvājas along w i t h G a u t a m a s were b o r n . 1.

In M b h . Ādi 177 we are told that w h e n H a i h a y a s tried a genocide

of Bhrgus, Bhrgu w o m e n fled to hills. But while running C y a v a n a ' s wife ArusI c o n c e a l e d her foetus in her thigh. W h e n informed of this, H a i h a y a warriors arrested her to execute her but the c h i l d — a son—broke through her mother's thigh and blinded all the H a i h a y a s by his supreme brilliance. As this child broke through his mother's thigh, he was called Aurva (one born out of the thigh).


2.3.1.102-117

405

102-104a. T h e most i m p o r t a n t Devas belonging t o t h e family of Ańgiras a r e t h e T v i s i m a n t s of great prowess. T h r e e girls became t h e wives of A t h a r v a n viz., S u r ū p ā , t h e d a u g h t e r of M ā r ī c a , Svarāt, t h e d a u g h t e r of K a r d a m a , a n d P a t h y ā , t h e d a u g h t e r o f M a n u . I n t h e m were b o r n t h e heirs a n d successors of A t h a r v a n . T h e y uplifted t h e family. T h e y a r e sanctified by m e a n s of g r e a t p e n a n c e . 104b-106. Brhaspati was b o r n of S u r ū p ā . Svarāt gave b i r t h t o G a u t a m a , Ayāsya, V ā m a d e v a , U t a t h y a a n d U ś i t i . D h r s n i was t h e son of P a t h y ā . S a m v a r t a was t h e m e n t a l son. K i t a v a was t h e son of Ayāsya. Ś a r a d v ā n was b o r n of U t a t h y a . D ī r g h a t a m a s was b o r n of U ś i (i.e. Uśiti ?) B r h a d u k t h a was b o r n of V ā m a d e v a . 107. S u d h a n v a n was t h e son of D h r s n i . R s a b h a was t h e son of S u d h a n v a n . R a t h a k ā r a s (? Charioteers) a r e r e m e m ­ bered as t h e Devas. T h e y are well renowned as R b h u s . 108. Bharadvāja of very great fame, was b o r n of Brhaspati. Gods j u n i o r t o Brhaspati a r e known as Ańgirasas. 109-113a. T h e y a r e t h e bosom-born sons of Ańgiras b o r n of S u r ū p ā viz. Adhāri, Ayus, D a n u s , D a k s a , D a m a , P r ā n a , H a v i s y ā n , Havisnu, R t a a n d Satya. T h e y a r e t e n i n n u m b e r . T h e groups of families of Ańgiras should be known as fifteen in n u m b e r viz. Āyāsyas, U t a t h y a s , V ā m a d e v a s , Auśijas, Sāmkrtis, Gargas, K a n v a s R a t h ī t a r a s , M u d g a l a s , Visnuvrddhas, H a r i t a s , K a p i s , Rūksas, Bharadvājas, Arsabhas a n d K i t a v a s . M a n y external Ańgirasas, it is amongst other sages also.

r e m e m b e r e d , are b o r n

113b. I shall n a r r a t e t h e family of M a r ī c i consisting of excellent m e n . 114-115. It is in his family t h a t t h e whole universe consisting of t h e mobile a n d t h e immobile beings, was b o r n . M a r l c i loved t h e waters. W i t h a desire for progeny, he b e g a n to c o n t e m p l a t e a n d p o n d e r over t h e m . T h i n k i n g " L e t a son endowed w i t h all good qualities a n d having children for himself be b o r n " H e engaged himself i n Yogic union. T h e holy lord was sanctified by m e a n s of p e n a n c e . holy

116-117. T h e r e u p o n , a l l t h e waters were struck. T h e lord procreated a son i n t h e m whose soul h a d been en-


406

Brahmānda

Purāna

grossed ( i n m e d i t a t i o n ) . T h e son was u n e q u a l l e d . He was a Prajāpati, Aristanemi by n a m e . M a r i c i who was engaged in p e n a n c e , got t h e son who performed a p e n a n c e a m i d s t waters. 118 Desirous of a son, he stationed himself in water c o n t e m p l a t i n g on t h e chaste V ā k (speech). He stayed t h e r e for seven thousand years. H e n c e , he b e c a m e unequalled. 119. K ā ś y a p a was on a p a r with Savitr. He was equal to B r a h m a in brilliance. He was a scholar. In every M a n v a n ­ t a r a , he is b o r n by m e a n s of a p a r t of B r a h m a . 120-121. W h e n D a k s a was over-bearing in his speech in r e g a r d to his d a u g h t e r s , t h e holy lord b e c a m e angry. T h e n he d r a n k Kaśya. L i q u o r is called by t h e n a m e Kaśya. T h e word Kaśi should be understood to h a v e t h e sense of Hāsya ( H u m o u r , w i t ) . T h e speech a n d m i n d a r e mentioned by t h e word Kaśya. L i q u o r is remembered by B r ā h m a n a s by m e a n s of t h e word Kaśya. T h e sage is called K a ś y a p a d u e to his d r i n k i n g liquor. 1 122-124a. Since t h e nameKaśa* (? w h i p ) was cruelly u t t e r e d (? by h i m ) a n d since he b e c a m e a n g r y on being cursed by Daksa, he b e c a m e K a ś y a p a , therefore. F o r t h e same reason, on being suggested by B r a h m a P a r a m e s t h i n , D a k s a t h e son of Pracetas gave h i m his celebrated daughters (in m a r r i a g e ) . All of t h e m a r e the mothers of the world. 124b-12 5. T h u s , he who knows t h e creation of t h e sages, t h e holy one p e r t a i n i n g to V a r u n a , shall be meritorious a n d p u r e . He will enjoy long life. He will experience p e r p e t u a l pleasure. By r e m e m b e r i n g this or by even listening to this ( c h a p t e r ) , one is rid of all sins.

1. drunkard

A funny derivation : T h e sage K a ś y a p a is so designated as he w a s a (KaJya—wine) and whi£-Uke

(Kaiā—a w h i p ) harsh in speech.

* V ā . P . 6 5 , Karoti nāmt yad vico etc. ' I n a s m u c h as he uttered harsh w o r d s ' etc.


2.3.2.1-11

407 CHAPTER TWO The Progeny of Prajūpali : The Race of Daksa

Sūta

said:—

1. W h e n t h e sixth c r e a t i o n of subjects i.e. t h a t of C ā k s u s a ( M a n v a n t a r a ) h a d been (annihilated a n d ) w i t h d r a w n , D a k s a was c o m m a n d e d by t h e self-born lord h i m s e l f — " C r e a t e the Subjects". 2. He (i.e. D a k s a ) created all the living beings, t h e mobile ones as well as t h e immobile ones. At t h e outset, t h e lord created m e n t a l living beings. 3. He created ( m e n t a l l y ) t h e sages, t h e Devas, t h e G a n d h a r v a s , t h e h u m a n beings, t h e serpents, t h e Rāksasas, t h e Yaksas, t h e Bhūtas (goblins), t h e Piśācas (ghosts, evil spirits) t h e birds, t h e animals a n d t h e c a t t l e . 4. W h e n those subjects c r e a t e d m e n t a l l y by h i m did not multiply, they were cursed m e n t a l l y by t h e g r e a t intelligent lord of g r e a t s p l e n d o u r a n d d i g n i t y . 5-6. Desirous of c r e a t i n g t h e diverse subjects by m e a n s of copulation, he m a r r i e d Asiknī, t h e d a u g h t e r of V ī r a n a t h e Prajāpati. She was endowed w i t h g r e a t power of p e n a n c e . She was t h e sustainer of t h e worlds. It was by her t h a t this entire universe consisting of t h e mobile and t h e i m m o b i l e beings was held u p . 7-9. In this connection they cite the following verses as regards t h e descendants of P r a c e t a s : — As D a k s a was formerly wedded to his wife Asiknī t h e d a u g h t e r of V ī r a n a , one million p r o u d black serpents followed lord Daksa w h o never got e n t a n g l e d in t h e rivers a n d m o u n ­ tains. On seeing h i m it was said by t h e sages t h a t t h e first Daksa will establish the subjects here. As for t h e second D a k s a — h e himself is t h e creator of t h e subjects. 10. Thereafter, t h e one million serpents went away in d u e course. D a k s a , t h e son of Pracetas, m a r r i e d Asiknī t h e d a u g h t e r of V ī r a n a t h e r e . 11. Thereafter, lord D a k s a , son of Pracetas, begot a t h o u s a n d sons of Asiknī, t h e d a u g h t e r of V ī r a n a . T h e y h a d unlimited prowess.


408

Brahmānda

Purāna

12-14. On seeing t h e m , t h a t ( D a k s a ) of great splendour b e c a m e desirous of causing t h e subjects to multiply. N ā r a d a , t h e son of B r a h m a , was delighted in the con­ versation with t h e divine sages. He spoke certain words t h e result of which was their destruction a n d curse u n t o himself. 1 (Defective t e x t ) . N ā r a d a was t h e m e n t a l son of P a r a m e s t h i n . On a c c o u n t of t h e curse of Daksa, he b e c a m e t h e m e n t a l son of K ā ś y a p a for t h e second t i m e . 15-16. T h a t N ā r a d a h a d formerly been b o r n of P a r a m e ­ sthin. Daksa's sons well-known as Haryaśvas were wholly des­ troyed for the sake of D h a r m a (?) T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t all of them were destroyed by fate. T h e infuriated lord D a k s a p r e p a r e d himself for cursing h i m . 17-18. A c c o m p a n i e d w i t h Brahmarsis (Brahmanical sages) a h e a d of him, he was requested by t h e highest god B r a h m a . Thereafter, D a k s a c a m e to a stipulated u n d e r s t a n d i n g with P a r a m e s t h i n " L e t N ā r a d a become your son, t h r o u g h m y d a u g h e r . " Thereafter, D a k s a gave his beloved d a u g h t e r t o P a r a m e s t h i n . H e n c e , sage N ā r a d a was r e b o r n on a c c o u n t of t h e fear of his curse. Samiapāyana said:— 19. " H o w were t h e sons of P r a j ā p a t i formerly destroyed by t h e divine sage N ā r a d a ? I wish to know this factually ( i n details)." Sūta

said:—

20. Haryaśvas, t h e sons of Daksa, were desirous of caus­ ing t h e subjects to flourish. Those sons of great virility assembl­ ed. N ā r a d a spoke t o t h e m . 2 1 . "Alas, all of you are childish. You do n o t know t h e surface of t h e E a r t h internally n o r do you know t h e space above or below. H o w will you create t h e subjects?" I.

According to M b h . Āii. 7 5 . 7-8, N ā r a d a instructed this first b a t c h

of 1000 sons of D a k s a in S ā ń k h y a philosophy. There-by all of them became recluses leading to the frustration of D a k s a ' s mission of populating the world. H e r e ( W . 2 0 - 2 7 ) N ā r a d a advised them t o know the m a g n i t u d e o f the earth a n d diverted t w o batches of D a k s a ' s sons—the H a r y a ś v a s a n d Śabalāśvas elsewhere

(Bh. P.

VI ch. 5 ) . Being frustrated in his plan of populating the

world, he cursed N ā r a d a to perish a n d reborn again.


409

2.3.2.22-32

22. On hearing his words, they went away in all direc­ tions. Till today they have not r e t u r n e d like the rivers t h a t have fallen into t h e O c e a n . 23. W h e n they were lost, lord Daksa, t h e son of Pracetas, once again begot a thousand sons of Vairanī. 24. These sons (known as) Śabalāśvas, were desirous of causing t h e subjects to flourish. T h e y were told once again by N ā r a d a t h e same words uttered by h i m before. 25-26.

T h e y said amongst themselves:—

" W h a t t h e sage says is t r u e . T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this t h a t the p a t h of our brothers should be traversed by us. We shall easily create t h e subjects after u n d e r s t a n d i n g the E a r t h . We have been duly instructed. After t h e clarification a n d illumination of our minds we shall become peaceful a n d n o r m a l . 27. T h e y t o o went in all directions along t h e same p a t h , desirous of getting at t h e m a g n i t u d e a n d extent of t h e E a r t h . T h e y have not r e t u r n e d till today. 28. Thereafter, if a b r o t h e r goes in search of his (lost) b r o t h e r he perishes himself quickly. T h a t should not be u n d e r ­ taken by a person w h o knows this. 29. W h e n the Śabalāśvas too perished, lord Daksa be­ c a m e infuriated. H e cursed N ā r a d a t h u s — " B e c o m e perished. Stay in a w o m b . " 30. W h e n they were destroyed, t h a t noble-souled lord Daksa begot of V a i r a n ī herself sixty well known d a u g h t e r s . 3 1 . K ā ś y a p a , D h a r m a , Soma, the lord ( M o o n ) a n d o t h e r Krv.at sages took those daughters as wives. 32. He who knows factually this creation of D a k s a entirely shall become blessed, well renowned a n d long-lived. I le shall have progeny.


410

Brahmānda Purāna CHAPTER THREE The Race of Dharma: Three Attributes of The Self-Born God The Creation of Gods And Sages

The sages said:— 1. " N a r r a t e in detail the origin of all the Devas, D ā n a v a s a n d Daityas i n the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a . " Sūta said:— 2-3. "I shall n a r r a t e the progeny of D h a r m a himself. Listen to it a n d u n d e r s t a n d . Daksa, the son of Pracetas, gave ten of his daughters aswives u n t o D h a r m a . T h e y were Arundhatī, Vasu, J ā m ā , L a m b ā , Bhāniī, M a r u t v a t ī , Samkalpā, M u h ū r t ā , Sādhyā a n d Viśvā. 4. Twelve Sādhyas were b o r n as the sons of Sādhyā a n d D h a r m a . Those conversant with the Devas affirm that they are superior to other Devas. 5. These are the gods called J a y a , created from the m o u t h of B r a h m a * with a desire for progeny. All are remem­ bered as Devas with M a n t r a s as their bodies, in all the Manvantaras. 6-7. T h e names of the (special) Yajñas of these (twelve Devas) are well-known viz. D a r s a , P a u r n a m ā s a , Brhad R a t h a n t a r a , Vitti Vivitti, Akūti, K ū t i , Vijñātr, Vijñāta a n d Yajña. 8-9. D u e to the curse of Brahma, those were born as J i t a s in the S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a , as Tusitas in the Svārocisa, as Satyas in the U t t a m a , as Devas n a m e d Haris in T ā m a s a M a n v a n t a r a and as Vaikunthas in the R a i v a t a M a n ­ v a n t a r a . In the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a , they were born as the Devas n a m e d Sādhyas out of their own will. 1 10-14. T h e twelve Devas of great dignity a n d splendour, sons of D h a r m a a n d n a m e d Sādhyas, were to have been born in * ed

For Brāhmanā here-of, the reading Brahmapo as in Vā.P.66.5 is accept­

here. 1.

W . 8-14 emphasise h o w the same persons (gods, sages e t c . ) are born

in every M a n v a n t a r a w i t h a difference in their names.


411

2.3.3.15-25

t h e Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a . I n the Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a , they were the Devas of great prowess n a m e d Tusitas. T h e y spoke to one a n o t h e r — " w h e n there is a little b a l a n c e of Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a (?) (rather Svārocisa?), we shall e n t e r this lady of noble dignity (of t h e ) S ā d h y ā herself a n d shall be b o m in the (Cāksusa) M a n v a n t a r a . T h a t will be conducive to o u r excellence ( a n d beatitude) ". After saying thus, those twelve Devas were b o r n of { S ā d h y ā ) a n d D h a r m a , the descendant of the self-born lord. N a r a a n d N ā r ā y a n a were also born once again therein. 15. T h e y h a d originally been Vipaścit and I n d r a , as well as Satya a n d H a r i . Formerly, in the Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a , they were the sons of T u s i t ā . 16-17. These names a r e mentioned when Tusitas h a d become Sādhyas viz. M a n a , A n u m a n t r , P r ā n a , N a r a , A p ā n a of great virility, Viti, N a y a , H a y a , Halhsa, N ā r ā y a n a , V i b h u a n d P r a b h u . T h u s twelve Sādhyas were b o r n . 18. T h i s h a d been in the S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a (?) formerly. Again in the Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a the following were the names of the Tusitas. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m . 19. P r ā n a , A p ā n a , U d ā n a , S a m ā n a , Vyāna, Ś r o t r a m , Rasa, G h r ā n a , Sparśa, Buddhi and M a n a s .

Caksus,

20-21. These former names of the Tusitas are remembered. T h e Vasus were the sons of Vasu. T h e y are remembered as the younger brothers of t h e Sādhyas. T h e following a r e glorified as t h e eight Vasus viz. D h a r a , D h r u v a , Soma, Ayus* Anala, Anila, P r a t y ū s a a n d Prabhāsa. 22. T h e sons of D h a r a were Dravina, H u t a h a v y a a n d Rajas. O dear one, the son of D h r u v a was K ā l a who impels the worlds. (Lokaprakālana). 2 3 . T h e five sons of Soma ( t h e M o o n ) were lord Varcas, B u d h a , G r a h a Bodhana, D h a r o r m i n a n d Kalila. 24-25. T h e sons of Aya (i.e. Ayus) were V a i t a n d y a , Ś a m a , Śānta, S k a n d a a n d S a n a t k u m ā r a w h o were born, d u e to a q u a r t e r of his brilliance.

(Ayus in V . 2 4 is mentioned as Aya).


412

Brahmānda

Purina

Svāhā gave birth to the son of Agni, viz. K u m ā r a envelop­ ed by glorious splendour. Śākha, V a i ś ā k h a a n d N a i g a m e y a were his younger brothers (literally : horn after). 26. Śivā was the wife of Anila. H e r sons were M a n o j a n a a n d Avijñātagati. Anila had two sons (only). 27. T h e y know t h a t the son of Pratyūsa was the n a m e d Devala. Devala h a d two sons who were forbearing intelligent.

sage and

28. T h e sister of Brhaspati was Bhuvānā, the expounder of B r a h m a n . She h a d achieved yogic power. She was never a t t a c h e d to the world, b u t she traversed the entire universe. 29. She w h o was the wife of P r a b h ā s a the eighth one of the Vasus and Viśvaka^man, the lord and master of all Prajāpatis, as her son. 30-31. T h e ten famous Viśvedevas were b o r n of Viśvā (i.e. the wife of D h a r m a ) . T h e y were K r a t u , Daksa, Satya, K ā l a , K a m a , M u n i , P u r ū r a v a s , M ā r d r a v a s a and R o c a m ā n a . These splendid Devas were born of Viśvā as the

sons of

Dharma. 32. It is remembered t h a t the M a r u t v a n t s were born of M a r u t v a t ī ; T h e Bhānus were born of Bhānu (wife of D h a r m a ) ; t h e M u h ū r t a s were b o r n o f M u h ū r t ā 1 a n d L a m b ā gave birth t o Ghosa.* 33. T h e erudite Sarhkalpa was born of Sarhkalpā. T h e nine Vlthīs (orbits) t h a t h a d resorted to the three p a t h s were born of J ā m ā . 1 . This verse a n d W . 35-54 contain ancient astronomy. T h e literature on Muhūrta is enormous as it m e a n s " t i m e fit for performance of auspicious a c t s " a n d as such is of vital importance to everyone. N a m e s of muhūrtas in Brāhmanas a n d Smrtis are different. T h e n a m e s 15 muhūrtas of the d a y and 15 muhūrtas o f the night a s given here i n W . 39-46 agree w i t h the list i n

Vā.

P. 66.40-44. O u t of these Brahma is Abhijit of w h i c h he is the presiding deity. Prājāpatya is R a u h i n e y a as Prajāpati is the presiding deity of Rohini. M t . P. 2 5 3 . 8 - 9

mentions only eight auspicious muhūrtas for beginning a work.

P u r ā n a s regard muhūrtas as deities probably because every muhūrta has a pre­ siding deity. *

For ghosa-lambā hyajāyata of the text, the reading in V ā . P . 6 6 . 3 3 .

Ghofarh Lambā

Vyajāyata is accepted.


413

2.3.3.34-46

34. All the objects on the E a r t h were b o r n of A r u n d h a t ī . This is t h e scholarly p e r m a n e n t creation of D h a r m a . It has been thus n a r r a t e d . 35. O sages of excellent holy rites, I shall n a r r a t e t h e M u h ū r t a along with t h e substitutes of t h e Tithis ( l u n a r d a y s ) . Even as I mention t h e m by their names, u n d e r s t a n d them. 36. T h e division of day a n d night has the stars for its basis. T h e M u h ū r t a s and t h e constellations cause t h e divisions in days a n d nights. 37. M o r e t h a n eightysix Kalās of t h e day a n d night are remembered. T h e y occur in all the seasons, every day, d u e to the special movement of the S u n . 38. Therefore, those who are conversant with the vedas accept this m o v e m e n t d u r i n g the Parvan days (full moon, new m o o n , e t c . ) . If no a p p a r e n t peculiarity is perceived in the periods, it should be k n o w n on the basis of Sun. 39-41. T h e M u h ū r t a s are : — R a u d r a , Sārpa, M a i t r a , Pitrya, Vāsava, Āpya, Vaiśvadeva a n d B r a h m a . These M u h ū r t a s cover the period till, midday. T h e M u h ū r t a s — P r ā j ā p a t y a , Aindra, Indrāgnī, Nirrti, V a r u n a , Ā r y a m n a , a n d Bhaga cover the period d u r i n g the d a y ( a f t e r n o o n ) . These m u h ū r t a s called Dinamuhūrtas are caused by the Sun. T h e y should be known in accordance with their magnitudes by means of the p a r t i c u l a r shadow of gnomons. 42-46. T h e fifteen M u h ū r t a s of the night are—Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, * t h e n the m u h ū r t a s having t h e following presid­ ing deities v i z . — P ū s a n , Aśvin, Y a m a , Agni, Prajāpati, Soma, Aditya, G r h a p a t i , Visnu, T v a s t r , and Vāyu. These shall be the M u h ū r t a s of the night. T h e y are fifteen in n u m b e r . T h e movements a n d risings of the M o o n should be known from the Nādikās from the beginning. These M u h ū r t a s a r e t h e different periods of time. T h e y a r c r e m e m b e r e d as Devatās. T h e r e are only three places laid down for all t h e planets. , T h c y should be known as 1) the southern o n e , 2) the n o r t h e r n *

The

line ajaikapādahirbudhnya in the text needs emendation. V ā . P .

66.43 t e a d s = ajas tathāhirbudhnaica 'Aja as well as Ahirbudhna'.


414

Brahmānda Purāna

one a n d 3) the middle one. T h e place J a r a d g a v a is the m i d d l e ; t h e place Airāvata is the n o r t h e r n one and t h e place Vaiśvānara has been indicated as t h e southern one factually. 47-5la. T h e constellations Aśvinī 1 , B h a r a n I and K r t t i k ā constitute the famous Nāgavithī. T h e constellations R o h i n ī , Mrgaśiras and A r d r ā are termed Gajavithī; t h e constellations Punarvasu, Pusya a n d As'lesā a r e considered to constitute AirāvatI, Vīthī. These three Vithls (orbits) are mentioned as Uttara Mārga (Northern Path)2. T h e Constellations M a g h ā , Pūrvaphālgunī and U t t a r a Phālgunī are remembered as constituting t h e Arsabhī Vīthī. T h e constellations H a s t a , Citrā a n d Svātī are termed Govīthī. T h e constellations Viśākhā, A n u r ā d h ā , a n d J y e s t h ā a r e considered to constitute the Vīthī of J ā r a d g a v ī . These three Vīthīs are mentioned a s M a d h y a m a M ā r g a ( M i d d l e P a t h ) . 51b-53a. T h e constellations M ū l a , P ū r v ā s ā d h ā a n d U t t a r ā s ā d h ā are termed Ajavīthī. T h e constellations Śravana, D h a n i s t h ā a n d Śatabhisak constitute t h e Mārgī ( V ī t h ī ) . T h e constellations Pūrvā B h ā d r a p a d ā , U t t a r ā b h ā d r a p a d ā a n d Revatī are glorified as Vaiśvānarī Vīthī. These three Vīthīs are called the S o u t h e r n P a t h (Daksina Mārga). 53b-54. Daksa gave twenty-eight (? twentyseven) of his daughters ( i n m a r r i a g e ) t o S o m a ( M o o n ) . 55. All of t h e m are glorified in Jyotisa (Astrology-Astro­ n o m y ) by t h e n a m e s of constellations. Children of unmeasured splendour a n d brilliance were b o r n of t h e m . 1.

T h e enumeration of Naksatras from Aśvinī shows that this portion

(if n o t the whole P u r ā n a ) should be dated in the A . D . 300-400 as V e d i c list of Naksattras starts from Krttikā. Also vide the comparative table of the lists of Naksatras in V e d i c Samhitās, their deities, modern n a m e s etc. in H . D . V.I.pp.501-504. 2. tions)

W . 47-53 give t h e distribution o f different to different Vithis

naksatras

(constella­

(divisions of planetary sphere comprising of three

asterisms e.g. AsVini, Bharanī a n d M r g a ; Ardrā m a k e Gaja-vithi etc.

Krttikā constitute JVāgavithi;

Rohini;


415

2.3.3.56-64

56. Fourteen other girls of great nobility a n d fortune, K a ś y a p a accepted as his wives. All of them are mothers of t h e worlds. 1 57-60. T h e y w e r e : — A d i i i , Diti, D a n u , K ā s t h ā , Arista, Anāyu, K h a ś ā , Surabhi, Vinatā, T ā m r ā , M u n i , K r o d h a v a ś ā a n d K a d r u * the mother of the serpents. Understand their progeny. O d e a r one, there were twelve excellent Devas in t h e S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y were born as V a i k u n t h a s (in the R a i v a t a M a n v a n t a r a a n d they became Sādhyas in t h e Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a . When this M a n v a n t a r a of Vaivasvata was imminent, they were propitiated by Aditi. T h e y assembled together and said to one a n o t h e r , " I n this Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a , we shall e n t e r this noble lady Aditi by means of our yogic power a n d utilizing half of our brilliance we shall be her sons. T h a t will be conducive to our excellence a n d b e a t i t u d e . " 61-62. After saying this, all of t h e m were born as the twelve Ādityas (sons of Aditi) from K a ś y a p a , sons of Marlci in this current M a n v a n t a r a . Ś a t a k r a t u a n d Visnu were born once again Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a as N a r a a n d N ā r ā y a n a .

in

the

63. It is mentioned t h a t even those Devas have birth a n d d e a t h in the same way as the rising a n d setting of the Sun in this world. 64. Since they were attached to (the worldly objects such as) sound, etc. of the worldly as well as Vedic tradition, and since they were entangled in the eightfold (Super h u m a n powers) like Animā (minuteness) etc., those Devas were reborn.

1.

W . 5 5 give credit t o K ā ś y a p a for the creation o f beings from h i s

fourteen w i v e s — a l l daughters of D a k s a . This is another

w a y of

classifying

the beings in the world in 14 classes or categories. It will further be noticed that all these gods etc. in the present M a n ­ vantara are the same as in the first to sixth Manvantaras w i t h changes in n a m e s only a n d they confer together at the beginning of a n e w M a n v a n t a r a a n d then take birth. Every body, even gods, h a v e births a r d deaths, rebirths etc. to attachment to the world. *

Bd.P. text enumerates only 13 wives of K a ś y a p a a n d n o t 14.

due


416

Brahmānda Purāna

65-69a. T h u s , the a t t a c h m e n t to the worldly pleasures is remembered as the cause of rebirth. T h e Devas ,named J a y a s were born as J i t a s in t h e Svāyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a due to the curse of B r a h m a . T h e y were born as Tusitas in the Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a ; Satyas in the U t t a m a M a n v a n t a r a . Those Devas were born as Haris in the T ā m a s a M a n v a n t a r a ; in the M a n ­ v a n t a r a Aristava ( R a i v a t a ) , they were b o r n as V a i k u n t h a s ; as Sādhyas in the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a , a n d as Adityas in t h e seventh (i.e. Vaivasvata) M a n v a n t a r a . T h e following were the twelve Ādityas, the sons of the holy lord K a ś y a p a : — D h ā t r , A r y a m a n , M i t r a , V a r u n a , Arhśa, Bhaga, I n d r a , Vivasvān, Pūsan, Parjanya who is remembered as the tenth, T v a s t r and t h e n Visnu. Visnu was born as the last one but not the least (in i m p o r t a n c e ) . 69b. Eleven R u d r a s were born of S u r a b h i as sons of Kaśyapa. 70-72. T h e y were born due to the grace of M a h ā d e v a . T h e chaste lady h a d been sanctified by means of austerity a n d p e n a n c e . T h e eleven R u d r a s were Ańgāraka, S a r p a N i r r t i , Sadasaspati, Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, J v a r a , B h u v a n a , Iśvara, M r t y u and he who is well known as K a p ā l i n . D u e to severe austerity and penance, Surabhi gave b i r t h to these eleven Devas, R u d r a s w h o are the lords of the three worlds. 73. T h e noble lady, Surabhi, gave birth to two daughters also, viz. Rohīnī of excellent loveliness a n d G ā n d h a r v ī of great reputation. 74. F o u r daughters well-known in t h e worlds were born of Rohinī. T h e y were Surūpā, Harhsakālf, B h a d r ā a n d Kāmadughā. 75. K ā m a d u g h a gave birth to cows. S u r ū p ā gave birth to two sons. Harhsakālī gave birth to buffaloes a n d species of sheep were born of B h a d r ā . 76. Horses of great splendour are t h e reputed sons of G ā n d h a r v ī . T h e y are Uccaiśśravas and others. T h e y have the velocity of t h e m i n d and they traverse the sky. 77. T h e horses with Gāndharvī as their mother (source of origin) are said to be the vehicles of the Devas. T h e y are white, red, tawny, spotted, green, and grey in colour.


417

2.3.3.78-87

78-79. A glorious bullock, C a n d r a p r a b h a (having t h e lustre of t h e M o o n ) was also b o r n of Surabhi, with g a r l a n d , h u m p a n d brilliant lustre. He was b o r n of the a b o d e of n e c t a r ( ? ) . With t h e consent of S u r a b h i , he was given as t h e emblem of M a h e ś v a r a . T h u s , these sons of K a ś y a p a viz. R u d r a s a n d Ādityas have been glorified. 80-82. T h e Sādhyas, Viśvedevas a n d Vasus are r e m e m ­ bered as t h e sons of D h a r m a . J u s t as t h e same fire becomes m a n y , d u e to t h e fuel a d d e d , so also P i t ā m a h a is alone b u t he has diverse forms. T h e same form is t h a t of B r a h m a , A n t a k a ( a n n i h i l a t o r ) a n d Purusa* These are r e m e m b e r e d as t h e three physical bodies of t h e selfsame self-born lord. T h e y (these bodies) are r e m e m b e r e d as Brāhmī, P a u r u s ī a n d K ā l ā k h y ā . 83. T h e body t h a t is Rājasī (having t h e Rajas G u n a ) is t h a t which creates t h e subjects. T h a t w h i c h is called K ā l ā k h y ā is considered to be annihilator of t h e subjects. 84. T h e body Paurusī which is Sāttvikī (having Sattva G u n a ) is r e m e m b e r e d as Pālikā ( t h a t which p r o t e c t s ) . K a ś y a p a the son of M a r ī c i , b e c a m e t h a t b o d y of B r a h m a which is Rājasī. 85. T h a t p a r t of the b o d y which is Tāmasī (having T a m a s G u n a ) a n d Antakrt (causing destruction) is called Visnu*. 86. Those three bodies of the self-born lord, it is r e m e m b e r e d , exist in t h e three worlds. He adopts different forms a n d situations of his K a l ā s with t h e various purposes in view. 87. He creates, blesses (i.e. m a i n t a i n s ) a n d annihilates the subjects. T h u s are r e m e m b e r e d t h e three bodies of t h e selfb o r n lord. •Destruction is not the function of V i s n u but that of B h a v a or R u d r a . Hence,

the

B d . P . text tadamlo visnururyaU is obviously wrong. T h e V ā . P .

6 6 . 1 0 5 b reads instead tadamśenābhavad Bhavah 'Bhava ( R u d r a ) w a s born o u t of that

(Tāmasa)

part."


418

Brahmānda

Purāna

88-89. T h e y are three in n u m b e r viz. 1) Prājāpatya (belonging to Prajāpati, i.e. B r a h m a ) , 2) R a u d r ā (belonging to R u d r a ) a n d 3) Vaisnavī (belonging to V i s n u ) . These shining bodies are cited in the ancient D h a r m a ś ā s t r a by sages w h o perceive t h e reality, who are intelligently engaged (in the practice of) Sāmkhya a n d Yoga, w h o perceive the same object separately (i.e. analytically a n d synthetically) a n d w h o a r e conversant with prowess a n d nobility of b i r t h . 90. These subjects are the same with the divine bodies) by means of unity a n d difference d u e to separateness. Those w h o perceive t h e different objects say " T h i s is great (or different). This is not t h e s a m e " . 9 1 . Some say t h a t B r a h m a is t h e ( u l t i m a t e ) cause, some say t h a t it is P r a j ā p a t i . Some call Bhava the greatest of all and others call V i s n u so. 92. T h e persons (thus e n g a g e d in philosophical specu­ lation) are influenced by their knowledge. T h e y a r e confused in their minds as they are a t t a c h e d to unlucky o m e n s * ( ? ) T h e y say these things after observing the Sattva (inherent strength), Kāla ( t i m e ) , Deia ( p l a c e ) , Kārya (effect) and Karman (activity). 93. These deities a r e r e m e m b e r e d as t h e cause of the different affairs. A person w h o praises one, praises all. 94. He who censures one censures all. H e n c e , no one w h o knows these, should have h a t r e d towards t h e deities. 95. īśvaras (gods) w h o are well established in t h e i r prowess a n d majesty cannot be understood perfectly. F r o m unity ( t h e lord) assumed three forms a n d confounded the subjects. 96. People try to find out the difference amongst these three. T h o s e w h o are desirous of knowing wish ( for' k n o w l e d g e ) . T h e y are a t t a c h e d . T h e y are vicious. T h e y a r e confounded i n their minds. 97. T h e y see diversity because they say, " T h i s is different. This i s ' n o t " ( t h e s a m e ) in their overeagerness a n d *

T h e line is obscure. V ā . P . 6 6 . 1 1 2 b reads instead: avijñānena

samsaktāh

D u e to lack of discerning knowledge,

saktā

ratyādicetasā

they are confused a n d attached,

their m i n d inclined to sensual pleasute, etc.

with,


2.3.3.98-108 excitement. T h e y are demons and spirits in particular. is no difference (?) 98. deluding Gunas.

419 There

( T h e supreme lord) is one b u t remains separate the subjects by m e a n s of his bodies consisting of the

99. He who worships one a m o n g them, worships all t h e three. H e n c e , these three Devas (i.e.deities) are well establish­ ed closely without difference. 100. H e n c e , who is competent to note in them, separateness or unity, n u m b e r or absence of n u m b e r , arrival and depar­ ture or the state of being too little or too m a n y ? 101. H e n c e , he creates, blesses (i.e. protects) a n d swallows in all respects. He is, therefore, called one when t h e r e is no identification w i t h the G u n a s . 102. B r ā h m a n a s call t h a t lord w h o is only one by various names such as R u d r a , B r a h m a , I n d r a , guardians of worlds (quarters), sages, M a n u s , a n d N ā r ā y a n a . 103. T h e three bodies viz. Prājāpatyā, R a u d r ī Vaisnavī recur again and again in different M a n v a n t a r a s .

and

104-106. Ksetrajñas too are b o r n d u e to this great lord's blessings. T h e y ( t h e Ksetrajñas) ( I n d i v i d u a l Souls) a r e born on a p a r with h i m in regard to brilliance, glory, intellect, learning a n d strength. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m ( p r o p e r l y ) . K a ś y a p a , the son of Marīci, was born on account of t h e Rājasī p a r t of B r a h m a . K ā l a R u d r a is said to have been born on account of t h e Tāmasī p a r t of Brahma. Yajña Visnu (i.e. Visnu identified with t h e holy sacrifice) was born on account of the Sāttviki part. 107. O B r ā h m a n a s , these bodies of B r a h m a again a n d a g a i n re-appeared for the purpose of creation (etc.) in all t h e t h r e e units of time (past, present, future), here in different Manvantaras. 108. All t h e subjects, both mobile and immobile, a r e born once simultaneously at the beginning of the Yugas in all the M a n v a n t a r a s a n d they continue to stay till their destruc­ tion a n d withdrawal (at the time of Pralaya) .


420

Brahmānda

Purāna

109. Whenever t h e K a l p a comes to an end, R u d r a annihilates the subjects. It is after becoming K ā l a a g a i n t h a t R u d r a , the soul of t h e Yugas, annihilates t h e subjects). 110. W h e n the end of the K a l p a arrives, t h e sun of seven rays assumes the form of Sāmvartakāditya ( t h e sun of final a n n i h i l a t i o n ) and burns down t h e three worlds. 111. Visnu protects t h e subjects always. He is the bestower of blessings on the subjects. In different situations, he causes t h e ( r e q u i s i t e ) reasons to be produced (for t h e same). 112-115a 1 . He is born at the outset on account of the p a r t of t h a t b o d y of B r a h m a which has a p r e d o m i n a n c e of Sattva G u n a a n d w h i c h is called Paurusī. He was mentally b o r n of Akūti d u r i n g S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . W h e n t h e Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a arrived, t h a t lord was b o r n of T u s i t ā as Ajita along with the other T u s i t a Devas. In t h e A u t t a m a M a n v a n t a r a , lord Ajita was b o r n of Satyā as Satya, along with t h e excellent Devas n a m e d Satyas. 115b-117. In t h e course of t h e T ā m a s a M a n v a n t a r a t h a t lord b e c a m e H a r i b o r n of H a r i n ī along w i t h (the other Devas) H a r i s . In t h e Vaivasvata ( R a i v a t a ?) M a n v a n t a r a , H a r i was once again b o r n b y t h e n a m e V a i k u n t h a along with t h e Devas w h o have shaken all Rajas qualities. Visnu was born of Aditi (as t h e son) of K a ś y a p a son of M a r i c i . 118. By m e a n s of three steps, L o r d Visriu incarnated as T r i v i k r a m a , conquered a l l these ( t h r e e worlds) a n d h a n d e d t h e m over to I n d r a a c c o m p a n i e d by all t h e Devas. 119. T h u s these bodies were b o r n seven times in t h e course of t h e seven M a n v a n t a r a s t h a t have passed by a n d t h e subjects h a v e been protected by these bodies. 120-123. It is from Visnu t h a t this entire universe is b o r n a n d it gets merged in h i m again. It is from Visnu's p a r t t h a t all the i m m o r t a l ones, the lords of t h e three worlds a r e 1.

W.

112-123

g i v e ' the different incarnations o f V i s n u i n different

manvantaras a n d his accomplishment as Trivikrama. T h e synthesization of the Trinity favourite subject of Purānas.

(Brahma, V i s n u and R u d r a ) is a


421

2.3.3.124-131

born. T h e y flourish in brilliance, intellect, l e a r n i n g a n d strength. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t whatever is endowed with prosperity, whatever being is glorious a n d powerful, is b o r n of a p a r t of the splendour of Visnu. Some m e n wish ( t o believe) t h a t he is b o r n by m e a n s of a p a r t of himself. A few dispute this a n d they explain (their s t a n d - p o i n t ) by m e a n s of examples. T h e r e is no difference a m o n g these three occupants of heaven (i.e. deities) 124-126. T h e lords are b o r n on account of their Yogic M ā y ā . By m e a n s of their parts, they delude others. H e n c e there i s n o t h i n g p r o p e r o r i m p r o p e r i n their m o v e m e n t a n d activity. T h e y a r e the first a m o n g those who a p p r o v e t h e B h ū t a s (living beings). T h e y a r e in the midst of those w h o e x p o u n d the Bhūtas (Elements, living b e i n g s ) . All the t h r e e (deities) a r e a t t a c h e d to those w h o approve t h e Bhūtas a n d those w h o ex­ p o u n d t h e m . After e x a m i n i n g t h e (merits) they bless t h e people. T h e y themselves restrain a n d e x t e r m i n a t e t h e rogues, themselves. 127. T h e y are anterior t o m e ( i . e . S ū t a ) . H e n c e , they are m o r e potential lords. J u s t as the persons w h o point out t h e T r u t h , so also they m a k e use of these bases (?) . 128. T h e y are the lords of t h e Universe. T h e y a r e Devas of Devas. T h e y m a k e others function. T h e y a r e the achievers of great tasks. 129. T h e y are glorified by persons conversant with t h e Vedas, on account of these four reasons ( ? ) . Those persons w h o are puerile do not c o m p r e h e n d t h e deities in all their aspects. in

130-131. In this context they regard to Yogeśvara.

cite

t h e following verse

T h e Yogeśvara (Master of Yogic p r a c t i c e ) performseverything after acquiring t h e Yogic potency. W i t h all of t h e m t h e great yogin wanders (everywhere). He m a y enjoy worldly pleasures. Again h e m a y perform p e n a n c e later o n . Again h e should withdraw (within Himself) like t h e S u n w h o (controls, and-withdraws) the groups of luminaries.


Brahmānda

422

Purāna

CHAPTER FOUR Pronunciation of a Curse on Jayas1 Sūta said :— 1. T h e Devas (called) J a y a s were created by B r a h m a -out of his m o u t h , d u e to a desire for progeny. All of them are remembered as having M a n t r a s for their bodies in the different M a n v a n t a r a s . 2-3. " T h e following are the twelve Yajñas viz.—Darśa, P a u r n a m ā s a , Brhat, S ā m a n , R a t h a n t a r a , Citi, Suciti, Akūti, K ū t i , Vijñāta, Vijñātr a n d M a n a s . Perform these sacrifices after taking a wife u n t o you, m a i n t a i n i n g the Agnihotra fire." 4. After telling t h e m (i.e. Jayas) thus, the lord vanished there itself. T h e r e u p o n , they did not approve of these words of Paramesthin. 5. After observing defects in the K a r m a n s (holy rites e t c . ) , they discarded K a r m a n s as well as the Vāsanās (desires or unconscious impressions) born of K a r m a n s . T h e y began to a d h e r e strictly to Y a m a s (Restraints, self-controls, e t c . ) . 6. T h e y observed the fruit of K a r m a n s as attended w i t h excess of destruction a n d deterioration. T h e y entertained c o n t e m p t for progeny. T h e y b e c a m e Nissattvas (free from in­ b o r n n a t u r e or n a t u r a l characteristics) and Nirmamas(fret from the desire of possession). 7. Desirous of Liberation (literally absence of b i rt h, cessation of b i r t h ) , they got rid of t h e m after observing the defects ( i n K a r m a n s ) . They a b a n d o n e d Artha (wealth), Dharma (customary observances of castes) a n d Kama ( L o v e ) , a n d stabilised themselves on Moksa, the last P u r u s ā r t h a ) . 1. T h e object of this chapter is to state that the same set of g o d s is born a n d presides in e a c h Manvantara. To explain the cause of this, the author tells us that the 1st set of gods (called here J a y a s ) in the 1st M a n v a n t a r a did n o t take to their assigned task of procreation but to the path of M o k s a and were h e n c e cursed by g o d Brahma to be reborn seven times in e a c h M a n v a n t a r a till the present one viz Vaivasvata. T h u s we h a v e the following sets of gods in e a c h M a n v a n t a r a (brackted here) : J a y a s — 1 . Y ā m a s a s per Purānas ( S v ā y a m b h u v a ) ; 2 . T u s i t a (Svāro­ cisa); 3 . Satyas ( U t t a m a ) ; 4 . Haris ( T ā m a s a ) ; 5 . Vikunfha ( R a i v a t a ) ; € . Sādhyas ( C ā k s u s a ) ; 7 . Adityas ( V a i v a s v a t a ) .


423

2.3.4.8-19

8. T h e y adopted the great knowledge a n d established themselves very well after condensing (assimilating) it ( ? ) . On c o m i n g to know of their intention, B r a h m a became infuriated. 9. T h e r e u p o n , B r a h m a spoke to those Devas lacking in enthusiasm : — " I t is for the sake of progeny t h a t you have been created by me a n d not otherwise. 10. Moreover, I have already told you formerly t h i s — Procreate in p l e n t y a n d perform sacrifices. You disregarded my instruction a n d a d o p t e d Vairāgya ( d e t a c h m e n t ) . 11-12. You h a t e d your own birth a n d did not relish progeny. You d i d not practise K a r m a n s because of your desire for immortality (Moksa). H e n c e , you will have repetition (of b i r t h ) for seven times." O n being cursed t h u s . b y B r a h m a , those Devas, the J a y a s pacified h i m . 13. "O great lord, forgive o u r faults of the n a t u r e of ignorance." B r a h m a t h e n spoke to t h e m as they prostrated before h i m . He spoke to t h e m in a conciliatory tone. 14-18a. " E v e r y o n e shall enjoy ( e v e r y t h i n g ) in t h e world (subject to l i m i t a t i o n ) . W h o deserves freedom (from the shac­ kles of K a r m a n s ) ? Everything is pervaded by m e . H o w c a n t h e living beings take inauspiciousness or otherwise without my will ?* W h a t e v e r there is in this world, whether it is conducive to welfare or not, is p e r m e a t e d by me in t h e form of intellect ( ? ) W h o c a n transgress me in t h e world ? Everything is known to m e — t h a t which is desired by the living beings, t h a t which is thought by t h e m a n d t h a t which is p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e m . T h i s entire "world consisting of mobile a n d immobile beings has been b o u n d by me by means of t h e shackle in the form of t h e r o p e of Aśā ( H o p e a n d a m b i t i o n ) . W h o will be eager to c u t it off? 18b-19. Since the h a u g h t y m a n carries everything and n o n e else (otherwise) he desires to get salvation by n o t begin­ ning t o perform holy r i t e s ( ? ) " • ed out

V ā . P . 6 7 . 2 0 reads ko me for Kāmam in the Bd.P. text. If this be accept­

the line m e a n s ' W h o i n t h e world c a n g e t liberation a t will from m e with­ beginning

to

perform Karma.'


424

Brahmānda Purāna

After saying this to those J a y a s of spiritually inclined minds, he observed t h a t those (Jayas) certainly were worthy of being punished. Prajāpati said thus. 20-21. " O Devas, without referring t o me, renunciation etc. was carried out by you so the activity pursued by me is (also) extensive. * Let it be resulting in your happiness. Let it be born with a divinity. 22-23. O excellent Devas, your birth will be in accor­ d a n c e with your own desire. In the seven M a n v a n t a r a s you will manifest yourselves as Siddhas (persons of great spiritual achi­ e v e m e n t ) . In those M a n v a n t a r a s beginning with the Svāyam­ b h u v a a n d ending w i t h Vaivasvata. After saying thus a verse of great a n t i q u i t y was also sung by B r a h m a . 2 4 - 2 5 . * * T h e lore of three Vedas, the progeny in the form of B r a h m a n ( ? ) , Ś r ā d d h a , P e n a n c e , Yajña, granting of gifts— the lord abides by these along with the Rajas of perpetual n a t u r e ( ? ) . T h e lord occupies the other praiseworthy thing ( ? ) . After explaining the m e a n i n g of the verse he spoke to the Devas, (called) J a y a s " Y o u will come back to me when the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a passes off." 26. T h e r e u p o n , t h e lord who has no fear from anywhere vanished after a d o p t i n g the original D h ā r a n ā accompanied by yogic power. 27. T h e n those twelve Ajitas were angrily cursed by him. T h u s those who were called J a y a s were rendered just t h e o p p o s i t e * * * ( i . e . t h e " V i c t o r i o u s o n e s " were ' d e f e a t e d ' ) . *

futile'

T h e text is obscure here. V ā . P . ,67.25 reads : Tasmāt sa viphalo yatno hyopāras tvesayah krtah

'Inasmuch etc.

as

that attempt of yours

(at renunciation) has b e c o m e

** Probably d u e t o misprints this verse has b e c o m e obscure. T h e reading in V ā . P . 6 7 . 2 8 is as f o l l o w s : — Trqyim vidyām brahmacaryam prasūtim śrāddham eva ca j yajftam caiva tu dānath ca efāmeva tu kurvatām / sa hi sma virajā bhūtvā vasate 'nyapraiamsayā He w h o studies Trayī vidyā (three V e d a s ) , observes celibacy (the first stage of life) a n d in t h e second stage of life as a Grhastha or householder) procreates children, performs Śrāddha, sacrifice as well as gives religious gifts — s u c h a performer b e c o m e s free from sin or rajas a n d lives praised by others. *** Visannibha—not like, i.e. opposite of unconquered.


425

2.3.4.28-37

28-29. W h e n the S v ā y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a passed off, those Suras were b o r n as Tusitas in the Svārocisa M a n v a n t a r a . T h e n , they were born as the sons of Satyā, (wife) of U t t a m a the M a n u . Therefore, those Devas in the A u t t a m a M a n v a n t a r a are remembered as Satyas. 30. All those twelve Devas (called) Tusitas were b o r n of H a r i n ī then. Those Devas in the n a m e of Haris became the partakers of Yajña. 3 1 . W h e n the Aristava M a n v a n t a r a (? i.e. Raivata) arrived those excellent Devas called Haris were born of Vikunthā. 32-34. T h e y are the Devas n a m e d V a i k u n t h a in the fifth M a n v a n t a r a ; when the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a arrived, those Devas called Vaikunthas were b o r n as Sādhyas. W h e n the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a passed off and the creation of Vaivasvata M a n u began, those Sādhyas out of their p a r t s were b o r n of Aditi a n d K a ś y a p a , the son of M a r i c i . In the c u r r e n t M a n v a n t a r a those Suras were born as the twelve Adityas. 35-36. W h e n these twelve immortal ones were b o r n in the Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a , they had been cursed by the self-born lord a n d they were known as Sādhyas. T h e m a n who hears this shall always a t t a i n victory. He shall be endowed with faith in the J a y a Devas. He shall go over every c h a p t e r * (?) 37. T h u s are the seven Vrttis (activities) characterised by the births of the Devas. T h a t account has b e e n n a r r a t e d toyou today. W h a t else do you wish to hear ?

*

pratyadhyāya in the text is a mistake. V ā . P . 6 7 . 4 6 reads pratyavāya

'impediment,

sinfulness,

decrease'

shall cross over every i m p e d i m e n t ' .

a n d c a n be rendered accordingly. 'He-


426

Brahmānda

Parana

CHAPTER FIVE Nrsimha Incarnation : Hiranyakaśipu Killed : Race of Hiranyakaśipu : Birth of Maruts : The Sages requested : 1-2. "Please explain to us in detail t h e origin and d e a t h of Daityas, D ā n a v a s , G a n d h a r v a s , serpents, Rāksasas, cobras, ghosts, vampires, Vasus, birds a n d c r e e p e r s . " On being asked thus, Sūta replied to the excellent sage : Sūta said : 3. " T w o sons a n d a very powerful d a u g h t e r were born to Diti. Those two sons of K a ś y a p a are r e m e m b e r e d as the. eldest of all. 4-5. On the d a y of Sautya (i.e. the d a y on which the j u i c e of Soma is to be e x t r a c t e d ) , w h e n the sacrifice Atirātra was to be performed, K a ś y a p a was seated in a separate seat well known as Hiranyakaśipu at the time of Aśvamedha (Horse sacrifice). T h e son c a m e out of Diti's Garbha (womb) a n d sat ( n e a r Kaśyapa's golden s e a t ) in different places all r o u n d . * D u e to this activity, he is r e m e m b e r e d as H i r a n y a k a ś i p u . " The Sages said : 6 . " O holy lord, n a r r a t e i n detail the n a m e , nativity a n d prowess of t h e noble-souled D a i t y a H i r a n y a k a ś i p u . " Sūta said : 7. In the holy place of pilgrimage n a m e d Puskara, K a ś y a p a performed a horse-sacrifice. It h a d been a d o r n e d by their presence by t h e sages, Devas, a n d G a n d h a r v a s . 8. W h e n t h e horse was duly let loose for r o a m i n g a b o u t , w h e n t h e rites of Ākhyāna ( N a r r a t i o n ) e t c were to be duly performed, five golden seats were kept ready. 9-12. T h r e e of t h e m v/ctcKulāspadāni ( t h e basic emblems of his f a m i l y * * ) , t h e other two were t h e Kūrca "(bundle of * T h i s is strange. V ā . P. 6 7 . 5 8 tells us that the child from D i t i ' s w o m b o c c u p i e d the g o l d seat m e a n t for the sacrifice. **

V ā . P . 6 7 . 5 5 reads Kuia-Pūtini "sanctified b y K u s a grass."


2.3.5.13-20

427

Dftrbha grass) a n d P h a l a k a (wooden p l a n k ) . A m o n g these four 4MM was set a p a r t for the chief Rtvik. A seat m a d e of gold was ratcly kept ready f o r t h e H o t r . T h a t womb (the newly born ild) occupied t h a t gold chair m e a n t for the H o t r . He recited the n a r r a t i o n (Akhyāna). Seeing this the sages gave h i m a n additional n a m e (?). He was r e m e m b e r e d as H i r a n y a k a ś i p u , on account of t h a t activity. 1 H i r a n y ā k s a was his younger brother and Sirhhikā was his younger sister. 13-15. T h a t gentle lady was the wife of Vipracitti t h e mother o f R ā h u .

and

Hiranyakaśipu, t h e son of Diti, performed very great penance for a h u n d r e d thousand years without taking in food a n d keeping his head downwards. W h e n B r a h m a was pleased he sought the following boons : Viz. Sarvāmaratva ( t h e state of being or assuming the form of all the Devas a n d non-destruction from all living beings). He conquered Devas by means of his yogic power and assumed Sarva-Devatva ( t h e state of being all the D e v a s ) . 16-17. He said : — " I shall be endowed with strength a n d virility a n d I shall c a r r y out the activities of Iśvaras (Devas). Let Dānavas, Asuras a n d Devas become subject to my control along with C ā r a n a s . T h e y must be n e a r me (i.e. wait on m e ) a n d they must take food only after me. I must not be killed with a n y weapon wet or dry. I must not be killed d u r i n g d a y t i m e or at n i g h t . " On being told thus, B r a h m a granted t h e boon his h e a r t .

with

all

Brahma said : 18-20. "O d e a r one, O son of Diti, the boon sought by y o u is very great. Come on. T h e promise shall now be thus alone."

itself.

After granting him w h a t he wished for, he vanished

there

1. A popular etymology of Hiranyakaśipu. It is endorsed only in V ā . P. 67.51.


428

Brahmānda

Purāna

" T h e son of Diti pervaded the entire universe consisting of mobile a n d immobile beings by means of his greatness. T h e conqueror of foes he could assume m a n y forms. He used to assume the form of the m o o n a n d the sun a n d blazed in the sky. 2 1 . He alone became the wind and blew continuously all over the world. He alone was the cowherd, shepherd a n d farmer. 22. He was the knower in all the worlds. He was the expositor of the M a n t r a s . He was t h e leader, the protector. He was the person who kept other persons in protective hiding. He was the initiated person and also the performer of sacrifices. 23. AH the Devas and Asuras b e c a m e the imbibers of the Soma juice t h r o u g h him. This D a i t y a h a d such a power. L e a r n further about h i m . 24. All m a d e obeisance to him. He alone was the person worthy of being worshipped. Formerly, this verse was sung by t h e Daityas about H i r a n y a k a ś i p u . 25. ' T h e Devas along with the great sages m a d e obeis­ ance to t h a t q u a r t e r to which king H i r a n y a k a ś i p u looked at. 26-27a. It was Visnu (in the form of) N a r a s i m h a ( m a n lion) who brought about the d e a t h of t h a t ( D a i t y a ) formerly. Since the lord h a d the form of N a r a ( m a n ) , he is being sung a b o u t as N a r a s i m h a by those w h o expound the Vedas. 27b. T h e lord stood aloft by means of his penance on the shore of the sea. T h e body of t h a t lord was t h a t of all t h e Devas. T h a t mighty deity was famous by t h e n a m e Sudarśana. 28. T h a t infuriated lord split t h a t leader of the Daityas of great strength by means of his nails (claws) in the course of his hand-to-hand fight. For, t h e nails are neither wet nor dry. 29-31. T h e sons of H i r a n y ā k s a were five. T h e y were very strong a n d valorous. T h e y were Ś a m b a r a , Śakuni, K ā l a n ā b h a , M a h ā n ā b h a a n d S u r a s a n t ā p a n a w h o was extremely valorous. These sons of H i r a n y ā k s a were unassailable even to t h e Devas. 32. T h e i r sons a n d grandsons along with their clans are r e m e m b e r e d as Daityas. H u n d r e d s a n d thousands of those Daityas were killed in the T ā r a k ā m a y a (i.e. the fight against Tārakāsura).


8.3.5.33-46

429

33-34. H i r a n y a k a ś i p u h a d four sons of very great rength viz. P r a h l ā d a the eldest a m o n g them, then A n u h r ā d a , r h h r ā d a a n d H r ā d a . U n d e r s t a n d that H r ā d a h a d two sons u n d a and Nisunda. 35. Those two great heroic demons were destroyers of B r ā h m a n a s . M ū k a too was a heir a n d successor of H r ā d a . M ā r i c a , son of Sunda, was born to T ā d a k ā . 36. He was killed in the D a n d a k a forest by R ā g h a v a the powerful (king of Ayodhyā). M ū k a was killed by Savyasācī (i.e. Arjuna) at the time of his encounter with K i r ā t a (the h u n t e r in whose guise Śiva came before h i m ) . 37-39. Nivātakavacas were born in the family of Sarhhrāda, the Daitya. T h e y were themselves sanctified by means of great penance. T h e y were the enemies of the gods. T h e r e were four leaders of Daityas viz. J a m b h a , Ś a t a d u n d u b h i , Daksa the Asura, a n d C a n d a . These were the sons of Bāskala. Listen to the names of the sons of K a l a n e m i . T h e y were Brahmajit, Kratujit, D e v ā n t a k a and N a r ā n t a k a . 40-41. These were the sens of K a l a n e m i . Listen to the progeny of Ś a m b h u . K i n g Aja a n d G o m a are glorified as the sons of Ś a m b h u . Virocana h a d an only valorous son, Bali. were born to Bali. All of t h e m were kings.

H u n d r e d sons

42-44. F o u r of t h e m were very prominent, valorous a n d very powerful viz. the thousand-armed Bāna, the valorous king was the eldest ( o r the most excellent one) K u m b h ā g a r t a who was merciless a n d Bhoja. T h e r e were others also such as Kuñci etc. Śakunī and P ū t a n ā are remembered as the two daughters of Bali. Bali's sons and grandsons were h u n d r e d s and thousands. T h e y are well known by the n a m e of Bāleyas. T h e y were a clan of demons whose manliness a n d valour are well known. 45-46. Lohinī.

I n d r a d h a n v a n ( t h e son) of Bāna was

b o r n of

Diti whose sons were killed ( b y the Devas) propitiated K a ś y a p a . On being propitiated very well, K a ś y a p a was de­ lighted in his m i n d a n d he m a d e her choose a boon as she


430

Brahmānda Purāna 1

pleased. She thereupon chose the boon. 47-48. On being requested a g a i n the holy lord granted her the boon. W h e n the boon was verbally conferred, Diti was pleased and so she spoke to him. T h e gentle lady spoke to her husband K a ś y a p a , the son of Marīci with palms joined in reverence : — "O holy lord, my sons have been killed by Adityas, your sons. 49. I wish for a son who will kill Śakra ( I n d r a ) a n d who will be obtained by me due to long penance. I shall perform the severe p e n a n c e . It behoves you to m a k e me pregnant. 50-51. It behoves you to grant me a son c a p a b l e of slaying I n d r a . " On hearing her words, K a ś y a p a the son of Marīci, of great splendour replied to Diti. He was extremely grief-stricken. "O gentle lady, let it be so, but r e m a i n p u r e and clean d u r i n g your pregnancy, O lady of rich p e n a n c e . 52-54. If you remain p u r e for a full period of thousand years, you will give birth to a son who will kill Śakra in battle. You will give birth to a son beautiful like M a n m a t h a ( t h e god of love), the most excellent one in the three worlds." After say­ ing t h u s t h e (sage) of great splendour remained ( r e a d y to receive h e r ) . After embracing her the holy sage went to his abode. W h e n the h u s b a n d h a d gone, Diti, t h e gentle lady who was delighted m u c h , went to K u ś a p l a v a n a a n d performed a very severe penance. 55-59. L o r d Śakra h a d h e a r d about their conversation. He went over to K u ś a p l a v a n a a n d spoke these words to Diti :— "I shall carry out your behest and serve you. It behoves you to g r a n t me permission. I shall bring sacrificial twigs, flowers and fruits." 1.

W . 45-81 tell the story o f the birth o f Maruts w h e n

the impure state of D i t i entered her w o m b

and

split his

Indra during

prospective killer

foetus into 49 parts. Cf V P . I. 2 1 . 32-41, M t . P. Chapter 7. T h i s is however a Purānic development of a V e d i c concept where the seven

Maruts

are

the seven Prānas (Śat. Br. 9 . 3 . 1 . 7 ) Indra is the m a i n

P r ā n a controlling the

Maruts.


2.3.5.60-70

431

On hearing his words Diti said : — "O dear one, be engaged in serving me as you think. Be clever a n d diligent in all the holy rites a n d perform w h a t is conducive to your own welfare." On hearing these excellent words of his mother, Śakra b e c a m e delighted. W i t h a fraudulent intention in his inner m i n d , he b e c a m e engaged in serving her. Śakra b e c a m e devotedly attached to her always. 60-61. Śakra was steady in his resolve. He used to b r i n g fruits, flowers a n d sacrificial twigs. At the time of alleviating weariness, he used to message her limbs. Śakra rendered service to Diti on all occasions. W h e n the period of her holy rites was almost over and the balance remained b u t a little, that delighted noble lady said to Śakra :— 62. "I am pleased with you, O excellent one a m o n g the Suras. O d e a r son, only ten m o r e years remain, welfare u n t o you. Thereafter, you will see your b r o t h e r . 63. I shall place him at your service even as he is desirous of victory on your behalf. You will enjoy the conquest of the three worlds along with him, O my son. 64-65. Do not I know, O my son, eagerly devoted to me ?"

t h a t your mind is

After saying this to Śakra, the noble lady was over­ powered by slumber when the sun reached the middle (of the sky). Placing her head over her knees and the tresses of her hair over her feet that noble lady went to sleep. 66. Everything t h a t is below the navel is remembered as unclean. H e n c e , considering her to be unclean, he thought t h a t to be the befitting occasion (for his own a c t i o n ) . 67. H a v i n g considered the whole reason, this thought struck h i m t h a t a defect was seen in the noble lady (giving h i m an o p p o r t u n i t y ) to destroy the child in the womb. 68-70. T h e n Vrsan ( I n d r a ) entered the belly of D i t i t h r o u g h her vaginal passage. After entering, I n d r a saw the child of great prowess in the w o m b . He b e c a m e afraid a n d so split t h a t foetus, his own enemy. On being split by t h e t h u n d e r ­ bolt of a h u n d r e d spikes, the foetus trembled again a n d again a n d squealed in a deep a n d awful note.


432

Brahmānda Purāna

Śakra then spoke to the foetus : — " D o not cry, Do not (Mā roda).1 71. I n d r a split the foetus into seven parts a n d each of t h e m into seven more parts by means of his t h u n d e r b o l t . At t h a t time D i t i woke u p .

cry

72. Diti said t h u s — " H e (the child in t h e w o m b ) should n o t be killed. He should not be killed." T h e r e u p o n , I n d r a j u m p e d out, out of deference to his m o t h e r ' s words. 73-74. W i t h the palms joined in reverence along with the thunderbolt, Śakra spoke to D i t i : — O noble lady, you were sleeping u n c l e a n with the tresses of your h a i r spreading over your feet. Seizing t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y I reached t h e foetus t h a t was to be my slayer in the fight a n d split it into m a n y parts. It behoves you to forgive m e . " 75. W h e n that foetus became fruitless, Diti was extremely distressed. She thereupon spoke to t h e invincible thousandeyed lord I n d r a in a pacifying note :— 76. " I f it was due to my default t h a t this foetus was rendered ineffective by you, it is not your fault, O lord of the Devas, O son of great strength. 77-78. T h e r e is no fault in killing an enemy. You need not be afraid, O lord. I wish t h a t something pleasing (condu­ cive to the happiness) is done. Otherwise whence is the felicity u n t o my child in t h e w o m b . Let there be seven abodes of my sons in the heaven. Let my sons traverse these seven Vātaskandhas* (pathways of w i n d ) . 79-81. T h e y will be well known as M a r u t s . T h e y will be seven groups of seven each ( 7 x 7 = 49). T h e first Skandha should be known as being present on the earth, the second in the sun, the third should be known in the moon, the fourth in the g r o u p of luminaries, the fifth in the planets a n d the sixth in the zone of seven sages ( t h e Great B e a r ) , t h e seventh in 1.

T h i s popular e t y m o l o g y of Marut is emdorsed by

other

purānas

also e.g. V . P . I. 2 1 - 3 9 ; M t . P. 8.62. 2.

This purānic classification of seven strata or levels of the higher

atmosphere or space and the assignment of the Marut-gods to e a c h is psucdo —scientific but is found in other purānas also.


433

2.3.5.82-99 Dhruva (Pole s t a r ) . Let my sons Vātaskandhas on different occasions.

traverse

these

seven

82-89. Let my sons be the lords of Vātaskandhas a n d ' traverse these p a t h s . T h e first Vātaskandha is on t h e e a r t h . It extends u p t o the clouds It is Āvaha ( b y n a m e ) . L e t my seven sons belonging to the first set traverse this first p a t h . T h e second Vātaskandha is above the clouds u p t o the sun. It is Pravaha by n a m e . Let t h e second set of my sons traverse this second p a t h . T h e third Vātaskandha is above t h e sun a n d b e n e a t h t h e m o o n . It is r e m e m b e r e d as Udvaha. Let the t h i r d set of my sons traverse this third p a t h . T h e fourth Vātaskandha is above t h e m o o n a n d b e n e a t h the stars. It is Samvaha. L e t t h e fourth set of my sons, O lord, traverse the fourth p a t h . T h e fifth Vātaskandha is above the stars a n d it extends u p t o planets. It is called Vivaha. Let the fifth set of my sons traverse this p a t h . T h e sixth Vātaskandha is above planets and extends u p t o the seven sages. It is Anuvaha. Let the sixth set of my sons traverse this p a t h . T h e seventh Vātaskandha is above t h e sages. It extends u p t o the a b o d e of D h r u v a . T h e pole star is glorified as Parivaha. L e t my sons stay there. L e t my sons traverse all these p a t h s at different occasions. 90-92. L e t these be M a r u t s , t h a t n a m e having been given by you. U n d e r s t a n d the names of my sons, O Ś a t a k r a t u separately, as befitting their activities of t h a t n a t u r e . T h e first set of M a r u t s is as following:—1) Śakrajyoti 2) Satya 3) Satyajyoti 4) Citrajyoti 5) J y o t i s m ā n 6) Sutapas 7) Caitya. U n d e r s t a n d t h e second g r o u p : 93-99. (Partially defective t e x t ) 1) Rtajit 2) Satyajit 3) Susena 4) Senajit 5) S u t a m i t r a 6) A m i t r a 7) S u r a m i t r a . T h i s is the second g r o u p . U n d e r s t a n d t h e t h i r d set : T h e y a r e : — 1) D h ā t r 2) D h a n a d a 3) U g r a 4) Bhima 5) V a r u n a 6) A b h i -


434

Brahmānda Purāna

yuktāksika 7) Sāhvāya. U n d e r s t a n d t h e third class mentioned by m e : * T h e fifth set is as follows:—1) I d r k 2) Anyādrk 3) Sarit 4) D r u m a 5 ) Vrksaka 6) M i t a 7) Samita. T h e sixth class is as follows:— 1) I d r k 2) P u r u s a 3) N ā n y a d r k 4) S a m a c e t a n a 5) S a m m i t a 6) Samavrtti 7) P r a t i h a r t r . * * All other m e n a n d subjects performed Yajñas and eulogised. T h u s these seven set's of seven Daityas-cum-Devas have been mentioned. T h u s the forty-nine M a r u t s are remembered by their names (?). T h e y were e n u m e r a t e d by the two i.e. by Diti and Sakra. 100. After giving these n a m e s , Diti said to I n d r a , Let these brothers, my sons, traverse these Vātaskandhas. 101-102. Welfare u n t o you. Let my sons traverse (these p a t h s ) along with t h e D e v a s . " On hearing these words, the thousand-eyed P u r a n d a r a spoke with palms joined in reverence — " O m o t h e r , let it be so. T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this that everything will h a p p e n as spoken by you. 103. By becoming as said by you, these noble-souled bachelors ( ? ) will be honoured by the world. Along with the Devas they will participate ( h a v e their share in the oblations) in the Yajñas. 104. Hence, these M a r u t s are Devas. All of them were excellent younger brothers of I n d r a . All those powerful and speedy sons, of Diti should be k n o w n as immortal ones." 105. Those two, t h e son a n d the mother came to this agreement in the h e r m i t a g e . T h e y went to the heaven delighted, ś a k r a became freed of all worries a n d pains. 106. He who listens to t h e auspicious b i r t h of the M a r u t s or he who reads this, shall a t t a i n victory in a r g u m e n t . He shall' regain his lost soul.

* **

T h e fourth division of maruts is not enumerated. T h e n a m e s of the Maruts belonging to the seventh set are n o t

mentioned.


435

2.3.6.1-14 CHAPTER SIX Glorification of The Race of Danu Sūta said :

1. T h e sons of D a n u were great Asuraswell known in their race. T h e most i m p o r t a n t a m o n g t h e m was Vipracitti. T h e y possessed unimaginable exploits and valour. 2. All of t h e m were persons who h a d performed great penances and h a d obtained boons. T h e y were truthful, aggres­ sive against enemies and cruel. T h e y were experts in the use of Māyā.3. T h e y possessed great strength a n d were swift in move­ ment. T h e y were engrossed in the study of the V e d a s (Brahmistha) and maintained holy fires. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m even as they are being glorified in accordance with their prominence. 4-13. T h e following are glorified as the p r o m i n e n t members of the family of D a n u : — D v i m ū r d h a n , Śambara, Ś a ń k u r a t h a , V i b h u (or l o r d ) , Śańkukarna, V i p ā d a , Gavistha, Dundubhi, Ayomukha, Maghavān, Kapila, Vāmana, Maya, Marīci, Asipā, M a h ā m ā y ā , Aśiras, Bhrśī, Viksobha, Suketu, Ketuvīrya, Śatāhvaya, Indrajit, Dvivida, B h a d r a , Devajit, Ekacakra, M a h ā b ā h u , the extremely powerful T ā r a k a , Vaiśv ā n a r a , Puloman, P r ā p a n a , Mahāśiras, Svarbhānu, Vrsaparvan, P u r u n d a the great Asura, D h r t a r ā s t r a , Sūrya, C a n d r a m a s , I n d r a t ā p a n a , Sūksma, N i c a n d r a , C ū r n a n ā b h a , Mahāgiri,. Asilomā, Sukeśa, Śatha, M ū l a k o d a r a , J a m b h a , G a g a n a m ū r d h a n , Kumbhamāna, Mahodaka, Pramada, Adma, Kupatha, Aśvagrīva, the valorous, Vaimrga, Virūpāksa, S u p a t h a , Hala,. Ahala, Aksa, H i r a n m a y a , Śatagrīva, a n d Ś a m b a r a ( t h e second). Ś a r a b h a and Ś v a l a b h a are remembered as the sun a n d the m o o n of Asuras. T h e y are influential against the Suras as well. T h e sons a n d grandsons a n d later descendants are endless. T h e y c a n n o t be n u m b e r e d . 14. T h u s recounted.

of these

the Asuras, Daityas a n d D ā n a v a s have

been,


436

Brahmānda

Purāna

T h e Daityas a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Sutvats (soma drinkers?) a n d t h e sons of D a n u are r e m e m b e r e d as Asulvats ( n o n parti­ cipants in drinking soma j u i c e ) . 15-17. T h e s e are remembered as t h e followers of the family or those of the family of the sons of D a n u . T h e following are remembered as those of the family of t h e sons of D a n u : — Ekāksa, Aśvaprabhārista, P r a l a m b a , N a r a k a , I n d r a b ā d h anakeśī, Purusa, Śesavān, U r u , G a r i s t h a , Gavāksa, T ā l a k e t u the valorous. T h e y c a n n o t be killed by h u m a n beings. T h e y were born of the inter-alliance of the Daityas a n d the D ā n a v a s . T h e y are of terrible exploits. 18. T h e following fourteen* great Asuras are called Sairhhikeyas. T h e y were born of Sirhhikā as the sons of Vipracitti:— 19-20. Śala, Śalabha, Savya, Sivya, Ilvala, N a m u c i , Vātāpi, Supuñjika, Harakalpa, Kālanābha, Bhauma and K a n a k a . R ā h u t h e suppressor of the sun a n d the moon is the eldest a m o n g t h e m . 2 1 . These sons of Simhikā were u n a p p r o a c h a b l e (in­ vincible) even to the Devas. T h e i r family itself was very awful. All of t h e m were cruel a n d slayers of the Brāhmanas. 2 2 . T h e groups of Sairhhikeyas are remembered as consisting of ten thousands. T h e y were killed by the powerful Bhārgava ( P a r a ś u r ā m a ) son of J a m a d a g n i . , 2 3 . P r a b h ā was the d a u g h t e r of S v a r b h ā n u ; Śacī was the d a u g h t e r of P u l o m a n ; U p a d ā n a v i was the d a u g h t e r of sada a n d Śarmisthā of Vrsaparvan. 24. V a i ś v ā n a r a h a d two daughters viz. Pulomā and Kālikā. N a h u s a was the son of P r a b h ā a n d J a y a n t a the son of Śacī. 25. Śarmisthā gave b i r t h to P ū r u a n d U p a d ā n a v ī to D u s y a n t a . V a i ś v ā n a r a ' s daughters were these two viz. Pulomā and Kālakā. 26. Both these daughters h a d m a n y children. T h e y were the wives of M ā r ī c a . Both of t h e m h a d between t h e m sixty thousand children. T h e y were the leaders of t h e Dānavas. *

T h e list in V V . 19-20 names only thirteen sons a n d not fourteen.


2.3.6.27-39

437

27. T h e r e were fourteen thousand m o r e , those of t h e residents of H i r a n y a p u r a . Paulomas a n d Kālakeyas were D ā n a v a s of great strength. 28-29. T h e y could n o t be killed by t h e Devas. T h e y .were slain by Savyasācī (Arjuna). Six children, five sons a n d a d a u g h t e r were born of R a m b h ā a n d M a y a . T h e y were very powerful. T h e sons were Māyāvin, D u n d u b h i , M a h i s a , Kālika a n d Ajakarna. M a n d o d a r ī was t h e d a u g h t e r . 30-31. been stated.

T h u s t h e creation of Daityas a n d D ā n a v a s h a s

It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t five very powerful sons were b o r n of A n ā y u s ā — A r a r u , Bala, V r t r a , Vijvara a n d V r s a . T h e son of Araru, a cruel a n d great Asura n a m e d D h u n d h u was killed in a cave by Kuvalāśva at t h e instance of U t t a ń k a . 32-33. N i k u m b h a a n d C a k r a - v a r m a n were t h e sons of Bala. Both of t h e m were unrivalled in brilliance. T h e y h a d g r e a t virility. Of these two t h e l a t t e r was K a m a in his previous b i r t h . Vijara h a d also two sons—Kālaka a n d K h a r a . 34. Vrsa h a d four sons of very cruel activities. T h e y were Ś r ā d d h ā d a , Yajñahā, B r a h m a h ā a n d P a ś u h ā . 35-36. Anāyusā's sons have been r e c o u n t e d . U n d e r s t a n d t h e sons of V r t r a too. Very awful a n d powerful Rāksasas n a m e d Bakas were born to V r t r a w h o was fighting w i t h I n d r a . A h u n d r e d thousand of t h e m are r e m e m b e r e d as the followers (servants) of M a h e n d r a . 37-39. All of them were knowers of B r a h m a n ( V e d a ) . T h e y were gentle and devout (righteous). T h e y h a d subtle forms. All of t h e m moved a b o u t a m o n g the subjects in their subtle forms. T h e y lived always enveloped in a n g e r . * K r o d h ā gave b i r t h to unrivalled sons, very excellent in singing. T h e y were ten in n u m b e r . These D e v a g a n d h a r v a s were

*

Krudhāvrtāh in the Bd. P. T h i s is discordant w i t h the list of their

virtues. V ā . P . 6 8 . 3 6 reads Sudhārmikāh " e x t r e m e l y religious." T h i s adjective is in consonance w i t h the previous virtues in that line (39 b ) a n d h e n c e accepttable.


438

Brahmānda Purāna

t h e sons of K r o d h ā . T h e y were Siddha, P ū r n a , Bahvī, Pūrnārhśa t h e vigorous, Brahmacārin, Śataguna S u p a r n a the seventh, Viśvāvasu, Bhānu a n d S u c a n d r a the t e n t h . T h u s the sons of K r o d h ā have been r e c o u n t e d .

CHAPTER SEVEN Different Dynasties Sūta said

Enumerated

:—1

1-4. T h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d the Apsaras were t h e childern o f M u n i . 2 K n o w t h e m ( b y their n a m e s ) . T h e y are Bhīmasena, Ugrasena, S u p a r n a , V a r u n a , D h r t a r ā s t r a , G o m a n , Sūryavarcas, P a t r a v ā n , A r k a p a r n a , P r a y u t a , Bhīma and C i t r a r a t h a who was wellknown as the conqueror of all a n d as one who h a d kept his senses u n d e r perfect control, Śāliśiras the t h i r t e e n t h , Parjanya t h e fourteenth, K a l i the f i f t e e n t h , and N ā r a d a the sixteenth. T h u s these divine G a n d h a r v a s , childern of M u n i , have been recounted. 5-9. T h e y h a d twenty-four splendid younger sisters n a m e d Apsaras:—viz. Arunā, A n a p ā y ā , Vimanusyā, V a r ā m b a r ā , Miśrakeśī, Asiparninl, Alumbusā, Mārlcī, Śucikā, V i d y u t p a r n ā , T i l o t t a m ā , Adrikā, L a k s m a n ā , K s e m ā , the divine R a m b h ā , M a n o b h a v ā , Asitā, S u b ā h ū , Supriyā, Subhujā, P u n d a r ī k ā , Ajagandhā, SudatI a n d Surasā. H e r b r o t h e r s — S u b ā h u , the celebrated H ā h ā , H ū h ū a n d T u m b u r u — t h e s e four are remem­ bered as excellent G a n d h a r v a s . T h u s these G a n d h a r v a s a n d Apsaras, t h e c h i l d r e n of M u n i have been n a m e d . 1.

This chapter enumerates the prominent m e m b e r s of clans of Gan­

dharvas, Apsaras, birds, serpents, Yaksas, Rāksasas, Piśācas, Yātudhānas and other species w i t h super-natural powers. 2.

VV.

1-29 e n u m e r a t e the children of M u n i , viz the clans of Gan­

dharvas a n d the 14 groups of Apsaras w i t h their sub-groups like Laukika, celestial, their kins a n d descendants. It is note-worthy that ten Apsaras were the expounders of

B r a h m a n a n d were Pañca-cūdas

(having

five

h a i r ) . Apsaras born of different gods are enumerated in W 20-24.

plaits

of


2.3.7.10-24

439

10. T h e following are remembered as Laukikī Apsaras (i.e. E a r t h l y Apsaras) viz. Harhsā, Sarasvatī, Sūtā, K a m a l ā , Abhayā, Sumukhī, a n d H a m s a p a d ī . ll-12a. (There are nine more Gandharvas(P) Viz. Harhsa, J y o t i s t a m a , Ācāra, D ā r u n a , V a r ū t h a , V a r e n y a , Vasuruci, Suruci the eighth a m o n g t h e m a n d then Viśvāvasu. 12b-13. T h e extremely fortunate R i s t ā who h a d been h o n o u r e d by the Devas a n d the sages, gave b i r t h to three ( d a u g h t e r s ) Viz. A r ū p ā , Subhagā a n d Bhāsī. M a n u v a n t ī a n d Sukeśī were Tumbaru.

the splendid daughters

of

14-15. O n e should know t h a t these ten (celestial Damsels) a r e P a ñ c a - c ū d a s ( h a v i n g five plaits of h a i r ) . T h e y are M e n a k ā , Sahajanyā, Parninī, Puñjikastalā, K r t a s t h a l ā , G h r t ā c ī , Viśvācī, Pūrvacitti who is wellknown as P r a m l o c ā a n d A n u m l o c ā . T h e y are thus ten. 16. Urvaśī is remembered as the eleventh. She h a d been b o r n of N ā r ā y a n a w h o has neither a beginning n o r an end. H e r limbs are free from blemishes (i.e. extremely beautiful)befitting a noble family. 17. M e n a k ā the d a u g h t e r of M e n ā was b o r n as a b e a u t i ­ ful w o m a n in every limb. All these a r e r e m e m b e r e d as expoun­ ders of B r a h m a n a n d extremely fortunate. 18-20a. T h e meritorious groups of Apsaras are wellknown to be fourteen viz.—Āhrtis, Śobhavatīs, Vegavatīs, Urjās, Yuvatis, Sruks, K u r u s , Barhīs, Amrtās, M u d ā s , M r g u s , R u k s , Bhīrus a n d Ś o b h a y a n t ī s . 20b-24. T h e Ahrtis a r e the m e n t a l daughters of B r a h m a . T h e Śobhavatīs are the daughters o f M a r u t s . T h e Vegavatīs a r e the daughters of R i s t ā . T h e Ūrjās a r e b o r n of Agni (firegod) . T h e Yuvatīs a r e b o r n of rays of t h e sun. T h e y are very splendid. T h e auspicious K u r u s are b o r n along w i t h t h e rays of the moon. T h e (Apsaras) n a m e d Śruks were b o r n of Y a j ñ a (sacrifice). T h e Barhis were born of Kuśavatī. T h e Apsaras b o r n of A m r t a a n d (therefore) they a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Amrtās. T h e Apsaras n a m e d M u d ā s were born of Vāyu ( w i n d ) . T h e Mrgus were born o f t h e e a r t h . T h e


440

Brahmānda Purāna

Apsaras n a m e d Rules were b o r n of the lightning. T h e Bhīrus a r e the daughters of M r t y u . T h e Śobhayantīs (were the daughters) of K a m a . T h e fourteen groups (of Apsaras) have been recounted. 25. These brilliant groups of Apsaras numbering m a n y thousands are the wives and mothers of the Devas, a n d the sages. 26-29. ( T e x t partially defective.) All these Apsaras are equally fragrant a n d free from excitement (Nispandāh—Steady). Except H a r a , everyone from a m o n g the Devas and the sages h a d contacts with them on account of K a m a ( G o d of love), since they were c o m m o n to all. * P a r v a t a a n d N ā r a d a were born of t h e m . But since they were born of divine sages, Parvata and N ā r a d a are included a m o n g sages. A third is also remembered as younger to t h e m viz. A r u n d h a t ī . A r u n a a n d G a r u d a were the sons of V i n a t ā . 30. T h e (vedic) metres are those beginning Gāyatrī. T h e birds are born of S u p a r n a ( G a r u d a )

with

31-37. K a d r u gave birth to thousand serpents 1 who support the e a r t h . T h e y have m a n y hoods. T h e y are noble-souled a n d they are able to traverse t h r o u g h the sky. Since they a r e i n n u m e r a b l e (all the names a r e not mentioned h e r e ) . L e a r n t h e names of the most i m p o r t a n t a m o n g them. T h e most i m p o r t a n t a m o n g the serpents are Śesa, Vāsuki and T a k s a k a . ( T h e other i m p o r t a n t serpents a r e ) Akarna, Hastikarna, Piñjara, Aryaka, Airāvata, M a h ā p a d m a , K a m b a l a ,

*

For Bd.P. text V . 2 6 b and 27a. V ā . P. 69-63 reads: Samprayoge Tāsām

tu

kānlena

āpyāyate

spariād

mādyanti ānandaica

madirām vivardhate

vinā

j

//

W h e n contacted by (their) lover, they b e c o m e inebriated a n d w i t h passion without ( e m b i b i n g ) spirituous liquor. (By their very feels satisfaction

and

the j o y

30b is obscure. For 69.67 in

all

:

enhances. Vyavahāryāni sarvārti rju-sannihitāni ca but V ā . P .

reads:—Havyavāhāni sarvāni diksu sannihitdni ca. "Fires are quarters."

1.

inflamed touch o n e

W . 31-37 e n u m e r a t e the children o f K a d r u viz. serpents.

deposited


2.3.7.38-47

441

Aśvatara, Elāpatra, Śańkha, K a r k o t a k a , D h a n a ñ j a y a , M a h ā k a r n a , M a h ā n ī l a , D h r t a r ā s t r a , Balāhaka, K a r a v ī r a , Puspadarhstra, S u m u k h a , D u r m u k h a , Sūnāmukha, D a d h i m u k h a , Kāliya, Alipindaka, K a p i l a , Ambarīsa, Akrūra, K a p i t t h a k a , P r a h r ā d a born of B r a h m a n G a n d h a r v a , M a n i s t h a k a , N a h u s a , K a r a r o m a n and M a n i . These a n d others too, (sons of K a d r u have been recounted.) Understand the sons of K h a ś ā . 38. K h a ś ā gave birth to two deformed sons of very rough modes of life; the elder was born at dusk a n d the 1 younger at d a w n . 39-42. K h a ś ā gave birth to the elder son with the following characteristics : — O n e of his ears was very red. He had four arms a n d four legs. He was faltering and unsteady while walking, swaying on either side (? Dvidhāgatim). He h a d hair all over his body. His limbs were stout. His nose was splendid. He had a large belly. His head was very clean. He had large ears. His hair appeared like Muñja grass. He had great strength. His m o u t h was small but the tongue was long. He had m a n y curved fang-like teeth. His chin was large. His eyes a n d feet were reddish tawny in colour. He had thick eyebrows and a large nose. He was mysteriously secretive ( G u h y a k a ) . His neck had a bluish tinge. His feet were long and his face was big. K h a ś ā gave birth to such an extremely terrible son. 43-47. K h a ś a gave birth to his younger brother, h e r second son, at the close of (the n i g h t ) at dawn. He had three heads, three feet and three h a n d s . His eyes were black. His hair stood upright ( o n his head) . His moustache was green in colour. His body was as hard as rock. He had long hands. His voice was loud. His m o u t h (appeared like a groove) cut up to the ears. He had a strong a n d big ( p r o t r u d i n g ) nose. His lips were thick. He had eight curved fang-like teeth. His face was irregular in shape. He was spike-eared. His round eyes were tawny in colour. His h a i r was m a t t e d . He had twin globular (masses of flesh). His shoulders were big a n d b r o a d . His chest 1.

V V . 38-72 describe h o w the clans of Yaksas and Rāksasas

into being from K h a ś ā .

came


442

Brahmānda

Purāna

(too) was b r o a d . T h e ridge of his nose was large. His belly was t h i n . His neck was not stout. It was red in colour. His penis a n d scrotum remained hanging down. She gave b i r t h to such a younger son. 48. I m m e d i a t e l y after their birth, they increased in size. All their limbs became efficient in their respective functions. 49. W i t h their limbs grown in size a n d power imme­ diately after their birth, they began to d r a g their mother. T h e elder one of t h e two was very cruel a n d he pulled his mother. 50. He s a i d — " O m o t h e r , we are t o r m e n t e d d u e to hunger. In order to save ourselves we shall d e v o u r y o u " . But the younger o n e a t t e m p t e d to forbid him. 51. Seizing him (i.e. the elder one) with his pair of h a n d s , he spoke to (his b r o t h e r in front of) his m o t h e r — " I n d e e d you are the person to render service to your ancestors a n d preserve their welfare. Protect ( a t least) your own m o t h e r . " 52. At t h a t very instant, their father a p p e a r e d before them. On seeing b o t h these ( c h i l d r e n ) of deformed features, he spoke to K h a ś ā . 53. On seeing their father the two sons b e c a m e frighten­ ed and b e c a m e one. By means of their M ā y ā , they b e c a m e merged into the limbs of their m o t h e r . 54. T h e n t h e sage said to his w i f e — " W h a t is it t h a t you h a v e been told by these two boys ? R e p o r t to me everything factually. This is your own transgression. 55. A son or a d a u g h t e r will be like t h e m o t h e r , * at t h e time of their birth. A son will have the same ( c h a r a c t e r a n d h a b i t ) as his m o t h e r . 56-58. I n d e e d water will have the same colour as the g r o u n d ( o n which it flows). D u e to the defect in t h e conduct of t h e mothers, as well as d u e to their qualities, forms and features, the children are extremely influenced. But all the children become different from one a n o t h e r on account of their own r e n o w n . " *

V ā . P . 6 9 . reads : Mātulam bhajate putrah, Pitrn bhajati kanyakā. " T h e

s o n takes after his maternal uncle while father."

the

daughter

does

so after

the


2.3.7.59-68

443

After addressing K h a ś ā like this, t h a t incomparable holy lord gently called his sons a n d accorded names u n t o t h e m . T h e n K h a ś ā told him everything t h a t h a d been commit­ ted by t h e m b o t h in regard to her. 59. He gave t h e m those names t h e root m e a n i n g of which befitted their activities as reported by their mother, a n d as inferred by him independently. 60. T h e elder one h a d said "O mother, we shall eat ( y o u ) . " ( T h e root Taks) is used in the sense of chewing a n d eating. H e n c e he b e c a m e Yaksa. 61-62a. T h e root Raks is understood to m e a n " t o p r o t e c t " . Since your other son said " P r o t e c t this m o t h e r of y o u r s " he will be known by the n a m e Rāksasa. 1 62b-64. After observing such a peculiar action on their p a r t towards their m o t h e r a n d after understanding the (inevi­ t a b l e ) future affair (? the sage fixed these n a m e s ) . T h e sage of cultured intellect was surprised on seeing both of t h e m hungry. T h e h u s b a n d of K h a ś ā assigned blood a n d suet as their d i e t . On seeing them h u n g r y the father bestowed this boon on them. 65-67. " D u e to the touch of your hands, currents of blood shall wholly become blood, flesh or fat as you desire to eat. You shall have your meals, sports a n d pastimes d u r i n g the night. Your prey shall be B r ā h m a n a s , Devas etc. You shall be very powerful d u r i n g the night, b u t very weak during the d a y time. Protect this m o t h e r of yours. T h i s is t h e D h a r m a recommended u n t o y o u . " After saying this to his sons K a ś y a p a vanished there itself. 68. After their father h a d d e p a r t e d , those two cruel ( b r o t h e r s ) who are terrible by n a t u r e indulged in all kinds of adverse activities. T h e y were ungrateful a n d they harassed all living creatures. 1.

E t y m o l o g y of Yaksa a n d Rāksasa.


444

Brahmānda Purāna

69. T h e y were extremely powerful a n d h a d great inherent vitality. T h e y h a d huge bodies a n d were unassailable. T h e y were conversant with M ā y ā (power of illusion or witch­ craft). T h e y could be invisible. Both of t h e m could vanish even as they were moving a b o u t . 70. Both of t h e m could assume a n y form they desired. T h e y were terrible by n a t u r e a n d free from all ailments. T h e y r o a m e d about with all sorts of activities befitting their forms a n d features. T h e y harassed everyone. 71-72. T h e y were eager to swallow Devas, sages, Pitrs (manes), G a n d h a r v a s , K i n n a r a s , Piśācas ( v a m p i r e s ) , h u m a n beings, serpents, birds and animals. T h e y used to r o a m a b o u t d u r i n g the night. T h e y watched even t h e followers of I n d r a becoming excited.* 73-76. (Defective Text) O n c e t h a t R ā k s a s a 1 (i.e. t h e younger one of t h e two brothers) was moving a b o u t desirous of getting some food to eat, he followed his prey by means of their sound. He was moving a b o u t like a lord d u r i n g the mid­ night. T w o Piśācas (vampires, goblins, fiends) n a m e d Aja a n d Ś a n d a c a m e across h i m . T h e y were t h e sons of K a p i . T h e y h a d great virility a n d strength. T h e y were like white gourds ( i n s h a p e ) . T h e y were t h e ancestors (of all goblins). T h e i r r o u n d eyes were tawny in colour. T h e y were terrific. T h e i r hairs, stood upright. T h e y were a c c o m p a n i e d by their d a u g h t e r s . T h e y w a n t e d to find a (suitable) h u s b a n d for t h e m . Both t h e girls could assume a n y form they desired. T h e Piśācas accom­ p a n i e d by their daughters were h u n g r y . T h e y wanted to eat the Rāksasa. 77-79. T h e y saw in front of t h e m the Rāksasa who could assume a n y form t h a t he desired. All of t h e m looked at one a n o t h e r . E a c h w a n t e d to seize t h e other. T h e fathers (i.e. t h e Piśācas) said to their daughters, " H e is faltering at every step. C a t c h hold of h i m alive a n d bring h i m here soon." * kept

V ā . P . 69.111 states that Indra gave t h e m b o o n of not killing a n d

them. I.

W.

73-101

describe the marital relation between Piśācas and

R ā k s a s a s a n d their progeny out of 8 l o w e s t form.

forms

of marriage.

Paiśāca

is

the


2.3.7.80-90

445

Thereupon the girls chased him and caught hold of him. He was held firmly by the hands and brought in front of their fathers. 80-82. On seeing the Rāksasa seized (and brought near) by their daughters, the Piśācas asked him—"(Who are you ?) To whom do you belong?" And he told them everything. On hearing the activities and the lineage of that Rāksasa, Aja and Śanda handed over their daughters to him. Being pleased with his activities, they gave him their daughters (in marriage). 83-84. Even as the girls were crying, the Rāksasa married them in accordance with the marital rites called Paiśāca (pertaining to the Piśācas). Aja and Śanda then proclaimed the assets and riches of their daughters. Śanda spoke (first)—"This splendid girl who is conducive to your welfare is Brahmadhanā (having Brāhmanas as her wealth ?) by name. Brāhmanas constitute her greatest (staple) diet." 85. Aja then announced the assets (of his daughter). "This girl with the insects clinging to all the limbs like hair is Jantudhanā by name. She is capable of seizing the riches of all creatures." 86. The girl who was caHed Jantudhanā had profuse growth of hair all over her body. She was capable of producing a great roar. She gave birth to a girl Yātudhānā. 87. The girl who was called Brahmadhanā was red in colour. She was bereft of hair. She too was capable of producing a great roar. She gave birth to Brahmadhanas (or Brahma­ dhanā). 88. Thus the two daughters of Piśācas gave birth to children. Know them as I recount their creation of progeny. 89-90. Yātudhānā had these ten Rāksasas as her sons viz. Heti, Praheti, Ugra, Pauruseya, Vadha, Vidyutsphūrja, * Vāta, Aya, Vyāghra and Sūrya (? Sarpa in verse 97) . .

*

V i d y u t a n d Sphūrja are given as separate persons in verse 95 b e l o w .

But then the n u m b e r of Y ā t u d h ā n ā ' s sons b e c o m e s eleven a n d not ten. ,


Brahmānda Purāna

446

K n o w t h a t M ā l y a v ā n a n d Sumālī were the sons of Praheti. 9 1 . Another son of Praheti was very prosperous. He was wellknown by the n a m e P u l o m a n . Another son was the extremely fierce d e m o n M a d h u a n d L a v a n a was his son. 92. He was endowed with great yogic power. He devoutly worshipped M a h ā d e v a . Ugra's son was valorous a n d well known by the n a m e Vajrahan. 93-94. Pauruseya h a d five very powerful sons who were cannibals (man-eaters) namely K r ū r a , Vikrta, R u d h i r ā d a , Medāśa and Vapāśa. T h e y have thus been recounted with their names. V a d h a had two sons of vicious activities viz. V i g h n a and Ś a m a n a . 95. Vidyut's son was a Rāksasa of vicious activities a n d was called Rasana. N i k u m b h a a Brahmarāksasa was born of the wife of Spūrja. 96. Virodha was t h e son of V ā t a a n d J a n ā n t a k a was t h e sonofAya. N i r ā n a n d a was t h e son of V y ā g h r a . H e caused abstacles in sacrifices. 97. Cruel serpents a n d Rāksasas were born in t h e family of Sarpa (mentioned as Sūrya in V. 9 0 ) . Y ā t u d h ā n a s have been narrated in full. Now understand t h e B r a h m a d h ā n a s . 98. T h e sons of B r a h m a d h a n ā were nine viz. Yajñāpeta, D h r t i , K s e m a , B r a h m ā p e t a , Yajñahan, Śvāta, A m b u k a , Keli and Sarpa. 99-100. T h e following were the sisters of these B r a h m a d h ā n ā s . T h e y are terrible Brahmarāksasīs v i z . — R a k t a k a r n ī , Mahājihvā, K s a m ā a n d I s t ā p a h ā r i n ī . T h e Brahmarāksasas were born on the e a r t h in the family of these (Brahmarāksasīs). T h u s the Rāksasas have been know the descendants of Yaksa. 1

recounted in full. Now

101-104. Yaksa loved K r a t u s t h a l ā , one of the ten Apsaras of the class called P a ñ c a c ū d a s . * He was desirous of 1 . W . 101-131 describe the progeny o f Semi-divine Punyajanas, Guhyakas. *

Vide V. 15 above.

clans

Yaksas,


2.3.7.105-117

447

getting her. P o n d e r i n g over the m e a n s thereof, he searched all the celestial gardens viz.—Vaibhrāja Surabhi, C a i t r a r a t h a , Viśoka, S u m a n a a n d N a n d a n a the most excellent grove. H i s desire a n d longing having been whetted he searched m a n y beautiful a n d fascinating spots. U l t i m a t e l y he saw her in N a n d a n a seated amidst the other Apsaras. In spite of his ponderings and anxious worries for acquir­ ing her, he could not find a p r o p e r means for the same. In his form a n d features he was defiled ( u g l y ) , spoilt and corrupt in his activities. 105. He t h o u g h t t h u s — " A l l living beings resent me because I am noxious a n d hurtful. H e n c e , how shall I acquire t h a t lady of fascinating limbs ?" 106-107. He hit upon a p l a n . H a v i n g found a means, he hastened to p u t it into practice. He assumed t h e form of Vasuruci, "the G a n d h a r v a . T h e n t h a t G u h y a k a (i.e. Yaksa) seized K r a t u s t h a l ā from t h e midst of the Apsaras. T h i n k i n g t h a t he was Vasuruci, she heartily and willingly accompanied him. 108-109. Even as he was being watched by the groups of Apsaras he clasped her closely and h a d sexual intercourse with her for the sake of a son. Although he was b e i n g observed (by t h e m ) he did not hesitate, because he was eager to obtain t h e celestial damsel. T h e r e u p o n a son was immediately b o r n . He h a d all the limbs a n d sense-organs in full-fledged form. 110. He increased in size immediately in height as well a s girth. H e shone b y means o f his brilliance, " l a m N ā b h i ( ? ) a n d I am a k i n g , " he said and saluted his father. 111. T h e father said to h i m in reply, " Y o u are R a j a t a n ā b h a . " A son is b o r n resembling his m o t h e r in forms a n d features and his father in vigour and strength. 112-113. As soon as the child was born, the Yaksa assumed his form. Yaksas a n d Rāksasas, even when they are in disguise, resume their original form while asleep, when they a r e angry, frightened or extremely delighted. T h e n the G u h y a k a smilingly said thus to the Apsaras. 114-117. "O lady of excellent face, welfare u n t o you. C o m e to my house alongwith your s o n . " After saying this, t h e


448

Brahmānda Purāna

Yaksa suddenly resumed his own form. On seeing it, all the Apsaras became bewildered a n d fled together. As she (i.e. K r a t u s t h a l ā ) was going on, the son followed her consoling her by means of gentle words. He took her to the midst of G a n d h a r v a s a n d t h e Apsaras and r e t u r n e d . O n observing t h a t she was the origin of species of Yaksas, t h e groups of Apsaras said to K r a t u s t h a l ā — " Y o u are the m o t h e r of Yaksas." T h e r e ­ after, the Yaksa went to his own abode accompanied by his son. 118. T h e holy fig tree well known by the n a m e R o h i n a is the place where Guhyakas lie down. It is remembered t h a t t h e residence of t h e Yaksas is on t h e N y a g r o d h a (Holy fig tree) named Rohina. 119-120. T h e Yaksa R a j a t a n ā b h a is the grandfather (i.e. Ancestor) of t h e G u h y a k a s . He married M a n i v a r ā , the gentle d a u g h t e r of blameless limbs, of A n u h r ā d a , a D a i t y a ( d e m o n ) . M a n i v a r a , with perfect control over his sense-organs, was born of her. She gave birth to M a n i b h a d r a w h o was e q u a l to I n d r a in exploits and valour. 121. T h e two splendid sisters n a m e d Punyajanī and Devaj a n i , t h e daughters of K r a t u s t h a l ā became their wives. 122-126. T h e splendid lady Punyajanī gave b i r t h to twentyfour sons of M a n i b h a d r a viz. S i d d h ā r t h a , Sūryatejas, S u m a n a , N a n d a n a , M a n d ū k a , Rucaka, M a n i m ā n , Vasu.Sarvānub h ū t a , Śańkha, Pińgāksa, Bhīru, Asoma, D u r a s o m a , P a d m a , Candraprabha, M e g h a v a r n a , S u b h a d r a , Pŕadyota, M a h ā r dyuti, DyutimāiV) K e t u m ā n , Darśanīya. a n d S u d a r ś a n a . These twentyfour sons were b o r n to Punyajanī. Born as the sons of M a n i b h a d r a , all of t h e m h a d meritorious characteristics. T h e splendid Yaksas a n d Punyajanas are their sons a n d grandsons. 127-132a. T h e splendid lady Devajanī gave b i r t h to M a n i v a r a ' s sons viz. P ū r n a b h a d r a , H a i m a v ā n , M a n i m a n t r a , V i v a r d h a n a , Kusu, G a r a , Piśańga, S t h ū l a k a r n a , M a h ā m u d a , Śveta, Vimala, P u s p a d a n t a , J a y ā v a h a , P a d m a v a r n a S u c a n d r a , P a k s a , Bālaka, K u m u d ā k s a , Sukamala, V a r d h a m ā n a , H i t a , P a d m a n ā b h a , S u g a n d h a , Suvīra, Vijaya, K r t a , P ū r n a m ā s a , Hiranyāksa, Sārana and Mānasa.


2.3.7.132b-146

449

These Yaksas, the sons of M a n i v a r a are r e m e m b e r e d as G u h y a k a s . T h e y have fascinating forms a n d features. T h e y a r e exquisitely dressed. T h e y wear garlands. T h e y have pleasing a p p e a r a n c e . T h e i r sons a n d grandsons a r e . in hundreds a n d thousands. 132b-136. K h a ś ā h a d other sons too, t h e Rāksasas w h o could assume forms as they pleased. Those who a r e i m p o r t a n t a m o n g t h e m are being described. Listen to t h e i r n a m e s . 1 They are:—Lālāvi, K r a t h a n a , Bhīma, Sumālin, Madhu Visphūrjana, Brhājjihva, M ā t a ń g a , D h ū m r i t a , C a n d r ā r k a b h ī k a r a B u d h n a , K a p i l o m a n , Prahāsaka, P i d ā p a r a , T r i n ā b h a , the nightwalker Vakrāksa, Triśiras, Śatadarhstra, T u n d a k o ś a the R ā k ­ sasa, Aśva, A k a m p a n a a n d D u r m u k h a t h e n i g h t - w a n d e r e r . T h u s these excellent Rāksasas are valorous. T h e y constitute t h e G a n a s of Śiva. 137-139. T h e y c a n traverse all t h e worlds. T h e i r proce­ d u r e is like t h a t of the Devas. She h a d o t h e r children also viz seven d a u g h t e r s . Listen (to their n a m e s ) in o r d e r viz. A l a m b ā , U t k a c ā , Utkrsfā, N i r r t ā , K a p i l ā , Śivā a n d the extremely fortu­ nate Keśinī. These a r e r e m e m b e r e d as the seven sisters w h o created progeny from w h o m G a n a s were evolved. It was from t h e m t h a t g r o u p of Rāksasas was b o r n — R ā k s a s a s w h o were ferocious in b a t t l e a n d destroyers of t h e congregations of people, as well as the splendid groups of Rāksasas. 140-146. T h e g r o u p (of Rāksasas) called Alambeya is ferocious and cruel. Similarly, the g r o u p Autkaceya (is also c r u e l ) . T h e groups Autkārsteya a n d Śaiveya a r e t h e most ex­ cellent groups of Rāksasas. Similarly, t h e group named N a i r r t a h a d been procreated by a servant of T r y a m b a k a , t h e most excellent leader of G a n a s . T h e N a i r r t a s are Deva-Rāksasas. T h e y are valorous a n d richly endowed with heroism. T h e i r leader is one who is endued with Yogic power, well r e p u t e d by the n a m e V i r ū p a k a . T h e y a r e h a u g h t y a n d noble-souled a n d

1. W . 132-151 enumerate the leading f i g u r e s i n Rāksasa clans such as Alambeya, K ā p i l e y a s a n d others (born from K h a s a ' s d a u g h t e r s ) . S o m e -clans are followers of g o d Śiva.


450

Brahmānda Purāna

they form h u n d r e d s of groups a n d armies. Generally these ( N a i r r t a s ) follow Ś a ń k a r a the lord of the Universe. T h e groups of Daitya-Rāksasas called Kāpileyas have been procreated by t h e noble-souled king of Daityas ( n a m e d ) K u m b h a . T h e y have huge bodies. T h e y are endowed with valour, vigour, enormous strength a n d exploit. Another group of Rāksasas ( n a m e d ) Yaksarāksasas have been procreated by K a p i l a a powerful Yaksa in Keśinī. 147-148. T h e r e was an insignificant Rāksasī (demoness) n a m e d Nīlā. She was t h e d a u g h t e r of Keśinl. T h e numerous Rāksasas well known as Nailas have been procreated by Surasika (A person of excellent taste) belonging to the g r o u p Alambeya. T h e y are u n c o n q u e r a b l e and are of terrible exploits. T h e y have divine a n d e a r t h l y forms and features. T h e y r o a m about the entire e a r t h . 149-151. Since their creation is m u l t i t u d i n o u s , it cannot be detailed ( c o m p l e t e l y ) . T h e Rāksasī (demoness) n a m e d Vikacā was t h e d a u g h t e r of Nīlā. H e r sons, the Vikacas, have great inherent strength a n d valour. T h e y have been procreated by V i r ū p a k a the N a i r r t a here. T h e subjects so procreated were very terrible. Listen to their names in the p r o p e r order. T h e y are very terrible on account of their curved fangs. T h e y are hideous w i t h large ears a n d big bellies. 152-156. T h e i r g r o u p n a m e s a r e H ā r a k a s , Bhīsakas, K l ā m a k a s , Reravākas, Piśācas, V ā h a k a s , Trāsakas a n d others. These are Bhūmi-Rāksasas (earthly d e m o n s ) . T h e y are slowwitted b u t h a r s h a n d tough in their exploits. T h e y assume different sizes a n d shapes on different occasions. T h e y r o a m about in places h i t h e r t o never seen. Such of t h e m as have excel­ lent strength a n d i n h e r e n t vitality are remembered as Khecaras b u t they traverse the sky only to a very limited extent. T h e y merely a i m at flying. This universe is pervaded by h u n d r e d s a n d t h o u s a n d s of these Bhūmi-Rāksasas a n d all sorts of insigni­ ficant Rāksasa hordes. Different regions are occupied all r o u n d by different kinds of Rāksasas. Briefly m e n t i o n e d , there were eight R ā k s a s a mothers. 157-158. T h e i r eight clans have been described in the p r o p e r order. C e r t a i n clans are called Bhadrakas ( g e n t l e ) caused by t h e o u t c o m e of i g n o r a n t ones. T h e y are h u n d r e d s a n d


45 ī

2.3.7.159-167

thousands in n u m b e r . T h e y have P ū t a n ā as their c o m m o n m o t h e r ( ? ) . T h e y are terrifying u n t o all living beings. 159-161. T h e Grahas are the cause of t h e d e a t h of c h i l d r e n in the h u m a n world. T h e y are S k a n d a g r a h a viz. H ā s y a s , Apakas, Trāsakas a n d others. T h o s e (varieties of insignificant Rāksasas) should be known as K a u m ā r a s . T h e y stay in the abodes of c h i l d r e n . T h e r e are groups of deceitful (Māyikas) varieties of Skandagrahas. T h e r e are Lokavināyaka (those who create obstacles to the w o r l d s ) , goblins n a m e d P ū t a n ā s . T h u s thousands of groups r o a m a b o u t on this e a r t h . 162-163. Yaksas ( a r e of two kinds) : those n a m e d Punyajanas a n d those who are remembered as P ū r n a b h a dras. T h e king of Alakā b e c a m e the overlord of Yaksas, Rāksasas, all the N a i r r t a s a n d those who were called Paulastyas and Agastis. T h e Yaksas drink a n d devour the blood, suet a n d flesh of h u m a n beings by means of their eyes. 164-166. 1 T h e Rāksasas (drink blood etc.) by entering (the bodies of victims). T h e Piśācas ( d r i n k blood etc) by means of squeezing and harassing (victims). Speaking succinctly, Daivatas (i.e. Devas) are e q u i p ­ ped richly with all characteristics. 2 T h e y are brilliant, powerful a n d masterly. T h e y can assume any form they desire. T h e y c a n n o t be assailed. T h e y are valorous. T h e y a r e bowed to by all the worlds. T h e y a r e subtle, vigorous, a n d p u r e . T h e y bestow boons. T h e y p a r t a k e of Yajñas. These foregoing characteristics pertain to the Devas as well as the Asuras. 167. It is remembered t h a t the Gandharvas a n d the Apsaras are inferior to the Devas by thveefourths (of their qualities, 1. and

W.

152-166

enumerate the

different

clans

of

Bhūmi-Rāksasas

of K a u m ā r a Grahas. 2.

V V . 166-170 describe the gradations

the divine a n d semi-divine beings. (i)

D e v a s and Asuras.

(ii)

Gandharvas a n d Apsaras.

(iii)

Guhyakas

(iv)

Piśācas.

(Yaksas) and Rāksasas.

(in

descending

order)

of


452

Brahmānda Purāna

strength e t c . ) . T h e Guhyakas are inferior to the G a n d h a r v a s by three-fourths (of their qualities e t c ) . 168-169. T h e Piśācas are inferior to t h e Rāksasas in affluence a n d power t h r e e times (?) (powers, affluences to onethird of R ā k s a s a ) . In t h e same m a n n e r ( t h e different species of living beings) are inferior to one a n o t h e r by three-fourths in regard to •wealth, b e a u t y of form, span of life, physical power, virtue, affluence a n d mastery, intelligence, power of p e n a n c e , learning a n d exploits. 170. These four species beginning w i t h t h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d ending w i t h t h e Piśācas belong to t h e species of t h e Devas. Welfare u n t o you. Hereafter, listen to t h e progeny belong­ ing to t h e family of K r o d h a v a ś ā . 171. K r o d h ā gave b i r t h to twelve d a u g h t e r s b o r n of her own bosom. T h e y b e c a m e t h e wives of P u l a h a . U n d e r s t a n d t h e m through their n a m e s . 1 172-173a. T h e y w e r e Mrgi, M r g a m a n d ā , H a r i b h a d r ā I r ā v a t ī , Bhūtā, K a p i ś ā , Darhstrā, Rsā, Tiryā, Śvetā, S a r a m ā , a n d Surasā. T h e y were all well renowned. 173b-174a. T h e sons of Mrgī were t h e species of deer a n d antelopes such as H a r i n a s , Mrgas, Saśas ( r a b b i t s ) , N y a ń k u s Ś a r a b h a s , R u r u s a n d Prsatas (spotted a n t i l p p e s ) . 174b-l 79. T h e following were b o r n as sons of M r g a ­ m a n d ā viz. R k s a s ( b e a r s ) , Gavayas (a kind of o x e n ) , buffaloes, camels, boars, rhinoceros . a n d G a u r a m u k h a s (species of buffaloes). T h e following were the sons of H a r i (i.e. H a r i b h a d r ā ) viz. various varieties of monkey such as H a r i s , G o l ā ń g ū l a s , V ā n a r a s , K i n n a r a s , M ā y u s a n d K i m p u r u s a s , t h e hyaenes, t h e lions, t h e tigers, t h e d a r k blue-coloured oxen, t h e Dvīpins, Pythons, crocodiles, cats, mice, frogs, mongooses a n d V a l k a k a s ( ? ) found in forests.

1.

W . 171-179 describe the creation

t h e daughters o f K r o d h ā .

of

the

animal-world through


2.3.7.180-193

45$

T h e splendid lady gave b i r t h to these sons of P u l a h a viz. the f i r s t H a r h s a ( s w a n ) , R a n a c a n d r a , S a t a m u k h a , D a r ī m u k h a , H a r i t a , H a r i v a r m a n t h e terrible a n d one w i t h splendidcharacteristics, P r a t h i t a , M a t h i t a , H a r i n a a n d L ā ñ g a l i . 180-181. T e n heroic leading monkeys were born to Śvetā viz. U r d h v a d r s t i , K r t ā h ā r a , S u v r a t a , V i n a t a , Budha, Pārijāta, Sujāta, H a r i d ā s a , G u n ā k a r a a n d the powerful K s e m a m ū r t i . All of t h e m were kings. 182-183. T h e i r sons a n d grandsons were very powerful a n d irresistible. T h e y could n o t b e c o n q u e r e d i n b a t t l e b y t h e Devas, Dānavas, h u m a n beings, Yaksas, Bhūtas (goblins) ,. Piśācas ( g h o s t s ) , Rāksasas a n d good (powerful) serpents. T h e i r d e a t h is not b r o u g h t a b o u t by m e a n s of fire, w e a p o n s poison or other means. 184. T h e i r m o v e m e n t is not obstructed on t h e e a r t h , sky, P ā t ā l a ( N e t h e r w o r l d s ) , w a t e r or in t h e w i n d . All of t h e m are indestructible. 185-188. 1 T h e n u m b e r s of t h e quick a n d m i g h t y monkeys are m a n y . ( S o m e of t h e m ) are ten t h o u s a n d crores in n u m b e r . O t h e r s a r e t h o u s a n d Arbudas* in n u m b e r a n d others thousands o f M a h ā p a d m a s ( A very high n u m b e r ) a n d h u n d r e d s o f M a h ā p a d m a s . Some are t e n Arbudas in n u m b e r ; others a r e h u n d r e d thousand crores. O t h e r s thousands of Niyutas ( T e n thousand crores), others a r e Nikkarvas**, others t e n crores of Arbudas. O t h e r s sixty crores in n u m b e r , others a h u n d r e d thou­ sand Arbudas, others a h u n d r e d crores; others t e n P a d m a s * * * a n d still others nine Mahāpadmas in n u m b e r . These monkeysbelonged to very noble families. 189-193. All of t h e m a r e brilliant, b r a v e a n d powerful. T h e y c a n assume a n y form they desire. T h e y h a v e divine o r n a m e n t s a n d dresses. T h e y a r e devotees of B r a h m a n . T h e y m a i n t a i n sacrificial fires; they perform all kinds of Yajñas, 1. W . 185-273 give again the special treatment o f Vanaras (monkeys) in 319-323. It shows the influence of R ā m ā y a n a as the history of V ā l i and Sugrīva is narrated succinctly here. * A r b u d a — O n e hundred millions. * * N i k h a r v a — O n e thousand millions. ***

F a d m a — O n e thousand billions.


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a n d distribute h u n d r e d s a n d thousands by way of m o n e t a r y gifts ( a n d sacrificial fees). T h e y a r e embellished with crowns, earings, necklaces a n d u p p e r a r m bracelets. T h e y are scholars in t h e Vedas a n d V e d ā ń g a s . T h e y are experts in the science of polity, in discharging missiles a n d withdrawing t h e m or in the activity of killing. T h e y have preference for divine M a n t r a s , they are honoured on a c c o u n t of divine Mantras; they a r e effi­ c i e n t , powerful a n d heroic. T h e y strike by means of all kinds of weapons. T h e y are gentle, they can assume divine forms a n d are devoid of old a g e a n d d e a t h . T h e r e a r e ten thousand families of such noble-souled monkeys. 194-195. Abodes were m a d e for t h e m by V i ś v a k a r m a n himself in the m o u n t a i n s a n d caves on the four sides of m o u n t s M e r u , H e m a k ū t a , H i m ā l a y a , t h e Nīla m o u n t a i n , the Śveta m o u n t a i n , the N i s a d h a m o u n t a i n a n d t h e G a n d h a m ā d a n a m o u n t a i n — w e l l in all t h e seven continents. 196-200. T h e y are bedecked (endowed with) cities of various sizes a n d shapes. T h e y are equally c h a r m i n g d u r i n g all the seasons. T h e r e a r e gardens a n d parks all r o u n d . In the grounds of their abodes a n d in their couches exudes pleasing fragrance of flowers. T h e y have different kinds of unguents a n d divine embellishments. T h e y are bedecked in all kinds of jewels a n d have m e n t a l (and spiritual) achievements. Those monkeys embellished in divine o r n a m e n t s (enjoy life) drinking honey a n d wine in t h e c o m p a n y of she-monkeys. T h e i r liquor was accompanied by nectarine diet too. T h e y are full of activities. T h e y rise in power like the c o m m u n i t y of gods in t h e heaven. I n d e e d , they are the sons of i m p o r t a n t Devas a n d G a n d h a r v a s . T h e y indulge in happiness a n d pleasure. T h e y a r e righteous. T h e y are excessively'proud on a c c o u n t of their boons. T h e y are experts in war. T h e y a r e very powerful. 2 0 1 . A m o n g all a n i m a l s they have no m e a n or insigni­ ficant position. T h e y a r e devotedly a t t a c h e d to the Devas a n d B r ā h m a n a s . T h e y never become pale a n d faded. T h e y are truthful. T h e y speak volubly o n m a n y m a t t e r s . 202-204. Those who are endued w i t h forbearance a n d those w h o strictly a d h e r e to established custom, usage and c o n d u c t of life speak w i t h restriction. T h e y have been created by B r a h m a himself to be an o r n a m e n t u n t o the forests.


2.3.7.205-216

455

T h i s incarnation of monkeys is the cause of devotion in all t h e worlds; it is virtuous in regard to R a m a ' s affiairs; it destroys all sins. It is meritorious a n d conducive to wealth a n d fame. It is fascinating a n d it brings about happiness. I shalt glorify the same. Listen to it with alertness a n d attention. 205-206. A powerful son n a m e d Vyāghra was b o r n to ūrdhva-drsti. V y ā g h r a h a d f i v e brothers a n d f i v e sisters. T h e sisters were given in m a r r i a g e by the brothers to t h e monkeys w h o were purified in m i n d a n d who were suitable to them. He found befitting wives for his brothers as well. 207-208. . Śarabha, well renowned in t h e worlds, was born as the son of Vyāghra. Ś a r a b h a ' s brothers were also great scholars. T h e y were honoured for their vigour a n d vitality. T h e y were kings of monkeys. T h e y were well-established in all righteous activities. Ś a r a b h a ' s son n a m e d Śuka was very strong and intelligent. 209-210. His son too, n a m e d Rksa, born of the belly (womb) of Vyāghrī was very powerful. He was an unassailable emperor. He was the leader of t h e herds of all monkeys. He h a d great splendour. He was a persistent slayer of enemies. He was a m a s t e r of t h e technique of wielding all sorts of missiles. 211-212. Viraja, the Prajāpati, h a n d e d over (in m a r r i a g e his gold-bedecked d a u g h t e r endowed w i t h m a n y good qualities to him (i.e. Rksa) because he was such a specially gifted o n e . Rksa the leader of the herds of monkeys m a r r i e d h e r . 213. T h a t girl of c h a r m i n g smiles was very beautiful to behold. She h a d limbs free from blemish. On seeing t h a t girl of pleasing a p p e a r a n c e M a h e n d r a b e g a n to love her. 214. Vāli of great valour a n d manliness was b o r n as her son d u e to her union with M a h e n d r a . He was as valiant as M a h e n d r a himself. 215. Similarly, the sun-god too begot of her in secret his son, a p a r t of himself. He was Sugrlva the leader of t h e herds of monkeys. 216. On seeing b o t h the sons endowed w i t h strength, beauty of form a n d glorious splendour, Rksa, the leader of the herds of all the monkeys, h a d a g r e a t deal of delight.


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217-219. He crowned his eldest son Vāli w h o h a d golden garlands (necklaces). Crowned thus a n d followed by Sugrīva, Vāli administered the k i n g d o m like t h e lord of Devas in the heaven. Susena's d a u g h t e r n a m e d T ā r ā was t h e wife of t h a t n o b l e souled ( V ā l i ) . She was highly intelligent a n d her face resembled t h e lord of stars (i.e. the m o o n ) . She gave birth to a son A ń g a d a who h a d golden Ańgadas ( o r n a m e n t s of t h e u p p e r a r m ) . 220. A son of terrible exploits was b o r n to Ańgada in the eldest d a u g h t e r of M a i n d a . His n a m e was D h r u v a . He earned g r e a t renown. 2 2 1 . R u m ā the splendid d a u g h t e r of Panasa was t h e wife of Sugrīva. T h r e e sons of great renown were born to him. 222. After finding o u t very beautiful wives for t h e m t h e powerful Sugrīva stayed beside Vālī along w i t h his monkey followers. 223-227. T h e fierce (Sugrīva) stayed with his b r o t h e r for m a n y years like a Deva (a g o d ) . Kesarī m a r r i e d t h e d a u g h t e r of K u ñ j a r ā n a m e d Añjanā. T h a t lady of great p u r i t y a n d good fortune went to a p a r k n a m e d P u m s a v a n a . V ā y u (the wind-god) m a d e advances to t h e l a d y w h o was p r o u d of h e r y o u t h . H a n u m ā n was b o r n of her by h e r union with V ā y u t h e (source of) life i n t o the entire universe. T h e sons of Kesarī were well known here as well as in t h e heaven. T h e eldest a m o n g t h e m all was H a n u m ā n . M a t i m ā n is remembered as t h e son after h i m . O t h e r s were Śrutimān K e t u m ā n a n d t h e intelligent D h r t i m ā n . All t h e brothers of H a n u m ā n were well established along with suitable a n d befitting wives. T h e sons were thus established by their father. T h e y were blessed w i t h sons a n d grandsons. 228-230. H a n u m ā n was a B r a h m a c ā r i n (observer of t h e vow of celibacy). He was not joined in wedlock with any woman. He was like a n o t h e r G a r u d a in speed a n d extensive expedition. N a l a t h e powerful a n d unconquerable son of Agni was born of the wife of K a n a k a b i n d u . He was a leader of monkeys. T h e r e are o t h e r powerful monkeys of g r e a t fortune a n d g r a n d e u r . Of t h e m t h e most i m p o r t a n t leaders of the leading monkeys should be known.


2.3.7.231-249

457

231-237. T h e y a r e T ā r a , K u s u m a , Panasa, G a n d h a m ā d a n a , Rūpaśrī, Vibhava, Gavaya, V i k a t a , Sara, Susena, Sudhanu, Subandhu, Śatadundubhi, Vikaca, Kapila, R a u d r a , P ā r i y ā t r a , Prabhañjana, K u ñ j a r a , Ś a r a b h a , D a m s t r i n , Kālamūrti, Mahāsukha, Nanda, Kandarasena, Nala, Vāruni, Cirava, K a r a v a , T ā m r a , Gitrayodhin, R a t h ī t a r a , Bhīma, Śatabali, Kālacakra, Anala, Nala, Yaksāsya, G a h a n a , D h ū m r a , Pañcaratha, Pārijāta, M a h ā d ī p t a , Sutapas, Balasāgara, Śrutāyus, Vijayākāńksin, Gurusevin, Y a t h ā r t h a k a , D h a r m a c e t a s S u h o t r a , Śālihotra, Sarpaga, P u n d r a , Avaragātra, C ā r u r ū p a , a n d Śatrujit. 238-244. (The following also are very important monkeys) viz. Vikata, K a v a t a , M a i n d a , B i n d u k ā r a , A s u r ā n t a k a , M a n t r i n , B h ī m a r a t h a , Sańga, V i b h r ā n t a , C ā r u h ā s a v ā n , K s a n a k s a n a m i t ā h ā r a , D r d h a b h a k t i , P r a m a r d a n a , Jājali, P a ñ c a m u kuta, Balabandhu, Samāhita, Payahklrti, Śubha, Ksetra, Binduketu, Sahasrapāt, Navāksa, H a r i n e t r a , J ī m ū t a , Balāhaka, Gaja, G a v a y a n ā m a n , S u b ā h u , G u n ā k a r a , V ī r a b ā h u , K r t i n , K u n d a , K r t a k r t y a , Śubheksana, Dvivida, K u m u d a , Bhāsa, S u m u k h a , Suruvu, Vrka, Vikata, K a v a k a , J a v a s e n a , Vrsākrti, Gavāksa,Naradeva,Suketu,Vimalānana,Sahasvāra,Śubhaksetra, Puspadhvarhsa, Vilohita, N a v a c a n d r a , B a h u g u n a , S a p t a h o t r a , M a r l c i m ā n , G o d h ā m a n , Dhaneśa, Golāńgula a n d N e t r a v ā n . 245. T h u s these monkeys have been e n u m e r a t e d in view of their real i m p o r t a n c e . Since the n a m e s are m a n y , t h e y c a n n o t be described in full. 246-24 7a. E a c h of t h e m h a d the strength of t e n crores of elephants. Vāli, t h e scorcher of foes, was the king of all the hosts of monkeys stationed in all t h e seven continents. He himself stayed in K i s k i n d h ā . 247b-248a. T h a t powerful V ā l i once defeated R ā v a n a . He c a u g h t hold of h i m w i t h his left h a n d . Placing h i m at his side, h e pressed h i m h a r d a n d went o n m e d i t a t i n g . 248b-249. In the course of a M u h ū r t a he w e n t to the four oceans, t h e southern, the eastern, t h e western a n d the n o r t h e r n , t o u c h i n g meanwhile all the four sides. He h a d t h e speed of t h e m i n d a n d t h e wind b u t h e was n o t exhausted. ( H e d i d n o t feel strain of the long t r a v e l ) .


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250-252. Vāli of great vitality thus defeated R ā v a n a w h o h a d m a d e the worlds cry. As R ā v a n a became delirious a n d unconscious, he released h i m from the grip of his arms a n d placed h i m at t h e root of a tree. H a u g h t y , on account of excessive strength, he sprinkled cold water on R ā v a n a from his h e a d to his foot. W h e n R ā v a n a regained consciousness, Vāli p r e t e n d e d to be surprised. T h e lord of monkeys then spoke to t h e king of Rāksasas who was very fierce in b a t t l e . 253-260. "O king of Rāksasas, having exploits equal to those of M a h e n d r a , you have conquered innumerable armies in battle a n d defeated Y a m a a n d his ministers. V a r u n a , K u b e r a , t h e m o o n , the sun-god, groups of M a r u t s , R u d r a s , Adityas, Aśvins, Vasus, Daityas, Kālakeyas, D ā n a v a s of very great power, Siddhas, G a n d h a r v a s , Yaksas, Rāksasas, serpents, excellent leaders of birds, the planets, t h e stars, constellations, goblins, ghosts, p r o u d of their specially increased strength, a n d h u n d r e d s a n d thousands of kings of h u m a n beings. In spite of having all these achievements a n d qualifications (you have been defeated b y m e ) . In speed you are on a p a r w i t h t h e m i n d a n d t h e wind. You a r e c a p a b l e of moving t h e M e r u . You a r e u n c o n q u e r a b l e like G o d of d e a t h . You have routed all the heroes in t h e worlds. Y o u are the conqueror of the cities of enemies by means of armies (with t h e striking power) of the t h u n d e r b o l t . You have levelled m o u n t a i n s by means of your armies as power­ ful as t h u n d e r b o l t . You have agitated a n d stirred up t h e seven oceans seven times. You are a Mahāratha (a great hero who can withstand t h e attack of thousands of a r c h e r s ) . You are free from excitements a n d are eager to gain Victory. You a r e p r o u d of your strength. In spite of t h a t , you, a powerful warrior, have been overwhelmed by m e , a weak one a n d a monkey in particular. 2 6 1 . H o w is it t h a t you, in spite of being an unconquer­ able powerful hero, have been c o n d e m n e d to such a plight as this. Tell m e , O leading Rāksasa of B r ā h m a n a caste, w h a t is t h e reason h e r e o f ? 262-264. F r e e d o m from fear has been given u n t o you by m e . Rest assured. You have n o t h i n g to fear."


459

2.3.7.265-275

On hearing the words of Vāli, the ten-headed Rāksasa of great valour said these words in a conciliatory tone, because he was flurried and excited on account of fear : — " U n d o u b t e d l y , all the Devas a n d the Asuras have been defeated by me in battle. But a powerful m a n of this sort (i.e. like y o u ) I have never come across anywhere. Therefore, I wish to have a friendly alliance with you, devoid of fear of every sort. 265-266. O heroic warrior, never will a fight ensue w i t h you, from my s i d e . " On being requested thus Vāli s a i d — " Y o u r words shall be true." H a v i n g entered i n t o the treaty (agreement) with Vāli at the outset, R ā v a n a went to L a ń k ā along with his hordes. His inner soul b e c a m e extremely delighted. 267-273. After defeating the lord of the Rāksasas at Puskara in battle, the powerful Vāli performed m a n y Yajñas where food and drink were supplied in plenty and in which hundreds and thousands of monetary gifts were distributed in an increased scale. He performed Agnistomas, Aśvamedhas (horse-sacrifices), Rājasūyas, N r m e d h a s ( h u m a n sacrifices) a n d all kinds of sacrifices, accompanied by all kinds of charitable gifts. He propitiated the Devas a n d D e v en d r a by_ means of m a n y offerings. He propitiated B r a h m a by performing H o m a s in the fire for m a n y years. He was h a p p y in the c o m p a n y of his younger b r o t h e r Sugnva. He h a d n o t h i n g to fear from a n y q u a r t e r . He looked after the kingdom of monkeys. He was devot­ ed to the B r ā h m a n a s . He considered B r a h m a n to be the supreme one. He was (as it were) a bridge of righteousness. He was engaged in holy rites. He was conversant with all sacred scrip­ tures. He sported about a n d enjoyed life for m a n y years. D u r i n g his Sacrifices, N ā r a d a the celestial sage, sang this verse of praise. " N e i t h e r in offering oblations in sacrifices n o r in charit­ able gifts n o r in quick action a n d exploits is there anyone in t h e three worlds equal to Vāli the wearer of gold necklaces." Śāmśapāyana said :— 274-275.

O !

how

powerful

a n d excessively

efficient


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Brahmān$a Purāna

was Vāli the son of M a h e n d r a . He h a d performed thousands of Yajñas. He was extremely unconquerable. Vāli has been des­ cribed as a highly intelligent emperor by you. R e c o u n t to us how M ā r t a n d a c a m e to be known so. O holy lord of very sacred rites, explain its etymologial derivation factually. Sūta said :— 276-278. While the living beings were being created, Prajāpati himself b r o u g h t the greatest splendour in the t h r e e worlds and deposited it within the h e a r t of Aditi since he h a d great yogic power. In the beginning, the holy lord h a d created an egg with­ in her belly. T h e powerful foetus was within t h e egg. 279-283. It increased excessively. T h e Devas b e c a m e devoid of splendour on coming to know t h a t the foetus h a d been evolved wholly out of their own brilliance which h a d been taken away. T h e y b e c a m e afraid a n d said to P r a j ā p a t i — " H o w shall this be to us, ( W h a t will become of us) ? O lord, t h e strength a n d brilliance of this (foetus) evolved by you is ex­ cessive. H o w can we exist? O p e r p e t u a l one surely we shall be finished. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t all living beings h e r e , b o t h mobile a n d immobile will become b u r n t before long. O excellent B r ā h m a n a , consider over this ( p o i n t ) , w i t h d r a w t h e strength a n d splendour deposited within t h e egg so t h a t it will be conducive to our welfare. T h e renown a n d potentiality of the splendour burns all r o u n d rapidly. 284-288. After reflection, the lord P r a j ā p a t i pulled it off. He infused strength in the egg. T h e n the child was within the egg. T h e y say t h a t w h a t was the infused strength is the egg (?) T h e brilliance is considered to be the child. W h e n it was taken out of the belly it resembled a dead l u m p . T h e r e u p o n , Prajāpati examined it, a n d split the egg i n t o two. Placing the two pieces (side by side), he saw in one of t h e m the foetus overwhelmed by weakness. It was however full of brilliance. At once he lifted it up a n d placed it in the lap of Aditi. He s a i d — " H e has the state of being born of Aditi. Since he was b o r n d e a d (Mrta) as an egg (Ania) Savitr ( t h e sun) is called M ā r t a n d a by


461

2.3.7.289-300

the learned m e n . 1 289. P r a p i t ā m a h a (the great grandfather, B r a h m a ) created m o r e brilliance in it. It is considered t h a t w h a t were the two egg-shells, h a d got very great power (i.e. the strength of the egg-shells was g r e a t ) . 290. T h e lord placed t h e m separately in her navel a n d gave t h e m to Irāvatī. W i t h a wish for procreation, he stuffed t h e m i n t o h e r belly. 291. T h e r e u p o n , four lordly elephants were b o r n to Irāvatī. T h e y were very powerful a n d they b e c a m e the befitting vehicles of Devas. T h e y were honoured by the worlds. 292. T h e y were Airāvana, Kumuda, Añjana a n d V ā m a n a . I shall describe t h e m u n t o you in detail later on. 293-296. Lord Savitr (sun) who directly blazes with his rays, is very i m p o r t a n t in this world on a c c o u n t of his superior a n d unlimited strength a n d brilliance. It is Savitr who illumi­ nates this universe t h a t h a d been devoid of light. O B r ā h m a n a s , the exterior of Lokāloka is enveloped in darkness. T h e proof for this has been fully stated by me factually O excellent B r ā h m a n a s . T h i s h a d b e e n heard by me from t h e holy noblesouled lord Vyāsa, the son of P a r ā ś a r a . Formerly, this h a d been n a r r a t e d by S a n a t k u m ā r a as well as Vāyu. After reflecting deeply, this has been recounted by others too in different ways. 297. T h e merit t h a t one acquires after listening to the nectar-like P u r ā n a s is conducive to the achievement of all objects. ( H e w h o listens to it) roams a b o u t fearlessly even after undergoing a h u n d r e d transmigrations i n t o other species. 298-299a. If the story of the b i r t h of M ā r t a n d a is in anyone's house, if the story is n a r r a t e d in anyone's house, under­ s t a n d that he is one who has no equal. His children will never die p r e m a t u r e l y . 299b-300. 2 Rksā was the sister of R k s a a very powerful monkey. She gave b i r t h to t h e renowned J a m b a van as a result of her u n i o n w i t h Prajāpati. He was accepted as one a m o n g themselves by heroes. He was a highly intelligent king of bears. 1.

T h i s explains h o w the sun c a m e to be called M ā r t a n d a .

2. W. o f bears.

299-304

enumerate

the important m e m b e r s o f the Species


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Brahmānda Purāna

301. His d a u g h t e r J ā m b a v a t ī was born of Vyāghrī. T h a t lady of lotus-like eyes was given in m a r r i a g e to Vāsudeva ( i . e . Śrīkrsna) by her father. 302-304. O t h e r children too, very powerful sons were born to the king of bears. T h e y w e r e J a y a n t a , Sarvajña, M r g a r ā t , Sañkrti, J a y a , M ā r j ā r a , Balibāhu, Laksanajña, Ś r u t ā r t h a k r t , Bhoja, Rāksasajit, Piśāca, V a n a g o c a r a , Ś a r a b h a , Śalabha, Vyāghra a n d Sirhha. T h e y h a d h u n d r e d s a n d thou­ sands of sons a n d grandsons. 305-307. O n l y the g r o u p of t h e Rksas (bears) is honour­ ed by the Devas a n d the D ā n a v a s . Mārjāras (cats) are ( w e r e ) , the extremely powerful sons of M ā r j ā r a a n d V ā d ī (?) T h e y a r e (were) h u n d r e d s a n d thousands in n u m b e r . All of them are (were) endowed w i t h virility. T h e y a r e the preceptors of Ś a r a b h a s a n d other beasts of prey. T h e y have g r e a t strength. T h e y taste the flesh of mice, birds, Prsatas (spotted antelopes) e t c . T h e y are engaged in moving quickly a n d leaping a b o u t . T h e y harass all animals. 308. T h e y stay in villages, parts of forests, hollows of trees, caves, houses a n d inner a p a r t m e n t s of abodes. 309. T h e y move a b o u t by means of different modes of walking; they are clever, they arc seen in villages; they move about in forests. T h e y stay (in both the places) naturally. 310a. T h e y c a n move a b o u t d u r i n g well as in twilight.

days

a n d nights as

31 Ob-311. T h e y are (of various colours. Some are) of the colour of blue (black) clouds, some brownish red in colour; some are red a n d some are squint-eyed. Some are black in colour, some are tawny in colour. O t h e r s are of various colours with lines (and spots). T h e y are terrible with claws a n d curved teeth for their weapons. T h e y can u t t e r cries like peacocks. 312. T w o sons were born to S a r a m ā . T h e y were b r a v e a n d extremely u n b e a r a b l e . T h e y were Ś y ā m a a n d Śabala. T h e y are remembered as the a t t e n d a n t s of Y a m a . 313. T h e i r sons were unassailable. T h e y were blessed with sons and grandsons. T h e i r race became well renowned for ever a m o n g Sārameyas ( D o g s ) .


2.3.7.314-324

463

314-318. At present, the animals of the same species a r e very strong. T h e y have hideous forms. T h e y give trouble to m e n belonging to every caste a n d community. T h e y can have a residence attached to the villages also (i.e. they can be domesti­ cally trained a n d kept in villages). He who listens to the origin of t h e animals with curved teeth and he who narrates the same, need not have any fear from animals with curved fangs nor from thieves, n o r from anything else. T h e decision is (i.e. it is certain) that d e a t h will come to them immediately ( a n d not in a lingering manner). He does not get involved in imprisonment. He does not get an ignominious b i r t h . He does not get mixed up with other castes. He attains the merit based on the V ā n a p r a s t h a stage in life (i.e. of the forest h e r m i t ) resorted to by sages. He will be richly endowed with divine wealth and strength. He does not err from perfect wisdom a n d knowledge. He is born in t h e divine wombs (becomes a g o d ) . 319-320. T h e r e are eleven species (varieties of monkeys) viz.—Dvlpins, Śarabhas, Sirhhas, Vyāghras, Nīlas, Śalyakas, Rksas, Mārjāras, Loharhsas (?), V ā n a r a s a n d Māyus. These are considered to be the eleven species of monkeys. T h e leader of all these is the valiant king Vāli. 321. In the course of the battles between t h e Devas a n d the Asuras, he was the violent slayer of the terrible a n d powerful Asuras who would r a t h e r get slain (than s u b m i t ) , because they were perpetually self-respecting. 322-323. It was for the destruction of the h a u g h t y hordes (or, the strength of the h a u g h t y ) t h a t this host (of monkeys) had been created formerly by the noble-souled Brahma, t h e sustainer of the worlds. This group h a d been intended by h i m as o n e that would render help to M a h e n d r a . T h u s the monkeys have been recounted. U n d e r s t a n d ( t h e progeny) of Irāvatī. 1 324. B h a u v a n a (i.e. V i ś v a k a r m a n , the architect of t h e gods) brought together the two egg-shells of the sun. H o l d i n g 1. W . 3 2 4 - 3 5 8 describe the different types o f elephants, their cha­ racteristics and their favourite haunts.


464

Brahmānda Purāna

them with both of his hands, he sang the R a t h a n t a r a (a S ā m a n Mantra). 325. Even as the Sāman m a n t r a was being sung, Bhauvana hastened to IrāvatI and gave them to her for the purpose of sons. 326. Since he was the son of Irāvatī he is remembered as Airāvata. Since he was the vehicle of the king of the Devas t h a t king of elephants was the first a n d the foremost. 327-333. Airāvata the glorious elephant has the lustre of white clouds. He has four tusks (teeth) (Here the text is defec­ tive) . Añjana is an elephant with golden colour. It has only a single tusk (?) B h a d r a the vehicle of Bali has six tusks. T h e she-elephant of Airāvata is A b h r a m u . T h e y had four sons viz.—Añjana, Supratīka,. V ā m a n a a n d P a d m a the fourth one. A b h r a m u gave birth to four powerful sons who became the elephants of the (four) quarters ( w h o belong to the species) of Bhadra, M r g a , M a n d a and Samkīrna variety. He is the vehicle of Y a m a . Supratīka belongs to the B h a d r a variety. He is the vehicle of the lord of waters ( V a r u n a ) . P a d m a belongs to the m a n d a variety. He is white in colour. He is the elephant (vehicle) of Ailavila (i.e. K u b e r a ) . ( V ā m a n a ) is dark-coloured a n d belongs to the M r g a variety. He is t h e vehicle of Pāvaki (? K ā r t t i k e y a ) . Eight sons were born to him. V i z — P a d m a , U t t a m a , P a d m a g u l m a , Agaja, Vātagaja,, Gaja, Capala and Arista (lit. one whose n a m e is A r i s t a ) . Elephants equipped with lofty stature are born in his family. 334. Those elephants are tawny-coloured with white hairs a n d nails. T h e y have various other colours also. I shall recount in due order other elephants also born of Sāman. 335-336. K a p i l a and Pundarīka of good n a m e and fame were born of Rathantara Supratīka a n d P r a m a r d a n a became wellrenowned after t h e m both. Elephants belonging to his race are remembered to be very strong a n d suspicious of others. T h e y are heroic ( b r a v e ) . T h e i r head a n d teeth (tusks) are very big. Their hairs and nails a r e very pure (white). 337.

P u s p a d a n t a was the son o f B r h a t s ā m a n ( ? ) S a d d a n t a


465

2.3.7.338-348a

(having six tusks), P a d m a p u c c h a v ā n and T ā m r a p a r n a were his sons. T h e y move about in herds. They have tusks. 338. Elephants with lips hanging down, beautiful to behold, are b o r n in his race. T h e i r skin, tongue a n d trunk are dark-coloured. T h e i r faces (heads) are large a n d stout. 339. V ā m a d e v a , Añjana, Śyāma a n d V ā m a n a were born of S ā m a n . His wife is Añjana a n d Nīlavān a n d L a k s a n a are the sons. 340. Elephants of the following type are b o r n in his family. T h e y are very enormously big and fierce. Their necks a n d heads are beautiful. T h e y are broad-chested and swift. T h e y are fettered from below (i.e..by means of feet). 341. With the removal of his deformity Supratīka attain­ ed the same form as t h a t of S ā m a n . He h a d three sons viz.— P r a h a r ī , Sampāti, a n d P r t h u . 342-343. Elephants of the following type are born in his family. T h e y a r e lofty. T h e y have long palates a n d lips. T h e i r hairs are well arranged. In sexual intercourse they are extremely gentle. T h r o u g h (the power of) Sāman, Añjanavatī gave birth to Añjana the son of Añjana. T h e y h a d two other sons also remembered as P r a m ā t h i and Purusa. 344-345a. Elephants of the following type were b o r n in his family. T h e i r heads are r e m a r k a b l y divided into two ( H e r e partition of the head is referred t o ) . T h e y resemble the glossy clouds. T h e y are pleasing to look at. T h e i r bodies are well-built. T h e y have the luster of lotus. T h e y have proportionate girth of t h e body, globular in shape. T h e y are brave a n d they have stout a n d large faces. 345b-347a. T h r o u g h the power of Sāman, K u m u d a d y u t i ( o n e having lustre of lily) gave birth to K u m u d a , the son of C a n d r a m a s ( t h e moon-god). His two sons M a h ā p a d m a a n d Ū r m i m ā l i n were b o r n of Pińgalā. U n d e r s t a n d that the elephants born in his race are of the following type : — T h e y resemble m o u n t a i n s a n d clouds. T h e y a r e excellent and powerful. T h e y are enlightened (intelli­ g e n t ) . T h e y are fond of fighting with other elephants. 347b-348a.

For the sake of their

victory in the

battle


466

Brahmānda Purāna

between t h e Devas and the Asuras the Suras m a d e use of these elephants. W h e n their purpose was served, the elephants m e n ­ tioned before were let off by the Devas. T h e y then went in different directions. 348b-349a. T h e Devas gave unto L o m a p ā d a the king of Ańga and the a u t h o r of Sutras (Aphorisms) such of those elephants as are born in the family of these a n d are well-trained and tamed. 349b-351. T h e etymological derivation of the various names of elephants is as follows :* T h e elephant is called Dvirada because it has two tusks (Rada) ; the word Hastin is derived from Hasta ( h a n d i.e. the trunk) ; the word Karin is derived from Kara ( h a n d i.e. the t r u n k ) . T h e word Dantin is derived from Dantas ( t u s k s ) ; the e l e p h a n t is called V ā r a n a because it defends and guards (Vāranāt) the soldiers in the b a t t l e ; it is called Gaja because it trumpets (Garjanāt); it is called Kuñjara because it roams about a m o n g the hedges and bushes (Kuñjas); it is called Nāga because there is nothing which it c a n n o t reach (JVaAgamyd) ; it is called Mātańga because it runs about intoxicat­ e d ; it is remembered as Dvipa because it drinks by means of the two hollows in its trunk ( t h e m o u t h ) . It is called Sāmaja because it is b o r n of Sāman. T h u s is the p r o c e d u r e of the etymological derivation. 352-353a. T h e t u r n i n g away of their tongues (i.e. inabi­ lity to speak or cessation of the power of speech) has been mentioned as originating from the curse of Agni (firegod). T h e fact t h a t an elephant c a n n o t be aware of its own inherent strength a n d t h a t its scrotum lies hidden within its b o d y — t h e s e two should be known as resulting from the curse of the Suras. 353b-354. Elephants of diverse inborn strength are born of the daughters of Devas, Dānavas, G a n d h a r v a s , Piśācas, serpents a n d Rāksasas.through their union with the Dińnāgas (elephants of the quarters H e n c e is the existence, nativity a n d etymological derivation of their names. T h i s should be u n d e r ­ stood.

1. phants.

W.

349-351

give the etymologies o f various n a m e s o f the ele­


2.3.7.355-370

467

355-356a. T h e king of these (elephants) is A b h r a m u . It should be understood that the h a b i t a t of Añjana of a single tusk ( E k a m ū l a ?) is t h a t forest region n o r t h of t h e Kauśikī a n d t h e G a ń g ā extending as far as the ocean. 356b-357a. The^region to the n o r t h of t h e V i n d h y a a n d south of the G a ń g ā along with the K e r u ( K ā r u s a ) region where t h e G a ń g ā bifurcates t h e d o m a i n of Supratīka. 357b-358a. T h e region west of U t k a l a a n d t h e area west of the Kāverī is remembered as t h e forest of V ā m a n a son of Ekasūkā (?) 358b-359a. T h e region west of t h e Lohita, t h e a r e a west of the river Sindhu as far as the m o u n t a i n n e a r b y is m e n t i o n e d as t h e forest of P a d m a . 359b-370. B h ū t ā gave b i r t h to t h e Bhūtas (goblins) w h o are t h e a t t e n d a n t s and followers of R u d r a . T h e y a r e (i.e. t h e following are their various characteristic features) stout, l e a n , tall, dwarfs, short ones, upright ones, those with h a n g i n g ears, those with suspended lips, those with long dangling tongues, those with small bellies, single-eyed, ugly ones, those w i t h h a n g i n g hips, those with stout calves, black ones, white (fair) ones, blue ones, white-faced ones, red-faced ones, those of t a w n y colour, those of assorted colours, smoke-coloured ones, those w h o have reddish noses, those with hairs like M u ñ j a grass, those with hairs standing on ends, those with serpents as their sacred thread, those with m a n y heads, those with no feet, those with a single head, those with no heads, fierce ones, hideous ones of disproportionate limbs, those with m a t t e d hairs, h u m p - b a c k ed ones, crooked ones, those of dwarfish stature, those w h o resort to excellent lakes, oceans, m o u n t a i n s , rivers a n d t h e i r banks, those with single ear, those with large ears, spike-eared ones, those with no ear, those with curved fangs, those with claws, those without teeth, those without tongues, those with, single h a n d , those with two hands, those with three h a n d s , those without hands, those with a single leg, those with two legs, those with three legs, those with m a n y legs, those with great Yogic power, those with great inherent might, those with very good minds, those with great power, those who can go anywhere, those w h o have no obstacles, those having the knowledge of B r a h m a n , those who can assume a n y form they wish,


468

Brahmānda Purāna

terrible ones, cruel ones, p u r e ones, those who consider liquor very p u r e , very virtuous ones, those with false teeth, those with big tongues, those without hair, those w i t h deformed faces, those w h o eat with their hands, those who gulp down with their m o u t h s , those who eat with heads (?) those w i t h skulls, those having bows, those who wield h a m m e r s , those who hold swords and spears, those who have only the quarters for their clothes (i.e. naked ones), those with variegated dresses, those with g a r l a n d s a n d u n g u e n t s of diverse kinds, those who take in rice, those who habitually eat meat, those w h o drink liquor a n d those who d r i n k Soma juice. 3 7 1 . Some of t h e m are very terrible a n d they walk about during twilight h o u r s ; some of t h e m are very gentle and they walk a b o u t d u r i n g t h e midnight, t h e terrible ones a m o n g t h e m stalk at night. 372. All of t h e m m e d i t a t e upon lord Bhava as t h e greatest God, in their minds. None of these has a wife or sons. All of t h e m a r e celibate. T h e y have sublimated their sexual instinct. 373. T h e r e are h u n d r e d thousand Bhūtas with yogic powers in their souls. T h e y are the a t t e n d a n t s of Bhava. (Thus) all the Bhūtas 1 have been m e n t i o n e d . 374. K ū s m ā r u i a s 2 were b o r n of K a p i ś ā again a n d again in the form of twins. T h e y are Piśācas with tawny colour. 375. On a c c o u n t of their tawny colour (we can infer) t h a t all the Piśācas are flesh-eaters. These pairs (of Piśācas) have t h e Sodaśa (sixteen) variety as their first set. T h e i r family exists (even t o d a y ) . 376-380. I shall mention their names a n d the features of their family. (The following are t h e sixteen pairs,* one male a n d t h e other female) C h a g a l a a n d C h a g a l ā ; Vakra and V a k r a m u k h ī , D u s p ū r a a n d P ū r a n ā ; Sūcl a n d Sūcīmukha; V i p ā d a a n d V i p ā d ī ; J v ā l ā a n d Ańgāraka; K u m b h a p ā t r a a n d 1. in

W. 2.

Belief in goblins a n d the concepts about their 16 tribes are described 359-373. W.

374-384 describe the goblins called K ū s m ā n d a s . T h e y

m i x e d u p w i t h Piśācas. *

A c i u J l y e i g h t e e n pairs are mentioned.

are


469

2.3.7.381-389

Kumbhī, Pratunda and Pratundikā, Upavīra and Vīrā; Ulūkhala and Ulūkhalī; Akarmaka and Karmakī; K u s a n d a and Kusandikā; Pānipātra P ā n i p ā t r ī ; Pārhśu a n d P ā m ś u m a t ī ; N i t u n d a a n d N i t u n d ī ; N i p u n a a n d N i p u n ī ; Bālāda a n d Kesanādī a n d P r a s k a n d a a n d Skandikā. 381-383. T h e sixteen* groups of the Piśācas are m e n ­ tioned. T h e sixteen families are, viz :-—Ajāmukhas, V a k r a m u k h a s , P ū r a n a s , Skandins, Vipādas, Ańgārikas, K u m b h a patras, P r a t u n d a k a s , Upavīras, Ulukhalikas, Akarmakas, K u s a n d i k a s , Pārhśus, P ā n i p ā t r a s , N a i t u n d a s , N i p u n a s , Sūcim u k h a s a n d Ucchesanadas. These are the sixteen families. 384. T h u s the members of the families of K ū s m ā n d a s have been recounted. Those m a l e Piśācas a n d the female Piśācas a r e born in the family. 385. Infinite is their series of sons and grandsons. T h e y are loathsome a n d hideous. Henceforth u n d e r s t a n d the characteristic features of those Piśācas. 386. Those Piśācas 1 called Ajāmukhas have hairs all over their body. T h e i r eyes a r e r o u n d . T h e y have curved fang­ like teeth and clawlike nails. T h e i r limbs a r e crooked a n d oblique. T h e y diffuse harshness. 387. T h e Piśācas called Kusandikas have no ear. T h e y a r e devoid of hair and garments. T h e y (sometimes) wear skins a n d hides as garments. T h e y are fond of food t h a t always consists of m e a t . 388. It should be known t h a t Piśācas called V a k r a s c a n assume any form they wish. They walk crookedly. All their limbs, h a n d s a n d feet are bent a n d crooked. T h e i r habits a n d opinions are fradulent. 389. T h e Piśācas called N i t u n d a k a s are portly a n d pot­ bellied. T h e y have snout-like noses. T h e i r bodies, heads a n d a r m s a r e very short. T h e i r staple diet is gingelly seeds. T h e y relish blood. * 1. W.

As above, eighteen groups of Piśācas are given h e r e . VV.

381-383

386-400 above.

describe

the various tribes of Piśācas m e n t i o n e d in


470

Brahmānda Purāna

390. T h e Piśācas called Arkamarkas (or Akarmakas as in V. 379 above) have t h e forms of monkeys. T h e y are garrulous. T h e y move a b o u t leaping a n d galloping. T h e y are fond of eating cooked rice a n d staying on trees. 391. T h e Piśācas called Pārhśus discharge dust from their limbs. T h e y keep their arms lifted u p . T h e i r hairs stand up erect. T h e i r eyes a p p e a r as though they have been taken out. T h e y take to a n y t h i n g as their abode. 392. T h e Piśācas called Upavīras have their p e r m a n e n t abode in b u r n i n g grounds. T h e y resemble bees. T h e y are dry. T h e y are armed with tridents and w e a r bark garments. 393. T h e Piśācas called Ulūkhalas have motionless eyes a n d large tongues with which they constantly lick the sides of. their m o u t h . M o r t a r s constitute their o r n a m e n t s . T h e y are roguish. T h e y scatter jewels as if in a continuous stream. 394. T h e Piśācas called Pānipātras have the • oblations offered by people as their food. T h e y have stout heads like those of elephants a n d camels. T h e i r calves are p l u m p a n d curved. 395. T h e Piśācas called K u m b h a p ā t r a s eat invisible food­ stuffs. T h e y are subtle, h a i r y a n d tawny-coloured. T h e y walk a b o u t sometimes visible a n d sometimes invisible. 396. T h e Piśācas called N i p u n a s move about without associates (i.e. singly). T h e i r mouths a p p e a r to be divided extending u p t o their ears. T h e i r brows h a n g down and their noses are thick. 397. T h e Piśācas called P ū r a n a s are fond of vacant horses a n d a p a r t m e n t s . T h e y are stout a n d short in stature. T h e i r hands a n d feet cover up their snouts. T h e i r eyes are directed towards the ground. 398. T h e Piśācas called Bālādas frequently resort to the lying-in-chamber. T h e i r hands a n d feet are directed backwards. T h e y have the velocity of the wind a n d they r u n backwards. 399. T h e Piśācas called Vipādakas d r i n k blood during battles. T h e y are n a k e d . T h e y d o n ' t have any abode. T h e i r penis, scrotum a n d the calves h a n g down dangling. 400. T h e Ucchesanādins

Piśācas called Skandins a n d others called (those w h o habitually eat food r e m n a n t s )


471

2.3.7.401-410 a r e also to be k n o w n ) . T h u s have been recounted.

the sixteen

varieties

of Piśācas

401-406a. 1 - Observing the Piśācas of these sorts in such a p a t h e t i c condition, Brahma, out of mercy a n d sympathy, g r a n t e d some boons to those mean-minded ones. T h e y can vanish a m o n g the subjects (i.e. common p e o p l e ) . T h e y can assume a n y form they wish. T h e y can move a b o u t at d a w n a n d dusk ( t h e two periods of twilight). He assigned to them abodes as well as means of sustenance. Houses t h a t tumble down, v a c a n t houses, houses with very little water, houses t h a t are demolished, houses occupied by persons of improper conduct, houses t h a t have not been swept, houses t h a t have not been scrubbed clean a n d smeared (with c o w d u n g ) ; houses that are devoid of consecratory rites, the highways, the side-streets, the parks, t h e quadrangles, doorways, the attics and u p p e r storeys, the exits, transit passages, roadways, rivers, holy centres, the trees in chapels and monasteries and t r u n k r o a d s — (these a r e assigned as their abodes by B r a h m a ) . T h e Piśācas occupy all these spots. 406b-408. Persons devoid of virtue a n d righteousness have been laid down as their means of sustenance by t h e gods. T h e Piśācas a r e the presiding deities where (fraudulent) activi­ ties are pursued by t h e people of mixed castes and stages of life, blacksmiths, sculptors a n d other artisans who indulge in fraudulent means and (illegal) distillation (of l i q u o r s ) , thieves, traitors guilty of b r e a c h of trust a n d m a n y others who (wish t o ) earn by illegitimate means. 409-410. T h e following are mentioned as the oblations a n d offerings to these d u r i n g the junctions of Parvans (i.e. dawn, dusk etc. of festival days (viz—honey, liquor, m e a t , cooked rice mixed with curd, powdered gingelly seeds, wines a n d other intoxicating beverages, incenses, cakes m a d e of turmeric powder, food-stuffs m a d e of gingelly seeds a n d cooked rice mixed with jaggery, black cloth a n d continuous ( p e r m a n e n t ) incense mixed with flowers. 1. Piśācas.

W . 401-411

describe

the

then

current superstitions

about


472

Brahmānda Purāna

411. After assigning all these to the Piśācas, gave all the goblins a n d Piśācas an overlord v i z — t h e bearing Giriśa.

Brahma trident-

412. T h e beautiful lady, D a m s t r ā gave birth to lions a n d tigers as her sons. Leopards and other carnivorus beasts of prey are also her sons. 413. U n d e r s t a n d completely the creation of progeny of R s ā also. She h a d five daughters. Listen to their n a m e s from me. 414. T h e y should be known as follows : — M ī n ā , Amīnā, Vrttā, Parivrttā and A n u v r t t ā . Listen to their progeny. 415. Crocodiles with thousand fangs, the species of fish known as Pāthinas, Timis and R o h i t a s , these a n d others are mentioned as M a i n a g r o u p (i.e.. children of M ī n ā ) . T h e y are very vast (in n u m b e r ) . 416. Grahas (Alligators) should be known classified into four groups viz—Madguras, Śańkus, Ugras a n d Śiśumāras. It was Amīnā who gave b i r t h to these. 417. V r t t ā gave birth to (different species of) tortoises a n d m a n y other a q u a t i c creatures and diverse kinds of conchs. 418. A n u v r t t ā gave b i r t h to the various forms of frogs, of black does and Sambūkas (bivalve shells a n d noxious insects). 419-420. Parivrttā gave birth to various products of oyster shells, cowrie shells, conchs, geese, sparrows and varieties of leeches. T h u s the race of R s ā with its five b r a n c h e s has b e e n recounted. 4 2 1 . T h e y say t h a t there is an extensive line of living beings procreated by Tiryā. T h e y are the products of sweat (or w a r m v a p o u r ) . 422. O B r ā h m a n a s , lice, nits etc are born of the bodies moistened by sweat. T h e creatures called U ś a n a are b o r n of t h e dirt a n d residue of h u m a n sweat. 423. T h e r e are m a n y groups of ants of different species; there are worms with m a n y feet; there are varieties of products of conchs a n d stones smaller t h a n pins. 424. These a n d others are the numerous groups of earthly (creatures) born of sweat. M a n y of these creatures are b o r n of waters h e a t e d by the sun etc. as well as from rain.


2.3.7.425-437

473

425-426. M a n y of them are born of the bodies of deer a n d other animals also. T h e flies and other slimy creatures are b o r n of slimy marshy regions. T h e Tittiris (? Partridges) a n d Puttikas (white ants) are b o r n of dirt. T h e y are blue a n d variegated in colours. T h e y are vast a n d extensive (in n u m b e r ) . These creatures are born of waters as well as sweat. 427. T h e creatures JValadas (? varieties of shrimps) of m a n y feet are the worms born of the w a t e r stagnating near the roots of the K ā ś a grass. T h e y are stated to be of three k i n d s — Simhalas, R o m a l a s (hairy) and Picchilas (Slimy). 428. These and other groups and species are remembered as b o r n of water as well as sweat. Similarly, worms are b o r n from the pods of black g r a m a n d green g r a m and other pulses. 429-430. Creatures are b o r n of the fruits Bilva, J a m b ū (Rose a p p l e ) , Ā m r a ( m a n g o ) , a n d P ū g a (areca p a l m ) . T h e y are born of green gram, jack tree and rice. T h e y a r e born of grains placed in the hollows of trees a n d allowed to dry there. T h e y are born of other things also b u t not always or even for a long time. 4 3 1 . Creatures are born of horses etc. a n d poisons etc. If cowdung is put (into pits etc) a n d left there for m a n y days creatures are b o r n of it. 432. W o r m s are born, O B r ā h m a n a s , wholly from timber a n d wooden logs. Scorpions are b o r n of dry cowdung, produced by sweat. 433-435. Creatures are born of cows, buffaloes a n d other animals. T h e y are born of fishes too. Creatures of diverse kinds are born of heaped rice. Various species of creatures are born of the pack of quails etc. Similarly, leeches a n d other subtle species of creatures are born. Subtle Śūkas (poisonous insects) are born of pigeons a n d ospreys a n d other birds too. O t h e r species of worms are born as the products of flies. 436. Offsprings of mosquitoes and black bees generally live in stagnating water and slushy m u d . 437. Clusters of seven varieties of nits (? Puttikā-Pulra saptakas) are born of cows. (Defective text) . Vyālas (? serpents) are remembered as Manicchedas (?). T h u s insects produced from foetus with no enveloping m e m b r a n e have been recounted.


474

Brahm&nda Purina

438-439. Indeed, the offshoots of Śataveri (? sorrel) a r e b o r n of dry cow-dung. T h u s the numerous groups of Samsvedaja (i.e. b o r n of sweat) have been succinctly mentioned by m e . T h i s is remembered as being born as a result of acts in the previous birth. As for the other beings born of N a i r r t i they a r e remembered as upasargajas ( b o r n of paroxyson due to poison by devils). 440-441. Some Bhūtas (living beings) are born of the w o m b (sexual r e p r o d u c t i o n ) . Some are remembered as Autpattikas (?) It should be known t h a t almost all the Devas are usually Upapattijas. Some Devas are born of the w o m b . Some Devas a r e born of some cause. Saramā Laloha.

gave

birth

to

two sons viz.—Dullolaka and

442-443. T h e four ones S r m a r a a n d others known as their children.

should be

Dulioia's eight children are Śyāmas ( d a r k - c o l o u r e d ) , Śabalas (of variegated colours), Lohitas ( r e d ) , Aftjanas (black as c o U y r i u r n ) , K r s n a ( b l a c k ) , D h ū m r a (smoke-coloured), A r u n a ( p i n k i n colour) a n d K a d r u k a s ( t a w n y - c o l o u r e d ) . Surasā gave birth to t h e h u n d r e d serpents having more t h a n one h e a d . 444-447. T a k s a k a is the king of Sarpas serpents). Vāsuki is the king of Nāgas (snakes). T h u s this set belonging to mostly of T ā m a s a quality. T h i s is the bosom creation creation) of T ā m r ā .

(variety

the family of K r o d h a v a ś ā

of is

of P u l a h a , U n d e r s t a n d ( t h e

Six well known daughters were b o r n of T ā m r ā . V i z . — G r d h r i , Bhāsī, Śuki, K r a u ñ c ī , Śyeni and D h r t a r ā s t r i k ā . F r o m A r u n a , G r d h r ī gave birth to two sons of great strength a n d vitality, viz.—Sampāti a n d J a t ā y u the most excellent ones a m o n g birds. Vijayas, Sampāti.

Pvirāsyas

a n d Prasahas (?)

were

the

sons of


2.3.7.448,-462

475

448-454. J a t ā y n ' s sons are the herons, Vultures, K a r n i k a s {? variety of vultures). T h e wives of G a r u d a were the other five viz.—Bhāśī, K r a u ñ c ī , Śukf, D h r t a r ā s t r ī a n d Śyenī. I shall recount to you the children born of t h e m . Śukī gave b i r t h to six well reputed sons of G a r u d a , v i z — S u k h a , Sunetra, Viśikha, S u r ū p a , Surasa a n d Bala. T h e i r sons a n d grandsons n u m b e r fourteen thousand. T h e y are noblesouled a n d very great devourers of snakes. A n u m b e r of places have been pervaded (inhabited) by t h e m because of the expan­ sion of the race, d u e to the creation of sons a n d grandsons. I shall m e n t i o n t h e t o in d u e order. T h e y a r e — t h e whole of Śālmali Dvīpa, the m o u n t a i n Devakūta, M a n u n a n t a , the lord of m o u n t a i n s with a thousand peaks, V a r n a m ā l a , Sukeśa t h e m o u n t a i n with a h u n d r e d peaks, t h e K a u r a r a with five peaks a n d the m o u n t a i n H e m a k ū t a . T h e peaks o f these m o u n t a i n s have been thickly inhabited by those noble-souled sons of G a r u d a who h a v e the velocity of violent gusts of the wind a n d w h o shine brilliantly d u e to numerous rubies. 455-456. T h e following are remembered as the sons of Bhāsī Viz.—Bhāsas (vultures), owls, crows, cocks, peacocks doves, partridges, different types of birds o f p r e y s u c h as V ā d h r ī nasa, K r a u ñ c a , Śyena, sparrows a n d cranes a n d also other birds that eat ŕiesh. 457-460. D h r t a r ā s t r ī , the beautiful lady, gave b i r t h to swans of various types, t h e r u d d y geese a n d all types of a q u a t i c birds. Q excellent B r ā h m a n a s , Śyeni gave birth to a n u m b e r of sons- H e r sons-and grandsons a r e infinite in n u m b e r . T h e sons of G a r u d a have been m e n t i o n e d . Now li ten to t h e progeny of I r ā . I r ā gave b i r t h to three lotus-eyed d a u g h t e r s . T h e y b e c a m e t h e mothers of plants, trees a n d creepers. T h e y were L a t a , Alatā a n d V ī r u d h ā . 461-462. Lata gave b i r t h to plants t h a t bore fruits t h r o u g h flowers. Alatā gave b i r t h to big trees t h a t bear fruita by m e a n s of blossoms.


476

Brahmānda Purāna

T h e children of V ī r u d h ā are hedges, creepers, winding plants, grasses a n d varieties of bamboos. T h e race stops here. 463. These scions of t h e family of K a ś y a p a consisting of the mobile a n d immobile beings, have been explained. T h e whole universe is stretched (i.e. thickly covered) with their sons a n d grandsons. 464-465a. T h i s p a r t of a section of creation has b e e n m e n t i o n e d by m e . T h e Creative activity pertaining to Marīci's son (i.e. K a ś y a p a ) has been succinctly r e c o u n t e d to you. It is impossible to explain ( t h e creation) even in h u n d r e d s of years. 465b-466. Aditi was habitually strong.

habitually

in

righteous.

full Diti

detail was

Surabhi was habitually a performer of austere p e n a n c e . D a n u habitually practised M ā y ā (whichcraft a n d magic of illusion). M u n i habitually smelt fragrant things. K r o d h ā was habitually studious. 467. Arista habitually indulged in singing. K h a ś ā habit­ ually followed cruel pursuits. K a d r ū was habitually fiery in t e m p e r (and indulged in angry o u t b u r s t s ) . K r o d h ā habitually engaged herself in cleanliness. 468. V i n a t ā was h a b i t u a t e d ' t o moving a b o u t on vehicles. T ā m r ā habitually indulged in slaughter. I r ā was obliging in n a t u r e ( a n d indulged in activities of blessing. A n ā y u w a s engag­ ed in eating. 469-470. These were t h e h a b i t s of all those Lokamātrs (mothers of t h e worlds). T h e sons of lord K a ś y a p a were m o r e or less like their respective mothers since their birth. In virtue, h a b i t , intellect forbearance, b e a u t y of form, a n d strength, they closely resembled their m o t h e r s . T h e y were righteous or other­ wise ( o n the same basis). T h e y h a d Rajas, Sattva a n d Tamas qualities p r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e m ( a s m o t h e r s ) . 4 7 1 . T h e y were Devas, Asuras, G a n d h a r v a s , Yaksas, Rāksasas, serpents, Piśācas, animals, deer birds a n d creepers. 472-473. Since t h e Devas a n d others were b o r n of the daughters of D a k s a w h o were h u m a n beings, they know t h a t Devas a n d others have their source of origin in h u m a n beings.


477

2.3.7.474—8.2

Since t h e entire birth of the Devas is in h u m a n beings in all t h e M a n v a n t a r a s , h u m a n beings a r e t h e most excellent ones. 474-475. M e n are those who aspire for virtue, wealth, love a n d salvation, Therefrom are b o r n Suras a n d Asuras w h o are t h e category Arvāksrotas (in w h o m current of n u t r i m e n t f l o w s d o w n w a r d ) . T h e y a r e b o r n a m o n g h u m a n beings again a n d a g a i n for t h e achievement of specific objects. T h u s the origin of the different races has been e n u m e r a t e d in detail. 476-478. T h e (story) of Suras, Asuras, G a n d h a r v a s , Apsaras, Yaksas, Rāksasas, Piśācas, G a r u d a , serpents, birds, tigers, peacocks, herbs, worms, insects, locusts, m i n u t e creatures a q u a t i c beings, animals, a n d glorious Brāhmanas, is charact­ erised by merit. It causes prosperity. It c o n t r i b u t e s ^ to welfare a n d happiness. It must be heard always a n d comprehended by persons devoid of malice and jealousy. 479. He who regularly reads about the race of t h e noble souls in t h e honoured assembly of B r ā h m a n a s attains good progeny, plenty of wealth a n d splendid goal after d e a t h . "

CHAPTER E I G H T The race of the sages : Atri and Vasistha Sūta said : 1-2. "After all the progeny, b o t h the mobile a n d the immobile, h a d been created a n d well-established by the noblesouled K a ś y a p a Prajāpati, he began to assign t h e m their respective d o m a i n after crowning t h e chiefs of t h e m ' in overlordship. 1

. 1.

VV

1-21

enumerate the chiefs or heads of different kinds of crea­

tion. O n e is reminded here of BG X — t h e Vibhūtiyoga in a different c o n t e x t .


478

Brahmānda Purāna

3. He installed as king Soma, in the kingdom of Brāhmanas, creepers, constellations, planets, Yajñas a n d austerities. 4. He gave the overlordship of all the Ańgiras to Brhaspati. He anointed Kāvya (i.e. Śukra) as the ruler over the kingdom of Bhrgus. 5. T h e n he m a d e Visnu, the leader of the Adityas, Pāvaka (fire-god) as the leader of Vasus, D a k s a chief of the Prajāpatis a n d Vāsava ( I n d r a ) , as the head of M a r u t s . 6. He m a d e P r a h l ā d a , the delighter of Diti, t h e king of Daityas, N ā r ā y a n a , of t h e Sādhyas a n d the bull-bannered god as the king of R u d r a s . 7-8. He directed Vipracitti to become the\ king of D ā n a v a s ; he c o m m a n d e d V a r u n a to rule over the kingdom of waters; he m a d e V a i ś r a v a n a , the king of kings, Yaksas a n d w e a l t h ; he installed Y a m a the son of Vivasvān in t h e kingship of Pitrs. 9. He m a d e the trident-bearing Giriśa, the lord of all Bhūtas (goblins) a n d the Piśācas ( g h o s t s ) ; m o u n t H i m a v ā n ; t h e leader of all m o u n t a i n s a n d the ocean, the king of rivers. 10. He m a d e C i t r a r a t h a the overlord of G a n d h a r v a s , a n d crowned Uccaiśśravas as the king of horses. 11. He m a d e Ś ā r d ū l a (tiger) the king of all deer or animals in general, a n d Govrsa (Bull) t h e king of all animals having humps. H e m a d e G a r u d a , the most excellent one a m o n g those who fly, the king of all birds. 12. He m a d e V ā y u the most excellent of all powerful ones, the leader of fragrant smells, M a r u t s a n d unembodied living beings who have (however) great strength at the same time. 13. He m a d e Śesa the leader of all those w h o have fangs, Vāsuki the leader of N ā g a s (snakes) a n d T a k s a k a the leader of Sarisrpas (reptiles), Sarpas (Cobras) and Pannagas ( s e r p e n t s ) . 14. He installed Parjanya, one of the Adityas, lord of oceans, rivers, clouds a n d the showering rains. 15-17a. Apsaras.

He m a d e K ā m a d e v a the lord of all

as the

groups of


2.3.8.17b-29

479

He m a d e Sarhvatsara (the y e a r ) the lord of t h e Rtus (seasons), m o n t h s , Ārtavas (product of the seasons), fortnights, Vipaksas (days of transition from one half of a lunar m o n t h to a n o t h e r ) Muhūrtas, Panaris (festival occasions of particular periods in the year) Kalās, Kās (has etc. (i.e. the various units of t i m e ) , of the transits of the sun, of its movement, of Ganita ( M a t h e m a t i c a l calculations) and of the Toga (combination of stars). 17b-21. He crowned Sudhanvan, the well renowned son of Virajas the Prajāpati, as the king in the eastern quarter. He installed as king Ś a ñ k h a p ā d a the son of K a r d a m a the Prajāpati in the southern q u a r t e r . He anointed K e t u m ā n , the u n e r r i n g noble-souled son of Rajas, as t h e king in the western q u a r t e r . He crowned H i r a n y a r o m a n , the invincible son of Parjanya the Prajāpati, in the northern quarter. He m a d e M a n u , the son of Vivasvān the overlord of all h u m a n beings. 22. T h i s entire e a r t h consisting of seven continents a n d along with t h e cities is being protected righteously by t h e m within their respective territories. 23-25a. T h e y were formerly crowded in Svāyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a b y B r a h m a . Those who become M a n u a r e anoin­ ted as kings. In those M a n v a n t a r a s which have gone by, these kings h a d ruled and h a d gone away. W h e n a n o t h e r M a n ­ v a n t a r a comes, others will be crowned. All the rulers (of M a n ­ v a n t a r a s whether) gone by or yet to come are declared as the overlords of the M a n v a n t a r a s . 25b-26a. P r t h u the excellent a m o n g men, was crowned in a Rājasūya sacrifice by these as an overlord in accordance with the injunction seen (i.e. prescribed) in the Vedas. He was very powerful. 26b-27. After p r o c r e a t i n g these sons for the purpose of p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e line, the lord of the subjects, the holy lord K a ś y a p a of great grandeur, performed great p e n a n c e with a a desire for his own lineage ( G o t r a k ā m a ) . 28-29. " L e t two sons be b o r n u n t o m e , two w h o will p e r p e t u a t e my lineage." As the noble-souled K a ś y a p a was con-


480

Brahmānda Purāna

templating t h u s , t w o sons, t h e parts of B r a h m a , a p p e a r e d in front of h i m . T h e y were extremely powerful. T h e y were V a t s ā r a a n d Asita, botji of w h o m were expounders of B r a h m a n . 30. N i d h r u v a was b o r n of Vatsāra. R e b h y a of very great fame was also b o r n of h i m . R a i b h y a should be known (as t h e son) of R e b h y a . U n d e r ­ stand t h e son of N i d h r u v a . 3 1 . Gyavana's d a u g h t e r Sumedhas was b o r n of Sukanyā. It was she who b e c a m e t h e wife of N i d h r u v a a n d the m o t h e r o f K u n d a p ā y i n s (A set of ascetics drinking w a t e r from t h e holy consecrated pitchers in p a r t i c u l a r ceremonies). 32. Devala of very g r e a t fame was b o r n of E k a p a r n ā ( a s the son) of Asita. He was highly prosperous and devoutly a t t a c h e d to B r a h m a n . He was the most excellent one a m o n g Śāndilyas. 3 3 . Nidhruvas, Śāndilas and R a i b h y a s — t h e s e a r e t h e three branches of t h e line of K a ś y a p a . T h e thunderbolt-wield­ ing I n d r a a n d other Devas a r e a m o n g t h e children (of Kaśyapa). 34. ( T h e i r b i r t h took place) when t h e D v ā p a r a Yuga began to function after t h e eleventh set of four Yugas of M a n u , the lord of t h e M a n v a n t a r a h a d elapsed. 35-36. N a r i s y a n t a was t h e son of M a r u t t a a n d D a m a was his son. His son was R ā j y a v a r d h a n a whose sons were Sudhrti, N a r a a n d Kevala. B a n d h u m ā n a n d Vegavān were Kevala's sons. B u d h a was his (? Vegavān's) son whose son was King Trnabindu. 37. He b e c a m e king in t h e beginning of t h e third T r e t ā yuga. Ilavilā b o r n of the w o m b of Alambusā was his d a u g h t e r . 38-40. Viśravas, t h e cause of the flourishing family of Paulastya, was b o r n of her. Brhaspati of big fame has been glorified as t h e p r e c e p t o r of the Devas. Viśravas m a r r i e d Devavarninī the d a u g h t e r of Brhaspati, Puspotkatā a n d V ā k ā the daughters of M ā l y a v ā n a n d Kaikasi, t h e d a u g h t e r of M ā l i n . Listen to his children begot of these wives. Devavarninī gave b i r t h to V a i ś r a v a n a t h e eldest son. 41 -43. He was endowed with divine ways ( o r injunctions) and saintly learning. He h a d t h e form of Rāksasas, strength of Asuras ( d e m o n s ) . He h a d three legs, a very h u g e body, a


481

2.3.8.44-54

stout head, a large chin, eight curved teeth, green moustache a n d pike-like ears. He was bright red in colour. His arms a n d forearms were short. He was reddish brown a n d very terrific. He was richly endowed w i t h t h e knowledge of Vivarta (the sky or illusory n a t u r e of t h e world ?) He was enlightened ever since his birth. 44-46. On seeing h i m , his father said " T h i s is K u b e r a " (ugly-bodied o n e ) . T h e w o r d ' K u ' i s a n epithet used t o i n d i c a t e c o n t e m p t . T h e body is called Beta. He was K u b e r a on account of his deformed body. He was thus marked by this n a m e . Since he was the son of Viśravas a n d also because he was like Viśravas d u e to resemblance, he would be known by t h e n a m e Vaiśravana. Kubera

begot

of R d d h i his well-renowned son Nalakū-

bera. 47. Kaikasī gave b i r t h to R ā v a n a , K u m b h a k a r n a a n d Ś ū r p a n a k h ā , a d a u g h t e r . Vibhīsana was the fourth a m o n g h e r children. 1 48-50. R ā v a n a h a d pike-like ears a n d ten heads. He was tawny-coloured. His hairs were red. He h a d four legs a n d twenty h a n d s . He was very powerful with a huge body. He resembled collyrium of an excellent type. He h a d fanglike curved t e e t h . His neck was red. He h a d t h e form, strength a n d inherent vigour of a Rāksasa. He could defeat Yaksas a n d other Rāksasas by m e a n s of his physical strength a n d keen intellect. Terrible b y n a t u r e R ā v a n a was extremely cruel. H e c o u l d r o u t his enemies. 51-54. In his previous b i r t h R ā v a n a was H i r a n y a k a ś i p u . T h a t Rāksasa ruled as king for thirteen sets of four Yugas. T h e period (of his rule) reckoned in years in accordance with h u m a n calculation comes to fiftysix million one h u n d r e d a n d sixty thousand years. * O B r ā h m a n a s , he could give terrible sleepless nights to t h e Devas a n d sages. In the twentyfourth T r e t ā yuga, t h e power of p e n a n c e of R ā v a n a was exhausted a n d 1.

W . 47-54. T h e author i s familiar

with

story but his description of R ā v a n a is peculiar. *

One

set

4320000

of four X

13

Yugas=4320000 =

56160000

years.

years.

the

traditional R a m a


482

BrahmAntfa Purāna

dwindled down. Coming into contact with R ā m a , the son of D a ś a r a t h a , he m e t w i t h destruction along with his followers. 55-56. M a h o d a r a , P r a h a s t a , M a h ā p ā r ś v a a n d K h a r a were the sons of P u s p o t k a t ā . She h a d a d a u g h t e r ( n a m e d ) K u m b h ī n a s ī also Triśiras. D ū s a n a a n d Vidyujjihva the Rāksasa are remembered as the children of Vākā. T h e r e was a d a u g h t e r also named Anupālikā. 57. T h u s these ten Rāksasas, the descendants of Pulastya, were of very cruel activities. T h e y a r e of very terrible pursuits ever since their birth. All of these were unassailable even to the Devas. 58-62. All of t h e m h a d acquired boons. T h e y were heroic a n d they were accompanied by sons a n d grandsons. Aidavida ( i . e . K u b e r a ) , the descendent of Pulastya, whowas Savyapińgala ( ? Tawny-coloured in the left side) b e c a m e the king of all Yaksas, all those Rāksasas who were the des­ cendants of Pulastya, a n d of all those cruel Brahmarāksaśas belonging to the families of Agastya a n d Viśvāmitra who still carried on the study of the Vedas and who performed regularly penances and holy rites. 1 T h e other three groups of Rāksasas were the performers of Yajñas. T h e y were Yātudhānas, B r a h m a d h ā n a s a n d Vārtās(?). T h e y were moving a b o u t during the day time a n d they were not nocturnal wanderers like other demons. T h e i r four groups are re­ membered by the wise (learned m e n ) . T h e y were Niiācaras) moving about at n i g h t ) . T h e y were Paulastyas (descendants of Pulastya), Nairrtas, Agastyas a n d Kauśikas. T h u s it is remembered that there were seven classes (communities) of those Rāksasas. I shall describe their form and features inherited by t h e m naturally. 63-69. T h e y are tawny-coloured and have round eyes. T h e y have big bellies a n d huge bodies. T h e y have eight-curved fańglike teeth and pikelike ears. T h e i r hairs stand upright. T h e i r mouths a p p e a r as though slit open u p t o the ears (on either side). T h e i r smoke-coloured upright hairs are like the M u ñ j a grass. T h e y h a v e large thick heads shedding b r i g h t

1.

W . 60-70 enumerate and describe the seven tribes o f Rāksasas.


483

2.3.8.70-76

lustre. T h e i r thighs a n d forearms are short. T h e i r faces a r e copper-coloured. T h e i r tongues a n d lips h a n g down. T h e i r brows a p p e a r dangling. T h e i r noses are thick. T h e y have b l u e ( b l a c k ) limbs" with red necks. T h e i r eyes are majestic a n d they a p p e a r terrible. T h e i r voice a n d tone are extremely terrible. T h e i r calves a r e hideous a n d rolled u p . T h e y a r e stout a n d have prominently protruding noses. T h e y are f i r m a n d h a v e sturdy bodies like rocks. T h e y a r e cruel a n d terrible ever since their birth. Generally they are consistent in their activities. T h e y p u t o n ( o r n a m e n t s like) earrings, armlets a n d coronets. T h e y bedeck themselves in diverse kinds of o r n a m e n t s . T h e y wear m a n y kinds of garlands a n d use all types of fragrant scents a n d unguents. T h e y a r e remembered as h a b i t u a l eaters of cooked rice, m e a t a n d even h u m a n flesh. T h u s is remembered the similarity in forms a n d features of demons by learned m e n . T h e y a r e unequalled in strength, intelligence a n d ability to fight using t h e deceptive power of M ā y ā (or black m a g i c ) . 70-73. T h e sons of P u l a h a were the beasts, all (kinds of) serpents a n d tigers with curved fangs, the goblins, the cobras, t h e Piśācas, t h e reptiles, t h e deer, t h e elephants, the monkeys, the K i n n a r a s , the M ā y u (? a kind of monkey ?) a n d the Kimpurusas. These creations belonging to the family of K r o d h a v a ś ā have previously been recounted by m e . In this Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a , K r a t u is remembered as issueless. H e has n e i t h e r wives nor sons. H e r e m a i n e d checks ing his sexual impulses a n d potency. I shall recount the family of A t r i the t h i r d P r a j ā p a t i ( a m o n g sages). 74. He h a d ten beautiful wives who were very chaste. 1 All those ten were the children of Bhadrāśva begot of G h r t ā c i the celestial damsel. 75-76. T h e y were Bhadrā, Śūdrā, Madrā, Śalabhā, M a l a d ā , Balā a n d H a l ā . T h e s e seven (were very i m p o r t a n t ) a n d the others like t h e m viz. G o c a p a l ā , T ā m a r a s ā a n d R a t n a kūtā.

sage.

1.

W.

74-86

describe the descendants of Atri,

the 3rd

Prajāpati


484

Brahmānda Purāna

A m o n g their sons perpetuating their lines was ( t h e scion) n a m e d P r a b h ā k a r a . 77-80. He begot of M a d r ā t h e famous son Soma ( t h e m o o n ) . W h e n the sun was hit b y S v a r b h ā n u ( R ā h u ) , when h e was falling down to the e a r t h from the heaven a n d when this world was overwhelmed by darkness, it was by h i m (i.e. Atri) t h a t light was m a d e to function. T h e sun who was falling was also told "Welfare to y o u . " D u e to the u t t e r a n c e of t h a t Brahmanical sage, he ( t h e S u n ) did not fall from heaven on to the earth. It was Atri, the sage of great penance, who initiated t h e spiritual lines (of Atreyas). It was he w h o b r o u g h t a b o u t the prevention of d e a t h of Suras in the course of Yajñas. He begot of those (ten Apsaras) sons equal to himself. 81-84. T h e holy lord sanctified by means of very great penance begot those ten sons. Those sages well known as Svastyātreyas have mastered t h e Vedas. Among them, two were extremely renowned. T h e y were devoutly interested in the B r a h m a n a n d were of great spiritual power. D a t t a is considered to be the eldest, Durvāsas was his younger brother. T h e youngest of all was a lady who expounded the Brahman. In this context the persons well-versed in the Purānas cite this verse. Persons conversant with t h e P u r ā n a s say t h a t t h e noblesouled son of Atri ( n a m e d ) D a t t ā t r e y a is the body (incarnation) of Visnu. He is tranquil in his m i n d a n d free from sins. 85. A m o n g t h e descendants of his (i.e. Atri) four a r e well renowned on t h e earth.viz. Śyāvāśvas, Mudgalas, V ā g b h ū takas and Gavisthiras. 86. T h e following four (also) are remembered as be­ longing to the side (family) of Atris. T h e y are of very great power. T h e y are K ā ś y a p a , N ā r a d a , Parvata a n d Arundhatī. 87. These were t h e mental progeny (of A t r i ) . U n d e r ­ stand ( t h e progeny) of Arundhatī. N ā r a d a gave A r u n d h a t ī in marriage to Vasistha. 88-89. N ā r a d a of great splendour was of very great sublimated sexual potency d u e to the curse of Daksa. Formerly, at the time of the b a t t l e between the Devas a n d the Asuras, on


2.3.8.90-102

485

account of t h e D e m o n T ā r a k a ' s depredations, the whole world h a d been overwhelmed by drought. T h e entire universe was in an excited state. It h a d been in turmoil along with the Suras. 90. By means of his penance the intelligent Vasistha enlivened the subjects by m a k i n g t h e medicinal herbs. 9 1 . Vasistha 1 begot his son Śakti of A r u n d h a t ī . Śakti procreated his bosom-born son P a r ā ś a r a of Adrśyantī. 92. T h e holy lord K r s n a d v a i p ā y a n a was b o r n of Kālī, by (her u n i o n ) with P a r ā ś a r a . F r o m D v a i p ā y a n a , Suka, equipped with all good qualities was b o r n of the Aranī ( t h e holy wooden stick used ro p r o d u c e fire by a t t r i t i o n ) . 93-96. T h e following six were b o r n of Pīvarī as t h e children of Śuka viz.—Bhūriśravas, P r a b h u , Ś a m b h u , K r s n a a n d G a u r a the fifth (i.e. all the five were sons. T h e sixth was a d a u g h t e r ) . A d a u g h t e r was also b o r n viz.—Kīrtimatī. She was the m o t h e r of yogic power. She m a i n t a i n e d all t h e holy rites. She was t h e wife of A n u h a a n d m o t h e r of B r a h m a d a t t a . T h e descendants of Parāśara were the following eight viz.—ŚvetasKrsnas, Pauras, Śyāmadhūmras, Candins, U s m a d a s , D ā r i k a s a n d Nīlas. T h e eight Paksas of the noble-souled Parāśars have been recounted. Hereafter, listen a n d understand t h e progeny of Indrapramati. 97. T h e child n a m e d K u n i w h o was b o r n (Taittirī bird) Ghrtācī is called I n d r a p r a m a t i .

of Kapiñjalī

98. Vasu, b o r n of the d a u g h t e r of P r t h u , was his son. U p a m a n y u was his ' son. It was from h i m t h a t A u p a m a n y u s took their origin. 99-100a. Kundineyas are r e p u t e d to have been originat­ ed from M i t r a and V a r u n a . Ekārseyas as well as others a r e well-known as Vāsisthas. T h u s these eleven sections of V ā s i s t ha s a r e declared. 100b-102. T h u s the eight well-known m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a have been recounted. T h e y were brothers of very 1.

W . 90-100 describe the race o f Vasistha.


BrahmOnda Purāna

486

g r e a t fortune. T h e i r races were well established. It is they w h o sustain the three worlds full of t h e groups of Devas a n d sages. T h e i r sons and grandsons were h u n d r e d s a n d thousands. 1 T h e t h r e e worlds are pervaded by t h e m as by the rays of the sun.

CHAPTER

NINE

Propitiation

of Pitrs

( R u l e s a n d Regulations regarding the R i t u a l concerning Pitrs). The Sages Said : 1. B h a v ā m h a d been Safī in the previous b i r t h as t h e d a u g h t e r of D a k s a . H o w was she h o r n for t h e second time as Umā ? 2. T h e king of t h e m o u n t a i n s begot her of M e n ā , the d a u g h t e r of t h e Pi*rs, W h o are these Pitrs of w h o m M e n ā b e c a m e the m e n t a l d a u g h t e r ? 3-4. W h o a r e those beings called Pitrs whose grandT son was M a i n ā k a a n d whose g r a n d d a u g h t e r s were U m ā , E k a p a r n ā , E k a p ā t a l ā and G a ń g ā the most excellent one a m o n g the rivers ? W h o was t h e eldest of all t h e daughters of H i m a l a y a ? All this has been desired to be pointed out by you. N a r r a t e it to us. 5-7. Good fortune to you. I wish to h e a r t h e excellent injunction regarding Ś r ā d d h a . 2 W h o are laid down in Smrtis 1.

A comparison of the race of sages with those g i v e n in

other Pijrānas

(for e x a m p l e ) the Matsya shows m a n y dissimilarities in names, though some of the gotras 2.

and pravaras

are

common.

Chs- IX to XX of the present Purāna describe the Śrāddha -Kalpa

or t h e procedure of ancestor-worship in ancient India. It js an important topic a n d forms an integral part of H i n d u D h a r m a Śāstra. It is rooted in the belief in after-death survival of the deceased ancestors a n d their residence in a particular region or world called Pitr-loka. This belief is pre-Vedic as it dates


2.3.9.8-16

487

as their sons a n d how are they Pitrs ( m a n e s ) . H o w were they b o r n ? W h a t were their names ? Of w h a t n a t u r e are they ? Are these Pitrs w h o are deities u n t o t h e Devas, in heaven ? T h u s I wish to u n d e r s t a n d the excellent creation of the Pitrs a n d how t h e Ś r ā d d h a performed by us propitiates the Pitrs. 8. W h a t is regarded ( i n Smrtis) as the reason why they (Pitrs) are not visible ? W h a t (type of) Pitrs stay in the heaven a n d w h a t type in the hell ? 9-12. H o w do these Śrāddhas proceed to the Pitrs, the Ś r ā d d h a s t h a t are offered after uttering the names of the father, father's father a n d great-grandfather against the three Pindas (Rice-balls) ? H o w are they if stationed in the hell, capable of bestowing benefits ? W h o a r e these beings n a m e d Pitrs ? W h o m shall we worship again ? We have h e a r d t h a t the Devas also worship the Pitrs in the heaven. I wish to h e a r in detail al­ t h o u g h it has b e e n heard of m a n y times a n d t h e designations a r e also very clear. It behoves you to recount it. Sūta Said :— 13-15. I shall tell you in detail in accordance w i t h my intellect and w h a t has been heard by m e . T h e Pitrs, the sons of the Devas are b o r n in ( a l l ) the M a n v a n t a r a s . Those who have gone a n d those who are yet to come are the seniors a n d the j u n i o r s respectively. Those Pitrs have gone by, along with the Devas in the other M a n v a n t a r a s . I shall decisively recount to you those ( P i t r s ) who exist now. It is M a n u the Ś r ā d d h a D e v a 1 the presiding deity of Śrāddhas who will initiate the c e r e m o n y of Ś r ā d d h a s u n t o t h e m . 16. T h i n k i n g t h a t they (gods) will worship me t h a t lord Brahrnā created the Devas. 1 But they forsook h i m a n d worshipfrom t h e Indo-Iranian period (vide S.B.E. V o l . I V , p. 2 6 2 ) , for the Iranian Fravarsheg of Yima-Yama Ancestor-worship for continuation of one's race a n d prosperity is found in the R V . T h e Grhya Sutras and old Smrtis (like M a n u a n d Yājñavalkya) prescribe the procedure of Śrāddha w h i c h is generally followed in the Purānas. For example, T h e Śrāddha procedure is found in different Purānas such as A.P. 163.2-42, G.P.I.210, K.P.II 22.20-62, N . P . Ch. 28, V ā . P . Chs. 71-80. It is noteworthy that in V . V . 5-12 all questions, d o u b t s etc. a h o u t the performance of Śrāddha aj* raised. 1. T h e proper n a m e of Indra in this Manvantara.


Brahmānda Purina

488

ped themselves because they were desirous of t h e fruits (thereof). 17. T h e y were cursed by B r a h m a — " Y o u will become deluded a n d devoid of consciousness. H e n c e , you do not know anything. Become deluded in the w o r l d s . " 18. Again a n d again all of t h e m bowed down to him a n d requested god B r a h m a (for p a r d o n ) . In order to bless the worlds, t h e lord spoke to them again. 19. " M a k e a t o n e m e n t as a sin of transgression has been c o m m i t t e d by you all. Ask your sons. Therefrom you will acquire knowledge a n d w i s d o m . " 20. Thereafter, desirous of comprehending t h e ( m o d e of) a t o n e m e n t ( a n d to perform it) they asked their sons in secret w i t h their selves duly well controlled. 2 1 . To t h e m t h e sons conversant with.. virtue and piety a n d possessed of complete control of their souls, explained the different kinds of a t o n e m e n t of sins originating from the mind, words a n d actions. 22-26. Regaining their consciousness the delighted heavendwellers spoke to their s o n s — " I n d e e d , you are our Pitrs (fathers) 1 because we have been enlightened by you in regard to virtue, wisdom a n d disinterestedness in the worldly pleasures. W h a t b o o n should be given to you ?" Again B r a h m a spoke to t h e m — " I n d e e d , you are truthful in speech. H e n c e , w h a t has been mentioned by you shall be so a n d not otherwise. T h i s is w h a t is uttered by y o u — y o u r own sons have been mentioned as your Pitrs ( f a t h e r s ) . " T h e y will become (your) Pitrs. Let this boon be given to them. On account of these words of B r a h m a , the P a r a m e s t h i n , the sons attained the status of the fathers (Pitrtva) a n d the fathers attain­ ed the status of the sons. H e n c e , those sons are the Pitrs. This is the status of Pitrtva declared about t h e m (in D h a r m a ś ā s t r a ) . 27, After declaring in this m a n n e r t h e sons to be the fathers and fathers to be t h e sons, B r a h m a said once again to the Pitrs for t h e development of their selves. 1.

V. 22 explains

the

paradox

why

Pitrs

w h o were the Sons of

gods b e c a m e the 'fathers of their o w n fathers'. M a n u I I I . 201 differs from this text a n d states that Pitrs sprang from Sages a n d from the Pitrs were born gods and human

beings.


2.3.9.28-37

489

2 8 . " I f anyone were to perform the Ś r ā d d h a rites with undesirable Pitrs, the Rāksasas a n d the D ā n a v a s will a t t a i n t h e fruit thereof. 29. On being developed by means of the Śrāddhas, a n d strengthening further the imperishable moon d a y by day, all the Pitrs will increase. 30. Soma, the m o o n god, strengthened a n d developed by means of the Śrāddhas, will develop the people too a n d the entire world along with t h e m o u n t a i n s a n d forests, s u r r o u n d e d by the mobile a n d immobile beings. 3 1 . If m e n , desirous of nourishment a n d development, were to perform Śrāddhas, the Pitrs will always bestow on t h e m nourishment and progeny. 32-33. Those Pitrs a n d Pra-pitāmahas (great grand­ fathers) to w h o m ( t h e younger members of the family) offer t h r e e balls of rice in Ś r ā d d h a against the u t t e r a n c e of (i.e. mentioning) their Gotras and names are present everywhere. T h e y strengthen the subjects (their progeny) by t h a t offering of Ś r ā d d h a . Such a behest h a d been formerly declared by B r a h m a the P a r a m e s t h i n . 34. T h e r e b y all these viz. charitable gift, self-study of the Vedas a n d power of penance can be achieved. T h e r e is no d o u b t a b o u t this t h a t the Pitrs are the bestowers of wisdom on you all. 35. T h u s these Pitrs are the Devas a n d t h e Devas a r e the Pitrs. T h e Devas and the Pitrs are m u t u a l l y the Pitrs (fathers) of one another. 36. On hearing these words of B r a h m a from Sūta w h o had completely understood the B r a h m a n ( Ā t m a n ) , all those sages once again asked Sūta as follows. The Sages said :— 37. H o w m a n y are the groups of Sages* (Muni-ganāh*)? At w h a t time did those groups (come into existence ?). T h e y •

This should be Pitrganāh as in V ā . P . 71.36.


Brahmānda Purāna

490

were the ancestors a n d the most excellent ones a m o n g the Devas. T h e y were those who developed a n d strengthened the Soma ( m o o n ) on behalf of the Devas. Sūta said :— 38. U n t o you all, I shall relate this most excellent crea­ tion of the Pitrs, about which Śamyu formerly asked his father Brhaspati. 39. T h e son Śamyu equipped with t h e good quality of modesty, p u t this question to Brhaspati who was seated nearby a n d who was an expert in all the subjects worthy of being known. 1 40. " W h o a r e these beings called Pitrs ? H o w m a n y are they ? W h a t are their (respective) names ? H o w were they born ? H o w did they a t t a i n the status of the Pitrs ? 4 1 . Wherefore do the Pitrs perpetually n u r t u r e a n d develop the Yajña ? All the holy rites of noble souls have the Ś r ā d d h a rite at the outset (why is it so ? ) . 4 2 . To w h o m are the Ś r ā d d h a offerings to be given ? W h a t is the great benefit when they are offered ? W h a t are those holy centres a n d rivers where Ś r ā d d h a performance is everlasting in merit. 4 3 . W h a t are those places where an excellent Brāham a n a attains everything after performing Ś r ā d d h a ? W h a t is the prescribed h o u r for the rite of Ś r ā d d h a ? W h a t is the injunc­ tion t h a t governs it ? 44. O holy lord, I wish t h a t what has been enquired by me is explained in detail a n d in the proper s e q u e n c e . " 45. Brhaspati of great intellect, who was asked thus, explained the problem very well and in the d u e order as he was the most excellent one a m o n g those w h o could unravel questions a n d problems. Brhaspati said :— 46. "O d e a r one, I shall explain the solemn excellent question which you, with due propriety, ask me with proper humility. 1.

In order to explain the full procedure of the performance of Śrāddha

Ś a m y u is shown to h a v e raised the points in VV 40-44.


2.3.9.47-56

491

47-48. N o n e of these was in existence then, n o n e — v i z . the heaven, the ether, the earth, the stars, the (four) quarters, t h e sun, t h e moon, the day and night. T h e universe was in complete darkness. Brahma, who was t h e sole Being (in exist­ ence) performed a very austere penance difficult for others to p e r f o r m . " 49. O n c e again, Śamyu spoke to his father who was the most excellent one arnong persons conversant with B r a h m a n , w h o h a d mastered a n d performed all t h e Vedic rites and who was t h e most excellent a m o n g those who know everything t h a t should be known. " O f w h a t sort was the p e n a n c e which Prajāpati, the lord of all living beings, performed ?" Brhaspati replied :— 50. He performed t h a t penance which is t h e most excel­ lent one a m o n g all kinds of penance (which is called) Yoga. M e d i t a t i n g and contemplating, the holy lord created the worlds then by means of t h a t Yoga. 51. T h e knowledge a n d wisdom of t h e living beings of the past a n d future, the worlds, all the Vedas, a n d the immortal Yogas were created t h e n by B r a h m a who is the eye of the worlds. 52. Those worlds are called S a n t ā n a k a . It is in them t h a t the brilliant ones well known as Vairāja gods abide. T h e y a r e the gods of the gods in the heaven. 53. Even as the outset, Lord Brahma, equipped with the power of Yoga a n d p e n a n c e h a d created t h e Devas, the eternal ones, endowed with Yogic potentiality. 54. T h e y are well known as Adidevas (the primordial D e v a s ) . T h e y have great inherent strength a n d vigour. T h e y are worthy of being worshipped by t h e Devas, t h e D ā n a v a s and the h u m a n beings. 55. Among t h e m , it is mentioned t h a t there are seven groups h o n o u r e d a n d respected by t h e three worlds. T h r e e of t h e m are formless (Amūrtis) a n d four of t h e m are (Samūrtis) e m b o d i e d ones. 56. T h e three sets (Bhāvamūrtis) who have conceptual forms (i.e. formless ones) are above. Beneath t h e m are t h e four lets of subtle forms (Sūksmamūrtis).


492

Brahmānia Purina

57. Thereafter are the Devas a n d thereafter is this e a r t h . This is the series of the worlds. T h e y shower w a t e r on. this world. It is in t h e m t h a t t h e clouds take their origin. 58-61. R i c e a n d other food-grains grow t h r o u g h rain^ therefrom is the origin of the worlds (peoples). Since they develop a n d strengthen the Soma (moon) a n d the rice (food grains) d u e to their Yogic power ( o r by m e a n s of t h e i r c o n t a c t ) , they call t h e m Pitrs (fathers) of the worlds. T h e y are the most excellent ones in the worlds; they have the speed of the m i n d ; they have Svadhā for their food, they have sublimated all their desires; they have got rid of greed, delusion a n d fear; they are devoid of cares a n d anxieties, they have got rid of their griefs. After having discarded their yogic power, they have attained those worlds of very pleasant a n d beautiful sight. T h e y become divine, meritorious, sinless and noble-souled. Thereafter at the end of a thousand Yugas, they become expounders of Brahman. 62-64. T h e AmSrtis (formless ones) a t t a i n liberation after regaining their Yogic power. After discarding Vyaktāvyakta ( t h e manifest a n d the unmanifest), d u e to their great Yogic power, they disappear like the m e t e o r in the sky (or) like t h e flash of lightning in a trice. After casting off the multitudes of the bodies through their Yogic power, they a t t a i n the state of being worthy of being worshipped a n d t h a t of namelessness just as the rivers t h a t get submerged in the ocean. By means of holy rites a n d worship of the preceptors, they strenuously perform Yogic exercises. 65. Propitiated in the Ś r ā d d h a , the Pitrs a d o p t their yogic power a n d t h r o u g h t h a t yogic power develop and strength­ en the Soma whereby the three worlds sustain their lives. 66. H e n c e Śrāddhas should be offered w i t h great effort (for the acquisition) of the yogic power. I n d e e d Yoga is the source of the strength of the Pitrs. Soma (the moon) functions t h r o u g h the Yogic power. 67. O n e m a y feed a h u n d r e d thousand B r ā h m a n a s 1 or 1. W . 67-74 describe the importance o f feeding a Y o g i n — a p o i n t emphasized again by h i m in the following chapters.


2.3.9.68-76

493

everyone who comes ( a t the time of Ś r ā d d h a ) . But h e a r m e , o n e person who is conversant with M a n t r a s deserves all of t h e m (i.e. feeding one knower of M a n t r a s is on a p a r with feeding a h u n d r e d thousand B r ā h m a n a s ) . 68. O n e m a y feed m a n y of these Mantrajñas w h p m a y come (to his h o u s e ) . But one Snātaka (i.e. an initiated house­ holder) who is propitiated, h e a r me, deserves all of t h e m (i.e. feeding a Snātaka is on a p a r w i t h feeding m a n y Mantrajñas). 69. If a thousand M a n t r a j ñ a s or a h u n d r e d Snātakas or a single master of Yoga, a r e fed w h a t is taken in by t h e m saves one from a great danger [a master of Yoga is so great t h a t he is on p a r with a h u n d r e d of Snātakas etc.] 70. Yoga alone (i.e. a m a n equipped with Yogic power) excels a thousand householders, a h u n d r e d Vānaprasthas (forest dweller hermits) a n d a thousand B r a h m a c ā r i n s ( t h e celibate religious s t u d e n t s ) . 71. Prajāpati has said : An atheist, an evil-doer, a person mixed of castes or a thief cannot have redemption from anything else except ( b y offering) a charitable gift u n t o those who have Yogic power. 72. If the son or a grandson feeds a Dhyānin (one w h o m e d i t a t e s ) , the Pitrs become delighted like the farmers w h o become delighted w h e n there is plenty of rain. 73. If persons engrossed in m e d i t a t i o n a r e n o t available one should feed a Brahmacārin. If he is not available one m a y feed a householder who is Udāsina (indifferent to worldly pleasures). 74. This is w h a t is ordained by Brahma—"ADhyānayogin (one who meditates) is greater t h a n one who stands on a single foot for a h u n d r e d years subsisting only on the air. 75-76. T h u s this first set of Pitrs of u n m e a s u r e d vigour has been r e c o u n t e d . T h i s set remains forever, sanctifying all the worlds. Hereafter, I shall explain once again all t h e sets a n d t h e Santati (the unbroken line or race) Samsthiti (the existence) and B h ā v a n ā (conception) in their d u e order.


494

Brahmānda Purāna CHAPTER TEN1 Birth Of Skanda

(Dynasties of Pitrs : Propitiation of Pitrs Śr ā ddh a .

by

performing

Brhaspati said : 1. These seven groups of P i t r s 2 are considered as the most excellent a m o n g victorious ones. F o u r of t h e m have forms a n d three of them are Amūrtis (formless o n e s ) . 2. Listen attentively. I shall tell their worlds as well as creation. I shall recount those who are their daughters a n d those w h o are regarded as their grandsons ( d a u g h t e r s ' sons). 3. In those worlds n a m e d Santānakas the formless yet brilliant groups of Pitrs abide. T h e y are the sons of Prajāpati. 4. T h e y are the sons of Viraja the Prajāpati. H e n c e they are well known as Vairājas. T h e y are excellent Brāhmanas. These are the Pitrs, O d e a r one, who increase the yogic power of the yogins. 5-6a. T h e y perpetually develop the Yogic powers (of others) by means of their own Yogic power. Strengthened and developed by means of Śrāddhas, they develop the Soma ( t h e moon g o d ) . Soma who is thus strengthened a n d developed strengthens a n d develops the worlds. 6b-8. T h e m e n t a l daughter of these is M e n ā by n a m e . She was the wife of the great m o u n t a i n H i m a v ā n . M a i n ā k a is said to be her son. T h e excellent m o u n t a i n K r a u ñ c a is also the son of this mountain. T h e king of m o u n t a i n begot three daughters of M e n ā viz.—Aparnā, E k a p a r n ā and the third one Ekapātalā. 9. T w o of t h e m h a d places of shelter v i z . — E k a p a r n ā took shelter under a N y a g r o d h a tree a n d E k a p ā t a l ā under a Pātalā (trumpet-flower t r e e ) . A p a r n ā was without any abode. T h e y performed p e n a n c e . 1.

T h i s chapter is textually similar to V ā . P. 7 2 .

2.

Cf. Pd. P. V. 9.2-3, V ā . P. 72.1,73,.60 for similar seven divisions of

Pitrs into those having forms and formless ones.


2.3.10.10-19

495

10-11 T h e y performed for a h u n d r e d thousand years a •evere p e n a n c e t h a t could not be performed by even the Devas a n d the Dānavas. E k a p a r n ā took only a single leaf as her food. E k a p ā t a l ā h a d her food with a single P ā t a l a ( ? flower). T h e y took in this food only once in a thousand years. 12. O n e of them ( h a d performed penance) without taking food. H e r m o t h e r who was pained on account of h e r motherly love forbade her (from performing penance) saying ' U m ā ' ( O d a u g h t e r d o n o t ) . 1 13. T h e gentle lady A p a r n ā who performed a p e n a n c e very difficult to be performed ( b y others) on being addressed in t h a t m a n n e r , became well known in the three worlds as U m ā : She was extremely fortunate. 14. She became well known by t h a t n a m e on account of h e r activity expressed in the words of such a derivation. This world with its mobile a n d immobile living beings h a d such (splendid) triad of virgins. 15. W h a t h a d been created by the power of p e n a n c e of these three virgins will hold good as long as t h e e a r t h exists. All those three (virgins) were equipped with Yogic power. Penance sustained their physical bodies. 16. All of them h a d excellent a n d great fortune. All of t h e m possessed p e r m a n e n t y o u t h . All of them were expounders of the B r a h m a n . All of them h a d sublimated their sexual urge and potentiality. 17-19. U m ā was the greatest (eldest) a n d the most excellent a m o n g t h e m . She h a d an excellent complexion a n d was endowed with great yogic power. She a p p r o a c h e d (and dedicated herself) to M a h ā d e v a . Uśanas the son of Bhrgu be­ c a m e her a d o p t e d son. E k a p a r n ā the chaste lady of good conduct became t h e wife of Asita. She was given in m a r r i a g e to t h a t intelligent preceptor of t h e Yogic cult. Endowed with the perfect know­ ledge she gave birth to Devala who was B r a h m i s t h a (one w h o was engrossed in m e d i t a t i o n on B r a h m a n ) . . nislddhi

1.

Kālidāsa

paścād

echoes this in Kuir āra-Sambhava 1.26

Umākhyām

sumukhi jagāma

/

Umeti mitri tapaso


496

Brahmānda Purāna

20. E k a p ā t a l ā who was the third a m o n g those virgins a p p r o a c h e d ( a n d dedicated herself) to Jaigīsavya the son of Śata-śalāka. 2 1 . Śańkha and Likhita are r e m e m b e r e d as his sons but not born of a w o m b . These were the greatly fortunate splendid daughters of the H i m a v ā n . 22-24. T h a t eldest girl was R u d r ā n ī (wife of R u d r a ) . She excelled others on account of her good qualities. U m ā and Ś a ń k a r a were pleased with each other in their m i n d s . T h e y were closely united to each other. On coming to know of this, the slayer of V r t r a (i.e. I n d r a ) became afraid of t h e birth of a child of those two (deities) engaged in sexual intercourse. T h e fire-god was sent near t h e m by I n d r a . T h e firegod was instructed t h u s — " O H u t ā ś a n a (swallower of the holy offer­ ings), create an i n t e r r u p t i o n in the sexual inter-course of these two. 25. You go everywhere. (You are free to go a n y w h e r e ) . H e n c e , there c a n ' t b e a n y b l a m e o n y o u . " O n being instructed thus, the instruction was duly carried out by t h e firegod. 26. T h e lord left U m ā and discharged t h e semen on t h e ground. Instantly, the firegod was cursed by t h e annoyed a n d infuriated U m ā . 27-30. In words choked on a c c o u n t of anger she spoke ( c u r s e d ) the fire-god t h u s — " O fire-god, even before we were satisfied, you brought about an i n t e r r u p t i o n in our sexual intercourse. You have committed an act t h a t should not have been c o m m i t t e d . H e n c e , you are evil-minded. T h e extremely lustrous semen of R u d r a t h a t has come out thus, has become a foetus. You must carry the same within you. This is the punishment to y o u . " 1 On account of t h e curse of R u d r ā n ī due to his (firegod's) own guilt, O B r ā h m a n a , the fire-god held the foetus within 1. T h e story of Skanda's birth is given in M b h . Anuśāsaha Chs. 85 and 86.5-14. T h e r e is m u c h variation in the accounts of Skanda's birth in Purānas w h i c h are a mixture of folk-lore a n d mythology. T h e credit of creating a consis­ tent story in a superb epic out of this diverse material must be given to Kālidāsa.


2.3.10.31-42

497

h i m for m a n y years. He a p p r o a c h e d G a ń g ā a n d said : " L e t this be h e a r d , O excellent one a m o n g the rivers. 31 -34. Very great distress is caused to me as I have to c a r r y t h e foetus within m e . O river, hold this foetus for t h e sake of my relief a n d welfare. D u e to my gracious favour, a son will be b o r n to you. He will be a bestower of b o o n s . " Saying " S o be i t " , t h a t great river b e c a m e very delighted a n d carried t h a t foetus (although) h e r m i n d was being b u r n e d . ( T h e r e was a b u r n i n g sensation within herself). Being distressed thus on a c c o u n t of a very great deal of stress a n d strain, t h a t great river cast off t h a t excellent foetus t h a t dazzled like fire. A n d t h e n was born t h e son of R u d r a , Agni a n d G a ń g ā . He h a d a pinky lustrous complexion. 35-36. He was as brilliant as a h u n d r e d suns. He h a d great splendour a n d valour. W h e n t h e son of J ā h n a v ī ( G a ń g ā ) the boy of great fortune was born, t h e firmament was covered (crowded) with aerial chariots as t h o u g h with a n u m b e r of birds. T h e celestial d r u m s of sweet sound were b e a t e n ( s o u n d e d ) in t h e sky. 37. T h e Siddhas and C ā r a n a s moving a b o u t in the sky discharged showers of flowers. T h e G a n d h a r v a chieftains b e g a n to sing h e r e and there (everywhere). 38-39. Yaksas, Vidyādharas, Siddhas, K i n n a r a s , thou­ sands of great serpents a n d t h e excellent birds a p p r o a c h e d w i t h great reverence t h e highly fortunate son pf Śańkara b o r n t h r o u g h the fire-god. Daityas, V ā n a r a s (monkeys) a n d Rāksasas were struck by t h a t miraculous force. 40. T h a t child b o r n of t h e fire-god was seen at close quarters by t h e wives of the seven sages excluding A r u n d h a t ī . T h e y h a d been on their way for their daily ablution. 4 1 . T h a t lordly son born of R u d r a a n d resembling the rising . sun was surrounded by t h e m with great affection as t h o u g h by his own real mothers. 42. T h e son of J ā h n a v ī was desirous of being simultane­ ously suckled by all those gentle ladies. H e n c e , the glorious child created six faces (mouths.) Therefore, he is r e m e m b e r e d as S a n m u k h a (six-faced). 1 1. diifers.

W.

40-45 explain w h y Skanda got six faces. T h e M b h . account


498

Brahmānda Purāna

43. When t h a t great lord was born, the groups of Dānavas who could n o t bear the power of the Devas h a d a 1 p u r g e (loose motion d u e to excessive fear). H e n c e t h a t valorous lord came to be known as Skanda. 44. Since t h a t ancient lord, the slayer of the Asuras, was (breast-fed and) n u r t u r e d by Krttikās he b e c a m e well known as Kārttikeya. 45. W h e n that enemy of the Daityas yawned, his (wea­ pon) Śakti (Spear) ( n a m e d ) Aparājitā (unvanquished) came out of his m o u t h emitting brilliant flames of fire. 46-47. T w o very gentle birds, a peacock a n d a cock were h a n d e d over t h r o u g h G a r u d a , for Skanda to play, by Visnu t h e powerful o n e ; a b a n n e r (With cock as the emblem) was given by Vāyu (wind-god) a n d a great Vīnā of loud sound was presented by Sarasvatī. 48-50. A goat was given by the self-born lord ( B r a h m a ) a n d a sheep was given by Ś a m b h u . O B r ā h m a n a , t h e m o u n t a i n K r a u ñ c a sporting a b o u t by means of illusive power was felled by him. T ā r a k a the excellent Asura was pierced t h r o u g h a n d thrown down by h i m . So the lordly son of the fire-god, t h e valorous enemy of the Daityas, was crowned as c o m m a n d e r in-chief by the Devas along with I n d r a a n d U p e n d r a (i.e. V i s n u ) . This leader of t h e Suras is mentioned as Senāpati (lord of the a r m y ) . 51-53a. Lord Skanda, the lord of all the worlds caused the purge of the enemies of the Devas. He was surrounded by the different kinds of P r a m a t h a s (semidivine followers of Śiva), groups of goblins, diverse kinds of M ā t r s ( m o t h e r s ) a n d groups of Vināyakas. T h e worlds where Marīci's sons live are called Somapadas. Skanda a n d others stay there a n d the Devas worship them. 53b-54. It is h e a r d t h a t the Pitrs n a m e d Barhisads are Somapās (imbibers of the Soma j u i c e ) . T h e m e n t a l d a u g h t e r 1.

T h i s is an indecent derivation. D u e to the casting off of the

of Śiva by Agni a n d G a ń g ā , the child c a m e to be skandaiim

prāptah—states

Mbh.

Arm.

86.14.

called

Skanda

Semen

(Skannatvāt


2.3.10.55-68 of t h e (Pitrs) was the river n a m e d Acchodā. T h e r e is a divine lake n a m e d Acchoda from which this river flows o u t . 55. Those Pitrs h a d never before been seen by her. S h e was b o r n as their m e n t a l d a u g h t e r . H e n c e , she did not know h e r own Pitrs. 56-57. Transgressing those genuine Pitrs, she chose t h e son of Aila well known as Amāvasu, as h e r father. He w a s traversing the sky accompanied by t h e Apsaras ( n a m e d ) Adrikā. He was seated in an aerial chariot in the firmament. On account of her transgression, she was u n a b l e to move a b o u t in the sky. 58-59. After seeking a n o t h e r father she slipped off from the Yogic power a n d fell down. Slipping down from the heaven a n d falling d o w n she saw three aerial chariots of the size of Trasarenu ( a n a t o m ) . She saw her Pitrs stationed in t h e m . T h e y were very subtle. T h e y were n o t very clear. T h e y a p p e a r ­ ed to have been p u t in fire. 60. T h e distressed river falling h e a d l o n g cried out " Y e save m e ! " She was t h e n told b y t h e m " D o n o t b e afraid ! " H e n c e , she b e c a m e stabilised. 61-64. Thereafter, with these words (of h u m i l i t y ) , she pacified t h e m in h e r low-spirited despondency. T h e n the Pitrs spoke to their d a u g h t e r who h a d fallen off from her glory on account of her transgression :— "O lady of bright smiles, you h a v e fallen off from your glory on account of your own fault. T h e deities (gods) always a t t a i n (experience) the fruit of their action t h r o u g h those very same physical bodies with which they perform their actions. In the case of gods, actions fructify instantly a n d in t h e case of h u m a n beings t h e y fructify after d e a t h . H e n c e dear d a u g h t e r , you will a t t a i n the fruit of your p e n a n c e after d e a t h . " On being told thus, she again pacified and propitiated t h e Pitrs. 65-68. After d u e meditation, they took pity on h e r a n d b e c a m e pacified a n d pleased. On observing t h e inevitable future, t h e Pitrs of Somapā (imbibers of t h e Soma j u i c e ) type, spoke t o their d a u g h t e r : — " O lady o f great lustre, you wilt become the d a u g h t e r of this very same king Amāvasu of n o b l e


500

Brahmānda Purina

soul, b o r n on t h e e a r t h a m o n g h u m a n beings. After t h a t you will a t t a i n these worlds once a g a i n . In the twentyeighth D v ā p a r a Yuga, you will be born of t h e species of fish. You will become the d a u g h t e r of this same king Amāvasu a n d (his wife) Adrikā. You will give b i r t h to the sage, the son a n d successor of P a r ā ś a r a . 69-70. T h a t B r ā h m a n a sage will divide t h e single V e d a i n t o four p a r t s (sections). You alone will give b i r t h to two sons of Ś a n t a n u of great brilliance a n d lustre, T h e y will increase t h e fame of Ś a n t a n u . T h e y will be Vicitravīrya well conver­ sant with virtue a n d piety, a n d C i t r ā ń g a d a t h e king equipped w i t h the strength of all living beings. 71. After giving b i r t h to all these, you will once again a t t a i n these worlds. D u e to your transgression of t h e Pitrs you will have a despicable b i r t h . 72. You will become t h e d a u g h t e r of t h a t very same king a n d Adrikā. After taking b i r t h as their d a u g h t e r , you will a t t a i n these worlds once a g a i n . " 73-74. T h u s addressed, she was later b o r n as Satyavatī 1 t h e d a u g h t e r of a fisherman. She was b o r n as a fish and the d a u g h t e r of Adrikā a n d Amāvasu. She was b o r n of the fish Adrikā in the confluence of G a ñ g ā a n d Y a m u n a . Indeed, she was t h a t king's d a u g h t e r . She was b o r n d u e to t h e semen o f t h a t king. 75. T h e worlds n a m e d " V i r a j a s " are i n t h e f i r m a m e n t T h e groups of Pitrs r e m e m b e r e d by the n a m e 'Agnisvāttas' live there. T h e y h a v e the lustre of the sun. 76. G r o u p s of D ā n a v a s , Yaksas, Rāksasas, G a n d h a r v a s , K i n n a r a s , Bhūtas, serpents a n d Piśācas w h o seek benefit worship t h e m . 77. T h e s e sons of P u l a h a , the Prajāpati, have been recounted. T h e i r m e n t a l d a u g h t e r is well k n o w n by t h e n a m e Pīvarī. 78-82. She was a YoginI (lady of Yogic p o w e r ) . She was the wife of a Yogin a n d the m o t h e r of a Yogin.

1.

W 53-74 give the previous birth of Satyavati, mother

and then the q u e e n of Śantanu.

of Vyāsa


2.3.10.83-92 In the twenty-eighth D v ā p a r a Yuga, the glorious great Yogin, Vyāsa will be b o r n . O excellent B r ā h m a n a the yogic cult (power) (will flourish) in him. A sage of great power of p e n a n c e n a m e d Śuka will be b o r n of Vyāsa in the Aranī. ( t h e wood used for the production of fire by means of a t t r i t i o n ) , like t h e smokeless fire. He will be b o r n in t h e family of P a r ā ś a r a . T h a t holy lord will beget five sons of Pīvarī, the d a u g h t e r of the Pitrs. T h e sons will be renowned a n d fully equipped w i t h the Yogic practice. T h e five sons are K r s n a , G a u r a , P r a b h u , Ś a m b h u a n d Bhūriśruta. He will beget a d a u g h t e r too ( n a m e d ) K ī r t i m a t ī . She will be ayogini a n d t h e m o t h e r of B r a h m a d a t t a . 83. He will become a great sage who can go every­ where. He will be a liberated one adopting the Apunarmārga ( t h e p a t h w a y from which no one r e t u r n s i.e. m o k s a ) endowed with the rays of the sun. 84. These three sets (of Pitrs) have been r e c o u n t e d . U n d e r s t a n d t h e remaining four. I shall describe the sets ( o f Pitrs) having P r a b h ā (lustre) as their forms, O excellent Brāhmana (?) 85. Those Kāvyas, t h e sons of Agni K a v i ( ? ) , are the Pitrs b o r n of Svadhā. T h e y are the P i t r s in the celestial worlds shining with t h e luminary bodies. T h e y have great brilliance. 86. In holy rites causing the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d flourish­ ing progress and fulfilment of all desires the B r ā h m a n a s worship t h e m . T h e i r m e n t a l d a u g h t e r is well known as Yogotpatti. 87. She was given in m a r r i a g e to Śukra by S a n a t k u m ā r a . She b e c a m e well renowned as Ekaśrńgā. She caused the increase in the fame a n d renown of the Bhrgus. 88-89. Those worlds which have rays within are sta­ tioned in the h e a v e n enveloping everything. These are the sons of Ańgiras formerly n u r t u r e d a n d developed by the Sādhyas. Those Pitrs are declared a s U p a h ū t a s . T h e y shine in the h e a v e n ; seven groups of Ksatriyas who seek benefit, worship t h e m . 90. T h e i r m e n t a l d a u g h t e r is well known by the n a m e Yaśodā. She is considered as the queen m o t h e r of K h a t v ā ń g a the noble-souled king. 91-92. Formerly, in his Yajña this Gāthā (verse) was sung by t h e great sages after seeing the birth, from fire, of the n o b l e -


502

Brahmānda Purāna

souled Ś ā n d i l y a — " T h o s e m e n who see the Y a j a m ā n a (the sponsor of the sacrifice) Dilīpā with m e n t a l purity, are the •conquerors of heaven. ( T h a t king Dilīpa) is noble-souled and is truthful in his observance of rites." 93-94. (?) T h e Pitrs named Ajyapās a r e t h e sons born of P u l a h a who was born of K a r d a m a , the Prajāpati. T h e y reside in those worlds which can go wherever one desires. T h e y move a b o u t in the sky in various forms a n d shapes. T h e groups of Vaiśyas who seek benefit worship these Pitrs in Ś r ā d d h a . 95. T h e i r mental daughter is well known by the n a m e Virajā. She was the chaste wife of N a h u s a a n d the m o t h e r of Yayāti. 96. T h e Pitrs n a m e d Sukālas are the sons of the noblesouled Vasistha, son of H i r a n y a g a r b h a ( B r a h m a ) . T h e Śūdras worship t h e m . 9 7 . Those worlds where they stay in the heaven are M ā n a s a by n a m e . T h e i r mental d a u g h t e r is N a r m a d ā , the most excellent river. 98. She sanctifies the living beings as she proceeds along t h e D a k s i n ā p a t h a (southern tract a n d territory). She was the wife of Purukutsa a n d the m o t h e r of Trasaddasyu. 99. It is after accepting these t h a t M a n u the lord of the M a n v a n t a r a initiates the Ś r ā d d h a rites everywhere. 100. He sponsors the rites of Ś r ā d d h a in the case of every­ o n e in the order of the Pitrs, O excellent B r ā h m a n a s . H e n c e <£rāddha must be offered with faith in accordance with one's own D h a r m a (religious d u t y ) . 101. In all cases (i.e. all castes a n d creeds) the Ś r ā d d h a (ablation) offered to t h e Manes in silver vessels or those set with silver propitiates the Pitrs. 102-104. (?) In the Saumyāyana or Agrāyana rites, (he w h o performs Ś r ā d d h a ) shall obtain the fruit of Aśvamedha sacrifice. I f t h e scion of family propitiates the Pitrs after the Apyyāy a n a (pleasing or propitiating) rites of S o m a ( t h e m o o n ) , Agni a n d Vaivasvata ( Y a m a ) , the Pitrs (also in t u r n ) delight h i m . T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t the Pitrs bestow nourishment


503

2.3.10.105-112

on him w h o desires nourishment and bestow progeny a n d heaven­ ly pleasure on h i m w h o desires progeny. T h e holy rite of t h e Pitrs is more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the rites pertaining to the gods. 105-107. (Partially defective t e x t ) . It is laid down (in Smrtis) t h a t the propitiation of the Pitrs should be carried o u t before t h a t of the Devatās (gods). T h e subtle p r o c e d u r e of the Yogas a n d the abode of t h e Pitrs cannot be seen with the physi­ cal eye. It c a n be seen only by means of the power of p e n a n c e (achieved by the B r ā h m a n a s ) . T h u s the following have been recounted here v i z — t h e Pitrs, their worlds, their daughters, their grandsons, t h e sponsors of the sacrifice a n d those w h o worship as well as those w h o are worshipped. A m o n g them, four have forms a n d three a r e formless. 1 108. T h e Devas h o n o u r them and offer them Ś r ā d d h a s scrupulously and devoutly. All of them join their palms in reverence. All of them along with I n d r a worship t h e m with their minds concentrated on them. 109-112a. All these who seek benefit always worship the Pitrs. (Such seekers) v i z — t h e Viśve Devas, t h e Sikatās, t h e Prśnijas, the Śrńgins, t h e K r s n a s a n d t h e Śvetāmbujas 1. A brief resume of the seven classes of Pitrs, their mental daughters m a y be tabulated as f o l l o w s : — Class

of Pitrs.

No.

of their Daughters and other details

1.

Vairājas

M e n ā , Wife of H i m a v ā n , mother of U m ā ,

2.

Barhisads

Acchodā

Siva's consort. (river)

adopted king A m ā v a s u

as father; cursed by Pitrs—became Satyavati mother of Vyāsa a n d queen of Śantanu. 3.

Agniśvāttas

Pivari, married to Śuka, Vyāsa's son.

4.

K ā v y a s (Sons of Agni and

Yogotpatti

Svadhā)

Śukra.

5.

Upahūtas

6.

Ajyapās (Sons of P u l a h a )

(Sons of Ańgiras)

alias

Eka-Śrńgā,

married

Yaśodā, married to king Khajvāńga Virajā, married to king N a h u s a ,

mother

of Yayāti. 7.

Sukāla

Narmadā

(Sons of Vasisiha)

and

O u t of these groups ( 5 ) ,

( T h e river), wife of Purukutra

mother

of Trasad-dasyu.

( 6 ) and ( 7 ) are specially recommended for

worship to Ksattriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras. M a n u I I I 193-198 slightly differs in the assignment of Varnas to Pitrs.


504

Brahmānda Purāna

duly worship t h e m . T h e excellent Vātarasāns, t h e Divākrtyas, the Meghas (clouds), the M a r u t s (winds) B r a h m a a n d o t h e r heaven-dwellers all the sages beginning w i t h Atri, Bhrgu and Ańgiras, t h e Yaksas, t h e serpents, t h e S u p a r n a s a n d the K i n naras along with the Rāksasas worship the Pitrs. 112b-114. These noble-souled Pitrs, duly h o n o u r e d a n d worshipped in Ś r ā d d h a bestow all desires hundredfold and thousandfold. T h e y bestow absolution (liberation) after one a b a n d o n s t h e three worlds of n o r m a l existence involving old age a n d d e a t h . T h e grandfathers confer yogic power, prosperity subtle body to those w h o have no physical body, entire disinterested-ness a n d d e t a c h m e n t a n d infinite bliss. 115-116a. Aiśvarya (prosperity a n d Mastery of every­ t h i n g ^ laid down as Yoga. Aiśvarya is called Yoga. W i t h o u t the asset of Yogic power, e m a n c i p a t i o n (from Samsāra) is impossi­ ble to be achieved. Absolution is impossible like the movement in the heaven of a bird devoid of wings. 116b-120. T h e eternal Moksadharma (prescribed course for a t t a i n i n g Liberation from samsāra) is the most excellent of all D h a r m a s . 1 D u e to t h e favour of t h e Pitrs, t h a t is a t t a i n e d by noble souls. T h e grandfathers (manes) bestow crores a n d crores of jewels, pearls, Lapis Lazuli, garments, horses a n d elephants in millions. T h e y bestow aerial chariots fitted w i t h swans a n d peacocks a n d bedecked in pearls a n d lapis lazuli. T h e aerial chariots are studded w i t h perpetual flowers a n d fruits. T h e y are studded with clusters of tinkling bells. T h e y bestow thousands of aerial chariots a c c o m p a n i e d by Apsaras a n d richly equipped with' all desirable things. T h e delighted grandfathers (manes) bestow on m e n progeny, nourishment, m e m o r y , intellect, kingdom a n d h e a l t h .

1. T h e P h a l a ś r u t i — R e w a r d s offered by Śrāddha.

Pitrs to the performers of


505

2.3.11.1-8 CHAPTER ELEVEN Offering Rice-Cake to The Manes: Feeding Brāhmanas. Establishing Fire Brhaspati Said: —

1-2. It is said t h a t t h e vessels of t h e Pitrs should be m a d e of silver or should be silver-coated ones. 1 T h e very m e n t i o n of silver, its sight a n d gift brings about infinite a n d everlasting benefit in t h e heaven. By m e a n s of this gift, good sons r e d e e m their ancestors. 3. Formerly, when the e a r t h ( i n t h e form of a cow) was milked, it was in a silver vessel t h a t Svadhā was milked by t h e m . W h e t h e r it is Svadhā or a n y t h i n g else, O d e a r one, w h a t e v e r is offered in t h a t (silver vessel) by those w h o seek (benefit), brings everlasting benefit. 4. T h e very existence n e a r b y t h e skin of t h e black antelope, or its sight or its gift is destructive of d e m o n s . It is conducive to t h e achievement of B r a h m i n i c a l splendour. It accomplishes t h e r e d e m p t i o n of animals a n d sons. 5. T h e gold vessel, t h e silver vessel, the s e s a m u m s e e d * the eighth M u h ū r t a of the day, the K u ś a grass, t h e white gingelly seeds and t h e b u n d l e of t h r e e staffs (in t h e h a n d s of a Sannyāsin) — t h e s e are t h e sacred objects t h a t sanctify o t h e r things. 6. This is excellent in the holy rite of Ś r ā d d h a . T h i s is the e t e r n a l injunction of B r a h m a . It causes t h e increase a n d development of longevity, renown, progeny, prosperity, intellect a n d lineage. 7. O n e shall allot the south eastern corner for t h e con­ struction of t h e a l t a r . It should be a square with t h e sides equal to an Aratni ( t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e tip of t h e little finger a n d t h e e l b o w ) . It must be well situated. 8. I shall m e n t i o n duly the spot of t h e Pitrs as o r d a i n e d ( b y the sacred l i t e r a t u r e ) . It is conducive to the a t t a i n m e n t of I. Cf. V i s n u D h . S. 79.14-15. Y ā j ñ a v a l k y a l . 236 specially recommends, silver vessels. Cf. also V ā . P. 7 4 . 1 - 2 ; M t . P. 17.19-22. * 'Copper Vessel* in V ā . P . 74.5.


506

Brahmānda Purāna

w e a l t h a n d longevity. It enhances the strength a n d brightens t h e complexion. 9. T h r e e pits a n d three poles of K h a d i r a wood should be m a d e . T h e length of t h e poles should be an Aratni each. T h e y must be embellished with silver b a n d s . 10. Those pits should be Vitasti ( t h e span or distance between the tips of the t h u m b a n d the litde finger when they a r e extended on either side) in d e p t h . T h e four sides should be four Ańgulas each. O n e should m a k e pit facing towards the south-east. T h e y should be firm a n d free from holes. 11. T h e person performing the Ś r ā d d h a should be clean (in dress) a n d pure ( i n m i n d ) . He should always sanctify th.e pits etc. by means of water poured down through the Pavitra (i.e. K u ś a grass ring for the ring finger. T h e ring shall have a tail t o o ) . T h e Śodhana (purification) can be carried out by means of goat's milk or cow's milk or by water. 12-13. T h e Tarparia ( w a t e r libation) is always by means of w a t e r alone. T h e r e b y the satisfaction is perpetual both here a n d hereafter. If the performer of Ś r ā d d h a has perfect selfcontrol, although he m a y have all sorts of desires, if he takes three times b a t h by way of plunging (into the river etc) a n d worships the Pitrs with m e n t a l a n d physical purity, duly rep­ eating t h e M a n t r a , he shall obtain the fruit of a well performed horse-sacrifice. 14-16. (Partially defective t e x t ) . . O n e shall establish those pits with sides of four Ańgulas on the Amāvāsyā (new m o o n ) day. T h e Yajñas should be twentyone in number. T h e n the three worlds can be held by them (?). T h e performer shall attain nourishment, prosperity, longevity and perpetuation of his line. He shines brilliantly on account of his glory and he gradually attains salvation. A worship carried out by the B r ā h m a n a s after d u e consecration removes sins. It is holy and sanctifying. It yields the fruit akin to that of a horse-sacrifice. T h e performer shall obtain t h e benefit ofa horse-sacrifice. 17-18. I shall therefore mention the M a n t r a which is i m m o r t a l (or nectarine) a n d which is composed by B r a h m a . O n e shall always repeat three times b o t h at the beginning a n d at the close of a Ś r ā d d h a . the M a n t r a : — " O b e i s a n c e to the


507

2.3.11.19-26

deities, the Pitrs a n d to t h e G r e a t Yogins. Bow to Svadhā (food offering to the M a n e s ) . Obeisance forever to Svāhā (the wife of fire-god).'n 19. O n e should repeat this M a n t r a with great concen­ tration at t h e time of offering t h e rice balls ( t o P i t r s ) . T h e pitrs arrive instantly a n d t h e demons flee. 20. On being regularly repeated at t h e t i m e of Ś r ā d d h a by the expounders of B r a h m a n , this M a n t r a redeems everyone connected with the Pitrs in the three units of time (past, present a n d future). 2 1 . A person w h o is desirous of a K i n g d o m should c h a n t this M a n t r a vigilantly (with c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) . It is conducive to t h e increase of vigour, heroism, wealth, i n h e r e n t strength, blessings, longevity, a n d intelligence. 22. I shall now i m p a r t t h e Saptarcis M a n t r a which is splendid, which yields all desires a n d by c h a n t i n g which regularly one c a n p r o p i t i a t e t h e Pitrs. 23. T h e Saptarcis Mantra2:—I shall always bow down to the Pitrs b o t h Amūrtis (formless) a n d Samurtis (endowed with forms) w h o are full of brilliant splendour, who habitually meditate a n d have the Yogic vision. 24. T h e y are the leaders of (gods like) I n d r a a n d others of (Prajāpatis like) D a k s a a n d M ā r ī c a (i.e. K a ś y a p a ) , of t h e seven sages a n d of the (other) Pitrs. I shall bow down to t h e m w h o bestow all desires. 25-26. T h e y a r e the leaders of M a n u a n d others of t h e Sun a n d the M o o n . In all holy rites concerning the Pitrs, I shall bow d o w n to all of t h e m . With palms j o i n e d in reverence, I shall bow down always to the Pitrs of all stars a n d planets, of the wind and fire a n d of t h e h e a v e n a n d e a r t h . 1.

H e m ā d r i regards

this

Cintūmani, Śrāddha, p p . 1079 74.15-18, Skanda

P. V I I .

as Saptarcis &

1.206;

1208).

M a n t r a (vide C.G. (Calurvarga This

11-116, G P .

mantra (Acāra)

is found in V ā . P . 218.6.

Our

Text

however regards V V . 23-29 as Saptarci M a n t r a . 2.

As noted above, seven verses from 23 to 29 constitute the

Saptarci

M a n t r a a n d V ā . P . 74.21-27 agrees in toto with our text. This is rather a eulogy of the Pitrs in details. As against H e m ā d r i our Purāna states that 'This is w h a t is. called the Saptarci's M a n t r a ' ( V . 3 0 ) .


508

Brahmānqla Purāna

27. I shall pay obeisance to the grandfathers. T h e y a r e t h e leaders of celestial sages. T h e y are bowed down to by all worlds. T h e y are t h e saviours of all living beings. 28.. W i t h t h e palms folded in reverence I shall always bow down to t h e Yogeśvaras (lords of the Y o g a ) , to Soma (the m o o n - g o d ) , to Y a m a , to P r a j ā p a t i , to t h e cows a n d to the fire­ god. 29. Obeisance to the seven groups of Pitrs in the seven worlds. Salutation to B r a h m a , the self-born lord with t h e Yogic vision." 30. This is called as the Saptarcis Mantra adopted by the groups of B r ā h m a n a sages. It is extremely sacred, a n d glorious ^ I t destroys ailments. 3 1 . A m a n w h o adopts this in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e injunction obtains three excellent blessings (viz. food-grains, longevity a n d sons). T h e Pitrs bestow ( o n m e n ) on t h e e a r t h ( i n this very life) plenty of food, long life a n d good sons. 32-33aIf a person c h a n t s t h e Saptarcis Mantra everyday w i t h great faith, full devotion, perfect conquest of the senseorgans a n d w i t h great concentration of t h e m i n d , he shall become t h e sole ruler over the e a r t h consisting of seven conti­ nents a n d oceans. 33b-34a. W h a t e v e r is cooked in t h e house, any type of food, should n o t be e a t e n in t h e house at a n y t i m e , without first offering it to the Pitrs. 34b-35. Hereafter, I shall m e n t i o n in d u e order t h e vessels for t h e Bali (oblation) to P i t r s . 1 N o w listen to me as I recount w h a t t h e benefit is (in using for oblations) in different vessels as m e n t i o n e d ( i n the S c r i p t u r e s ) . In t h e Palāśa (i.e. if t h e oblation i s . kept in t h e c u p m a d e of Palāsa leaf a n d offered) t h e benefit is Brahmavarcastva ( t h e Brahminical s p l e n d o u r ) . In t h e Aśvattha (holy fig t r e e ) it is vasubhāvanā ( o u t c o m e of w e a l t h ) . 1.

VV.

34b-40

enumerate the different trees, the leaves (i.e. the cups

of t h e leaves) of w h i c h (if u s e d for oblations to Pitrs) confer different benefits. T h e Śrāddha Sūtra of K ā t y ā y a n a recommends the use of (cups of leaves of) sacrificial trees for Arghya. T h o u g h Purānas strongly r e c o m m e n d the use of vessels of metals, cups of leaves are also allowed, (vide P d . P . Srsfi 8 9.142-43*


2.3.11.36-48

509

36. It is cited t h a t t h e benefit in (using t h e cups of) Plaksa leaves is t h e p e r p e t u a l overlordship of all living beings. In using t h e vessel of the leaves of Nyagrodha t h e benefit is n o u r i s h m e n t , progeny, wisdom, intellect, fortitude a n d p o w e r of memory. 37. T h e K ā ś m a r ī vessel (i.e. t h e cup m a d e of t h e leaf of Kaśmari or Gambhāri is said to be destructive of demons a n d conducive to r e n o w n . It is cited t h a t the benefit in t h e Mādhūka (Aśoka?) vessel is excellent conjugal bliss in the world. 38. K e e p i n g (oblation) in Phalgu (a kind of fig t r e e ) vessels one shall o b t a i n all desires. In t h e sun-plant t h e benefit is excessive lustre a n d b r i g h t illumination in particular. 39-40a. K e e p i n g t h e oblation in a Bilva vessel one shall always obtain wealth, intellect and longevity. 40b-41a. O n e should always offer the entire food offer­ ings a n d oblations in these good vessels alone. He shall obtain the fruit of all Yajñas. 41b-42a. If a person is always engaged in holy rites a n d earnestly offers flower garlands a n d sweet scents to the Pitrs, he shines like the sun. 42b-43a. A person who offers to the Pitrs Guggula etc (fragrant g u m resin) a n d incense along with honey and ghee, o b t a i n s the benefit of Agnistoma sacrifice. 43b-44. After making the incense mixed with scents of good quality, t h e devotee of the Pitrs obtains good benefits a n d welfare b o t h here a n d hereafter. O n e shall offer to the Pitrs everything thus carefully a n d promptly. 4 5 . If a person is p u r e in m i n d a n d body and always offers light u n t o the Pitrs, he obtains thereby splendid a n d unequalled vision as well as salvation. 46. T h e r e will be brilliance (all around h i m ) on the e a r t h on account of his lustre, renown a n d splendour a n d strength. He will shine in t h e Heaven. 47-48. He rejoices (i.e. shall rejoice) on the top of t h e Vimāna (aerial c h a r i o t ) surrounded by Apsaras.


510

Brahmānda Purāna

T h e performer of Ś r ā d d h a should carry out t h e worship of the Pitrs by means of fragrant flowers, incense, c h a n t i n g of M a n t r a s , ritualistic offering of ghee into t h e fire, a n d t h e dedi­ cation of fruits, roots a n d obeisances. He should be p u r e in m i n d a n d body. After worshipping t h e Pitrs he should worship a n d propitiate t h e ' B r ā h m a n a s by m e a n s of cooked rice a n d gifts of money. 49. Invariably d u r i n g t h e occasions of t h e Ś r ā d d h a ceremony, the P i t ā m a h a s (grandfathers i.e. t h e manes) assume gaseous forms 1 a n d p e n e t r a t e t h e excellent fcrāhmanas. H e n c e I say this to you. 50. O n e shall worship, h o n o u r a n d propitiate excellent B r ā h m a n a s by m e a n s of garments, gifts of jewels, food-stuffs, beverages, cows, horses a n d villages. 5 1 . I f t h e B r ā h m a n a s a r e h o n o u r e d a n d worshipped, t h e Pitrs become delighted. H e n c e , one should always endeavour to worship t h e B r ā h m a n a s duly. 52-54. T h e B r ā h m a n a should perform t h e rite of Ullekhana with b o t h t h e h a n d s (scraping the g r o u n d ) , keeping the left h a n d over t h e right one. Alert in the performance of the Ś r ā d d h a ceremony he should perform t h e P r o k s a n a rite (sprinkling w i t h w a t e r by m e a n s of the D a r b h a grass). T h e learned devotee should have everyone of these got ready for offering to t h e Pitrs. V i z — D a r b h a s , rice-balls, foodstuffs, differ­ ent kinds of flowers, offering of scents a n d o r n a m e n t s . After grinding the Abhyańga (oil for b a t h ) by grass, t h r e e times duly.

collyrium very well he should offer t h e tips of t h e b u n c h of D a r b h a

55-56. O n e should offer the excellent collyrium to t h e Pitrs w i t h sacred t h r e a d w o r n over t h e right shoulder. T h e same should be offered for t h e sake of garments a n d sacred t h r e a d kneeling o n * t h e g r o u n d . O B r ā h m a n a s , Khaniana ( c u t t i n g ) , Proksana a n d Ullekhana 1.

W. 49-51 state w h y Brāhmanas are to be

worshipped, fed

and

gifted at the time of Śrāddha. Cf. Auianasa Smrti V. 4-5 endorsing the belief of Pitrs entering the bodies of invited Brahmins, in gaseous form. *

"After muttering their n a m e s " V ā . P. 75.19.


511

2.3.11.57-64 shall be d o n e once for t h e D e v a p i t r s * o t h e r ) Pitrs.

a n d three times for (the

57. (Defective text) O n e Pavitra(a. ring of D a r b h a g r a s s ) should be worn in t h e h a n d . By means of the Caila mantra, t h e Pindas (rice-balls) shall be sprinkled once for each of t h e Pitrs afier showing t h e mirror over the skin of the black antelope (?). 58. T h e performer of Śrāddha earnestly devoted to the Pitis should always offer on the ground three Pindas (balls of rice) mixed with gingelly seeds a n d ghee. He should place t h e the knee on the ground a n d wear the sacred t h r e a d in t h e normal manner. 59-60a. He should invoke the father, t h e g r a n d f a t h e r a n d the great grandfather as well as the other Pitis of yore. He should properly sprinkle t h e Pindas by means of t h e Pitrtirtha carefully. He should p o u r the water in anticlock wise manner. 60b-62. Some men wish to perform t h e Śrāddhas on behalf of m a t e r n a l grandfather (and other Pitrs of the m o t h e r ' s family) by means of separate cooked rice a n d different kinds of i m p o r t a n t food-stuffs. He should offer three Pindas in t h e p r o p e r order pressing them with t h e t h u m b . T h e y are conducive to the increase of nourishment. He should offer the Pindas by means of b o t h h a n d s placed in between t h e knees. T h e left h a n d should be placed over the right. He should repeat the respective M a n t r a s (as follows for the sake of pouring water in t h e form of a t h i n current. 63. H e should discharge t h e f i r s t P i n d a towards t h e south w i t h b o t h hands repeating alertly t h e M a n t r a beginning with Namo vah pitarah śosāya** etc. 64. (Defective t e x t ) . R e p e a t i n g t h e M a n t r a beginning with " N a m o vah p i t a r a h s a u m y ā h " (Obeisance to ye all, O *

T h e reading dtvānām " t o g o d s " in V ā . P . 75.20 is better.

** V ā . P .

75.26

reads Śusmai for Śosāya., Bloomfield records both the

readings from V S . in Vedic Concorctarīce, p. 5 3 8 .


512

Brahmānda Purāna

gentle Pitrs) alertly, (the other Pindas) shall be offered w i t h b o t h the h a n d s * . 65. T h e line of M o r t a r (?) should be sprinkled with water from the water-pot. A new t h r e a d of silk, j u t e or cotton should be offered. 66. O n e should avoid woven silk, coloured cloth a n d K a u ś e y a (a variety of silk). In the Yajña, one should avoid sprinkling water even with an unwashed (i.e. fresh from the loom) cloth (?) 67. These things do not please (the Pitrs). T h e y say that the collyrium of t h e T r i k a k u d a type (?) is always excellent. 68-69. T h e following things are very excellent (for use in a Ś r ā d d h a ) . T h e oil extracted from the black gingelly seeds a n d preserved carefully w i t h great effort, sandalwood, Aguru (Fragrant aloe w o o d ) , T a m ā l ā , U ś ī r a fragrant root of the p l a n t Andropopogon muricatus) lotus, fragrant incense, gum resin a n d the white Turuska. W h i t e flowers are excellent. So also the lotus and t h e lilies. 70. All the wild flowers equipped with sweet scent a n d beautiful form are excellent. So also t h e flowers with Nāiis (long tubes) as well as t h e yellow A m a r a n t h flower. 71-73. T h e r e are some flowers which should always be avoided in a Ś r ā d d h a ceremony. Flowers without fragrance and flowers with obnoxious smell should always be avoided by one w h o desires nourishment. T h e B r ā h m a n a s w h o are invited (for feast) should invari­ ably sit facing the n o r t h . T h e Y a j a m ā n a ( t h e performer of Śrāddha) should sit facing the south a n d perform wor­ ship in accordance with the injunctions. He should face t h e m a n d offer t h e Pindas scrupulously over the D a r b h a grass. 74-75. If everything is performed in accordance with this injunction it shall be as though the P i t ā m a h a s (manes) a r e directly worshipped. K u ś a grasses are excellent as seats if they are green in colour. T h e y must produce a rustling noise. T h e y must be suffi*

Dharme'rdhe

samatandritah

hereof is obscure dharme sarvam

atandritah

(in V ā . P. 7 5 . 2 8 a ) is better. It m e a n s "Careful (non-negligent) in all religious performances ( ? ) "


2.3.11.76-84

513

ciently thick, straight a n d smooth a n d glossy. T h e length of 1 the K u ś a grass shall be Aratni (24 A ń g u l a s ) . T h e y should be consecrated by t h e holy water of P i t r t ī r t h a . N e a r t h e root they must be dark-coloured. 76-80. T h e same also is to be cited a b o u t t h e varieties of rice Ś y ā m ā k a a n d N ī v ā r a a n d also a b o u t t h e D ū r v ā grass. Formerly, Prajāpati, the most excellent a m o n g t h e renown­ ed persons, b e c a m e a horse. His hairs fell on t h e g r o u n d a n d a t t a i n e d the state of K u ś a grass. Hence, K u ś a grass is h o n o u r e d in t h e holy rites of Ś r ā d d h a . T h e y should always be offered (in Ś r ā d d h a ) . T h e offering of the Pindas must be m a d e on t h e m by one w h o desires prosperity. T h e children will be endowed with nourishment, lustre, intelligence, fame a n d splendour. T h e y will always become beautiful a n d c h a r m i n g . T h e y will get rid of their sins. T h e y will be free of evils. F o r t h e sake of Pindas, the devotee w i t h his face to t h e southern q u a r t e r should spread D a r b h a s only once. T h e tips of t h e D a r b h a grass should be towards t h e south­ east. T h e injunction is mentioned as follows. T h e performer of t h e Ś r ā d d h a rite should n o t be dejected or angry. He should n o t have his m i n d distracted elsewhere. He should perform Ś r ā d d h a with his m i n d concentrating on one place (point) (i.e. the perf6rmance of Ś r ā d d h a ) a n d should be pure-minded. 8 1 . Mantra: " I destroy everything t h a t has i m p u r i t y in it. T h e Asuras a n d D ā n a v a s have been killed by m e . T h e Rāksasas, the Yaksas along with t h e groups of Piśācas, a n d Y ā t u d h ā n a s have been killed by m e " . 82. T h e devotee should restrain himself a n d r e p e a t t h e above M a n t r a while scrubbing t h e a l t a r once. T h e wise per­ former (of Ś r ā d d h a ) , the B r ā h m a n a who is desirous of auspi­ cious wisdom should certainly go towards t h e n o r t h a n d t h r o w ( D a r b h a grass). 83. T h e Asuras avoid that person who has seen (i.e. a d o p t e d a n d repeated) t h e Pitrs Mantra. Rāksasas avoid t h a t place where this M a n t r a is recited. 84. He should neither see n o r touch n o r give u n c l e a n varieties of cooked rice t h a t are r o t t e n . If the m a n does n o t have 1.

Cf. Gobhila Smr. 1.21.


514

Brahmānda Purāna

t h e Pavitra (a ring of D a r b h a grass) in his h a n d (finger) he does not enjoy t h e fruit of the Ś r ā d d h a rite. 85. If a person always performs t h e Ś r ā d d h a strictly in accordance with this injunction, the grandfathers (manes) shall bestow on him whatever he desires in his mind. 86. If the Śrāddha is performed thus scrupulously every­ day, t h e Pitrs become delighted in their minds a n d t h e Rāksasas become dejected. 87. T h e following should always be avoided in t h e Ś r ā d d h a ceremonies : Śūdras, milk of Avi (a variety of sheep), t h e varieties of grass named Balbaja, Vīrana a n d Otuvāla, pebbles and L a d d u s * (a sweetmeat ?) 88-90. These grasses unworthy of Yajñas should be discarded. O n e shall abstain from applying collyrium to the eyes, taking oil bath, applying scents and Sūtrapranayana(? sewing w i t h t h r e a d s ) . T h e holy rite should be performed with t h e K u ś a grass which grows again (when c u t ) . O n e shall obtain the bene­ fit of horse sacrifice. T h e following is the M a n t r a cited for offering flowers, applying scents a n d p u t t i n g on o r n a m e n t s . T h e M a n t r a : — " T h e Kuśas a n d the regrown K u ś a grass are sacrificial grass and its r e g r o w t h * * . T h u s these Pitrs are Devas and the Devas a r e P i t r s " . 9 1 . For the fulfilment of the holy rite one should perform H o m a . For H o m a the sacred fire Daksināgni should be used scrupulously. For o t h e r purposes t h e ordinary lire can be used. 92-94. T h e Samits (sacrificial twigs) should be placed within. T h e n t h e fire should be placed all r o u n d . T h e n the fire is brightened up with concentrated m i n d . T h e following are t h e M a n t r a s for H o m a s in t h e three fires in the proper order : ( 1 ) Agnaye kavyavāhāya Ańgirase namah (Obeisance to Agni t h e conveyor of K a v y a (food-offering). Obeisance to Ańgiras. (2) Somāya vai...punah (Obeisance to Soma possessed of the Pitrs. Svadhā once again to Ańgiras). * V ā . P. 75-51 reads : lava-varsās ca nityaSah. ** barhino hyupabarhinah in the text is obscure. V ā . P . 75-53 reads barhan'Sacrificial grass' for barhin in the text.


2.3.11.95-103

515

(3) Tamāya Vaivasvate svadhā dhruvam. ( O b e i s a n c e to Y a m a son of Vivasvān ( s u n ) , Svadhā is thus, surely offered). 95. T h e offering should always be m a d e to Agni in t h e south, to Soma in the n o r t h a n d to Vaivasvata ( Y a m a ) in between t h e two. 96-98. Upahāra (offering of presents), Svadhākāra ( u t t e r ­ ance of Svadhā), Ullekhana (scrubbing), .Homa, c h a n t i n g of M a n t r a s , obeisance, Proksana (sprinkling rite) in p a r t i c u l a r , application of collyrium, oil b a t h , offering of rice b a l l s — all these should be done w h e n t h e fire blazes well w i t h p l e n t y of ghee and fuel. W h a t is performed by B r ā h m a n a s in t h e sacred fire t h a t blazes very well yields the benefit of a horsesacrifice. O n e shall scrupulously perform all t h e holy rites as directed. 99. For the fulfilment of t h e holy rite, one should perform H o m a in the sacred fire t h a t has plenty of ghee and fuel, t h a t is m a d e to blaze, well in p a r t i c u l a r , that has no smoke and t h a t has tongues of flame shooting up all round. 100. If the Y a j a m ā n a (the sponsor of Śrāddha) performs H o m a in the fire t h a t is not blazing well or t h a t has not been kindled well, he will become blind here a n d hereafter. I n d e e d , this has been h e a r d by us. 101. T h a t fire ceases to yield benefit which has only very little fuel, which has no flames shooting up all r o u n d , which is very u n p l e a s a n t to the eye or which has flames a n d smoke curling anticlockwise. 102. If there is a fire t h a t emits foul smell, t h a t has bluish flame, t h a t appears extremely d a r k or t h a t burns- d o w n ­ wards towards the earth, one should know t h a t failure a n d defeat lurk there. 103. T h a t fire is conducive to the fulfilment of holy r i t e — t h e fire t h a t has leaping flames and t h a t has the top of flames curled up into circle, t h a t resembles t h e collyrium m a d e of g h e e * (?), t h a t has glossy a p p e a r a n c e a n d t h a t curls up clockwise. * T h e reading sarpikāñjana-sannibha is obscure as fire cannot be black like collyrium; kāñcana 'like gold' in V ā . P . 75-65 is better.


516

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104. ( T h e devotee) obtains t h e p e r p e t u a l h o n o u r a n d reverence from groups of m e n a n d w o m e n . T h e Pitrs a n d t h e sacred fires should be worshipped by h i m for an everlasting benefit. 105. T h e leaves, fruits a n d twigs of Bilva a n d U d u m b a r a trees are very sacred, pure a n d worthy of being used in a Śrāddha. 106-108. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , the Pavitra (ring of D a r b h a grass) is conducive to the purity of b i r t h and holy rites. T h e benefit t h a t has already been indicated by me in the case of vessels in t h e holy rite of Ś r ā d d h a should be respectively k n o w n in its entirety in the case of Samits (sacred twigs) too. T h e devotee shall keep the mind p u r e a n d concentrated a n d repeat, " M a y I perform the rite in the fire ?". He is then given permission by t h e excellent B r ā h m a n a s w h o say " Y o u a r e p e r m i t t e d . Do p e r f o r m " . He should then take ghee in a vessel a n d perform H o m a in the sacred fire. 109-111. T h e following trees are praiseworthy to be consigned to the holy fire. Palāśa, Plaksa, N y a g r o d h a , Aśvattha, V i k a ń k a t a , U d u m b a r a , Bilva, C a n d a n a — a l l those trees are worthy of Yajñas. So also a r e the trees Sarala, D e v a d ā r u , Śāla a n d K h a d i r a . T h e trees with thorns found in t h e villages a n d those t h a t a r e worthy of Yajñas are also honoured for Samits in accordance with the utterance of Pitrs. 112-113a. Listen, even as I recount t h e benefit that accrues to t h e perfomer of a holy rite by means of H o m a s in the sacred fire with samits of S a t p h a l a * trees. It is everlasting. It is conducive to the fulfilment of all desires. It has the same benefit as that of a horse-sacrifice. 113b-115a. T h e following trees should be avoided in the holy rite of Ś r ā d d h a : — Ś l e s m ā n t a k a , N a k t a m ā l a , K a p i t t h a , Śālmali, N ī p a a n d V i b h ī t a k a . T h e y a r e despicable. So also the trees a n d grasses Cirabilva, Kola, T i n d u k a , Balvaja a n d Kovid ā r a should b e discarded b y all m e a n s . *

V ā . P . 7 5 . 7 4 reads KaUcaleyābhih with twigs ( o f p o m e g r a n a t e trees).


517

2.3.11.115b—12.7

115b-l 16a. O n e should avoid those trees also where birds have their abodes (nests). O n e shall avoid all other similar trees not worthy of Yajñas. 116b. In the M a n t r a s of the rites of Pitrs, t h e word Svadhā is a d d e d a n d in the Yajña rites of Devas the w o r d Svāhā is cited.

CHAPTER TWELVE Rules Regarding Śrāddha Rituals The Five Mahāyajñas Sūta Said :— 1. T h e Devas a n d the Pitrs are regarded to be m u t u a l l y governed a n d interdependent. Brhaspati said t h a t this is t h e injunction in A t h a r v a n V e d a . 2. O n e should worship the Pitrs first a n d the Devas after. I n d e e d , even t h e Devas scrupulously worship t h e Pitrs at the outset. 3. A d a u g h t e r of Daksa was well known by the n a m e Viśvā. T e n sons were born to h e r with D h a r m a t h e god of virtue a n d piety. T h e y are called ViSvas (Viśvedevas). 4. T h e y were well-renowned in the three worlds. T h e y were bowed down to by all the worlds. All those noble-souled ones performed a great a n d severe p e n a n c e . 5. T h e y performed their p e n a n c e on t h e c h a r m i n g summit of the H i m a l a y a , frequented by the groups of celestial sages. Delighted by their p u r e m i n d , the Pitrs t h e n spoke (tothem). 6-7. " C h o o s e your boons. We a r e pleased. W h a t desire of yours shall we fulfil ?" W h e n this was spoken b y the Pitrs, B r a h m a w h o h a d evolved the three worlds, who h a d great splendour a n d who-


Brahmania Purāna

518

h a d been p r o p i t i a t e d b y t h e m b y their penance s a i d — " I a m pleased with this penance. W h a t desire of yours shall I fulfil ?" 8. T h u s addressed by B r a h m a , the creator of the U n i ­ verse, those Viśve-Devas collectively spoke to B r a h m a , the sanctifier (or the creator) of the world. 9. " L e t us too have a share in the Ś r ā d d h a . This is the boon desired by u s . " T h e r e u p o n , B r a h m a who is honoured by the Devas, replied to t h e m . 10. " T h e b o o n desired by you shall become s o " (materi­ a l i s e d ) . " S o be i t " said the Pitts. It is hence that there is no doubt. 11-16a. W h a t e v e r is seen here should be enjoyed along with us. You too can p a r t a k e of the food offering* in the Ś r ā d d h a dedicated to us by h u m a n beings. We are speaking the t r u t h . W i t h garlands, scents a n d food offerings they will worship you at the outset. H a v i n g offered these to you first, they will offer to us afterwards. But Visarjana (Ritual­ istic Dismissal or Bidding farewell) is accorded to us first a n d t h a t of the Devas comes subsequently. These two injunctions regarding Ś r ā d d h a a n d hospitality shall be observed in the holy rites of the Bhūtas (Goblins), Devatās a n d the Pitrs. If it is d o n e thus, everything shall be all r i g h t " . After bestowing the boon on them in this m a n n e r , Brahma, the conferer of forgiveness and blessings, carried out everything as mentioned, along with the groups of Pitrs. 16b-17, Five great Yajñas have been prescribed in the V e d a for m e n to perform. Every m a n shall always perform these five " M a h ā Y a j ñ a s " . U n d e r s t a n d the region where those w h o perform these Yajñas will stay perpetually. 18. T h e y attain t h e region pertaining to Brahma, a place that is free from fear, devoid of Rajas quality, griefless, free from pain and exhaustion and honoured by all the worlds.

*

yusmānaprāśanam is obscure even t h o u g h e m e n d e d as annaprāśanam.

Agrdsanam (you will h a v e priority) in V ā . P. 76-12 is better, and is supported by

the

following

w.


2.3.12.19-29a

519

19. These five Yajñas must be performed by a Ś ū d r a also b u t w i t h o u t t h e M a n t r a s . If anyone takes food without performing t h e m , he actually partakes of debts forever. 20. He w h o cooks for himself is a sinful soul a n d partakes of debts. H e n c e , a learned m a n should always per­ form these five Mahā-Yajñas. 2 1 . T h e oblation should be offered near a water-pond (or river etc.) in the north-eastern quarter. O n e should prepare oblation very well in accordance with the) injunction. It shall be thrown up very high repeating the M a n t r a s loudly. 22. (Defective text) T h e cow's urine should be taken in a pot m a d e of the hollow horn. A t h r e a d shall be placed in it a n d offered as oblation*. T h a t rice ball shall be Naivtdya (food offering) to one who is alive a m o n g the Pitrs. 23. O n e should feed him with desired food, rice a n d other types of foodstuffs in accordance with t h e injunctions. Some wish Naivedya should be scrupulously offered even to a person w h o is alive. 24. T h e Pitrs are gods of the gods and noble-souled. H e n c e , some preceptors wish that the worship of the B r ā h m a n a s should be carried out always in t h e beginning a n d the riceballs should be offered afterwards. 25-26. Brhaspati who is an expert in affairs of D h a r m a (Ritualistic practice) has said t h a t it should not be so. O n e shall offer a n d dedicate the rice-balls ( P i n d a s ) first a n d feed the B r ā h m a n a s afterwards. T h e Pitrs have Yogic souls. T h e noble-souled Pitrs are b o r n of Yogic power. 27. These Pitis strengthen a n d develop t h e Soma ( M o o n ) . T h e y abide by their Yogic power. H e n c e , one should offer t h e Pindas to the Yogic souls retaining personal p u r i t y a n d concen­ trated devotion to t h e m . 28-29a. This shall be a direct Havis offering to the Pitrs. If a person abiding by Yogic power is fed, it is as fruitful as feeding a thousand B r ā h m a n a s . J u s t as a b o a t enables us to cross an expanse of water, so also ( t h e offering of oblations)

* balim

T h e text is obscure. T h e V ā . P. 76.22 reads para-śrńgavām p ū r v a m sūksmam samutksipet /


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520

redeems t h e Y a j a m ā n a (sponsor or perfoŕmerer of Ś r ā d d h a ) as well as those w h o p a r t a k e of the food. 29b-30a. A severe punishment m e t e d out by providence suddenly descends to t h e place where b a d persons are held in esteem a n d t h e good persons are disrespected. 30b-31a. If a person does unite one having good qualities a n d feeds a person of puerile n a t u r e , the performer of t h a t S r ā d d h a perishes soon after performing rite ( ? ) 31b-32. A m a n w h o seeks enjoyment of worldly pleasures shall always offer first P i n d a to t h e (sacred) fire. He w h o seeks progeny shall scrupulously offer t h e middle P i n d a along with (the repetition of) M a n t r a s . He w h o wishes for the excellent splendour a n d brilliance offers it to the cows. 1 33. O n e w h o seeks intellect, fame a n d renown consigns it to t h e waters. O n e w h o seeks a long life offers it to the crows. 34. O n e w h o wishes for a graceful tenderness (of the b o d y ) offers it to t h e cocks. T h u s t h e benefit of offering t h e rice-balls has been r e c o u n t e d . 35. O n e should send it up in the sky or p u t it in t h e w a t e r facing t h e southern q u a r t e r . T h e a b o d e of t h e Pitrs is in t h e sky or t h e southern q u a r t e r . 36. Some B r ā h m a n a s say t h u s — " A f t e r being p e r m i t t e d b y those B r ā h m a n a s w h o s a y — " L e t i t b e freely lifted u p " — t h e devotee shall lift up t h e rice balls at the outset (or from t h e tips). 37. O n e shall take out the tips ( u p p e r m o s t p a r t ) of flowers, fruits, foodstuffs a n d rice a n d perform H o m a in the fire w i t h all those things. 38. After performing H o m a in the fire with t h e food­ stuffs, cooked rice, beverage, roots a n d fruits he should offer t h e Pindas facing t h e southern q u a r t e r . 39. After performing Homa to Vaivasvata (i.e. Y a m a ) a n d Soma, after offering Pindas along with t h e libation of water, one should feed t h e B r ā h m a n a s 1.

W. 31-35 refer to the disposal of Pindas. Cf. M b h . Anuiāsana 125-

38-40, B m P . 220.150-52 for similar views.


2.3.12.40—13.1

521

40. Thereafter, h e should propitiate t h e B r ā h m a n a i n the p r o p e r o r d e r consistent with his capacity, with hot a n d glossy ( m i x e d with ghee) foodstuffs a n d cooked rice smelling sweet (with ghee a n d spices). 4 1 . T h e m a n obtains all t h a t he desires if he serves t h e m with concentration and purity ( m e n t a l a n d physical). He shall stand by t h e m with palms joined in reverence. He shall be loyal, faithful a n d devoted to t h e m . 42. T h e grandfathers (manes) bestow these qualities— viz. Aksudratva ( t h e state of not being m e a n a n d low) grate­ fulness, chivalry, refined speech, power of penance, Yajñas a n d charitable gifts. 4 3 . Hereafter listen, even as I recount, to the auspicious procedure which is carried out in the p r o p e r order after the B r ā h m a n a s have taken their food. 44. T h e performer of Ś r ā d d h a devoutly a t t a c h e d to the Pitrs, shall at the outset sprinkle the ground a n d lift (a p a r t i c l e ) . T h e n he scatters the rice in accordance with t h e injunctions. 45-46. T h e S v a d h ā M a n t r a i s r e p e a t e d . T h e B r ā h m a n a s a r e offered plenty of m o n e t a r y gifts duly. He t h e n asks t h e m " W h a t is to be done with t h e balance of foodstuffs ?" T h e y t h e n formally p e r m i t h i m to p a r t a k e of it along with t h e m e m b e r s of his family. 47. After honouring t h e excellent B r ā h m a n a s thus, he shall follow t h e m with palms joined in reverence. W i t h purity in m i n d he shall bid t h e m farewell.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN Enumeration of Holy Spots for Śrāddha Brhaspati Said : — 1. T h e u n c h a n g i n g a n d u n d y i n g Pitrs become pleased even if they a r e worshipped only once. T h e y a r e noble-souled ones of Yogic selves. T h e y have great strength a n d they a r e free from sins a n d evils.


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2-3. O gentle one, I shall tell you those lakes and rivers, sacred holy spots a n d countries, m o u n t a i n s a n d hermitages w h e r e they bless t h e devotees with most of their a t t a c h m e n t (desires) on the e a r t h , with the heavenly world after d e a t h , a n d with t h e a t t a i n m e n t of salvation in d u e course. 1 4-5. T h e m o u n t A m a r a k a n t a k a 2 is always sacred. It is t h e most excellent m o u n t a i n in t h e three worlds. It is holy a n d frequented by Siddhas a n d C ā r a n a s . Formerly, t h e holy lord Ańgiras performed a very severe p e n a n c e very difficult to be performed by others, for billions a n d millions of thousand years. 6. M r t y u (god of d e a t h ) has no access to t h a t place nor do t h e Asuras a n d Rāksasas have it. As long as the e a r t h exists there is no fear a n d no Alaksmī (loss of splendour a n d prosperity) there. 7. On a c c o u n t of his power of p e n a n c e a n d brilliant splendour t h a t excellent m o u n t a i n always shines like the Samvartaka (i.e. t h e all-destroying fire at t h e time of annihilation of t h e universe) on t h e peak of M ā l y a v ā n . 8. To t h e south of t h e N a r m a d ā , t h e K u ś a grasses are well r e p u t e d all a r o u n d . T h e y are soft, fragrant a n d very plea­ sing to behold. T h e y have a tranquil golden lustre. 9. e n t holy sake of t h e steps 1.

While performing t h e Agnihotra, the highly resplend­ lord Ańgiras used those excellent K u ś a grasses for the s p r e a d i n g r o u n d the altar formerly. He t h e n saw leading to t h e heaven.

H o l y places h a v e a deep psychological effect on religious-minded

persons. Śrāddha is to be performed in one's o w n house.

But as

JCP.II.22.17

states, holy places are no one's private property. A n d a list of such holy spots is r e c o m m e n d e d in different Purānas

like

KP.II.20-32-36,

V ā . P . Ch.

77,

M t . P . ch. 2 2 . N o t that these lists agree, but there is a great deal of overlapping as a number of holy spots like Gayā, Vārānasī, Prayāga, Puskara c o m m a n d respect from most of Hindus. H e r e is the list r e c o m m e n d e d by our T e x t . 2. A mountain in Bilaspur District of M a d h y a Pradeśa ( V ā . P. 77.10-11 and 15.16).

V i s n u D h . S. 85.6 highly glorifies the performance of Śrāddha

on this mountain. O u r T e x t gives the credit of this sanctity to the p e n a n c e of Ańgiras on this.


2.3.13.10-18

523

10. I shall recount t h e benefit attained by t h a t intelli­ gent m a n who offers Pindas on those D a r b h a grasses even on a single occasion on the m o u n t a i n A m a r a k a n t a k a . 11. T h a t Ś r ā d d h a becomes one of everlasting benefit. It increases the pleasures of the Pitrs. On reaching t h a t holy c e n t r e , they always vanish. 12. D u r i n g t h e Parvan days, a holy lake of brilliant flames is seen t h e r e . T h e river there, is Viśalyakarani (one t h a t removes p a i n d u e to t h e pricking of d a r t s ) of animals w i t h bony spikes (like p o r c u p i n e ) . 13. On t h e peak of t h e lordly m o u n t a i n M ā l y a v ā n , in t h e h i n d e r half of the country of K a l i ń g a , there is a pool on t h a t very excellent m o u n t a i n . It has an e d d y stretching towards t h e south-cast. 14. O excellent sages, it is mentioned as t h e greatest Siddhiksetra (the holy spot for accomplishment of super nor­ m a l power) on t h e e a r t h . It is equally a p p r o v e d of a n d h o n o u r e d by t h e Devas a n d t h e Daityas. U ś a n a s has sung this verse in this connection. 15. "Blessed a r e those persons in the world who a r e devotedly a t t a c h e d to t h e Pitrs a n d w h o will p r o p i t i a t e t h e Pitrs by m e a n s of Ś r ā d d h a after reaching t h e A m a r a k a n t a k a . 16. Those who worship even once in t h e A m a r a k a n t a k a go to heaven. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t they a t t a i n spiritual achievement with a very little p e n a n c e . 1

17. T h e m o u n t a i n M a h e n d r a is holy a n d beautiful. It is resorted to by Śakra. O n e becomes sanctified often climbing it. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed t h e r e yields great fruit. 18. After performing t h e yogic exercises on the summit of V a i l ā t a t h e divine vision begins to function ( i n the p e r f o r m e r ) . T h e devotee becomes unassailable a n d invin­ cible to all living beings. He walks over t h e earth lika a Deva.

1.

A mountain range from Orissa to M a d u r a

(including a part of

Eastern G h a t s ) but the n a m e is specially applied to the range of hills separating the Mahā-nadi from Ganjam dist. It is regarded as the resort of Paraśurāma. IX- 119, H D . I V . 7 7 7 .


Brahmānda Purāna

524

1

19. By taking a holy d i p in the Saptagodāvarī a n d t h e 2 p e n a n c e grove of G o k a r n a by giving c h a r i t a b l e gifts, one obtains the benefit of a horse sacrifice. 20. After reaching t h e holy spot " D h ū t a p ā p a " , 3 if a m a n takes a holy dip, he becomes sanctified. R u d r a , the great Iśvara, the lord of t h e Devas, h a d performed a penance t h e r e . 2 1 . A proof has been placed in t h e G o k a r n a by the Devas, in order to convince atheists (that they a r e w r o n g ) . If a n o n - B r ā h m a n a recites Sāvitrī M a n t r a there, he perishes (while reciting ?) 22. If a person climbs the p e a k D e v a r s i b h a v a n a (Abode of the celestial sage), frequented by Siddhas a n d C ā r a n a s a n d regularly continues t h e observances of holy rites, he goes to t h e heaven. 23. (There is a g a r d e n ) beautified by celestial sandal trees a n d other heavenly trees. W a t e r mixed w i t h sandal powder continuously flows from it. 24. A river n a m e d T ā m r a p a r n ī 4 flows from t h a t water collection. F r o m the g r e a t forest of sandal trees, it flows towards the southern ocean. 25. Oyster shells from where pearls are produced are the conchs washed d o w n to t h e great sea, carried by t h e river Tāmrā (Tāmraparnī). 26. If devotees bring water containing conchs a n d pearls, they become free from m e n t a l agonies a n d physical ailments. T h e y go to the celestial city A m a r ā v a t ī . 27. ( T h e c h a r i t a b l e gifts) of pearls a n d conchs p r o d u c e d from sandalwood cause the r e d e m p t i o n of Pitrs even t h o u g h they be p e r p e t r a t o r s of sinful activities as mentioned in t h e Vedas. 1. S a p t a - G o d ā v a r i — ( 1 ) T h e seven 'mouths' of the Godāvari while falling into the S e a ( 2 ) Solangipur sixteen miles from Pithāpur in the Godā­ vari D i s t r i c t — D e . 178. 2. G o k a r n a — A place sacred to Śiva on the Western Coast in K u m t ā Tehsil o f N o r t h K a n a r a D i s t r i c t — H D I V . 7 5 3 . 3.

A tributary of the G a ń g ā at Varanasi.

4. River rising in Agastya-Kūta-Mountain M a l a y a flowing through old Pāntfya country to the S e a (the gulf of M a n a r ) celebrated for pearl fishery. D e . 203.HD.IV. 812.


525

2.3.13.28-38a

28-30. In all these holy places v i z — C a n d r a t ī r t h a K u m ā r ī ( i . e . C a p e Comorin or K a n y ā k u m ā r ī ) the source of t h e Kāverī river, the holy spots on the m o u n t a i n Ś r ī p a r v a t a 1 a n d the m o u n t a i n Vaikrta, it appears as t h o u g h the trees Palāśa K h a d i r a , Bilva, Plaksa, Aśvattha a n d V i k a ń k a t a stand in one place, viz. the Auślra m o u n t a i n . This place should be known as D v i m a n d a l ā v i d d h a (pierced t h r o u g h two zones), O excel­ lent B r ā h m a n a s , a person who casts off his b o d y in this place goes to the celestial city Amarāvatī immediately. 3 1 . T h e holy rites performed in the holy centres of the Śrīparvata a n d the m o u n t a i n Vaikrta fructify from t h e beginning to t h e e n d . 32-35. T h e rites of Pitrs performed there, even if they a r e defective, yield the same benefit as do the defectless well performed rites. T h e holy river N a r m a d ā , the most excellent among the rivers is t h e d a u g h t e r of the Pitrs. T h e Ś r ā d d h a s offered therein become everlasting in yielding benefits. After performing the yogic exercises, in the holy forest of M ā t h a r a on t h a t great m o u n t a i n frequented by Siddhas a n d C ā r a n a s , the devotees vanish and go to heaven. On the holy m o u n t a i n Vindhya, there is a waterfall t h a t acts as test of virtue and evil. Sinners do not see t h a t waterfall. Good persons see t h a t waterfall. T h i s is how the sin of some evil doers becomes manifest there. 36. Birds t h a t could move as they wish, go to h e a v e n after taking b a t h in t h a t sin-destroyi t a n k of M ā t a ń g a o n t h e Kailāsa m o u n t a i n . 37-38a. In the following holy centres viz—the sacred spot of Ś a u r p ā r a k a 2 , the m o u n t a i n P ā l a m a ñ j a r a in the well of P ā n d u k ū p a near the sea a n d the banks of the P i d ā r a k a * which is free from sins a n d impurities, one shall perform the rite of 3

1. Śri Ś a i l a m in Kurnool District in A ^ d h r a Pradesh. O n e T w e l v e Jyotir-lińgas. De.

of the

2. Sopara, 4 miles N W . of Bassein in T h a n a District of M a h a r a s h t r a — 197. 3.

N e a r Ś ū r p ā r a k a — H D I V 787.

* Probably Pindāraka. It is near Golagar to the Gujarat.

east

of D w a r a k a

in


526

Brahmānda Purāna

Sarhkalpa (decision in the mind about the holy rite to be per­ formed) t h a t yields everlasting benefit. 38b-39. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed in the following places yields infinite bliss viz—Śrivrksa C i t r a k ū t a 1 , J a m b ū m ā r g a a n d t h e holy m o u n t a i n of Asita, the intelligent p r e c e p t o r of the Yogic cult. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed regularly in the Asita yields infinite bliss. 40. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed at P u s k a r a 2 yields everlast­ ing benefit. T h e p e n a n c e performed there yields great fruit. O n e shall point out the same thing in t h e same m a n n e r on the shore of the great ocean a n d at P r a b h ā s a 3 . 4 1 . T h e r e is a well named V r s a in the Devikā*. It is resorted to by the Siddhas. W a t e r comes out from it always with the sound of cows a n d bulls. 42. T h a t (holy c e n t r e ) is always resorted to by masters of yogic cult. It is always free from sins. I shall m e n t i o n t h e benefit attained by the person w h o offers Ś r ā d d h a there. 43-44. T h e Ś r ā d d h a gives infinite bliss. It yields all desires. It pleases a n d propitiates the Pitrs. T h e r e is a rock " J ā t a v e d a h - Ś i l ā " there directly n a m e d after the eternal fire­ god. ś r ā d d h a s a n d all holy rites which one performs there yield infinite bliss. He w h o enters fire there, rejoices in t h e heaven. 45-50. T h e r e is a place where the fire becomes tranquil ( a n d extinguished) and is produced once again. W h a t is offered there becomes everlasting. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t the sacrifices performed in the holy centres Daśāśvamedhika a n d Pañcāśvamedhika yield t h e benefit intended. 1. Madhya

Citrakūta—A Pradesh—HD

hill, 65 miles from Prayāga in B a n d a District of Iv/744.

2.

P u s k a r a — a sacred lake near Ajmer, Rajasthan.

3.

S o m a n ā t h a p a t t a n a in Saurashtra—one of the

sacredmost

Jyotir-

lińgas. It was demolished by M a h m u d of Gazni but w a s reconstructed

after

Independence of India. 4.

Devikā—variously identified w i t h the D e e g , a tributary of the

or w i t h Southern part of the Ś a r a y ū — D e . 55

Ravi


527

2.3.13.51-55

T h e r e is a holy centre well known by the n a m e H a y a ś i r a s which bestows the boon immediately. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed there is always everlasting in benefit. T h e donor (i.e. he w h o performs the Ś r ā d d h a and makes monetary gifts) rejoices in the heaven. Ś r ā d d h a should be offered in the holy centre S u n d a N i s u n d a . It is destructive of sins, S r ā d d h a there, is said to be everlasting. So also are t h e Japas, Homas a n d penances. O n e should always propitiate the Pitrs by offering w a t e r libations in the splendid holy centre Ajatuńga. It is the place where d u r i n g the Parvan days shadow of the heaven-dwellers is always seen. On t h e e a r t h , everlasting is the benefit of w h a t is offered in t h e place where the tree Virajas grows. It is always resort­ ed to by the masters of Yogic cult. It is out of the clutches of all sins. I shall m e n t i o n t h e benefit of t h a t person w h o offers Ś r ā d d h a there. 5 1 . T h e Pitrs become directly worshipped b y him. I n this world he will be one with perfect self-control. After d e a t h he becomes h o n o u r e d in the heaven. 52. Most of the M a d r a v a s are holy. So also is the eddy n a m e d Śfva. T h e r e the lake named Vyāsa Saras is holy. So also is t h e divine B r a h m a h r a d a . 1

53. T h e m o u n t a i n Ū r j a n t a is holy. It is the place where there is a shrine of the master of Yogic cult. H e r e itself is the sacred h e r m i t a g e of t h e noble-souled Vasistha. 54. T h e following have been created by the self-born l o r d — t h e T i r t h a s (named after) the Rk, Yajus a n d S ā m a n , the K a p o t a s (doves) and Puspasāhvqyas (having the same n a m e as flower) the fifth veda (characterised b y ) narratives i.e. t h e Purānas*. 5 5 . A B r ā h m a n a w h o visits these places a n d resorts to fire becomes rid of his sins. T h e Ś r ā d d h a performed in these 1. *

In Aparānta as per H D . I V . 8 1 5 . V ā . P . 77-53

the P u r ā n a )

reads: ākhyātah pañcamo vedah. ' T h e fifth veda

has been narrated.'

(viz


528

Brahmānda Purāna

holy centres yields infinite bliss. So also do the Japas, Homas a n d the penance ( p r a c t i s e d h e r e ) . 56. In the great holy centre Pundarīka the benefit is on a p a r with the white lotus ( ? ) . O highly intelligent one, the benefit in the B r a h m a t ī r t h a is on a p a r with t h e performance of all Yajñas. 57. T h e benefit is everlasting (for the holy rites performed) in the place where the river Sindhu meets the ocean, so also in the P a ñ c a n a d a . It is holy in the Virajā and M a d r a v ā on the m o u n t a i n . 58. Ś r ā d d h a must be offered in the S a p t a n a d a or parti­ cularly in the M ā n a s a . So also on the M a h ā k ū t a , the m o u n ­ tains A n a n t a and T r i k a k u d a . 59. At dusk, a great miracle is seen in the M a h ā n a d ī . It does not a p p r o a c h one who has no faith. It does a p p e a r to a person who maintains holy observances a n d rites. 60. After resorting to them one by one in the evenings d a y by day, Ś r ā d d h a should always be offered to the Pitrs who seek everlasting benefit. 6 1 . T h e r e is a holy centre n a m e d S v a r g a m ā r g a p r a d a (Bestower of guide to the p a t h to the heaven) which yields instant boons. It is the place where a m a n is found out to be self-possessed or not. 62. T h e seven sages h a d gone to the heaven after casting off their bark garments here. Even today those bark garments a r e seen in the waters. 63. By taking the holy d i p in t h a t excellent holy river a m a n attains heaven. T h e r e is a well known shrine of N a n d i n which is resorted to by the Siddhas. 64. T h e idol of Nandiśvara is not seen by persons devoid of good conduct. At the time when the sun rises, golden flames resembling sacrificial posts are seen there. 65. Devotees who c i r c u m a m b u l a t e t h e m become de­ lighted a n d go to the heaven. T h e land all over K u r u k s e t r a 1 is especially a very good holy centre. 1. swar.

The

famous sacred place in H a r y a n a — T h e country round T h a n e -

S o m e of the holy places mentioned in

VV 69-71 below are in Kuru-


529

2.3.13.66-77

66. It is the sacred holy centre of S a n a t k u m ā r a the noble-souled lord of the Yogic cult. It is glorified as yielding •everlasting benefit if the pitrs are offered gingelly seeds. 67-68. It has already been mentioned t h a t the Ś r ā d d h a performed by D h a r m a r ā j a was of everlasting benefit. If Ś r ā d d h a is offered on the new moon d a y in accordance w i t h the injunction and in the respective o r d e r by a m a n (in the Sarasvatī river) t h a t is near-by, it yields everlasting benefit. If the son worships the Pitrs particularly in K u r u k s e t r a or in the Sarasvatī near-by, he becomes free for indebtedness. 69-71. Ś r ā d d h a must be offered by a person who wishes for everlasting benefit in these holy centres viz—Sarasvatī, Vinaśana, 1 P l a k s a p r a s r a v a n a , z V y ā s a t ī r t h a o n the Drsadvatī,Triplaksa in particular, O m k ā r a p a v a n a , Ś a k r ā v a t ā r a in the G a ń g ā , t h e excellent m o u n t a i n M a i n ā k a a n d at the source of the Y a m u n a . T h e devotee is rid of all his sins. T h e r e are very hot a n d very cool water springs. 72. T h e holy sister of Y a m a a n d the splendid d a u g h t e r of the sun (i.e. t h e Y a m u n a ) is a sacred river. T h e Ś r ā d d h a there is always of everylasting benefit. This has been glorified formerly by the Pitrs. 73. By taking a holy dip in the eddy of B r a h m a k u n d a o n e becomes a B r ā h m a n a instantly. T h e Ś r ā d d h a (performed) there gives infinite bliss. So also are t h e Japa, Homa a n d penance. 74. Vasistha of great p e n a n c e performed his austerities there standing still like a s t u m p . Even today trees with jewels for their leaves are seen there. 75. T h e b a l a n c e t h a t indicated virtue a n d evil is also seen t h e r e . By means of t h a t , the excellent benefit of t h e holy centres was weighed by the B r ā h m a n a s . 76-77. T h e d a u g h t e r of the Pitrs, a Yoginī well known by t h e n a m e G a n d h a k ā l ī was b o r n t h e r e . She would give ksetra. T h u s Vyāsa-Tirtha or D v a i p ā y a n a H r a d a is situated near Thaneswar. T h e Sarasvati a n d Drsadvati rivers flow through it. 1.

The

spot

in the S a n d y desert in the district of Sirhind where the

Sarasvati disappears—De 37. 2.

The

source

of the river Sarasvati in the hills of Sirmur

.Niwalik range of the H i m a l a y a s — D e 180.

in

the


530

Brahmānda Purāna

birth to Vyāsa the noble-souled sage of great Yogic power. He would be born of the family of P a r ā ś a r a . He was the fourth p a r t of B r a h m a . T h a t intelligent great sage will divide the veda into four parts. 78-79. T h e r e is a lake n a m e d A c c h o d a k a . 1 T h e river Acchodā takes its origin there. ( G a n d h a k ā l ī ) was born again in the w o m b (species) of a fish on a c c o u n t of a direction (?' behest) a n d for a purpose. It is cited t h a t the Ś r ā d d h a offered even once in her first holy hermitage frequented by meritorious persons, will yield everlasting benefit. 80. W h a t is offered in the river will bestow simul­ taneously Yogic power a n d mental concentration ( ? ) . W h a t is offered in K u b e r a t u ñ g a and. Vyasatīrtha is destructive of sins. 81. It is laid down t h a t the Ś r ā d d h a offered at the Brahmavedī (the a l t a r of Brahma) yields infinite bliss. It is always resorted to by the S i d d h a s . It is perceived by persons of self control. 82. (The Śrāddha) in the N a n d ā which is on the North­ eastern q u a r t e r of the Vedī, yields the benefit of Anivartana (non­ r e t u r n to samsāra). It is the spot of spiritual achievement, resorted to by the gods after reaching which one never returns (i.e. attains liberation from s a m s ā r a ) . 8 3 . M a h ā d e v a , the intelligent deity, imprinted his foot in the shrine M a h ā l a y a for the purpose of merciful blessing of all living beings a n d as a proof of its efficacy for atheists ( t o convince t h e m t h a t they are wrong) . 84-85.. T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered at Virajā is of everlasting benefit. So also, the one at M a h ā l a y a (which has been mentioned) already. Those who perform Ś r ā d d h a at N a n d ā , Virajā 2 and

1. takes

A lake at the foot of m o u n t

Candraprabha. T h e river Acchodā

its rise from this lake. If identical w i t h Acchoda-sarovara in

Bāna's.

Kādambari, it is A c c h ā v a t , six miles from M ā r t a n d a in Kashmir. 2.

Variously

identified

w i t h a country round Jaipur in Orissa

(ii)

w i t h Lonardesh a n d a lake in Buldhānā District of Maharashtra a n d (iii) w i t h a hill in Sahyādri near Godāvari (?) and Bhimā.


531

2.3.13.86-94

M a h ā l a y a redeem themselves as well as ten generations of predecessors as well as those of successors. ( O n e who performs Ś r ā d d h a ) a t K ā k a h r a d a a t t a i n s Jātismarana (the power of r e m e m b e r i n g previous b i r t h s ) , good complexion a n d u n m e a s u r e d vigour a n d s t r e n g t h . 86. T h e holy lake K a u m ā r a is protected by t h e b o d y of serpents. By taking a holy dip in the K u m ā r a t ī r t h a , a m a n goes to h e a v e n . 87-88. ( P a r t i a l l y defective t e x t ) . By p e r f o r m i n g a diffi­ cult a n d severe p e n a n c e in the holy shrine of t h e goddess* at U m ā t u ń g a , standing on a single foot and abstaining from food, one a t t a i n s divine brilliance lasting for a Yuga. Ś r ā d d h a should always be offered at U m ā t u ń g a , Bhrgutuńga, B r a h m a t u ń g a a n d M a h ā l a y a by a person w h o wishes for everlasting benefit. 89. T h e S r ā d d h a offered at Ś ā l a g r ā m a 1 is always of everlasting benefit. T h e sin of those persons w h o have no self control is directly perceived there all r o u n d . 90-91. T h a t is a divine w a r n i n g to the evil-doers a n d especially so to good persons. T h e r e t h e Devahrada ( t h e e d d y of the Devas) is very holy. T h e p u r e serpent king of B r a h m a accepts the Pindas (rice-balls) offered by good people. For t h e highly refulgent serpents (?) it is impossible to eat t h e cooked rice. 92-94. D h a r m a ( V i r t u e ) is directly perceived in these two holy centres. By going into t h e cave (?) of Śāndilya a n d t h a t of V ā m a n a one becomes purified ( a n d sinless) a n d t h e Ś r ā d d h a performed there is of inexhaustible m e r i t . W h a t ­ ever one does, J a p a , H o m a , p e n a n c e o r m e d i t a t i o n , becomes well d o n e . He w h o m a i n t a i n s t h e vow of celibacy and devotion to the' p r e c e p t o r lives for a h u n d r e d years. T h e s e a n d others a r e t h e excellent rivers by taking b a t h in w h i c h one c a n get rid of sins. Kumāradhārā2 visited by a devotee.

is

there

itself.

Sin

perishes if

it is

* devyālaye as in V ā . P. 77.82 a. 1. A place near the source of the Gandak, the place where S a g e P u l a h a a n d Bharata performed penance. 2. D u e to its mention of Kāntipura (ancient n a m e of K a t h m a n d u ) and its protection by Kirātas, it m a y be located on the spurs of the Himalayas, t o the North-East o f K a t h m a n d u ( N e p a l ) .


532

Brahmānda Purāna

95-97. E v e n t o d a y t h e seat of m e d i t a t i o n of Vyāsa is seen there itself. T h e m o u n t a i n is situated in t h e n o r t h eastern q u a r t e r n e a r t h e city of K ā n t i p u r a . T h e r e is a holy lotus p o n d t h e r e . It is protected by groups of K i r ā t a s . By taking a holy d i p in it even once a B r ā h m a n a attains desires eternally. Be­ coming invisible to all living beings, he walks over t h e e a r t h like a god. 9 8 . T h e r e is a great holy centre of K ā ś y a p a well known as Kālasarpis. S r ā d d h a s should always be offered there by one w h o desires everlasting benefit. 99. In t h e forest called D e v a d ā r u v a n a 1 , t h e r e is a water­ fall w h i c h is a proof of t h e removal of sins. T h e original sins of noble souls of good meritorious deeds a r e seen as they are. b e i n g washed away. 100. On the river Bhāgīrathī it is said ( t h a t t h e Ś r ā d d h a ) is always of everlasting benefit if performed at -Prayāga, 4 Kālañjara, Daśārna, Naimisa and Kurujāńgala. 101. Ś r ā d d h a should be scrupulously offered ( w i t h effort) in t h e city of V a r a n a s i . T h e lord of t h e Yogic cult is always present there. W h a t is offered t h e r e is of everlasting benefit. 102. By going to these holy centres one shall become e n d o w e d w i t h t h e m e r i t of pious liberality a n d gets sanctified. T h e Ś r ā d d h a is of everlasting benefit. W h a t e v e r is performed, w h e t h e r Japa, Homa or m e d i t a t i o n shall become well d o n e a n d meritorious. 103.

In the holy

centres

of L a u h i t y a 3 V a i t a r a n ī ,

and

1. This is situated on the G a ń g ā near Kedar in Garhwal. Badarikāś r a m a is situated in this V a n a . 2. T h e s e are identified as follows: Prayāga ( A l l a h a b a d ) ; Kālañjara (Kalinjar in Badausa Sub-Division of Banda District, Bundelkhand ( M . P . ) ; D a ś ā r n a (Eastern N . M a l w a , including Bhopal i n M a d h y a Pradesh, V i d i ś ā •was its c a p i t a l ) ; N a i m i s a (Nimsar, 45 miles NW of L u c k n o w , U t t a r P r a d e s h ) ; Kurujāńgala (a forest country situated in Sirhind, NW of H a s t i n a p u r — D e . 3. T h e following are identified as per D e ' s D i c t i o n a r y ; L a u h i t y a (the Brahmaputra, A s s a m ) ; Vaitarani (the river Baitarani in Orissa) Jaipur stands on this river.


533

2.3.13.104-111

Svargavedl n e a r the seashore t h a t goddess (?) is seen t h r o u g h n a m e s * (? by t h e Japa repetition of t h e n a m e s of the goddess). 104. T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered at D h a r m a p r s t h a t h e lake of B r a h m a a n d G r d h r a v a t a is of great benefit. 105. Snow falls there five Yojanas all a r o u n d . T h e forest of the holy h e r m i t a g e of B h a r a t a is r e m e m b e r e d as e x t r e m e l y meritorious. 106. T h e forest of M a t a ñ g a is seen there by all m e n . Everything connected with virtue h a d been established by h i m as a model evidence for this world (for all the p e o p l e ) . 1

107-108. T h e D a n d a k a forest there is very holy. It is frequented by persons of meritorious deeds. T h e y say t h a t the 2 holy centre n a m e d Viśalyā is in it. It offers proof instantaeously t h r o u g h various Śāstras a n d T u l ā m ā n a s (the weighing b a l a n c e a n d t h e b e a m s ) . T h e persons w h o c o m m i t sins o n c o m i n g i n t o contact with it e m e r g e * * . 109. T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered on t h e Trtiya ( t h i r d ) d a y of the l u n a r fortnight at the foot or in t h e circular zone of N i r ā d h ā (?) or in the great eddy of t h e Kauśikī is of g r e a t benefit. 110. T h e intelligent deity M a h ā d e v a set foot on M u n d a p r s t h a . 3 For m a n y divine Yugas, he performed a very severe p e n a n c e very difficult to be performed by others. 111. H e r e , a righteously inclined m a n casts of his sins within a short while, just like t h e serpent t h a t quickly casts off its old slough. *

T h e text hereof—sā tu devī samudrānte drsyate caiva nāmabhih is obscure.

V ā . P. '77.97a reads: sakrdeva

samudrānte

dryśyate

punyakarmabhih

/

" O n account of meritorious acts, it is seen only o n c e near the s e a " 1.

D a n d a k ā r a n y a probably comprised all forests

from

Bundelkhand

or B h o p a l right d o w n to the Godāvari or the Krishna river. H D . I V . p. 7 4 5 . 2. **

A branch of the N a r m a d ā — D e 3 9 . T h e idea seems t o b e : — t h e p a n containing the sins g o e s d o w n a n d

the p a n h o l d i n g the sinners g o e s up thereby indicating h o w sinful they are. 3.

A hill situated on the Western b a n k of the P h a l g u river at

HD.IV.827.

Gayā


534

BrahmSnda Purina

112. It causes delight to the Siddhas. It is terrible to the sinners. It is protected by very terrible great serpents with t h e i r tongues m o v i n g up a n d down for licking. 113. T h e holy centre b y n a m e K a n a k a n a n d ī ( n e a r Gayā) is well known in the world. It is on t h e n o r t h of the M u n d a p r s t h a . It is frequently resorted to by the B r ā h m a n a sages. 114. By taking their holy d i p there, m e n go to heaven a l o n g with their physical bodies. It is cited t h a t the Ś r ā d d h a offered there is always of everlasting benefit. 115. By taking a holy dip there, a m a n redeems his body from its threefold indebtedness. O n e should perform Ś r ā d d h a after taking b a t h in the M ā n a s a lake. 116. On t h e b a n k of t h a t lake, there is a great shrine. After getting on to it a n d performing Japa, one shall get spiritual a t t a i n m e n t a n d go to heaven thereafter. 117. After going to t h e U t t a r a M ā n a s a , one attains very excellent Siddhi (spiritual e n l i g h t e n m e n t ) . After taking the holy b a t h in t h a t excellent lake, one sees a great miracle. 118-120. Falling off from heaven, t h e holy river of great splendour a n d majesty shines in the a t m o s p h e r e . It is the divine river G a ń g ā flowing in the t h r e e worlds after slipping down from the foot of Visnu. There in t h e sky is seen a g r e a t festoon resembling the sun. It is meritorious a n d golden. It is like the widely opened door to t h e heaven. It is from there t h a t the river flows once again embellish­ ing t h e entire ocean a n d sanctifying all living beings particular­ ly those who a r e conversant with piety a n d virtue. 121. T h e C a n d r a b h ā g ā (the' C h i n a b ) a n d t h e S i n d h u a r e two splendid rivers originating from the M ā n a s a (lake). T h e y flow into the western ocean. T h e divine S i n d h u river is a big river. 122. T h e m o u n t a i n n a m e d H i m a v ā n is embellished with different kinds of minerals. It is m a n y thousand Yojanas in length. 123. T h e r e is a c h a r m i n g lotus lake there n a m e d Susum n ā . It is full of Siddhas a n d C ā r a n a s . It is frequently resorted to by groups of celestial sages.


2.3.13.124-137

535

124. O n e who takes b a t h t h e r e , lives for ten thousand years. T h e Śrāddha offered t h e r e is of limitless benefit a n d g r e a t rise ( p r o s p e r i t y ) . 125. T h e Śrāddha always redeems ten generations predecessors a n d t e n generations of successors.

of

Everywhere the H i m a v ā n is holy a n d sacred. T h e G a ń g ā is sacred all r o u n d . 126. All the oceans a n d t h e rivers flowing into t h e oceans are sacred all r o u n d . A learned m a n should perform Śrāddha in the holy centres like these a n d others. 127-130. O n e should perform Śrāddha always in accor­ d a n c e with t h e injunctions. T h e devotee becomes sanctified by taking b a t h , by performing Homas a n d offering charitable gifts. T h e Śrāddhas shall be performed in the following p l a c e s : — Ridges of m o u n t a i n s , caves a n d dens, lonely spots of the slopes of m o u n t a i n s , waterfalls, banks of rivers a n d their sources, g r e a t ocean, cowpens, confluences of rivers, forests, pleasing fragrant spots well scrubbed a n d smeared, v a c a n t houses, places well smeared with cowdung. 131. T h e alert devotee should perform Ś r ā d d h a thus in all these places after going to the south-east q u a r t e r , with t h e desire for doing everything desirable. 132^134. T h e intelligent (devotee performing Śrāddha) in all these places shall a t t a i n the Brāhmi Siddhi ( t h e state of be­ ing the B r a h m a n a n d the a t t a i n m e n t of spiritual enlighten­ m e n t ) . T h e o p p o r t u n i t y of worshipping the Pitrs is a t t a i n a b l e to those people engaged in t h e activities ordained for the people belonging to the three high castes a n d the different stages of life. T h e y must discard ( t h e occasions of) anger. Even a person who has c o m m i t t e d m a n y sins becomes sanctified if he boldly undertakes the pilgrimages w i t h great faith, c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d m e n t a l purity. W h a t then in t h e case of a person performing splendid holy rites ? He is never b o r n in the lower species of animals n o r in despicable country. 135-137. A B r ā h m a n a becomes a citizen of heaven. obtains means of absolution (Moksa).

He


536

Brahman (la Purāna

T h e following five persons never achieve the benefit of holy centres of pilgrimage v i z — O n e who has no faith, one w h o leads a sinful life, an atheist, one whose doubts a r e not cleared a n d a Hetunisfha ( u l t r a - r a t i o n a l i s t ) . T h e r e is a great Siddhi in G u r u t ī r t h a . It is the greatest spot a m o n g holy centres. M e d i t a t i o n is a great holy centre. T h e e t e r n a l B r a h m a t ī r t h a is greater t h a n t h a t . M a d i t a tion is greater t h a n fasting. T h e w i t h d r a w a l of the senseorgans is also necessary. 138-143. O n e shall bring P r ā n a a n d A p ā n a u n d e r control by keeping the vital airs inter-connected with fasting. Thereafter, all t h e sense-organs must be brought under control. T h e intellect should be restrained within the mind a n d all ( t h e sense-organs) should be w i t h d r a w n . If this Pratyāhāra (with­ drawal of the sense-organs) is carried out, know that it is u n d o u b t e d l y the means of Liberation {moksa). Among the senseorgans, t h e mind is terrible. T h e transformation of the intellect etc. can be achieved through abstinence from food. A person who undertakes fast attains everlasting benefit. It should be known t h a t fasting is a form of p e n a n c e . W h e n the intellect a n d the mind are restrained the knowledge of other things does not arise. W h e n all the defects are destroyed, when the sense-organs a r e suppressed, the p u r e soul attains the bliss of Liberation like the fire devoid of fuel. T h e person conversant w i t h the Yogic practice engages the Ksetrajña (individual soul) by means of the Yogic exercise, remaining away from all causes a n d casting off Gunas, entirely, whether manifest or unmanifest. He does not go towards nor has he a situation within everything that is either manifest or unmanifest. He is neither sat (existing) nor asat (non-existing) not sat-asat (existing-cum non-existing). He is nothing at all b u t he has existence.


537

2.3.14.1-9a CHAPTER FOURTEEN Purification Rites; Śrāddha Ritual; Sight of a Nude Ascetic to be Avoided Brhaspati Continued:—

1. Henceforth, I shall r e c o u n t t h e benefits of all (kinds of) c h a r i t a b l e gifts. I shall m e n t i o n things considered p u r e a n d worthy for the Ś r ā d d h a rite a n d those w h i c h should be avoided therein. 2. O n e should perform Agnihotra on a steep snow-capped precipice or fetch snow from there ( ? ) . T h a t is sacred a n d conducive to great welfare as well as longevity. 3. O n e should avoid performance of a Śrāddha at n i g h t 1 because R ā h u is seen elsewhere(?). As soon as R ā h u is seen Śrāddha m u s t be performed w i t h all of one's assets. 4. He who does not perform (Śrāddha) at t h e time of eclipse becomes dejected like a cow sinking into t h e m u d . He w h o performs it ( a t t h e time of eclipse) shall s u r m o u n t sins like a good boat in the sea. 5. (Defective text) In Vaiśvadeva a n d S o m a sacrifices, t h e flesh of a rhinoceros ( o r a buffalo) is t h e greatest offering. It is not t h r o u g h rivalry t h a t we feed with t h e flesh of a rhinoceros (buffalo) excluding the horns. 6-9a. (Defective t e x t ) — O n c e T v a s t r was t h e Y a j a m ā n a (performer of a sacrifice) w h e n t h e noble-souled lord of Devas was t h e presiding deity. While the consort of Śacī (i.e. I n d r a ) was drinking the Soma juice, a few drops fell . in t h e m i d d l e on the ground. Śyāmākas (a kind of rice) grew there. T h e y are successfully used for (propitiating) the Pitrs. T h e sprays of the Soma juice sticking to a n d coming out of his nostrils became Iksu ( S u g a r c a n e ) . H e n c e , sugarcane is phleg­ m a t i c , cool, smooth a n d sweet. O n e should perform all the P i t r rites for the fulfilment of desire with Śyāmāka a n d sugar­ cane. He w h o performs Āgrayana i.e. the first soma libation at the Agnistoma Sacrifice (with Śyāmāka a n d Iksu) attains t h e fulfilment of desires quickly. 1.

Cf.

KP.II.16.8.


538

Brahmānia Purāna

9 b - l l . Śyāmākas having two n a m e s , have been laid d o w n in the Smrti texts for t h e purpose of Yajña. As they have been created by the Devas they are r e m e m b e r e d as Aksaya (of everlasting benefit). As regards their qualities or efficacy (in this rite) Prasātikas (kind of r i c e ) , Priyańgus and grams also a r e on a p a r with Śyāmākas. Black grams, gingelly s« a n d p a d d y grains a r e excellent. 12. Mahayavas, Nispāvas, Madhūlikās (a kind of Citron?) Black rice and black metals are censurable ( a n d hence prohi­ bited) in the Ś r ā d d h a rite. 13-21. Rājamāsa a n d other things must be scrupulously avoided. Mas ūras( variety of pulse are) sacred. Kusumbha (safflower) is t h e a b o d e of goddess Laksmī. T h e following things are sweet a n d excellent for S r ā d d h a r i t e . 1 Atiyava ( d u r i n g the rainy season) Vrsaka, ( n a m e of a p l a n t ) , Vāsaka, Bilva, Āmalaka M y r o b a l a n ) , Mrdvika (grapes) panasa (Jack fruit), Ārhrāta ( t h e h o g p l u m ) , Dā&ima ( p o m e g r a n a t e ) , Tavaśolamyata (?) Ksaudra, Kharjūra ( d a t e s ) , Āmra (mango) fruit Kateru (Scirpus grossus, L i n n ) , Kovidārya, ( n a m e of a tree, H i n d i Kacnar) , Tālakanda, Bisa ( l o t u s ) , Tamāla Śatakanda, Madvasūcānta, Kāndiki, Kāleya, Kālaśāka(thc pot h e r b ocimutn sanctum) ,Bhūripūrnā, Suvarcalā, [Ruta Graveolens), Ekāmsāksa, Duviśāka, Bubucetāmkura, Kaphālaka, Kanā (grains of kana), Drāksā (grapes), Lakuca (Artocarpus lacucha) Coca (the fruit of t h e fan p a l m ) , Alābu ( g o u r d ) , Grivaka, Karkandhū 1.

For list of food, fruits, vegetables etc. recommended for Śrāddha.

Cf. V i s n u D h . S. 79.17. O u t of the lists of plants given here, the following are the corresponding botanical terms given in works like All India Ayurvedic Dictionary, Āyurvedīya materia medica, KirfeVs I n d e x Tālakanda—If If If Kāleya— If

to his edition (yellow

=Tālaka =Tālīsa

(Abie

of Asfāńga-hrdaya.

arsenic) Weffiiana)

=Tālamūtī

(Curculigo

=Kaliyaka

(Coscinium

=Kala

(capparis

Grivaka—Grewia—asia tica

fenestratum)

sepiaria)

(?)

Madhusāhvaya—If=madhuyas(i If=Madhūka

Orchioides)

(Glycyrrhiza g l a b r a ) .

(Madhuca

Indica)

Śrńgajapa—Śsńgavera—synonym of karkataśrńgī— R h u s Succedanea. I am indebted to D r . Y. W a d h w a n i of the Sk. Dictionary D e p t t . of the D e c c a n College, P u n e for the above information.


2.3.14.22-28

539

t h e jujube b e r r y ) Madhusāhvaya, Vaikańkata, Nālikera (coconut) Srńgajapa Carūsaka ( n a m e of species of fruit), Pippall, ( p i c h e r lumgum) Maricam ( p e p p e r ) , Patola (fruit of Tricho santhis Dioeca) and Brhati (Brinjals). F r a g r a n t flesh of stout animals (? pīvanti) a n d all astrin­ gent things. O t h e r excellent a n d sweet things such as N ā g a r a , D i r g h a m ū l a k a (a kind of radish) Vamśa Karira (shoot of a b a m b o o ) , Suras a Sarjaka ( t h e Sāla t r e e ) a n d B h ū a t m ā (andropogon schoenanthus) can be offered in the Ś r ā d d h a rite. I shall m e n t i o n those things t h a t should always be avoided in the Śrāddha rite. 22-23a. Laśuna (garlic), Grñjana ( c a r r o t ) , Palārt(ju(a kind of o n i o n ) , Pintfam ūlaka (globular radish) Karambha (groats or flour mixed with curds) a n d other things t h a t are devoid of taste a n d smell a r e to" be avoided in the Ś r ā d d h a rite. T h e reason for the same is m e n t i o n e d . 1 23b-24. Formerly^ in the course of a w a r between the Devas a n d the Asuras, Bali was defeated by the gods. F r o m his limbs w o u n d e d by the arrows, drops of blood fell d o w n . It is from t h e m t h a t all these things L a ś u n a etc were p r o d u c e d . 25. Similarly, red exudations a n d salts found in arid lands should be avoided in the r i t e of Ś r ā d d h a . W o m e n in their m o n t h l y periods should also be avoided. 26. W a t e r e m i t t i n g foul smell, w a t e r having froth a n d foams, water from a wayside puddle, water whereby a cow is dissatisfied a n d water d r a w n and kept d u r i n g the night (should be avoided). 27. T h e following milk should be avoided by a person w i t h wisdom^r-the milk of a sheep, t h a t of a deer, t h a t of a camel, t h a t ot all animals w i t h a single (i.e. n o t cloven) hoofs, t h a t of a buffalo a n d t h a t of G a m a r a deer. 28. Henceforth, I shall mention the places t h a t should be scrupulously avoided, the persons by w h o m the Ś r ā d d h a rite should not be seen a n d the entire procedure regarding cleanli­ ness a n d pollution. 1.

Cf. V ā . P. 78.12 and 15; also Smrti candrikā—Śrāddha, pp. 415-416.


Brahmānda Purāna

540

29. W i t h great faith one should perform Ś r ā d d h a by means of fruits, roots a n d foodstuff available in t h e forest. He then attains royal position as well as infinite heavenly bliss. 30. In t h e Ś r ā d d h a rite, one should avoid a ground with undesirable noise, which is n a r r o w or impure, pervaded by insects, m u d d y a n d dirty a n d which emits foul smell. 1 31-32. Rivers adjoining t h e sea, their entrances from the south a n d east a n d t h e entire c o u n t r y of T r i ś a ñ k u ( t o a limit of) twelve Yojanas should be avoided. T h e lands known as T r i ś a ń k u are b o u n d e d on t h e n o r t h b y M a h ā n a d ī a n d o n t h e south b y the ( m o u n t a i n ) V e ń k a t a . These tracts of land called Triśańkus should be avoided for t h e Ś r ā d d h a rite. 33. T h e territories of K ā r a s k a r a s ( K ā r a k a l in south K a n a r a ) , Kalińgas, t h e n o r t h e r n region of t h e S i n d h u as well as t h e countries where the discipline a n d virtuous practice of t h e various stages of life is n o t in vogue, should be scrupulously avoided. 2 34. T h e JVagnas3 ( n a k e d ) and other persons must n o t see t h e well-arranged Ś r ā d d h a rite. T h e Ś r ā d d h a viewed by these do not reach t h e Pitrs or t h e P i t ā m a h a s (grandfathers). śamyu inquired : 35-38a. O holy lord, recount to me the Nagnaŕ ( n u d e s ) a n d other persons even as I ask you earnestly.

1.

Cf.

MK.

P.

29.19.

2. It is not k n o w n w h y these parts of the country like Oriss'a,Talangana> Northern region of S i n d h u etc. are prohibited for Ś r ā d d h a ; whether

they

were b e y o n d the pale of Brahmanism and the majority of p e o p l e were following Jainism a n d Buddhism w h e n this portion of this text was written. 3.

T h e explanation i n W . 3 5 f f below shows that the term Nagna

includes Jainas, Buddhists, Jivakas (i.e. Ājivakas, the followers of Mankhali Gosāla) and such other sects w h o did not follow Brahmanism.

It includes

also apostate Brāhmanas, atheists and the committers of gross sin s ( M a h ā p ā t a k a s ) . Cf. V i s n u D h . S. 82.3 ff, M b h . Anuiāsana 91.43-44 V ā . P . 78 & 3 1 , also KP I I . 21-3, 234-25. T h e idea is that mere sight of the sacred Śrāddha food

by these pollutes it.


2.3.14.38b-45 Brhaspati

541

said:—

T h e Trayi ( i . e . the three Vedas) is declared as the protec­ tive covering for all living beings. Those people w h o out of delusion discard it are called nudes a n d others. A B r ā h m a n a or a K s a t r i y a or a V a i ś y a is u n d o u b t e d l y a Vrsala (Śūdra) in t h e following instances: a) O n e in w h o m t h e Vedic stage of life gets dissolved or vanishes i.e. a person w h o does not strictly a d h e r e to t h e dis­ cipline of t h e four stages of life as explained in t h e Vedas. b) He who has no support in Vedic stage of life. c). He w h o a b a n d o n s t h e Vedic stage of life a n d seeks liberation elsewhere a n d d). He w h o does not have a clear vision of the Vedic stage of life. 38b-42. Formerly, in t h e b a t t l e between t h e Devas a n d t h e Asuras, the Asuras were defeated. T h e y created t h e here­ tics like Vrddhaśrāvakīs, N i r g r a n t h a s , (nude J a i n a s ) , Śākyas ( B u d d h i s t s ) , Jīvaskas a n d K ā r p a t a s . Those who do not follow piety and righteousness are t h e people called N u d e s . T h e following also can be called Nagnas: — O n e w h o wears m a t t e d hair without any specific aim, one who shaves off his h e a d w i t h o u t "any specific aim, the B r a h m i n who moves a b o u t naked purposelessly, one w h o m a i n t a i n s Vratas (sacred rites a n d observances) without purpose, one who repeats m a n t r a s purposelessly. T h e y are p e r m a n e n t transgressors of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l righteous rites, they m a i n t a i n their jobs a n d wives purpose­ lessly* (?), they point out to the acts performed by t h e m (?) — they are declared as persons following a means a n d lowly p a t h . T h e Ś r ā d d h a offered'or looked at by these goes to t h e D ā n a v a s . 43. O n e shall discard the very sight of these v i z — t h e B r ā h m a n a slayer, the ungrateful one, t h e atheist, t h e defiler of t h e preceptor's bed, t h e robber a n d t h e ruthless person. 44-45. Persons of cruel activities are fallen ones. O n e should avoid all of t h e m . T h e Ś r ā d d h a perceived by t h e follow­ ing goes to the Asuras a n d Y ā t u d h ā n a s viz—those who a r g u e Vrttikalatraka is obscure.


542

Brakmānda Purāna

a n d i n t e r r u p t the discussion on t h e Devas a n d t h e sages; he who condemns t h e Devas, the B r ā h m a n a s a n d t h e Vedas. 46. T h e K r t a Yuga is said to be B r a h m i n i c a l . T h e T r e t ā Yuga is t h a t of the K s a t r i y a s . T h e y say t h a t D v ā p a r a is t h e Yuga of t h e Vaiśyas a n d K a l i y u g a is r e m e m b e r e d as the Yuga of the Ś ū d r a s . 47. T h e Pitrs were h o n o u r e d i n t h e K r t a Y u g a ; the Suras were worshipped in t h e T r e t ā y u g a . Wars were always worshipped in the D v ā p a r a Yuga a n d t h e heretics were respected in t h e Kaliyuga. 48. By merely looking at Śrāddhas, all these destroy t h e m viz—one w h o has no honour, one w h o is cast off a n d discarded, the domestic pig a n d the dog. 49. W h a t is touched by does or pigs (should not be used in a Ś r ā d d h a ) . It should never be seen by persons of chronic diseases, fallen persons a n d dirty ones. 50. T h e food offerings t h a t these (above-mentioned ones) look at do n o t deserve to be used for Havya orKavya. T h e y are to be a b a n d o n e d . In emergency cases they a r e to be consecrated by m e a n s of i m p o r t a n t things. 5 1 . (Defective text) T h e Havis offerings (if they a r e looked at by the above-mentioned ones) should at t h e very outset be discarded. T h e y can be cleansed with p r o p e r ( s a c r e d ) water. Sprinkling with water is also prescribed. '"' 52. Or it c a n be spread over with w h i t e m u s t a r d or black gingelly seeds. Or w i t h efforts it should h a v e the sight of view of t h e preceptor, sun, fire or such sacred t h i n g s * . 53-56. T h e following should be discarded in the Ś r ā d d h a rite : — t h e cooked rice a n d o t h e r eatables when they fall on seats a n d a r e sat u p o n , t h a t which is kicked by t h e foot, t h a t which is seen by i m p u r e mobile beings, dried a n d stale things, t h a t w h i c h is b u r n t too m u c h , t h a t which is licked by fire, t h a t which is spoiled by sandy particles, worms, pebbles a n d hairs, t h e oil cake a n d p o u n d e d particles of gingelly seeds, barley e t c ;

*

vāsara in the text m e a n s " d a y " but w h e n " t h e s u n " is already men­

tioned in the c o m p o u n d , the w o r d is superfluous, vastu from V ā . P. a c c e p t e d here.

78.42 is


2.3.14.57-65

543

the foodstuffs got ready b u t a p p a r e n t l y too saltish; t h e things t h a t are seen a n d defiled by dogs or taken up by persons with defects a n d particles (of flour etc.) shaken off by t h e clothes should be avoided in the Ś r ā d d h a rite. 57. T h e r e are some persons who profess to be very g r e a t wise m e n merely by speaking against the Vedas. Those recluses (without sacrifices) (Ayajñā yatayah) * certainly destroy (a Ś r ā d d h a ) like the dust particles. 58-60. O n e shall avoid greens mixed with curds, food­ stuffs devoid of medicinal properties, the egg p l a n t and all kinds of distilled liquors in the Ś r ā d d h a . Salt taken from seawater and salt originating from M ā n a s a lake—these two are extremely sacred. T h e y must be p u t i n t o fire a n d t h e n taken stretching the hands. T h e y must be placed on the h e a d (?) which is declared as B r a h m a t ī r t h a . T h e Prok­ sana (sprinkling w a t e r ) rite should be performed in respect of t h e articles ( u s e d i n a S r ā d d h a ) . 61-62. 1 T h e process of purification of stones, roots, fruits, sugarcane, ropes a n d leather is by placing t h e m in w a t e r a n d sprinkling t h e m . All types of wickwork vessels can be p u r i ­ fied as before. Scraping (brushing) a n d scratching is t h e process of purification of vessels m a d e of ivory, bone, wood a n d horn. 63. T h e process of purification of all types of e a r t h e n pots is b u r n i n g t h e m once again. T h e same is the process of purification of vessels of precious gems, pearls, corals a n d shells. 64. T h e purification of all types of h a i r and wool shall be t h r o u g h t h e Kalkas ( p o w d e r e d particles) of white m u s t a r d a n d gingelly seeds. 65. T h e purification of all bipeds is by m e a n s of clay a n d water. T h e first process of purification of the feet is washing them with water (?).

* .1.

V ā . P. 78.47 reads: ayajñayatayo nāma for ayajñāyatayo of the text. W . 61-67 describe the various methods o f purification o f different

articles including the ground.


544

Brahmānda Purāna

66. Purification of c o t t o n (garments) is by m e a n s of ash. T h a t of fruits, flowers a n d leaves is by floating t h e m on water. 67. T h e purification of the e a r t h (i.e. g r o u n d ) is by various means. W a t e r c a n b e sprinkled. I t ' c a n b e smeared with cowdung. I t c a n b e scraped a n d scratched. W a t e r can b e poured over it in plenty. A cow c a n be m a d e to t r e a d over it. A por­ tion c a n be b u r n e d or d u g . 68-69. (Defective text) In a village the e a r t h is purified by means of the air t h a t is set in motion when (cows) move out. T h e process of purification of h u m a n beings 1 a n d c a t t l e is pres­ cribed t h r o u g h m u d . T h e excellent process of purification (of m a n y articles etc.) is thus prescribed.; Listen to w h a t is not m e n t i o n e d h i t h e r t o , even as I recount i t / 70. 1 In t h e m o r n i n g one m u s t go a distance of an arrow's throw from t h e house in t h e south western direction. After covering his head ( w i t h a c l o t h ) , he should evacuate his bowels. He should never touch his h e a d w i t h his h a n d . 71. He m u s t do it in a very secluded spot after covering t h e ground w i t h white grass, or leaves, or wood or pieces of b a m b o o sticks. 72. D u r i n g the d a y t i m e , he should face t h e n o r t h a n d d u r i n g the night he should face t h e south. After finishing the work of evacuating t h e bowels, he should take up some m u d a n d the p o t of water w i t h o u t u t t e r i n g any word. 73. H e should take t h e w a t e r pot w i t h t h e right h a n d a n d wash the anus w i t h t h e left h a n d . He should apply clay to t h e anus three times. 7*; On t h e left h a n d , clay should be applied ten times slowly a n d gradually. T h e n a p p l y clay on b o t h the h a n d s . T h i s is optional. T h e n apply clay seven times on b o t h the h a n d s . 75. He should t h e n apply clay to t h e feet a n d wash t h e m . He shall t h e n perform t h e Ācamana (ritualistic sipping of w a t e r ) rite in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the injunctions. T h e first three

1.

VV.

70-96

below

deal

w i t h the topic of purification of m a n —

physical, m e n t a l a n d ritual. T h e defilement d u e to Āśauca

(whether due to

birth or d e a t h ) technically pertains to eligibility for ritualistic performances.


545

2.3.14.76-84 w a t e r drops h a v e

the sun,

the fire a n d t h e wind as

their

deities. 76. O n e should always keep two K a m a n d a l u s (waterpots) r e a d y a t h a n d . T h e y must not h a v e holes (as the w a t e r will leak o u t ) . It is only with t h e r e m a i n i n g w a t e r t h a t one should duly wash one's feet. 77. ( P a r t i a l l y defective t e x t ) . T h e r e is a second type of Ācamana in respect to the rites of t h e Devas. Fasting for t h r e e nights is cited (as t h e rite of e x p i a t i o n ? ) when one is freed from wicked persons (?) 78. I n respect t o p r o t r a c t e d cases ( ? Viprakrtesu * ) t h e rite of K r c c h a is cited for expiation. After touching a d o g or a C ā n d ā l a one shall perform expiation rite of T a p t a Krcchra. 79. After touching h u m a n bones, one should observe fast for the sake of purification. If t h e bones are oily (slimy) it is said t h a t t h e fast must be for t h r e e nights. Otherwise only for one night. 80-82. (Defective t e x t ) . T h e K ā r a s k a r a s , Kalińgas a n d the A n d h r a s , the Śabaras etc, t h e n o r t h e r n b a n k of t h e Sindhu, the region further to t h e n o r t h — t h e s e are t h e countries of sinners. T h e y are occupied by sinful persons. T h e y are avoided b y good people ( a n d ) the B r ā h m a n a s w h o have mastered t h e Vedas. If a n y one goes there o u t of a t t a c h m e n t or delusion, his sin c a n n o t be removed even if he drinks (holy) w a t e r with plenty of gingelly seeds* * ( t h e idea seems to be " e v e n if libations a r e offered by a n u m b e r of his successors") or even w h e n he goes (as a p i l g r i m ) to Y u g a n d h a r a (near K u r u k s e t r a ) . 83-84. By going to a place devoid of merit, one incurs all types of sins. He can get rid of his sins by climbing t h e B h r g u t u ń g a , by going to the sacred river Sarasvatī, or to the beautiful river G a ń g ā or to the divine river M a h ā n a d ī or to

* V ā . P. 78.67 reads viprakrsfena krcchrena " w i t h a protracted K s c c h r a expiation." ** the l i n e :

Pītvā cāpobhūtilapā gatvā cāpi yugandharam is obscure:

It

probably m e a n s " A n d e v e n after g o i n g to the country called Y u g a n d h a r a ;

»ear

Kuruksetra in H a r y a n a and drinking water (at or of B h u t i l a p a ? ) "


546

Brakmānda Purāna

the rivers rising in the H i m a v ā n or to the other rivers h o n o u r e d by the sages. 85. By going to all t h e holy lakes, rivers a n d waterfalls, he may be freed from sins. He enjoys infinite bliss in heaven. 86. In the case of a B r ā h m a n a , it is said t h a t he has defile­ m e n t for ten nights on a c c o u n t of t h e d e a t h of a relative or a birth in t h e family. It is prescribed for twelve days in the case of a K s a t r i y a . 87. It is for half a m o n t h in the case of a Vaiśya a n d for a full m o n t h in the case of a Śūdra. T h e lady in the m o n t h ­ ly period becomes p u r e in four nights. T h i s is t r u e in the case of all castes. 88. It is laid down t h a t one gets defiled by touching a. w o m e n in her menses, a w o m a n in confinement, a dog, a C ā n d ā l a , nudes (like D i g a m b a r a Jainas) N a g n a s a n d others a n d those persons w h o h a d carried a dead body. . 89. T h e purificatory rite in the above case is as follows. If it is a B r ā h m a n a , he must take a b a t h along w i t h his clothes. He will be p u r e by t h e application of clay twelve times. T h i s alone is t h e purificatory rite after indulging in sexual intercourse or after vomiting. 90-91. A m a n should perform purificatory rite after washing his h a n d s w i t h clay a n d water. After washing w i t h water, he must take b a t h a n d clean his h a n d s w i t h clay once again. He should perform this rite in three stages so t h a t t h e total n u m b e r shall be twelve. T h e r e should n o t be a n y stickiness left. It is t h u s t h a t t h e injunction r e g a r d i n g purifi­ catory rites is to be observed in every case at all times. 92. In washing t h e feet, one should a p p l y clay three times to each of his feet. T h i s is t h e purificatory rite in t h e forest. Henceforth, I shall m e n t i o n t h e process of purification p e r t a i n i n g to (i.e. while residing in) t h e village. 93. Application of clay fifteen times particularly on h a n d s e t c . is purification. O n e should a p p l y the clay once over a n d above the prescribed n u m b e r of times. After t h e application of the clay one shall wash it w i t h water. 94-96. In all these cases, if t h e d i r t is not clearly visible the process of purification is by m e a n s of w a t e r alone.


547

2.3.14.97-106

If one covers the neck or the head a n d goes a l o n g t h e streets or b a z a a r s (he becomes i m p u r e ) . If he does n o t wash his feet, he continues to be i m p u r e even after performing the Ācamana rite. He should wash his feet and set down t h e w a t e r p o t . After performing the Ācamana rite, he must sprinkle w a t e r for t h e purpose of consecration. He should also perform t h e sprink­ ling r i t e or t h e Abhyuksana of o t h e r articles. Sprinkling is d o n e in t h e case of flowers etc., grasses a n d Havis offerings as well. 97. Articles b r o u g h t by others must be purified by t h e Abhyuksana rite after placing t h e m down. O n e must n o t touch a n y t h i n g if it is not consecrated by t h e ritualistic sprinkling of water. W h e t h e r t h e rite is Ś r ā d d h a or it is a rite for t h e Devas. 98. An article must be received from t h e n o r t h e r n side a n d disposed off on t h e southern side. A Yajamāna (sponsorer of a Ś r ā d d h a ) shall perform every Ś r ā d d h a in a secluded spot. 99-100. In all rites pertaining to t h e Devas or the Pitrs there is likelihood of adverse results if one is Ucchisfa (i.e. polluted by the leaving of food e t c . ) . O n e should touch t h e southern altar with t h e right h a n d , a n d with b o t h t h e h a n d s the offerings u n t o the Devas a n d t h e Pitrs ritualistically scattered in a line. (Ācamana is the purificatory rite in t h e following cases :— W h e n one perspires, after getting up from sleep, after u r i n a t i o n a n d evacuation of bowels). 101-106. 1 W h e n one spits, after oil b a t h , after, taking food, after wearing t h e clothes, w h e n one touches o t h e r persons defiled by Ucchista, after washing t h e feet, after talking to a person defiled by Ucchista, after eating, w h e n one is m a i n t a i n ­ ing t h e physical p u r i t y for holy rites, in case of all d o u b t s after untying t h e knot of t h e tuft of h a i r as well as w i t h o u t t h e sacred t h r e a d , (if one touches) aimlessly, on touching a camel or a sheep, on seeing persons who speak words t h a t should n o t be spoken, touching (particles of food etc.) sticking to t h e teeth 1.

W.

101-106 state the importance o f Ācamana

(sipping o f w a t e r )

and circumstance under w h i c h this purificatory rite be performed.


548

Brahm&nda Purina

w i t h the t o n g u e producing a loud noise or by means of fingers or on seeing a fallen m a n . If one performs the Ācamana rite o u t of delusion while r e m a i n i n g standing, he shall c o n t i n u e to be i m p u r e . He must sit on a clean spot facing the east or t h e n o r t h . He must be p u r e in m i n d a n d body. He should have washed t h e feet before­ h a n d . T h e h a n d s should b e kept o n t h e l a p a n d h e should touch the water. W i t h m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d great purity, he should sip w a t e r t h r e e times w i t h pleasure. 107-109a. He should perform t h e rite of M ā r j a n a (sprinkling with water) twice a n d the rite of Abhyuksana once. He should sprinkle w a t e r over the sense-organs, h e a d , chest h a n d s a n d feet. W h a t e v e r is desired by a person who performs Ācamana rite thus will be fulfilled. T h e Vedas, the Yajñas, the austerities, the charitable gifts and the observances of holy T i t e s become fruitful. 109b-110a. If out of delusion, any one performs a holy rite without performing the Ācamana rite, he is an Atheist. U n d o u b t e d l y all sacred rites performed by h i m will be in vain. 11 Ob-112. Those which are sanctified by means of speech, body a n d intellect, t h a t which is not touched or t h a t which is n o t censured are all p u r e (?) T h e following should be under­ stood to be p u r e in t h a t case. Otherwise they are defiled a n d i m p u r e : — t h e m i n d , the speech, the body, the fire, the time, t h e engraving (?) a n n o u n c e m e n t of the purificatory rites, or p e r p e t u a l ignorance (?) If a n y one, o u t of delusion, performs it otherwise a n d m a k e s a mess of the whole rite of purification, the fruit u n ­ d o u b t e d l y goes to the Piśācas a n d Y ā t u d h ā n a s . 113. O n e w h o has no faith in the purificatory rite is b o r n a m o n g the Mlecchas ( b a r b a r i a n s ) . 114. A person w h o does n o t perform a n y Yajña, a sinner or a person b o r n as a low animal attains liberation by performi n g the purificatory rite. T h e m a n becomes a dweller of the heaven. 115. I n d e e d , the Devas desire purity. This is declared by t h e Devas. T h e gods always avoid odious a n d unclean fellows.


549

2.3.14.116—15-3

116-117. Persons of auspicious activities perform justi­ fiably t h e purificatory rites thrice. T h e gods bestow, whatever is desired in t h e m i n d even if it is t h e most excellent thing in t h e three worlds, on a person strictly a d h e r i n g to the Brahminical traditions, w h o receives guests, w h o is intelligent, w h o is p u r e a n d clean, w h o is devoted to t h e Pitrs, w h o controls his sense-organs a n d w h o h a s sympathy. T h e Pitrs increase his glory a n d prosperity.

C H A P T E R FIFTEEN The Test for a Brāhmana deserving for Śrāddha invitation.1 The sages said :— 1-2. "O Sūta, t h e Śrāddha-kalpa conducive to richness, h a s b e e n r e c o u n t e d by you. T h e Śrāddha-kalpas t h a t h a d b e e n glorified by the sages have been h e a r d by us. Its extensive details have b e e n particularly r e c o u n t e d . T e l l us, O intelligent one the real opinion of t h a t s a g e . " Sūta replied— 3. "I shall recount, O B r ā h m a n a s , w h a t the opinion of t h a t sage was, regarding Śrāddha. Even as I r e c o u n t it in d e t a i l listen to it, O fortunate o n e . 1.

T h e following verses describe the qualifications, learning, c h a r a c t e r

etc. of Brāhmanas worthy of being invited for a Srāddha, as the antecedents e t c . of invitees for rites pertaining to Devas a n d Pitrs must be scrupulously investi­ g a t e d ( w . 5-6 b e l o w ) . Heredity, personality, Vedic learning, character w e r e some of the m a i n considerations of such invitees. Cf. M t . P . 16.8-10, N P . I . 2 8 . 6-10,

KP.II.21

and Smr.C. {Smrti Candrikā)

\U.{Śrāddha Kānda),

pp. 389-394.

T h e ancient Smrtis insisted on purity of conduct, g o o d character. D e c l a r e s Manu

(11.118) "A Brāhmana w h o knows only the Gāyatri Mantra, but is self-

controlled is preferable to the Brāhmana w h o knows three Vedas but lacks in self-control, eats every-thing a n d sells any-thing

(forbidden by Dharma)".


550

Brahmānda Purāna

4. Śrāddha has been detailed by me before. T h e injunctions a n d rules of procedure in Śrāddha rite have also been m e n t i o n e d . I shall (now) explain the tests for selecting t h e deserving B r ā h m a n a s which has r e m a i n e d to be m e n t i o n e d . 5. B r ā h m a n a s should not be investigated u p o n a n d e x a m i n e d on all occasions. But in t h e rites regarding t h e Devas a n d the Pitrs t h e m e t h o d of testing t h e m is invariably laid down as sacred a n d excellent. 6. T h e person in w h o m defects are found is excluded from t h e rites. O n e shall scrupulously avoid t h a t person whose faults one knows, d u e to the fact of staying together. 7. A learned m a n should n o t investigate (too deeply) into a totally u n k n o w n Brāhmana stranger in regard to t h e Śrāddha rite. For, m a n y Siddhas w a n d e r over this E a r t h in t h e guise of Brāhmanas.1 8. H e n c e , w h e n a guest approaches one, one should welcome h i m w i t h palms j o i n e d in reverence. O n e should worship a n d h o n o u r h i m w i t h articles of worship, water for washing feet as well as oil b a t h a n d meal. 9. Devas a n d lords of Yogic cult a n d practice assuming different guises always m o v e a b o u t over t h e vast E a r t h extend­ ing up to t h e Seas on all sides. While doing so they m a k e t h e c o m m o n people m a i n t a i n virtue a n d piety. 10. H e n c e , a m a n of perfect self-control should h o n o u r t h e guest a n d feed h i m with various side dishes. I shall m e n t i o n t h e m as well as the fruit thereof. 11. If he honours t h e guest by offering milk, he a t t a i n s t h e benefit of Agnispoma sacrifice, if he honours t h e guest with milk p u d d i n g , he a t t a i n s t h e benefit of 'Uktha; if he honours t h e guest w i t h ghee, he a t t a i n s the benefit of sodaśi Satra a n d if he honours t h e guest with honey he a t t a i n s the benefit of 2 Atirātra. 1.

T h i s verse contradicts the above verse on the specious ground that a

totally stranger Brāhmana m a y be a Siddha in disguise. S o m e late Purānas like the Bhavisya (quoted in Bālambhaftī on Ācāra, p. 4 9 4 ) h a v e slackened these tests. 2.

It is such c h e a p promises of getting the fruit of sacrifices like Agms-

toma, Atirātra etc.

by offering ordinary things like milk or g h e e to

in meals, that adversely affected the Vedic institution of sacrifice.

Brāhmanas


2.3.15.12-19.

551

12. If a m a n feeds Brāhmanas a n d gives t h e m every thing they desire, t h a t rite alone bestows on him all wealth. T h e host of all those Brāhmanas always enjoys t h e benefit of all sacri­ fices. 13. T h e Devas reject a n d discard the person like an accursed d e s t i t u t e — t h e person who insults a n d dishonours t h e guest who approaches ^him at the time of Śrāddha rite or in a rite p e r t a i n i n g to t h e Devas. 14. For t h e sake of blessing t h e worlds, the invisible Devas a n d t h e Pitrs enter t h e Brāhmanas a n d p a r t a k e of t h e meal. 15. T h e guest who is not worshipped or h o n o u r e d blazes a n d burns. If he is h o n o u r e d , he shall bestow every t h i n g one desires. H e n c e , one should always h o n o u r a guest by spending everything t h a t one possesses. 16. To good people, w h e t h e r he is a forest-hermit, or a householder, t h e guest is on a p a r with Vālakhilya1 always. A Sannyāsin should also be k n o w n as such. 17. A guest is called Abhyāgata2 because he has moved according to his own desire. An Atithi shall be w i t h o u t fire A guest is called Atithi because he has no p a r t i c u l a r d a y for his visit. T h i s is said to be t h e etymological derivation of t h e word. 18. T h e following persons c a n n o t be received as Atithi (guests)..A person who does not keep up views a n d observances of rites, a m a n of mixed caste, a person without learning, a person who does not possess specialised knowledge, a person who is tied to his children ( ? ) , 3 a person w h o does n o t believe in t h e Devas* a n d a sinner. 19. A guest w h o has a l r e a d y w a n d e r e d a lot, who is thirsty, who is tired, a n d who is very h u n g r y should be received 1.

T h e verse m a y be interpreted to include a forest-hermit, a Vālakhilya

a n d a Sannyāsin as Atithis. 1,

T h i s is obscure V ā . P . 6 9 . 1 7 reads

syādayācakah. 'A visitor

is

(like)

a

: abhyāgato yācakah syād

mendicant

beggar.) 3.

W h o is child-less.

4.

W h o renders no service

(Sevī in V ā . P . )

but

Atithi

may

not

atithih be

a


552

Brahmānfa Purāna

hospitably a n d given food etc. by one who desires t h e benefit of a Tajña. 20. To a h u n g r y person the words " t h e r e is n o t h i n g " should never be uttered, O Brāhmanas. Every thing should be given to him after h o n o u r i n g h i m duly. He is a m a n worthy of being h o n o u r e d always. 2 1 . In Śrāddha rites one should always feed the following types of persons :— A person who is not t o r m e n t e d or inconsis­ tent, who has no w o u n d , who practises Yoga, who has slender means of subsistence b u t w h o is n o t a regular beggar a n d an intelligent person h a b i t u a t e d to solitude. 22. T h e wicked person who says " I will not give h i m " will never free himself from the sin even if he takes h u n d r e d births. 23-24. (Partially defective text) A m a n w h o joyfully feeds Brāhmanas in a single row becomes free from sin w h e t h e r the guests have been employed (i.e. invited) or n o t employed. T h r o u g h t h a t single row (of the fed Brāhmanas) he removes t h e sin (?) ( I f it is otherwise) he incurs sin immediately a n d all his good deeds such as Isfāpūrta, perish. A recluse must be at the h e a d of all the Brāhmanas1. 25. T h e excellent Brāhmana w h o studies the five sacred books viz. t h e Vedas a n d the Itihāsas should be seated after a person who is well-versed in Yoga, by the intelligent host. 26. A person w h o has studied three Vedas comes after h i m : a person of two Vedas be seated n e x t ; after t h a t comes the m a n who has studied one Veda andUpādhyāya ( o r d i n a r y priest) thereafter. 27. I shall m e n t i o n those persons who are considered sanctifying (the row of diners) in this connection. U n d e r s t a n d . Those who are m e n t i o n e d before have been m e n t i o n e d in the p r o p e r order (of their i m p o r t a n c e ) . 28. T h e following five persons should be understood as Pańkcipāvanas2 (those who sanctify the row of diners) viz. O n e 1. T h i s a n d the following verse state the priorities or precedence to be g i v e n to Brāhmanas according to their learning in the seating arrangement. It is note-worthy that a recluse or a Togī gets the first place of honour vide Supra II.iii.9.70. 2.

T h e belief that certain persons of specially h i g h character, merit,


553

2.3.15.29-34

w h o knows t h e six ancillary subjects or Ańgas of Vedas, a person w h o meditates, a person who practises Toga, Sarvatantra (one w h o has mastered all the systems of Philosophy) a n d Yāyāvara (a vagrant mendicant or saint). 29-32. He w h o is conversant with t h e Śrāddhakalpa sancti­ fies by his joining (the row of d i n e r s ) . O n e w h o has mastered at least one out of the fourteen Vidyās ( L o r e s ) , those w h o d u l y fulfil their duties—all these sanctify t h e row. U n d o u b t e d l y t h e Sauparnas1, those w h o m a i n t a i n five sacred fires, those w h o sing Sāman hymns, t h e Brāhmana who duly undertakes t h e pilgri­ mage by walking for twelve years, Trināclketas,2 Traividya (a p e r s o n ' w h o knows a n d has kindled t h r e e Naciketa fires a n d mastered three Vidyās, t h e Brāhmana w h o learns works of piety, the Brāhmana w h o has mastered t h e g r e a t scriptural text w r i t t e n by Brhaspati—all these are cited as sanctifiers of the rows. 33. If a Brāhmana w h o h a d been invited for a Śrāddha feast indulges in sexual intercourse w i t h a w o m a n , t h e Pitrs lie down in t h a t semen virile for t h e whole of t h a t m o n t h (?) 34. Charitable gifts should be given to a person strictly engrossed in m e d i t a t i o n or one w h o is sympathetic a n d one w h o is intelligent. O n e should feed a recluse or a Vālakhilya in t h e Śrāddha rite. learning etc. purify e x c o m m u n i c a t e d or such unedifying members of the society, by participating w i t h them by sitting in their rows for dining or even by their beneficent Sutras,

look has been prevalent in India even before the time of Dharma

vide Apastamba

Dh.S.II.7.17-22,

Strangely

Baudhāyana D h . S . I I . 8 . 2 , Manu III.185-186,

enough, Gautama

Tājñavalkya 1.219 use

(15.28), the

same

words about these sanctifiers of diners (Pankti-pāaanas). We get a long list of such sanctifiers in

M b h . Anuśāsana 90.25-31,

Mt.P.16.7-23, KP.II.21.-1-14,

Vā.P.79.56-59, 83.52-55. These lists are practically the same as those in V V . 28-32

hereof— 1.

Sauparnas or Trisuparnakas are the knowers of Trisuparna viz the three

Anuvākas beginning w i t h Brahmametu mām etc. (Taiŕ.^Ir.X.41-50.) 2.

Trināciketa is alternately explained a s : (i

A person w h o knows the Naciketa fire.

(ii)

A person w h o has thrice kindled the Naciketa fire.

(iii)

O n e w h o has studied the Anuvāka called Virajas

(Tait.Br.lll.-

11.7-8) which describes the Naciketa fire and the story of Naciketas..


554

Brahmānda Purāna

3 5 . If t h e Śrāddha is performed for a forest-hermit, he becomes satisfied by the worship alone. If a person feeds a householder, the Viśvedevas are h o n o u r e d thereby. 36. Sages are h o n o u r e d through worshipping a foresth e r m i t , Indra is h o n o u r e d t h r o u g h the Vālakhilyas. If the worship of Sannyāsins is performed, Brahma is directly worshipped thereby. 37-38. T h a t stage of life which is a m i x t u r e of all is called the fifth Āśrama. It is n o t sanctifying. T h e four Āśramas should be h o n o u r e d in the Śrāddha rite as well as the rite p e r t a i n i n g to the Devas. 39. No c h a r i t a b l e gift should be given to those w h o are outside t h e limits of the four Āśramas. A person beyond t h e p a l e of the four Āśramas m a y . r e m a i n with only air for his diet a n d perform a p e n a n c e , b u t , since he does not belong to a n y Āśrama, one should n o t invite h i m t h e r e (i.e. in a Śrāddha). 4 0 . 1 T h e r e are certain persons possessing obnoxiously severe p e n a n c e ; others profess to know m u c h a n d argue in various ways, still others censure t h e Brāhmanas—But all these a r e defilers of the row (of d i n e r s ) . 4 1 . T h e Aupavastas (certain people over-obsessed w i t h fasting), t h e Sāmkhyas, t h e atheists, those w h o find fault with t h e Vedas, those people w h o censure m e d i t a t i o n — a l l these are defilers of t h e row (of d i n e r s ) . 42. T h o s e w h o purposelessly shave off their heads, those w h o aimlessly keep their hairs m a t t e d a n d all .those who m a i n t a i n themselves by carrying sacred waters, are defilers of

1.

W . 4 0 - 5 6 give a list of persons w h o are defilers of row of

diners

(Pańkti-dūfakas). T h e s e lists are c o m m o n to Smrtis and Purānas such as Manu III.151-166,

Tājñ.Smr.I.222-224,

Brhad

Tama

.SW.ni.34-38,

Mbh.

AnuSāsana

90.6-11, Mt.P.16.14-17, B M . P . 220.127-135, N P . 1.30-41, K P 11.21.27-46 to m e n t i o n a few. Apart from the textual similarity,

the lists are interesting

from the point of social history as they reflect w h a t persons, vocations, ways of life were looked d o w n upon by the elites

of those times. H e r e sects w h o

insist on long fasts

(these were originally atheists),

non-Brahmankal

(e.g. Jainas),

mendicants

like

Sānkhyas Bauddhas,

Jainas,

Saiva

sects

like

Kārukas,

persons n o t following the vocations of their castes etc. are regarded as unworthy for being invited to Śrāddha or to receive gifts.'


2.3.15.43-56

555

the row. O n e shall avoid all those persons who are merciless, w h o break t h e rules of good c o n d u c t and w h o eat a n y t h i n g a n d everything. 4 3 . O n e should not feed the following persons with oblations m e a n t for gods or Pitrs : viz. Kārukas (a Śaiva sect) a n d others not abiding by rules of good conduct, those w h o are e x c o m m u n i c a t e d from t h e ordinary society as well as t h e Vedic one, the professional singers a n d those w h o sell the Vedas as means of subsistence. 44. He w h o has social and o t h e r contacts with these, a t t a i n s black complexion ( t a i n t ) . He who takes food along w i t h a Śūdra is a defiler of the row. 4 5 . Ploughing, tilling, killing of animals, agriculture, marketing, b r e e d i n g of cattle a n d serving the enemy or any o n e except the p r e c e p t o r — a l l these activities are forbidden to Brāhmanas. 46-48. O n e should avoid all those persons w h o have false heretical views a n d w h o are illbehaved. T h e following too should be avoided in the Śrāddha r i t e : — t h e person who puts in a false plaint, a person w h o censures others, t h e talebearer, t h e hypocrite or h a u g h t y , persons guilty of m i n o r sins, those w h o are particularly guilty of sins, those w h o employ others to s t u d y Vedas on their behalf, those w h o are greedy a n d deluded, those w h o seek ( t h e i r own) benefit a n d those who sell t h e Vedas. T h e r e is no provision for substitutes in the study of the V e d a s ; he w h o employs a n y such substitute is a sinner. 49-50. T h e speaker (i.e. t h e teacher to such a substitute) shall fall off from the benefit of the Vedas a n d the donor from the benefit of charitable gifts (in the above case of substitution). A person hired to teach the Vedas a n d a person who is t a u g h t by such a person ( h i r e d one) — d o not deserve being invited to a Śrāddha rite. A B r ā h m a n a who maintains himself by buying a n d selling (also does not deserve invitation to a Śrāddha r i t e ) . Buying a n d selling for t h e sake of subsistence are despicable. 51-56. T h i s is t h e profession of a Vaiśya b u t a sinful acti­ vity in the case of Brāhmana. He who studies Vedas by means of h i r i n g charges (charging tuition fees) a n d he w h o makes a Jiving t h r o u g h the V e d a s — t h e s e two do not deserve Śrāddha


556

Brahmānda Purāna

invitation. T h e son-in-law also does not deserve Śrāddha invita­ tion. T h e person who approaches his wife in vain (?), the person who sacrifices in vain (?)., these two do n o t deserve Śrāddha invitation. O n e shall not feed in Śrāddha a Brāhmana who is a usurer, those persons whose wives love others, those persons who love other persons' wives a n d those who are too m u c h fond of wealth a n d sex. Those who a r e opposed to t h e specific duties of the differ­ ent castes a n d stages in life, those who are against all holy rites, a thief a n d a person w h o performs Yajña on behalf of all a n d sundry—all those are defilers of the row. If a Brāhmana eats like a pig, or if the Brāhmana eats off (from) his p a l m or if he takes food h e a r i n g rebukes (?) t h e Pitrs do not p a r t a k e of t h a t food. T h e leavings of food from a Śrāddha should n o t be given to women or Sūdras. 57. If a n y one out of delusion gives it away like t h a t , the food does n o t r e a c h t h e Pitrs. H e n c e , foodstuffs a n d other r e m n a n t s of a Śrāddha site should not be given away. 58. W h a t e v e r remains except curds a n d ghee should be given to the son a n d not to others. T h e r e m n a n t s should be given—particularly t h e cooked rice a n d other food-stuffs. 59-62. In the end they roots a n d fruits a n d d e p a r t .

m a y be satisfied

with flowers,

T h e Pitrs p a r t a k e of t h e food as long as they a r e cooked ( ? ) , as long as t h e h e a t is retained a n d as long as t h e Brāhmanas take their food silently. ( I n a Śrāddha) the following rites should be performed in such a m a n n e r t h a t they do not pass on to the Asuras :— the act of giving away, the acceptance of m o n e ­ tary gift, the Homa, t h e feeding, the oblation a n d t h e offer of Pādya (water for washing t h e feet) along w i t h the t h u m b (?). These are t h e ways of giving all types of charitable gifts—the performer should sit d a w n (keeping the h a n d s ) in between the knees. Similarly, while performing the Ācamana rite also one should sit thus. O n e should avoid persons with tonsured h e a d , persons w i t h m a t t e d h a i r a n d persons with ochre robes in t h e Śrāddha. rite.


557

2.3.15.63—16.1

6 3 . Those who always abide by good conduct, those w h o h a v e perfect knowledge, those who m e d i t a t e , t h e devotees of the lord a n d noble-souled one shall sanctify even by mere sight. 64. Offers of gifts should be m a d e to those who h a v e tufts, w h o have a t t a c h m e n t to t h e essential ingredients a n d who have the three staffs : T h e entire region of the three worlds is always pervaded by masters of t h e Yogic c u l t . 65-66. Hence, they see every thing t h a t is in the universe. T h e y keep the manifest a n d the unmanifest under their control. T h e y understand t h a t which is greater t h a n every thing else. T h e t r u t h and falsehood h a v e been perceived by those noble souls. T h e y have seen the Sat and the Asat. All types of means of acquiring knowledge a n d absolution have been evolved by those noble souls. 67-68. Hence, he w h o is always devoted to t h e m attains excellent benefit. He w h o knows the Rk M a n t r a s knows all the V e d a s ; he who knows the Yajus M a n t r a s understands the Yajña; he w h o knows the Sāman M a n t r a s knows the Brahman, he w h o knows Mānasa ( t h e m i n d ) knows everything. 1

8

CHAPTER SIXTEEN Praise of Charitable gifts in Śrāddha Brhaspati said :— 1. " H e n c e f o r t h , I shall recount t h e various charitable gifts a n d the rewards thereof. 2 It redeems all living beings a n d makes the p a t h to heaven h a p p y a n d comfortable. 1.

P e o p l e of those periods h a d a d e e p faith in the powers of Togins.

2.

A l t h o u g h ancient works insisted u p o n avoidance of lavishness in

expenditure on Śrāddha, later Purānas encourage profuse expenditure on Śrād­ dhas e.g. P d . P . Srsfi-Khartda 9.179-181. V a r ā h a P.13.50-51 and V P . I I I . 1 4 . 2 2 2 3 . Pitrs are reported to h a v e s u n g two Gāthās expressing their desire to h a v e a


558

Brahmānda Purāna

2. Everything t h a t is the most excellent in the world a n d whatever is pleasing to oneself—should be given to the Pitrs by one who seeks only their c o m m a n d (support ?) 3. T h e d o n o r of cooked rice obtains eternally a golden divine Vimāna (heavenly car) refulgent like the sun, full of celestial damsels a n d never diminishing in its splendour. 4. He who gives (cooked rice) along with condiments (side dishes) in the Ś r ā d d h a rite unobstructedly, obtains longe­ vity, brilliance, affluence a n d splendid beauty. 5. T h e knower of Yajñas w h o gives the sacred thread at the time of S r ā d d h a obtains t h a t benefit of B r a h m a d ā n a (gift of Vedic learning) which sanctifies all B r ā h m a n a s . 6. If at the time of Ś r ā d d h a a person gives the Brāh­ m a n a s a full K a m a n d a l u ( w a t e r - p o t ) , it will r e a c h the d o n o r along with honey, milk, ghee a n d curds. 7. He w h o , at the time of Ś r ā d d h a gives a K a m a n d a l u fitted with wheels (?) obtains a divine cow t h a t can be milked easily and t h a t yields plenty of m i l k . * 8. He w h o at t h e time of Ś r ā d d h a ' r i t e gives two sandals coushioned with cotton obtains a splendid vehicle. T h e com­ fort of his feet increases. 9. By giving a B r ā h m a n a a fan m a d e of p a l m leaf after duly h o n o u r i n g him, one obtains all types of soft fragrant flowers. 10. By giving a pair of shoes to t h e B r ā h m a n a at the time of Ś r ā d d h a , the learned m a n always obtains a vehicle yoked w i t h horses. 11. If, at the time of S r ā d d h a a person gives an umbrella along with a g a r l a n d of flowers, it becomes an excellent palace a n d follows h i m as he goes (to the land of d e a t h ) . 12. By giving at t h e time of Ś r ā d d h a a platter full of jewels along w i t h bed a n d meal, to Tatis (Asceties), the learned m a n is h o n o u r e d in t h e heaven. descendant w h o w o u l d bestow on Brāhmanas

(for the benefit of the Pitrs)

jewels, clothes, land, costly vehicles. O u r text also echoes th

same tendency

of encouraging lavish gifts in Śrāddha [vide w. 16-20, 23-25 e t c . ) T h e reward promised is happiness in h e a v e n {vide w. 13-15). *

Kāma-dohinī "wish-yielding" in V ā . P. 8 0 . 7 .


2.3.16.13-25

559

13-15. He obtains all these things :—Pearls, Lapis Lazuli, robes, different kinds of jewels, divine vehicles, millions a n d millions in n u m b e r . He gets a great, meritorious heavenly chariot which c a n pass t h r o u g h the sky, is equipped with every­ thing desirable a n d which resembles the moon a n d the sun. It will not diminish in value. It will be surrounded by celestial damsels. It can go wherever one likes to go. It will have t h e splendid speed of the m i n d . He will stay at the t o p of t h e heavenly chariot being eulogised by people all r o u n d . He will be surrounded by divine flowers. L e a r n e d men say t h a t this is the greatest of all charitable gifts. 16-20. O n e should offer golden vessels of very glossy brilliant surface in Ś r ā d d h a . T h e n divine juices a n d beverages along with food-stuffs and good fortune will a p p r o a c h him. He who gives the B r ā h m a n a s gingelly seeds a n d sugarcane (pieces) in the Ś r ā d d h a rite gets friends in the world a n d very great bliss in women. He w h o gives fascinating metallic vessels along w i t h Ś r ā d d h a meals, becomes the object of affection a n d the p r o u d possessor of b e a u t y a n d wealth. If a person gives silver or gold d u r i n g t h e Ś r ā d d h a rite he obtains as a result of t h a t c h a r i t a b l e gift everything, he desires as well as brilliance and wealth. If at the time of Ś r ā d d h a , a person gives a cow t h a t has given birth to only one calf a n d t h a t yields a pot full of milk; cows a n d good nourishment will a p p r o a c h t h a t m a n . 2 1 . A m a n w h o with great efforts gives d u r i n g t h e winter a fire with plenty of wood, obtains the brilliance of the fire of his body, splendour a n d good fortune. 22. If, at the advent of the winter, a m a n gives fuel to t h e B r ā h m a n a s he always becomes victorious in b a t t l e . He is reborn, richly endowed with glory. 23-25. O n e shall welcome, h o n o u r and worship noble souls a n d deserving persons in the Ś r ā d d h a rite a n d offer t h e m fragrant garlands of sweet scent. Different kinds of pleasures and chaste young ladies a p p r o a c h t h e d o n o r with scented garlands. He who, at t h e time of Ś r ā d d h a

ceremonies offers these


560

Brahmānia Purāna

things such as beds, seats, carts a n d vehicles, shall obtain t h e benefit of a horse sacrifice. 26-28. At t h e time of t h e Ś r ā d d h a ceremony when a B r ā h m a n a of good qualities has arrived if a person gives h i m an article t h a t he desires, he shall obtain good power of memory and intelligence. O n e shall h o n o u r (deserving persons) in t h e Ś r ā d d h a ceremony and give t h e m vessels filled with ghee. He shall enjoy t h e benefit of offering m a n y cows t h a t had given b i r t h to only one calf a n d t h a t will yield pot full of milk. In a Ś r ā d d h a , if one gives whatever is desired (by the r e c i p i e n t ) , one obtains t h e benefit of the P u n d a r ī k a sacrifice 1 . 29-33. By giving a grove fully e q u i p p e d with flowers a n d fruits one enjoys t h e benefit of Gosava sacrifice. By giving wells, parks, lakes, fields, cowpens a n d houses the donor rejoices in heaven for ever as long as the moon a n d stars exist. If a person gives a well-covered bed embellished with jewels at t h e time of Ś r ā d d h a ceremony his Pitrs become satis­ fied and he enjoys the heavenly worlds. In this world he gets a richly equipped chariot. He is h o n o u r e d with eight good vehicles. He increases in wealth and a gain. After feeding t h e B r ā h m a n a s in accordance with the injunc­ tions t h e following things should be offered to t h e m : — G a r ­ m e n t s of leaf, silk a n d wool, bedsheets a n d blankets, antelope skin, gold b a n d , Praveni (coloured woolen cloth) a n d fur of the deer. 34-36. A m a n of great faith obtains t h e benefit of Vājapeya sacrifice. M a n y beautiful wives, sons, servants a n d a t t e n d a n t s r e m a i n u n d e r his control. All t h e living beings r e m a i n u n d e r his control in this world. He becomes free from ailments.

1.

T h e promise of the fruit of sacrifices for dāna (religious gifts) must

h a v e resulted as a dis-incentive for performing sacrifice, and these Brahmanical writers get the dubious credit of adversely affecting t h e ancient Vedic institution of sacrifice.


561

2.3.16.37-47

He w h o gives at t h e Ś r ā d d h a ceremony silken cloth or c o t t o n cloth o b t a i n s all excellent a n d desirable things. These •destroy Alaksmi (lack of brilliance or poverty) like t h e sunrise t h a t destroys darkness. 37-38. On t h e t o p of a heavenly chariot, he shines like t h e m o o n a m o n g t h e stars. In all rites p e r t a i n i n g to t h e Devas, clothes have been praised by all t h e Devas. In t h e absence of c l o t h e s — n e i t h e r Yajña n o r charitable gift n o r penance—is possible. H e n c e , clothes must always be given at t h e time of Ś r ā d d h a ceremony. 39-40. By giving t h e m (clothes) in a Ś r ā d d h a a m a n obtains all those things. He who is p u r e a n d devoted should give (clothes) in the d a i l y Ś r ā d d h a rite. He shall then obtain everything he desires, the kingdom a n d heaven also. He enjoys the benefit of a Yajña richly endowed with every desirable thing. 41-42a. He w h o gives the following things shall o b t a i n t h e benefit of Agnistoma :—well cooked foodstuffs, Svastika (a kind of cake) e t c . along with sugar, K r s a r a * , honey, ghee, milk, milk p u d d i n g , a n d every type of eatable h a v i n g smooth oily n a t u r e (fried in ghee or oil.). 42b-44. By giving curds and milk products without mixing t h e m ( w i t h other eatables) a n d different kinds of edibles in Ś r ā d d h a , one does n o t feel aggrieved d u r i n g t h e rainy season or w h e n M a g h ā star (is in a s c e n d a n c y ) . O n e should feed t h e B r ā h m a n a s w i t h ghee a n d shall p o u r .(a few drops) of ghee on t h e ground. By giving in S r ā d d h a d u r i n g Gajacchāyā (when t h e sun is in K a n y ā ) , o n e does n o t feel aggrieved. By giving cooked rice, milk p u d d i n g , ghee, honey roots a n d fruits a n d different kinds of eatables, one rejoices here a n d hereafter. 45-47. Beaten rice mixed w i t h sugar a n d milk is of everlasting benefit.

*

A dish consisting of sesamum a n d grain (mixture of rice peas w i t h

a few s p i c e s — M W p. 308.

ii.

row.)


562

Brakmānda Purāna

T h e satisfaction shall last for a year, t h r o u g h greens a n d juices of flesh (? gravy), Saktu (flour of fried g r a i n s ) , Lājā (fried c o r n ) , sweet rice peas, pulses with various side dishes—(all these yield pleasure to t h e P i t r s ) . O n e shall mix curds with all eatables fried in ghee a n d feed (the B r ā h m a n a s with t h e m ) . He who gives all these things at the Ś r ā d d h a c e r e m o n y obtains t h e treasure Padma (of K u b e r a ) . 48. He who gives in Ś r ā d d h a , fresh plants after duly and scrupulously h o n o u r i n g (the B r ā h m a n a s ) attains all worldly pleasures a n d is h o n o u r e d after he goes to t h e heaven. 49-52. Food stuffs are of various k i n d s : those t h a t should be chewed a n d eaten, t h a t should be drunk like liquids, Cofyas where the juice is sucked up as in the case of m a n g o fruits, Lehyas which should be licked u p . (All these variet'es of food­ stuffs m u s t be given in Ś r ā d d h a ) . T h e performer shall stand with palms joined in rever­ ence after giving the prior place of sitting to t h e guests. He shall then obtain the excellent benefit of allYajñas a n d K r a t u s . O n e shall feed a h u n g r y m a n immediately. T h e rice shall not be overcooked. It shall be offered along with pickles a n d side dishes. It shall be smooth and glossy. It shall be served after honouring h i m scrupulously and lovingly. A person w h o gives cooked rice obtains an aerial chariot that shines like the m i d d a y sun and t h a t is d r a w n by swans. He obtains crores of virgins also. T h e r e is no greater c h a r i t a b l e gift t h a n the gift of cooked r i c e . 5 3 . It is from the cooked food that the living beings are born. T h e y live on account of it. T h e y a r e powerful on account of it. T h e r e is no greater charitable gift t h a n the gift of life. 54. Worlds are stabilised on account of cooked food. Its benefit is t h a t of the gift of the world. Cooked food is Prajāpati himself. All the visible worlds are pervaded by it. 55-57. H e n c e , a charitable gift on a p a r with the gift of cooked food has never been before nor will it be in future. 1

1.

Cf. Vā.P.80.54-57. In fact the whole of that c h a p t e r in V ā . P . is

textually identical w i t h this text.


563

2.3.16.58—17.4

A m a n w h o is devoted to t h e Pitrs obtains i m m e d i a t e l y w h a t e v e r jewels there are on t h e e a r t h , all t h e vehicles a n d all w o m e n (?) If a person stands with p a l m s joined in reverence a n d offers asylum (house, shelter etc.) to t h e guests, t h e Devas wait for a n d welcome him w i t h thousands of divine hospitable activities. He w h o gives all these things shall become t h e sole m o n a r c h over t h e e a r t h . 58-59. O n e shall be h a p p y by offering three or two or even one charitable gift. C h a r i t a b l e gifts are considered of the greatest virtue. It is h o n o u r e d a n d respected by good people. T h e overlordship of all t h e three worlds is certainly available t h r o u g h Dana. A non-king obtains kingdom. A m a n w i t h o u t wealth obtains excellent wealth. A m a n devoted to t h e Pitrs always regains his lost longevity.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Appropriate Tithis For Performing Śrāddha* Brhaspati continued:— 1. " H e n c e f o r t h I shall describe t h e three types of Śrāddhas. Viz. t h e Ajasra (i.e. the Nitya or daily o n e ) the Naimittika (the conditional or occasional a n d t h e Kāmya (i.e. one performed with some desirable object in view). T h e s e Ś r ā d d h a s are h o n o u r e d ones. 1

2-4. T h e t h r e e Astaka Ś r ā d d h a s a r e performed for welfare of sons a n d wives. T h e y a r e performed

the * few

T h i s chapter is textually identical with Ch. 81 of the V ā . P . with

a

variants. I.

The

word

Affakā asfan according to Vārttika 9 onPānini V I I . 3 . 4 5

means 'a rite w i t h Pitrs as deities.

ĀSvalāyana Gr.S.II.4.1

states that the 8 t h

d a y in the dark halves of seasons H e m a n t a — and Śiśira are Asfakas i.e. there are four Astakās. But most other Grhya Sutras differ a n d regard the 8 t h d a y


564

Brakmānda Purāna

o n t h e 8 t h d a y i n t h e D a r k half o f t h e l u n a r m o n t h s M ā r g a śīrsa Pausa M ā g h a . T h e first one is t h e most excellent one -with A k h a n d a l a ( I n d r a ) for its deity. T h e second one is Prājāp a t y a ( w i t h Prajāpati for its deity) T h e third one is Vaiśvadevika (with Viśve Devas as deities) The-first one is always to be performed w i t h sweet rice peas. T h e second one should al­ ways be performed w i t h m e a t . T h e third one should be per­ formed w i t h greens ( a n d vegetables). This is the injunction regarding t h e articles (used for Ś r ā d d h a ) . In this connection it is laid down t h a t the Nitya Śrāddha is desired by t h e Pitrs. 5-6a. T h e other one, t h a t is t h e fourth type of Śrāddha on a new m o o n d a y (?) should be performed always w i t h special c a r e . A learned m a n performing Ś r ā d d h a in all these (Tithis) even by sacrificing his entire possession, immediately attains welfare a n d rejoices b o t h h e r e a n d hereafter. 6b-7a. T h e Pitrs a r e t h e presiding deities d u r i n g t h e Parvan days ( n e w m o o n days) a n d t h e Tithi days (i.e. 7th, 8 t h a n d 9 t h d a y s ) . These persons go to (all t h e places of Śrāddha) like the cows going towards t h e t r o u g h of d r i n k i n g w a t e r . 7b-8. If they a r e not duly honoured d u r i n g t h e Asfakas they m a y r e t u r n at the e n d of the m o n t h . His hopes a n d wishes (i.e. t h e wishes of t h e person w h o does n o t perform Śrāddha) become fruitless everywhere, b o t h h e r e a n d hereafter. T h e r e is progress a n d welfare to those who worship; there is downfall u n t o t h e atheists. 9-10. T h o s e w h o give ( t h e d o n o r s ) go to t h e Devas a n d those who do n o t give go to t h e lower strata of animals. Those w h o perform worship on these Tithis enjoy in full everything such as n o u r i s h m e n t , power of m e m o r y , intellect, sons, glory a n d riches. in the dark halves of Margaśirsa,

P a u s a a n d M ā g h a as Asfakā days.

Our

text does n o t follow A ś v a l ā y a n a Gr.S. G r h y a Sutras differ about the offerings on these Asfakās a n d the deities for w h i c h they are meant, though the Vārttika m e n t i o n e d above regards Pitrs as the dtvatā on these days.

But according to

o u r Purāna, I n d r a is the deity of the 1st Asfaka, Prajāpati of the 2 n d and V i ś v e d e v a s o n the third a n d n o t the Pitrs( ! ) . W h e n Asfakā w a s t o b e performed i n o n e month, the 7th, 8 t h and 9 t h d a y s after the F u l l M o o n d a y o f M ā g h a are t o b e taken.


2.3.17.11-16

565

^ h e Pratipad ( t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e l u n a r fortnight) i s conducive to t h e acquisition of wealth (if Śrāddha is performed on t h a t d a y . W h a t e v e r is acquired by h i m does not perish. 11. He w h o performs (Śrāddha) on the second Tithi shall become t h e overlord of all bipeds. To those

w h o seek excellent things Trtiyā (the t h i r d d a y

of t h e l u n a r fortnight) is t h e destroyer of enemies a n d sins. 12. He w h o performs (Sr&ddha) on t h e fifth day a t t a i n s g r e a t glory a n d splendour. 13-14. O n e w h o performs Śrāddhas on t h e sixth d a y shall be worthy of respect d u e to his effort. T h e m a n w h o always performs Śrāddhas on the seventh d a y a t t a i n s t h e status of t h e ruler of t h e E a r t h . He shall be t h e chief of Ganas (Groups or followers of Ś i v a ) . T h e m a n w h o performs Śrāddha on t h e eighth d a y a t t a i n s c o m p l e t e richness a n d perfect affluence. 15-16. Śrāddha should be performed on t h e n i n t h d a y by one w h o desires affluence a n d lordly glory as well as women. A m a n w h o performs Śrāddha on t h e t e n t h d a y shall a t t a i n t h e magnificence of t h e B r a h m a n . He shall also a t t a i n (mastery over) all the V e d a s a n d be on a p a r with B r ā h m a n a s . ( T h e performance of Śrāddha and) t h e offering of g r e a t c h a r i t a b l e gifts on the eleventh Tithi yields p e r p e t u a l lordly affluence. 1.

W . 9 - 2 0 state the fruit of

performance of Śrāddha

on e a c h Tithi;

(Lunar d a y ) from the 1st to the 15th day. Āpastamba Dh. S II.7.16.-22,

Mbh.

Anuśāsana 87, V ā . P.81.10-19, B M . P . 2 2 0 . 15-21, KP I I . 20.17-22 state the re­ w a r d a m a n gets for performance of Śrāddha

on

these

so promised in these works differ. For e x a m p l e the

Tithis. T h e rewards

following comparative

table of rewards on various Tithis for such performance as

given in our T e x t

a n d K P shows little co-relation: The Tithi

Reward as per our Text.

Reward

as

per

KP

11.20.

1

Acquisition of wealth.

Auspicious sons.

2

Over-lordship on bipeds.

Begets daughters.

3

Destroys e n e m i e s a n d sins.

G e t s animals.

4

N o t mentioned.

Gets small animals a n d things.

5

Great glory and splendour.

Splendid sons.

6

Great respect.

Lustre a n d g o o d cultivation.

T h e list n e e d n o t be extended.


Brahmānda Purāna

566

17. (One who performs Śrāddha) on the twelfth dayacquires victory, kingdoms, longevity, wealth, increase in t h e progeny, cattle, wealth, intellect, freedom and excellent nourishment. 18-19. O n e w h o performs (Srāddha) on the t h i r t e e n t h t i t h i attains long life and lordly affluence. Śrāddha should be performed on the fourteenth day to those persons in t h e house w h o h a p p e n e d to die while young or w h o h a d been struck d o w n dead by means of w e a p o n s . O n e shall always be p u r e a n d endeavour to perform Śrāddha on the new m o o n day. 20-22. He a t t a i n s all desires a n d enjoys infinite heavenly bliss. Similarly, in the case of all those w h o were b o r n as twins a n d those w h o were b o r n u n d e r unfavourable (stars) Śrāddha should be performed on the new m o o n day. O n e shall (there­ by) a t t a i n all t h a t one desires. O n e w h o performs Srāddha u n d e r M a g h ā constellation shall a t t a i n all desires. It will be as t h o u g h t h e Pitrs are directly worshipped as Pitrs are t h e presiding deities of the M a g h ā con­ stellation, the Śrāddha rite performed u n d e r it is r e m e m b e r e d as yielding everlasting benefits."

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Performance of Śrāddha Under Different Constellations* Brhaspati said:— 1. " L i s t e n from me to the details of the Śrāddhas t h a t should be separately performed u n d e r different constellations. T h e s e h a d been r e c o u n t e d to Śaśabindu by Y a m a . *

T h i s chapter is a d o p t e d from M b h .

AnufSsana ch. 89 with slight

variations in words. V ā . P . Ch. 82 is practically (textually) identical with this Chapter. This

chapter

is

incorporated

from

M b h . Anuśāsana Ch. 8 9 . It is

probably Visnu Dharma Sūtra (78.8-15) w h i c h first mentions the fruits obtained


2.3.18.2-9

567

2. T h e m a n w h o always performs the Śrāddha u n d e r t h e K r t t i k ā constellation after g a t h e r i n g t h e sacred fires, shines in t h e heaven. He must strictly a d h e r e to the obervances of these holy rites. 3. He w h o desires children should perform Śrāddha'under Rohinī constellation. He who performs Srāddha u n d e r S a u m y a constellation (i.e. Mrgaśiras) becomes brilliant. O n e who performs Śrāddha u n d e r Ā r d r ā constellation is usually one who commits cruel acts. 4. By performing Ś r ā d d h a u n d e r P u n a r v a s u constellation o n e inherits a share in fields (agricultural lands) a n d becomes blessed with sons. T h e m a n w h o desires n o u r i s h m e n t should perform Śrāddha u n d e r Tisya (i.e. Pusya) constellation. 5. O n e w h o worships the Pitrs u n d e r Aślesā constel­ lation shall a t t a i n heroic sons. O n e who performs Ś r ā d d h a u n d e r the M a g h ā constellation becomes the most excellent of all castes. 6. T h e m a n who worships the Pitrs u n d e r Pūrvā Phālgunī constellation obtains good fortune. H e who performs u n d e r U t t a r a P h ā l g u n i constellation becomes h a b i t u a l l y c h a r i t a b l e a n d endowed with children. 7. By worshipping the Pitrs u n d e r t h e constellation H a s t a , one becomes the chief m a n in the assemblies. He who performs Ś r ā d d h a u n d e r Citrā constellation will beget h a n d s o m e sons. 8. He who performs Śrāddha u n d e r Svāti constellation shall acquire profit in t r a d e . ' A m a n w h o seeks sons should desire to perform Ś r ā d d h a u n d e r Viśākhā constellation, 9. O n e who performs Śrāddha u n d e r t h e constellation A n u r ā d h ā shall be able to exercise t h e sovereignty of a realm. He w h o always performs Śrāddha u n d e r J y e s t h ā constellation shall acquire excellent overlordship. by performing Śrāddha under different constellations from Krttikā to Bharani. Yājñavalkya

Smr. 1.265-268, M K . P . 3 0 . 8 - 1 6 , B M . P . 2 2 0 . 3 3 - 4 2 , K P . I I . 2 0 . 9 - 1 5 ,

Vā P Ch. 82 deal with the same topic though about the rewards so promised.

there is some

disagreement


568

Brahmānda Purāna

10. T h e y w h o wish for freedom from illness should perform Śrāddha u n d e r M ū l a constellation. Those who perform Srāddha u n d e r P ū r v ā s ā d h ā constellation gain great fame. The m a n w h o performs Śrāddha u n d e r U t t a r ā s ā d h ā constellation shall be free from grief. 11. By performing Śrāddha u n d e r Śravana constellation one attains the greatest goal in the worlds. O n e w h o performs Śrāddha u n d e r D h a n i s t h ā constellation inherits a share in kingdom a n d vast a m o u n t of wealth. 12. By performing Śrāddha u n d e r the constellation per­ taining t o V a r u n a (i.e. constellation Śatabhisak) one conquers the worlds by means of the Śrāddkas, attains (the mastery of) the Vedas along w i t h t h e ancillary subjects a n d obtains t h e greatest achievements of physicians. 13. O n e w h o performs Śrāddha u n d e r P ū r v ā - P r a u s t h a p a d ā (Bhādrapadā,) constellation shall o b t a i n m a n y ways a n d means of sustenance. By n o t transgressing (i.e. by performing Śrāddha) u n d e r the U t t a r a - P r a u s t h a p a d ā ( B h ā d r a p a d ā ) constellation one gets thousands of cows. 14. O n e w h o performs Śrāddha u n d e r the excellent constellation Revatī acquires m u c h wealth by means of m e t a l s other t h a n silver a n d gold. O n e who is a devotee of the constellation Aśvayuk (Aśvinī) obtains horses. O n e w h o performs Śrāddha u n d e r Bharanī constellation becomes the most excellent a m o n g good m e n . 15. By performing Śrāddhas, .in a c c o r d a n c e with these injunctions regarding Śrāddhas, Śaśabindu a c q u i r e d the e n t i r e e a r t h t h r o u g h his prowess with ease (lit. without a n y strain) a n d ruled over it.


569

2.3.19.1-4 CHAPTER

NINETEEN

Qualifications of A Brāhmana for Śrāddha Gifts : Merits of Śrāddha performance at. Sacred Places Śamyu said ; 1. " W h a t , O excellent one a m o n g t h e eloquent persons, w h e n offered to the Pitrs, yields satisfaction ( u n t o them) ? W h a t shall be beneficent for a long t i m e ? W h a t is conducive to infinite bliss ?" Brhaspati explained : 2. Listen from me to all those offerings w h i c h those w h o a r e conversant with t h e ritualistic details of Ś r ā d d h a know. Listen to their d u e benefits as well. 3. If gingelly seeds, grains of rice, barleys, pulses, w a t e r libations, roots a n d fruits were offered in Ś r ā d d h a t h e g r a n d ­ fathers are pleased for t h e period of a m o n t h . 1 4. T h e y are satisfied for two m o n t h s , if Ś r ā d d h a is offered w i t h different kinds of fish. T h e y a r e satisfied for t h r e e m o n t h s , if t h e Ś r ā d d h a is offered w i t h venison ( d e e r ' s flesh). 1. W 3 - ] l give the vegetarian a n d non-vegetarian articles of food liked by and therefore recommended to serve to Brahmins while dining at a Śrāddha. T h e Apastamba D h . S . (600 B.C.) prescribes flesh-eating as obliga­ tory at Śrāddha a n d enumerates the animals the flesh of w h i c h gratifies Pitrs for w h a t period e.g. the flesh of a cow offered in Śrāddha gratifies the Pitrs for a year (Samvatsaram gavayena priiih) and for other animals etc. see Apas­ tamba D h . S.II.7.16.25; II.7.17.3. A refusal to accept non-vegetarian food at Śrāddha is punished by going to hell (Visnudharmottara 1.140.49-50, also M a n u V 3 5 ; K P . I I . 17.40). M a n u I I I 267-272, Yājñavalkya I, 258-60, M b h . Anuiāsana ch.88, Kātyāyana's Śrāddha-Sūlra (Kandikā 7-8), K P . 11.20.40-42, M t . P . 17.31-35, V ā . P . 83.3.9, V P . III.16.1-3 and such other Purānas specify the length of the periods of time for which Pitrs are gratified by the flesh of certain animals served at a Śrāddha. T h e r e are differences in the period of gratification, but as H e m ā d r i notes the greater the period, the greater the satisfaction (iha sarvatra prltyaliiayo vivaksitah / śrāddha, p . 5 9 0 ) . In southern India, strict vegetarianism in Śrāddha meals is observed though neither Mitāksarā nor Kalpataru state that flesh diet is totally pro­ hibited at Śrāddha.


570

Brahmānda Purāna

They are contented for four months, if rabbit's flesh is offered in the Śrāddha. They are pleased for five months, if bird's flesh is offered in the Śrāddha. 5. They are pleased for six months if Śrāddha is per­ formed with boar's flesh. The flesh of a goat yields satisfaction to Pitrs for seven months. The flesh of a mountain goat is said to yield satisfaction for eight months. 6. The grandfathers are delighted for n'ne months with the flesh of Ruru variety of deer. The satisfaction of the Pitrs lasts for ten months if Śrāddha is offered with the flesh of Gavaya (a type of ox). 7. The satisfaction lasts for eleven months if sheep's flesh is offered in the Śrāddha. O Brāhmanas, cow's milk offered in the śrāddha, yields satisfaction (to the Pitrs) for a year. 8. The flesh of the rhinoceros shall be conducive to infinite bliss in the abode of the Pitrs. Milk pudding offered along with honey and ghee at the time of Gajacchāyā1 yields per­ petual satisfaction. 9-11. There is perpetual satisfaction if the flesh of a black goat is offered. In this connection there are certain gāthās (traditional verses) sung by the Pitrs as recounted by those.'conversant with the ancient lore. ' I shall mention them to you factually; understand them from me : "Will there not be such a one (descendant coming to our family as would offer S r ā d d h a on the thirteenth day ? Will there not be such a one in our family as would offer Śrāddha during the rainy season or under Maghā constel­ lation with the flesh of a goat wholly reddish in colour ? 1. Moon

Gajacchāyā or Kuñjaracchāyā is the conjunction that occurs when

the

is in the M a g h ā constellation, the Sun is in H a s t a and the Tithi is the

13th in the rainy season.


2.3.19.12-19

571

M a n y sons should be sought so t h a t at least one would go to Gayā, one shall m a r r y a girl of the G a u r l type (i.e. of eight years or one w h o is a virgin) or one shall discharge a N a l a * (? lean like a red) b u l l . " Śamyu said : 12. "O d e a r father, recount to me who ask, the fruit of G a y ā e t c ; m e n t i o n fully t h e merits to t h e d o n o r s " . Brhaspati said : 13. " T h e Ś r ā d d h a at Gayā is of everlasting benefit. So also t h e J a p a s , H o m a s , the penances. It is in the abode of t h e Pitrs, O son, a n d therefore t h e Ś r ā d d h a t h e r e is remember­ ed as yielding an everlasting benefit. 14. T h e son begot of a Gaurī type of a girl after she h a d completed h e r twentyfirst year shall perform great sacri­ fices. (?) T h i s is r e m e m b e r e d as its fruit. I shall mention the benefit of discharging a bull. Even as I m e n t i o n it, u n d e r s t a n d it. 1 15-19. T h e discharger of t h e bull sanctifies ten preceding a n d ten succeeding generations. After discharging the bull and getting down into t h e river w a t e r whatever portion of w a t e r he touches, is cited as yielding an everlasting benefit u n t o the Pitrs. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t it will yield an everlasting benefit u n t o the Pitrs if the bull touches t h e water with any of its limbs, tail etc. If the bull scratches or scrapes a p a r t of t h e ground with its h o r n s or hoofs continuously it shall constitute a channel of honey u n t o the Pitrs. By discharging a bull it is said to accomplish such a satis­ faction to the Pitrs as is obtained by digging a lake with sides of a t h o u s a n d Nalvas (one Nalva = 400 cubits) according to the Śruti ( V e d a s ) .

*

Misprint for Nīla vide V ā . P. 8 3 . 1 2 .

1.

W . 1 4 - 1 9 describe the reward one gets by discharging a bull on the

occasion

^"XiMha.


572

Brahmānda

Purāna

20. If a person gives during the Ś r ā d d h a rite gingelly seeds mixed with jaggery, honey, or something mixed with honey—-everything becomes everlasting in yielding benefits. 2 1 . (Charitable gifts) should always be given by m e n . O n e should not test the B r ā h m a n a . It is h e a r d (i.e. it is laid down in the Vedas) t h a t a B r ā h m a n a is to be tested in rites pertaining to the Pitrs a n d gods. 1 22-26. T h e Brāhmanas who have performed ablutions after observing the holy, rites prescribed in the Vedas are those who sanctify t h e row (of B r ā h m a n a d i n e r s ) . Those w h o know different languages, those w h o a r e engaged in ( t h e study of) g r a m m a r , those w h o study t h e Purānas a n d sacred scriptures, one w h o m a i n t a i n s five sacred fires, one who possesses Sauparna Mantras, one w h o knows the six Ańgas (ancillary subjects), the son of B r a h m a Deva ( o n e who has B r a h m a n as his d e i t y ) , one who has understood Vedic pro­ sody, one w h o habitually sings the Jyesfhasāman2 hymns, one who has taken a holy dip in the sacred waters, one who has observed holy rites, those who have taken Avabhrtha (i.e. Vale­ dictory) baths after all sacrifices, those who a r e devoid of anger a n d those w h o have no greed at all one shall invite all such B r ā h m a n a s for the Ś r ā d d h a rile. W h a t is given to these, yields never-ending benefit; these are indeed the sanctifiers of rows of diners. 27. If a person honours those w h o are well established in yogic rites a n d B r ā h m a n a s worthy of being invited for Ś r ā d d h a rites, the t h r e e deities B r a h m a , Visnu a n d M a h e ś v a r a are thereby worshipped by h i m .

1.

V V . 21-28 mention the qualifications of Brāhmanas to w h o m gifts

m a y be given. T h e Togadharma was regarded as the foremost a m o n g Dharmas a n d hence naturally Yogis got a preference. 2.

Jyeslha-Sāman is interpreted differently according to the Śākhās of

the S ā m a - V e d a : (i) Talavakāra Sākhā: S ā m a sung on udu tvam ( R V . I . 5 0 . 1 ) , citram devānām ( R V.I.I 15.1) (ii) Chāndoga Sākhā : T h e Sāmans sung on Mūrdhānam divo ( R V . V I . 7 . 1 )


2.3.19.23-36

573

28-29. T h e m a n who worships these B r ā h m a n a s attains the same world as t h a t of the Pitrs. T h e Yoga D h a r m a is mentioned as the first a n d foremost a m o n g all D h a r m a s . It is the most sacred of all sacred things and most auspicious of all auspicious things. I shall m e n t i o n those who are not worthy of (being i n ) the row (of d i n e r s ) 1 . U n d e r s t a n d t h e m even as I recount them. 30. A rogue, one who drinks liquor, one who keeps ani­ mals, one who has been banished, one who works as the c o m m o n servant of all the villagers, one whose profession is usury, one who does business in the bazar. 3 1 . O n e w h o burns houses, one who gives poison, a ś ū d r a , a c o m m o n priest of the village performing a Yajña ( o n behalf of anyone and everyone), a Kāndaprstha (a B r ā h m a n a who lives by making arrows and other weapons), a K u n d ā ś i n (a p a n d e r , a p i m p ) , one w h o imbibes liquor, one who sells Soma juice. 32. O n e who has gone overseas, a person who works as a servant, a back-biter, one guilty of perjury, one who argues w i t h his father, one who keeps his wife's p a r a m o u r in his own house. 33. An Abhiśasta (a wicked a n d cursed fellow), a thief, o n e w h o maintains himself by means of arts a n d crafts, a panegyrist, a cook a n d one who deceives friends. 34. A one-eyed fellow, a l a m e m a n , an atheist, one w h o has discarded the study of the Vedas, a m a d fellow, a e u n u c h , one who has killed a child in the w o m b , a person who defiles the preceptor's bed. 35. O n e w h o maintains himself with the help of a physi­ cian, a glutton, one w h o commits adultery, one w h o sells Brahminical holy rites a n d observances—all these are the defilers of rows. 36. W h a t is offered to an atheist shall become lost. W h a t is h a n d e d over to one w h o spoils holy rites a n d w h a t is offered

1. Cf.

V V . 29-35 give the list of persons unfit for invitation to

KP.1I.21.25-43.

Śrāddha


574

Brahmānda Purāna

to a trader shall not be (beneficial) here or hereafter (in the 1 other w o r l d ) . 37-38. W h a t is given to the following shall be of no avail here a n d hereafter viz one w h o misappropriates a deposit, one w h o is ungrateftil, one w h o is devoid of the Vedas, one who plays on the musical instrument P a n a v a , a craftsman and a person w h o is devoid of piety. ( T h e same is t h e case) with one w h o buys or sells those commodities the buying or selling of which is prohibited as well as one w h o encourages such activities by praising t h e m . A t r a d e r m a y have mental peace elsewhere b u t he does n o t deserve (invitation t o ) a Śrāddha. 39-43. W h a t is given to the son of a widowed w o m a n who remarries is ŕuftile like t h e Homa performed on t h e ashes, O B r ā h m a n a . A one-eyed m a n (if invited for Śrāddha) destroys sixty merits of t h e donors; a eunuch destroys a h u n d r e d merits; a m a n suffering from white leprosy destroys five h u n d r e d merits; one w h o suffers from sinful ailments destroys a thousand merits of t h e donors. T h e d o n o r w h o is childish falls off from t h e benefit thereof. If one takes food with his head covered (with a c l o t h ) , if one takes food facing south, if one takes food with shoes on, if one makes a charitable gift w i t h o u t d u e h o n o u r — B r a h m a has ordained t h a t the benefit in all these cases shall go to the chief of Asuras. A dog or the slayer of a B r ā h m a n a should never see ( t h e materials of Ś r ā d d h a ) . H e n c e , one should offer Ś r ā d d h a after scattering cooked rice surrounded by gingelly seeds. T h e gingelly seeds a n d cooked rice surrounded by t h e m are said to ward off demons a n d dogs. 2 1.

V V . 36-42 enumerate peisons w h o are unworthy of receiving dāna

(religious gift at the time of Śrāddha). 2. Since very early times—since the period of D h a r m a Sutras (600 A.D.) — f o o d for Śrāddha and other sacred purposes was not allowed

to

be polluted

even by sight by certain animals and classes of persons such as dogs, Cāndālas, the committers of M a h ā p ā t a k a s , w o m e n in menses or sonless w o m e n or by a person suffering from white leprosy. W h e n our author gives a list of such unworthies i n V V . 43-44, h e i s echoing G a u t a m a D h . S . ( 1 5 . 2 5 - 2 8 ) , M a n u II£239-242,

and Purānas

like

I I I . 16-12-14 to m e n t i o n a

KP.

few.

11.22.34-35,

Vā.

P.78.

26-40 and V P .


575

2.3.19.44-53

44. A pig destroys (Śrāddha) merely by seeing i t ; a cock destroys it w i t h t h e wind from its wings. T h e Ś r ā d d h a is destroyed by the touch of a w o m a n in her menses. It is also destroyed if the person offers it in angry mood. 45. T h e grandfathers are pleased with w h a t is given on the beautiful banks of rivers, on lakes a n d in secluded places. 46-47. O n e should not allow t h e right knee to touch t h e g r o u n d ; a person practising Yoga should not u t t e r words. H e n c e one should propitiate the parents after duly wearing the D a r b h a grass round the ring finger and after being surrounded (? by gingelly seeds.). T h u s he pleases the Pitrs. After getting t h e consent of t h e B r ā h m a n a s at the outset, one should duly perform rites in the sacred fire Galled Agnau-Āarana. 48. ground or like a bed. One d u r i n g the

O n e should m a k e offerings u n t o the Pitrs on t h e in the open sunshine or on D a r b h a grasses spread should duly perform Ś r ā d d h a in bright fortnight of the L u n a r m o n t h .

t h e forenoon

49-50. O n e must not transgress (? pass beyond) t h e n i n t h muhūrta of the d a y (called Rauhineya) in t h e afternoon d u r i n g the d a r k fortnight of the L u n a r m o n t h , for Ś r ā d d h a performance. T h u s , these noble-souled Pitrs of great Yogic Power a n d great potentiality should always be worshipped when the place a n d time is propitious. It is only t h r o u g h m a n achieves the Yogic achieve.

devotion u n t o t h e Pitrs t h a t a power which is very difficult to

51-53. (Defective text) O n e shall a t t a i n Moksa (libera­ tion from Samsāra) t h r o u g h meditation after discarding (the merits a n d demerits) of the acts both auspicious a n d n o n auspicious. But for the sake of sacrifices (being performed) a n d by deluding the world t h a t way, B r a h m a n was (as if) taken over a n d kept concealed in t h e cavity (of t h e h e a r t ) . T h e n by t h e great-souled K a ś y a p a , t h a t i m m o r t a l or nectarine esoteric principle was d r a w n u p ( a n d m a d e e x p l i c i t ) . T h i s Yoga, 'the


576

Brahmāng'a Purāna

superior one among the Yogas, was expounded by Sanatkumāra. It is the region of the highest Brahman which is the top-most secret doctrine of the Devas and the highest goal of the sages. 54-55. Through devotion to the Pitrs and personal efforts this yoga is achieved by learned men. In brief, one who is devoted to the Pitrs, one who keeps the Pitis before and after, shall definitely attain all these things without effort. Brhaspati said :

56-57a. All these have been mentioned to you along with a brief resume (summary) viz. to whom are the Śrāddhas to be offered, which one, if offered yields great benefit, the holy centres and the caves wherein the Śrāddha becomes everlasting in its benefits and the places where one attains heaven (after performing Śrāddha). 57b-58a. After hearing these rules and regulations regarding Śrāddha, if any man does not perform it, he is an atheist and he shall fall into the terrible hell enveloped in darkness. 58b-59a. Slandering and reviling should not be indulged in especially in the case of Yogins. 1 By indulging in such reviling one becomes a worm and whirls and whirls there itself (in the hell). 59b-60. One who censures and reviles at yogins, medita­ tors and those who desire Moksa, shall fall into a terrible hell. There is no doubt that even he who listens to the same falls into the hell of terrible appearance and is enveloped in darkness all round. By reviling at leading Yogins a man never goes to heaven. 1., Since the

t i m e s of V a s i s t h a D h . S . ( X I . 1 7 ) , Talis (recluses), Yogis

h a d a special p l a c e of h o n o u r a m o n g t h e invitees to Śrāddha. p e r i o d t h e h o n o u r b e c a m e a b l i n d faith. yogi c a m e

to

be

regarded

D u r i n g the P u r ā n a

As s t a t e d in Supra 9.70, feeding a

as m o r e m e r i t o r i o u s

t h a n feeding

thousands

of

Brāhmanas. H e n c e , h e r e in V V . 5 8 b - 6 4 even s p e a k i n g ill of Yogins is p r o h i b i t e d as a sin.


2.3.19.61-67

577

6 1 . O n e who listens to the abuse of leading Yogins w h o are self-controlled, will become immersed in hell for a long time. T h e r e is no doubt in this m a t t e r . T h e y will be roasted in the hell K u m b h ī p ā k a again and again. T h e i r tongues shall be cut again a n d again. 62. Those m e n will undergo disaster like a l u m p of clay t h r o w n into the sea. O n e should avoid all types of hatred towards yogins, mentally, verbally and physically. He enjoys infinite bliss here in this world. 63. A person who has mastered (various subjects) does n o t gain mastery over himself. D u e to his own actions, he wanders within the three worlds. Even one who has mastered the R g M a n t r a s , Yajus M a n t r a s , S ā m a n M a n t r a s a n d their various ancillary subjects^ does not a t t a i n t h e B r a h m a n devoid of changes a n d aberrations a n d therefore becomes distressed. 64. O n e who has mastered all created things, t h e products of P r a k r t i (the n a t u r e known as A v i d y ā ) , one who has mastered the good features in the three Vedas, one w h o has mastered t h e three G u n a s (Sattva etc.) a n d one who has mastered t h e twentyfour principles is the person who has cross­ ed the samsāra to the other shore a n d is t h e master of a c a d e m i c studies. 1 65. O n e w h o is devoted to the B r a h m a n duly a n d wholly attains it. Similarly, he comprehends the state where every­ t h i n g is merged into t h e soul. T h e B r ā h m a n a who does not take to the p a t h of Yoga c a n n o t b e c o m e t h e master of everything t h a t comes u n d e r t h e purview of o r d e r by knowledge. 66. T h e knower of Yoga obtains i.e. comprehends everything t h a t has to be comprehended in the Vedas and t h a t which has to be realized i.e. the B r a h m a n . Those who h a v e known Vedas call him master of t h e Vedas. 67. O n e who has understood the Vedas a n d everything t h a t has to be understood remains in t h e n o r m a l state, (i.e. t h e

1.

T h e belief in the omniscience of Yogins is still found all over India.


578

Brahmānda Purāna

state of B r a h m a n , realized by those who are t h e real knowers of the Vedas. T h e others have simply gone to the end of the Vedas ( v e r b a l l y ) . 68. T h e r e is no d o u b t that the devotee of the Pitrs obtains Yajñas, Vedas, other desirable things, different sorts of penance, longevity and progeny. 6 9 . He who regularly studies this Śrāddha Kalpa with faith achieves all these as well as the benefits of visiting holy centres a n d offering charitable gifts. 70. He is the sanctifier of the rows of diners. He shall p a r t a k e of the feast at the head of Brāhmanas. O n e who is obedient to the B r ā h m a n a s a n d who serves t h e m shall a t t a i n all desires. 71-72. If a person listens to this always, if a B r ā h m a n a expounds this to others, if he is free from jealousy, if he has conquered anger a n d if he has rid himself of greed a n d delusion he attains the benefit of visiting holy centres etc. as well as giving charitable gifts etc a n d the excellent means of heaven and Moksa undoubtedly. H e r e , he attains the greatest nourishment> Hence, one shall always perform Ś r ā d d h a . 73. If a person reads this procedure (of Śrāddha) with alertness, concentration a n d m e n t a l purity in the assembly (of scholars) during the junctions of festive occasions, he shall obtain children. W i t h the greatest refulgence he attains the same world as the heaven-dwellers. 74. Obeisance to t h a t self born Lord by whom this trea­ tise has been recounted. I bow down always to t h e g r e a t leaders of the Yoga cult.


579

2.3.20.1-9a CHAPTER TWENTY Seven Classes of Pitrs : Rites of Propitiating them Brhaspati said:

1. T h u s , these Pitrs 1 are D e v a s ; they are t h e deities of even t h e Devas. These Pitrs w h o have no c h a n g e or decay are always stationed in seven abodes. 2-3. T h e y are the sons of P r a j ā p a t i . T h e first g r o u p of all these noble-souled ones, is conducive to t h e regular increase of t h e Yogic power of the Yogins. T h e second g r o u p is t h e set of Pitrs for the D e v a s ; the third g r o u p is t h a t of the D ā n a v a s a n d others. I t should b e known t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g ones belong to the m e m b e r s of the four castes. T h u s all of t h e m h a v e been r e c o u n t e d . 4. T h e Devas worship these Pitrs who abide by all kinds of knowledge. T h e four Ā ś r a m a s (stages of life) worship t h e m in the d u e order. 5. All t h e four castes worship t h e m in a c c o r d a n c e with the scriptures. Similarly, persons of t h e mixed castes as well as the Barbarians worship t h e m . 6-7. T h e Pitrs give delight to h i m w h o worships t h e m w i t h great devotion. T h e Pitrs a n d t h e P i t ā m a h a s (grandfathers) give nourish­ m e n t , progeny and heaven to the person w h o desires n o u r i s h m e n t a n d progeny. T h e sacred rites of the Pitrs excel the rites of the Devas. 8-9a. It is laid down in the S m r t i t h a t t h e Pitis .should be p r o p i t i a t e d before t h e Devas. I n d e e d t h e subtle m o v e m e n t of the Yogic power of the Pitrs is n o t c o m p r e h e n d e d by m e n even by m e a n s of well-reputed p e n a n c e . W h a t t h e n by m e a n s of t h e Physical eye ? 1.

Pitrs were originally three generations of ancestors in

the V e d i c

times. But later on in Purānic times Pitrs were divided as heavenly viz. Vasus, Rudras and Adityas a n d humans {laukika) viz. father, grand-father a n d greatgrand-father. In later Purānas the number of classes of Pitrs increased to seven as here. O u r text echoes the division of Pitrs 13, 16 ff, Pd.P. Srsti 9.2-4.

as given in V ā . P . 7 3 , V a r ā h a P.


Brahmānda Purāna

580

9b-11. To all, w h e t h e r the Devas or the Pitrs, the silver vessel or one coated with silver accompanied by silver is m e n t i o n e d as excellent a n d sanctifying. T h e relatives give the Pindas three in n u m b e r , in t h a t vessel mentioning their names a n d Gotras. T h e Pindas are to be offered on the ground also by covering it with the D a r b h a grass in accordance with the injunctions. While placing t h e m they are to be placed wearing the sacred t h r e a d on the right shoulder; kept anywhere the P i n d a s please the Pitrs. 12-13.

T h e food offered to the

Pitrs becomes

his

own

food. J u s t as the lost calf obtains the m o t h e r at the cowpen so also t h e food offered to the Pitrs reaches t h e m . T h e M a n t r a takes it to the place where the J a n t u stays. T h e u t t e r a n c e of names a n d the Gotras a n d the M a n t r a s take the food offered to the Pitrs. 14-16. Satisfaction follows t h e m even if they were to take a h u n d r e d births. It is thus t h a t t h e power of B r a h m a t h e P a r a m e s t h i n exists in the first creation of the Pitrs who seek the everlasting state of t h e worlds. T h u s these Pitrs, their worlds, daughters, grandsons a n d the sponsors of the sacrifice have been recounted by me, O sinless o n e . O son, the Pitrs have been recounted to you in d u e order. Śamyu said : 17. " T h e divine creation of the Pitrs has been recounted by you, O d e a r father. T h e i r worlds, their d a u g h t e r s a n d their grandsons have been h e a r d . 18. T h e charitable gifts a n d their benefits have been glorified along with the purificatory rites. T h e state of its being of everlasting benefit 1 has been cited. T h e B r ā h m a n a s have b e e n m e n t i o n e d . F r o m t o d a y onwards I shall perform these duly". 1.

As a matter of fact the theory of K a r m a n and re-incarnations (Punar-

janma) weakens the basis of the performance of Srāddha. H e n c e this belief is propagated in Purānas and other works on D h a r m a Śāstra.


581

2.3.20.19—21.4 Brhaspati said :

19-21. " T h u s said the holy lord Ańgiras to the sages. On being asked to clear their doubts he said to the sages in the assembly of m e n formerly in the extensive S a t r a (sacrifice) lasting a thousand years. In t h a t Satra the Sadaspati ( t h e Presiding Lord) was B r a h m a the lord of Devas. Five thousand years have elapsed since then. In this connection verses have been sung by t h e sages w h o expounded the B r a h m a n . 22. Formerly, in the Sattra, B r a h m a the g r e a t soul took the initiation. T h e r e itself excellent food was given to the Pitrs who seek everlasting benefit of the w o r l d s . " Sūta said : 23. " O n being asked formerly by his intelligent son, Brhaspati thus recounted the creation of the Pitrs. It has been cited now by m e . "

CHAPTER

TWENTYONE

The Dialogue between Aurva and Paraśurāma Vasistha said:— 1. As the noble-souled J a m a d a g n i of immense strength,, went on working like this, O king, several years elapsed. 2-3. R ā m a (i.e. P a r a ś u r ā m a ) also, t h e most excellent one a m o n g those who uphold dharma, who mastered t h e essential principles of t h e Vedas and the auxiliary treatises concerning the Vedas a n d who was an expert in all scriptures, w h o was polite a n d of a well-disciplined n a t u r e a n d who was highly intelligent, served his parents, O leading king. By his activities, he heightened t h e pleasure of others. 4. Working like this, O king, R ā m a , the most excellent one a m o n g intelligent m e n , spent a n u m b e r of years in r e n d e r i n g service to his p a r e n t s .


582

Brahmト]da Purト]a

5. On one occasion, O king, as destined by F a t e ( P r o v i d e n c e ) , t h a t sage of great splendour, p l a n n e d to go to t h e house of his grand-father. 6. T o u c h i n g t h e feet of his parents with his h e a d , t h a t noble scion of t h e family of Bhrgu, with his palms folded in reverence, addressed these words with great humility. 7. "O d e a r father, I wish to submit a certain m a t t e r now to you a n d m o t h e r . It behoves b o t h of you to hear it from m e . 8. For a long time I have been eager to see my grandツュ father. H e n c e , with your permission, I shall go to h i m . 9. My loving grand-mother wishes to see m e . She has invited me eagerly m a n y times through various persons. 10. I n d e e d , seeing one's parents a n d very pleasing. H e n c e , permit me to go to h i m . "

grand-father is

Vasistha said: 11. " O n h e a r i n g these words which he uttered with emotional excitement, both of t h e m b e c a m e extremely delighted. T h e i r eyes b e c a m e filled w i t h tears of joy. 12. T h e y embraced t h a t highly fortunate (dignified) son and lovingly sniffed at his head. After blessing and c o n g r a t u l a t i n g their d e a r son, they said thus: 13. " D e a r son, go to your grand-father's house with pleasure for meeting a n d delighting your grand-father a n d grand-mother. 14. After going there stay in their house for some time, serving t h e m duly a n d delighting t h e m , O d e a r son. 15. O highly fortunate one, do not stay there for a very long time. W i t h their permission come back safe a n d sound. Of course, you will be eager to see us again. 16. We c a n n o t remain even for half a m o m e n t w i t h o u t seeing our d e a r son. H e n c e , do not stay in your grand-father's abode for a very long time. 17. Or even if you go to your great-grand-father's presence at his ( y o u r grand-father's) bidding, r e t u r n quickly in d u e course b u t certainly with his permission."


2.3.21.18-28

583

Vasistha said: 18-20. On being told thus, the highly intelligent son R ā m a c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d a n d b a d e good-bye t o t h e m . T h e r e ­ after, he went to his grand-father's house. R ā m a entered the h e r m i t a g e of the noble-souled Rcīka, the most excellent one a m o n g the descendants of Bhrgu. T h e h e r m i t a g e was rendered beautiful by the gracious presence of the sage a n d his disciples. Everywhere it was resonant with the high-pitched sounds of the recitation of the Vedas. It was c h a r m i n g on account of the various kinds of a n i m a l s which lived t h e r e with their n a t u r a l animosity com­ pletely suppressed. 2 1 . After entering the fascinating h e r m i t a g e O leading king, R ā m a saw in front of him, Rcīka his grandfather sitting on his seat. 22. On account of his penance, he was shining brilliantly like the sacred fire in its sacrificial place. He was accompanied by Satyavatī like the sacrifice or yajña accompanied by Daksinā. 23. O n observing R ā m a who was a p p r o a c k i n g them, the two saintly souls critically gazed at h i m as t h o u g h he was a totally u n k n o w n stranger who h a d never been before. 24. " W h o is this boy honoured (i.e. endowed with) all the requisite auspicious characteristics. He appears to be a huge mass of austerities. A l t h o u g h still a boy, he appears to be very powerful, due to his majestic d e m e a n o u r coupled with h u m i l i t y . " 25. Even as they were thinking thus with delight and curiosity in their hearts, R ā m a slowly came to their vicinity, full of, perfect humility. 26. T h e intelligent sage R ā m a reported his n a m e a n d lineage. W i t h great joy, he touched t h e feet of his grand-father and grand-mother with his h e a d , as well as t h e h a n d s a n d paid respects to t h e m thus. 27. T h e n both of t h e m were delighted in their minds. T h e y lifted up the excellent grandson a n d s h o w e r e d him with blessings. T h e y congratulated him severally. 28.

T h e y embraced h i m a n d m a d e h i m sit on their laps.


584

Brahmānda Purāna

T h e i r eyes were flowing with tears of joy. Looking at his lotus­ like face, they felt great delight. 29. W h e n the scion of their own family was comfortably seated, t h e elderly couple enquired a b o u t his health. 30. " D e a r boy, we hope your parents are quite well. Are your brothers quite well? We h o p e you sustain yourself without any u n d u e s t r a i n . " 31. He replied to everything t h a t he was asked about, O d e a r king, everything concerning himself as well as t h e activities of his p a r e n t s a n d b r o t h e r s . 32. T h u s , O g r e a t king, R ā m a stayed in t h e house of t h e parents of his father delighted at the good things t h a t issued forth, due to the affection of those two elderly persons. 33. He stayed there for a few m o n t h s giving delight to the minds and eyes of all loving beings and spending time rendering service ( t o his grand-father a n d g r a n d - m o t h e r ) eagerly. 34. Thereafter, the noble-minded scion of the family of Bhrgus took leave of both of them, O king, a n d desired to go to the hermitage t h a t was the resort of t h e p a r e n t s of his grand­ father. 35. He was congratulated a n d blessed by those two delighted ( g r a n d - p a r e n t s ) . He went towards the h e r m i t a g e of Aurva along the p a t h indicated by them. 36. After duly prostrating at the feet of C y a v a n a 1 ?) ( R ā m a ) of excessive austerities went to the hermitage of Bhrgu on being p e r m i t t e d by h i m (i.e. Cyavana) with great delight. 37. After proceeding ahead he saw t h e penance-grove of Bhrgu the chief of all sages surrounded by sages of t r a n q u i l minds. 38. He was delighted (to see the penance-grovc) over-grown with trees which offered plenty of cool fescinating s h a d e ; which were blessed with the fine qualities (and products) of 1. P a r a ś u r ā m a is shown to have visited all his forebears order thus:

in

a serial

(Jamadagni's hermitage):—Rcika—Aurva—Cyavana—Bhrgu. A line indicating Paraśurāma's stay w i t h Aurva a n d departure to Cyavana's hermitage appears to be missing. H e n c e the question-mark after Cyavana.


2.3.21.39-47

585

all the seasons and t h a t h a d been endowed with exquisite fruits and flowers. 39. It was resonant everywhere with different kinds of pleasing sounds of recitation of the Vedas and t h e chirping sounds of various kinds of birds all pleasing to t h e minds a n d ears. 40. T h e hermitage had been rid of all kinds of sins d u e to the fragrance of smoke arising from the sacred fires; white Āhutis (ghee-offerings) were being oblated to t h e accompani­ m e n t of chantings of Mantras during the performance of Homas. T h e fragrance was wafted everywhere within the forest (by gentle breezes thus wiping out all sins thereof). 4 1 . On all sides, O king, the penance-grove was rendered splendid by the handsome sons of sages who were fetching sacrificial twigs and Darbha grass and who were embellished with their stavas, girdles and antelope skins. 42. H e r e and there the daughters of sages could be seen moving about with vessels (and baskets) filled with w a t e r and flowers and rendering those places beautiful. 43. Herds of hinds along with their fawns were taking rest in the shade of trees bordering the court-yard of the huts. T h e y were free from fear about their safety, d u e to their faith and confidence in the sanctity of the penance grove. 44. Peacocks and pea-hens of sweet notes h a d begun graceful dances even as the herds of Rsya deer indulged in chewing the cud and stood as witnesses. T h e peacocks gave them great pleasure. 45. Bits of Nivāra (a kind of rice) grains were scattered about in that penance-grove and heaps of Nivāra grains were being dried in the sun as well as in shade. T h e y were not eaten by the young ones of the deer moving a b o u t nearby. 46. In that penance grove, Homa was being duly per­ formed in the sacrificial fire at the proper time. Groups of guests were being honoured duly. R e c i t a t i o n of Vedic hymns was being practised. W h a t is mentioned in the Āgamas (scrip­ tures) was being pondered over. 47. All the Smrti texts were being read. T h e meanings of the Śruti texts were being discussed. T h e worship of the Pitrs


586

Brahmānda Purāna

a n d the Devas h a d begun. T h e penance-grove was fascinating for all living beings. 48. T h e grove was inhabited mostly by sages performing penance. It was not at all resorted to by the wretched contemp­ tible fellows. It was holy a n d conducive, to t h e progress of penance. It was an abode of happiness to all living beings (including a n i m a l s ) . 49. It was highly delightful to the ascetics. It was a n o t h e r world of god B r a h m a , as it were. It was resounded with the h u m m i n g of bees which hovering over fragrant flowers echoed everywhere. 50-52. Breezes of various kinds (i.e. of varying velocity) blew there. Surveying such an excellent hermitage endowed with the qualities mentioned above, R ā m a , an h u m b l e dis­ ciplined soul, entered it like a meritorious person getting into t h e abode of Devas. After entering the penance-grove, O king, he saw his great-grand-father (i.e. Bhrgu). He was surrounded by hundreds of sages w h o were his disciples. He was seated on a seat of Darbha in the c e n t r e of the dais intended for expla­ n a t o r y discourses. He a p p e a r e d r a d i a n t with white moustaches, b e a r d and matted hair as well as with his sacred thread. 53-56a. (Defective t e x t ) . He was seated cross-legged with the right leg supported by the left shank (from ankle to the knee) a n d vice versa. T h e leading sage h a d got his b o d y covered with Togapafta (the cloth used to cover the body of ascetics while in abstract m e d i t a t i o n ) . T h e right p a l m was brilliant like a lotus expressing Mudrā (Gesture) of explanation by m e a n s of the fingers and t h e p a l m . His r a d i a n t left h a n d h a d been placed above the Togapafta. T h e subtle meanings of the Āranyaka ( U p a n i s a d i c ) texts were being explained to leading sages by t h e ascetic. 56b-57a. On seeing his father's grand-father, O great king, R ā m a slowly approached the noble-souled sage. 57b-58a. On seeing him come, O king, t h e sages were overawed by his power even from a distance. T h e y began to have misgivings as to who he was. 58b-59a. In the m e a n t i m e , Bhrgu of incomprehensible soul, was delighted by his arrival. Stopping his discourse, O king, the sage remained gazing at h i m .


2.3.21.59b-73

587

59b-60a. Approaching h i m with his h e a d bowed down d u e to humility, R ā m a duly saluted h i m like U p e n d r a offering salutations to Vedhas (God B r a h m a ) . 60b-61. After paying respects to K h y ā t i (Bhrgu's wife) R ā m a endowed with humility, paid due obeisance to the sages in accordance with their seniority by age. He was extremely blessed by all of t h e m gleefully. 62-63a. W i t h their permission, the intelligent sage ( R ā m a ) seated himself on the ground. After Rām'a h a d been seated a n d duly congratulated a n d blessed, Bhrgu looked at him a g a i n a n d asked h i m about his health a n d happiness. 63b-65a. "I hope you are happy, d e a r boy. I hope your parents are free from ailments, so also your brothers as well as the parents of your father. Wherefore have you come here now to my presence? H a v e you been directed by anyone? Or have you c o m e of your own accord ?" 65b-68a. T h e r e u p o n , R ā m a reported to h i m everything w i t h o u t leaving o u t anything that h a d been asked by that noble-souled sage (Bhrgu) viz. the news regarding his father a n d m o t h e r , the happiness of his noble-souled brothers as well as t h a t of the parents of his father, with humility a n d joy. R ā m a m e n t i o n e d to Bhrgu the fact t h a t he h a d paid a visit to them a n d every other details. He told h i m what he himself h a d desired. 68b-69a. On hearing these statements of R ā m a and particularly on seeing him, O king, Bhrgu was delighted a n d he congratulated him. 69b-70a. R ā m a stayed in his hermitage for a few days, pleasing his (great-grand-father) by means of his excellent activities, O king. 70b-71a. T h e n once, the excellent sage (Bhrgu) said to h i m " D e a r boy, c o m e " a n d called h i m to a secluded spot. 71b-72a. R ā m a approached the seated sage with palms j o i n e d in reverence a n d paid h i m his respects. He stood in front of h i m w i t h a highly delighted m i n d . 72b-73. After offering his blessings with delighted m i n d , Bhrgu looked at R ā m a with respect as he stood there w i t h o u t being overwhelmed by awe a n d suspicion a n d s a i d — " D e a r boy, listen to my words that I am going to tell you n o w . "


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Brahmānda Purāna

74. You have to go to the great m o u n t a i n Himavān for the welfare of all the worlds, for your own sake as well as for our sake. 75- It is my behest, d e a r son. You must start now itself from this h e r m i t a g e with your m i n d bent upon penance. Go there, O highly fortunate one, and set up an auspicious hermitage. 76. W i t h d u e observance of holy rites propitiate M a h ā d e v a by means of p e n a n c e . W i t h a devotion not to be found elsewhere, cause pleasure u n t o him ere long. 77-78a. You will a t t a i n great bliss a n d felicity before long. T h e r e is no doubt about it. W i t h your devotion, Ś a ń k a r a will become delighted quickly. He will do whatever you wish in your m i n d . 78b-79. W h e n Ś a ń k a r a who is the lord of the Universe and who fondly loves his devotees, is propitiated, d e a r son, request h i m for all sorts of weapons as you desire. This difficult task must be performed by you for the welfare of all Devas. 80-81. T h e r e is a lot of work awaiting you which c a n be accomplished only t h r o u g h weapons on m a n y occasions. Hence, you propitiate Ś a ń k a r a , t h e lord of the lords of Devas. Being endowed with great devotion, you will surely obtain, your desire.

CHAPTER

TWENTYTWO

Paraśurāma's Penance Dialogue between P a r a ś u r ā m a a n d Ś i v a — t h e H u n t e r Vasisfha said:— 1. On being advised by Bhrgu thus, R ā m a bowed d o w n to h i m saying, " s o be i t . " He was permitted to do so by him. a n d so he decided to go.


2.3.22.2-12

589

2 . H e d u l y c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d Bhrgu a n d K h y ā t i a n d bowed to t h e m . He was e m b r a c e d a n d greeted with blessings by b o t h of t h e m . 3. He bowed down to those sages a n d was p e r m i t t e d by all of t h e m . W i t h a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to perform p e n a n c e , he w e n t out of t h a t h e r m i t a g e . 4. Thereafter, at the behest of his sire, R ā m a of exalted m i n d , went to t h e H i m a v ā n , the most excellent a m o n g moun­ tains, along t h e p a t h mentioned by Bhrgu. 5. He crossed different countries, m o u n t a i n s , rivers a n d forests. He gradually passed by t h e residences of i m p o r t a n t sages. 6. On the way he halted a n d stayed at the abodes of sages here a n d there. Or on other occasions he stayed in the holy centres a n d shrines of great i m p o r t a n c e . T h u s , he w e n t along slowly. 7. Passing over a n d surveying m a n y pleasing territories, he reached t h e excellent H i m a v ā n , the most i m p o r t a n t of all mountains. 8. After reaching t h a t place, he saw the excellent m o u n t a i n a b o u n d i n g in different trees a n d creepers. It a p p e a r e d to scrape the sky by its huge peaks. 9. It was embellished w i t h various spots rendered lovely, d u e to different minerals. All r o u n d , it was rendered splendid by t h e brilliant jewels a n d medicinal herbs. 10. In some places t h e forests were blazing d u e to t h e fire originating from the friction of d r y trees clashing together on a c c o u n t of violent gusts of wind. T h e flame was further e n h a n c e d d u e to t h e blowing winds. 11. In some places, t h e sun-stone c a m e into c o n t a c t w i t h t h e rays of the sun a n d began to emit fires. D u e to these fires t h e snow a n d b i t u m e n got m e l t e d and t h e w a t e r thus formed quelled t h e forest fires. 12. In some places, the forests got illuminated t h r o u g h beams of light reflected from crystalline collyrium, silver a n d heaps of gold t h r o u g h t h e rays of t h e sun. T h e i r m u t u a l rays of 1.

V V . 8 - 4 3 constitute a beautiful description of the H i m a l a y a s . .


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Brahtnānda Purāna

light c a m e into contact with one another and a brilliant gleam spread everywhere. 13. In some places, the forests were brightened by groups of Siddhas who h a d been wet due to snowfall a n d so were bask­ ing in the early morning sunlight over the rocks, at the feet of the m o u n t a i n . 14. In some places, t h e b o r d e r l a n d was brightened up by Yaksas w h o were seated on golden rocks over which fell the rays of the sun and so the Yaksas a p p e a r e d to enter fire. 15. In some places, the caves were filled with t h e piteous cries of herds of deer t h a t h a d been agitated when hyaenas j u m p e d up after coming out of the caves. 16. In some places the huge shining rocks a n d sloping sides of the trees h a d been scraped suddenly w h e n the leaders of t h e herds of boars a n d tigers fought each other. 17. In some places, the slopes of rocky ridges had been scraped a n d d u g up by the hoofs of the Gavayas (A species of wild ox) as they were chased by t h e elephants attracted by the resemblance of their own young ones. [ T h e idea seems to be t h i s — t h e Gavayas were mistaken to be t h e young cubs of elephants by their m o t h e r elephants. H e n c e , they pursued t h e Gavayas.~\ 18. In some places the forests a b o u n d e d in smashed pieces of rocky boulders, because the highly excited elephants in their rut h a d been fighting one a n o t h e r for the sake of a female elephant. 19. In some places, t h e rocky slabs h a d been split by t h e claws of lions treading u p o n t h e m , as they pursued t h e elephants, when their anger h a d been roused on hearing t h e roaring t r u m p e t i n g sound of those elephants. 20. In some places, t h e forests were filled with the loud lamenting cries of elephants whose temples h a d been pierced by the claws of t h e lions suddenly pouncing u p o n them. 2 1 . In some places, there were deep caves, the rocks of which a p p e a r e d to be split by t h e terrible cries of the lions whose manes h a d been violently pulled by t h e eight-footed (fabulous a n i m a l ) Śarabha. 22. In some places, the rocks a n d pebbles h a d been broken u p a s t h e excited a n d infuriated hosts ofŚabaras (hillmen)


2.3.22.23-32

591

and the leaders of the herds of bears h a d been engaged in m u t u a l struggle. 23. In some places, the female elephants and tuskers were found sporting about in the bower-like bushes on the mountain. In some places the excited elephants in rut were seen pursuing the she-elephants throughout the forests. 24. T h e mountain Himalaya had hundreds of caves filled with gusts of wind formed by the breaths of sleeping lions. In the forests of that mountain deer wandered about despite their great fear being suspicious of danger. 25. Herds of Camari dear moved about here and there very slowly while sporting, because they were afraid of their tail getting split as a result of being entangled in the thorny bushes. 26. T h e entire face of all the quarters was filled with the utterances and the sounds of beating time by the Kinnaris residing in the caves of the mountains. 27. T h e ground had been marked by the red-lac-dyed wet feet of the sylvan deities moving about here and there. 28. All round activities of dance had been initiated by groups of peacocks a n d pea-hens, whose notes were musically sweet and whose plumes had been raised up and spread. 29. It appeared that the mountain was being fanned gently by the breezes in the forest, which were extremely pleasing to the bodies and which shed showers of flowers blooming in water as well as on the ground. 30. T h e region bordering upon the mountain had been abounding in the M a n g o trees a n d they were filled with the tumultuous cooing of male cuckoos that h a d become excessively elated by tasting the juice of the season Spring. 3 1 . T h e m o u n t a i n had been resonant with the musical notes of bees that had been m a d d e n e d by imbibing nectar from different kinds of flowers. T h e forests therein h a d become deafened, due to the chirping sounds of many birds. 32. T h e surface of the ground h a d become filled a n d thickly bedecked with a n u m b e r of fresh flowers wet with honey. T h e y h a d been blown therein by the breezes of the forest a n d scattered a b o u t ;


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Brahm5n$a Purāna

33. T h e region all round h a d been deafened by the loud sound of springs a n d water-falls t h a t cascaded' down from great heights u p o n n a r r o w defiles a b o u n d i n g in rugged rocky pebbles. 34-39. T h e forests on t h e m o u n t a i n a b o u n d e d in all the following trees viz. P ā t a l a (Bignonia Suaveolonś), K a d a m b a (anthocephalus indicus), N i m b a ( t h e N e e m t r e e ) , H i n t ā l a ( t h e marshy d a t e t r e e ) , Sarja (Vatica Robusta), B a n d h ū k a (Pentapetes Phoeniced) t T i n d u k a (Diospyros embryopteriś), K a p i t t h a (Feronia EUphantum), Panasa (the bread-fruit t r e e ) , Aśoka, t h e m a n g o tree, I ñ g u d a (Terminalia catappa—a medicinal t r e e ) , Asana (Terminalia Tomentosa), N ā g a , Campaka, Punnāga, K o v i d ā r a (Kacanār in H i n d i ) , P r i y a ń g u (Setaria italica Beauy, Hindi-Kangun) Priyāla (the tree Buchanania Latifolia), N ī p a (a tree of Kadamba family) Bakula, Aksa, Tamalaka, the grape vine, M a d h ū k a (Bassia Latifolia), Ā m a l a k a (emblic Myrobalari), J a m b ū (Engenia Jambolana) K a ń k o l a , Rose tree, Bilva (Aegle marmelos gorr, F a m , Rutaceae), Arjuna, M a n g o tree, Bijapūra ( c i t r o n ? ) , Picula, A m b a s t h a (oxalis corniculato), K a n a k a , V a i k a ń k a t a , Śamī, D h a v a , Putrajīva ( H . J i y ā p o t a ) , Abhaya (A fragrant grass), Arista (The soap berry-tree), L o h a (aloe w o o d ) , U d u m b a r a (Ficus glomerata), Pippala ( H . Pīpal) a n d other trees. It was beautified on all sides by other trees of various kinds. Their i n n u m e r a b l e branches spread all r o u n d . T h e y grew so close together t h a t they a p p e a r e d to be over­ l a p p i n g one another. 40a. T h e leaves too clustered together without leaving a n y g a p in between. T h e surface of the g r o u n d on all sides was inaccessible ( d u e to t h e impenetrable thick leaves) to t h e rays of the sun. 40b-41a. H u n d r e d s of rows of jungles were occupied and as if trembling with monkeys w h o grew fat a n d strong by e a t i n g different kinds of ripe fruits. 41b-42a. H e r e a n d there h u n d r e d s of rivulets could be seen gushing out of t h e rocky crevices. T h e y were extremely charming, O king, as they produced roaring sound in view of their falling over rugged rocky basin. 42b-43a.

It was beautified all r o u n d by excellent

large


2.3.22.43b-54a

593

lakes a d o r n e d with lilies a n d lotuses a n d resonant (with t h e cries of) different a q u a t i c birds. 43b-44a. After reaching t h e lordly m o u n t a i n , t h e m o u n t a i n with its peaks capped with snow, the excellent ( d e s c e n d a n t ) of Bhrgu climbed on to it immediately w i t h great joy44b-45a. After entering t h e dense forest full of trees growing in the open spaces, R ā m a of noble miitd, walked a b o u t slowly to a tree grown in the o p e n spaces, O K i n g . 45b-46a. As he moved a b o u t in t h e different quarters, he was glanced at on all sides with suspicion a n d awe by t h e female deer, with lovely eyes. Being glanced at thus, he b e c a m e delighted. 46b-47a. Being fanned by the sylvan breezes fragrant d u e to the sweet smell of diverse flowers a n d seeing t h e splendid sylvan glory, he became delighted. 47b-49. T h e descendant of Bhrgu carefully scrutinized different spots a n d moved 1 a b o u t . Seeing t h e m u t u a l l y a n t a ­ gonistic things (such as heat, cold etc.) as well as t h e minerals, h e thought thus " O this m o u n t a i n has b e e n crowned as the overlord of all m o u n t a i n s by B r a h m a . It is b u t p r o p e r t h a t he has been m a d e a p a r t a k e r of t h e benefits of Yajñas. T h e fact t h a t this m o u n t a i n is the overlord of all m o u n t a i n s is obviously demonstrated. 50-53a. He has rendered the whole forest sweet through the whistling sound of the hollow b a m b o o s . T h r o u g h the clusters of snow drops clinging to its ridges, this m o u n t a i n appears as one w h o has p u t on and covered himself with a white cloth. D u e to t h e thick clusters of snow-flakes sticking to its t o p , this m o u n t a i n appears like one w h o has covered his limbs with an u p p e r g a r m e n t of diverse colours. W i t h his b o d y bedecked with sandal paste, fragrant aloe, c a m p h o r , musk, saffron etc. he clearly looks like a graceful elegant sensualist. 53b-54a. Piles of big pearls are scattered all round, from t h e foreheads of lordly elephants struck down by lions and this a d d s to t h e b e a u t y of this m o u n t a i n .


594

Brahmānda Purāna

54b-56a. Its tops are embellished with the flowers of various trees, creepers a n d w i n d i n g plants. He is a d o r n e d by means of t h e canopy of closely spread layers a n d layers of beautiful clouds. His body is variegated by means of different minerals. He is bedecked in all sorts of gems a n d jewels. 56b. T h e Kailāsa peak serves the purpose of t h e white umbrella a n d renders it splendid. He is surrounded on all. sides by herds of elephant-faced and horse-faced semi-divine beings. 57-58. His p a l a c e is a rocky cave with a great gz te-way illuminated by gems a n d jewels. He resorts to his t h r o n e in t h e middle of his abode which is an isolated cave with the trees all r o u n d , performing in d u e order, t h e duties of the macebearers. Like an imperial Majesty he could be seen by the people, b u t is inaccessible to t h e m . 59-60. T h e royal insignia of t h e fluffy Camara-haxc is being waved aloft by the Camari deer moving a b o u t here a n d there. He shines on being served by m a n y types of animals by the peacocks w h o d a n c e in his h o n o u r a n d by the Kinnarasw h o sing his praise. It is clearly manifest t h a t this ( m o u n ­ tain) is installed in the office of t h e overlord of lordly mountains. 61-62a. After occupying the E a r t h , he enjoys t h e entire glory by m e a n s of his powers. T h i n k i n g thus, R ā m a w h o was extremely delighted, moved about for a long time in the forests a n d caves of the m o u n t a i n H i m a l a y a . 62b-64. T h e scion of the family of Bhrgu, O great king,, reached an excellent lake in t h a t extensive forest. T h e lake was vast a n d its waters were free from i m p u r i ­ ties. It was beautified by lilies, lotuses a n d clusters of K a l h ā r a flowers, (a variety of white lotus). It was rendered splendid all r o u n d by red a n d yellow, w h i t e a n d blue lotuses, lilies a n d o t h e r kinds of a q u a t i c p l a n t s . 65-67. It was vibrant a n d resonant on account of h u n d r e d s of a q u a t i c b i r d s a n d insects, birds such as swans, Sārasa birds, water-crows, Kāran&avas (a variety of d u c k s ) , Jiva-Jioakas, Cakravdkas, ospreys and bees. It was served by gentle breeze.


595

2.3.22.68-74

It a p p e a r e d to be d a n c i n g a b o u t as waves a n d ripples were p r o d u c e d within t h e m w h e n shoals of Śaphari a n d other types of fish swam a b o u t here and t h e r e . T h e most excellent scion of t h e family of Bhrgu reached t h a t excellent lake. 68-69a. I t h a d r e n d e r e d melodious t h e q u a r t e r s t h r o u g h t h e chirpings of different birds. R ā m a t h e most excellent one a m o n g intelligent m e n m a d e a splendid a n d spacious h e r m i t a g e on its b a n k a n d decided to perform p e n a n c e . 69b-70. Invariably, he sustained himself on a diet of greens, roots a n d fruits. He h a d perfect control on his senseorgans. K e e p i n g t h e lord of Devas in his own m i n d , he per­ formed p e n a n c e along the p a t h i n i t i a t e d b y Bhrgu. H e was endowed with great devotion. 71-72a. He worshipped t h e lord of Devas, O king, w i t h intense m e n t a l concentration. D u r i n g t h e r a i n y season he had neither abode nor a shelter. D u r i n g t h e winter he resorted to chill w a t e r . D u r i n g the s u m m e r he stayed a m o n g five fires (i.e. four fires on four sides a n d t h e blazing sun a b o v e ) . He performed p e n a n c e in this m a n n e r for a long time. 72b-73. He vanquished Kama (Lust) a n d o t h e r enemies. He discarded Ūrmisafka1 (sixfold distress a n d a n x i e t y ) . His intellect was not stirred up or a g i t a t e d by t h e Dvandvas ( m u t u a l l y antagonistic pairs of feelings, heat-cold, pleasurep a i n e t c ) . He was little excited by t h e defects of Tāpa ( h e a t or agonizing e x p e r i e n c e ) . He h a d his physical b o d y as well as m i n d purified by m e a n s of Tamas (five m o r a l r e s t r a i n t s in Y o g a ) a n d Niyamas (observances prescribed in Y o g a ) . 74. T h e sage of great self-control r e n d e r e d t h e vital airs s t e a d y within t h e physical body by m e a n s of Prānāyāma ( B r e a t h - c o n t r o l ) . He was able to seat himself in the lotus pose w i t h g r e a t ease. He observed perfect silence. T h e great sage kept his m i n d steady a n d stabilised. 1.

T h e six

distressful 'waves'

in

the life are: hunger, thirst, decay,

death, grief and illusion ( M W 2 2 2 . 3 ) . Ś K D . I . 2 8 2 enumerates the 'waves of existence' viz. old a g e a n d d e a t h

(of the b o d y ) ,

vision of the m i n d a n d hunger a n d thirst ( o f life).

following

greediness

and


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Brahmānda Purāna

75. Devoted to t h e practice of Pratyāhāra (withdrawing t h e sense-organs from external stimulii, sensual feelings a n d objects), he controlled the sense-organs. Self-possessed t h a t he was, he could stabilise the usually unsteady m i n d by means of Dhāranā (Retention of perception of t h e supreme d e i t y ) . 76. He h a d t h e vision of P a r a m e ś v a r a , the lord of Devas, by means of m e d i t a t i o n . His inner m i n d was in a stable quiet state. He was a Maitra ( a n exalted B r ā h m a n a w h o h a d arrived at the highest state of h u m a n perfection d u e to close contact with the supreme Being). He was free from all sorts of obstacles. 77-78. After perceiving t h e preceptor of the universe (i.e. S u p r e m e L o r d ) in his contemplation, he pondered over t h e lord of Devas. T h e supreme soul stayed in his m i n d as an object of m e d i t a t i o n His senses a n d the physical body became motionless. Performing t h e repetition of t h e m a n t r a of t h e lord of t h e chief of Devas a n d m e d i t a t i n g on h i m in accordance with his own intellect, he r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e d u r a t i o n of p e n a n c e motionless like a l a m p in a place where there is no wind. 79-81. T h a t sage of u n m e a s u r a b l e soul p r o p i t i a t e d the lord stationed in all living beings. Thereafter, he m e d i t a t e d , upon the Miskala, t h e whole form of t h e lord which is u n ­ sullied, the greatest luminosity which c a n n o t be t h o u g h t of clearly, the excellent one t h a t could be m e d i t a t e d u p o n by t h e Yogins, t h e eternal one, the p u r e one t h a t which is t r a n q u i l f o r e v e r ; t h a t which is beyond t h e p a l e of t h e sense-organs; t h a t which is i n c o m p a r a b l e a n d is solely comprised of bliss; t h a t which is steady, t h a t which p e r v a d e d t h e entire living world, t h e mobile a n d immobile. 82. T h e scion of t h e family of Bhrgu m e d i t a t e d u p o n t h a t aspect of t h e lord of t h e Devas, O mighty king. For a long time h e h a d the feeling " I a m H e (i.e. the Supreme Lord.)"


597

2.3.23.1—12 CHAPTER TWENTYTHREE Penance of Paraśurāma the son of Jamadagni ( C o n t d . ) Vasistha said :

1 -4. T h e great sages Bhrgu, Atri, K r a t u , J ā b ā l i , V ā m a ­ deva a n d M r k a n d u , all of w h o m h a d got rid of t h e i r sins t h r o u g h p e n a n c e , were extremely a d v a n c e d in their wisdom, righteous activities a n d age, whose holy rites h a d been praised by all, h e a r d t h a t R ā m a was p e r f o r m i n g a p e n a n c e of a mystic n a t u r e in a lonely spot, a t t a i n e d perfect c o n c e n t r a t i o n of his m i n d in L o r d Śiva a n d t h a t he invariably m a i n t a i n e d regular observances of holy rites. Being eager, curious a n d desirous of seeing h i m , they w e n t over to his h e r m i t a g e . 5. T h e g r e a t sages w h o resided in holy places c a m e from a g r e a t distance to the h e r m i t a g e of P a r a ś u r ā m a w h o was performing p e n a n c e . 6. H a v i n g praised his most a r d u o u s p e n a n c e a n d his knowledge of t h e highest order in t h e world, they r e t u r n e d to t h e i r respective herinitages. 7. While R ā m a was engaged thus, O excellent king, lord Śiva b e c a m e excessively pleased at h e a r t w i t h R ā m a . 8. Desirous of knowing t h e d e p t h of his devotion u n t o h i m , L o r d Ś a ń k a r a , assumed the guise of a h u n t e r of deer O king, a n d went n e a r h i m . 9. He assumed t h e guise of a youthful h u n t e r w h o h a d the lustre of broken ( h e a p of) collyrium, whose wide eyes were red in their extremities, w h o was very tall w i t h his b o d y , h a r d as a d a m a n t a n d w h o held bow a n d arrows. 10-12. His chin was raised up a n d his a r m s a n d shoul­ ders were mighty a n d lifted u p . His moustache a n d h a i r were t a w n y . H e h a d the stinking o d o u r o f suet a n d raw f l e s h . H e a p p e a r e d to be the destroyer of all living beings. T h e whole of his b o d y h a d b e e n scarred w i t h wounds d u e to t h e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e thorny creepers a n d shrubs. He was found to chew frequently a piece of flesh d r i p p i n g with blood. His neck was slightly b e n t w i t h t h e weight of two pieces of flesh suspended from it. While passing by, he brushed against groups of trees, forcibly w i t h his thighs.


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13-14. Like a m o u n t a i n walking on foot, he c a m e to t h a t spot. After reaching t h e b a n k of the lake a b o u n d i n g in trees with plenty of blossoms, he placed t h e b u r d e n of pieces of flesh at t h e foot of a tree. Resorting to t h e shade of a tree, he sat t h e r e for a while. 15-17. He saw the scion of the family of Bhrgu s t a n d i n g on the b a n k of the lake. Thereafter, he stood up hastily a n d approached R ā m a . He m a d e obeisance to R ā m a with palms joined in reverence, even as his hands held the bow a n d the arrows. He spoke thus to the bravest a m o n g the descendants of Bhrgu, with a voice deep and resonant like the thunder-clap of clouds full of water with a voice t h a t seemed come up from a d e e p cave. "I am a hunter here in this great forest.

named Tosapravarsa.

I a m staying

18. I am the lord of this region along with the living beings, trees a n d creepers therein. I move about here with the flesh of different animals for my diet. I am impartial towards all in this region viewing everyone equally in my mind. 19. I am equally kind to all living beings. I have no one related to me such as parents and others. I do not pay a n y attention to any of t h e objects desired by me whether they be unworthy of being eaten or d r u n k or whether they be unworthy of a p p r o a c h . 20. N o r do I devote any particular a t t e n t i o n to rites w o r t h y of being pursued or not. I do not tolerate the a p p r o a c h a n d stay of any one in this forest. 2 1 . W i t h my strength, I do not p e r m i t even Indra ( t o come h e r e ) . T h e r e is no doubt about it. All the people know this since this region is d e p e n d e n t u p o n m e . 22-23. So, no one comes here without my permission. T h u s my history has been entirely recounted to you. Y o u too tell me every thing a b o u t you factually. W h o are you ? W h a t have you come here for ? W h y have you established yourself here ? Are you ready to go elsewhere ? W h a t is it t h a t you a r e desirous of doing ?"


2.3.23.24-34

599

Vasisfha said : 24. On being addressed thus by him, R ā m a , of g r e a t splendour, stood, for a while smiling silently. W i t h his face b e n t down, he thought thus : 25. " W h o is this unassailable m a n with a deep resonant voice like t h e t h u n d e r - c l a p of clouds full of water ?. He speaks excessively in words full of clarity in m e a n i n g , sounds a n d letters. 26. But his b o d y causes great doubt in m e , because it belongs to a low caste, just as shafts t h o u g h beautiful are deadly." 27. Even • as R ā m a thought thus, good omens occurred b o t h on the ground as well as on his person ( s u c h as t h r o b b ings of the right a r m ) — o m e n s which were portentous enough to g r a n t h i m his desired object. 28. Thereafter, the leading descendant of Bhrgu mentally pondered over a n d over again a n d slowly addressed these affably courteous words to the h u n t e r . 29. "I am the son of J a m a d a g n i , called R ā m a . I am a d e s c e n d a n t of Bhrgu. Welfare u n t o thee. I have now come h e r e to perform p e n a n c e at t h e bidding of my preceptor. 30. For a long time, I have been endeavouring to p r o p i t i a t e t h e lord of all t h e worlds by means of p e n a n c e , •devotion, a n d holy observances. 31-32. H e n c e , I shall p r o p i t i a t e by m e a n s of my p e n a n c e , Ś a ń k a r a , t h e lord of all t h e worlds, the refuge u n t o everyone, the bestower of freedom from fear, the three-eyed lord, w h o suppresses sin, the lord endearing to the devotees, t h e omniscent lord who destroyed the T r i p u r a s ( t h e Triple-city of demons). I h a v e taken up holy observance in this h e r m i t a g e on t h e b a n k of this lake. 33. I have decided in my m i n d t h a t I will stay here u n t i l Lord H a r a who takes pity on his devotees, manifests himself to me. 34. H e n c e , it is p r o p e r for you to go away from this p l a c e to some other place. If not, it is d e t r i m e n t a l to me, to m y holy rites a n d t o m y observances.


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35. Or I deserve respect from you with devotion as I am a guest from a n o t h e r land. I am an ascetic a n d a sage a n d have come to your place of residence. 36. If I live in your vicinity it will be conducive only to sin. Resorting to my vicinity will result only in y o u r unhappiness. 37. H e n c e , leave off loitering a b o u t in the precincts of my penance-grove. Be h a p p y thereby in b o t h the worlds. Vasistha said : 38. O n h e a r i n g these words, t h e h u n t e r b e c a m e agitated with his eyes assuming copper colour d u e to anger. He replied thus to t h e leading scion of the family of Bhrgu whose eyes too were red ( d u e to e x c i t e m e n t ) . 39. " O B r ā h m a n a , why d o you now extremely h a t e a n d shun my staying n e a r you, like t h a t of an ungrateful fellow ? 40. H a v e I d o n e a n y disservice to you or to a n y one else anywhere in this world ? W h o will despise a n d disrespect a m a n of control over his sense-organs w h o has never com­ m i t t e d any sin ? 41-42. If my very presence is to be avoided, O leading B r ā h m a n a , if seeing m e , staying with me a n d conversing with me is to be shunned, my long-lived b r o t h e r should go away from t h e h e r m i t a g e now itself. H u n g r y t h a t I am w h e r e shall I go leaving off my own resort ? 43-44. H o w c a n I, urged by you, go to a n o t h e r place forsaking my own residence ? I will never go far off from this place specially. If you wish, you m a y go or stay behind. I c a n n o t be driven off from this place by a n y m e a n s . " Vasistha said : 4 5 . On h e a r i n g his words, O king, t h e leading scion of the family of Bhrgu b e c a m e a bit angry a n d told h i m these words. 46. -'The very tribe of hunters is ruthless. It strikes terror i n t o all living beings. It is always engaged in wicked activities. H e n c e , it is despised a n d held in c o n t e m p t by a l l living beings.


2.3.23.47-58

601

47. You are born of t h a t t r i b e . You are a sinner. You h a r m a n d harass all living beings. W h y t h e n , O evil-minded one, do you not deserve to be shunned by good people ? 48. H e n c e , c o m p r e h e n d this t h a t you belong to a low caste a n d soon get away from here to a n o t h e r place. You a r e not to hesitate in this respect. 49-50. You are considerate to your body. You w a n t to protect it. H e n c e , you do not go anywhere n e a r thorns a n d other things. You cannot b e a r t h e pain thereof. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t in t h e same way, life is dear to all living beings. Every one who is hit or h u r t feels t h e pain j u s t like you. 51. Non-violence un-to all living beings. T h i s is t h e eternal virtue (dharma). It is because you act contradictory to this d i c t u m t h a t you are despised by good m e n . 52. For sustaining your own life, you will n o t stop to kill all other living beings. H o w can you prevent yourself b e i n g considered censurable by good people ? 53. H e n c e , go soon, O basest one a m o n g all m e n , t h e r e will not be dereliction of d u t y on my p a r t a n d the subsequent loss thereof, on account of you. 54. If you do n o t go away from h e r e yourself, I shall, by using force, generate in you t h e inclination to move away. 55. O sinner, your stay here even for half a m o m e n t is not conducive to your welfare. H o w can a h a t e r of virtue, a person w h o always acts contradictory to t h e dictates of Dharma a t t a i n welfare ?" Vasisfha said : 56. On hearing the words of R ā m a , lord Ś a ń k a r a , the wielder of t h e P i n ā k a bow, w h o h a d assumed t h e form of a h u n t e r said to h i m these words as though he was infuriated, despite t h e fact t h a t he was delighted. 57. " I consider all this endeavour o n your p a r t t o b e futile. H o w is it t h a t you are t h e first wise m a n , w h e n c e is Ś a m b h u a n d whence is t h e p e n a n c e ? 58. O muddle-headed fellow, why do you t a k e t h e trouble of performing p e n a n c e now ? Certainly Ś a ń k a r a will n o t be pleased with you, since you a r e of misguided c o n d u c t .


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59. Ś a m b h u (god Śiva) has activities contradictory to r the ways of t h e world, O evil-minded one. Excepting you, w h i c h unwise m a n will perform p e n a n c e for propitiating h i m ? 60. Or my d e p a r t u r e (from this p l a c e ) is u n d o u b t e d l y relevant after h o n o u r i n g you in the capacity of the worship­ per. T h e r e is (proper) association between you a n d Ś a m b h u . 6 1 . O n l y he is worthy of being worshipped by you because he is engaged in the universe (?) You are t h e quali­ fied worshipper. T h e r e is no necessity for p o n d e r i n g over this. 62. By c u t t i n g off the h e a d of B r a h m a , the Paramesthin t h e grand-father of the worlds, Ś a m b h u incurred t h e sin of Brahmin-slaughter. 6 3 . It is most probable, O B r ā h m a n a , t h a t you have, been instructed by Ś a m b h u who has been overwhelmed by the sin of Brahmin-slaughter to do the same thing. Otherwise how could you have acted in this m a n n e r ? 64. I think, O sage, t h a t within a short while the fulfilment of p e n a n c e has been achieved by you now on account of t h e identity of qualities between you a n d R u d r a . 65. By killing your own m o t h e r , you have been repudi­ ated a n d expelled by almost all t h e people of the world. U n d e r the pretext of performing a p e n a n c e , you confine your activi­ ties to t h e dense forest devoid of people. 66. It is for dispelling t h e sin arising from Brahminslaughter, t h e m u r d e r of an elderly lady ( y o u r m o t h e r ) t h a t you are performing this p e n a n c e b u t it w o n ' t be destroyed on a c c o u n t of this p e n a n c e . 67. T h e r e a r e m e a n s of expiation a n d a t o n e m e n t for o t h e r types of sins. But u n d e r s t a n d t h a t there is no expiation (from sin) to those w h o injure a n d h u r t their m o t h e r s . 6 8 . If, O R a m a , t h e main characteristic feature of virtue is considered to be non-violence by you, w h y did you c u t off t h e h e a d of your m o t h e r with your own h a n d ? 69. After c o m m i t t i n g t h e terrible m u r d e r of your own m o t h e r , (a sin) despised by all the worlds, you profess to be a righteous m a n a n d you censure others as you please. 70. W i t h o u t knowing one's own positive (irremediable) fault (sin) a n d by seeing a n d laughing ( o n your p a r t ) , I regard it i n c o m p e t e n t for you to criticise t h e faults of others.


2.3.23.71-81

603

71. If I were to forsake my duty (dharma) a n d r e m a i n care-free without fear from a n y quarter, then you can yourself m e n t a l l y scrutinize a n d despise me as you please. 72. It is for the sustenance of my parents, sons and others t h a t destruction of living beings is carried out by me as a p a r t of my d u t y . 73. Along with my family, I sustain myself day by day w i t h m e a t because it is my d u t y . This is the avocation formerly laid down by t h e creator for me. 74. If I kill ( m o r e animals a n d have with me m o r e ) m e a t t h a n w h a t is sufficient to nourish my parents a n d others, t h e n I m a y incur sin. 75. We cannot be censured for killing to t h e extent necessary for sustenance. Praise or censure me after reflecting over this. 76. W h e t h e r it is good or b a d , whatever d u t y h a d been prescribed before should be carried out by all, by every means, e v e n d u r i n g adversity a n d calamity. 77. Carefully examine with your own intellect, the difference between you a n d m e . As for me, I am engaged in t h e sustenance of my p a r e n t s a n d others whole-heartedly. 78. But you have forsaken your aged father a n d killed y o u r m o t h e r . Still you profess to be righteous a n d you have c o m e down here to perform p e n a n c e . 79. Those who know the root cause, those who have clear vision about things a r e not able to move their tongue to give expression to w h a t they desire at will. 80. I know perfectly well every thing about you, O scion of the family of Bhrgu. Hence, enough of your futile penance. 8 1 . If you desire happiness, O R Ä m a , leave off this p e n a n c e t h a t causes pain a n d distress to your body. Go elsewhere, O R Ä m a where people do not know you.


604

Brahmānda Purāna CHAPTER TWENTYFOUR Penance of Paraśurāma : His acquisition of the knowledge of Astras

Vasistha said : 1. On being told thus by him, O Protector of t h e E a r t h , R ā m a , the most excellent one a m o n g intelligent persons, scrutinized a n d pondered over h i m and inquired of h i m in surprise. Rāma enquired : 2. " W h o are You, O extremely fortunate one, tell me. You are indeed no barbarous person. Your body appears to be equipped, as it were, with t h e grandeur a n d majesty of Indra. 3. Your speech sounds to be very charrning as though it were that of t h e omniscient Lord. It is enriched, by words of diverse meaning having the qualities of lucidity, clarity a n d depth a n d majesty of t h e highest class. 4. Are You I n d r a , Vahni (the fire-god), Y a m a , Dhātr ( t h e C r e a t o r ) , V a r u n a , K u b e r a the lord of wealth, ĪSāna, T a p a n a ( t h e S u n ) , Brahma, Vāyu (the W i n d g o d ) , Soma ( t h e M o o n g o d ) , Guru ( J u p i t e r ) or Guha (Lord Skanda) ? 5. D u e to your g r a n d e u r and majesty, you deserve to be almost one of these. But your caste (low b i r t h ) causes d o u b t in my heart. 6. Lord Visnu, the most excellent a m o n g all persons, is reputed to be a Māyāvi (one who wields illusive powers). W h o are you that have come here with such a body a? this ? Please do tell m e . 7-8. Or you deserve to be Lord Śiva, t h e omniscent Lord of the worlds, t h e supreme lord, the supreme soul, b o r n of the Ātman, t h e eternal Ātmārāma (one t h a t rejoices in one's own soul), the lord who moves about as he pleases, and is identical with the entire Universe who has equipped himself with this body (of a h u n t e r ) . 9. In this world, a body equipped with such potentiality and influence c a n n o t belong to any one else. Your speech is endued


2.3.24.10-21

605

with elegance, aptness a n d a sense of very high order. It is full of d e p t h of m e a n i n g , lucidity a n d clarity. 10. I believe t h a t out of feelings of e n d e a r m e n t towards his devotee, lord H a r a has become visible with this body. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t he has come to test me. 11. You are not a m e r e hunter. Those h u n t e r s will not have such a shapely figure as yours. H e n c e , obeisance to you. So reveal your real excellent form. 12. Be pleased to reveal a body befitting your greatness whereby my m e n t a l doubts of diverse kinds can be got rid of. 13. Be pleased now a n d destroy the delusion of my intellect in every respect, by assuming your original form. 14. O highly fortunate one, I pray u n t o you, bowing down my head several times. W h o are you please ? Reveal yourself. H e r e I have joined my palms in reverence to y o u " . 15. After saying this to t h a t highly exalted one a n d being desirous of c o m p r e h e n d i n g h i m , the scion of the family of Bhrgu sat on the g r o u n d a n d began to m e d i t a t e w i t h great concentration. 16. He seated himself in the lotus pose. He b e c a m e silent. H e controlled his speech, body a n d m i n d . H e restrained t h e m o v e m e n t of the vital airs. T h u s the sage of high intellect m e d i t a t e d for a long time. 17. After restraining t h e g r o u p of his sense-organs, after keeping the m i n d w i t h d r a w n within t h e heart, he meditated a n d contemplated upon the lord of the Devas, t h e preceptor of t h e Universe. 18. By means of his inner eye in combination with the soul, he beheld the lord of t h e universe who h a d assumed t h e form of a h u n t e r of deer a n d w h o confers blessings u p o n his devotees. 19. Thereafter R Ä m a , t h e descendant of Bhrgu, got up quickly a n d opened his eyes. He saw the lord standing in front of h i m in t h e self-same physical body. 20-21. On seeing the lord w h o endears himself to his devotees, a n d w h o is the refuge u n t o all come in front of h i m for blessing him, O great king, R Ä m a was thrilled. His hairs all over his body stood on end. His eyes welled up with tears


606 of delight. T h e sage of great intellect great devotion.

Brahmānda Purāna fell at his feet with

22. W i t h words choking his t h r o a t a n d faltering due excitement, O king, he uttered several times "O Śarva, Śańkara, be refuge u p t o m e . "

to O

23. T h e n lord S a m b h u who assumed his form on b e i n g satisfied at his devotion, lifted up R ā m a who h a d bowed down in obeisance on the g r o u n d . 24. Raised up by the creator of the universe himself with his own hands, t h e scion of the family of Bhrgu eulogised the lord of the chiefs of the Devas, standing in front of h i m w i t h palms joined in reverence. Rāma prayed : 25. Obeisance to you the lord of the Devas, to Śańkara of p r i m o r d i a l form. Obeisance to Śarva, the quiescent o n e , obeisance, obeisance to the eternal one. 26. H a i l to you t h e blue-throated Lord, one in the form of Nīlalohita (the bluish-red g o d ) . Obeisance to you the lord of the living beings. Bow to you, the a b o d e of all living beings. 27. Obeisance, obeisance to the great lord of manifest a n d unmanifest form. Obeisance to the most bountiful, to Śiva of m a n y forms. Obeisance to the three-eyed God. 2 8 . Be my shelter a n d refuge, O Śarva I am your devotee, O lord of t h e Universe. Mostly, you alone are the greatest a n d u l t i m a t e resort of those w h o have no o t h e r support. 29. Unknowingly, O lord, I have misbehaved towards you. O Ś a ń k a r a , I have uttered evil words. O lord, it behoves you to forgive it. 30. O lord of all, your form is incomprehensible to others. W h i c h person other t h a n you, is c a p a b l e of knowingwell, your existence ? 31. H e n c e , O Ś a ń k a r a , be pleased with me in every respect. I have no o t h e r goal to reach. Obeisance to you. My repeated obeisance, bows u n t o you again a n d a g a i n . "


2.3.24.32-42

607

Vasisfha said : 32. On being eulogised thus, L o r d Śiva who was delighted in his m i n d and who has p e r m e a t e d the Universe said to R ā m a who was standing in front of him with p a l m s joined in reverence. The Lord said : 33. "I am pleased with you, O d e a r one. O t h e most excellent one a m o n g the descendants of Bhrgu, I am delighted with this p e n a n c e as well as your devotion t h a t has no blemish whatsoever. 34. I shall give you everything you desire a n d every­ thing solicited by you. You are t h e greatest devotee of m i n e . T h e r e is n o ( ot in this respect at all. 35. V' '.atever is lingering in your h e a r t has been under­ stood by me Hence, carry o u t unhesitatingly w h a t I am g o i n g to tell you. 36. T h e r e is no a d e q u a t e power in you today, dear o n e , in grasping the terrible miraculous weapons. H e n c e , perform still m o r e severe p e n a n c e . 37. After traversing t h e entire e a r t h and purifying your b o d y by taking holy b a t h s in all the holy centres in the d u e order, you will acquire all the miraculous w e a p o n s . " 38. After saying thus, even as R ā m a was watching, O king, the omnipresent lord, t h e dispenser of t h e destiny of t h e universe, vanished with the self-same body, within a m o m e n t . 39. W h e n t h e lord of the universe disappeared, R ā m a bowed down to Śańkara a n d decided to perform holy b a t h s in sacred places, after r o a m i n g all over t h e E a r t h . 40. Thereafter, he traversed all over t h e e a r t h in d u e order. Self-possessed t h a t he was, he took holy b a t h s in all t h e sacred places in accordance with t h e injunction. 4 1 . In all the holy centres, in all the i m p o r t a n t shrines a n d sacred temples, he untiringly propitiated t h e Pitrs a n d Devas duly. 42. D u l y performing such holy rites as fast, p e n a n c e , nomas, japas, holy b a t h s e t c . in t h e holy centres he travelled all over the e a r t h .


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4 3 . By performing holy dips in t h e sacred centres in due order, a n d slowly c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g the e a r t h , O king, he became purified in his b o d y . 44. Having traversed thus all over the e a r t h at the behest of god Ś a m b h u , t h e descendant of Bhrgu went again to t h a t land where he h a d been living before for p e n a n c e . 4 5 . After going t h e r e , O king, a n d staying there itself, he devoutly worshipped lord U m ā p a t i ( t h e spouse of U m ā ) by means of austerities a n d holy observances. 46. It was in the m e a n t i m e , O king, t h a t a long-drawn w a r took place between t h e Devas a n d the Asuras causing horripilation. 47. T h e r e u p o n , the excessively powerful Asuras defeated t h e gods a n d acquired t h e glory and riches of the Devas. T h e y h a d n o t h i n g to fear from anywhere. 48. T h e Devas who h a d been defeated in the w a r — Vāsava ( I n d r a ) a n d all t h e others whose assets a n d magnificent glory h a d been seized by their enemies—sought refuge in Śańkara. 4 9 . After propitiating the lord of the universe by means of obeisances a n d eulogies about his victory, the Devas re­ quested the Pināka-wielding lord (Śiva) to destroy the Asuras. 50. T h e r e u p o n , O king, S a m b h u , the bestower of boons on t h e Devas,.promised to t h e m the slaughter of the Dānavas, a n d spoke thus t o M a h o d a r a . 5 1 . " I n the southern sector of Himalayas, a sage's son of great p e n a n c e , n a m e d R ā m a , is performing p e n a n c e directed towards m e . He is very brilliant. 52. Go t h e r e now itself, O M a h o d a r a a n d convey my behest to h i m . Even as he is performing p e n a n c e , let h i m be b r o u g h t here w i t h o u t d e l a y " . 53. On being ordered thus, M a h o d a r a bowed down to the lord after saying " S o be i t " , a n d went with t h e velocity of the W i n d to the place where R ā m a was settled down. 54. After reaching t h a t spot a n d seeing R ā m a the great sage performing p e n a n c e , he h u m b l y spoke these words. 55. " O excellent one a m o n g t h e descendants o f Bhrgu lord Ś a m b h u wishes to see you. I have come here at his behest. H e n c e , come to t h e presence of his lotus-like feet".


2.3.24.56-68

609

56. On h e a r i n g his woi ds, Bhārgava got up quickly, received his behest approvingly with his head (bowed d o w n ) , and replied—"So be it". 57. T h e r e u p o n , M a h o d a r a with great speed led R.āma immediately to a place by the side of Ś a m b h u on the Kailāsa, the excellent m o u n t a i n . 58. T h e most excellent scion of the family of Bhrgu saw Sańkara w h o endears himself to his devotees, accompanied by the goblins as well as I n d r a a n d other i m m o r t a l beings (i.e. g o d s ) . 59-62a. T h e lord was being eulogised by N ā r a d a a n d other ascetics whose wealth was p e n a n c e . He was being a t t e n d e d u p o n by the G a n d h a r v a s who were singing, a n d by the groups of Apsaras who were dancing. T h e lord of the Devas h a d the hide of an elephant for his g a r m e n t a n d h a d smeared the entire body w i t h the holy ashes. T h e three-eyed moon-crested lord h a d the tawny-matted hair over his head. He h a d adorned himself with serpents serving the purpose of o r n a m e n t s . His lips a n d arms were long. He was gentle. His lotus-like face appeared delighted. O king, he was seated on a golden slap in the midst of the assembly of the Devas. 62b-65a. T h e most excellent one a m o n g the descendants of Bhrgu, a p p r o a c h e d the lord of the Devas with palms joined in reverence. H i s entire body h a d hairs standing on end as a result of his vision of Śrīkantha. He went near H a r a w i t h his body drenched in tears of joy. He was excited due to delight, he u t t e r e d the words, " O b e i s a n c e to you, O lord of the D e v a s " several times. Finally he fell down at the feet of the enemy of the three Puras (i.e. god Śiva) . 65b-66. Amidst the groups of the Devas who were look­ ing on, 'the delighted lord Śiva lifted up the most excellent scion of the family of Bhrgu. W i t h an enthusiastic smile a n d eagerness he spoke these sweet words to R ā m a whose lotus-like face a p p e a r e d pleasant. 67. " T h e s e Gīrvānas (Devas) have been attacked by the hosts of Daityas. T h e y were dislodged from their abodes. U n a b l e to kill t h e m they have a p p r o a c h e d m e . 68. H e n c e , at my behest as well as w i t h a desire to do


610

Brahmānda Parana

something pleasing to t h e Devas, O R ā m a , kill the entire hosts of Daityas. You a r e considered capable of it by m e " . 69. T h e n R ā m a bowed down to Śarva. Even as all t h e Devas stood listening, R ā m a spoke these words very h u m b l y , with palms joined in reverence. 70. "O lord, you are omniscient. You are the i m m a n e n t soul of everyone. H e n c e , is not ( w h a t I am going to say) known to you (already) ? Still, listen to the words I submit. 7 1 . If it is impossible for Śańkara a n d other Devas to kill t h e asuras how can they be killed by me singlehandedly ? 72. I am ignorant of miraculous missiles, O lord of t h e Devas. I am not an expert in warfare. H o w c a n I kill all t h e enemies of the Devas without a n y weapon whatsoever ?" 73. On being told by h i m thus, t h e lord of t h e Devas transferred to t h a t noble-souled Rāma white lustrous splendour of Śiva, full of miraculous missiles, as brilliant as t h e fire of D e a t h . 74. After h a n d i n g over his own axe t h a t could overpower all other weapons, t h e L o r d delighted within himself, said to R ā m a even as t h e Devas stood listening. 75. '?Due to my grace, O gentle one, m a y there be sufficient power in you enabling you to kill all t h e enemies of t h e Devas, a n d be unassailable to all your enemies. 76. Go a h e a d w i t h this weapon alone a n d fight with your enemies. You yourself will duly come to know a n d possess the skill in w a r . " Vasisfha said : 77. O n being instructed thus b y Ś a m b h u , R ā m a bowed down to him, a n d accepted the axe pertaining to Śiva, a n d was b e n t u p o n t h e slaughter of t h e enemies of t h e Devas. 78. T h e r e u p o n , R ā m a who was b o r n of a p a r t of splendour of Visnu a n d w h o was equipped w i t h devotion to R u d r a , shone like the splendour of the sun a c c o m p a n i e d by his brilliance. 79. P e r m i t t e d by the three-eyed lord a n d a c c o m p a n i e d by all the Devas he went a h e a d to slay t h e Asuras. H e : resolved to fight with t h e m till t h e end.


611

2.3.24.80—25.1

80. T h e r e u p o n , once again there broke o u t t h e w a r of the Devas with the Asuras, O king. T h e y were endeavouring to c o n q u e r t h e three worlds. H e n c e t h e war was extremely terrible. 8 1 . T h e n R ā m a of mighty a r m s b e c a m e infuriated in t h a t excessively terrifying b a t t l e . He killed t h e great Asuras w i t h his axe. 82. Killing the Daityas in thousands by m e a n s of strokes resembling t h e t h u n d e r b o l t , the infuriated R ā m a moved a b o u t in t h e battlefield like a n o t h e r god of D e a t h . 83. After killing all the Daityas in a trice, R ā m a t h e most excellent one a m o n g those w h o strike ( w i t h a w e a p o n ) e x t e r m i n a t e d t h e m a n d gratified all the Devas. 84. Everyone a m o n g t h e Daityas a n d t h e D ā n a v a s w a s being struck at by R ā m a . v.Those w h o survived t h e slaughter saw R ā m a everywhere a n d became frightened. 85. W h e n t h e entire hosts of t h e Asuras were e i t h e r killed or r o u t e d , t h e Devas took leave of R ā m a a n d w e n t a g a i n to the H e a v e n . 86. After killing the sons of D i t i a n d b i d d i n g farewell to t h e Devas, R ā m a resorted to his hermitage w i t h his m i n d a t t a c h e d to t h e activities of p e n a n c e . 87-88. T h a t sage of great intellect m a d e the image of a h u n t e r of deer representing Ś a m b h u a n d devoutly w o r s h i p p e d it in his hermitage, with perfect self-control. He d u l y p r o p i ­ t i a t e d h i m with fragrant incense, beautiful flowers, food offerings, obeisances a n d eulogies.

CHAPTER TWENTYFIVE Paraśurāma protects a boy from a tiger Vasisfha said : 1. T h e r e u p o n , t h e lord of t h e Universe was delighted in his m i n d , d u e to the Yoga of devotion of R ā m a . H e n c e , he b e c a m e visible to him along with t h e groups of Devas.


612

Brahmāngla Purāna

2-3. On seeing t h e three-eyed lord of t h e chief of t h e Devas, t h e moon-crested lord with a lordly bull as vehicle, god Ś a m b h u , accompanied by crores of goblins, the^-scion of t h e family of Bhrgu got up w i t h great excitement. His eyes became d i m on a c c o u n t of tears d u e to delight. He prostrated on t h e ground to Śarva w i t h great devotion. 4. Rising up a n d b o w i n g ^ d o w n his h e a d several times, R ā m a eulogised t h e lord of the universe with palms joined in reverence. Rāma said : 5. " O b e i s a n c e to you, O lord of t h e chiefs of t h e Devas. H a i l to y o u O P a r a m e ś v a r a . Obeisance to you, O lord of t h e Universe. Bow to you, O destroyer of t h e three Puras.1 6. Salute to you O lord presiding over every thing. Obeisance to you, O lord e n d e a r i n g himself to his devotee s. H a i l to y o u O lord of all living beings. Obeisance to you, O bull-bannered lord. 7. O b e i s a n c e to you t h e overlord of everything. Bow to you, O merciful lord. Obeisance to you, O a b o d e of everyone, O b e i s a n c e to you, O Lord of bluish-red complexion. 8. O b e i s a n c e to t h e trident-bearing lord, t h e destroyer of t h e hosts of t h e enemies of the Devas. Salute to you, K a p ā l i n (one holding t h e skull), t h e sole protector of all the worlds. 9. Obeisance to t h e lord w h o resides perpetually in the c r e m a t i o n g r o u n d ; obeisance to t h e lord w h o dwells on t h e Kailāsa m o u n t a i n . Obeisance be to you, t h e wielder of t h e noose; Bow to the lord who swallowed poison Kālakūfa. 10. O b e i s a n c e to t h e all-pervading lord w o r t h y of being saluted by t h e Devas. H a i l to you, t h e self-born lord, obeisance to Ś a m b h u w h o is t h e witness to t h e activities of t h e entire universe.

1. were

T h e three cities of gold, silver a n d iron in the sky, air

built

by

Maya

for

demon-residents by g o d Śiva.

and

earth

demons. T h e s e were burnt d o w n along w i t h the


2.3.25.11-19

613

11. Obeisance to t h e lord w i t h t h e crescent m o o n on his crest, shining on account of t h e white foams of t h e G a ń g ā . Bow to Śiva, t h e S u p r e m e Soul, having huge serpent-chiefs as garland. 12. Obeisance to t h e lord whose body is covered "with t h e holy ashes. Salute to t h e lord who has the sun, t h e fire a n d t h e m o o n for his eyes. H a i l to you, O Kapardin (one w i t h m a t t e d h a i r ) , obeisance to you t h e suppressor of t h e d e m o n Andhaka. 13. Obeisance to t h e destroyer of t h e three d e m o n cities. Obeisance to t h e annihilator of Daksa's sacrifice; obeis­ a n c e to t h e lord whose broad chest is dyed w i t h t h e saffron from t h e breasts of the d a u g h t e r of t h e m o u n t a i n H i m a l a y a . 14. H a i l to t h e great lord M a h ā d e v a ; obeisance to you t h a t h a v e t h e e l e p h a n t hide, for your robes. Bow to Śiva whose form is m e d i t a t e d u p o n by t h e Yogins. Obeisance to t h e lord of inconceivable refulgence. 15. Obeisance to you t h a t abide in t h e m i d d l e of t h e p e r i c a r p of t h e lotus-like h e a r t of your own devotees. Bow to you t h a t h a v e t h e m a i n principle, a n d essence of all t h e V e d a s (and Agamas) as your form. 16. Obeisance to t h e awakener of the leading Yogins. H a i l to t h e nectar-souled one, obeisance to Ś a ń k a r a whose g r a n d e u r pervades everything. Bow to t h e S u p r e m e Soul. 17. Obeisance to Śarva the quiescent lord. T h e B r a h m a n having t h e cosmic form. Obeisanee to t h e lord w i t h o u t begin­ ning, m i d d l e a n d e n d ; obeisance to the eternal lord of u n m a n i fest form. 18. H a i l to t h e lord whose form is b o t h manifest a n d unmanifest. Obeisance to t h e lord of gross as well as subtle n a t u r e . Bow to the lord who can be c o m p r e h e n d e d t h r o u g h t h e V e d ā n t a s . Obeisance to the lord with t h e universal know­ ledge for his form. 19. Obeisance to t h e lord whose feet are worshipped w i t h flowers (as well as) heads of groups of Suras a n d Asuras. Obeisance to Śrīkantha, t h e creator of the universe. R e p e a t e d obeisance u n t o the m a k e r of t h e worlds.


614

Brahmānda Purāna

20. Obeisance to you, t h e lord w i t h t h e Rajas Guna in his h e a r t while c r e a t i n g the Universe in t h e form of H i r a n y a g a r b h a . O b e i s a n c e to H a r a t h e primordial (lord a n d t h e cause of) the universe. 2 1 . Obeisance to you, the soul of t h e universe. H a i l to y o u the cause of t h e sustenance a n d activities of t h e world. Bow to you whose form is Sāttvic knowledge, Obeisance to the lord identical with the supreme soul as well as the individual soul. 22. O b e i s a n c e to t h e lord who assumes transformation of t h e Tamas Guna while performing t h e d u t y of the annihilation of t h e Universe. Obeisance to t h e lord who has t h e form of R u d r a at t h e e n d of t h e K a l p a . Obeisance to the lord who knows the para a n d Apara ( t h e great a n d non-great or r e m o t e to proximate). 2 3 . Obeisance to the eternal lord without a n y change or transformation. Obeisance to t h e lord of the n a t u r e of Sat. a n d Asat. Obeisance to t h e lord w h o awakens every intellect. H a i l to the lord who causes changes in the intellect a n d sense-organs. 24. R e p e a t e d obeisance to t h a t lord by whose M ā y ā the Devas have diverse m i n d s [ f o r m s ( ? ) ] such as t h e Vasus, t h e Adityas, t h e M a r u t s , t h e Sādhyas, the R u d r a s a n d the Aśvins. 2 5 . You h a v e an u n b o r n , e t e r n a l subtle form t h a t has no a b e r r a t i o n s a n d t h a t is i n c o m p a r a b l e . Even t h e Yogins who are always devoid of impurities do n o t know t h a t . 26. It is because they do not c o m p r e h e n d you, the in­ comprehensible one, t h a t B r a h m a a n d others have indeed ( t o w a n d e r in) t h e worldly existence. T h e y do not have for long t h e same activity (?) 27. W h e t h e r a scholar or an irrational person, one conti­ nues to w a n d e r in t h e worldly existence as long as one does n o t a p p r o a c h your feet since you alone are the destroyer of ignorance. 28. He alone is clever, he alone is f o r t u n a t e ; he alone is a sage, a n d a scholar by whom the intellect has been stabiliz­ ed at your lotus-like feet. 29. On a c c o u n t of its being extremely subtle, your exist­ ence of t h e n a t u r e of t h e t h r e e Vedas is d u e to its extreme


2.3.25.30-38

615

subtlety too d e e p even to t h e learned ones. H o w is it to be known by me, d e l u d e d t h a t I a m . 30. Y o u r greatness is beyond t h e purview of words. Now I am i n c a p a b l e of eulogising it adequately well, because I am dull-witted. 3 1 . H e n c e , t h o u g h out of ignorance (i.e. I g n o r a n t t h o u g h I am) you have been eulogised by me with (genuine) devotion. O lord of t h e Devas, do become pleased. Indeed you a r e fond of your devotees a n d e n d e a r yourself to t h e m " . Vasistha said : 32. On being eulogised thus with great devotion by R ā m a , Ś a ń k a r a spoke to h i m smilingly with words deep a n d r e s o n a n t like t h e r u m b l e of t h e cloud. The Lord said : 33. " O R ā m a , . I a m extremely pleased w i t h t h e heroism you possess, your p e n a n c e , your devotion towards me a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y with this eulogy. 34. H e n c e , do choose your boon. W h a t e v e r you wish mentally I shall bestow it u p o n you, without keeping back a n y thing". Vasistha said : 35. On being told thus by the L o r d of t h e Devas, O king, t h e leading m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu bowed down to him. W i t h palms joined in reverence he spoke t h u s — 36. "O lord if you are pleased a n d if I deserve a boon, t h e n I wish to be endowed with all the miraculous missiles from you. 37. D u e to your favour, there should n o t be anyone superior to me in miraculous missiles, weapons a n d in the sacred scriptures. T h e r e should n o t be anyone in all the worlds to defeat me in battles. Vasisfha said : 38. After saying " S o be i t " , S a m b h u who was delighted gave R ā m a missiles a n d weapons in their entirety in due order along with their M a n t r a s .


616

Brahman (la Purāna

39. Ś a ń k a r a w h o stood in front of h i m with satisfaction m a d e R ā m a take up the four types of miraculous weapons along with the modes of their discharge as well as their withdrawal. 40. Ś a ń k a r a gave R ā m a an excellent chariot of unobs­ tructed speed a n d velocity, with white horses and beautiful b a n n e r . He gave him two inexhaustible quivers of arrows. 4 1 . H e gave h i m a n u n a g i n g (ever-new) unbreakable divine bow ( n a m e d ) Vijaya, with firm bowstring. He gave him a costly wonderful coat of mail that can withstand all types of weapons. 42. O king, he g r a n t e d him invincibility in battle, heroism without a parallel on the earth a n d t h e ability to hold his vital airs as long as he wished. 43. By means of a Bijamantra ( i n c a n t a t i o n ) in his n a m e , he granted him renown all over the worlds. He g r a n t e d Bhārgava great potentiality for his austerities. 44-47. H e granted R ā m a proper a n d relevant devotion towards himself. Thereafter, the moon-crested lord Ś a m b h u , H a r a , soon vanished with t h e selfsame body accompanied by all t h e goblins a n d the Devas. After obtaining everything t h a t he desired, R ā m a b e c a m e satisfied. W h e n Śarva (Śiva) became invisible h e spoke t o M a h o d a r a : — " O M a h o d a r a , i t behoves you to preserve all these things, the chariot, the bow etc. for my sake w h e n I h a v e some task to be performed t h r o u g h these, you will be remembered, by m e . On being remembered by me you will send t h e m to m e " . Vasistha said : 48. Saying " S o b e i t " , M a h o d a r a d e p a r t e d . T h e most excellent one a m o n g the descendants of Bhrgu felt satisfied (in having fulfilled his d u t y ) and desired to go to see his elders. 49. As he proceeded ahead, R ā m a who was induced by his previous^actions controlling his future, entered a cave in the H i m a l a y a m o u n t a i n s in a dense forest. 50. T h e r e he saw a boy, t h e son of a B r ā h m a n a , crying like one w h o was extremely frightened as he was chased by a tiger. He was (as if) holding his vital airs (with great difficulty).


2.3.25.51-62

617

5 1 . O n seeing h i m , R ā m a had his h e a r t overwhelmed with s y m p a t h y a n d he b e c a m e excited d u e to his eagerness to save h i m . Saying " S t o p , s t o p " loudly, he pursued t h a t tiger. 52. Chasing him with great speed, the scion of t h e family of Bhrgu, caught up the extremely terrible tiger in the forest after a long time. 53. T h a t B r ā h m a n a boy who was pursued by t h e tiger, fled with great fright for his life. He fell down n e a r a cave in the forest. 54. R ā m a h a d his eyes turned red d u e to anger. W i t h a desire to redeem the B r ā h m a n a boy he took up a small blade of grass and c h a n t e d m a n t r a s over it as t h o u g h it were a missile of K u ś a grass. 55. In the m e a n t i m e t h e hyaena ( t i g e r ) of great power r a n after the B r ā h m a n a boy. On seeing h i m fallen, he roared loudly m a k i n g t h e heaven a n d e a r t h tremble. 56. W i t h the fire of his missile, he b u r n e d t h e tiger who was striking with t h e tips of his claws. He thus released t h e B r ā h m a n a boy w h o was not at all w o u n d e d . 57. T h a t sinful ( h y e n a ) whose body h a d been b u r n e d completely d u e to the Brahminical fire, assumed t h e b o d y of a G a n d h a r v a . Rising on to the sky, he spoke t h u s to R ā m a with g r e a t respect. 58. "O sage, formerly, as I h a d been cursed by a B r ā h m a n a I a t t a i n e d the state of a tiger. R e d e e m e d now from the effects of t h a t curse, I am going to h e a v e n " . 59. W h e n he went away hastily after saying thus, R ā m a w h o was wonderstruck sympathetically lifted up t h e fallen B r ā h m a n a boy. 60. Sitting near the B r ā h m a n a boy he said t h e following w o r d s — " D o not be afraid", O king. Slowly he stroked his limbs, reviving his life (and spirits). 6 1 . Lifted up thus by R ā m a , he o p e n e d his eyes a n d looked a r o u n d . He saw the most excellent one a m o n g t h e m e m b e r s of t h e family of Bhrgu in front of him. 62. He became surprised on seeing t h e tiger reduced to ashes. W i t h his fear dispelled he said t h u s — " W h o a r e you, please ? H o w did you come here ?


618

Brahmānda Purāna

6 3 . By w h o m was this tiger reduced to ashes, the h y e n a of terrifying shape a n d size, -who almost a p p e a r e d like a n o t h e r god of d e a t h a n d a t t e m p t e d to kill me ? 64. My m i n d is highly deluded a n d excited d u e to fear, O sage of great intellect. Although it has been killed, all t h e quarters a p p e a r to be filled w i t h the tiger even now. 65. I consider you to be everyone—my father, m o t h e r , friend a n d preceptor since you b r o u g h t me back to life when I h a d m e t with t h e greatest of mishaps. 66. T h e r e was a certain excellent sage of great penance called Ś ā n t a . I am his son. Desirous of visiting holy centres, I w e n t to t h e village of Ś ā l a g r ā m a . 1 67. F r o m t h e r e I proceeded to the m o u n t a i n G a n d h a r m ā d a n a , desirous of visiting t h e holy penance grove o f B a d a r i k ā resorted to by m a n y groups of sages. 68. Desirous of going further, I lost my way on the H i m a l a y a m o u n t a i n . E n t e r i n g a fascinating forest, I got con­ fused while viewing the different regions. 69. I w e n t a distance of a K r o ś a ( t h r e e K m s ) towards t h e east. As ill luck would have it, I was afflicted with fear a n d I h a d to r u n . 70. W h e n I h a d fallen down I have been lifted up now from the g r o u n d with great love and mercifulness by you like a son, by his father. Thus my story has been wholly n a r r a t e d to y o u " . Vasistha said : 7 1 . On being asked thus by h i m , O leading king, R ā m a n a r r a t e d his story entirely to h i m in due order. 72. M u t u a l l y conversing thus they were delighted very m u c h . He did n o t stay t h e r e for a long time thereafter. T h e n he desired to proceed a h e a d . 73. Followed by h i m , R ā m a c a m e out of t h a t cave with g r e a t joy a n d started towards t h e residence of his p a r e n t s . 1. A place near the source of the Gandaka where Bharata and sage F u l a h a performed p e n a n c e ( D e . 1 7 4 ) . T h e place abounds in sacred stones c a l l e d Śālagrāma.


2.3.25.74-86

619

74-75. Since he was not w o u n d e d a l t h o u g h he was caused to fall on t h e ground by t h e tiger a n d since he was saved by R ā m a w h o killed t h e tiger, t h e n a m e of t h a t B r ā h m a n a b o y b e c a m e well known on the E a r t h as Akrtavrana ( n o t w o u n d e d ) , O leading king. 76. Ever since then, he b e c a m e a great friend a n d fol­ lower of R ā m a in every situation like a shadow on t h e ground w h e n t h e r e is sunlight. 77. Followed by h i m , O king, R ā m a c a m e to t h e presence of Bhrgu. He saw K h y ā t i , a p p r o a c h e d her a n d bowed down t o h e r h u m b l y . 78. He was blessed and congratulated by those two d e l i g h t e d persons. In order to please t h e m , he stayed there for a few days. 79-80. After t h a t , with their permission, he went to t h e h e r m i t a g e of the great sage C y a v a n a . T h e sage R ā m a of n o b l e m i n d saluted sage C y a v a n a who was surrounded by t h e groups of his disciples, whose mind was quiescent a n d w h o h a d controlled the i n t e r n a l sense-organs, as well as bowed to Sukanyā, C y a v a n a ' s wife. 8 1 . C o n g r a t u l a t e d by b o t h of t h e m w h o were delighted he w e n t to t h e h e r m i t a g e of Aurva desirous of seeing the sage. 82. T h e highly intelligent R ā m a p a i d his respects to him a n d was c o n g r a t u l a t e d and blessed by h i m , O king. D u e to Aurva's affection, he r e m a i n e d there for a few days. 83. After being p e r m i t t e d to go by h i m very slowly, Bhārgava of great glory, a c c o m p a n i e d by A k r t a v r a n a , joyously started towards t h e a b o d e of Rcīka. 84. After bowing down at t h e feet of t h e p a r e n t s of his father, s e p a r a t e l y he saluted t h e m . T h e y two, O king, blessed h i m w i t h their good wishes, d u e to his delight. 85. On being asked by them, O leading king, the liberalm i n d e d sage R ā m a n a r r a t e d his entire story in d u e order in the m a n n e r it h a d taken place. 86. After staying t h e r e for a few days he went to the a b o d e of his parents with their permission. He was delighted extremely.


Brahmānda Purāna

620

87. Approaching his parents who were seated w i t h i n their excellent h e r m i t a g e , t h e delighter of t h e m e m b e r s of t h e family of Bhrgu, bowed down duly at their feet. 88. W h e n he bowed down at their feet, they eagerly a n d respectfully lifted h i m u p , embraced him a n d sprinkled him with tears from their eyes. 89. T h e y congratulated h i m w i t h blessings. T h e y kept h i m on their laps. T h e y looked at his face again a n d again. Stroking his limbs, they derived great joy. 90. T h e y asked R ā m a — " W h a t has been d o n e b y you, d e a r son, so long ? W h o is this boy ? W h e r e were you staying ? 9 1 . H o w did you live with h i m ? H o w has h e c o m e ? O d e a r one, let this be completely a n d truthfully reported to us both by you".

CHAPTER TWENTYSIX King Kārttavirya visits the Hermitage of Jamadagni Vasispha said : 1. T h e n , on being asked thus by t h e m b o t h , O king,. R ā m a , with p a l m s joined in reverence, m e n t i o n e d to t h e m everything t h a t h a d been done by himself. 2. He told t h e m in d u e order how he performed pen• a n c e on being directed by t h e oldest living m e m b e r of his family (viz. B h r g u ) a n d how he performed t h e pilgrimage of holy centres at the behest of S a m b h u . 3. He told t h e m a b o u t the slaughter of t h e D a i t y a s on behalf of t h e Devas a n d his m e e t i n g w i t h Akrtavrana, due to t h e grace of H a r a . 4. All these as well as whatever else has b e e n carried out by himself, R ā m a n a r r a t e d to his p a r e n t s w h o felt delighted, t o h e a r it.


2.3.26.5-16

621

5 . O n h e a r i n g everything m e n t i o n e d b y h i m a n d t h e details of his activities, b o t h of t h e m were delighted, O king. B o t h of t h e m a t t a i n e d the a c m e of happiness. 6. Rendering^ service thus to his p a r e n t s , O great king, t h e leading m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu remained obedient to t h e m as well as to his brothers, without differentiating between t h e m . 7. In t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e lord of H a i h a y a once desired to go on a h u n t i n g expedition a c c o m p a n i e d by his a r m y of four constituents (i.e. e l e p h a n t s , chariots, horses a n d footsoldiers). 8. T h e sky was r e n d e r e d red all r o u n d by the rays of the Sun, t h a t deprived t h e clusters of stars of their brilliance, w h i c h h a d a reddish tinge like t h a t of t h e B a n d h ū k a flowers. 9. T h e early m o r n i n g breeze was blowing gently touch­ ing t h e lily p o n d a n d shaking t h e clusters of Ketakī bushes. 10. T h e birds taking shelter in t h e i r nests on t h e trees growing on t h e banks of t h e N a r m a d ā were chirping, m a k i n g c h a o t i c notes, pleasing to t h e ears a n d t h e m i n d . 11. G r o u p s of sages h a d gone to t h e holy centres on t h e b a n k s o f the N a r m a d ā a n d s t a n d i n g i n t h e waters t h a t dispel sins they were c h a n t i n g h y m n s eulogising t h e eternal B r a h m a n . 12. T h e chiefs of sages h a b i t u a t e d to the performance of holy rites, were going back to t h e i r hermitages r e t u r n i n g from t h e banks of t h e river, after duly answering t h e calls of nature. 13. Every one of t h e wives of t h e heroic soldiers (virapatnisu, p r o b a b l y muni-patnisu 'wives of sages' (?) eagerly engag­ ed in t h e domestic d u t i e s . T h e cows were being milked for t h e purpose of H o m a , by the daughters of sages. 14. T h e sons of sages were taking milk to t h e p r o p e r places. T h e p e o p l e were eager to perform Agnihotra. T h e time was pleasant to all living beings. 15. T h e lotuses were blossoming. T h e bees were h u m ­ m i n g sweetly. T h e birds flew out of their nests a n d b e g a n to chirp all r o u n d . 16. D u e to t h e g e n t l e breeze, t h e time was conducive to t h e increase of delight in t h e b o d y of those w h o were


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leisurely moving a b o u t on elephants in rut or on horses or in chariots. 17-18. People taking flowers a n d water n e a r the p e n a n c e grove were proceeding a h e a d along with m a n y sages dressed in deerskin garments and experts in their self-study of t h e Vedas. M a n t r a s of high a n d low order were being c h a n t e d very well. T h e invocatory Praisā hymns were being c h a n t e d a n d t h e sacred fires were being utilized for Homas. 19-20. T h e holy rites duly m e n t i o n e d in the scriptures r e g a r d i n g M a n t r a s ( H o l y words) and T a n t r a s (esoteric gestures) were performed everywhere. T h e sun which a p p e a r e d like blazing fire was rising up with dazzling splendour. It dispelled darkness. It covered t h e entire quarters a n d the e a r t h (with light) a n d the darkness of the night perished. 21-22. W h e n t h e stars vanished a n d t h e quarters b e c a m e brightened u p , the king, the lord of H a i h a y a clan, concluded all his m o r n i n g duties such as answering t h e calls of n a t u r e etc. a n d started from his city a c c o m p a n i e d by the family priest and all the armies including horses, chariots a n d e l e p h a n t s . 23. T h e glorious lord was a c c o m p a n i e d by his ministers a n d other kings of t h e same age as his. He m a d e the surface of t h e e a r t h cave in d u e to the great weight of his armies. 24-27a. W i t h t h e r u m b l i n g sound of his chariots, the king m a d e the quarters resound. He went a h e a d covering the sky with t h e dust particles of t h e g r o u n d t r o d d e n u n d e r the feet of the hosts of his armies. T h e sky a p p e a r e d to be crowded with h u n d r e d s of aerial chariots. T h e excellent king entered the terrifying forest of the V i n d h y a m o u n t a i n s a n d stirred it up t h r o u g h the hosts of his armies. Encircling t h a t forest by m e a n s of his soldiers, the king killed different kinds of beasts of p r e y w i t h his sharp arrows. 27b-31a. T h e r e fell down some tigers whose bodies were cut, pierced ( a n d wounded) by m e a n s of s h a r p arrows dis­ charged by the warriors who d r e w t h e bowstring u p t o their ears. Some of the leaders of t h e boars fell down on the e a r t h d r e n c h e d with blood, because their bodies h a d been cut off by the swords of the foot-soldiers of e n o r m o u s speed.


2.3.26.31-43

623

H e r d s of deer whose foreheads were pierced t h r o u g h by the javelins h u r l e d by powerful experts in the discharge of javelins, fell down on the ground like m o u n t a i n s . Lions, bears, the fabulous eight-footed Śarabhas etc. all the limbs of w h o m h a d been pierced t h r o u g h by shafts lay scattered over the e a r t h wet with blood. 31b-33a. As if it was the end of a Yuga, the forest a p p e a r e d to be extremely agitated a n d chaotic as some of the deer fell into the nets, some were a b o u t to fall, some were pursued by the h u n t i n g dogs, some were fleeing a n d some were distressed a n d groaning aloud, because they were frightened a n d were afraid of d a n g e r to their very lives. 33b-37a. W i t h sharp weapons the soldiers killed m a n y a n i m a l s such as boars, lions, tigers, p o r c u p i n e , broods of rabbits, Camari, deer, Rum deer, foxes, Gavayas (a variety of wild o x e n ) , bears, wolves, Krsnasara deer, leopards, t h e red rhinoceros, etc. T h e y killed deer (or beasts) having bodies of various colours a n d other varieties Nyańku antelopes. Some were y o u n g cubs sucked by their m o t h e r s . O t h e r s were youth­ ful ones. Some were old. T h e y killed couples of animals too. W h a t e v e r animals they killed were worthy of being killed w i t h weapons ( i . e . t h e i r slaughter is n o t p r o h i b i t e d by scriptures). After killing almost all the terrible beasts of prey, the soldiers of the king b e c a m e overwhelmed with great fatigue. 37b-40a. W h e n t h e sun reached the zenith in t h e sky, the king w h o was distressed by the h e a t alongwith his a r m y , felt thirsty a n d went slowly to the N a r m a d ā . T h e king w h o was afflicted with h u n g e r a n d thirst enter­ ed its splendid waters along w i t h his a r m y a n d horses. After taking b a t h a n d drinking pleasantly cool water, he m u n c h e d a n d c r u n c h e d the shoots of lotuses white a n d tasty. 40b-43a. After sporting a b o u t in the waters for a long time, t h e king c a m e out along with his a r m y . He took rest oa the banks a d o r n e d w i t h groves of trees. W h e n t h e sun c a m e down in the firmament, the king a c c o m p a n i e d by his a r m y a n d other followers started from t h e caverns a n d forests of t h e V i n d h y a m o u n t a i n s in order to r e t u r n to his capital.


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Even while going a h e a d , he saw the h e r m i t a g e of the noble-souled sage J a m a d a g n i of meritorious disposition a n d c o n d u c t . It was situated on the banks of the river N a r m a d ā . 43b-44a. T h e r e u p o n , t h e king sent back the a r m y a n d m a d e t h e m c a m p a little away from t h e p l a t e . A c c o m p a n i e d by a few of his a t t e n d a n t s he went to the hermitage. 44b-46a. After going to t h e c h a r m i n g h e r m i t a g e accom­ p a n i e d by his priest, the king a p p r o a c h e d t h e noble sage a n d bowed down to h i m . After c o n g r a t u l a t i n g h i m w i t h blessings, J a m a d a g n i duly h o n o u r e d t h e excellent king by m e a n s of Arghyas (materials of w o r s h i p ) , Pādya (water to wash the feet), Āsana (seat) a n d o t h e r things. 46b-49. After welcoming t h a t h o n o u r accorded then by t h e sage, the king sat on a white splendid seat in front of t h a t g r e a t sage. T h e sage, seated on a seat of K u ś a grass asked t h e excel­ lent king w h o also h a d occupied his seat, a b o u t the h e a l t h a n d happiness of his sons, friends, relatives a n d others. T h e excellent sage conversed w i t h t h e king for a short while a n d t h e n invited h i m to be his guest. T h e r e u p o n , t h e king w h o was extremely pleased w i t h h i m addressed t o J a m a d a g n i . 50-53a. "O great sage, g r a n t me permission. I shall go to my city. Since I am h a v i n g the full c o m p l e m e n t of my vehicles a n d armies, O great sage, it is impossible for you to extend hospitality, because you sustain yourself in the forest only w i t h the p r o d u c t s of the forest. O r , even if you c a n extend hospitality by m e a n s of the power of your p e n a n c e n o w , it behoves you to p e r m i t me to go to t h e city. Otherwise, O excellent sage, t h e r e m a y be great trouble to the ascetics b r i n g i n g a b o u t d i s t u r b a n c e to their religious observances on a c c o u n t of the indisciplined behaviour of my soldiers." Vasistha said : 53b-55/ On being told thus, the sage said to h i m — " B e pleased to stay a while. I shall provide for t h e hospitality to


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2.3.26.56-62

you a l o n g with your followers". After saying this he called his holy cow a n d said : " T h i s is my guest. He has come to m e . So, let the d u e reception be carried out by y o u . " On being told thus by the sage, the holy cow yielded everything necessary to extend hospitality to the king ( a n d w h a t was befitting the sage), d u e to the greatness of the sage. 56. T h e r e u p o n , the hermitage of t h e leading m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu, b e c a m e resplendent like the a b o d e of the king of the D e v a s . D u e to the power of the holy cow, it assumed a form that could not be imagined. On account of the different articles of richness it was something t h a t could not have been achieved by anyone else. 57. F a r above, it was surrounded by haloes of light arising from various wonderful plates of gold illuminated by m a n y jewels. W i t h i n , it was entirely filled w i t h groups of palaces a n d mansions whose tops were touching the full moon a n d white clouds. 5 8 . It shone with various abodes m a d e of the following things severally or by a m a l g a m a t i n g two or m o r e of these viz. bellmetal, brass, brass w i t h copper, gold, silver, plaster and m o r t a r , bricks, w o o d l a n d m u d . T h e y were pleasing to the m i n d a n d the eyes. 59. T h e r e were golden daises a n d platforms shining brilliantly on account of extremely valuable gems a n d jewels. T h e r e were pleasure groves. T h e r e were steps leading to pinnacles w i t h rest-houses in the middle. T h e y shone with sloping b e a m s , rafts, doorways, bolts, walls, thresholds, terrace halls a n d courtyards. 60-62. His hermitage shone resembling a huge city on account of Valabhls (the u p p e r parts of buildings), Alindas (the y a r d in front of doorways) , quadrangles, beautiful archways a n d portals a n d courtyards with a m p l e expanse. O n pillars a n d walls there were wonderful pictures a n d paintings of 1

1. V V . 5 6 - 6 2 and V V . 1-19 of the next chapter form one p i e c e . T h e y contain description of the city created by J a m a d a g n i ' s holy cow. T h e w h o l e chapter is so beautiful that it can pass as a part of classical Sanskrit epics of the G u p t a era.


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various colours. T h e y were studded with gems. T h e y shone with golden thrones, stools etc. of different heights, high a n d low, a n d having excellent gems. T h e r e were various kinds of foodstuffs and beverages in various vessels in different places. T h e houses were richly equipped with all luxuries befitting the Devas. T h e y were pleasing to the eyes a n d m i n d w i t h lasses of fascinating b e a u t y a n d c h a r m .

CHAPTER TWENTYSEVEN Haihaya Arjuna's Reception and Halt at Night Vasistha said : 1. In t h a t city t h a t of t h e city of the excellent -sage created those houses befitting

the g r a n d e u r of which was c o m p a r a b l e to lord of the Devas, the holy cow of t h a t afterwards groups of m e n a n d women in them.

2. T h e w o m e n h a d bedecked their bodies with different kinds of dresses, o r n a m e n t s , flowers, fragrant scents a n d silk garments. T h e y were endowed with Hト」as ( c o q u e t t i s h gestures etc. to excite amorous b e h a v i o u r ) , Bhト」as (feelings of love), m a g n a n i m o u s b e h a v i o u r a n d conduct, splendour, brilliance, b e a u t y a n d good qualities. 3. T h e y h a d surpassed the lustre of t h e m o o n by m e a n s of their lotus-like faces illuminated by t h e clusters of rays of their teeth, t h r o b b i n g gently. T h e i r words in sweet voice were ( a s if) filled w i t h i n e b r i a t i n g liquor of fresh y o u t h . T h e y h a d the sweet way of ogling w i t h side glances lingering w i t h love a n d affability. 4. T h e i r hearts were delighted w i t h pleasure. T h e y looked extremely brilliant. T h e y were a d o r n e d w i t h t h e flowers of the divine wish-yielding tree (in t h e form) of the sentiment of love. T h e y w e r e richly endowed w i t h a n d delighted by good fortune, youthful b e a u t y , graceful c h a r m s , b e a u t y a n d sweet-


2.3.27.5-10 ness of comely shape comparable ladies.

627 to

those of the heavenly --â&#x20AC;˘

5. T h e i r waists bent a n d stooped slightly due to the weight of the pairs of p l u m p breasts c o m p a r a b l e to the pots of heated gold. T h e nails of their toes were rendered red by means of the red juice of lac resembling blood a n d therefore, they a p p e a r e d to be filled with exhaustion due to the heavy b u r d e n of their buttocks. 6. T h e y were bedecked in armlets, necklaces, jewels, bangles, golden necklaces, a n d blemishless (sparkling) ear ornaments. Garlands kissed their tresses a n d locks of hair. T h e y h a d girdles and anklets with tinkling bells. 7. T h e y had ample experience and opportunities of training themselves in such gestures a n d behaviour as pretended anger, consoling, j o c u l a r and witty giggling, playful teasings, sweet speech, reviling and provocation of anger. T h e y were clever in totally dissembling the limits of composure a n d gravity of persons near and dear to the king himself. 8. T h e i r voice was gentle and fascinating. It was c o m p a r a b l e to the note from the strings of a lute of a G a n d h a r v a . W h e n they spoke their voice was distinct but sweet. T h e fingers and their palms were extremely proficient in playing on the Vina. T h e y were anxiously eager in indulging in speech b o t h serious as well as kind and flattering. 9. T h e ladies were languid on account of inebriation. T h e y were excessively efficient in exhibiting coquettish gestures. T h e y were capable of making the minds of their lovers get confused. T h e y were proficient in the practical d e m o n s t r a t i o n of amorous dalliance. T h e y were never w a n t i n g in riches a n d they were endowed with liberal-mindedness, beauty, good qualities a n d nice behaviour. 10. T h e y were i n n u m e r a b l e . Although their minds w e r e eagerly engaged constantly in the various duties a n d activities of the household, they continued to serve them ( t h e followers of the k i n g ) . T h e houses were filled with m e n too w h o h a d such b e a u t y a n d splendour as befitted their good qualities. T h e y were brilliant. T h e y moved a b o u t in the houses h e r e and there.


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11. Citizens h a v i n g every kind of luxurious assets a n d good qualities, w i t h their desires wholly fulfilled, occupied t h e R o y a l Highways, t h e b a z a a r s , t h e palaces, mansions, flights of stairs, temples, a n d q u a d r a n g l e s all r o u n d : 12. T h e r e were i n n u m e r a b l e groups of p a l a t i a l buildings having n o t h i n g c o m p a r a b l e to t h e m . T h e y were of various colours, dimensions a n d features. T h e r e were m a n y sheds a n d abodes suitable for garrages, chariots, horses, e l e p h a n t s , mules, camels, bullocks, cows a n d goats. 13. T h e r e were s e p a r a t e houses allotted to t h e king, his generals, elephant-drivers, horsemen, foot-soldiers, lieutenants a n d chiefs of armies, t h e B r ā h m a n a s a n d others, t h e charioteers a n d c h a r i o t - a t t e n d a n t s as well as t h e b a r d s a n d poets, heralds, a n d panegyrists. 14. T h e r e were m a n y big streets, m a r k e t places a n d q u a d r a n g l e s of wonderfully distinguished features. M a n y articles were b o u g h t a n d sold t h e r e . T h e r e were t h e splendid houses of c o u r t e z a n s , w h i c h were well built a n d equipped w i t h great w e a l t h , furniture a n d o t h e r a p p u r t e n a n c e of daily household needs. 15. T h e r e were h i g h templegates, m i n a r e t s a n d towers b r i l l i a n t w i t h gems of g r e a t value. T h e r e were also kennels for dogs, cages for falcons a n d vultures as well as halls for dancing e n t e r t a i n m e n t s . T h e r e were flags, b a n n e r s a n d emblems of various colours. T h e r e were canopies of w h i t e cloth spread very far a b o v e t h e g r o u n d as well as. pavilions. 16. T h e r e were m a n y beautiful lakes, tanks a n d vast excellent expanses of waters r e n d e r e d fragrant by m e a n s of t h e pollen p o w d e r of Kalhāra (a variety of white lotus) a n d o t h e r lotuses, lilies w h i t e a n d red a n d lilies t h a t bloom by night. T h e y were r e s o n a n t w i t h the various cackling, crowing a n d chirping sounds of t h e r u d d y geese, swans, ospreys, cranes, storks a n d w a t e r ducks. 17. T h e r e were m a n y trees with w a t e r basins m a d e a t t h e i r feet such as t h e m a n g o , t h e Priyāla (the t r e e Buchanania latifolia), t h e j a c k tree, t h e M a d h ū k a (Bassia latifolia), t h e J a m b ū (rose a p p l e ) , a n d Plaksa (feus religiosa). Along t h e banks of t h e lakes beautiful trees were grown such as N ā g a ( t h e mesua


2.3.27.18-26

629

Roxburghi), t h e K e t a k I (Pandanus odoratissimus), t h e P u n n ā g a ( n u t m e g ) a n d C a m p a k a (Michellia champacca). T h e s e trees w e r e frequently resorted to by birds. 18. T h e r e were m a n y trees b e a r i n g fruits a n d flowers such a s M a n d ā r a (the coral trees ? ) , K u n d a ( j a s m i n e ) , K a r a v i r a ( t h e O l e a n d e r ) , t h e fascinating Y ū t h i k a ( a variety o f j a s m i n e ) a n d j ā t i ( a n o t h e r variety o f j a s m i n e ) etc. T h e place was r e n d e r e d splendid by means of groups of pleasure g a r d e n s visible all r o u n d . T h e y h a d a wonderful c h a r m a n d b e a u t y . 19. T h e g a r d e n s h a d the fragrance experienced in t h e different seasons ( a l l together s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) . T h e gently blowing breeze ( a p p e a r e d to) t h r e a t e n t h e s u m m e r season. T h u s , O leading king, t h e city h a d clearly a r i c h c o m p l e m e n t of t h e luxurious pleasure a n d m e a n s of enjoyment fascinating u n t o t h e S u r a s as well as Asuras. 20-21. After c r e a t i n g such vast m e a n s of enjoyment a n d good fortune instantly, t h e sacred cow of t h e sage informed h i m a b o u t it. On c o m i n g to know t h a t everything necessary for t h e w a r m r e c e p t i o n of the king h a d been p r o c u r e d together by t h e sacred cow of t h e B r ā h m a n a the excellent sage i m m e d i a t e l y called one of his disciples w h o h a d all good qualities, O king, a n d d e s p a t c h e d h i m towards the H a i h a y a king A r j u n a . After a p p r o a c h i n g t h e king p r o m p t l y , t h e son of t h e sage spoke t o h i m w i t h g r e a t h u m i l i t y : — 22. " T h i s is the request of our family h e a d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s of hospitality w h i c h have been provided by us m a y please b e immediately h o n o u r e d a n d a c c e p t e d b y t h e k i n g . " T h e r e u p o n , after being p e r m i t t e d by the excellent sage, t h e king entered t h a t excellent city c r e a t e d for his sake. 23-24a. A c c o m p a n i e d by his e n t i r e a r m y , the excellent king e n t e r e d the city w h i c h was the a b o d e of all enjoyable pleasures a n d w h i c h i n d i c a t e d the capability of t h e sacred cow of the sage. He surveyed the luxurious prosperity of t h e city t h a t fascinated the entire world. His face was extremely delight­ ed o u t of pleasure. T h o u g h t h e king himself was a liberal d o n o r a n d was excessively self-possessed, he was then struck w i t h great w o n d e r along with his a r m y . 24b-26a. T h e h a n d s o m e form of t h e king was so striking t h a t even the celestial women never ceased to look at h i m with


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a d m i r a t i o n . T h e i r eyes were drinking in the comely features of t h e king even as t h e bees were drinking in t h e n e c t a r (within flowers). While proceeding a h e a d along the R o y a l high-road of the city, t h e lord of the Haihayas rejoiced m u c h like I n d r a at the abode of K u b e r a along with all t h e Devas. As he proceeded a h e a d along t h e R o y a l high r o a d , the ladies of the city w h o were on t h e mensions all r o u n d showered htm incessantly w i t h bunches of flowers a n d handful of fried grains d r e n c h e d with sandal-perfumed w a t e r expressive of hearty reception. 26b-28a. T h e king was showered with handfuls of w h i t e fried grains t h a t d r o p p e d down from the lotus-like h a n d s of the ladies of t h e city, eager to welcome a n d h o n o u r t h e guests. Bunches of white flowers reverberating with t h e h u m m i n g sounds of the bees were showered on the king at every step. These flowers had been plucked from pleasure gardens rendered (still more) fragrant by m e a n s of sandal pastes a n d saflforn. He was showered at every step also with g e n u i n e gems and jewels and pearls belonging to the womenfolk staying in t h a t city. On being showered thus t h e king shone like the M a n d a r a mountain showered with the b r i g h t rays of t h e m o o n allround. 28b-31a. On seeing that luxurious glory of the city, which was really the potential glory of Brahminical p e n a n c e of excellent good qualities a n d w h i c h was b e y o n d the c o m p r e ­ hension of ordinary people—-Glory that was extremely u n a t t a i n a b l e in all t h e worlds and t h e s p l e n d o u r of which was c o v e t a b l e — t h e lord of the subjects praised it m e n t a l l y as well as verbally, O king. T h e king of H a i h a y a s t h o u g h t t h u s — " T h i s is really very rare on this e a r t h . All the fascinating luxury a n d richness of the Ksatriyas together is not powerful enough to be c a p a b l e of being c o m p a r e d even to a h u n d r e d t h p a r t of the Brahminical glory t h a t is h o n o u r e d even by gods in h e a v e n . He care­ fully observed in the heart of t h e city t h e prosperity a n d afflu­ ence a t t a i n e d by t h e people of the city. He proceeded a h e a d along with t h e priest, minister a n d other followers. As he was being h o n o u r e d by the people of the city, he was rejoiced when


2.3.27.31-37 a mansion of bright colours was pointed out to h i m his aides.

631 by one of

31b-32a. (Defective t e x t ) On being t o l d — " O king, be pleased to accept the h o n o u r a b l e reception t h a t is extended by the excellent sage a n d t h a t is a p p r o p r i a t e to or becoming to your dignity. Be pleased to accept t h e same along w i t h your followers"—On being requested thus, the king t u r n e d back with ease a n d proceeded towards- t h e residence specially built for his sake. 32b-33a. T h e citizens gathered together with various articles in their hands to indicate their adoration *of t h e K i n g . All r o u n d along the p a t h , they paid respects to h i m with great joy by means of their palms folded in reverence. At every step he was h o n o u r e d with loud shouts of victory a n d loud notes of various kinds of musical iustruments t h a t deafened the various quarters. 33b-34a. T h e king slowly passed beyond three inner a p a r t m e n t s in succession even as the chamberlains therein exhi­ bited their agitation a n d t h e crowds of c o m m o n people who h a d thronged there h a d been kept back. Finally, supported respectfully with his h a n d s by the minister, he entered (his main) a p a r t m e n t . 34b-36a. (Some) lovely women of the city gracefully c a m e out of the inner a p a r t m e n t of the king with (the follow­ ing auspicious articles) viz. lighted l a m p , (a vessel of) curds, mirror, sweet scents, fragrant flowers, D ū r v ā g r a s s Aksata ( r a w unbroken Rice grains) and other things a n d delighted t h e king with ( t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of their) reverence. A seat covered with exquisite gold was immediately m a d e r e a d y by t h e m . It shone w i t h m a n y brilliant rays of excellent genuine gems a n d jewels. A thin ( c l o t h ) of fine texture covered it. T h e king of splendid r e n o w n occupied t h a t c h a r m i n g golden seat. 36b-3 7a. O king, when t h a t king was comfortably seated in t h a t inner a p a r t m e n t , the elderly respectable m a t r o n s of t h a t household e n h a n c e d the exquisite pleasure (of the king) by means of musical instruments etc. a n d different kinds of articles of a d o r a t i o n such as ornaments, sweet scents, fragrant flowers, means of embellishment, garments a n d other things.


632

Brahmānda PurāQa

37b-40a. T h e lord of H a i h a y a s performed all the holy rites in accordance with his own religious beliefs, the holy rites prescribed for the day a n d time, in t h a t a p a r t m e n t itself. Thereafter, he spent t h e whole of t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t of the d a y by means of different kinds of talks, witty remarks, sports a n d pastime of diverse kinds a n d survey (directed all r o u n d ) . T h e n the king performed all those rites befitting t h e close of the day. Followed by his chief minister and o t h e r ministers, the king immediately hastened to his assembly where the darkness h a d been completely dispelled by the numerous lamps held in t h e i r h a n d s by the»servants standing n e a r h i m all round. Being a t t e n d e d u p o n by his priests, ministers, vassal kings and hundreds of generals, the king occupied a seat in the assem­ bly of the (vassal) kings like I n d r a a c c o m p a n i e d by the groups of t h e Devas. He was delighted with different kinds of pas­ times. 40b-42a. Afterwards he sat there for a long time listen­ ing to different kinds of musical instruments, indulging in different kinds of pastimes, seeing different kinds of dances, cracking several jokes a n d n a r r a t i n g m a n y stories. T h e witty remarks, smiles, graceful dalliance etc. of the courtesans delighted his m i n d . T h u s , till midnight, the overlord of the subjects stayed experiencing t h e luxurious pleasure of different kinds of sports a n d amusements. He then m a d e his vassal kings a n d followers go b a c k to their residences. T h e n he himself went to his apartment. 42b-44a. T h e entire a r m y of the king rejoiced sufficiently well in their abodes wherein every article of luxury a n d necessity h a d been provided befitting their own status, their heroism, their vigour, their wealth, potentiality and greatness. T h e y h a d valuable garments, garlands, ornaments a n d other things in plenty. All the soldiers of the king stayed in t h a t city of the king fully satisfied like groups of the Devas in the heaven. T h e y h a d plenty of foodstuffs a n d edibles, beverages a n d liquors of various kinds. T h e y h a d m e a t , curds, milk etc. T h e y h a d every­ t h i n g necessary for their pleasure a n d enjoyment.


633

2.3.27.44—28.5

44b-45. T h e followers of the king who were thus delight­ ed by their experience of different kinds of essential pleasures spoke to one a n o t h e r t h u s — " O f w h a t avail a r e o u r own houses a n d p r o p e r t y a n d the like ? Let us all stay here itself". T h e king performed every rite prescribed for the n i g h t , r e t u r n e d to his excellent bed in his a p a r t m e n t a n d lay on it, w h i c h was highly resplendent, d u e to m a n y a g e m a n d jewel, O king. Delighted in his h e a r t he h a d a long dreamless sound sleep.

CHAPTER Haihaya Ill-advised to

TWENTYEIGHT

Confiscate Jamadagni's Kāmadhenu

Vasistha said : 1. At t h e close of the night, the heralds, b a r d s a n d panegyrists a p p r o a c h e d t h e sleeping king u n d i s t r a c t e d a n d sang aloud in order to awaken t h e king. 2. T h e i r voice was sweet, praiseworthy a n d pleasing to t h e ears of everyone. It mixed harmoniously w i t h the sound of stringed musical instruments a n d c l a p p i n g of h a n d s along with the sweet notes of Vīnā ( T h e I n d i a n L u t e ) a n d Venn (flute). 3. T h e y were sweet-throated ( i n voice) a n d t h e y s a n g a very fascinating song as i n d i c a t e d by t h e clear Mūrcchanās (the h a r m o n i o u s rise and fall of sounds) in the g a m u t . T h e song h a d cadence and melody along with t h e Tar a ( h i g h p i t c h ) a n d Mandra (low sound) (as required by t h e o c c a s i o n ) . 4. Desirous of awakening h i m slowly from his sleep, t h e heralds a n d the bards addressed t h e noble-souled king these words of diverse kinds. 5. " S e e , O leader of kings, this m o o n is setting now. I n d e e d it is because he (the m o o n ) has b e e n defeated by t h e splendour of your lotus-like face t h a t continues to increase.


634

Brahman ia Purāna

6. As if being desirous of viewing your lotus-like face, O lord, the sun has come to the Udqya m o u n t a i n ( i n the E a s t ) dispelling t h e darkness now. 7. O king, the crest-jewel of all t h e members of the L u n a r race, please abstain from further sleep. Be pleased to wake up now. 8. H e a r i n g these words of those bards, the lord of the earth woke up in the same m a n n e r as the lotus-eyed lord ( V i s n u ) did from his serpent-couch (Śesa) in the milky ocean. 9. W h e n his eyes got rid of their sleep, he got up a n d performed d u l y a n d respectfully the daily rites of Japa ( R e p e t i ­ tion of holy n a m e s ) etc. with great concentration a n d care a n d omitted nothing. 10-11. D e c o r a t i n g himself with divine garlands, scents a n d ornaments, he worshipped t h e deity of his choice. He observed the customary rite of touching such auspicious things as the D ū r v ā grass, collyrium a n d mirror. He distributed charit­ able gifts a m o n g t h e suppliants. He bowed down to the cows a n d B r ā h m a n a s . C o m i n g out of t h a t city, he performed the worship of t h e sun. 12. By t h a t time, all the ministers, vassal kings a n d generals a p p r o a c h e d h i m . W i t h palms joined in reverence, O king, they bowed down to the excellent king. 13. Thereafter, surrounded by them the king bowed down at t h e feet of the sage with his crown having the brilliance of the sun. 14. T h e leading sage congratulated a n d blessed the king. As he bowed down with humility he gently told h i m — " B e pleased to s i t " . 15. W h e n t h e king occupied his seat, the great sage who was delighted in his m i n d s a i d — " I hope, O king, t h a t the night has dawned u n t o you with pleasure. ( Y o u h a d h a p p y sleep all the n i g h t ) . 16. It is possible to p u t up with anything a n d everything only by us, O leading king, because we live in the forest main­ taining ourselves with t h e things found in the forest and (in a w a y ) we are on a p a r with t h e deer ( o r animals in t h e forest).


2.3.28.17-30

635

17. T h e stay of the citizens in t h e forest is very unbear­ able. I n d e e d , O leading king, everything t h a t one is not accustom­ ed to, is very difficult to d o . 18. T h e fact t h a t your majesty h a d to undergo the sufferings of a residence in t h e forest a l o n g with your followers, several times, certainly enhances your d i g n i t y " . 19. On being addressed thus with great pleasure by t h a t sage, t h e king replied once again to h i m smilingly. 20. " O , w h a t avail are these words, O holy B r ā h m a n a ? Y o u r real greatness has been seen by us. T h e entire world is surprised at this. 2 1 . My soldiers w h o have been overwhelmed by the luxurious provisions p r o c u r e d by your miraculous power, O great sage, do n o t wish to go away from this place. 22. It is d u e to t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y of the austerities of people like you, O holy lord, t h a t all t h e worlds are supported. I n d e e d t h e B r a h m a n i c a l splendour is incomprehensible. 23. T h e r e is no wonder in this, O holy lord, t h a t your holiness is c a p a b l e of bringing a b o u t by your p e n a n c e , t h e three states in succession (i.e. creation sustenance a n d annihilation) u n t o all t h e worlds. 24. T h e great achievement of your p e n a n c e has been observed by us quite well a n d it is adored by the world. O B r ā h m a n a , I shall now go back to my capital. M a y your h o n o u r b e pleased t o p e r m i t m e . " Vasistha said : 25. On being respectfully told thus by t h a t king K ā r t t a vīrya, the sage h o n o u r e d h i m perfectly well a n d ( h e permitted h i m ) saying 'yes'—so be it. 26. On being permitted by the sage, the king set off from t h a t hermitage surrounded by his soldiers and proceeded towards his city. 27. While going on his way, the king thought in his m i n d t h u s — " W o n d e r f u l is the achievement of this sage by m e a n s of p e n a n c e . It makes the entire world wonder-struck. 28-30. " I t is d u e to the power of p e n a n c e , t h a t such .a cow as this, the most excellent one a m o n g all divine cows


636

Brahmānia

Purāna

from which whatever one desired could be milked, has been acquired by the sage. " O f w h a t avail is my entire k i n g d o m as well as the yogic power which is by itself not very insignificant ? Of w h a t avail is it if this jewel of a cow continues to be in the possession of t h a t excellent sage ? Certainly the wealth a n d luxury of even the heaven-dwellers has been created by this cow. I think t h a t even the office of I n d r a which is manifestly prosperous a n d honoured by the three worlds, does n o t deserve even a sixteenth p a r t of the potencies of this cow." 31. Even as the king was thinking thus, his minister, C a n d r a g u p t a approached h i m from behind a n d said with palms joined in reverence. 32. " O mighty king, why are you returning t o the city ? Of w h a t avail to you is your kingdom or t h e capital city, though it be well protected ? 33. As long as t h e jewel of a cow does not find a place in your abode O lord, your kingdom cannot be considered prosperous. It is a void. 34-35. A n o t h e r miracle was seen by me, O king. Listen to it. T h e c h a r m i n g abodes a n d mansions, the fascinating ladies, t h e palaces of different shapes a n d sizes a n d the wealth the destruction of which could never have been foreseen—all these merged in a trice within t h a t cow even as I was w a t c h i n g . 36. Those things, O excellent king, have now got trans­ formed into t h e selfsame P e n a n c e grove. W h a t c a n be difficult to achieve for a person who possesses t h a t cow which has such m i r a c u l o u s powers ? 37. H e n c e t h a t cow should be accepted by you, since .you have t h a t good capacity of deserving to possess a jewel : If this is considered permissible by you, w h a t should be d o n e by those who d e p e n d on you for their sustenance, m a y kindly be commanded". The king replied : 38. " I d o not consider this m a t t e r i n this m a n n e r , be­ cause it is i m p r o p e r . T h e property of a B r ā h m a n a should not be taken away. H e n c e , my m i n d is a f r a i d . "


2.3.28.39-48

637

39. To the king who spoke thus, his preceptor G a r g a , the most excellent one a m o n g intelligent persons, spoke. He a p p e a r e d to be censuring (those who advocated removal of the cow per force). ( H e said : ) " O king ! " 40. " T h e property of a B r ā h m a n a should by no m e a n s be confiscated by force, even in emergency. T h e r e is n o t h i n g like t h e p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a , which is difficult to be digested. 4 1 . A poison destroys the person who used it a n d who has been aimed at as the prospective victim, O king of H a i h a ­ yas. But t h e fire from t h e Arani wood in the form of p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a burns the entire family along with its roots. 42. T h e property of a B r ā h m a n a , O k i n g , is a poison with no antidote in this world. It cannot be digested. It yields the fruit of destruction of one's sons and grandsons. Its conse­ quences are bitter. 43. T h e m i n d of ill-natured lords is deluded on a c c o u n t of their wealth a n d affluence. W h a t is it t h a t an evil m i n d does not do, when tempted a n d led astray by the eye which is also evil. 44. (Defective T e x t ) . W h o else other t h a n you is capable of knowing the evil consequences of y o u r misdeeds ? O excel­ lent king, you a r e thinking about Ādāna (taking away) from B r ā h m a n a a n d not Dana (charitable gifts to t h e m ) . W h o else except you will desire such a thing ? 4 5 . O king of m i g h t y arms, you are a good person like this; please do not c o m m i t a sinful act c o n d e m n e d by good people, I n d e e d , t h a t will lead to the loss of your reputa­ tion. 46. You are born of a great family of munificent a n d generous kings. Do n o t destroy your r e p u t a t i o n now by means of this despicable act. 47. Alas ! T h e r e are some d e p e n d e n t servants p r o n e to an evil course of c o n d u c t . Being conceited due to t h e king's gracious favour, they m a k e him sink in t h e ocean of distress. 48. A king who is being spoilt by his affluence, who becomes insensitive to the m a t t e r of d u t y a n d t h o u g h t a b o u t


638

Brahmānda

it a n d whose activity is in a c c o r d a n c e with the advice a' person, falls into distress immediately.

Purāna of such

49. Like a boat m a d e of iron, the wicked-minded minis­ ter who is not familiar with good policies and courses of con­ d u c t will sink i n t o the ocean of evil himself a n d will m a k e the king too sink in it. 50. H e n c e , O mighty king, it does n o t behove you to follow the opinion of this extremely evil-minded minister w h o is deluded a n d confused in regard to t h e p a t h of good a n d just policies." 5 1 . Even as he was addressing these words conducive to the welfare of his king, the minister insulted t h e priest a n d spoke to t h e king once a g a i n . 52. " T h i s B r ā h m a n a looks only to t h e benefit of the persons of his own caste. G r e a t affairs of t h e king a n d the state c a n n o t be c o m p r e h e n d e d by B r ā h m a n a s . 5 3 . T h e affairs of t h e state c a n be understood only by a king by m e a n s of his own intelligence. A B r ā h m a n a does n o t get ( i n t o his head) a n y m a t t e r (of i m p o r t a n c e ) except taking food a n d accepting m o n e t a r y a n d c h a r i t a b t e gifts. 54. A B r ā h m a n a should not be insulted. He should always be respected a n d given m o n e t a r y a n d c h a r i t a b l e gifts. M o r e t h a n this n o t h i n g is accomplished anywhere. 55. H e n c e , O king, go back to your city only after making t h a t cow your own. If not, a b a n d o n your kingdom a n d go to the forest for t h e sake of p e n a n c e . 56. F o b e a r a n c e (is a q u a l i t y ) of t h e B r ā h m a n a s b u t power (of chastisement) t h a t of a Ksatriya, O king. No sin can befall you in taking away a n y t h i n g by force. 57. If you see a n y defect in forcible confiscation, O king, let t h e cow of t h e sage be taken possession of after giving its price (in t h e form of) other cows, horses etc. 58. I n d e e d , t h a t cow should be m a d e your own by you, because you are the one t h a t deserve jewels. Wherefore c a n t h e ascetics have the desire for collecting jewels ?


2.3.28.59-68

639

59. T h i s ascetic is really weak a n d calm. He is pleased with you, O king. H e n c e , on being requested, he will, by all means give you the cow. 60. Or he will exchange t h a t cow after taking in lieu of it ( o t h e r ) cows, gold etc., or a big sum of money of w h a t e v e r else he desires. 6 1 . A great gem should never be neglected nor treated with indifference by a king who desires prosperity. This is my thinking ( a d v i c e ) . W h a t does y o u r Majesty t h i n k ? " The King replied : 62. " O m y d e a r Minister, b e pleased t o g o t o t h a t B r ā h m a n a , yourself. P r o p i t i a t e h i m with special service. Bring t h a t cow after giving him whatever is desired by him. Vasistha said : 63. On being told thus by the. king, t h a t minister, induced by fate, r e t u r n e d a n d hastened to t h e h e r m i t a g e of Jamadagni. 64. After the king had d e p a r t e d , R ā m a too accompanied by A k r t a v r a n a , h a d started towards t h e forest for b r i n g i n g sacrificial twigs. 6 5 . . It was after t h a t , t h a t t h e Minister reached t h e • h e r m i t a g e of J a m a d a g n i , accompanied by t h e a r m y . After bowing d o w n to t h e sage, he spoke these words : Candragupta said : 66. " O holy B r ā h m a n a , i t has been ordered b y the king t h u s : — O n this e a r t h t h e king is t h e person w h o has to take charge of gems. T h a t cow of yours is t h e most excellent one a m o n g all cows yielding milk. H e n c e , it has b e c o m e a gem. 67. H e n c e , m e n t i o n the price of t h a t cow w h e t h e r it be ( o r d i n a r y ) gems a n d jewels or gold. It behoves you to give me this jewel of a cow after taking a n y reasonable p r i c e

Jamadagni replied : 68.

" T h i s is my sacred cow for t h e purpose

of Homa.

It


640

Brahmānda Purāna

cannot be given away to a n y one. T h e king himself is a m u n i ­ ficent donor. H o w does he covet the p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a ? " The minister said : 69. " I n virtue of his being the legitimate possessor of a gem ( t h e best in everything), the king desires t h e Cow, b u t ' only in exchange for ten thousand ordinary cows. H e n c e it behoves you to give it to h i m . " Jamadagni answered : 70. " B y no m e a n s have I ever been a seller or a purchaser. H e n c e , I am not inclined to dispose of this cow t h a t provides me with requisites of holy offerings." The minister said : 7 1 . "O holy B r ā h m a n a , give away this single cow in exchange for half of t h e k i n g d o m or for t h e entire possession of t h e kingdom. T h a t will be conducive to your w e l f a r e . " Jamadagni replied : 72. " A s long as I am alive, O evil-minded one, I will never p a r t with this cow even to I n d r a even if I am to be requested by his preceptor Brhaspati. H o w t h e n c a n I give this to y o u r king at your instance ?" The Minister advised : 73. " I t is b e t t e r t h a t you, in a friendly m a n n e r volun­ teer to give t h e cow to t h e king. If it were to be taken away by force, w h a t will you do ?" Jamadagni said : 74. " I t is t h e king who gives gifts to t h e B r ā h m a n a s . If he himself were to take away what c a n I, a m e r e B r ā h m a n a , d o , except giving it up (as if) willingly." Vasisfha said : 75. On being told thus, t h a t infuriated minister of sin­ ful n a t u r e b e g a n to remove the sage's cow by force.


641

2.3.29.1-11 CHAPTER TWENTYN1NE A Quarrel over the Cow : Jamadagni Murdered : The Cow disappears Vasiffha said :

1. W i t h great anger J a m a d a g n i spoke to h i m once a g a i n — " T h e p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a should not be taken away by a sensible person. 2. T a k i n g away t h e cow from me by force, Q evil-mind­ ed one, you will incur sin. I think your life has come to an e n d . Otherwise you would not have d o n e this. 3. W h a t you wish to take away by force is impossible anyway. If t h e cow itself were to j o i n the fray t h e king will be ruined. 4. I n s t e a d of m a k i n g gifts, the forcible r e m o v a l (of the p r o p e r t y ) of B r ā h m a n a ascetics is being pursued. W h a t person desirous of continuing to be alive will desire this, except Arjuna w h o professes to live for a h u n d r e d years ?" 5. On being told this by h i m , t h a t infuriated powerful minister, urged by god of D e a t h , bound t h e cow firmly w i t h ropes a n d dragged. 6. U r g e d by his previous actions with their inevitable future results, J a m a d a g n i furiously resisted h i m with all his m i g h t , while he was d r a g g i n g the cow. 7. " A s long as I am alive, I will not leave this c o w " . T h i n k i n g thus t h e great sage whose anger was aroused held on to t h e neck of the cow steadfastly w i t h his h a n d s . 8. T h e n C a n d r a g u p t a who was extremely ruthless a n d w h o was overwhelmed with anger, c o m m a n d e d his soldiers t h u s : — " T a k e him a w a y " . 9: At t h e behest of their lord, the servants of t h e king s u r r o u n d e d t h e sage a n d seized h i m w i t h force, t h o u g h he was unassailable in the world. 10. T h e y hit h i m w i t h sticks, whips, long poles a n d their own fists a n d removed h i m very far away from t h e presence of t h e cow. 11. T h o u g h he was being struck in t h a t m a n n e r , t h o u g h he was p a i n e d m u c h , yet h e did n o t become infuriated. H e


642

Brahmānda Purāna

continued to retain his forbearance. I n d e e d , not to anger is the greatest asset of good men.

to give vent

12. He was capable of a n n i h i l a t i n g or defending t h e entire universe by the power of his penance. T h i n k i n g t h a t there would be the loss of power of p e n a n c e , he did not give vent to his anger. 13. Formerly, J a m a d a g n i used to get extremely over­ whelmed with anger. But he h a d been consoled by R ā m a on behalf of his m o t h e r . Thereafter t h e sage of g r e a t p e n a n c e h a d been always calm a n d quiet. 14. W h e n t h a t sage of great splendour was hit a n d h u r t very m u c h , his limbs, bones and joints were shattered. He fell on to the g r o u n d a n d lost consciousness. 15. W h e n the sage fell • senseless the minister was beset w i t h fear. He ordered his bring the cow quickly with force.

evil-minded servants to

16. T h e n they b o u n d the cow along with its calf by m e a n s of ropes, O king. T h e y hit it with whips a n d desirous of taking it away dragged it. 17. ' On being dragged by m a n y of them a n d on being hit a n d h u r t with whips a n d poles by them, t h e cow gave vent to its anger. 18. Pained by too m u c h wippings, it b e c a m e extremely furious. It tugged at the tight ropes a n d cut t h e m . T h u s it released itself. 19. It got itself released from the binding ropes b u t it was surrounded everywhere by the soldiers. M a k i n g the sound of Humhā (i.e. bellowing s o u n d ) , it rushed at everyone angrily. 20. H i t t i n g a n d lashing at everyone all r o u n d by means of its horns, hoofs a n d tip of t h e tail, the infuriated cow routed t h e entire a r m y of the king a n d his minister. 2 1 . After r o u t i n g all t h e servants quickly, the sacred cow went up to t h e sky, even as all living beings r e m a i n e d looking on. 22. Thereafter, those ruthless soldiers w h o h a d been foiled in their a t t e m p t s ( t o remove the c o w ) , whose limbs w e r e broken a n d bodies w o u n d e d , b o u n d its calf by force a n d w e n t away with it.


643

2.3.29.23—30.6

2 3 . T a k i n g the calf alone without t h e cow, t h a t sinner (minister) c a m e to t h e presence of t h e king along w i t h t h e servants. 24. After a p p r o a c h i n g t h e king a n d bowing down to h i m t h e sycophant minister n a r r a t e d everything to h i m feeling greatly agitated and afraid.

CHAPTER

THIRTY

Lamentation of Renukā : Paraśurāma's Vow to Slay all Ksattriyas, Jamadagni Resuscitated Vasistha continued : 1. On hearing t h e r e p o r t of the m u r d e r of J a m a d a g n i a n d similar events, the king b e c a m e very m u c h distressed in his m i n d . He t h o u g h t a b o u t the various m a t t e r s concerned. 2. " A l a s I have been very wicked in the events concern­ ing b o t h the worlds. Firstly my desire to take away t h e p r o p e r t y of a B r ā h m a n a a n d secondly his ( J a m a d a g n i ' s ) extremely censurable m u r d e r . 3. D e l u d e d in my m i n d a n d devoid of s h a m e , I did n o t p a y heed to the words of this sensible B r ā h m a n a , my .family priest. In t h a t case I should have avoided such a difficult situation." 4. T h i n k i n g thus w i t h a grief-stricken h e a r t , he r e t u r n e d to his city along with his a r m y a n d followers. 5. W h e n the king went back towards his city along w i t h his a t t e n d a n t s , O king, R e n u k ā suddenly rushed out of hermitage. 6. T h e r e u p o n , she saw h e r h u s b a n d w h o was lying in a pool of blood, w i t h all his limbs wounded a n d w h o h a d fallen motionless on t h e g r o u n d .


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7. As h e r h u s b a n d lay senseless, she t h o u g h t t h a t he h a d b e e n killed. T h e r e u p o n , she fell down on t h e g r o u n d a n d fainted as t h o u g h struck by a t h u n d e r b o l t . 8. After a long time, she got up from t h e ground. She b e c a m e m o r e distressed a n d miserable. F a l l i n g down a n d getting up again a n d again, she wept loudly. 9. W i t h her body becoming dusky-white coloured on a c c o u n t of t h e dust from the ground, w i t h her face covered w i t h flowing tears, she lamented m u c h . Fallen i n t o t h e sea of sorrow, she b e c a m e all t h e m o r e pitiable. 10. "Alas d e a r lord, fully familiar with all religious rites, ocean of t h e n e c t a r of civility a n d courtesy, Fie u p o n overquiescence. No one shall desire such a q u i e t u d e as this. 11. O bestower of h o n o u r , where have you gone ? Coming out of t h e h e r m i t a g e , y o u have cast me suddenly into the d e e p ocean of distress, a n d r e n d e r e d me lordless a n d forlorn. 12. F r i e n d s h i p a n d intimacy of good people is said to be Sāptapada (produced when one accompanies a n o t h e r taking seven steps together or when one talks seven words w i t h a n o t h e r ) . In regard to this, I have been c h e a t e d along w i t h y o u . It behoves you to take me too to the place w h e r e you are going alone now. 13. O highly fortunate L o r d ! My h e a r t is n o t t o r n a s u n d e r immediately after seeing you in such a plight as this. I n d e e d , w o m e n are h a r d - h e a r t e d " . 14. She l a m e n t e d thus. She wept again a n d again. Over­ whelmed w i t h ocean of excessive misery, she cried out "O Rāma, O Rāma." 15. I n the m e a n t i m e , R ā m a too r e t u r n e d t o h e r m i t a g e , from t h e forest, accompanied by A k r t a v r a n a b e a r i n g t h e b u r d e n of t h e sacrificial twigs.

the and

16. On t h e way he h a d seen m a n y ill omens indica­ t i n g fear from d a n g e r . On seeing t h e m , he h a d become distres­ sed in his h e a r t . T h e holy lord t h e n c a m e to t h e h e r m i t a g e immediately. 17. On seeing h i m coming, t h e weeping lady b e c a m e m o r e distressed. W i t h h e r sorrow renewed, R e n u k ā l a m e n t e d again.


2.3.30.18-32

645

18. Extremely afflicted on a c c o u n t of h e r separation from h e r h u s b a n d , she b e a t her belly (?) w i t h b o t h of her h a n d s , in front of R ā m a , O king. 19. R ā m a h a d already come to know t h e r e p o r t in full on t h e way itself. Seeing his m o t h e r dejected on a c c o u n t of sorrow like a female osprey, he too b e c a m e miserable. 20. T h o u g h overwhelmed by misery a n d sorrow, t h e intelligent sage (i.e. R ā m a ) regained his courage. W i t h b o t h t h e eyes filled w i t h tears, he stood on t h e ground w i t h his face directed d o w n w a r d s . 2 1 . On seeing R ā m a in such a plight, A k r t a v r a n a said thus : — " W h a t is this, O y o u the noblest a m o n g t h e descendants of B h r g u ? T h i s is n o t p r o p e r a n d suitable for y o u . 22. N o w h e r e do people like you, O highly fortunate one, bewail too m u c h . G r e a t m e n w i t h fortitude a r e never miserable over a loss. 23. It is sorrow t h a t brings a b o u t emaciation and withering up of all sense-organs. O sage of long powerful arms, get rid of this sorrow. People like you do not deserve to be subjected to it. 24. Certainly, it is sorrow alone t h a t prevents all affairs of consequence b o t h in this world a n d in the n e x t . H o w is it t h a t you give r o o m to it in your h e a r t ? 25. H e n c e , be pleased to regain your w e a l t h of courage a n d console your m o t h e r w h o is weeping profusely, because h e r m i n d is upset by t h e suspicion of i m m e d i a t e w i d o w h o o d . 26. An object t h a t has passed off never r e t u r n s . H e n c e , forget everything t h a t h a s taken place a n d think a b o u t your d u t y . " 27. O n being appeased b y h i m thus, R ā m a steadied his soul by his own efforts, slowly. 28. O v e r w h e l m e d by sorrow a n d misery, R e n u k ā w e p t again a n d again. She b e a t h e r belly (?) t w e n t y o n e times w i t h the pair of her hands. 29. M e a n w h i l e w i t h tears welling up in his eyes, R ā m a c a m e n e a r h e r a n d consoled his weeping m o t h e r , s a y i n g — "Enough, mother". 30-32. Relieving from h e r misery his m o t h e r w h o was overwhelmed w i t h h e r sorrow for h e r d e a d h u s b a n d , R ā m a


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said t h u s : — " S i n c e y o u b e a t your chest twentyone times, I shall e x t e r m i n a t e t h e entire K s a t r i y a caste as m a n y times, wherever they m a y be on this e a r t h . I am speaking t h e t r u t h u n t o you. H e n c e , g e t r i d of your sorrow a n d assume courage now. Certain­ ly w h a t has gone is gone for ever, never to r e t u r n " . 33. On being consoled thus by hini, R e n u k ā regained h e r courage w i t h g r e a t difficulty despite h e r i n o r d i n a t e misery, a n d said " S o b e i t " i n reply. 34. T h e n , a l o n g with his brothers, R ā m a of long power­ ful arms, m a d e p r e p a r a t i o n s for the c r e m a t i o n of his father's body by m e a n s of fire, in accordance w i t h t h e injunc­ tions, O king. 35. R e n u k ā of steadfast holy rites, whose body was overwhelmed w i t h sorrow for her h u s b a n d , called all her sons together a n d spoke these words : Renukā said : 36. O my sons, I wish to follow y o u r father w h o has gone to H e a v e n a n d w h o was by n a t u r e meritorious. It behoves you all to allow me to do so.. 37. T h e misery of widowhood is u n b e a r a b l e . H o w c a n I e n d u r e it ? I will be h a t e d as I am bereft of my h u s b a n d . H o w c a n I c a r r y on my activities, thus ? 38. H e n c e , I shall follow my beloved h u s b a n d so t h a t I shall proceed along with h i m w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n for ever in the o t h e r world. 39. By e n t e r i n g this b u r n i n g pyre, I will be slightly after a long t i m e , the d e a r guest of my h u s b a n d in t h e world of t h e Pitrs ( M a n e s ) . 40. If you wish to do w h a t is pleasing to m e , d e a r sons, n o t h i n g else should be expressed by you by taking a u n i t e d s t a n d against m e , except y o u r c o n c u r r e n c e a n d support in this act of my self-immolation to fire. 4 1 . After saying these words w i t h firm decision, R e n u k ā decided to follow h e r h u s b a n d by e n t e r i n g t h e fire. 42. At t h a t very j u n c t u r e an incorporeal speech u t t e r e d thus, addressing R e n u k ā along with h e r sons. 4 3 . " O R e n u k ā , listen attentively t o m y words, along


647

2.3.30.44-53

w i t h your sons. Do not do a n y t h i n g rash a n d reckless, O gentle lady, I shall tell you something pleasing to you. 44. No rash a n d reckless act should be c o m m i t t e d by a n y o n e w h o desires his own welfare. You must n o t die. If one continues to live, one is sure to see happiness. 45. H e n c e , Q lady of bright smiles, sustain your asset of fortitude. Bide your time screening yourself b e h i n d an inevi­ table cause. 46. E r e long your h u s b a n d will regain consciousness. O splendid lady, w h e n he is resuscitated you will realize your desires. You will be the recipient of m u c h weal lasting for a long t i m e . " Vasistha said : 47. H a v i n g h e a r d those words (of the incorporeal speech) R e n u k ā regained fortitude. O u t of respect a n d h i g h value of t h a t (Divine s p e e c h ) , t h e sons b e c a m e delighted. 48. Thereafter, they took t h e body of t h e sage, their father, to t h e i n n e r a p a r t m e n t s of the h e r m i t a g e . Laying it in a place sheltered from the wind, they sat all a r o u n d it. 49-50. As they sat there with their soul a n d t h e m i n d submerged in gloom (lit. n o t m u c h d e l i g h t e d ) , they saw m a n y i m p o r t a n t a n d splendid omens whereby they were consoled a little, in their m i n d s . T h e leading sages sat t h e r e along w i t h their m o t h e r , eagerly expecting the revival of their father back to life. 5 1 . M e a n w h i l e , d u e to the power of destiny, O king, sage ( B h r g u ) , the intelligent progenitor a n d sustainer of t h e line of Bhrgus, c a m e there by c h a n c e . 52. He was t h e creator (i.e. composer) of the Atharvan mantras. He was thoroughly conversant w i t h t h e Vedas a n d the Vedańgas (ancillaries to the V e d a s ) . He knew t h e meanings of all scriptures. He was highly intelligent a n d respected by t h e Asuras. 5 3 . He knew t h e mystic lore of Mrtasañjivini w h e r e b y 1

1. Generally it is Śukra, U ś a n ā Kavi, w h o is credited to have the sole mastery of Safijivani V i d y ā and the treatise on politics Sukra-ntti-sāra is also ascribed to Śukra. H e r e Śukra's father Bhrgu is credited w i t h the knowledge of both of these.


Brahmānda Purāna

648

he could resuscitate t h e D ā n a v a s who died on being struck by the Devas. This secret lore was inaccessible to o t h e r sages. 54. It was he who composed t h e treatise on politics call­ ed after h i m Auśanasa or Śukra-niti-sāra which enabled kings to regain their lost kingdom. E v e n today all t h e kings follow it a n d rely on it. 55. T h a t great sage arrived a t the hermitage. O n e n t e r i n g it he saw t h e m all in the same miserable plight over­ whelmed w i t h sorrow. 56. On seeing Bhrgu, the original sire of their family, they joyously stood u p , h o n o u r e d him a n d offered h i m the most excellent seat: 57. T h e great sage c o n g r a t u l a t e d a n d blessed t h e m all. H e asked t h e m — " W h a t has h a p p e n e d here ? " T h e y n a r r a t e d everything to h i m . 58. On h e a r i n g it, Bhrgu w h o was conversant w i t h M a n t r a s , i m m e d i a t e l y took some water. R e p e a t i n g the m a n t r a of Sañjivini Vidyāhe. sprinkled ( J a m a d a g n i ' s ) body a n d c h a n t e d this. 59. " I f the prowess of my performance of sacrifice a n d Tapas (penance) is auspicious, let this (sage J a m a d a g n i ) come to life thereby. Let h i m get up like one who h a d gone to s l e e p " . 60. As soon as this auspicious s t a t e m e n t was u t t e r e d by Bhrgu of perfectly righteous activities, the son of Rcīka (i.e. J a m a d a g n i ) got up like a n o t h e r Brhaspati himself. 6 1 . On seeing Bhrgu, his own respectable grandfather 1 standing t h e r e , O king, he bowed down to him devoutly. W i t h palms j o i n e d in reverence he s a i d — Jamadagni said : 62-65. I am blessed. I have realized t h e fulfilment of my duties. My life is fruitful as I am able to see your feet to which Suras a n d Asuras offer obeisance O holy lord, bestower of h o n o u r . W h a t service shall I r e n d e r u n t o you ? O holy lord, be I. T h e w o r d Pitāmaha 'grandfather' is rather loosely u s e d here, Bhrgu is J a m a d a g n i ' s grandfather's ( A u r v a ' s ) grandfather. H i s genealogy brief, is as follows: Bhrgu—Cyavana—Aurva—Rcīka—Jamadagni.

as in


649

2.3.30.66-73

pleased to sanctify your own family by m e a n s of drops of w a t e r from your own feet." After saying this, he joyously applied t h e Arghya b r o u g h t by R ā m a immediately to wash his feet. W i t h devotion, t h e noble-minded J a m a d a g n i b e n t down his neck a n d sprinkled t h a t w a t e r on his h e a d along with the members of his family. 66-67. After h o n o u r i n g him duly he h u m b l y asked Bhrgu : — " O holy lord, why the sin has been c o m m i t t e d b y t h a t wicked k i n g — t h a t king to w h o m I extended my hospi­ tality perfectly well in accordance with the injunctions thinking t h a t he was a good m a n ? O highly intelligent one, why did t h e wicked m a n did so ? Vasistha said : 68. On being asked thus, O king, the intelligent sage Bhrgu, t h e omniscient holy lord, m e d i t a t e d a n d t h o u g h t for a long time a n d explained the reason. Bhrgu said : 69. Listen, O highly fortunate a n d d e a r one, listen to t h e cause of this act whereby, O sinless one, he c o m m i t t e d an evil offence towards you, the omniscient one. 70. He had been cursed formerly by Vasistha 1 for t h e sake of his destruction as follows : "O deluded one, y o u r power a n d vigour will be destroyed on account of your offence against a B r ā h m a n a " . 71-73. Therefore, how can the . sage's words be other­ wise ? This R ā m a will attack t h a t leading king of g r e a t vigour, forcefully, O sage of long powerful a r m s . He has already vowed t h u s — " O mother, since, being overwhelmed with sorrow, your chest has been struck by you twentyone times 1.

T h i s is A p a v a Vasistha. He is different from Vasistha, the narrator

of the Paraśurāma L e g e n d in this text. He was an ancient sage. Kārttavīrya helped

the fire-god to burn a forest in w h i c h the sage Ā p a v a V a s i s t h a h a d

built his hermitage. W h e n Kārttavīrya and the fire-god burnt his h e r m i t a g e , he cursed Kārttavīrya as a

result

of

J a m a d a g n i ' s c o w took p l a c e — M b h .

which

the

SāntiA9Al-47.

event of

carrying

away


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Purāna

in front of m e , I shall make the e a r t h rid of Ksatriyas twentyone t i m e s " . 74. H e n c e , t h o u g h he m a y be w a r d e d off continuously by you, his father, O bestower of h o n o u r , he will surely carry it o u t with all his might, due to the force of t h e inevitable future. 75-76. T h a t king of great fortune h a d been a devoted servant of old people. He is of great intelligence having acquir­ ed his wisdom from D a t t ā t r e y a , a p a r t of Lord Visnu. T h e noble-souled king is a direct devotee of Lord Visnu too. T h e r e will be sin in killing him. After saying thus, O great king, Bhrgu, the son of B r a h m a , t h e great scholar went back the way he had come (awaiting) the revolution of time in t h e future.

CHAPTER THIRTYONE Paraśurāma advised by Brahma to approach Śiva about Haihaya Sagara enquired: 1. O highly fortunate son of B r a h m a , recount u n t o me the activities of P a r a ś u r ā m a . W h a t did t h a t highly vigorous sage d o , when he got extremely enraged by the act of the king ? Vasisfha said : 2. After t h a t highly fortunate sage Bhrgu h a d d e p a r t e d , the infuriated sage R ā m a who was devoted to his father, spoke thus, having hevy sighs again a n d again. Paraśurāma said : 3. Alas, see t h e foolishness of king K ā r t t a v i r y a w h o has strayed to t h e evil p a t h . Deliberately he has committed an a t t e m p t to m u r d e r a B r ā h m a n a .


2.3.31.4-14

651

4. I believe t h a t the F a t e is very powerful, for the em­ bodied beings are deluded by its influence a n d all of t h e m t h e r e b y c o m m i t good and evil actions. 5. Let all t h e sages hear (as witness) t h e vow t h a t is taken by m e . I shall avenge my father by killing K ā r t t a v ī r y a in the battle. 6. Even if the king were to be defended by I n d r a a n d o t h e r Devas as well as by Dānavas, I shall certainly kill h i m . It w o n ' t be otherwise." 7. On hearing the words thus spoken by R ā m a , the noble-souled sage J a m a d a g n i said to his son w h o h a d spoken so boldly a n d daringly. Jamadagni advised : 8. Listen R ā m a . I shall recount the eternal virtue of good m e n . On paying heed to this, all men become virtuous. 9. Good persons of exalted fortune who are desirous of u l t i m a t e freedom from the worldly existence, do not become excessively furious with anyone, a l t h o u g h they are condemned and beaten. 10. Those ascetics of exalted fortune exercise full control over their sense-organs. To such m e n of perpetual good actions a r e the worlds of never-ending pleasure. 11. He who is beaten with sticks a n d other things a n d who is reproached by words by wicked m e n does not become agitated, is glorified as a Sādhu ( i . e . a good a n d great person). 12. He who retaliates by beating a person who beats h i m is not a Sādhu. He is a sinner. We are S&dhus a n d Brāhmanas who have a t t a i n e d a venerable status, due to forbearance. 13- A very great sin m a y result if t h e king is slain, O d e a r one : H e n c e , I restrain you now. Accord forgiveness a n d perform a p e n a n c e . " Vasiffha said : 14. After u n d e r s t a n d i n g fully w h a t h a d been c o m m a n d e d thus by his father, O prince, R ā m a , the suppressor of enemies, spoke to his father habitually inclined to forget a n d forgive.


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Paraśurāma replied : 15. O d e a r father of great intellect, listen now to my h u m b l e submission. Peace a n d restraint have been advocated by you for Sādhus of noble souls. 16. T h a t p r o c e d u r e of peace a n d restraint should be directed towards good m e n , m e n in pitiable conditions a n d elderly m e n by people who consider t h e m as godly. But this restraint cannot be one t h a t yields happiness w h e n directed towards m e n of evil actions. 17. H e n c e , K ā r t t a v ī r y a should be slain by m e . O vener­ able one, permit m e . Let me fulfil my enmity (let me take proper r e v e n g e ) . " Jamadagni replied : 18. " L i s t e n to my words attentively, O R ā m a , O highly fortunate one. You shall act in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e inevitable future. It cannot be otherwise at all. 19. Go to god B r a h m a from h e r e . Ask h i m , O d e a r one, what is conducive to your welfare a n d w h a t is not. You shall do w h a t t h a t holy lord says. T h e r e is no d o u b t in t h i s . " Vasistha continued ; 20. On being told thus, t h a t highly intelligent sage bowed down to his father a n d went to the world of B r a h m a where ordinary people have no access at all. 2 1 . He saw t h e world of B r a h m a m a d e of gold. It h a d the r a m p a r t s of gold. It was embellished with pillars studded with jewels. 22. T h e r e he saw B r a h m a of u n m e a s u r e d prowess, seat­ ed on a beautiful t h r o n e set with gems a n d jewels. He was adorned with o r n a m e n t s set with gems a n d jewels. 23. He was surrounded by leading Siddhas and sages engaged in m e d i t a t i o n . He was gaily a n d smilingly w a t c h i n g the dance of V i d y ā d h a r a damsels. 24. He saw B r a h m a , t h e giver of benefits of p e n a n c e , the lord a n d creator of t h e worlds, m e d i t a t i n g on t h e perfect B r a h m a n , with perfect m e n t a l control.


653

2.3.31.25-36

25. He was continuously e x p o u n d i n g the secret yogic science to t h e groups of devotees. On seeing t h a t u n c h a n g i n g lord, the leading m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu devoutly bowed d o w n to h i m . 26. On seeing R ā m a w i t h his h e a d b e n t down, he c o n g r a t u l a t e d a n d blessed h i m a n d enquired a b o u t his h a p p i ­ n e s s — " O d e a r child, w h a t have you come here for ?" 27. O n being asked b y the C r e a t o r , R ā m a r e c o u n t e d everything from the beginning, the interlude of K ā r t t a v ī r y a a n d his noble-souled father. 28. On h e a r i n g everything, O bestower of h o n o u r , B r a h m a who h a d a l r e a d y understood everything, spoke to the highly righteous R ā m a something t h a t would ultimately lead t o h a p p y consequences. 29. "Difficult to accomplish indeed is t h e vow t h a t you have taken out of a n g e r . O B r a h m a c ā r i n , this creation originates, due to the grace of the L o r d . 30. It was w i t h very great stress a n d strain t h a t t h e Universe was created by me at His behest. T h e vow t h a t you have taken is destructive of the same. 3 1 . You wish to m a k e t h e E a r t h rid of kings twenty one times on a c c o u n t of t h e fault of a single king, as well as the discomfiture of your father. 32. T h e e t e r n a l creation along with t h e B r ā h m a n a s K s a t r i y a s , Vaiśyas a n d Śūdras has come out of H a r i a n d merged into h i m again a n d again. 33-36. Your vow will be non-futile on a c c o u n t of this early law of t h e U n i v e r s e * Or if you think t h a t you are to achieve your object w i t h your own endeavour, go to Siva's world a n d take the permission of Śiva. On the E a r t h there are m a n y kings who a r e t h e followers of Ś a ń k a r a . W i t h o u t the permission of t h e great god who is powerful e n o u g h to kill t h e m as they wear the coat of Mail, have Śakiis (divine jave­ lins) inaccessible to others. Strive to a t t a i n the seed of victory conducive to happiness. If the right m e a n s is to be used all endeavours become successful. •Possibly the idea seems to

be this ; —there can

all the subjects twentyone times in t w e n t y o n e Yugas.

be annihilation

of


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Brahmānda Purāna

37. O d e a r boy, take from y o u r p r e c e p t o r H a r a , a 1 Kavaca ( c o a t of mail) having the M a n t r a of Śrīkrsna. T h e splendour of V i s n u is difficult to be transgressed b u t Siva's power will conquer it. 38. T h e Kavaca n a m e d Trailokya-Vijaya (conquest of the three worlds)is extremely miraculous a n d wonderful. By p l e a d i n g a n d e n t r e a t i n g to Ś a ń k a r a somehow try to get this (Kavaca) which is difficult to be o b t a i n e d . 39. Delighted by your good qualities, t h e compassion­ ate lord w h o endears himself to those w h o are in a w r e t c h e d condition, will definitely give even t h e divine P ā ś u p a t a missile without any doubt.

CHAPTER THIRTYTWO Paraśurāma's Penance

:

Paraśurāma Receives Missiles from Śiva

Vasistha said: 1. On hearing t h e words of B r a h m a , R ā m a b e c a m e m u c h delighted in his m i n d . After bowing down to t h e preceptor of t h e Universe, he w e n t to Siva's region. 2. It was a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d Yojanas (1 Y o j a n a — 1 2 k m ) above the world of B r a h m a . It was different from it. It was difficult to explain or describe it clearly. It could be a p p r o a c h e d only by Togins a n d was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e greatest. 3. V a i k u n t h a was to the r i g h t of it a n d t h e world of Gaurī was to the left. T h e world of D h r u v a was b e n e a t h it. It was higher t h a n all t h e worlds. 1.

though

Mantra

on c a m e to

be traced

derived from

'meditate' and — t r a i — ' t o protect'. T h u s mantra which

on

being

by Nirukta. (vii. 1 2 ) later

-\/man

in T a n t r a works to t w o roots — m a n — ' t o think' or is

that

formula

of

letters

meditated u p o n protects (Vide Prapañca-sāra and Kulārnava

T a n t r a s ( 1 7 . 5 4 ) . Kavaca is a variety of m a n t r a w h i c h was believed to work as a coat of mail to the reciter. H e r e infra II.iii.33.3-4 the syllables,

viz.:

Gopi-jana-vallabhāya

svāhi

is

Krsna

mantra

of

10

g i v e n . While the Kavaca called

Trailokya-vijaya, also based on Krsna is stated in w.

5-27 there.


2.3.32.4-14

655

4. R ā m a who could go there d u e to t h e power of his p e n a n c e , saw the world of Śiva w h i c h was u n p a r a l l e l e d a n d which was full of m a n y things generating curiosity a n d wonder. 5. L e a d i n g Yogins, Siddhas, auspicious a n d holy P ā ś u patas (Devotees of P a ś u p a t i i.e. Śiva) etc. live t h e r e . So also people of q u i e t u d e , devoid of e n m i t y a n d having t h e m e r i t o r i ­ ous benefits of austerities of ten million K a l p a s . 6. It was rendered splendid by pārijāta a n d other divine trees as well as wish-yielding cows, the Kāmadkenus. It h a d been created by Ś a ń k a r a , the Yogin, by means of his yogic power, o u t of his own will. 7-8. It was so wonderful t h a t it h a d never been seen even in his d r e a m by V i ś v a k a r m a n , t h e preceptor of all artisans a n d craftsmen. It was rendered splendid by h u n d r e d s of divine lakes beautified by rubies. It was very beautiful, being e q u i p ­ p e d with altars studded w i t h gems a n d s u r r o u n d e d by golden r a m p a r t walls. 9. It was very lofty t o u c h i n g even t h e sky. It was as white a n d clean as milk. It h a d four gateways. It was rendered splendid by gem-set altars a n d d aises. 10.. It was endowed w i t h gemset * (lit. red) flights of stairs, a n d gemset pillars a n d doors having different wonderful paintings. It was beautified by various fascinating articles a n d fittings. 11. T h e r e was a beautiful a b o d e in t h e m i d d l e , r e n d e r e d splendid by the principal gateway. R ā m a of virtuous soul saw it. He a p p e a r e d to have come across something very wonderful. 12-14. He saw two gatekeepers of terrifying forms t h e r e . T h e i r teeth a n d m o u t h s ( o r faces) were very frightful. T h e i r eyes were deformed and reddish in colour. T h e y resembled m o u n t a i n s t h a t h a d b e e n b u r n t (and hence b l a c k ) . T h e y h a d great strength a n d exploit. T h e y h a d bedecked themselves w i t h holy ashes. T h e i r g a r m e n t s were the hides of tiger. T h e y held Triśūlas (tridents) a n d Patfiśas ( spears w i t h s h a r p edges) . T h e y

rakta is probably a misprint for ratna-


656

Brahmānda Purāna

were brilliant with Brahminical splendour. On seeing t h e m he felt a bit afraid in his m i n d . He spoke thus h u m b l y — 15. "I bow down to you two, O Lords. I have come here to see lord Ś a ń k a r a . It behoves you to let me in after obtaining the permission of the L o r d . " 16. On h e a r i n g his words, those two followers of the lord went in a n d got permission of Siva. T h e n they gave h i m permission to go within. 17-18. On getting their permission, he joyously entered the h a r e m . T h e B r ā h m a n a saw a beautiful assembly hall filled with groups of Siddhas. On seeing this hall of t h e lord filled w i t h m a n y fragrant scents, he was surprised a n d awestruck. T h e r e he saw Śiva, the quiescent moon-crested lord with three eyes. 19. H i s h a n d a p p e a r e d rendered splendid by a trident. He h a d excellent g a r m e n t of tiger's skin. His limbs were smeared w i t h holy ashes a n d m a d e beautiful. A serpent served the pur­ pose of sacred t h r e a d . 20. He was delighted in His own self. All his desires h a d been perfectly realized. He h a d a lustre equivalent to t h a t of ten million suns. He h a d five heads a n d ten a r m s . His person was ever eager to bless the devotees. 2 1 . He was e x p o u n d i n g true knowledge a n d yogic principles to the Siddhas by means of t h e Tarka-Mudrā (i.e. esoteric gesture by m e a n s of fingers to indicate arguments) . He was joyously being eulogised by leading Yogins a n d P r a m a t h a s . 22. He was encircled by Bhairavas, Yogins as well as R u d r a s . O n seeing H i m , R ā m a bent down his head (in reverence) with very great j o y . 23-24. On seeing K ā r t t i k e y a to H i s left, Ganes'vara (i.e. G a n a p a t i ) t o the right, N a n d ī ś v a r a , M a h ā k ā l a a n d Vīrabhad r a in front of h i m a n d the h u n d r e d - a r m e d D u r g ā on his lap, he bowed down to \ h e r too. Thereafter, t h e scholarly sage began to eulogise the lord in faltering convulsive speech (over­ w h e l m e d with emotions) : 2 5 . " I bow down t o L o r d Śiva, I ś ā n a , t h e eternal ( imperishable) all-pervasive lord, lord U g r a w i t h serpents for


657

2.3.32.26-32

his o r n a m e n t s , the lord dazzling with the g a r l a n d of h u m a n skulls. 26. I know you as t h a t lord of all the worlds, w h o creates, sustains a n d annihilates the worlds, who assumes the forms of B r a h m a a n d others, who is the eldest of all a n d who is an ocean of mercy. 27. I bow down to t h a t lord who is beyond the pale of speech a n d m i n d ; w h o m even the Vedas a r e n o t competent to eulogise; w h o c a n n o t be realized t h r o u g h knowledge a n d intellect a n d who has neither form nor shape. 28. I bow down to that lord who is greater t h a n the greatest a n d w h o m I n d r a a n d other Devas, the sages, the M a n u s a n d the Asuras do n o t understand in reality. 29. I bow down to t h a t lord who is identical with the Universe, by whose minutest p a r t all the worlds, consisting of the mobile a n d immobile beings are created, and in w h o m all of t h e m get merged once again. 30. I bow down to H a r a that great lord from whose slightest anger bursts forth t h a t fire which burns down every­ thing including the u p p e r worlds as well as the Nether worlds. 3 1 . T h e following eight M ū r t i s 1 (forms of Śiva) are worthy of being worshipped by the entire world viz. the E a r t h , w i n d , fire, water, ether, Tajvan (sacrificial p r i e s t ) , moon a n d sun. I b o w d o w n to t h a t Tajña (the lord identical with Yajña). 32. I seek refuge in t h a t lord who has the form of Kāla ( T i m e , god of d e a t h ) , who is the primordial creator of the Universe in the form of Kāla; who is the protector (of the U n i v e r s e ) by assuming a separate form a n d by being identical with the universe, a n d who in the end annihilates everything by assuming the physical form of R u d r a . " 1.

T h e s e eight forms of Śiva are comprised of ( 1 ) the elements (bhūtas)

•constituting physical man, the m o o n . various

These

names

Śākuntalā 1.1

( 2 ) Prāna a n d A p ā n a symbolized by the sun a n d

constitute

like

Hotr,

pays

obeisance

eight Vasus in V e d i c c o n c r e t e form(Śat. Br.

the

Tajvan to

literature as 11.6.3.6).

vital

man, ( 3 ) M i n d or manas called by

(Yajamāna), this they

Diksita

etc.

Kālidāsa

in

eight-formed Śiva. T h e s e are called make

all

creatures

manifest

in


658

BrahmSnda Purāna

33. After saying this, sage Bhārgava joyously a n d enthusiastically fell down n e a r his (Siva's) feet. T h e ocean of mercy (the lord) sportingly lifted him up w i t h his left h a n d a n d placed his right h a n d on his h e a d . 34. H e eagerly congratulated a n d blessed h i m . H e placed h i m in front of G a n e ś a . W i t h his eyes wet w i t h compas­ sion, the lord who fulfils the desires of everyone, glanced at his wife U m ā a n d spoke. Śiva said : 35. " O boy, who are y o u ? I n whose family were you born ? W h a t is the purpose for which you have come here ? Tell us about it. Delighted by your devotional a t t i t u d e , I shall g r a n t w h a t e v e r you have in your m i n d . " 36. On being told thus eagerly by the able-souled H a r a , thedispeller of the distress of t h e whole Universe, (the scion of the family of) Bhrgu, once again bowed down to the lord of t h e Devas, the preceptor, the ocean of mercy a n d spoke imme­ diately. ParaSurāma said : 37. O lord, I am born as the son of J a m a d a g n i in the family of Bhrgu. My n a m e is R ā m a . I seek refuge in you, who are worthy of being h o n o u r e d by the whole universe. 38. O lord of t h e Universe, fulfil my cherished desire for the work of which I have come to your presence, O lord. 39. J a m a d a g n i , my father, O lord, accorded hospitable reception to king K ā r t t a v ī r y a who h a d been on a h u n t i n g expedition. 40. O u t of greed t h a t silly a n d foolish king struck t h a t sage down by using force. On seeing h i m killed, t h e cow went away to the world of cows. 4 1 . W i t h o u t feeling a n y remorse for the d e a t h of my innocent father the king r e t u r n e d to his city. Afterwards, my m o t h e r lamented very bitterly. 42. On coming to know of it, our great-grandfather Bhrgu who is aware of the events of the world, c a m e there, O great lord. I n d e e d I too c a m e back from t h e forest.


659

2.3.32.43-54

4 3 . After consoling the extremely distressed b r o t h e r s of m i n e along w i t h me a n d my m o t h e r , t h a t sage w h o is con­ versant w i t h M a n t r a s resuscitated my father back to life. 44. Before the arrival of Bhrgu, I h a d been highly infuriated by t h e grief of my m o t h e r . Consoling my m o t h e r , O lord, I h a d taken a vow. 45. Since her chest h a d been beaten twentyone times by my m o t h e r , I will rid the e a r t h of K s a t r i y a s as m a n y times. 46. This is the vow. L o r d of the Universe, M a h ā d e v a will fulfil it. H e n c e , O lord, I have come to your presence. Vasistha said : 47. On h e a r i n g these words of his a n d glancing at t h e face of D u r g ā , H a r a r e m a i n e d absorbed in t h o u g h t for a m o m e n t w i t h his face b e n t down. 48. In t h e m e a n t i m e surprised as she was, D u r g ā l a u g h e d a lot, O great king a n d said to Bhārgava w h o was b e n t on wreaking revenge. 49. ' ' O ascetic, O son of a B r ā h m a n a , o u t of anger you wish to m a k e this E a r t h devoid of kings twentyone times. G r e a t indeed is your d a r i n g rashness, O boy. 50. W i t h o u t any weapon you wish to kill Arjuna, t h e king w i t h a thousand arms, by w h o m even R ā v a n a was con­ temptuously discomfited by a sportive knitting of his eyebrows. 5 1 . To him the coat of m a i l of L o r d Visnu h a d b e e n given as also t h e Śakti (Divine j a v e l i n ) of excessive p o t e n ­ tiality. H o w do you aspire to kill h i m ? . 52. L o r d Ś a ń k a r a , the ocean of mercy is c o m p e t e n t to make it otherwise. None other t h a n Śańkara, d e a r son, can carry o u t a noble d e e d . " 53. T h e r e u p o n , after obtaining the consent of t h e god­ dess ( b y the previous hint) L o r d Ś a m b h u , the ocean of m e r c y addressed these gentle words to the son of J a m a d a g n i . Śiva

said

'•

54. F r o m today onwards O B r ā h m a n a , you shall be like S k a n d a to m e . O highly intelligent one, I shall give you t h e divine coat of m a i l and teach you the mantra thereof.


660

Brahmānda Purāna

55. D u e to its favour, you will sportingly kill K ā r t t a vīrya a n d m a k e the e a r t h devoid of kings, twentyone t i m e s . " 56-61. After saying this, Ś a ń k a r a t a u g h t h i m the Mantra (esoteric formula) t h a t is extremely difficult to o b t a i n a n d the following weapons etc. viz.—extremely miraculous coat of m a i l n a m e d Trailokyavijaya, the Nāgapāśa ( S e r p e n t i n e noose), (missiles like) t h e P ā ś u p a t a , the B r a h m ā s t r a which is very m u c h inaccessible, N ā r ā y a n ā s t r a , the Agneya (Arrow with the firegod as d e i t y ) , t h e V ā y a v y a (of the wind g o d ) , the V a r u n a ( o f V a r u n a t h e ocean-god), the G ā n d h a r v a , the G a r u d a , t h e extremely wonderful weapon J r m b h a n ā s t r a , the mace, t h e Śakti, the Paraiu (Axe) the trident a n d the excellent Danda (baton). On receiving all these weapons R ā m a became delighted. After bowing d o w n to the quiescent Śiva, D u r g ā , S k a n d a a n d G a n e ś v a r a a n d c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g t h e m R ā m a went t o the excellent holy c e n t r e P u s k a r a . 1 After mastering the technique of the Mantra conferred by Śiva a n d Kavaca (the excellent coat of m a i l , ) the scion of the family of Bhrgu. fulfilled his task. After killing K ā r t t a v ī r y a along with his a r m y a n d t h e entire family he r e t u r n e d . T h e leading m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu went to t h e a b o d e of his father.

CHAPTER THIRTYTHREE Protective Mantra for World Conquest* Sagara requested : 1. E v e r y t h i n g glorified by you, O holy lord, O excellent sage has been h e a r d . R e c o u n t to me the Kavaca (Protective M a n t r a ) which grants t h e conquest of the three worlds, everywhere. 1. A h o l y p l a c e six miles from Ajmer ( R a j a s t h a n ) . T h e r e are three K u n d a s called Jyesfha, M a d h y a m a a n d Kanistha. T h e Sarasvati is credited to h a v e filled these K u n d a s ' for her father Brahmadeva vide infra ch. 3 5 . 38-44. * T h i s c h a p t e r as well as the next is an obvious interpolation as P a r a ś u r ā m a as an Avatāra of V i s n u preceded R ā m a and K r s n a came after Rāma.


661

2.3.33.2-11 Vasistha said :

2. Listen, O d e a r one, I shall recount to you the ex­ tremely miraculous Kavaca. I shall teach you the M a n t r a also t h a t bestows spiritual a t t a i n m e n t a n d which always brings happiness to those w h o aspire to achieve it a n d practise it. 3. At the end of t h e word Gopijana one shall u t t e r the word Vallabhāya. E n d i n g with Svāhā, this great M a n t r a (viz. Gopijana-Vallabhāya Svāhā m e a n i n g ' S v ā h ā u n t o t h e lover of cowherdess folks') of ten syllables is the bestower of worldly pleasure as well as salvation. is

cited

as t h e m e t r e w i t h ten syllables in a q u a r t e r ) K r s n a is

4.

T h e sage of this M a n t r a is Sadāśiva. Pańkti

men­

tioned as the deity. Its utilization

is for t h e achievement of

everything. 5 - 6 . T h e sage o f the Kavaca n a m e d . Trailokyavijaya i s P r a j ā p a t i . T h e m e t r e is Jagati (a metre with twelve syllables). T h e deity is Rājeśvara himself. It is proclaimed t h a t its utiliza­ tion is in the a t t a i n m e n t of the conquest of t h e three worlds. L e t t h e Pranava (i.e. Orhkāra) protect my h e a d . 1 O b e i s a n c e to Srīkrsna always. 7-8. L e t h i m ever protect my forehead. Svāhā unto Krsna. O K r s n a , let this protect my eyes. L e t (the Mantra) Krsnāya svāhā (protcet) the pupil of the eye 'Haraye namah' (Obeisance to H a r i ) , let this ever protect my brow. Orh Govindāya Svāhā, let this always protect my nose. 9. ' O b e i s a n c e to G o p ā l a ; let this M a n t r a always p r o t e c t my cheek. 'Klīrh, obeisance to K r s n a ' . L e t t h e wish-yielding K a l p a - t r e e protect m y ears. 10. 'Śrīm, obeisance to K r s n a ' , let this always p r o t e c t the pair of my lips. Orh Svāhā u n t o Goplśa, let this p r o t e c t t h e 1 row of my teeth. 11. 1.

L e t this M a n t r a of

VV.6-21

are

three

technically k n o w n

mentally assigns various parts of his body to aspects of L o r d K r s n a ) .

syllables as N y ā s a . In deities

viz.

'Śrīkrsna'

this, t h e d e v o t e e

( h e r e various

forms or


Brahmānda

€62

Purina

always protect the cavity within the row of my teeth' ( L e t t h e M a n t r a ) 'Svāhā unto Śrikrsna' protect my t o n g u e always. 12. 'Svāhā unto Rāmeśvara ( p r o b . Rāseivara).' L e t this always protect my p a l a t e . 'Svāhā unto Rādhikā's lord'. Let this always protect m y neck ( t h r o a t ) . 13. 'Obeisance to the lord of the group o/"cowherdesses'. L e t this always p r o t e c t my neck. 'Om Svāhā unto the lord of the cow­ herds; let this always p r o t e c t my shoulders. 14. 'Obeisance to t h e L o r d in the guise of a boy; Svāhā (to Him), (let this M a n t r a ) protect my back. 'Obeisance to Mukunda'; let this M a n t r a always protect my belly. 15. 'Hrim Śrim Klim, Svāhā unto p r o t e c t my h a n d s , 'Oth obeisance and p r o t e c t the p a i r of my a r m s .

Krsna; let this always Svāhā unto Visnu', let this

16. 'Om Hrim, Svāhā unto the Lord; let this p r o t e c t the row of my nails. 'Obeisance to Nārāyana''; let this p r o t e c t the cavity b e n e a t h t h e nails of m i n e . 17. ' O m Hrim Śrim obeisance unto P a d m a - n ā b h a ; let this protect always my navel. 'Om Svāhā unto the lord of all; let this always p r o t e c t my hairs. 18. 'Obeisance to Krsna, Svāhā (unto him)', let this even protect t h e Brahmarandhra ( t h e a p e r t u r e on the crown of the head, the outlet for t h e soul at the time of d e a t h ) . 'Om Svāhā unto Mādhava', let this always protect my forehead. 19. 'Om Hrim Śrim obeisance to the lord of Rasikas' (those who a p p r e c i a t e b e a u t y a n d enjoy p l e a s u r e ) ' , let this always protect my waist. 'Obeisance to the lord of cowherdess-folk''. Let this always protect my thighs. 20. 'Om, obeisance to the destroyer of the Daityas, Svāhā (unto Him)' let this ( M a n t r a ) protect my knees. L e t t h e M a n t r a 'Unto the son of Taśodā ending with Namah (obeisance) protect my calfmuscles.' 2 1 . L e t ( t h e M a n t r a ) ending w i t h 'Svāhā unto the person who is fond of beginning the Rasa dance' protect my modesty a n d bashfulness. L e t ( t h e M a n t r a ) , 'Svāhā unto the lover of Vrndā' protect my limbs. 22.

Let K r s n a wholeheartedly protect me always in the


2.3.33.23-32

663

East. Let the lord of Goloka ( t h e world of the cows) himself protect me in t h e South-East q u a r t e r . 23. Let (the lord) in the form of perfect B r a h m a n p r o t e c t me in t h e South-West. Let H a r i p r o t e c t me in t h e West. 24. Let G o v i n d a protect me in the North-West. Let Rasikeśvara (Lord of those who enjoy aesthetic pleasure) p r o t e c t me in the N o r t h . Let the lord w h o sports a b o u t in t h e forest o f V r n d ā v a n a protect me always in the North-East. 25. Let t h e intimate beloved of V r n d ā protect me always from above. Let t h e extremely powerful destroyer of Bali protect me always from below. 26. L e t N r s i m h a (Man-lion) protect me always in water, g r o u n d a n d the a t m o s p h e r e . Let M ā d h a v a himself protect m e d u r i n g sleeping a n d waking hours. 27-28. T h e i m m a n e n t soul of everyone is u n a t t a c h e d let t h a t lord p r o t e c t me from all s i d e s . " 1 T h u s , O king, the Kavaca n a m e d Trailokyavijaya of t h e great lord has been recounted to you. It destroys all sins. T h i s has been h e a r d by me directly from Śiva. It should not be m e n ­ tioned to a n y ordinary person. 29. He w h o , after duly worshipping the preceptor, wears the Kavaca (i.e. this amulet) r o u n d his neck or on t h e right a r m , is u n d o u b t e d l y Visnu himself. 30-32. Wherever the aspirant devotee of the Kavaca lives, goddess of speeeh a n d goddess of fortune too stay t h e r e . If a m a n attains this perfect Kavaca he is u n d o u b t e d l y a Jivanmukta (a soul liberated while alive). Surely he shall o b t a i n t h e benefit of worship performed for ten million years. T h o u s a n d s of Rājasūya sacrifices, h u n d r e d s of Vājapeyas, all types of great charitable gifts a n d t h e c i r c u m a m b u l a t i o n of t h e entire E a r t h do not deserve even a sixteenth p a r t of this Trailokya-vijaya. 1. Just as various parts of the body are protected by assigning them to different forms of the deity, the devotee is protected by Kavaca-mantra on all directions and at all times and places. T h i s appeal for protection is stated in vv.22-28.


664

Brahmāna'a Purāna

33. Holy rites, fasts a n d other religious observances, the self-study of the Vedas, t h e repetition of t h e Vedic M a n t r a s a n d the holy d i p in all pilgrim centres a n d sacred rivers do not deserve even a fraction of this (Kavaca). 34. If a person attains the Kavaca perfectly, he shall certainly a t t a i n everything viz. the status of a Siddha, im­ mortality a n d the status of an a t t e n d a n t of Srīhari. 35. He w h o reapeats the M a n t r a a million times shall achieve the mastery of the Kavaca. If one has achieved t h e mastery of the K a v a c a he shall certainly be victorious. 36. A kingdom m a y be given away, even h e a d m a y be dispensed with, the very vital airs m a y be given over, O K i n g . But, O d e a r one, this Kavaca should n o t be given a w a y even in a n emergency. 37. U n d e r s t a n d this, O Sun of t h e family, t h a t this has been revealed to you for the purpose of p r o t e c t i n g all these (?) and also because you have carried out my behest. Be an E m p e r o r by wearing this Kavaca.

CHAPTER THIRTYFOUR The Story of an antelope and his beloved : A Hymn eulogising Krsna Sagara said : 1. "O highly fortunate son'of Brahma, great is the favour d o n e to me because this Kavaca, devoid of a n y deficiency, has b e e n revealed to m e . 2. I have been blessed by Aurva because it was t h r o u g h his favour t h a t I l e a r n t how to discharge missiles. Now, O holy lord, I have become the object of your grace. 3. O p r e c e p t o r , r e c o u n t to me in detail how t h e heroic king K ā r t t a v ī r y a was slain by R ā m a , the leading m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu.


2.3.34.4-16

665

4. T h a t king enjoyed the favour of D a t t a a n d R ā m a t h a t of Śiva. H o w did these two heroes come together in t h e b a t t l e , O preceptor? Vasiftha said : 5. " L i s t e n O king, I shall recount to you the story of king K ā r t t a v ī r y a a n d t h e noble-souled R ā m a — t h e story t h a t dispells sins. 6. After receiving the Kavaca a n d the M a n t r a directly from the preceptor, R ā m a began to practise the same with great devotion. 7. R ā m a stayed at Puskara for a h u n d r e d years regular­ ly sleeping down on the b a r e ground, devoted to the perform­ ance of the S a n d h y ā prayers a n d b a t h three times a day, a n d never r e m a i n i n g languid. 8. Everyday, O king, Akrtavrana, b r o u g h t materials of worship such as sacrificial twigs, flowers, K u ś a grass etc. from the forest a n d gave them to R ā m a , the m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu. 9 . R ā m a , the most excellent one a m o n g intelligent per­ sons, was continuously absorbed in m e d i t a t i o n . He thus p r o p i t i a t e d lord K r s n a the destroyer of sins. 10. As he continued his worship a n d his p e r p e t u a l m e d i t a t i o n , O king, a h u n d r e d years elapsed. 11. O n c e , O great king, R ā m a the great sage went to the middle Puskara for taking b a t h . T h e r e he saw an excellent m i r a c l e ! 12. A stag came there r u n n i n g accompanied by a h i n d . He was being chased by a h u n t e r . He was extremely afflicted a n d distressed by the h e a t . 13. He was thirsty, O highly fortunate one, and was eager to d r i n k water. Even as R ā m a was watching, he c a m e to the b a n k of the lake. 14. T h e hind c a m e afterwards. She was frightened a n d her eyes were tremulous d u e to fright. Both of t h e m d r a n k w a t e r with auspicious m i n d s . 15-16. By t h a t time, the h u n t e r also c a m e there holding up the bow a n d having an arrow in his h a n d . On seeing R ā m a „


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the delighter of the m e m b e r s of Bhrgu's family r e m a i n i n g there along w i t h Akrtavrana, he stood there with his eyes fixed far off. Afraid of the scion of the family of Bhrgu, he then thought thus. 17. " T h i s R ā m a is a great warrior. He is capable of destroying wicked persons. H o w can I kill the stag a n d the hind h u n t e d by m e , w h e n he is within sight." 18. remained Rāma.

O c c u p i e d with this thought, O excellent king, he there itself frightened in his m i n d on account of

19-22. On seeing the p a i r of deer drinking water as t h o u g h terribly frightened, the intelligent R ā m a began to con­ j e c t u r e . " W h a t is the cause of fear h e r e ? T h e r e is no roar of a tiger here, nor is the h u n t e r in sight. W h a t is the reason where­ by these two are anxious a n d afraid a n d have tremulous eyes d u e to fright. Or the very species of deer has by n a t u r e tremulous eyes d u e to fright. Therefore, these two even while drinking w a t e r look a r o u n d w i t h roving frightened eyes. T h e r e is no reason here sufficient e n o u g h to make t h e m agitated, b u t they a r e trembling with fear and sorrow because all their limbs a r e exhausted and fatigued a n d they a p p e a r shaking and t r e m b l i n g . " 23. On thinking thus, R ā m a the intelligent sage stood in the m i d d l e P u s k a r a lake accompanied by his disciple, while they too continued to stand there. 24. After drinking water they resorted to t h e shade of a tree. Even as they c o n t i n u e d to look at the noble-souled R ā m a , they carried on their joyous dialogue. The hind said : 25. ' ' D a r l i n g , we shall continue to stay here as long as R ā m a stays h e r e . In t h e presence of this heroic warrior, we need n o t have a n y fear. 26. Even if the h u n t e r were to come here a n d strike at us, he will be r e d u c e d to ashes on being merely glanced at by the sage."


2.3.34.27-40

667

27. W h e n these words were u t t e r e d by the h i n d w h o was pleased to see R ā m a , t h e stag too was delighted. He said to his beloved. 28. " O highly fortunate a n d graceful 'lady, w h a t you say is t r u e . I too know the potentiality of t h e extremely noblesouled R ā m a . 29. T h a t disciple A k r t a v r a n a who is seen at his side has been fortunate enough to be protected from the clutches of a tiger by this R ā m a . He h a d been greatly agitated d u e to the terrorising tiger. 30-31. T h i s R ā m a , O highly fortunate lady, is the youngest son of J a m a d a g n i . On seeing his father insulted by K ā r t t a v ī r y a , he h a d become infuriated. He took then t h e vow of e x t e r m i n a t i n g kings. In order to get it fulfilled, he h a d for­ m e r l y gone to t h e world of B r a h m a . 32. B r a h m a h a d c o m m a n d e d h i m , " G o to the region of Ś i v a . " On receiving his behest, this sage w e n t to the pre­ sence of Śiva. 33-34. He recounted to h i m all the incidents concern­ ing t h e king a n d his father. M a h ā d e v a , the merciful lord, h o n o u r e d the scion of t h e family of Bhrgu a n d gave him the excellent M a n t r a a n d the u n b r e a k a b l e Kavaca of K r s n a , his own p ā ś u p a t a missile as well as other sets of missiles too. 35. He joyously b a d e farewell to him, after giving w e a p o n s eagerly a n d with d u e regard. O gentle lady, he come here eager to practise the M a n t r a .

the has

36-37. This righteous sage of good intellect repeats (the M a n t r a of) K r s n a ' s Kavaca everyday. T h u s , this noblesouled sage has spent a h u n d r e d years practising t h e M a n t r a . But, O gentle lady, it has not been fully mastered. T h e r e is one a d e q u a t e reason in his m a t t e r . T h e quality of Bhakti (Love of God) is considered threefold :

to be

38-40a. T h e three types of devotion are (1) Uttamā ( t h e highest) ( 2 ) Madhyama (the middle one) a n d (3) Kaniffhā (the l o w e s t ) . O lady of tremulous eyes. T h e devotion of the following persons is of t h e highest t y p e viz. Śiva, N ā r a d a , noble-souled Suka, saintly king A m b a -


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Purāna

rīsa, R a n t i d e v a , M ā r u t i (i.e. H a n u m ā n ) , Bali, Vibhīsana, noblesouled P r a h l ā d a , Gopls (i.e. cowherdesses of V r n d ā v a n a ) and U d d h a v a . 40b-42a. T h e devotion of the middle type, O lady of splendid eyes, is t h a t of the leading sages such as Vasistha a n d others, as well as M a n u and others. In regard to other people, it is of the lowest type. R ā m a has only this middle type of devotion, though he is always devoted to the control of all sense-organs a n d wor­ ships the lord of cowherdesses. H e n c e , he has n o t realized the M a n t r a . " Vasistha said : 42b-43. " O n being told thus, t h a t hind who h a d been delighted in h e r m i n d , immediately asked h e r h u s b a n d a b o u t the characteristics of devotion t h a t yields love. The hind said : " W e l l done, my darling, O highly fortunate h u s b a n d , your words are divine. H o w did you get such perfect knowledge as this. Tell me t h a t n o w . " The slag said: 44-46. " L i s t e n , O my beloved of high fortune. Perfect knowledge is caused by meritorious deeds. T h a t m e r i t hasaccrued to me today, d u e to the vision of Bhārgava. T h i s scion of t h e family of Bhrgu is a meritorious soul. He is a devotee of K r s n a . He has conquered the sense-organs. He always serves his preceptor. He has enthusiastic eagerness in the performance of the holy rites—Nitya (daily) a n d Naimittika ( o c c a s i o n a l ) . H e n c e , on seeing h i m today, O lady of brilli­ ance I have a t t a i n e d perfect knowledge. 47-48. T h i s knowledge indicates t h e auspicious a n d inauspicious aspects of all the living beings existing in t h e three worlds. T h e story of noblesouled R ā m a became known to me only today. It yields merits u n t o those who listen. It dis­ pels their sins. W h a t e v e r R ā m a is going to do is also known to m e .


669

2.3.34.49—35.3

4 9. Even in millions and millions of years, the Kavaca will n o t be realized along w i t h its M a n t r a without the Uttamā (highest) type of devotion t h a t has been m e n t i o n e d by m e . 50-51. If this scion of the family of Bhrgu, O gentle lady, gets the blessings of Agastya, he can u n d e r s t a n d the Stotra { P r a y e r ) namedKrsna-Premāmrta which accords excellent devo­ t i o n . After u n d e r s t a n d i n g it, he will attain the spiritual result of t h e Mantra a n d the Kavaca. T h a t sage has already understood t h e real inner m e a n i n g . He is merciful a n d accords freedom from fear. He will surely instruct h i m in the knowledge of reality t h a t yields joy. 52-55. T h r o u g h t h e p r a y e r n a m e d Krsnapremāmrta in w h i c h t h e whole life-story of Śrīkrsna is told through n a m e s a n d which he will learn from this sage (i.e. Agastya) of great intellect, R ā m a can realize the Kavaca and Mantra. H a v i n g realized it, he will kill t h e ruler o f H a i h a y a along with his sons, ministers, friends, armies a n d vehicles. O beloved, he will m a k e t h e e a r t h devoid of kings twenty-one t i m e s . " Vasistha said : After saying this, O king, to t h e h i n d the stag stopped. T h e n he knew the reasons for his own status of being a stag.

CHAPTER THIRTYFIVE Paraśurāma

visits Agastya's Hermitage

Sagara said : 1-3. O sage, t h e knower of the g r e a t reality, expert in t h e m a t t e r s concerning m e d i t a t i o n a n d spiritual knowledge, m i n d s engrossed in devotion to the lord h a v e been blessed by you, because you n a r r a t e good stories, O highly fortunate o n e . R e c o u n t t o m e i n detail w h a t t h e h i n d asked h e r lord after h e a r i n g directly from t h e stag Bhārgava's entire activities


670 in the past, present a n d future Nārāyana.

Brahman (la Purāna along

with

the

story of

Vasistha said : 4. Listen, O king, I shall n a r r a t e the great story of t h e stag. T h e knower of the real principle t h a t he was, he explained to her everything asked by her. 5. After h e a r i n g the story of the noble-souled scion of the family of Bhrgu, she, out of reverence, asked her h u s b a n d once again, m a t t e r s a n d principles of perfect k n o w l e d g e . The hind said : 6. " V e r y very excellent, O highly fortunate one. U n ­ doubtedly you have realized your desires because by seeing h i m (i.e. Bhārgava) you have acquired perfect supra-sensuous knowledge. 7. Therefore, tell me everything concerning yourself a n d m e . O lord, tell me t h e reason, t h e invisible result of o u r actions w h e r e b y we have been born in the species of lower animals." 8. On h e a r i n g this speech of his beloved, t h a t stag himself n a r r a t e d in detail the life story of the h i n d a n d himself. The stag said : 9. "O my beloved of great fortune, h e a r how we a t t a i n ­ ed the status of a deer. In this world, O highly fortunate one, it is our i n n a t e disposition t h a t is the cause of our worldly existence. "TO-TĪ. It is the cause of the worldly existence of a J ī v a (living being) a n d t h a t comes into the p a t h of R e m e m b r a n c e due to the activities w h e t h e r good or b a d (done in the previous b i r t h ) . Formerly, in the land of the Dravidas, in a family of B r ā h m a n a endowed w i t h different kinds of luxurious assets, I was b o r n . T h e y belonged to the G o t r a (spiritual lineage) of K a u ś i k a . M y father was Ś i v a d a t t a b y n a m e . H e was a n expert in all sacred lores.


671

2.3.35.12-21

12-13a. F o u r of us were b o r n as his sons. We were excellent B r ā h m a n a s . T h e eldest was R ā m a , his younger b r o t h e r was D h a r m a a n d his younger b r o t h e r was P r t h u . I was b o r n as t h e fourth son, darling. I was well k n o w n as Sūri. 13b-14a. Śivadatta of great fame, performed t h e sacred t h r e a d ceremony of all in due order. He t a u g h t us all t h e Vedas along with their ancillary subjects a n d esoteric doctrines. 14b-15a. All the four of us were eagerly devoted to t h e study of the Vedas. We were absorbed in the service of t h e preceptor. We were enthusiastic in acquiring knowledge. 15b-16a. Every d a y it was our d u t y to go to t h e forest a n d fetch fruits, water, sacrificial twigs, K u ś a grass a n d clay. After fetching them, we h a n d e d them to our father a n d t h e n started our study of t h e V e d a s . 16b-17a. O n c e , all of us c a m e to a m o u n t a i n n a m e d A u d b h i d a , in the forest. It was situated on the banks of t h e river K r t a m ā l ā , O lady of tremulous eyes. 17b-18a. Early in the morning, we all took our b a t h in the great river. W i t h delighted m i n d s , we offered w a t e r libations, performed Japas ( c h a n t i n g of holy n a m e s ) a n d climbed t h e excellent m o u n t a i n . 18b-20. It was full of these trees : viz. Sālas (i.e. t h e Sal t r e e ) , Tamālas (Xanthocymus epictorius), Priyakas (Chironjia sapida), Panasas ( t h e j a c k fruit t r e e ) , K o v i d ā r a k a s (Baukinia variegatd), Saralas (pine trees) Arjunas (terminalia elatagabra), Pūgas (Areca p a l m s ) , K h a r j ū r a s ( D a t e P a l m t r e e s ) , Nārikelakas ( C o c o n u t t r e e s ) , J a m b ū s (Rose a p p l e ) , Sahakāras (A kind of m a n g o trees), K a t p h a l a s * Brhatī trees (a medicinal tree) a n d m a n y other trees of various kinds, trees t h a t gave everything to others, t h a t h a d cool shades a n d t h a t echoed w i t h the chirping sounds of different kinds of jovial b i r d s . 2 1 . T h e m o u n t a i n was frequently resorted to by tigers, lions, bears, rhinoceroses, musk-deer, very big elephants, t h e * N a m e of p.

a tree with aromatic

2 4 4 called 'kāyphal' in Marathi.

bark

and medicinal

seeds—MW


672 fabulous eight-footed their dens.

Brahmāntfa Purāna animals, Ś a r a b h a a n d others lurking in

22. It h a d m a n y flowering plants such as Mallikā (jas­ m i n e ) , Pātalā ( t h e trumpet flower), Kunda (another variety of j a s m i n e ) , Karnikāras, Kadambakas (Nataclea c a d a m b a ) a n d other flowers—all sweet-scented having their pollen-powder scattered everywhere by the wind. 23. T h e m o u n t a i n a p p e a r e d to be scraping the sky out of curiosity, by means of its peaks, blue, yellow, white a n d red in colour, on account of the various gems a n d jewels scattered there. 24. It was as it were roaring w i t h the loud r u m b l i n g sounds of its springs a n d rivulets which, coming out of their hollow crevices, fell down from very great heights. It was infested with various animals such as tiger etc. 25. T h e r e , our eyes were a t t r a c t e d by diverse curious scenes a n d we the brothers did n o t r e m e m b e r even ourselves. We got separated from one a n o t h e r . 26. In the m e a n t i m e , O darling, a thirsty hind came there, desirous of drinking w a t e r at the top of the water­ fall. 27. Even as she was drinking water, an extremely terrible tiger c a m e there by chance a n d seized t h a t frightened hind. 28. Seeing the seizure of t h a t h i n d , I b e c a m e frightened a n d I fled. T h e place being rugged a n d steep I fell down a n d died r e m e m b e r i n g the h i n d ( a t the time of d e a t h ) . 29. T h a t h i n d too died a n d was b o r n again* as you, O darling. R e m e m b e r i n g you, I was reborn as a stag. I do not know where my elder brothers have gone. 30. T h i s story concerning you a n d myself has come to my memory. Listen, O gentle lady, I shall tell you the past a n d t h e future. 3 1 . T h e h u n t e r w h o pursued us so closely b u t kept back far away being afraid of R ā m a , has now been devoured by a lion. 32-33. H a v i n g given up his life, he will go to heaven, d u e to his act of refraining from killing us. W a t e r has been drunk by us b o t h here in the middle Puskara. T h i s scion of the family


2.3.35.34-44

673

of Bhrgu, w h o has directly assumed the form of Visnu, has been seen by us. Therefore, the sin committed in m a n y births has b e e n destroyed. 34. We shall see Agastya a n d h e a r prayer t h a t yields our goal. H e n c e , we shall go to those auspicious worlds after r e a c h i n g which one will never bewail (i.e. one is free from sorrows a n d miseries). 35. After saying this to his beloved h i n d t h a t stag of pleasing a p p e a r a n c e , stopped talking. Looking at R ā m a without a n y a g i t a t i o n , he b e c a m e delighted in his m i n d . 36-37. In the c o m p a n y of his disciple, Bhārgava h e a r d w h a t was being recounted by the stag. He b e c a m e surprised, O leading king. He decided in his mind to go to the h e r m i t a g e of Agastya, a c c o m p a n i e d by Akrtavrana. Being m u c h delighted he started immediately after taking b a t h a n d performing th e daily r o u n d of routine duties. 38. While going along his p a t h , the h u n t e r was seen lying dead at the attack of the lion, by the noble-souled R ā m a w h o was surprised. 39. After going m o r e t h a n half a Yojana (1 y o j a n a = 1 2 K m . ) towards t h e lower Puskara, h e took b a t h a n d per­ formed the m i d d a y S a n d h y ā rites with great joy. 40. Even as he was pondering over w h a t was conducive to his own welfare as mentioned by the stag, the p a i r of deer too c a m e closely behind him. 4 1 . D r i n k i n g water at the P u s k a r a lake a n d sprinkling w a t e r over their bodies, the stag a n d the h i n d c a m e in front of the h e r m i t a g e of Agastya even as R ā m a was glancing at them •with surprise. 42. Seeing Puskara involved in b a d c o n d i t i o n ( ? ) the lofty-minded R ā m a concluded his S a n d h y ā rites a n d proceeded t o w a r d Agastya's h e r m i t a g e . 43-44. After going (to the holy spots such as) V i s n u ' s steps, the K u n d a (sacrificial p i t ) of t h e N ā g a s (serpents, ele­ phants) established by the seven sages (?), he performed A c a m a n a rite w i t h its p u r e waters a n d went to Agastya's abode •where, O king, the Sarasvati (? r i v e r ) , the d a u g h t e r of B r a h m a


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came in order to fill t h e three K u n d a s for t h e performance of Agnihotra by god B r a h m a . 45. T h e r e , on its banks, Bhārgava saw t h e wonderfully auspicious a n d meritorious hermitage of Agastya resorted to by m a n y sages. 46-48. It was resorted to by deer a n d lions coming together with calm m i n d s (forgetting their m u t u a l i n n a t e e n m i t y ) . T h e following trees abounded there viz. K u t a j a (wrightia a n t i d y s e n t e r i c a ) , Arjuna (terminalia A r j u n a ) , N i m b a (Margosa), Paribhadra (pine tree), Dhava (grisleaTomentosa) Inguda (Terminalia (atapha) Khadira (Acacia Catbhu), Asana (? T e r m i n a l i a T o m e n t o s a ) K h a r j ū r a ( D a t e palms) a n d Badarl (jijube). \Accompanied by Akrtavrana, R ā m a entered the hermitage a n d saw the tranquil-minded sage Agastya seated there. He was meditating on the eternal B r a h m a n ( a n d looked) like a lake with the water still a n d devoid of ripples. 49-50. In a hut m a d e of tender leaves a n d sprouts, he was seated on a silken Brsi ( t h e particular seat of a sage) and. was wearing a deer-skin. U t t e r i n g his n a m e , O great king he bowed down to h i m — "I am R ā m a , son of J a m a d a g n i . I have come here to see your holiness. Be pleased to know it by means of my o b e i s a n c e — obeisance u n t o you, O sanctifier of w o r l d s " . 5 1 . W h e n R ā m a said this, he opened his eyes slowly a n d looked at R ā m a . U t t e r i n g words of welcome, he requested him to take seat. 52. He caused Madhuparka (material of hospitable r e c e p ­ tion) to be brought t h r o u g h a disciple. T h e leading sage offered it to R ā m a a n d enquired of him t h e happiness in his family as well as the excellence of his p e n a n c e . 53-55. On being asked by h i m , R ā m a said to A g a s t y a — "O holy lord, I am h a p p y in every respect, d u e to the plea­ sure of seeing you. But I have a small d o u b t which please clarify t h r o u g h your nectar-like sweet words. A stag was seen, by m e , O holy lord, in the middle Puskara lake. Everything concerning me b o t h past a n d future, was n a r r a t e d by h i m . I was. surprised on hearing it. H e n c e I have sought refuge in y o u .


675

2.3.35.56—36.4

56-57. Protect me mercifully, O holy lord. I am p r a c ­ tising the g r e a t M a n t r a t a u g h t by Śiva. T h e Kavaca of K r s n a too was granted by Śiva a n d I have been practising it. M o r e t h a n a h u n d r e d years have elapsed. But I have not attained t h e spiritual result thereof. Kindly m e n t i o n ( t h e reason t h e r e o f ) " . Vasistha said : 58-59. On h e a r i n g this question of t h e noble-souled R ā m a , the sage m e d i t a t e d for a m o m e n t , O g r e a t king, a n d mentally understood w h a t the stag h a d said. H e understood t h a t t h e stag h a d come to his hermitage along w i t h t h e h i n d in order .to h e a r the prayer • " K r s n ā m r t a " . T h e sage pondered over the reason thereof a n d consoled Bhārgava by means of nectar-like words.

CHAPTER

THIRTYSIX

Agastya recites the Hymn Krsnāmrta Vasistha said : 1. After comprehending t h e entire reason thereof, t h e pot-born sage Agastya b e c a m e delighted in his m i n d a n d said to R ā m a , the scion of the family of B h r g u . Agastya said : 2. Listen, O R ā m a of great fortune, I shall tell you w h a t is conducive to your welfare, whereby you will a t t a i n , ere long, the spiritual a t t a i n m e n t a n d assimilation of t h e M a n t r a . 3. If a person knows the characteristic features of devo­ tion t h a t is of three types, O highly intelligent one, a n d strivesfor it, he will realize it quickly. 4. O n c e , w i t h a desire to see A n a n t a , I h a d been to t h e Netherworlds, rendered splendid with g r e a t j o y by the l e a d i n g royal serpents.


Brahmānda Purāna

€76

5-7a. T h e r e , O B r ā h m a n a of great fortune, g r e a t m e n of s p i r i t u a l achievement were seen by me all r o u n d viz. S a n a k a a n d others, N ā r a d a , G a u t a m a , Jājali, K r a t u , R b h u , Harhsa, A r u n i , Vālmīki, Śakti a n d Asuri. These a n d m a n y other great Siddhas beginning w i t h V a t s y ā y a n a 1 were sitting n e a r the lord of serpents a n d worshipped h i m for the sake of knowledge. 7b-10. O B r ā h m a n a of great forune, this our goddess of e a r t h w h o bears all living beings was seated in front of h i m assuming her own form (of a goddess), listening continuously to those stories. W h a t e v e r the goddess of e a r t h asked Śesa, t h e direct support of t h e E a r t h , the sages sitting there could hear, d u e to his blessings. T h e auspicious h y m n Krsnapremāmria was h e a r d by me t h e r e , O d e a r one. 11-12. I shall e x p o u n d to you t h a t h y m n of prayer for the sake of which you have come h e r e . T h e goddess of E a r t h h a d already finished h e a r i n g the i n c a r n a t i o n of t h e b o a r etc., the story t h a t destroys sins, t h a t accords pleasure a n d salvation a n d t h a t is the cause of know­ ledge a n d perfect wisdom. After h e a r i n g everything, O dear one, the goddess of E a r t h b o w e d d o w n once again to D h a r ā d h a r a (i.e. Śesa, the support of t h e E a r t h ) w i t h delight a n d spoke to h i m in order to know t h e activities of K r s n a . Dharani said: 13-15. L o r d K r s n a h a d embellished t h e b i r t h (life) of a l l m e n w h o h a d their abodes in the Vraja (Cowherds' Colony) belonging t o N a n d a . H e h a d assumed the physical b o d y sportingly. H e has m a n y n a m e s caused a n d conditioned b y his (various) conquests ( a p p e n d e d with the word 'victory t o ' ) . I h a v e been desirous of h e a r i n g the most i m p o r t a n t n a m e s a m o n g t h e m for a long time. H e n c e O Vāsuki ( ? Sesa) m e n t i o n those n a m e s of the son of V a s u d e v a . T h e r e is n o t h i n g m o r e m e r i ­ torious t h a n this, in the, t h r e e worlds.

1.

This Vātsyāyana

Kāma-sūtras.

is p r o b a b l y different from

the author

of the


2.3.36.16-24

677

Śesa said : 16-17a. O goddess E a r t h of great b e a u t y , there is (a p r a y e r composed of h u n d r e d a n d eight n a m e s . It bestowssalvation u p o n the people. It is at the a c m e of all auspicious things. It confers eight-fold spiritual a t t a i n m e n t s b e g i n n i n g with Animā ( m i n u t e n e s s ) . 17b-l8. It destroys millions a n d millions of great sins. It endows t h e listener with t h e merits accruing from all holy centres. It accords t h e fruits of all Japas a n d Yajñas. It is destructive of all sins. Listen O gentle lady, I shall recount it. 19. By a simple repetition, a single n a m e of K r s n a yields t h a t fruit which is yielded by repeating three times the thousand holy n a m e s . 20. H e n c e , this prayer is more meritorious and destructive of sins. O beloved lady, I myself am the seer for these one h u n d r e d and eight names. T h e metre is Anus tup (eight-syllabled one) and the deity is Yoga that is a favourite of K r s n a . 1

The Prayer: 21-24. (1) Śrīkrsna, ( 2 ) Kamalānātha (Lord of t h e goddess of f o r t u n e ) , ( 3 ) Vāsudeva (son of V a s u d e v a ) , ( 4 ) Sanātana ( T h e E t e r n a l o n e ) , ( 5 ) Vasudevātmaja (Vasudeva'ss o n ) , (6) Punya (the meritorious o n e ) , (7) Lilā-Mānusa-Vigraha (one who has assumed h u m a n body out of the sportive s p i r i t ) , ( 8 ) Śrivatsa-Kaustubha-Dhara (one who has the m a r k called Śrivatsa a n d one who wears the gem K a u s t u b h a ) , (9) YaśodāVatsala ( t h e darling child of Y a ś o d ā ) , (10) H a r i , (11) Caturbhujātta-Cakrāsigadā-śañkhadyāyudha (one who has taken up discus, sword, m a c e , conch a n d other weapons lifted up in his four h a n d s ) , (12) Devakinandana ( t h e delighter of D e v a k ī ) , (\3)Śri§a (the consort of Ś r i ) , (14) Nanda-gopa-Priyātmaja. 1.

T h e ensuing prayer mainly contains references to incidents in the

life of K r s n a as described in the'tenth Skandha of the Bh. P. w i t h a sprinkling of some V e d ā n t i c terms to indicate the identity of K r s n a w i t h Para-Brahman and Visnu. T h u s Mantrajapo, Kavaca and stotra c o n c l u d e the worship.

Tantric w a y of K r s n a


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( t h e beloved son of the cowherd N a n d a ) , (15) TammāVegasamhārin (one who has curbed t h e c u r r e n t of the Y a m u n a ) , (16) Balabhadrapriyānuja (the loving younger b r o t h e r of B a l a b h a d r a ) , (17) Pūtanā-jlva-hara (one w h o has taken away the life of P ū t a n ā ) , ( 1 8 ) Śakatāsurabhañjana (one who shattered t h e demon w h o assumed the form of a c a r t ) . 25. (19) Nandavraja-Janānandin ( o n e w h o delights the people in the cowherds' colony belonging to N a n d a ) , . (20) Saccidānanda-Vigraha (one whose person is constituted of ex­ istence, knowledge a n d bliss), (21) Navanitaviliptāńga (one who has smeared all his limbs with b u t t e r ) , (22) Nauanitanata (one w h o dances for the sake of b u t t e r ) , (23) Anagha (sinless). 26. ( 2 4 ) Navanitalavahārin ( o n e w h o takes in a bit of b u t t e r ) , (25) Mucukunda-Prasādakrt (one who conferred grace on M u c u k u n d a ) , (26) Sidaśa-strisahasreśa (Lord of sixteen thousand ladies), (27) Tribhańgi (one w h o has assumed tribhańga pose), (28) Madhurākrti (one whose form or features are sweet). 27. ( 2 9 ) Śukavāgamrtābdhindu ( o n e w h o is the moon arising from the ocean of n e c t a r in the form of Śuka's speech i.e. theBhāgavala Purāna), (30) Govinda, (31) Govidāmpati (Lord of those who know Gau (cow or speech), (32) Vatsapālanasañcārin (one w h o moves a b o u t protecting calves), (33) Dhenukāsuramardana (one who suppressed the d e m o n D h e n u k a ) . 28. ( 3 4 ) Trnlkrtatrnāvarta (one who rendered demon T r n ā v a r t a as powerless and despicable as a blade of grass); (35) Yamalārjunabhañjana (one who uprooted the twin Arjuna trees; (361 Uttālatālabhettr ( o n e who broke the tall p a l m y r a t r e e ) , (37) Tamālaśyāmalākrti ( o n e whose figure or complexion is as d a r k as t h e T a m ā l a t r e e ) . 29. (38) Gopagopiśvara (Lord of the Cowherds and Cowherdesses), (39) Yogin, ( 4 0 ) Sūryakotisamaprabha (one having t h e lustre equal to t h a t o f t e n million suns), (41) Ilāpati (Lord of the E a r t h ) , (42) Pararhjyotih (the supreme s p l e n d o u r ) , (43) Yādavendra ( L o r d of t h e Y ā d a v a s ) , (44) Yadūdvaha (Leading scion of the family of Y a d u ) . 30. (45) flowers), (46)

Vanamālin (one having garlands- of sylvan Pitavāsas ( y e l l o w - r o b e d ) , ( 4 7 ) Pārijātāpahāraka


2.3.36.31-36

679

{one w h o b r o u g h t away t h e divine Pārijāta tree) (48) Govar•dhanācaloddhārtr (one w h o has lifted up the m o u n t a i n Govard h a n a ) , (49) Gopāla, (Protector of the cows), (50) Sarvapālaka (Protector of everyone a n d everything). 3 1 . (51) Aja (The u n b o r n ) , ( 5 2 ) Nirañjana the unsullied) (53) Kāmajanaka (father of c u p i d ) i.e. P r a d y u m n a , . (54) Kañjalocana (the lotus-eyed), (55) M a d h u h a n (the slayer of d e m o n M a d h u ) , (56) Mathurānātha (The lord of M a t h u r ā ) , (57) Dvārakānātha ( t h e lord of D v ā r a k ā ) , (58) Balin (the powerful). 32. (59) Vrndāvanāntasañcārin (one who moves a b o u t at t h e outskirts of V r n d ā v a n a ) , (60) Tulasidāmabhūsana (one w h o is bedecked in Tulasī garlands) (61) Syamantakamaner-hartr (one w h o has taken away the S y a m a n t a k a jewel), (62) Naranārāyanātmaka (one who is identical with N a r a and N ā r ā y a n a ) . 33. ( 6 3 ) Kubjākrstāmbaradhara (one who was a t t r a c t e d by t h e h u n c h b a c k e d lady a n d one who wore the g a r m e n t s (brought by h e r ) , (64) Māyin (one who wields the power of illusion), (65) Paramapurusa ( T h e supreme p e r s o n ) , (66) Mustikāsura-Cānūra-Mallayuddha-viśārada (one w h o was an expert in the wrestling b o u t with the demon Mustika a n d C ā n ū r a ) . 34. (67) Sarhsāravairin (one who puts an end to the worldly existence), (68) Kamsāri ( t h e enemy of K a r h s a ) , (69) Murāri (the enemy of M u r a ) , (70) Narakāntaka ( t h e slayer of d e m o n N a r a k a ) , ( 7 1 ) Anādibrahmacārin (one who is an eternal celibate or a religious student) (72) Krsnāvyasanakarsaka (one w h o dispelled the distresses of K r s n ā i.e. D r a u p a d ī ) . 35. ( 7 3 ) Śiśupāla-śiracchettr (one who cut off t h e h e a d of Ś i ś u p ā l a ) , ( 7 4 ) Duryodhanakulāntakrt (one who p u t an end to t h e family of D u r y o d h a n a ) , (75) Vidūrākrūravarada (one who bestowed boons on V i d u r a and Akrūra) (76) Viśvarūpapradarśaka (one w h o revealed his cosmic form). 36. (77) Satyavāk (of truthful s p e e c h ) , (78) Satyasamkalpa (of truthful will), (79) Satyabhāmārata ( o n e who is devoted to S a t y a b h ā m ā ) , ( 8 0 ) Jayin (victorious), (81) Subhadrā Pūrvaja ( E l d e r b r o t h e r of S u b h a d r ā ) (82) Visnu (All-pervading)


Brahmānia

680 (83)

Bhismamuktipradāyaka

(one

Purāna

who bestowed salvation

oa

Bhīsma). 37. (84) Jagadguru (the preceptor of the universe), (85) Jagannitha (the lord of the universe), (86) Venuvādyaviśārada (one who is an expert in playing on the flute-pipe), (87) Vrsabhāsuravidhvarhsin ( o n e who destroyed the d e m o n V r s a b h a in the form of a bull, ( 8 8 ) Bakāri ( o n e who is t h e killer of the demon B a k a ) , (89) Bānabāhukrt (one who cut off the a r m s of Bāna). 38. (90) Yudhisthirapratisthātr ( o n e who established Yudhisthira ( o n the t h r o n e ) , (91) Barhibarhāvatarhsaka ( o n e who adorned himself with peacock feathers), (92) Pārthasārathi ( t h e charioteer of A r j u n a ) , 93) Avyakta T h e unmanifest o n e ) , ( 9 4 ) Gitāmrtamahodadhi ( T h e ocean of t h e n e c t a r of G ī t ā — t h e song celestial. 39. (95) Kāliya-phanimānikyarañjita-Śripadāmbuja (one whose glorious lotus-like feet were brightened a n d coloured by the M ā n i k y a ( r u b y ) stone on the head of) the serpent Kāliya, ( 9 6 ) D ā m o d a r a (one who h a d been tied with a rope round his b e l l y ) , (97) Tajñabhoktr (one who partakes of his share in the Y a j ñ a ) , (98) Dānavendravināśana ( T h e destroyer of leading D ā n a v a s ) . 40. ( 9 9 ) N ā r ā y a n a , (100) Par am Brahman (the supreme B r a h m a n ) (101) Pannagāśanavāhana (one whose vehicle is G a r u d a , the devourer of serpents), (102) JalakriglāsamāsaktaGopuastrāpahāraka (one who removed the garments of the cowherdesses who were enthusiastically engaged in a q u a t i c sports). 4 1 . (103) PunyaHoka ( o n e whose renown is meritorious), (104) Tirthapāda (one whose foot is itself a holy spot), ( 1 0 5 ) Vedavedya (one who can be c o m p r e h e n d e d t h r o u g h the Vedas), (106) Dayānidhi (Storehouse of m e r c y ) , (107) Sarvatirthātmaka (one w h o is identical with all holy spots), ( 1 0 8 ) Sanagraharūpin ( o n e who has the forms of all p l a n e t s ) , one who is greater t h a n the greatest. 42-43. T h u s is the p r a y e r of one h u n d r e d a n d eigKt names of Lord K r s n a . This prayer which delights K r s n a h a d been composed by K r s n a ( D v a i p ā y a n a Vyāsa) who was a


681

2.3.36.44-52

devotee of Lord K r s n a after hearing t h e nectar of the Gitā formerly. This has been heard by me from h i m . Its n a m e is Krsnapremāmrta. It bestows t h e greatest bliss. 1 44-45. It destroys the misery of t h e greatest h a r a s s m e n t . It enhances the greatest longevity. W h a t e v e r one does in this b i r t h such as charitable gifts, holy rites, p e n a n c e , pilgrimage to holy centres etc. shall be fruitful millions a n d millions of times, if one reads a n d listens to this. T h i s grants sons to those w h o have no sons. It bestows the correct goal to those w h o are helpless. 46. It brings wealth to the p o o r people. It brings victory to those w h o are desirous of victory. It increases the m e r i t a n d bestows nourishment of children and herds of cattle. 47. It suppresses infantile ailments a n d evil planets or spirits etc. It causes calmness. In the end, it bestows t h e m e m o r y of K t s n a . It dispels the three types of distresses in the worldly existence. 48-.ī0. It achieves what has not been achieved, O gentle- lady. It provides m a t e r i a l for J a p a for o u r souls 2 [ M a n t r a ] -'Obeisance to K r s n a , the leader of the Yādavas, to the Yogin whose M u d r ā (gesture of esoteric significance) is perfect knowledge, to t h e lord. Obeisance to the Lord of Rukminī. Obeisance to one who understands V c d ā n t a . " O n e should repeat this M a n t r a , O gentle lady, day a n d night. He shall have t h e blessings of all p l a n e t s ; he shall be a favourite u n t o all. He shall be surrounded by sons a n d g r a n d ­ sons. He shall be prosperous with all achievements. After enjoying all worldly pleasures, he shall a t t a i n the Sāyujya ( M e r g i n g with t h e Lord) w i t h K r s n a . " Agastya said: 51-52. form of t h e

"After saying this m u c h , lord A n a n t a who is t h a t lord (Visnu) n a m e d Sarhkarsana, w h o s u p p o r t s

1.

V V . 44-47

give

the

benefits

accruing

from

the recitation of this

2.

V V . 48-50 state another Krsna mantra a n d its phalaśruti

stotra. accruing from i t ) .

(benefits,


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t h e E a r t h a n d t h e worlds, a n d who is the bestower of honour, pointed o u t this p r a y e r once again a n d stopped. T h e n all those who h a d been eager to listen to the tales a n d who were seated all r o u n d h i m viz. S a n a k a a n d others b e c a m e immersed in t h e ocean filled with delight. T h e y h o n o u r e d t h a t lord of Serpents. "The Sages said : 53. " O b e i s a n c e , obeisance to you t h e sanctifier of the e n t i r e universe. O lord of the n a t u r e of no c h a n g e and loss, O dispeller of distress of t h e devotee who resorts to you, Obeisance to t h e supporter of the E a r t h , to t h e ocean of mercy. Obeisance to Śesa t h e lord of the universe. 54. O lord, we have been m a d e to imbibe K r s n ā m r t a by you. We have been m a d e rid of all sins by you. People like you, O lord, are sympathetic w i t h the wretched ones. U n d o u b t ­ edly, you uplift your own people who bow down to y o u . " 55. After bowing down to t h e feet of the lord of Serpents, after directing the m i n d to the feet t h a t fulfil all our desires and after c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g t h e supporter of the E a r t h , all of us went to o u r respective residences. 56. T h u s , O R ā m a , the prayer n a m e d Premārnrta of lord K r s n a , t h e perfect one, t h e lover of R ā d h ā , has been r e c o u n t e d to you. It bestows all achievements u p o n t h e listener. 57. This extremely rare prayer has been h e a r d directly from lord Śesa who was recounting t h e tales of the lord, O R ā m a of great fortune. 58-61. All t h e M a n t r a s , prayers a n d kavacas t h a t are in t h e three worlds can be realized a n d assimilated by practising this." Vasistha said : "After saying this, O great king, after recounting the p r a y e r Krfna-Premāmrta -no sooner d i d the sage cease to speak t h a n an aerial chariot c a m e there. It was followed by four wonderful Siddhas w h o could assume a n y form they desired a n d w h o h a d t h e speed of the m i n d . T h e male a n d t h e female


683

2.3.37.1-6

d e e r bowed d o w n to the feet of Agastya, galloped a n d joyously climbed the chariot. Even as all the living beings, Agastya a n d Bhārgava were, w a t c h i n g , they assumed divine bodies m a r k e d w i t h conchshell, discus etc. T h e y then went to t h e world of Visnu bowed down to by all t h e Devas.

CHAPTER THIRTYSEVEN The Narrative

of Bhārgava ParaSurāma

Vasistha said: 1. On seeing t h a t extremely wonderful miracle, Paraśur ā m a n a r r a t e d everything concerning those two deer exactly as'he h a d h e a r d it. 2. On hearing it, t h e pot-born sage Agastya w h o was t h e L o r d himself, joyously spoke to Bhārgava w h o was sitting in front of h i m . Agastya said: 3. " L i s t e n , O highly fortunate R ā m a who are expert in discriminating between w h a t has to be done a n d w h a t should not be d o n e . I am going to tell you now w h a t is conducive to y o u r welfare. Do it with concentration and m e n t a l purity. 4. F a r from this place there is a great and very rare holy centre of Visnu. It is t h a t place where could be seen the footsteps i m p r i n t e d by the great noble-souled Visnu. 5. At t h e time of subduing a n d b i n d i n g down of Bali, the noble-souled V ā m a n a covered the worlds by means of his steps. It was from the tip of one of these toes t h a t G a ń g ā began to flow. 6. Go there a n d recite this prayer for a m o n t h regu­ larly without thinking a b o u t anything else. H a v e perfect control over your sense-organs a n d be restricted in y o u r diet.


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Brahmānda Purāna

7. T h e Kavaca (mystical protective formula or mantra} t h a t had been practised by you formerly with a desire for its full accomplishment thereof in order to kill the enemies,, will yield the benefit to y o u . " Vasistha said : 8. " O n being told thus by Agastya, R ā m a , t h e destroyer of his enemies, bowed down to the quiescent sage a n d went out of the hermitage. 9. Again along t h a t self-same route, O king, R ā m a quickly reached t h a t spot where the celestial river h a d come out from the last foot-step of Visnu. 10. T h e r e this sage built his abode in the c o m p a n y of Akrtavrana a n d began to practice the divine prayer called Krsnapremāmrla (nectar in the form of Kxsna's love). 11. He practised the recitation of t h a t prayer of the lord of the Vraja viz. K r s n a , every day. H a r i became pleased, O king, a n d revealed himself to the view of the son of Jamadagni. 12-13. Śrīkrsna, t h e direct lord of the four Vyūhas (i.e. manifestations such as Sarhkarsana, P r a d y u m n a , A n i r u d d h a ) , the lotus-eyed one, shining brilliantly with his crown having the refulgence of t h e sun a n d the two ear-rings. His chest was brightened with the lustre of the jewel K a u s t u b h a . He wore yellow robes. His complexion was like t h a t of the cloud. He was engaged in playing on his flute. He had a fascinating form. 14. On seeing t h e Lord, t h e son of J a m a d a g n i gleefully got up at o n c e : he prostrated himself on the ground like a staff a n d then eulogised the ford with perfect control ( o n his senseorgans) . Paraśurāma said : 15. " O b e i s a n c e , obeisance to one whose body is t h e cause of the universe; to one who protects those who resort to h i m ; w h o dispels the distress of gods and is eulogised by gods t h e chief of w h o m were B r a h m a ī ś a , Visnu, I n d r a a n d o t h e r s . I bow d o w n constantly to the supreme Lord.


2.3.37.16-23

685

16. 1 śāna a n d others have been incompetent to specify y o u r n a t u r e through the Vedic arguments of diverse kinds. You a r e the u n b o r n lord who cannot be pointed out a n d specified. I worship you the ancient, infinite Lord. Be merciful u n t o m e . 17. You are the only Lord who bestow w h a t one desires. Y o u assume different kinds of bodies among the Devas, h u m a n beings, lower animals a n d the aquatic beings in order to pre­ vent inordinate b u r d e n u n t o the Earth a n d to sport a b o u t to protect the worlds. 18. I worship you who love devout people, who are extremely u n a t t a c h e d even to the Goddess of W e a l t h (Laksmī) and others a n d whose heart is bound in love even with those ladies (? the Cowherdesses) whose minds are defiled by the defect of infidelity a n d transgression in your own presence. 19. O lord, the delighted Asuras, Suras, h u m a n beings a l o n g with the K i n n a r a s , the lower animals a n d even Ayonis (those not born of a womb) have shed off' their sense of posses­ sion as " m y - n e s s " with regard to their bodies, wives, children a n d properties and everything and have resorted to your person. 20. I have attained with respect, that lord of the Devas w h o grants whatever is desired by those who worship him, who is devoid of desire, a n d (being transcendental) is bereft of G u n a s ( t h e three attributes of P r a k r t i ) , is inconceivable, unmanifest, annihilator of sins and a store-house of love. 2 1 . Some people subject their bodies to different kinds of tortures (i.e. austerities); others worship by means of various Yajñas. But, O lord, those whose inclinations and desires are bound up with worldly affairs never see your super-natural form even in their dreams. 22-23. Those who have become disgusted and dejected d u e to the tedium a n d exhaustion of worldly existence, and therefore duly remember your feet, those who devoutly worship and bow down to them, those who describe them to one a n o t h e r in the assembly, those whose minds are intent a n d eager to dispel the (accumulated) dirt t h a t is the outcome of m a n y births and those who are mentally attached to your lotus-like feet cross the ocean of worldly existence a n d enable


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Brahmānda Purāna

others also to cross it. Indeed, O lord, your n a m e is an a n t i d o t e against worldly existence. It is n e c t a r itself. 24. I a m , O lord, one whose m i n d is b o u n d with love a n d desire. I have been propitiating you, t h e noble one, by means of various efforts. O lord, you are aware of it. W h a t is there in the world which should be specifically mentioned to you ? Vasistha said : 25. " W h e n the son of J a m a d a g n i eulogised like this a n d bowed down to him in front of him, lord K r s n a spoke in a deep voice as though he was fascinating every one by m e a n s of his M ā y ā . " Krsna said : 26. O R ā m a of great fortune, your excellent work has been achieved. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t it is d u e to t h e power of t h e Kavaca (Protective h y m n ) a n d the eulogy. 27. After killing K ā r t t a v ī r y a , the haughty-minded king, a n d after avenging your father, make the E a r t h devoid of Ksatriyas. 28. I n d e e d , K ā r t t a v ī r y a is the incarnation of my discus, on the surface of the E a r t h . He has finished his assigned task, 0 excellent B r ā h m a n a . Finish him, O bestower of honour. 29. F r o m now onwards you will be moving about in this world charged with a part of mine energy. You will do a n d u n d o everything at the p r o p e r time. You yourself will be t h e lord. 30. In the twenty-fourth set of four Yugas, in the T r e t ā Yuga, O dear one, I shall be born in the family of R a g h u u n d e r the n a m e R ā m a . I the eternal lord with four Vyūhas (manifestations e.g. S a m k a r s a n a e t c . ) , shall be born ( a l o n g with t h e three o t h e r s ) . 31-33a. I shall be b o r n of king D a ś a r a t h a as the delighter of queen Kausalyā. At t h a t time, O sage of great fortune 1 will be going to the great city of J a n a k a alongwith L a k s m a n a , after getting the Yajña of Kauśika (Viśvāmitra) concluded. I will be breaking t h e bow of Iśa (god Śiva) a n d marry­ ing the daughter'of the king of V i d e h a (i.e. J a n a k a ) .


687

2.3.37.33—38.8

T h e n , while going back to Ayodhyā, I will take away your p r o u d brilliance a n d splendour. Vasistha said : 33b. After instructing thus the son of J a m a d a g n i , t h e veritable store of penance, Lord K r s n a vanished even as the noble-souled R ā m a was w a t c h i n g . "

CHAPTER THIRTYEIGHT The Narrative of Bhārgava

(continued)

Vasistha said : 1. " W h e n K r s n a vanished, R ā m a of very great fame considered himself e n h a n c e d in power, due to K r s n a ' s majestic lustre. 2. Blazing like a well-kindled fire, ( R ā m a ) the scion of the family of Bhrgu a c c o m p a n i e d by Akrtavrana, c a m e to the city of M ā h i s m a t ī . 1 3. It is the place where the sacred N a r m a d ā , the dispeller of sins, the most excellent a m o n g t h e rivers, sanctifies by means of its m e r e vision even the sinful living beings. 4. It is the place where formerly, O ruler of the E a r t h e n d e a v o u r was m a d e for the destruction of t h e T r i p u r a s b y the noble-souled H a r a w h o entered it. 5-8a. H o w c a n the merit of m e n thereof, the form of the Devas, be a d e q u a t e l y described ?

who h a d

After seeing N a r m a d ā , O king, Bhārgava, t h e delighter of his family, became highly pleased. Eager to c o n t a i n his enemies, he m a d e his obeisance. 1. M ā h i s m a t ī — m o d . M a h e ś v a r a or N a r m a d ā , 40 miles to the south of Indore.

Mahesh,

on

the right bank o f


688

Brahmānda Purāna

" O b e i s a n c e be to you, O N a r m a d ā , b o r n of the body of H a r a . Destroy my enemies quickly. O splendid one, be a bestower of boon on m e . " After offering obeisance thus to N a r m a d ā , the destroyer of sins, he despatched a messenger to Kārttavīryārjuna. 8b-12a. "O sinless messenger, what I am going to tell you should be conveyed to the king by you. No suspicion need be entertained by you. Nowhere is a messenger b o u n d . " W h a t is your strength or a r m y d e p e n d i n g on which O deluded king, you have insulted sage J a m a d a g n i ? His son has come to fight, O dull-witted one, come out quickly a n d fight R ā m a in r e t u r n . Coming into clash with Bhārgava, go speedily to the other w o r l d . " "After conveying this message to the king, listen to his words in reply. R e t u r n soon. Welfare u n t o you. No delay is advisable in this m a t t e r . " 12b-14a. On being told thus by him, the messenger went to the king of H a i h a y a s a n d conveyed to h i m in the assembly everything m e n t i o n e d by R ā m a . T h a t king of great strength a n d exploit, a devotee of Atreya ( D a t t a ) b e c a m e angry o n hearing t h a t s t a t e m e n t . H e conveyed his reply to the messenger. Kārtt avirya replied : Ī4b-16. " I t was by the prowess of my a r m s , g r a n t e d b y D a t t a , t h a t t h e E a r t h was conquered b y m e after binding t h e kings by force a n d bringing them to my city. T h a t prowess m a y still be in m e . I shall fight you n o w . " After saying this, t h e king of H a i h a y a s dismissed the messenger immediately. T h e king, the most excellent a m o n g t h e eloquent speakers, called the commander-in-chief a n d said : 17. " G e t my a r m y , O highly fortunate one, h o n o u r e d by heroes. I will fight with R ā m a of the family of Bhrgu. Let there b e h o d e l a y " . 18. n On being told thus, the commander-in-chief, of great exploits, got the a r m y consisting of four constituents ready a n d informed h i m . 19. On hearing t h a t the a r m y was ready, O lord of the subjects, king K ā r t t a v ī r y a joyously climbed on to his chariot b r o u g h t by his charioteer.


689

2.3.38.20-30

20. All r o u n d t h a t king, his vassals a n d t h e rulers of t h e various zones stationed themselves along with m a n y Aksauhinis (big divisions of armies consisting of all t h e four sections viz. foot-soldiers, horses, elephants a n d chariots) a n d were ready to serve h i m . 2 1 . In t h a t a r m y resembling an ocean, t h e r e were crores •of elephants, horses, chariots a n d foot-soldiers. T h e y were innumerable. 22-27a. Kings b o r n of different families, were seen there. T h e y were g r e a t warriors of huge bodies. T h e y were experts in different kinds of warfares. T h e y were clever in wielding differ­ e n t kinds of weapons a n d missiles. T h e kings were seated on various kinds of vehicles. T h e i n n u m e r a b l e elephants were in their rut embellished w i t h ichor. T h e y were equipped with various o r n a m e n t s . T h e y were directed by the conductors of elephants. T h u s shone t h e -elephants in m a n y ways. Horses t h a t h a d b e e n b o r n o f different breeds, t h a t h a d t h e speed of t h e wind a n d t h a t h a d been well-trained by t h e horsemen, O king, a p p e a r very splendid galloping a b o u t . T h e chariots were pretty long ones w i t h swift horses yoked to t h e m . As t h e i r wheels r u m b l e , they were c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e clouds in the rainy season. T h e foot-soldiers holding swords and shields, O king, s h o n e as they vied with one a n o t h e r saying "I shall go a h e a d first, I shall go a h e a d first." 27b-30a. W h e n t h e a r m y of K ā r t t a v ī r y ā r j u n a moved on, t h e sky a n d the ten quarters were covered with dust. T h e entire atmosphere, O king, was filled w i t h the sounds of different kinds of musical instruments, the neighing sounds of t h e horses a n d t h e t r u m p e t i n g sounds of t h e elephants. T h e leading king, O ruler of t h e E a r t h , saw on his way omens adverse to h i m a n d indicating to him the message of Death.1 1.

V V . 30-34 enumerate o m e n s predicting death. Belief in o m e n s is

characteristic of primitive societies. T h e s e beliefs were later formulated 'science of omens'

(Nimitta-ŚSstra)

and

treatises

by

Brahmanical

in

a a

writers

dike Garga a n d J a i n writers like Bhadrabāhu, Dharasena were c o m p o s e d

in


690

Brahmānda Purāna

30b-34. He saw a w o m a n who h a d dishevelled hair, whose nose was cut off, w h o was almost naked except for a black loin­ cloth a n d w h o was weeping. He saw a m a n with grief-stricken m i n d whose clothes were in rags, w h o was fallen and broken, who was almost naked except for an ochre-coloured strip of a cloth a n d who was devoid of certain limbs. He saw an iguana, a rabbit, hedgehog, an empty pot, a reptile, cotton, a tortoise, oil, salt, a piece of bone, a fox pro­ ducing a terrible howl to his right side, a sick Pukkasa (a m a n of very low a n d mixed caste) a bull, a vulture a n d a h a r e . Even after seeing these he went a h e a d in order to fight, because he was forcibly dragged by. the noose of the god of d e a t h with which he was b o u n d . 35-36. R ā m a was seated' in the shade of a b a n y a n tree on the banks of the river N a r m a d ā , accompanied by Akrtavrana. He saw the excellent king K ā r t t a v ī r y a coming accompanied by a h u n d r e d crores of kings and a thousand Aksau hints (big regi­ m e n t s ) . On seeing h i m he became delighted. 37. " O n this d a y has been realized my task cherished for a long time, because the wretched king K ā r t t a v ī r y a has come within my vision." 38. He rose up after saying this. Seizing his weapon, the axe, he stood up to his full height ready for t h e destruction of his enemies just like an infuriated lion. 39. On seeing R ā m a in readiness for the destruction of the soldiers, all embodied beings trembled excessively (afraid of) d e a t h as it were. 40. Wherever the infuriated scion of the family of Bhrgu moved about with the velocity of the wind a n d hurled his axe, the elephants, horses a n d t h e heroic warriors fell down with their a r m s , thiighs a n d necks cut off. 4 1 . J u s t as a big elephant in its rut runs all round a n d tramples down t h e cluster of reeds, so also R ā m a of the speed the early centuries of this era. Brahmanical

and Jain

The common

writers

interpretations

of

omens

by

show that the I n d i a n society inherited these-

beliefs from their c o m m o n primitive forebears.


2.3.38.42-51

691

a n d prowess t h e king.

of the m i n d a n d t h e wind, destroyed t h e army of

42-43. O n seeing R ā m a , t h e most excellent a m o n g t h e wielders of weapons, striking with all his might in t h e b a t t l e , the king of M a t s y a country climbed on to a great chariot, lifted up his bow, s t r u n g it well, and drew it mightily. Showering volleys of arrows as powerful as fire, he c a m e to Bhārgava. O n seeing h i m coming, the noble-souled R ā m a took u p his h u g e a n d terrible bow. Overwhelmed with anger t h a t he was, he w a r d e d off the heavy down-pour of king Mańgala'sarrows a n d discharged his own missile with wind-god for its deity. 44-46. T h a t intelligent king of great potentiality dis­ charged the Parvatāstra (Missile with mountains for its deities) at R ā m a . T h a t king who was an expert in discharging missiles a n d arrows arrested t h e powerful missile w i t h wind-god for its deity by means of his own Parvatāstra. Coming to understand t h a t t h e king of Matsya land was really very powerful a n d was sending volleys after volleys of different kinds of excellent missiles, R ā m a , violently released N ā r ā y a n a missile duly charged with the requisite Mantras. O king ! when t h e N ā r ā y a n a missile was discharged by R ā m a , the scion of the family of Bhrgu, for slaying the king, all t h e quarters dazzled exceedingly with its brilliance. T h e king of M a t s y a - l a n d trembled. 47-48. On observing his tremulousness, R ā m a killed his horses with four arrows. T h e noble-souled R ā m a cut ' off his banner-staff with a single a r r o w and his bow with two arrows. He toppled down to the ground t h e charioteer w i t h a n o t h e r arrow, despatched with great force. W i t h three o t h e r arrows he hit t h e c h a r i o t . 49-51. M a ñ g a l a (the king of M a t s y a land) a b a n d o n ed the chariot and came down to the g r o u n d . W i t h his a x e R ā m a struck h i m on his h e a d . W h e n his head was broken he shed blood copiously. He b e c a m e unconscious a n d died instantaneously.


692

Brahmānia Purāna

His a r m y was b u r n t down by t h e missile. It was destroyed a n d reduced to ashes in a trice. W h e n M a ń g a l a , the most excellent king, born of the l u n a r race, fell down a n d died, R ā m a was delighted.

CHAPTER

THIRTYNINE

The Story of Bhārgava Paraśurama (continued) Vasistha said : l-4a. " W h e n the king of M a t s y a - l a n d fell, the king K ā r t t a v ī r y a w h o h a d great strength a n d w h o was an expert in w a r despatched m a n y other leading kings to fight. B r h a d b a l a , S o m a d a t t a , V i d a r b h a , t h e lord of M i t h i l ā , the ruler of N i s a d h a , a n d the king of M a g a d h a c a m e to the battlefield, O king, in order to fight with t h e leading scion of t h e family of Bhrgu. At the behest of the king of H a i h a y a , all of them w h o were experts in different kinds of warfare a n d w h o took pride in their heroism began to shower volleys of arrows. 4b-6a. W i t h t h e P i n ā k a bow in his h a n d resembling t h e flame of a blazing fire, the scion of t h e family ofBhrgu discharg­ ed the excellent arrow Nāgapāia (noose of the Serpents) after invoking t h e M a n t r a thereof. W i t h the missile charged with G a r u d a M a n t r a , S o m a d a t t a of great s t r e n g t h cut off t h a t missile h u r l e d by the leading m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu, d u r i n g the b a t t l e . 6b-8. T h e n t h e infuriated R ā m a of g r e a t fortune, the slayer of enemies killed S o m a d a t t a by m e a n s of trident granted by R u d r a . W i t h his m a c e he killed B r h a d b a l a , with his fist he killed V i d a r b h a , the lord of M i t h i l ā with his iron c l u b , t h e ruler of N i s a d h a with his javelin a n d t h e king of M a g a d h a by kicking


2.3.39.9-23

695

h i m w i t h his foot. He killed the soldiers by means of volleys of missiles. 9. After killing the entire a r m y in the battle, t h e son of J a m a d a g n i , of great strength, rushed at K ā r t t a v l r y a like t h e fire at the time of final annihilation. 10-13. On seeing h i m coming to fight, other kings of great heroism who were aware of w h a t should be d o n e a n d w h a t should not be done, hid H a i h a y a b e h i n d their back a n d fought with R ā m a , demonstrating thereby their friendship. T h e r e were hundreds of kings such as those of the states of Kānyakubja,. Surāstra a n d Avanti. T h e y created a network of arrows all r o u n d R ā m a . W h e n he was covered with the network of their arrows d u r i n g t h e battle, R ā m a was not at all visible, O leading king. T h e n A k r t a v r a n a remembered the details of R a m a ' s life as recounted by the stag. 14-15. T h e sage ( A k r t a v r a n a ) entreated H a r i for the welfare of the le iding m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu. In the m e a n t i m e , R ā m a who was a great expert in mira­ culous missiles and weapons destroyed t h e net work of arrows by means of the arrow with the wind god for its deity, as he knew the M a n t r a s thereof. He stood up ready for renewed battle like t h e sun coming out of the mist. 16. R ā m a , the powerful warrior, fought with them con­ tinuously for t h r e e days. By means of his exploit, it was easy for him to cut down twelve Aksauhinis of soldiers in no time. 17. As if they h a d been a grove of p l a n t a i n trees, R ā m a with his most excellent weapon, the axe, c h o p p e d off the groups of kings a n d their great armies. 18. • On seeing the a r m y exterminated by the noble-souled R ā m a , S u c a n d r a of great valour, born of the solar race, c a m e to the battlefield. 19-23a. He was accompanied by a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d princes a n d seven Aksauhinis of soldiers. M a n y of those great heroic warriors were roaring like thunderous clouds and shaking the e a r t h , O king. T h e y fought with Bhārgava. T h e valorous leading m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu, Q king, destroyed in a trice the weapons a n d the great miraculous, missiles discharged by t h e m .


694

Brahmānda Purāna

T a k i n g up his divine axe, comparable to the god of d e a t h , Y a m a the destroyer, and wielding it up against the entire army, t h e delighter of the family of Bhrgu mopped it u p . J u s t as a farmer in the field wholly reaps t h e rice a n d cuts off all the grassy weeds with his sickle, so also was done by Rāma. 23b-27. On seeing t h a t a r m y of a h u n d r e d thousand princes slain by R ā m a , king Sucandra fought in the battlefield, O king. Both of them were great experts in the use of different kinds of weapons a n d miraculous missiles a n d b o t h were exces­ sively agitated. T h e leading sage and the leading king, both of them great warriors, fought with each o t h e r ; S u c a n d r a , a m a n of great achievement in t h e art of war­ fare, cut off all those weapons a n d miraculous missiles which R ā m a hurled against h i m . R ā m a was infuriated thereby in the course of t h e battle. He understood t h a t king S u c a n d r a was fully conversant with everything to be done to attack aggressively or to with­ s t a n d or to retaliate an attack, he performed Ācamana rite with water a n d fitted (to his bow the arrow (charged w i t h ) the N ā r ā y a n a missile t h a t could never be checked. 28. On seeing t h a t missile which h a d the lustre of a h u n d r e d suns hurled by the intelligent R ā m a , Sucandra got down from his chariot and bowed to it. 29. T h a t missile evolved by N ā r ā y a n a and worthy of being worshipped by all other missiles, left him undisturbed as he bowed down thus, a n d went to the presence of N ā r ā y a n a . 30. On seeing t h a t great missile ineffective and the king q u i t e hale a n d h e a r t y , R ā m a , t h e slayer of enemies in battle, b e c a m e surprised. 3 1 . T h e n , out of anger, R ā m a hurled the javelin, the iron rod, the iron m a c e a n d a spear with sharp edge, the club a n d the axe at t h e h e a d of the king. 32-34. S u c a n d r a c a u g h t hold of all of them sportingly. W h e n R ā m a hurled Śivaiūla (Siva's trident) at the king, that


695

2.3.39.35-38

t r i d e n t was turned into a garland of flowers round the neck of t h e king. He saw in front of him Bhadrakālī, the m o t h e r of the universe, wearing a garland of skulls. She was hideous. H e r face was terrific. She was seated on a lion. T h e three-eyed goddess was holding an excellent trident. 35a. On seeing the goddess, R ā m a cast off his weapons a n d missiles. Bowing down to the goddess, he eulogised thus— Rāma said : 35b-36. Prayer : " O b e i s a n c e to you t h e beloved of Ś a ń k a r a , to the m o t h e r of the universe, to the goddess with different kinds of ornaments, to the goddess moving a b o u t on lion^ to t h e one who always endeavours to protect those w h o r e t o r t to her, to the d a u g h t e r born of Daksa, to the goddess born of the H i m a v ā n , to the goddess who occupies half of t h e body of M a h e ś v a r a . 37. Bow to Kali, to the goddess who holds a digit of the M o o n — i . e . the crescent m o o n — t h e lord of t h e digits, to t h e beloved of the devotees, to the sovereign of all t h e worlds. To the goddess invoked by the name 'Tārā'1 ( t h e r e d e e m e r ) , to the goddess eagerly a t t a c h e d to Śiva, to the goddess whose sandals are worshipped by the leaders of Ganas. 38. To one who is greater t h a n the greatest, to t h e bestower of boons on Paramesthin (i.e. god B r a h m a ) , to the goddess who is thinking about the ways of annihilating the t h r e e types of Tāpas (distresses), to the goddess w h o has hurled t h e three Puras for the welfare of the universe, to the goddess n a m e d T r i p u r ā a n d (who has assumed the form of) Bālā etc.

1. pantheon

T h i s Buddhist Goddess was accepted and assimilated as

T a n t r a works

in Brahmanic

goddess Durgā by Tantra-writers. T h u s we h a v e B r a h m a n i c a l like

Tārā-Tanira

rahasya of Brahmānanda

(Gauda

(pub. Jibananda

Granthmālā No

1,

1913),

T h e identification of Tripurā, Bālā, Lalitā etc. with D u r g ā in the verses shows the influence of Tantras.

Tārā-

1896). next


696 39. Obeisance to the good learning, to the m o t h e r w h o has killed all enemies, to stork, to the bestower of vast killed different types of Asuras

Brakmānda Purāna bestower of grace a n d c h a r m of of the universe; to the goddess the goddess having the face of a happiness, to the goddess w h o a n d Dānavas.

40. H a i l to the goddess whose creeper-like h a n d s are embellished ( b y t h e gestures of) g r a n t i n g boons a n d freedoms from fear; to t h e goddess who is bowed down by all the gods (i.e. D e v a s ) ; to the goddess who has yellow robes, w h o goes as fast as the wind, w h o bestows splendid things a n d w h o is eulo­ gised by Śiva. 4 1 . Bow to the goddess w h o goes a b o u t on a lion (lit. the enemy of an e l e p h a n t ) , who imbibes the j u i c e of t h e fresh sugarcane, who has shining brillance in her limbs resem­ bling the blue m o u n t a i n , whose steps are quick, who has the n a m e Lalitā, who is the suzerain^of the Devas a n d who is an ocean of mercy. — ^ 42. Obeisance to the goddess who has tremulous eyes, who is devoid of destruction, whose lotus-like feet are beauti­ fied by means of red-lac juice, whose n a m e is R ā m a , who is deeply e n a m o u r e d of Rati (sensuous pleasures), who dispels all ailments and w h o has created everything. 4 3 . Obeisance to you who bestow kingdoms, who is eager to meet her lover, who has lustre of jewels a n d whose robes are fascinating. Obeisance, obeisance to you in front, obeisance to you at the sides, b e n e a t h and above. Obeisance to you from all sides. 44. Repeated obeisance to you everywhere and at all times. Bows to you whose body is identified with everything, O goddess of the Devas, be pleased O Bhadrakālī, keep my vow taken formerly (see t h a t it is realised). 45a. You alone are the mother, you alone a r e the father of the three worlds. Obeisance, obeisance to y o u . " Vasisfha said : 45b 46a. " O n being eulogised thus, goddess Bhadrakālī of great might a n d courage spoke to Bhārgava. She was extre­ mely delighted, she considered g r a n t i n g boons as a festive occasion


2.3.39.46-53

697

Bhadrakāli said : 46b-47a. " D e a r R ā m a , O highly fortunate one, I am pleased with you now. Choose from me any boon t h a t has b e e n cherished in your h e a r t . " Rāma said : 47b-49a. " O m o t h e r endearingly attached t o your devotees, if any boon is to be given to me by you, let me conquer Sucan­ d r a , in battle, S u c a n d r a the object of your favour. O Goddess, with a delighted mind carry out w h a t has been said by m e , in any m a n n e r whatsoever. Obeisance to you, O m o t h e r of the Universe." Bhadrakāli said : 49b-50a. " D e s p a t c h the leading king S u c a n d r a to my abode, by means of the miraculous missile having t h e fire-god for its deity. This is highly pleasing to m e . Let h i m be my attendant." Vasistha said ." 50b-52a. ' ' O n hearing this statement, the leading scion of t h e family of Bhrgu began his endeavour to do something pleasing to the goddess. He restrained his b r e a t h a n d performed the Ācamana rite. T h e n he fixed the arrow to t h e bow with S u c a n d r a in view. O king, t h a t missile, discharged by R ā m a for slaying the king, b u r n e d his physical body quickly a n d led h i m to the world of the supreme deity. 52b-53. Bhadrakālī, the primordial maker of the Universe was prostrated by R ā m a . She then vanished. T h e son of J a m a ­ dagni remained there in the battlefield eagerly awaiting t h e slaying of the k i n g . "


Brahmān<la Purāna

698 CHAPTER FORTY King Kārltavirya slain Vasistha said :

1. " W h e n the crest-jewel of leading kings, S u c a n d r a fell, his son Puskarāksa c a m e forward to fight with R ā m a . 2-3. On seeing R ā m a who was extremely terrible in battle and w h o was comparable to K ā l a , the annihilator, t h a t warrior of great vigour who was an expert in all kinds of wea­ pons and miraculous missiles and who was seated in the chariot, discharged a volley of arrows and created a network with t h e m all r o u n d the leading m e m b e r of Bhrgu's family. For a short while, the son of J a m a d a g n i became covered with arrows. 4. After suddenly extricating himself from t h e b o n d a g e of arrows, t h e extremely powerful leader of the family of Bhrgu, surveyed all r o u n d , O great king. 5. On seeing Puskarāksa the son of S u c a n d r a , R ā m a was filled with rage, a n d he resembled the fire t h a t would b u r n everything. 6. Filled with great anger, he discharged t h e V a r u n a missile ( i . e . one with V a r u n a for its d e i t y ) . T h e n clouds rose up rumbling a n d roaring with terrible noise. 7. Flooding the E a r t h , O king, with heavy down-pours of water, they showered continuously. Puskarāksa of great vigour discharged the Vāyaviya missile (one with the wind-god for its d e i t y ) . 8. T h e r e u p o n , the clouds vanished immediately. T h e n extremely infuriated R ā m a discharged the B r a h m a missile (one with B r a h m a for its d e i t y ) . 9-13. Puskarāksa of great vigour a n d prowess pulled it up with the same missile (i.e. a n o t h e r B r a h m a missile). On seeing his B r a h m a missile restrained, R ā m a b e c a m e furious like a serpent struck with a stick. He seized- his terri­ ble axe a n d rushed against h i m taking deep b r e a t h s . As R ā m a rushed against h i m , Puskarāksa lifted up his bow and fixed five arrows resembling serpents with mouths giving out flames. W i t h these arrows he pierced the heart, h e a d , t h e left a r m , the


699

2.3.40.14-22

r i g h t a r m a n d the tuft of R ā m a in order. This R ā m a stunned a n d agitated m u c h . On being thus afflicted by Puskarāksa in battle, R ā m a . stood for a while a n d t h e n rushed against him: He hit his head with his axe. He split Puskarāksa into two from head to foot. 14. W h e n the pieces fell down, at t h a t time, great sur­ prise was caused to m e n w h o were watching it as well as to the heaven-dwellers in t h e firmament. 15. After slaying Puskarāksa of great strength, out of anger he b u r n e d down his a r m y like the furiously blazing fire t h a t b u r n s down the forest. 16. Wherever the leader of the members of the family of Bhrgu rushed with the prowess and velocity of the m i n d a n d the wind, striking with his axe, horses, chariots, elephants a n d m e n fell down in their h u n d r e d s with their limbs cut off. 17. Being struck w i t h the axe there in t h e battlefield by R ā m a of g r e a t power, the soldiers began to scream loud, " A h father, Ah m o t h e r " . Shattered to smitherens they were reduced to ashes. 18. T h e entire a r m y of Puskarāksa consisting of m a n y families of kings a n d nine Aksauhinīs of soldiers, was struck d o w n within a short while by B h ā r g a v a . It b e c a m e highly distressed with all t h e leaders killed.' 19. W h e n Puskarāksa fell, Arjuna ( t h e son of Krtavīrya) himself, of great power a n d vigour c a m e there seated on a golden chariot. 20. It was laden with m a n y kinds of weapons. It had all its p a r t s studded with jewels. It h a d a m a g n i t u d e of ten Nalvas, * O king, a n d a h u n d r e d horses were yoked to it. 2 1 . H a v i n g a thousand hands wielding different kinds of weapons, he shone like a meritorious person desirous of ascending to the heavenly world at the destruction of the body. 22. His h u n d r e d sons were extremely powerful a n d great experts in warfare. T h e y arranged the armies in different Vyūhas (battle-arrays) at t h e behest of their father and stood by in the battlefield. *Nalva=400

cubits.


700

Brahmānola Purana

23. On seeing R ā m a equipped with t h e brilliance of Y a m a , the god of d e a t h a n d destruction ( a t the end of t h e world) in the battlefield, Kārttavīrya, the powerful king, began to fight in earnest. 24. Bent on vanquishing the leading scion of the family of Bhrgu, he held up five h u n d r e d arrows in the right h a n d s a n d five h u n d r e d bows in the left h a n d s . 25. O heroic king, he showered volley of arrows on R ā m a , just as the cluster of clouds pours down on a m o u n t a i n . 26. Being honoured in the battlefields by t h a t shower of arrows, t h e delighter of the family of Bhrgu seized his o w n divine bow and discharged showers of arrows. 27. Both of t h e m viz. Bhārgava a n d H a i h a y a were equally proud (of their ability in) battle and they were enga­ ged in an unparalleled tumultuous fight t h a t caused horripila­ tion to t h e beholder. 28. For killing the leading scion of the family of Bhrgu, t h a t powerful king holding all kinds of weapons a n d miraculous missiles, fitted the B r a h m ā s t r a (the miraculous missile h a v i n g B r a h m a for its d e i t y ) . 29-3la. R ā m a performed the ceremonial rite of sipping air (as a substitute for water) a n d fitted a n o t h e r miraculous B r a h m a missile against the previous Brahma (of K ā r t t a v ī r y a ) . T h e r e u p o n , b o t h t h e missiles came into collision, O ruler of men. T h e y increased in their brilliance like the blazing sun in the horizon. On seeing that wonderful spectacle, the three worlds including the N e t h e r worlds b e c a m e distressed as the two miraculous missiles continued to blaze. T h e worlds eagerly wished for their restraint. 31b-34a. On seeing the imminent destruction of t h e universe, R ā m a remembered w h a t had been' spoken to him b y Lord K r s n a . R ā m a t h e n thought t h u s — " P r o t e c t i o n should be accorded to t h e world. This miraculous missile should be restrained. Destruction to the world should be prevented by me who hold within myself the p a r t of the S u p r e m e L o r d " . After deciding thus, the holy lord of fierce splendour d r a n k up both the miraculous missiles by means of his pair of eyes. T h e r e ­ by he rendered the universe charming. Thereafter, the n o b l e -


2.3.40.34-44

701

souled sage remained meditating for a short while. D u e to the power of his meditation, b o t h of the miraculous B r a h m a missiles were rendered bereft of their potentiality. T h e y fell down and immediately, the entire world regained normalcy. 34b-35a. T h e son of J a m a d a g n i was the greatest a m o n g g r e a t m e n . He was capable of creating, protecting and destroy­ ing everything. Still, in order to conceal his s u p e r n a t u r a l power, he carried on the usual activities of the ordinary people. 35b-38a. He was a wielder of bows. He was the greatest a m o n g heroes. He was the possessor of splendour. He was the leader of good m e n . He was the speaker of facts in an assembly. He had p u t in sufficient efforts in the realm of fine arts, lores a n d sacred literature. He was a wise scholar conversant with t h e injunctions (of sacred s c r i p t u r e s ) . T h u s he spread his n a m e , fame a n d intrinsic ability in the m o r t a l world. After suppressing a n d rendering t h e pair of miraculous missiles calm a n d ineffective, R ā m a once a g a i n resumed his activities towards the destruction of the leading m e m b e r of the family of H a i h a y a s , in t h e battlefield. 38b-39a. He took a pair of arrows from his quiver. He fixed the feathered portions of the arrows to the bowstring. He was desirous of c u t t i n g off his crest-jewel b u t aimed at the pair of the ears of the king which he thereafter cut off. 39b-41a. T h e noble-souled king who had formerly defeated all t h e heroes of the universe, had his ears cut off now a n d he realized his prowess lost a n d destroyed, O lord of the E a r t h , as he was humiliated by R ā m a . In a trice, O king, the body of t h e king b e c a m e faded a n d pale with all its dignity a n d splendour vanished. It was perceived like a picture of a person m u c h distressed in m i n d a n d p a i n t e d by a good artist. 41b-44a. T h e n the king began to reflect on his earlier glory a n d prowess which he h a d acquired by defeating Paulastya (i.e. R ā v a n a ) a n d others a n d which exceeded t h a t of a n y one in the entire world a n d bewailed his lot. Desirous of victory, t h e king closed his eyes again a n d m e d i t a t e d on D a t t a , the beacon light of the family of Atri. It was d u e to t h e blessings of this powerful personality t h a t he was able to r e p u d i a t e a n d slight all other kings by means of his vitality.


702

Brahmānda Purāna

W h e n respectable D a t t a of great power a n d proficiency did not come within his view, t h e king b e c a m e m u c h distress­ ed in his h e a r t a n d h a d recourse to the p a t h of m e d i t a t i o n over a n d over a g a i n . 44b-46a. Even when meditated u p o n , O king, D a t t a did not come within t h e purview of his m i n d . T h e lord did not come so because the king h a d committed evil actions. He h a d harassed a saint of perfect restraint of the sense-organs, a good m a n without any sin. 46b. T h u s , when the noble-souled son of Atri was not seen by the king through the p a t h of meditation, he began to grieve with great sorrow. D u e to grief he became deluded too. T h e noble-souled R ā m a who could see through the m i n d of everyone spoke thus to the king w h o was grief-stricken—"O king, do not be distressed. M e n of great m a g n a n i m i t y do not grieve over anything. 47-49a. It was I who i n c a r n a t e d in the primordial Sarga (creation) for the purpose of g r a n t i n g you boons. Now I have come to kill you. T a k e courage in your m i n d . T h e r e should be no discussion at all on grief at t h e time of battle. All the people experience good and b a d effects of their own actions brought about by fate, when the fruit of t h e actions become ripe. No one can bring about any reversal of this good a n d evil, O Ruler of m e n . 49b-52a. Since you acquired m u c h merit in t h e course of m a n y births, you b e c a m e one who deserved t h e boons granted by D a t t a . Now experience t h e fruit of your evil deeds acquired by yourself. My father h a d been maltreated by you. H e n c e , I have chopped off your ears. Now you s can see me taking off your crestjewel by m e a n s of my vigour, after destroying your r e n o w n " . After saying thus, t h e noble-souled scion of the family of Bhrgu, fixed an a r r o w a n d d r e w t h e bow. He discharged ,,it against t h e king. W i t h great rapidity a n d readiness the arrow cut off the jewel a n d r e t u r n e d to R ā m a . 52b-55a. On seeing this action of the son of t h e sage, Arjuna, t h e upholder of t h e family of H a i h a y a s , prepared him­ self to kill t h a t B r ā h m a n a in b a t t l e — t h e B r ā h m a n a who was his enemy. He lifted up his weapons.


2.3.40.55-66

703

W i t h different kinds of weapons such as trident, jevelin, iron club, discus, sword, Pattiśa a n d T o m a r a (different varie­ ties of iron clubs) he hit the son of t h e B r ā h m a n a . W i t h great alacrity a n d alertness R ā m a , by means of his arrows, cut off those tridents etc. hurled by h i m just in t h e middle itself (while they d a r t e d at h i m ) . 55b-57a. T h e king sipped air (in lieu of water) ceremon­ iously a n d discharged the excellent Āgneya (having the firegod as its deity) missile which R ā m a suppressed quickly by means of V ā r u n a (having V a r u n a for its deity) missile. T h e king then discharged the G ā n d h a r v a missile (having G a n d h a r v a as its deity) which the holy lord ( R ā m a ) struck by means of a Vāyavya (having wind god for its deity) missile. 57b-58- R ā m a cut off the N ā g a missile (having serpents for its d e i t y ) by means of t h e G ā r u d a (having G a r u d a . for its deity) missile, O K i n g . Thereafter, for slaying Bhārgava in the battle the king took up the trident t h a t h a d been given to him by D a t t a a n d t h a t had never been futile. He took it up with d u e chanting of mantras. T h a t trident h a d the lustre of a h u n d r e d suns. It could not be checked by Suras or Asuras. 59. Aiming it at R ā m a , he hurled it with his entire strength. T h e t r i d e n t fell on the head of Bhārgava, O lord of the Earth. 60. D u e to the i m p a c t t h a t he was hit by the trident, Bhārgava b e c a m e pained. He became unconscious, O p r o m i n e n t king, r e m e m b e r i n g H a r i . 61. W h e n Bhārgava fell there, all the Devas b e c a m e agitated d u e to fear. Keeping Brahma, Visnu a n d M a h e ś v a r a in front they all came there. 62. Lord Śańkara who has great knowledge and who is t h e conqueror of D e a t h , himself resuscitated Bhārgava by m e a n s of t h e Sañjivani Vidyā. 63. Regaining his consciousness, R ā m a saw the Suras in front of him. O leading king, he bowed down to B r a h m a a n d o t h e r suras with devotidn. 64-66. On being eulogised by the leading m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu, they disappeared immediately. After sipping


704

Brahmānda Purāna

a i r (in lieu of water) ritualiśtically, R ā m a c h a n t e d the Kavaca mantra. He got up with great fury. He a p p e a r e d to b u r n everyone by m e a n s of his eyes. After recollecting the P ā ś u p a t a missile granted by Śiva, Bhārgava immediately slew K ā r t t a v ī r y a of great power. T h a t king who was a devotee of D a t t a , entered S u d a r ś a n a , the discus of Visnu. His b o d y b e c a m e reduced to ashes, O son of Bāhu.

CHAPTER

FORTYONE

The Story of Bhārgava

(continued)

Vasisfha continued :— 1. On seeing t h e terrible killing of their father, the h u n d r e d sons of K ā r t t a v ī r y a hurriedly resisted the excessively terrible Bhārgava severally, by means of their respective armies. 2. Extremely infuriated at the d e a t h of their father all those sons who h a d an Aksauhinī each a n d w h o were extreme­ ly ferocious in battle, offered a t u m u l t u o u s fight. 3. On seeing his herioc sons who were proficient in battle, R ā m a took up his axe a n d fought with t h e m in b a t t l e . 4. W i t h i n a short period of only two M u h ū r t a s * , R ā m a hurriedly slew t h a t a r m y consisting of a h u n d r e d Akfauhinis** 5. On seeing their armies sportingly annihilated with his axe by R ā m a , all of t h e m of highly esteemed valour, fought with R ā m a . * M u h ū r t a = 4 8 minutes. * * A division of army consisting 6 5 6 1 0 horse and 10350

of 2 1 8 7 0

foot-soldiers.

chariots,

as

many

elephants,


705

•2.3.41.6-14

6. Striking with different kinds of divine weapons, those sons of great valour and prowess encircled the noblesouled Bhārgava. 7. T h e powerful holy lord R ā m a , stationed in the middle of their circle, shone like the navel of a wheel. 8. While the h u n d r e d princes were encircling him, R ā m a (facing each of them) shone as if d a n c i n g in t h e - b a t t l e like L o r d K r s n a in the midst of Gopīs (cow-herd girls of V r n d ā v a n a at the time of Rasa d a n c e ) , a n d they a p p e a r e d glorious like the Gopīs a d a n c e around K r s n a . 9. T h e n the Devas with B r a h m a as their leader c a m e there seated in their respective aerial chariots. T h e y showered R ā m a of no u n a b a t e d vigour, with garlands of flowers from the N a n d a n a g a r d e n in the heaven. 10. T h e sound produced by the clash of weapons mingled 'with H u r h k ā r a s (sounds of H u m ) reached the firmament like t h a t of the triple symphony. T h e wounds caused by the arrows a p p e a r e d like those caused by nails a n d teeth. 11. Those who had been wounded a n d injured with the weapons began to scream like experts in vocal music who sang at a h i g h p i t c h . T h e Devas with eyes expressive of great w o n d e r surveyed the battle zone of the kings t h a t proceeded like this. 12. Desirous of killing the sons of the king in battle by means of different kinds of excellent missiles, R ā m a , the powerful lord wielding his bow, separated the stronger ones from t h e group a n d formed a new line. 13. He killed those heroic warriors one by one. O u t of the h u n d r e d , five fled losing all courage viz. Śūra, Vrsāsya, Vrsasena, Śūŕasena a n d J a y a d h v a j a . 14. W i t h their minds filled with great fright a n d desirous of protecting their lives, those princes went into the forests at t h e foot of the H i m a l a y a s severally ( E a c h entering a separate forest). N o n e of those afflicted a n d u n h a p p y ones was seen afterwards. 1.

The

propriety of comparison in w. 7 a n d 8 as well as in w. 10

a n d 11 deserves reconsideration.


706

Brahmāngla PurOna

15. After slaying the other kings also w h o h a d gathered t h e r e to assist king K ā r t t a v l r y a , R ā m a , a c c o m p a n i e d by Akrtavrana joyously c a m e to the river N a r m a d ā a n d took his b a t h . 16. After taking b a t h , performing his daily rites a n d worshipping the bull-emblemed lord, O lord of t h e E a r t h , he set off in order to visit L o r d Śiva, the resident of the Kailāsa mountain. 17. He w a n t e d also to meet U m ā , the consort of his preceptor and S k a n d a and Vināyaka their sons. This noblesouled sage a c c o m p a n i e d by Akrtavrana went on with t h e speed of the m i n d . 18. After completing his task, he rejoiced m u c h . Reach­ ing the Kailāsa m o u n t a i n instantly, he saw the great city named Alakā. 19. It was rendered beautiful by t h e mansions and pala­ ces studded with different kinds of precious gems a n d jewels. It a p p e a r e d splendid, d u e to the Yaksas w h o h a d assumed various forms a n d w h o h a d o r n a m e n t s of different a n d wonder­ ful types. 20. It was full of groves, parks a n d g a r d e n s a b o u n d i n g in m a n y types of trees. It was rendered beautiful by very large lakes and tanks. 21-24. It was externally surrounded by the A l a k a n a n d a , also called Sitā (a b r a n c h of the G a ń g ā ) . T h e r e t h e elephants, even when they are not thirsty, joyously drink waters t u r n e d tawny in colour, due to t h e saffron mixed into it w h e n the celestial damsels b a t h e in it. H e r e a n d there musical notes are heard, produced jointly for ever by the G a n d h a r v a s and the Apsaras. On seeing the city, O king, Bhārgava rejoiced excessively. He went to t h e peak above it where there was the great abode of Śiva. Thereafter, O leading king, he saw a great Banyan tree with cool shade. 25. Beneath it, there was an excellent abode t h a t was con­ nected with t h e Siddhas a n d t h a t was worthy of residence. T h e r e he saw a r a m p a r t wall extending to a h u n d r e d Yojanas.


2.3.41.26-40

707

26-30. It was studded with different kinds of precious stones a n d jewels. It was beautiful with four gateways. It was filled with G a n a s . He saw Nandīśvara, M a h ā k ā l a , R a k t ā k s a , V i k a t o d a r a , Pińgalāksa, Viśālāksa, Virūpāksa, G h a t o d a r a , M a n d ā r a , Bhairava, Bāna, R u r u who was very terrible, V ī r a k a , V ī r a b h a d r a , C a n d a Bhrńgi, Riti, M u k h a , leading Siddhas, N ā t h a s , R u d r a s , Vidyādharas, the great serpents, the Bhūtas, Fretas, Piśācas, Kūsmāndas, Brahma-rāksasas Vetālas leading Dānavas, leading Yogins with m a t t e d hair, Yaksas, K i m p u r u s a s , Dākinīs a n d Yoginīs. On seeing t h e m he b e c a m e glad a n d with the permission of N a n d i n he entered it. 31-32. T h e r e he saw Siva's palace surrounded by t h e world. It extended to four Yojanas. At the eastern entrance he saw Kārttikeya a n d Vināyaka seated. T h e former was on the left side a n d the latter on the right side. On seeing t h e m , Bhārgava bowed down to both of them whose valour a n d exploit were like t h a t of Śiva. 33. T h e excellent Pārsadas ( a t t e n d a n t s of Śiva) a n d the Ksetrapālas were stationed there. T h e y were a d o r n e d with bejewelled ornaments a n d were seated on thrones set with precious stones a n d jewels. 34. Vināyaka enquired of Bhārgava as he was e n t e r i n g Siva's palace a n d s a i d — " O great Sir, stay for a while. 35-37a. M a h ā d e v a is sleeping now in the c o m p a n y of U m ā . I shall go in, take the permission of the lord and c o m e back within a moment. T h e n I shall e n t e r along with you, d e a r b r o t h e r . Stand here n o w . " On hearing these words of Vināyaka, the delighteŕ of t h e family of Bhrgu began to speak to Ganeśa in a h u r r y . Rāma

said:—

37b-40. D e a r brother, I shall go into t h e h a r e m , bow down to Pārvatī and Śańkara, the sovereigns of the Universe, a n d shall immediately r e t u r n to my own abode. Kārttavīrya, as well as S u c a n d r a along with their sons, relatives and the armies, thousands of other kings of t h e Kāmbojas, Palhavas, Śakas, Kānyakubjas, lords of Kosalas and others who were extremely powerful and who were experts in


708

Brahmānda Purāna

t h e use of M ā y ā (power of illusion)—all these h a d been killed by me, d u e to the favour of Ś a m b h u . H e n c e , I shall bow down to him a n d go back to my own h o u s e " . 41. After saying this, Bhārgava stood there in front of •Ganapati. T h e lord of G a n a s t h e n spoke these sweet words to Bhārgava. Vināyaka said : 42-43. " S t o p for a while, O highly fortunate one. You •will certainly see t h e lord. Now, O b r o t h e r , the lord of the Universe is in the c o m p a n y of Bhavānī. He who spoils the pleasure of a m a n a n d a w o m e n seated together in t h e same seat, shall surely go to hell. 44 Especially this is definitely decided t h a t a B r ā h m a n a shall never see his father, preceptor or king, enjoying privacy. 45. W h e t h e r out of c a r n a l desire or otherwise, if a person sees a n o t h e r person inclined to sexual intercourse, he shall h a v e to suffer certainly separation from his wife in the course of seven births. 46. He is a base m a n — h e who looks at the buttocks, breasts and face of a n o t h e r m a n ' s wife, his m o t h e r , sister or daughter". Bhārgava said : 47. O, unusual a n d unprecedented words have been h e a r d from your m o u t h . H a v e they come out d u e to your mistake or have you uttered them jocularly ? 48. T h e restriction from the scripture cited by you refers to lovers a n d passionate ones p r o n e to aberrations. T h e r e is no fault in case of an infant or a person devoid of passionate feelings. 49. I will get into the h a r e m brother. W h a t have you to object to in this m a t t e r , O boy. S t a n d by. I shall do in accordance w i t h w h a t is seen a n d what is relevant to the occasion, t h e r e . 50. It is there t h a t our m o t h e r a n d father a r e present as observed by you a n d they are the parents of all the worlds, Pārvatī and Parameśvara".


709-

2.3.41.51—42.1

5 1 . After saying this, O king, Bhārgava a t t e m p t e d to go in. V i n ā y a k a got up in a hurry a n d restrained him. 52. T h e r e was a wordy warfare between them a n d then, a tug a n d pull at each other's h a n d s . On seeing this, S k a n d a b e c a m e bewildered a n d w a n t e d them to realize their mistake. 53. He seized both of t h e m with his h a n d s t h e m away from each o t h e r .

a n d pushed

T h e n t h e infuriated Bhārgava, the slayer of h e r o i c enemies, took up his axe and a t t e m p t e d to hurl it at G a n e ś a . 54-55. T h e elephant-faced lord (Ganeśa) saw t h a t t h e excellent scion of the family of Bhrgu was a b o u t to h u r l his axe against himself with great rapidity due to his anger. T h e r e ­ fore, he lifted Bhārgava by means of his h a n d quickly a n d took h i m to the different worlds viz. Bhūrloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, M a h a r l o k a above it, J a n a l o k a , Tapo-Loka a n d Satyaloka a n d then b r o u g h t h i m to V a i k u n t h a . T h e s o n o f ī ś a (i.e. Siva's son) then showed the Goloka to t h e excellent scion of the family of Bhrgu. T h e n he let h i m fall down to the seven nether-worlds a n d showed t h e m also. He then lifted him up once again and hurled him into t h e midst of the waters rapidly. This m a d e Bhārgava frightened a n d he became desirous of protecting his own life. T h e n Ganeśa. b r o u g h t h i m to t h e same place where he was standing before.

CHAPTER

FORTYTWO

The Story of Bhārgava (continued) Vasistha said :— 1. On being whirled thus, O ford of t h e E a r t h , by t h e Chief of G a n a s , R ā m a became overwhelmed with j o y (at hisfinal r e t u r n to Kailāsa ?) a n d grief, considering his own defeat a n d discomfiture.


710

Brahmānda Purāna

2. On seeing G a n e ś a stationed there unaffected a n d unconcerned in front of h i m , R ā m a became m u c h infuriated. He hurled his axe at h i m . 3. Perceiving t h a t the axe h a d been giv^n to him by his father, G a n e ś a became desirous of m a n i n g it not to go in vain. H e n c e , he received it w i t h his left tooth (tusk). 4. C h o p p e d off by the axe, the tusk fell on the ground, covered with blood like a m o u n t a i n t h a t fell on t h e ground when struck by I n d r a ' s thunderbolt. 5. T h e E a r t h consisting of oceans, continents a n d m o u n t a i n s was tossed up due to t h e fall of the tooth, O protec­ tor of the E a r t h . It shook a n d trembled. All people b e c a m e frightened. 6. T h e r e was a great hue a n d cry a m o n g the Devas who were watching it from t h e firmament. K ā r t t i k e y a a n d others became afflicted very m u c h and cried aloud. 7. On h e a r i n g t h e crashing sound of the fall of the tooth as well as t h e chaotic u p r o a r of the people raising a h u e and cry, t h e sovereigns (of the world) P ā r v a t i a n d Ś a ń k a r a c a m e there. 8. In front of her, Pārvati saw H e r a m b a (i.e. G a n e ś a ) with b e n t snout and single tusk. She asked Skanda the reason thereof, s a y i n g — " W h a t is this ?" 9. On being asked by his mother, the Commander-inchief of t h e Devas S k a n d a mentioned details]from t h e beginning to his mother, even as R ā m a was listening to it. 10. On hearing the detailed report of the incident wholly, O king, Pārvatī, the m o t h e r of all the worlds, b e c a m e angry. She spoke to Śańkara, her d e a r h u s b a n d — Pārvati complained :— 11-13. "O Ś a m b h u , this is your disciple Bhārgava who was treated on a p a r with your sons. O l o r d , it was from you t h a t he acquired Varman (i.e. Kavaca—coat of M a i l or esoteric Protective M a n t r a ) of g r e a t splendour and capable of conquer­ ing the three worlds. He defeated K ā r t t a v ī r y ā r j u n a , the power­ ful king, in b a t t l e . After achieving his own object, he has now given you t h e requisite fees viz. he has chopped off your own


2.3.42.14-23

711

son's tusk w i t h his axe a n d let it fall. U n d o u b t e d l y you will be satisfied w i t h this state of affairs. 14. Protect this Bhārgava, your excellent disciple, O Ś a m b h u . He will execute all t h e tasks of yours, his excellent preceptor. 15. I shall not stay here, O lord, since I have been slighted a n d dishonoured by you. I shall go to the a b o d e of my own father a c c o m p a n i e d by b o t h of my sons. 16-17a. G o o d m e n treat even the son of an enslaved m a i d servant on a p a r with their own son. But even your own son has not even orally been consoled by you. H e n c e , I am dis­ tressed. I shall go a w a y " . Vasistha said :— 17b-18. On hearing these words of Pārvatī, lord Bhava did not u t t e r a n y word good or bad, O lord of the E a r t h . He m e n t a l l y r e m e m b e r e d lord K r s n a , t h e destroyer of t h e distress of those who bow down to him, the lord of Goloka, t h e lord of t h e cowherdesses, an expert in different kinds of appeasing tactics. 19. Even as he was remembered, lord Keśava, the destroyer of the distress of those w h o bow down to h i m , the lord of all who submits Himself to t h e control of his devotees, t h e ocean of kindness, c a m e there. 20. He was as dark as the cloud. His face was splendid a n d bright. H e h a d armlets a n d necklace studded with precious gems. His g a r m e n t s sparkled like the lightning. He wore earrings resembling sharks a n d crest-jewel embellished with peacock feathers a n d studded with jewels. A gentle smile played over his face. T h e lord of the cowherdesses h a d K a u s t u b h a sparkling on his chest. His good renown • was loudly p r o ­ claimed by everyone. 21-23. T h e glorious unvanquished lord was accompanied by R ā d h ā and Śrīdāman. T h e ocean o f knowledge, h e surpassed the splendour of everyone by means of his own splendour. On seeing h i m come Śiva b e c a m e delighted in his m i n d . After d u l y bowing down to h i m , he worshipped t h e visitor.


712

Brahmānda Purāna

Ushering the lord accompanied by R ā d h ā into the i n n e r a p a r t m e n t , he m a d e him seated on a beautiful t h r o n e studded with gems a n d jewels a l o n g w i t h his wife. 24-27. T h e n goddess Pārvatī went there a c c o m p a n i e d by her sons. Along with her sons she bowed down to t h e feet of the god a n d goddess with great joy. R ā m a too went there. With his neck bent d o w n , he fell down n e a r t h e feet of Pārvatī, his m i n d utterly a g i t a t e d . W h e n Pārvatī did not welcome Bhārgava who h a d bowed down in front of her, t h e lord of the Universe said thus delight­ ing her with his words. Śri Krsna said :— 28. O d a u g h t e r of t h e m o u n t a i n , O goddess of infinite good qualities, O lady of beautiful face that surpasses in beauty the moon, keep this son of J a m a d a g n i on your lap. Let y o u r lotus-like h a n d s be placed on his h e a d . 29. O goddess who removes the fear from worldly existence, O genlle lady with whom Ś a m b h u sports about, O destroyer of sins, O beautiful lady with the gait of an elephant, protect ( R ā m a ) w h o has ever fallen at your feet. G r a n t h i m boons even if he has committed sins. 30-32. O gentle lady of great fortune, listen to my words as the words of the Vedas. On hearing t h e m you will u n d o u b t ­ edly become delighted. V i n ā y a k a your son, is a noble soul. He is g r e a t e r t h a n the greatest. Neither lust n o r anger, neither agony d u e to frustration nor fear enters his m i n d at any time. O beautiful lady, his meritorious names have been recounted by noble souls in the Vedas, Smrtis, Purānas a n d the Sarhhitā texts. I shall m e n t i o n them all as they dispel all sins. 33. T h e r e are groups of P r a m a t h a s w h o are very strong a n d w h o have various forms a n d sizes. Since your son is the lord of those groups, he is glorified as Ganeśa. 34. All t h e cosmic eggs (Brahmāndas) of the past, present a n d future a r e in him. H e n c e , he is called Lambodara. 35. Since his head, O gentle lady, h a d been cut off accidentally a n d t h e head of an e l e p h a n t h a d been fitted therein, he is declared as Gajānana.


2.3.42.36-44

713

36. T h e m o o n t h a t rose up on the fourth d a y (of t h e lunar fortnight) was cursed by Darbhin.1 H e n c e he b e c a m e sick. But he was held up by this son of yours on his forehead. Therefore, he is remembered as Bhālacandra. 37. J ā t a v e d a s (the fire-god) was formerly cursed by t h e seven sages a n d he was completely extinct. He was then kindled by your son by flapping his ears ?. H e n c e he is Śurpakarnaka. 38. Formerly, on the eve of the b a t t l e between t h e Devas a n d the Asuras, he was worshipped by t h e groups of heaven-dwellers. He dispelled the obstacles of his worshippers. Therefore, he is r e m e m b e r e d as Vighnanāśaka. 39. T o d a y , O gentle lady, he has been m a d e JEkadanta (Having a single tusk) by this R ā m a after m a k i n g t h e tusk fall off accidentally. 40. O beloved one of H a r a , . in a future creation of B r a h m a , his snout shall become b e n t . H e n c e , he is r e m e m b e r e d by scholars as Vakratunia. 4 1 . T h u s there are m a n y names of your son, O Pārvatī. On being r e m e m b e r e d , they dispel sins of the three units of time (past, present, future). 42-44. Prior to this t h i r t e e n t h K a l p a , in the t e n t h creation (Kalpa), a boon h a d been g r a n t e d to him by m e — t h a t of being worshipped before all other Devas. T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t all tasks c a n be accomplish­ ed by one who worships G a j ā n a n a in all these rites viz. Jātakarman ( t h e consecratory rite at t h e time of b i r t h ) a n d other holy rites, Garbhādhāna etc. (holy rites in connection with c o n c e p t i o n ) , Tātrā ( j o u r n e y ) , Vānijya (Business t r a d e ) , Tuddha ( b a t t l e ) , t h e auspicious rites of worshipping the Devas a n d in adversities. O n e shall then worship G a n e ś a for

1.

He was an ancient sage w h o created

kīta in Kuruksetra. A person performing became

the

master of

Mantras.

a

a sacred

thread

spot called Ardha-

ceremony

or fast at

holy spot (Mbh. Vana 8 3 - 1 5 4 - 5 7 ) But his cursing the m o o n is recorded in this text.

it,

O n c e D a r b h i n brought four o c e a n s to this only


Brahmānda Purāna

714

the achievement of the cherished desire. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t 1 all his undertakings become successful. Vasisfha said :— 4 5 . On hearing these words uttered by t h e very noblesouled K r s n a , Pārvatī, t h e goddess of all t h e worlds, the lady of splendid face, b e c a m e surprised. 46. W h e n Pārvatī did not offer any reply in the pre­ sence of Śiva, goddess R ā d h ā , identical with t h e eternal form of Śiva spoke thus. Sri Rādhā said :— 47-48. " T h e Prakrti a n d t h e P u r u s a — t h e s e two are inter­ d e p e n d e n t . In this world they a p p e a r as t h o u g h they are split into two. You a n d I are one. T h e r e is no difference between us. You a r e Visnu a n d I am Śiva who has duplicated in form. 4 9 . In the h e a r t of Śiva, Visnu has assumed your form and in the h e a r t of Visnu, Śiva has assumed my form. 2 50. This R ā m a , O highly fortunate lady, is a Vaisnava (form of V i s n u ) transformed into a Śaiva (form of Siva). This G a n e ś a is Śiva himself transformed into Visnu. 51-52. No difference is a n d between the two l o r d s " .

really seen

between us both

After saying this, R ā d h ā placed G a j ā n a n a on her l a p , sniffed at his h e a d a n d touched his cheeks with her h a n d . I m m e d i a t e l y after being touched, the w o u n d in the cheek healed completely. 53-55a. O n being appeased b y R ā d h ā , Pārvatī became delighted. W i t h her h a n d , she lifted up R ā m a who h a d fallen at her feet. Pārvatī placed him on her l a p and became extremely pleased after sniffing at his head. 1.

It shows that the custom of Gapeśa-worship

before

the

beginning

of an auspicious act, w a s prevalent at the time of Bd. P. 2.

Like other Purānas,

Bd. P. advocates

the identity

of Śiva a n d

V i s n u — a sort of a rapproachement between V a i s n a v i s m and Śaivism.


2.3.42.55b—43.3

715

On seeing the h o n o u r accorded to R ā m a a n d Ganeśa, K r s n a pulled Skanda towards him and lovingly placed him on his own lap. 55b-56. Ś a m b h u too who was delighted a n d who was t h e bestower of honour, greeted lovingly Ś r ī d ā m a n who was standing n e a r b y a n d placed h i m on his lap.

CHAPTER

FORTYTHREE

The Story of Bhārgava

{Continued)

Vasistha said :— 1-2. While they remained thus with affectionate hearts a n d minds, O lord of the E a r t h , R ā m a got up from the lap of Bhavānī. W i t h palms joined in reverence, self-restrained a n d with p u r i t y of m i n d , he eulogised devoutly the S u p r e m e L o r d t h a t has no p a r t i c u l a r features as t h o u g h it has t h e m , w h o (though) non-dual, has attained duality a n d who ( t h o u g h ) a quality-less entity has become possessed of qualities. Rāma prayed1 :— 3. T h i s Universe is b o r n of the products of P r a k r t i (i.e. of the seven Principles beginning with Mahat). How m u c h e n l i g h t e n m e n t or capacity do I have to m a k e it or to measure it ? T h e person whose body a n d n a m e a r e unknown (i.e. Śiva) has become the sole a b o d e and support of all desired objects. H e n c e , let t h e beloved of god Śiva i.e. goddess Pārvatī who has fulfilled all desire, protect m e . 1.

T h e alliteration of certain syllables (e.g. nam and tah in v.4a a n d 4b

and of Śi in v.5, si a n d no in v.6a and 6b are worth noting. In

this "omnibus prayer, P a r a ś u r ā m a

eulogizes

the important m e m - •

bers of Siva's family, R ā d h ā a n d K r s n a w h o helped h i m out of the

impasse

after smashing d o w n Ganeśa's tusk.

'"J

'J

(y r-****


716

Brahmānola Purāna

4. T h e fact t h a t P r a d h ā n a ( t h e primordial principle of Prakrti) is glorified as one whose qualities become manifest, one t h a t evolves (units of) time and n u m b e r one who is the primary cause of Sarhsāra. O mother, let t h e fall of your vision (i.e. glance) which makes artificial falls, protect me now. 5. Let that god who eats with six mouths (i.e. Kārttikeya) protect me a l w a y s — t h a t god who destroys the race of demons, who dispels the distress of the D e v a s * ; who develops the race of the Pramathas (Siva's a t t e n d a n t s ) , who reveals all lores, who m a d e the city of Kāśī all on a sudden, who gr ant s all blessings to the devotees and who conquered V a r u n a . 6. Let not (Vighneśvara) be the person w h o destroys f a m e — ( V i g h n e ś v a r a ) who habitually stays n e a r H a r a (Siva), who does the graceful work of serving K r s n a , who makes the people who bow down to him, shine, who makes the cowherdess lasses laugh, who is respected even by H a r a , who is singleminded by being devoted to the lord of Cowherdesses (i.e. K r s n a ) a n d who has understood m a n y types of expedients. t. K r s n a deserves to forgive my offence t h o u g h it be too m u c h grievous, K r s n a who has restrained his m i n d a n d directed it towards the lord ( S u p r e m e L o r d — Ś i v a ) , who has dispelled the obstacles of his devotees, who has removed multitudes of sins, who is the bestower of knowledge u p o n thosewho have no wealth, who possesses all weighty good qualities a n d who lies in the lap of R ā d h ā . 8. Let that leader p r o t e c t me as I bow down to the leader who is glorified as R ā d h ā , who is propitiated by the people at t h e times of outcome, m a i n t e n a n c e a n d annihilation of the Universe, who makes others understand the word t h a t is conducive to the appreciation of the nectar of love exuding from t h e m o u t h of t h e Lord, who is the sovereign of the R a s a dance, who is the goddess of the Rasikas (who have aesthetic sense) a n d who delights persons belonging to her fold by means of her strict a d h e r e n c e to the h e a r t of her lover. 9. L e t h e r ever be pleased, she from whose womb was born the Ativirāf ( e x t r e m e l y Superior Being) and of whom, •Emended obscure.

as

Ukha-tāpa-pranāli

for

lekha-pātāvināSi

as

the

text

is


2.3.43.10-16

717

VirS( forms b u t a p a r t . T h i s entire world consisting of t h e mobile a n d immobile beings is created by B r a h m a w h o was b o r n of the lotus coming out of t h e navel of the Lord a n d who h a d b e e n instructed in a secluded spot. T h e cosmic Eggs shine in t h e pores of the hairs of the body of the Lord. Let her w h o is t h e m o t h e r of t h a t lord be pleased always. 10. Let K ; ? n a be merciful to m e , K r s n a who is t h e lord of t h e Universe consisting of the mobile a n d immobile beings; who is all-pervading; who is the ocean of Existence, Knowledge a n d Bliss, a n d who gracefully manifests himself along with R ā d h ā , w h o is blind d u e to love. Let K r s n a who is perfect a n d complete be merciful to me whereby I shall become meritorious a n d shall be able to get myself merged in Bliss." Vasisfka said : 11. After eulogising thus the S u p r e m e one, the son of J a m a d a g n i stopped. He who h a d understood t h e meanings of all principles h a d the hair of his body standing on their ends as t h o u g h he h a d realized his wishes. 12. T h e n the lotus-eyed K r s n a who was delighted in his m i n d said to Bhārgava who bowed down to him devoutly, w h o deserved his sympathy a n d stood in front of him. Krsna said : 13. O p r o m i n e n t m e m b e r of t h e family of Bhrgu ! You are now a spiritually accomplished person, d u e to my bless­ ings. Now onwards, O dear one, be the most excellent person in this world. 14. Formerly, at the p e n a n c e grove of V i s n u p a d a , boon h a d b e e n g r a n t e d to you by m e . O holy lord, everything will take place in the course of m a n y years. 15. Kindness should be shown towards the miserable a n d t h e wretched ones, by one who wishes for excellent welfare. Yoga should be practised a n d t h e destruction of t h e enemies should be done as well. 16. T h e r e is no one equal to you in this world in regard to splendour a n d physical strength. By m e a n s of knowledge a n d renown too, you a r e the most excellent one a m o n g a l l .


718

Brahman fa Purāna

17. After reaching your house, render service to your p a r e n t s ; perform p e n a n c e at the proper time. T h e r e b y achieve­ ment of t h e spiritual goal shall be within your r e a c h " . 18. T h e lord of R ā d h ā then lifted up G a n e ś a from the lap of R ā d h ā , embraced him closely a n d m a d e him friendly to Rāma. 19. At the behest of K r s n a , O Suppressor of foes, both R ā m a a n d Ganeśa, of excessively great fortune b e c a m e highly delighted. 20. In the m e a n t i m e , goddess R ā d h ā , the chaste beloved of K r s n a , rejoiced a n d granted boons to b o t h of t h e m with pleasure evident in her face. Rādhā said : 2 1 . Your two sons shall be worthy of reverence of all the worlds as well as their delighters. You will become invincible. Particularly you will be my devotees. 22. If anyone utters your names a n d begins any task, he shall achieve success in t h a t task. Everything shall be d u e to my blessings". 23-24. T h e n Bhavānī, the beloved of Bhava ( Ś i v a ) , the m o t h e r of the Universe said :— " D e a r R ā m a , I am delighted with you. W h a t boon shall I grant you ? M e n t i o n t h a t O highly fortunate one, after giving up your fear." Rāma said : G r a n t me this b o o n t h a t I shall become t h e devotee of K r s n a and his beloved as well as of Bhava a n d his beloved, in the thousands of future births t h a t I m a y be destined to take. I shall see no difference between Krsnas (i.e. K r s n a a n d R ā d h ā ) a n d Bhavas (Bhava a n d Bhavānī) . " 1 Pārvati said : 25. " L e t it be so, O highly fortunate one. You are t h e devotee of Bhava (Śiva) a n d K r s n a . D u e to my blessings, O sage of holy rites, be long-lived." 1.

This Purāna specifically

tries to bring together Vaisnavism and

Śaivism. T h e boon sought and granted here emphasizes this.


2.3.43.26-32

719

26. T h e n the delighted lord of the m o u n t a i n , the h u s b a n d of U m ā , the lord of the Universe said to the leading m e m b e r of the family of Bhrgu, who bowed down a n d who deserved a boon. Śiva said : 27. " O dear one, O R ā m a , you are m y devotee. T h e boon t h a t I have granted you a l r e a d y shall be entirely fruitful in your case. T r u t h has been m e n t i o n e d by me. It shall never be otherwise. 28. F r o m now onwards there shall be no one in this world stronger t h a n you or possess m o r e splendour t h a n y o u . " Vasistha said: 29. After taking permission of Śiva a n d the d a u g h t e r of the m o u n t a i n , U m ā , K r s n a went back to Goloka accom­ panied b y Ś r ī d ā m a n a n d R ā d h ā . 30. T h e n the righteous R ā m a , worshipped Bhavānī a n d Bhava. After prostrating he c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d t h e m . 3 1 . After bowing down to a n d taking leave of G a n e ś a a n d Kārttikcya, O lord of t h e E a r t h , he set out for t h e house, accompanied by Akrtavrana. 32. Setting out, R ā m a was bowed down to by the G a n a s chief of w h o m was Nandīśvara, and O king, he went h o m e w i t h great joy.

Brahmanda urana 2  

Purana, Veda, Wisdom

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