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ANCIENT INDIAN TRADITION AND MYTHOLOGY

SERIES

[VOLUMES RELEASED] VOLUMES

ŚIVA 1-4 LIŃGA 5-6 BHĀGAVATA 7-11 GARUDA 12-14 NĀRADA 15-19 KŪRMA 20-21 BRAHMĀNDA 22-26 AGNI 27-30 VARĀHA 31-32 BRAHMA 33-36 VĀYU 37-38 PAD MA 39-48 SKANDA, PARTS I-XIV, 49-62 VOLUMES U N D E R PREPARATION SKANDA, PARTS XV-XXIII BHAV1SYA BRAHMAVAIVARTA DEVĪBHĀGAVATA KĀL1KA MĀRKANDEYA MATSYA VĀMANA VISNU VTSNUDIiARMOTTARA


THE

BRAHMĀNDA PURĀNA Translated and Annotated by

DR. G.V. TAGARE

PART IV

M O T I L A L BANARSIDASS P U B L I S H E R S PRIVATE LIMITED • D E L H I


First

Edition:

Reprint:

Delhi,

Delhi,

1984 1999

© MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED All Rights Reserved

ISBN: 81-20&O357-4

Also available at:

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This book has been accepted in the Indian Translation Series of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, jointly sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Government of India

P R I N T E D IN I N D I A BY J A I N E N D R A PRAKASH J A I N AT SHRI J A I N E N D R A PRESS, A-45 N A R A I N A , P H A S E I, N E W D E L H I 110 0 2 8 A N D P U B L I S H E D B Y N A R E N D R A PRAKASH J A I N FOR M O T I L A L B A N A R S I D A S S P U B L I S H E R S PRIVATE LIMITED, B U N G A L O W R O A D , DELHI 110 0 0 7


PUBLISHERS' NOTE T h e purest gems lie hidden in the bottom.of the ocean or in the depth of rocks. O n e has to dive into the ocean or delve into the rocks to 単nd t h e m out. Similarly, truth lies concealed in the language which with the passage of time has become obsolete. M a n has to learn that language before he discovers that truth. But he has neither the means nor the leisure to embark on that course. We have, therefore, planned to help h i m acquire knowledge by an easier course. We have started the scries of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English Translation. O u r goal is to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium of expression. T h e publication of the Pur an as in English translation is a step towards that goal.


PREFACE T h e present volume contains the Brahmānda Purāńa, Part IV (comprising chapters 1-4 of the fourth section, Upasathhāra a n d 5-30 of the Lalitā Episode) in English Trans­ lation. This is the Twenty-fifth volume in the Series which we have planned on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. T h e project of the Series was envisaged a n d financed in 1970 by Lala S u n d a r Lai J a i n of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. Hitherto twentyfour volumes of the Series (comprising English translation of Śiva, Lińga, Bhāgavata, Garuda, Nārada, Kūrma a n d Brahmānia Purānas) have been published a n d released for sale. T h e present volume ( C h . 1) opens with t h e description of Cosmic deluge {Upasamhāra) which starts after the completion of a K a l p a , lasts as long as the night of B r a h m a a n d dissolves whatever h a d been evolved d u r i n g t h e day of B r a h m a . H e r e , as usual, S ū t a is the chief speaker who on enquiry from t h e sages describes in detail t h e process of Ābhūta-Satnplava—the annihila­ tion of the universe. As in t h e other P u r ā n a s , here too, the process of evolution as well as of involution is treated in t h e way of S ā ñ k h y a : the evolution starts with the disequilibrium of G u n a s : Sattva, rajas and tamas, whereas the involution u brought about by their equilibrium. T h e opening chapter explains the three types of dissolution viz Naimittika (Occasional, pertaining to B r a h m a ) , Prākrtika ( p e r t a i n i n g to P r a k r t i ) a n d Ātyantika ( t h e U l t i m a t e , due to the dawning of perfect knowledge). C h . 2 describes Bhuvanakośa or the different regions of the universe a n d t h e abodes of their residents during the period of annihilation. In t h e total annihilation, only t h e residents of Śiva-loka escape, for they enter into lord Śiva himself who being the subtlest A n u is indestructible. T h e P u i ā n a declares t h a t the dissolution is wrought by the supreme being t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m of P r a k r t i . C h . 3 describes the process of involution of T a t t v a s at t h e expiry of a K a l p a . C h . 4 explains the process of Re-creation of the Universe after the period of dissolution.


(

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It describes how the world evolves through the disequilibrium of G u n a s a n d how it is destroyed when the G u n a s attain equanimity. T h e U p a s a m h ā r a concludes the B r a h m ā n d a P u r ā n a . T h e concluding verses of U p a s a m h ā r a a r e compared in the form of epilogues of the other P u r ā n a s — a fact which proves conclu­ sively t h a t the B r a h m ā n d a ended with the end of Upasarhhāra. Moreover, the four P ā d a s — P r a k r i y ā , Anusańga, U p o d g h ā t a a n d U p a s a r h h ā r a — c o v e r the five m a i n topics of a P u r ā n a , viz. Sarga, Pratisarga, V a m ś a , M a n v a n t a r a and V a r h ś ā n u c a r i t a a n d there is no scope for addition, but, as it stands, the U p a s a m h ā r a is followed by the episode of \^a\hk{Lalitopākhyānd) which proves intrinsically t h a t the episode was a p p e n d e d to the P u r ā n a by the devotees of Śakti to give it the Sākta colouring. T h a t the Lalitā story begins with a fresh benediction (mańgalāckra) and t h a t it starts with the different set of interlocutors—sage Agastya a n d Hayagrīva—shows t h a t it was quite an independent work which was added to the B r a h m ā n d a text. It m a y also be noted t h a t the Lalitā episode ends abruptly, without the characteristic m a r k of an epilogue. T h e Episode is a comprehensive treatise. It consists of 40 chapters, of which thirty are included in the present volume. T h e remaining ten are included in volume 26 t h a t is the next. T h e Episode is p u t in the Uttarabhāga together with U p a s a m h ā r a . It is strange t h a t the episode takes the serial n u m b e r of chapters from U p a s a m h ā r a . T h e U p a s a m h ā r a consists of four chapters, the episode which follows starts with ch. 5, t h a t is, in continuation of the ch. n u m b e r of the U p a s a r h h ā r a , evidently to show t h a t it was a p a r t of B r a h m ā n d a P u r ā n a . Moreover, the a r r a n g e r of the P u r ā n a h a d to observe the partwise uniformity in the serial order of c h a p t e r numbers. To illustrate, P a r t I {Pūruabhāga) consists o r chapters 1 to 38. P a r t II (Madhyabhāga) chapters 1 to 74; a n d p a r t I I I (Uttarabhāga) chapters 1 to 4 4 . T h u s in regard to t h e n u m b e r i n g of chapters, the P u r ā n a m a i n t a i n s a partwise consistency throughout. T h e scene of the episode is laid in K ā ñ c ī (mod. Kañjeev a r a m , SW. of M a d r a s ) , the abode of Śiva and Visnu. T h e town is divided into two parts : the Eastern a n d the Western, called the Visnu-Kāñcī a n d the Śiva-Kāñcī. T h e presiding deity


(

«

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of Śiva-Kāñcī is lord Śiva known as E k ā m r a n ā t h a . His consort is K ā m ā k s ī . T h e episode seems to have a D r a v i d i a n background as K ā ñ c ī is mentioned several times. L a l i t ā is the Śakti of L o r d ś i v a represented by t h e symbol %. W i t h o u t her, Śiva is Śava (a corpse). T h e episode opens with the worship of Śakti a n d t h e eulogy of h e r glory (ch. 5 ) . Gh. 6 narrates t h e episode of I n d r a a n d Durvāsas, how Durvāsas cursed I n d r a for his a r r o ­ gance when the latter dishonoured the g a r l a n d of flowers which the goddess h a d offered to N ā r a d a a n d which N ā r a d a passed on to I n d r a as a m a r k of e n d e a r m e n t . C h . 7 relates to the sins accruing from theft a n d drinking a n d illustrates how t h e merit of good actions from the theft of property is distributed a m o n g t h e parties concerned. It also records different types of sins current in ancient I n d i a , permission to non-Brahmins, b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n t o d r i n k b u t prohibition t o B r ā h m a n a s even for worshipping ' m o t h e r s ' . C h . 8 relates to agamyāgamana (carnally approaching a forbidden woman) and cites the esoteric fifteen-lettered m a n t r a of P a r ā Śakti for releasing sinners from all sorts of sins, both major a n d m i n o r ( m a h ā p ā t a k a s a n d u p a p ā t a k a s ) . C h . 9 narrates how I n d r a killed his preceptor Triśiras or Viśvajit on t h e suspicion of his complicity with Daityas. M e n t i o n is also m a d e of the joint venture of Suras a n d Asuras for c h u r n i n g the milky O c e a n . Ch. 10 gives t h e list of jewels t h a t were c h u r n e d out of it. L o r d Visnu is said to have assumed the form of Mohinī while Śiva impassioned by her c h a r m dropped semen giving birth t o M a h ā ś ā s t ā . T h e c h a p t e r introduces the S u p r e m e Goddess Lalitā, traces h e r origin a n d mentions t h e purpose of her birth, viz. the killing of Asura B h a n d a . Chs. 11-12 recount the b i r t h of B h a n d a a n d t h e building of Ś o n i t a p u r a for his residence. On t h e instructions of N ā r a d a , I n d r a propitiates P a r ā Śakti, while on t h e advice of Ś u k r a B h a n d a creates disturbance in I n d r a ' s penance. C h . 13 is an eulogy of Lalitā by Devas. Śrīdevī promises to kill B h a n d a herself. Chs 14-15 describe t h e m a r r i a g e of L a l i t ā and K ā m e ś v a r a a n d their coronation. Chs. 16-18 describe Lalitā's m a r c h of a r m y against B h a n d a . C h . 19 n a m e s deities slationed on the chariot Cakrarāja, mentions the procedure of appeals to Lalitā t h r o u g h Mantrinī. Chs 20-24 describe Deities


(

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stationed on the chariot Kiricakra, record the boasting of B h a n d a , slaughter of D u r m a d a , K u r a n d a and other asura generals. Chs 25-28 record how Nityā Śaktis repulsed the surprise attack of asuras on the rear. It recounts the slaying of Bhandāsura's sons, the exploits of G a n a n ā t h a , the son of the Goddess, the slaying of B h a n d a ' s brothers : Viśukra a n d Visańga, the effects, of missiles used by t h e asuras a n d those of the counter-missiles used by śaktis. It mentions Saktis' drinking of wine and its after-effects. C h . 29 describes the discharge of various missiles a n d their wonderful result, the slaughter of Bhanda, the burning of Ś ū n y a k a a n d the total annihilation of the asura army. C h . 30 deals with t h e resurrection of t h e cupid, his subjugation of Śiva, Siva's m a r r i a g e w i t h Pārvati, t h e b i r t h of M a h ā s e n a Kārttikeya who later on became the general of the a r m y of Devas a n d killed the mighty asura T ā r a k a . T h e c h a p t e r ends with the r e t u r n of M a h ā s e n a K ā r t t i k e y a to Śrīpura to serve Lalitā goddess. Acknowledgement of Obligations It is o u r pleasant d u t y to p u t on record our sincere thanks to D r . R. N. D a n d e k a r and the U N E S C O authorities for their kind encourgement a n d valuable help which render this work more useful t h a n it would otherwise have been. We are extremely grateful to Dr. G.V. T a g a r e for his critical Introducr tion, lucid translation a n d comprehensive annotations. We thank Shri T. V Parameshwar Iyer for his valuable assistance in the preparation of this work. We also express our gratitude to all those persons w h o have offered suggestions for improving the same.

—Editor


CONTENTS v

Publishers' Note Preface Abbreviations

vii xiii P A R T IV

SECTION IV : UPASAMHĀRA CHAPTERS

1.

Dissolution of t h e Universe

957

2. 3. 4.

T h e city of Siva Dissolution of the Universe Re-creation of t h e Universe

978 1008 1020

LALITA 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

MAHATMYA

Agastya's Pilgrimage to sacred places : Manifestation of Visnu A Dialogue between Agastya a n d H a y a g r ī v a . T h e N a t u r e of Violence etc. T h e Sins of Theft a n d Drinking Sexual C r i m e C h u r n i n g of the ocean for N e c t a r Manifestation of Mohinī A p p e a r a n c e of Asura B h a n d a Manifestation of Lalitā A h y m n in praise of Lalitā Manifestation of K ā m e ś v a r a Festivities in honour of the m a r r i a g e of Lalitā w i t h K ā m e ś v a r a M a r c h of Victory along with the a r m y M a r c h of the a r m y of Śyāmalā M a r c h of the a r m y of Lalitā P a r a m e ś v a r ī Deities stationed on the C h a r i o t Cakrarāja Deities on the K i r i c a k r a r a t h a Boasting of B h a n d ā s u r a D u r m a d a a n d K u r a n d a slain Five Asura Generals slain

1031 1035 1042 1050 1057 1065 1073 1077 1084 1088 1091 1097 1100 1105 1107 1116 1125 1133 1142


( 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

«i

)

Seven generals beginning with Balāhaka slain Flight of Visańga B h a n d ā s u r a ' s sons slain Exploits of G a n a n ā t h a Viśukra a n d Visañga slain Slaying of B h a n d ā s u r a Resurrection of M a d a n a (god of love)

1151 1159 1168 1178 1187 1197 1211


ABBREVIATIONS

C o m m o n a n d self-evident abbreviations such as c h ( s ) — c h a p t e r (s), p — p a g e , p p — p a g e s , v—verse, w — v e r s e s , F t n — footnote, Hist. I n d . Philo—History of I n d i a n Philosophy a r e not included in this list. ABORI

Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute, P o o n a .

AGP

S. M. Ali's The Geography of Purinas, P P H ,

Oriental Research

New Delhi, 1973. AIHT

Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, F. E. Pargiter, Motilal Banarsidass ( M L B D ) , Delhi.

AITM

Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, M L B D , Delhi, 1972 onwards. Agni Purina, G u r u M a n d a l Edition ( G M ) , Calcutta, 1957.

AP Arch. S. R e p .

Archaeological Survey R e p o r t .

AV

Atharoa Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h .

Bd. P.

Brahm&nda Purihfa, M L B D , D e l h i 1973.

BG

Bhagavadgltā.

Bh. P.

Bhāgavata Purina, Ahmedabad.

Br.

Brihmana ( p r e c e d e d Śalapatha).

Bhagavat by

Vidyapeeth,

name

such as

Bs. P.

Bhavifya Parana, Vishnu Shastri Bapat, W a i .

Bv. P.

Brahma Vaivarta Purina, G M , 1955-57.

GC

Caturvarga Cintāmani by H e m ā d r i .

CVS

Carana Vyūha Sūtra by Ś a u n a k a ; C o m . by

DB

Devi Bhāgavata, G M , 1960-61.

Mahidāsa.


( De or G D A M I

«v

)

GS

The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, N. L. D c , O r i e n t a R e p r i n t , Delhi, 1971. Dharma Sūtra (preceded by the a u t h o r ' s n a m e such as G a u t a m a ) . Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics—Hastings. Garuda Purāna, Ed. R. S. Bhattacharya, C h o w k h a m b a , Varanasi, 1964. Grhya Sūtra (Preceded by t h e n a m e of t h e

HD

a u t h o r such as Āpastamba) History of Dharma Śāstra by P. V. K a n e ,

IA

G.O.S. The Indian Antiquary.

IHQ,

The Indian Historical Quarterly.

D h . S. ERE GP

KA

Kaufiliya

KP

Kūrma Purāna, Venkateshwara Press E d t . Bombay, also Kashiraj Trust E d t . , V a r a n a s i 1971.

LP

Arthaiistra.

MKP

Liñga Purāna, G M , 1960; also M L B D , Delhi, 1981. Manu Smrti. Mahābhārata, Gitā Press, G o r a k h p u r , VS 2014. Mārkandeya Purāna.

MN

Mahābhārata

M t . P.

Matsya Purāna, G M , 1954.

MW

Monier Williams • Sk. English Dictionary M L B D , Delhi, 1976.

NP

Nāradiya : or Nārada Press, Bombay.

PGK

BhāratavarsiyaPrācina Caritrakośa, Siddheshwar

Manu Mbh.

Nāmānukramani,

Gītā

Press,

G o r a k h p u r , VS 2016,

Purāna, Venkateshwar

Shastri, Poona, 1968. Pd. P.

Padma Purāna, G M , 1957-59.

PE

Puranic Encyclopaedia by V. M L B D , Delhi, 1975.

M a n i , English,


(

xv

)

JP

Purina ( J o u r n a l of the Kashirāj Varanasi.

Trust),

PR or P R H R C

Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs

RV

Rg Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h

Sat. Br

Śatapalha Brihmana,

R. C. H a z r a , Calcutta, 1948.

S C or S M C

Smrti Candriki—Devanna B h a t t ā .

SEP

Studies in Epics and Purinas by A. D. Pusalkar B h a r a t i y a Vidya B h a v a n ( B V B ) , Bombay.


Ill

UTTARABHAGA SECTION IV

UPASAMHARAPADA


CHAPTER ONE Description of the Dissolution of the Universe1 1. After hearing the third Section recounted by t h e intelligent Sūta, the excellent sages asked h i m a b o u t the fourth P ā d a . The sages said :— 2. " O u t of tenderness a n d affection for us, the third fore-gone Section has been covered by you. Describe in detail the fourth Section called ' a n n i h i l a t i o n ' (Samhāra). 3-4. R e c o u n t to us all the M a n v a n t a r a s , the earlier ones along w i t h the others (i.e. future o n e s ) . N a r r a t e to us the details of all t h e Saptarsis (seven sages). In the present M a n v a n t a r a , mention all t h e p a r t s in detail a b o u t the Creation o f the G r e a t S o u l . M e n t i o n everything to u s i n detail a n d i n the proper o r d e r . " Sūta said :— 5-6. "I shall n a r r a t e to you this F o u r t h Section along with (the description of) a n n i h i l a t i o n . O excellent sages, I shall mention e v e r y t h i n g as it is. Listen, O Brāhmanas, to this creation of Vaivasvata M a n u w h o is the current M a n u of noble soul. Listen t o his creation in detail a n d in t h e p r o p e r o r d e r . 1.

Although the title signifies the 'merger of the entire three worlds in

their constituent elements during the period o f a complete d a y (i.e. d a y a n d night)

of Brahma

(vide V V . 2 3 6 , 2 3 7 ) , it contains m u c h more material from

the description of future M a n u s or dissolution of everything

after

rather

Manu-periods

and

the ultimate

g o d Brahma's 'merger' into the 'equilibrium

of three gunas'. T h e influence of Sāñkhya theory of involution of the universe is

under

the Purānic w a y of description of dissolution.

obvious


Brahmāntfa PurSya

958

7. U n d e r s t a n d , even as I recount, t h e s u m m a r y of t h e M a n v a n t a r a s along with the future seven ( M a n v a n t a r a s ) a& well as t h e dissolution of t h e worlds. 8. T h e s e M a n v a n t a r a s have been recounted perfectly. T h e subjects (i.e. creations) in t h e seven M a n v a n t a r a s h a v e also been recounted. 1 Listen to t h e brief description of t h e future M a n v a n t a r a s from m e . 9. I shall m e n t i o n t h e details of S ā v a r n a t h e future M a n u a n d son of Vivasvān ( t h e Sun g o d ) . U n d e r s t a n d briefly the future 8 (details). 10-13. T h e future great sages are r e m e m b e r e d as seven in n u m b e r . T h e y a r e G ā l a v a of K a u ś i k a family, J ā m a d a g n y a (i.e. P a r a ś u r ā m a ) of Bhārgava family, D v a i p ā y a n a of Vasisfha family, K r p a of Ś ā r a d v a t a family, D ī p t i m a n of Atri family, Rsyaśrńga of K a ś y a p a family a n d A ś v a t t h ā m ā , t h e son of D r o n a , of great renown, of Bharadvāja family. T h e s e are t h e noble-souled seven g r e a t sages of t h e future. T h e r e will be t h r e e groups A m i t ā b h a s a n d Sukhas. E a c h of remembered as consisting of twenty their names separately. U n d e r s t a n d and concentration. 14-16a. Rtu, Tapa, 1.

of Devas n a m e d S u t a p a ś v these groups of Devas is Devas. I shall m e n t i o n t h e same with attention,

T h e twenty Devas of t h e S u t a p a g r o u p a r e : Śukra, K r t i , N e m i , iPrabhākara, P r a b h ā s a ,

For the general

information about

Manu-Periods

(Manvantaras).

aide supra I. ii. 35-150-215, Ibid chapters 36, 37, 3 8 . 2.

As stated in B h . P. X l I . 7 - 1 5 , in every Manu-Period

types of officers : ( 1 ) M a n u , ( 2 ) A group

of

gods,

(5)

(4)

variation

Indra or the chief of gods,

seven sages,

there are five

(3) A

group of

Sons of M a n u . T h e r e it some

in the details of n a m e s etc. of these officers

in

different

Purānas.

In this Purāna also the information a b o u t these office-bearers etc. is given a rather confusing w a y that it

is

somewhat

difficult

statement for e a c h of the M a n u s with the n a m e s of

to

prepare

special

in.

a tabular

office-bearers

e a c h category under h i m even though the information h e r e is m o r e

of

detailed

than in other Purānas like V P . T h e future saptarsis ( S e v e n great Sages) etc. m e n t i o n e d

in

W.

10-22

belong to the 8th M a n u , Sāvarna. Cf. V P . I I I . ch. 2.14-19. T h e author states that ' d u e to the curtailed details ( V . 37 b e l o w . )

multiplicity

of repetitions', he

has


3.4.1.16-26

959

M ā s a k r t (? B h ā s a k r t ) , D h a r m a , Tejas, R a ś m i , K r a t u , V i r ā t , A r c i s m ā n , D y o t a n a , B h ā n u , Yaśas, Kīrti, B u d h a a n d D h r t i . T h u s t h e twenty S u t a p a s h a v e been glorified w i t h their names. 16b-17. T h e twenty Devas of t h e A m i t ā b h a g r o u p a r e : — P r a b h u , Vibhu, Vibhāsa, J e t ā ( J e t r ) , H a n t ā ( H a n t r ) , A r i h ā , R t u , S u m a t i , P r a m a t i , Dīpti S a m ā k h y ā t a , M a h a s , M a h ā n , Dehī, M u n i , I n a , Postā (Post* 1 ), S a m a , Satya a n d Viśruta. These a r e the twenty A m i t ā b h a s . T h e y have been d u l y recounted. 18-19. T h e twenty Devas of t h e Sukha g r o u p a r e : — D ā m a , D ā n ī , R t a , Soma, V i t t a , Vaidya, Y a m a , N i d h i , H o m a , Havya, H u t a , D a n a , Deya, D a t a ( D ā t r ) , T a p a s , Ś a m a , D h r u v a , S t h ā n a , V i d h ā n a , a n d N i y a m a . These twenty a r e m e n t i o n e d as the groups of Devas called Sukhas in t h e first (future) M a n v a n t a r a of S ā v a r n a . 20-21. T h e y a r e t h e sons of t h e noble-souled K a ś y a p a , t h e son of Marīci. In t h a t M a n v a n t a r a (the above-mentioned) sixty Devas will be b o r n to K a ś y a p a w h o is the present one. N i n e sons will be born to M a n u S ā v a r n a . 22. T h e y will be Virajas, Arvarīvān, Nirmoka a n d others. I shall m e n t i o n t h e nine sons in t h e o t h e r S ā v a r n a Manvantaras. 2 3 . O t h e r S ā v a r n a M a n u s will be t h e future sons of B r a h m a . T h e y a r e four, endowed with divine visions such as M e r u s ā v a r n i e t c . (or from M e r u s ā v a r n i ) . 24. T h e y a r e t h e grandsons of D a k s a , the sons of Kriyā, his d a u g h t e r . T h e y have equipped themselves with great power of p e n a n c e on t h e ridge of t h e M e r u . T h e y have g r e a t prowess. 25. T h e y a r e begot by B r a h m a a n d others as well as by t h e intelligent D a k s a . On passing away, they go over to M a h a r l o k a . T h e y will resort to M e r u a n d become the future Manus. 26. Those persons endowed with dignity a n d splendour were formerly b o r n i n t h e Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y t h e m ­ selves will be b o r n in t h e future M a n v a n t a r a s .


960

Brahmānfa PwSaux

27. Of those M a n u s w h o are the grandsons of Prācetasa Daksa, five a r e n a m e d Sāvarnas a n d four a r e b o r n of great sages. 28. O n e Sāvarni is the son of Samjñā, b o r n of Vivasvān (the Sun-god). T h e eldest son of Samjñā is lord M a n u , son of Vivasvān. 29-30. T h e i r excellent manifestation is at the advent of Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a . T h u s these fourteen M a n u s , w h o cause the increase of reputation have been glorified in the Vedas, Smrtis a n d P u r ā n a s . All of t h e m are the mighty ones with g r e a t potentiality. All of t h e m are lords of subjects as well as those of living beings. 3 1 . T h e entire E a r t h including the cities and consisting of seven continents is to be protected by those rulers of m e n for the full period of a t h o u s a n d Yugas. 32. T h e i r detailed description along with t h a t of their progeny a n d power of p e n a n c e will be stated. T h e s e creations of Svāyarribhuva a n d o t h e r M a n u s , . it should be known, are fourteen. 33. T h e y hold offices of a u t h o r i t y in t h e M a n v a n t a r a s (only) once.- After t h e expiry of t h e t e n u r e of their office they resort to M a h a r l o k a . 3 4 . (?) Of t h e m six have passed on a n d the rest a r e eight in n u m b e r . T h e lord M a n u reigns by himself in the case of the previous ones as well in the c u r r e n t o n e . ,35. I shall recount those w h o yet r e m a i n along w i t h the Devas, Sages a n d D ā n a v a s . O B r ā h m a n a s , I shall m e n t i o n to you all the - future ones along with the creation of their progeny. 3 6 . T h e i r details should be known through the example of creation of Vaivasvata M a n u , because all of them a r e neither inferior n o r superior to Vivasvān. 37. D u e to the multiplicity of repetitions, I shall not recount the details of the future as well as past M a n v a n t a r a s . 38. H e n c e the creations in the different families should be understood partially for the realization of their details a n d p r o p e r sequence.


961

3.4.1.39-54

39. A virtuous d a u g h t e r of D a k s a is well-known by t h e n a m e Suvratā. She was the most excellent of all the d a u g h t e r s a n d was the eldest d a u g h t e r of Vīrinī. 40. T h e father took his d a u g h t e r of B r a h m a . Vairāja (i.e. B r a h m a ) , was seated there a t t e n d e d u p o n by D h a r m a a n d Bhava. 41-44a. B r a h m a spoke to Daksa w h o was seated n e a r Bhava a n d D h a r m a . This, your d a u g h t e r S u v r a t ā , will p r o ­ create four sons w h o will be splendid M a n u s establishing t h e discipline of the.four castes. O n h e a r i n g the words o f B r a h m a , Daksa, D h a r m a a n d Bhava, the t h r e e of them along with B r a h m a mentally a p p r o a c h ­ ed t h a t girl. I m m e d i a t e l y t h a t girl gave b i r t h to four • sons similar in a p p e a r a n c e a n d form to t h e m because they were of truthful conception. 44b-46. Even as they were born, they were p r e p a r e d for carrying o u t their duties, T h e y were endowed with splend­ our, w i t h physical bodies produced immediately a n d c a p a b l e of experiencing and enjoying. O n seeing t h e m b o r n b y themselves a n d u t t e r i n g V e d i c hymns, they ( B r a h m a a n d others) became excited. T h e y pulled t h e m saying " M y son, M y s o n " . M e d i t a t i n g u p o n t h e m as b o r n of themselves, they spoke a m o n g themselves. 47-49. " H e shall t a k e u n t o h i m as his son, the one w h o is similar to h i m in physical form, w h o is similar to h i m in physical features, size and prowess. Welfare u n t o you, let h i m take the one who is of the same complexion (as his s o n ) . Certainly, the son always conforms to the form a n d feature of his father. H e n c e , the son is e q u a l to his father a n d m o t h e r in prowess". After arriving at this a r g u m e n t a m o n g themselves, all t h e m took their respective sons.

of

50-54. After t h e Cāksusa M a n v a n t a r a h a d elapsed a n d the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a h a d arrived, a son n a m e d R a u c y a was b o r n to R u c i , the P r a j ā p a t i . He w h o was begot n a m e d Bhautya.

of Bhūti as t h e

son of Kavi, w a s


Brahmānia Purāna

962

I n the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a two M a n u s were b o r n o f Vivasvān-. O n e is well known as Vaivasvata M a n u a n d the other is r e p u t e d as J§āyarna. / '"" T h e learned lord Vaivasvata Manji should be known as -tke-soiLjQf_.Saihjñā. A n o t h e r (fet-ivasvctta^Mānu is remembered as the feon of Sjyvarnā. Those Sāvarna M a n u s , the four b o r n of great sages, have e q u i p p e d themselves w i t h t h e power of p e n a n c e . T h e y will be persons achieving all their tasks as M a n u s in their respective future M a n v a n t a r a s . 55-56. In the first (future M a n v a n t a r a ) three groups of Devas will be b o r n when M e r u s ā v a r n i 1 , the son of Daksa, is t h e M a n u . T h e y will b e Paras, Marīcigarbhas a n d S u d h a r m a n s . E a c h g r o u p consists of twelve Devas. Those noble-souls h a v e all been b o r n in the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a as the sons of R o h i t a , the Prajāpati, the son of Daksa. T h e y will be the future groups of Devas. 57. Aiśvara, Vāku, Varhśa, R ā h u a n d (the other eight) Grahas (planets) should be known as Paras. U n d e r s t a n d t h e others. 58-59, T h e following are the twelve Marlcis viz.— Vājipa, Vājijit, P r a b h ū t i , K a k u d m ī , D a d h i k r ~ v a n , Vipakva, P r a n i t a , Vijaya, M a d h u , U t a t h y a a n d two U t t a m a k a s ( ? ) . I shall m e n t i o n the S u d h a r m a n s by n a m e . U n d e r s t a n d them. 60-61. V a r n a , (?) Athagarvi*, Bhuranya, Vrajana, A m i t a , Asita, D r a v a k e t u , J a m b h a , Aja, Śakraka, Sunemi a n d D y u t a y a . T h e S u d h a r m a n s a r e glorified thus. T h e n their I n d r a will be the future one n a m e d A d b h u t a . 62-64a. This (Adbhuta) is S k a n d a , the son of Pārvatī (otherwise known as) K ā r t t i k e y a a n d Pāvaki. T h e seven sages in the R o h i t a M a n v a n t a r a are M e d h ā t i t h i of the family of 1.

VV.

55-65 give details

of the office-bearers, gods, sages

etc.

of

Meru-Sāvarni w h o is otherwise k n o w n as Daksa-Sāvarni. Cf. V P . I I I . 2 . 2 0 - 2 3 . O u r text gives more detailed information about these of office-bearers than in V P . •Ańga a n d V i ś v a as per V ā . P. 100.64.

categories or

groups


963

3.4.1.64-76

P u l a s t y a , Vasu of the family of K a ś y a p a , J y o t i s m ā n of t h e family of Bhrgu, D y u t i m ā n of the family of Ańgiras, V a s i n a of t h e family of Vasistha, H a v y a v ā h a n a of the family of Atri a n d S u t a p a s of t h e family of P u l a h a . 64b-65. T h e following are declared as t h e nine sons of t h e f i r s t S ā v a r n i : — D h r t i k e t u , Dīptiketu, Śāpa, H a s t a , N i r ā m a y a , P r t h u ś r a v a s , Anlka, B h ū r i d y u m n a a n d Brhadyaśas. 66-68. In t h e t e n t h recurrence of M a n v a n t a r a , the M a n u will be t h e second S ā v a r n i 1 , the son of D h a r m a . In t h a t future M a n v a n t a r a , t h e r e will be two groups of Devas namely Sudhāmans and Viruddhas. All of t h e m are effulgent a n d they equally n u m b e r a h u n d r e d . T h e h u n d r e d P r ā n a s m e n t i o n e d b y t h e Sages i n P u r u s a will be t h e Devas ( d u r i n g the reign) of t h e M a n u , t h e •son of D h a r m a . 69-7la. T h e i r learned Śānti.

Indra,

it is said, will be t h e

future

T h e seven great sages will be t h e glorious H a v i s m ā n of t h e family of P u l a h a , Suklrti of t h e family of Bhrgu, A p o m ū r t i of the family of Atri, A p a v a of t h e family of Vasistha, A p r a t i m a of t h e family of Pulastya, N ā b h ā g a of the family of K a ś y a p a -and A b h i m a n y u of the family of Ańgiras. 71b-72. It is p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e following will be t h e t e n sons of M a n u : — S u k s e t r a , U t t a m a u j a s , Bhūrisena, Vīryavān, Śatānīka, Nirāmitra, Vr?asena, Jayadratha, B h ū r i d y u m n a a n d Suvarcas. 73-76. In t h e eleventh M a n v a n t a r a of t h e third .Sāvarna, t h e groups of Devas will be t h e following three, n a m e l y N i r v ā n a r a t i s , K ā m a g a s (? V i h a ń g a m a in Verse 75) a n d M a n o j a v a s . T h e s e three sets of noble-souled D e v a t ā s a r e wellknown. E a c h of those groups of heaven-dwellers consists of thirty Devas. T h e thirty days of the m o n t h , t h e poets know, as t h e set o f Devas n a m e d N i r v ā n a r a t i s a n d t h e t h i r t y nights a r e 1.

Although the specific n a m e of this second Sāvarni is not

here, it is Brahma-sāvarni. vide verse 81 below. V V . 66-81 of groups of gods, sages etc. during this

tenth M a n u

.Manu is called Prājāpatya (i.e. Brahma-sāvarna).

mentioned

stale the n a m e s

Period.

In V. 81 this


964

Brahman 4a Pur day*

V i h a ń g a m a s (Kāmagas)'. M a n o j a v a s w h o h a d been m e n t i o n e d as the third set of Devatās will be the M u h ū r t a s . T h u s the Devas have b e e n r e c o u n t e d . 77. T h e s e a r e r e m e m b e r e d as the future m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a . T h e i r I n d r a is V r s a b y name. H e will b e the future king of Suras. 78-81. U n d e r s t a n d their seven sages too being r e c o u n t e d : T h e y are H a v i s m ā n oT the family of K a ś y a p a , V a p u s m ā n of the family of Bhrgu, Aruni of the family of Atri, N ā g a of the family of Vasistha, P u s t i who should be known as belonging to the family of Ańgiras, N i ś c a r a of the family of Pulastya a n d Atitejas of t h e family of P u l a h a . T h e Devas in the eleventh M a n v a n t a r a (have been, m e n t i o n e d ) . T h e n i n e sons of the S ā v a r n a of Prājāpatya ( i . e . Brahmasāvarna) are Sarvavega, S u d h a r m a , Devānīka, P u r o v a h a , K s e m a d h a r m a , G r a h e s u , Adarśa, P a u n d r a k a a n d Maru. 82. I n t h e twelfth M a n v a n t a r a M a r n i will b e R u d r a ' s son. The fourth S ā v a r n a will be R u d r a s ā v a r n a . 1 Listen to the Devas d u r i n g his M a n v a n t a r a . 83-85A. T h e future Devas (of this M a n v a n t a r a ) aresaid to be of five groups. T h e y are H a r i t a s , R o h i t a s , S u m a n a s , Sukarmans a n d Sutāras. T h e following ten are r e m e m b e r e d as H a r i t a s viz. Vidvān,. Sahasrada, Parvata, A n u c a r a , Apārhśu Manojava, Ūrjā, Svāhā, S v a d h ā and T ā r ā . 85b-86. T h e following ten Devas are remembered asR o h i t a s viz. T a p a , J ñ ā n ī , M r t i , Varcas, B a n d h u , Rasa, Rāja, S v a r n a p ā d a , Pusti a n d V i d h i . 87. Those thirty-three Devas who have already been mentioned, beginning with T u s i t a , should be known as Sumanas. U n d e r s t a n d the S u k a r m a n s : T h e y are S u p a r v ā , V r ś a b h a , Prsta, K a p i , D y u m n a , Vipaścit, Vikvama, K r a m a , V i b h r t a a n d K ā n t a . These Devas are-Sukarmans. 1.

VV. 82-95a state the names of Saptarsis,. D e v a s , etc. under the-

twelfth M a n u Rudra-Sāvarna (-Sāvarni).


3.4.1.88-100

965

88-90, U n d e r s t a n d the S u t ā r a s : T h e y a r e V a r s a , D i v y a , Añjittha, Varcasvl, D y u t i m ā n , K a v i , Ś u b h a , H a v i , K r t a p r ā p t i a n d V y ā p r t a the t e n t h . T h e Devas called S u t ā r a s h a v e b e e n glorified w i t h their n a m e s . 91-93. T h e highly glorious R t a d h ā m ā should b e k n o w n as their I n d r a . T h e following a r e the seven,sages of g r e a t achievement d u r i n g the M a n v a n t a r a of the last of seven Sāvarnis v i z . — D y u t i the son of Vasistha, S u t a p a s belonging to the family of Atri, T a p o m ū r t i belonging to the family of Ańgiras, Tapasvī of the family of K a ś y a p a , T a p o d h a n a of the family of Pulastya, T a p o r a t i of the family of P u l a h a a n d T a p o d h r t i w h o is the seventh a m o n g t h e m a n d should be known as belonging to the family of Bhrgu. 94-95a. T h e following are the sons of t h e twelfth M a n u viz.—Devavān, U p a d e v a , D e v a ś r e s t h a , V i d h ū r a t h a , M i t r a v ā n , Mitrasena, Citrasenā, A m i t r a h ā , M i t r a b ā h u a n d Suvarcas. 95b-96. In the- future R a u c y a M a n v a n t a r a , w h i c h is the t h i r t e e n t h M a n v a n t a r a , 1 only three groups of Devas h a v e been m e n t i o n e d by Svayambhu ( B r a h m a ) . All those n o b l e souls are the m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a . 97-100.. S u t r ā m a n s a n d S u d h a r m a n s , S u k a r m a n s , these three are m e n t i o n e d as the future groups of Devas w h o will imbibe Soma juice (Somapāyins). O f t h e m , the s u t r ā m a n s are t h r e e . T h e y a r e the t h i r t y three D e v a t ā s w h o should be worshipped separately by t h e Yājñikas (people who perform Y a j ñ a s ) . U n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e y are to be worshipped separately by m e a n s of Ājya ( g h e e ) a n d Prfūdājya (ghee mixed w i t h coagulated milk) alongwith Graha-Śre$fha (the most excellent one a m o n g t h e planets i.e. t h e S u n ) . T h e S u t r ā m a n s (are also known as) Prayājyas. T h e y a r e those who take in Ajya now. T h e S u k a r m a n s a r e also called Anuyājyas because they are those w h o consume Prfadājya. T h e S u d h a r m a n s are Upayājyas.

I. V V . 95-105 give the detailed list of D e v a s , Saptarsis, M a n u ' s sons, etc. of the thirteenth M a n u called Ruci. R a u c y a i» the n a m e of M a n v a n t a r a after M a n u R u c i .


966

Brahmānda Purāiux

T h u s t h e Devas have been m e n t i o n e d . 101. Divaspati of great i n h e r e n t prowess will b e c o m e their I n d r a . T h e sons of t h e son of P u l a h a should be known as R u c i ' s sons. 102-103. ( T h e Seven Sages, in the t h i r t e e n t h M a n v a n ­ t a r a are as follows) D h r t i m ā n of t h e family of Ańgiras, Avyaya belonging to t h e family of Pulastya, T a t t v a d a r ś ī of t h e family of P u l a h a , N i r u t s u k a of t h e family of Bhrgu, N i s p r a k a m p y a of t h e family of Atri, N i r m o h a of t h e family of K a ś y a p a a n d S u t a p a s of t h e family of V a s i s t h a — t h e s e a r e t h e sages in t h e thirteenth Manvantara. 104-105a. I n t h e t h i r t e e n t h M a n v a n t a r a , the following will be t h e sons of M a n u R a u c y a . T h e y will be ten (in n u m b e r ) . T h e y a r e Gitra-Sena, Vicitra, N a y a , D h a r m a , D h r t a , Bhava, Aneka, K s a t r a v i d d h a , Surasa a n d N i r b h a y a . 105b-107. I n t h e fourteenth M a n v a n t a r a o f the M a n u Bhautya, it is said t h a t t h e r e will be five groups of Devas. T h e following five groups of Devas a r e r e m e m b e r e d namely, Gāksusas, Pavitras, K a n i s t h a s , Bhrājitas a n d Vācā-Vrddhas. 108-109. T h e r e a r e seven Svaras (Notes in t h e G a m u t of I n d i a n Music) beginning with Nisāda. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m as t h e Seven Gāksusas. T h e seven S ā m a n - M a n t r a s beginning with Brhat a r e t h e seven K a n i s t h a s . T h e seven worlds a r e t h e Pavi­ tras a n d t h e seven oceans a r e t h e Bhrājitas. U n d e r s t a n d those sages as V ā c ā v r d d h a s ^ t h o s e sages w h o were in t h e M a n v a n t a r a of Svāyambhuva M a n u . All the I n d r a s of t h e M a n v a n t a r a s should be known as h a v i n g similar characteristics such as splendour, power of p e n a n c e , intellect, strength, Jearning a n d exploits. 110-114. These I n d r a s overpower all t h e living beings in three worlds by m e a n s of their qualities (irrespective of w h e t h e r t h e living beings a r e mobile or immobile. T h e I n d r a s (? or Devas) are Bhūtāpavādins, Hrsjas, M a d h y a s t h a s , Bhūtav ā d i n s a n d the B h ū t ā b h a v ā d i n s . T h e three Vedas are c o m p e t e n t in respect to Pravādins ( t h o s e w h o a r g u e a n d e x p o u n d ) . T h e seven sages of t h e B h a u t y a M a n v a n t a r a a r e Agnldhra of t h e K a ś y a p a family, M ā g a d h a of t h e family of Pulastya A g n i b ā h u of Bhrgu family, Śuci of Ańgiras family, Śukra of


3.4.1.115-125

967

Vasisfha's family, M u k t a of P u l a h a ' s family a n d Śvajita w h o is said to be of t h e family of Atri. N o w listen ( t o t h e e n u m e r a t i o n of) the sons of M a n u . T h e y are U r u , G u r u , G a m b h ī r a , B u d d h a , Ś u d d h a , Śuci, K r t i , Urjasvī a n d Subala. These a r e t h e sons of B h a u t y a . 115-116. T h e s e four S ā v a r n a M a n u s a r e t h e sons of B r a h m a . A son of Vivasvān is (also) called S ā v a r n a M a n u . T h e M a n u s R a u c y a a n d B h a u t y a a r e considered t o b e sons (or descendants) of P u l a h a a n d B h r g u . D u r i n g t h e reign of B h a u t y a 1 t h e K a l p a will shortly be completed. Sūta

said:

117-120. W h e n all t h e M a n v a n t a r a s pass by at t h e e n d of m a n y Gaturyugas, w h e n everything is a n n i h i l a t e d it is called Samhāra. At t h e end of M a n v a n t a r a all these (?) seven Devas of the family of Bhrgu ( ? ) , after enjoying t h e period of seventyone C a t u r y u g a s while being stationed in t h e t h r e e worlds (pass away t o o ) . W h e n the M a n v a n t a r a passes by along w i t h t h e Pitrs a n d M a n u s , the entire space of t h e three worlds will be devoid of support. T h e splendid abodes of Sthānins (the s u p e r - h u m a n beings presiding over various worlds) fall off on b e i n g separated from stars, constellations a n d planets. _______ 121-125. After passing away, t h e lord of t h e t h r e e worlds goes over to M a h a r l o k a w h e r e t h e fourteen groups of D e v a s , Ajitas a n d others a r e present. T h e s e Ajitas a r e long lived ones. T h e y a r e Kalpav&sins (staying alive t h r o u g h o u t t h e K a l p a ) . T h e y are indeed t h e fourteen groups of Devas in all t h e M a n ­ vantaras. It is reported t h a t they go over to J a n a l o k a along with their followers a n d w i t h their physical bodies. W h e n t h e Devas have gone over to J a n a l o k a from M a h a r Loka, w h e n t h e Bhūtādis ( t h e Ahamkāra a n d other p r i m e causes 1. V V . 106-116 state the office-bearers in the regime of the last M a n u Bhautya. O u r text omits the n a m e of Indra of this M a n v a n t a r a . V P . I I I . 2 . 4 1 informs us that Śuci was the I n d r a t h e n . He seems to be different from Śuci, the son of this M a n u (in V. 1 1 4 ) .


BrahmOnda Purāna

968

of the Universe) alone r e m a i n , when all the immobile beings h a v e come to an end, w h e n all the Lokasth&nas (the abodes of worlds) beginning w i t h Bhū and ending with Mahar have become void a n d w h e n the Devas have gone u p , it is the period when t h e Kalpavāsins (those w h o r e m a i n alive t h r o u g h o u t t h e K a l p a ) a t t a i n their Sāyujya (salvation). 126. After w i t h d r a w i n g (i.e. annihilating) gods, sages, Pītrs a n d D ā n a v a s ( d e m o n s ) , god B r a h m a , on visualizing the e n d of his d a y at t h e end of Yuga, verily puts an end to his creation. 127. Persons w h o know t h a t t h e d a y of god B r a h m a terminates at the end of a thousand sets of four Yugas a n d t h a t his night ends with a thousand sots of four Yugas are called the conversant ones w i t h t h e d a y a n d night (of g o d - B r a h m a ) . 128. T h e Pratisañcara (Dissolution awd reabsorption) of all living beings is of three types viz. Naimittika ( P e r i o d i c a l ) , Prākrtika (Pertaining to P r a k r t i ) and the Ātyantika ( t h e ultimate one). 1

129-131. T h e Naimittika reabsorption (of the living beings) is the b u r n i n g at the end of the K a l p a caused by B r a h m a ( ? ) It is his Prasarhyama (withdrawal and R e s t r a i n t ) of all beings. T h e destruction of Karanas (instruments and" means) of the living beings d u r i n g Pratisarga (Reabsorption into Prakrti) is called P r ā k r t a . T h e dissolution d u e to dawning of J ñ ā n a (Perfect know­ ledge) is said to be Ātyantika ( t h e ultimate one) as it renders causes (of Sarhsāra) impossible. At the e n d of his Prahura (a watch or 1 /8 p a r t of a full day) B r a h m a annihilates Devas, the residents of the three worlds a n d again starts the creation. W h e n he is desirous of sleeping, lord B r a h m a annihilates the subjects.

1.

After stating w h a t happens after the d a y

of g o d Brahma

the author explains the three types of dissolutions viz. Naimittika Prākrtika (Pertaining to Prakrti)

a n d Ātyanlika ( T h e

from spiritual k n o w l e d g e ) v i d e V V . 128-132.

is

over,

(Periodical),

U l t i m a t e one,

resulting


3.4.1.132-144

969

132. At t h e e n d of a t h o u s a n d sets of Caturyugas, •when t h e period of annihilation of t h e Yuga arrives, t h e Prajāpati ( L o r d of the Subjects i.e. B r a h m a ) begins to m a k e t h e subjects abide in h i m ( i . e . reabsorb in h i m ) . 1 133-136a. T h e n a c o n t i n u e d d r o u g h t lasting for a h u n d r e d years takes place. On account of it, only those living beings deficient in strength or having very little potentiality on the surface of t h e e a r t h become dissolved a n d get mingled with t h e dust. T h e sun rises up with his seven rays for his chariot. T h e lord with rays of u n b e a r a b l e h e a t begins to d r i n k water by m e a n s of his rays. As he blazes, his seventy brilliant green rays whirl a g a i n a n d slowly p e r v a d e t h e sky. 136b-140. T h e worldly fire burns wood a n d fuel along w i t h water ( w h e n water boils-many solids are dissolved in i t ) . H e n c e , w h e n the sun takes up water, it is said t h a t it blazes. T h e sun is sprinkled w h e n there is d r o u g h t (i.e. w h e n the sun blazes w a t e r becomes v a p o u r ) ; w h e n there is d r o u g h t t h e sun has a glow. Therefore, the sun blazes with w a t e r . Seven rays of the sun t h a t blazes in the sky sucking up water, d r i n k w a t e r from t h e great ocean. Being illuminated with t h a t intake seven suns are evolved. T h e n those rays t h a t have become suns, b u r n t h e four worlds in the four directions. Those fires b u r n up t h e e n t i r e Universe. 141. W i t h those rays, the seven suns move up and d o w n . T h e y blaze b u r n i n g up (everything) like the fire at t h e close of the Yugas. 142. K i n d l e d by the waters, those suns w i t h thousands of rays envelop the firmament a n d stay on, b u r n i n g t h e E a r t h . 143. Being b u r n e d by their brilliant flames, t h e E a r t h including m o u n t a i n s , rivers a n d oceans becomes bereft of moisture andj/jscidity. 144. Being restrained by those rays of t h e Sun, t h a t b u r n brightly, t h a t move a b o u t in a continuous series a n d t h a t have variegated colours, the E a r t h is enveloped entirely, b e n e a t h , above and on all sides. 1.

VV.

132-178 describe the deluge that pervades the universe after

t h e completion of Brahma's day. T h e description is c o m m o n to all Purānas.

jyjzy

ś^ituy

Adkizivi

^ i / n L t y


970

Brahmānda Purāna

145. T h e multifarious fires of t h e sun become e x p a n d e d a n d a u g m e n t e d a n d t h e n mingle with one another. T h e y t h e n form a single u n i t — a single flame. 146. It will be t h e destroyer of all the worlds. T h a t fire takes a circuitous m o v e m e n t a n d enveloping t h e set of four worlds b u r n s it up by m e a n s of its fiery splendour. 147. W h e n everything mobile a n d immobile becomes dissolved, the E a r t h devoid of trees a n d (even) grass m a y seem like the b a c k of a tortoise. 148. Everything filled w i t h its flames blazes like a solid ball of fire. T h e entire universe appears like a frying p a n . 149. Whatever be t h e animals a n d living beings-on t h e surface of the E a r t h or within the great oceans b e c o m e a n n i h i ­ lated a n d dissolved a n d turned into dust (ashes). 150. T h e continents, t h e mountains, t h e subcontinents and t h e great o c e a n — a l l these will be reduced to ashes by t h a t universal fire, t h e soul of everything. 151. T h e kindled fire resorting to t h e e a r t h blazes and drinks up water from the seas, rivers, nether worlds completely from all sides. 152. Increased in its dimensions, this enkindled Sarhvartaka fire, of terrible form transcends t h e m o u n t a i n s a n d planets a n d annihilates t h e worlds. 153. Thereafter, it breaks t h r o u g h t h e E a r t h a n d dries up R a s ā t a l a . After b u r n i n g up P ā t ā l a completely, it b u r n s up t h e world of wind in t h e e n d . 154-157a. After consuming t h e E a r t h from below it burns the f i r m a m e n t above. T h e innumerable f l a m e s a n d tongues of t h a t Sariivartakaŕire rise up into thousands, millions a n d trillions of Yojanas. T h e excessively ignited fire b u r n s G a n d h a r v a s , Piśācas and Rāksasas along with t h e great serpents. It b u r n s entirely t h e globe of Bhūloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka a n d M a h a r l o k a . T h e horrible fire of d e a t h ' t h u s burns the four worlds. 157b-159. W h e n all those worlds are pervaded by the fire above a n d on the sides, the terrible. S a m v a r t a k a clouds rise


3.4.1.160-173

971

u p . G e t t i n g t h e fiery splendour transmitted to it, t h e entire universe slowly assumes t h e form of a h u g e block of iron a n d shines thus. Thereafter, t h e terrible S a m v a r t a k a clouds rise up in t h e sky. T h e y are of the size a n d shape of h u g e herds of elephants. T h e y will be a d o r n e d with lightning streaks. 160. Some of t h e m a r e d a r k in colour like t h e blue lotus, some resemble t h e water lilies. Some a p p e a r like V a i d ū r y a (Lapis L a z u l i ) . Others resemble I n d r a n ī l a (blue S a p p h i r e ) . 161. O t h e r clouds a p p e a r white like conch a n d j a s m i n e flowers as well as d a r k like t h e black pigment. Some clouds are smoke-coloured a n d some are yellow. 162. Some clouds have a shining lustre like t h e colour of a donkey. Similarly, some resemble the colour of t h e lac exuda­ tion. O t h e r s a p p e a r like t h e Manaliśilā ( R e d Arsenic) a n d other clouds h a v e t h e colour of doves. 163. Some clouds resemble the glow-worm. Some are like t h e red o r p i m e n t . Some resemble the wings of the blue j a y . Clouds like these rise up in t h e firmament. \. 164. Some of t h e clouds are of t h e size of an excellent city. Some can be c o m p a r e d to herds of elephants. Some clouds shine like h u g e m o u n t a i n s . Some clouds a p p e a r like an extensive flat ground. 165. Some clouds resemble t h e hall of games. S o m e c a n be c o m p a r e d to shoals offish. T h e clouds have different forms. T h e y a r e aweful in a p p e a r a n c e a n d m a k e terrific t h u n d e r i n g sound. 166-169a. T h e n the clouds fill the entire area of t h e firmament. After t h a t , these clouds, producing terrific r u m b l i n g sound g r o u p themselves in seven, identifying themselves w i t h the- Suns, a n d they extinguish the fire. T h e n those clouds shower rain in h u g e torrents. T h e y d e s t r o y ' t h e whole of extremely terrific a n d inauspicious fire. W i t h t h e waters so profusely showered, the universe becomes filled up with it. W i t h its splendour attacked a n d subdued by t h e waters, t h e fire enters into t h e waters. 169b-173. D r e n c h e d by the shower, the fire is subdued a n d destroyed. T h e clouds arising from those fires p e r m e a t e the entire universe with h u g e torrents of water-currents. U r g e d by


Brah.mB.nda Purina

972

t h e self-born Lord, they fill this universe with currents of water. O t h e r clouds a t t a c k t h e seashore with huge columns of the d o w n p o u r . A vast expanse of t h e ground including m o u n t a i n s , continents a n d the intervening spaces, being (as if) swallowed u p , stand submerged in water. T h e n t h e w a t e r from the sky falls down on the E a r t h . A violent wind of terrible n a t u r e envelopes it all r o u n d in the sky. W h e n everything mobile a n d immobile becomes dissolved a n d destroyed in t h a t single terrible vast expanse of water, when thousand Caturyugas are completed it is said t h a t the K a l p a has come to a close. 174-178. W h e n the world is covered by Ambhas1 ( w a t e r ) , learned m e n say t h a t it is Ekārnava (a general i n u n d a t i o n of the s e a ) . W h e n t h e fire is destroyed, when everything is blinded, n o t h i n g is observed clearly w h e t h e r E a r t h ( l a n d ) or water, E t h e r or wind. AH the products of E a r t h and the waters of the ocean as well as Daivyas (those of celestial origin ) become entire­ ly immobilised. W i t h o u t any movement they attain the state of a single u n i t a n d a r e designated as Salila ( w a t e r ) . T h e n t h a t Salila is r e m e m b e r e d as one devoid of to and fro movement. T h a t water which is called Arnava (ocean) covers this E a r t h . T h e word Bhā is used in Vyāpti (pervasion) a n d Dipti (illumination). T h i s water pervades t h e entire mass of ashes a n d becomes illuminated. So it is called Ambhas. 179-181. T h e root ar (i.e. r) is used in t h e sense of multiplicity a n d quickness. In t h a t single expanse of Sea (Ekārnava) t h e waters are not quick (i.e. they a r e s t a t i o n a r y ) . Therefore they are Naras. W h e n a d a y of B r a h m a consisting of a thousand Caturjiugas passes by, t h e universe becomes Ekārnava for an equal period of time. T h e n all the activities of Prajāpati cease. T h u s w h e n everything mobile and immobile is dissolved a n d destroyed in t h a t single vast expanse of sea, B r a h m a becomes an entity possessing thousand eyes a n d a t h o u s a n d feet. 1.

Our

author is fond of giving etymologies s o m e of w h i c h are funny,

v i d e t h e etymologies of ambhas 'water', salila 'water',

aryava a n d Nara.


3.4.1.182-196

973

182. T h e first Prajāpati ( c r e a t o r ) w h o is expressly d e c l a r e d as a Person in t h e form of the T r a y ī , i.e. t h e three V e d a s , is one with thousand heads, thousand feet, thousand arms •nd a gracious disposition. 183. He has t h e brilliant complexion of t h e S u n . He is the protector of the Universe. He is unparalleled, the only o n e (without a s e c o n d ) , t h e first, quickly overpowerer (of t h e m i g h t y ) , a cosmogonic p o w e r (lit. b o r n of a golden e g g ) , t h e S u p r e m e Person, the great one. It is recited (in t h e scriptures) t h a t he is beyond the quality called Rajas. 184. At t h e end of t h e thousand sets of four Yugas, w h e n all space is flooded with water on all sides, the lord be­ comes desirous of sleep. As he does not wish for light, he creates t h e Night. 185-188. W h e n all t h e subjects ( c r e a t u r e s ) of t h e four types (i.e. ovoviparous, b o r n of sweat etc.) are dissolved in him a n d lie within him, t h e seven sages see t h a t Noble-souled K ā l a ( G o d of T i m e — G o d of d e a t h ) . These seven sages have acquired ( d i v i n e ) vision d u e to p e n a n c e a n d they have reverted to t h e J a n a l o k a . T h e y are t h e noble souls beginning with Bhrgu a n d their characteristic features have a l r e a d y been explained. T h e y c a n see with their eyes, t h e seven worlds beginning with Satya. D u r i n g the period of t h e nights of B r a h m a t h e y always see Brahma. T h e seven sages see K ā l a w h o sleeps d u r i n g his night. Since he abides beyond t h e K a l p a s he is cited as Ādya ( t h e Primordial o n e ) . 189-190. He is t h e creator of all living beings repeatedly d u r i n g the beginnings of K a l p a . Lying d o w n thus, t h e Prajāpati of great splendour takes up everything a n d keeps it within him­ self. H e , the m a k e r of all, stays in t h e waters of t h e single vast expanses of the Sea in darkness d u r i n g t h e night. 191. W h e n t h e N i g h t comes to a close, Prajāpati wakes u p . He becomes induced with a desire to c r e a t e . He then once a g a i n applies his m i n d to the activity of creation. 192-196. T h u s , w h e n Prajāpati becomes c a l m after creat­ ing everything including t h e worlds, w h e n t h e Naimittika ( p e r i o d i c or occasional) dissolution p e r t a i n i n g to B r a h m a occurs,-


974

Brahmānda Pur Una

it is remembered t h a t all living beings get separated from their bodies. W h e n all the living beings are b u r n t by t h e rays of t h e Sun, when the excellent Devas, sages a n d M a n u s ( a r e submerg­ e d ) in t h a t watery flood, all those living beings beginning w i t h t h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d e n d i n g with the Piśācas, perish too. Those t h a t are n o t b u r n e d u p resort t o J a n a - L o k a (world) at the beginning of the K a l p a . T h e living beings of the lower strata of animals a n d those b e i n g s . t h a t have fallen into t h e hell—all those b e c o m e b u r n e d u p . All of t h e m will be rid of their sins. As long as the universe is flooded by water, those beings too b e c o m e submerged in water. 197. W h e n t h e night becomes dawn, all those living beings are b o r n a g a i n from B r a h m a of unmanifest source of origin. 198. T h e Sages, t h e M a n u s a n d the four types of living beings—all these are born again. It is mentioned t h a t even, those Siddhas d o h a v e b i r t h a n d d e a t h . 199. J u s t as the rising a n d setting of the Sun in this world h a p p e n s regularly, so also (it should) be r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e b i r t h a n d d e a t h of all living beings a r e happening; regularly. 200-203. T h e re-birth after the annihilation of all living beings is called Samsāra. After the rainfall, all the immobile beings (i.e. trees etc.) are reborn (i.e. g e r m i n a t e a n d g r o w ) . In the same m a n n e r alt the subjects regularly ( t a k e their origin) in every K a l p a . J u s t as the. different seasons, t h e various characteristic features of t h e seasons do manifest themselves in various forms in their due order, so also are t h e different happenings in the course of t h e days a n d nights of B r a h m a . All t h e living beings mobile a n d immobile enter B r a h m a , the Prajāpati, the lord of T i m e in the process of dissolution. T h e y come out of him at t h e time of creation. He .is the great lord of great Yogic power. 204. He is t h e creator of all living beings r e p e a t i n g the process at the beginnings of K a l p a s . T h e g r e a t lord is both manifest a n d unmanifest. To h i m belongs this entire U n i v e r s e .


3.4.1.205-214

975

205-207. ( P a r t i a l l y defective T e x t ) . It is he by w h o m the waters are at first -created, the waters t h a t r e a c h the surface of the E a r t h along the p a t h taken before. T h e y go back again a l o n g the same p a t h to the heaven. T h u s they go up a n d down, d u e to the Sun. In t&e same m a n n e r , h u m a n beings go up a n d down, d u e to the^r auspicious and inauspicious activities. T h e y move a b o u t h e r e <and t h e r e in the course of their trans­ migrations from body to body. T h e r e a r e Devas, M a n u s , L o r d s of Subjects a n d Siddhas who reach heaven. It is on being evolved a n d created by t h e m t h a t the virtuous beings take their birth (in t h e various species) in accordance w i t h their fame. 208-209. Henceforth, I shall recount the time of Ābhūtasamplava1 (the a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living b e i n g s ) . T h e M a n v a n ­ taras t h a t are yet to be, h a v e been explained, O B r ā h m a n a s , by m e , along with the creations of subjects a n d also along w i t h the Devas. Altogether there are fourteen M a n v a n t a r a s a n d they extend to a period of a thousand Caturyugas. 210. W h e n two thousand Caturyugas a r e completed it is called Viśesa K a l p a (? Special K a l p a ) . T h i s should be known as the d a y of B r a h m a u n d e r its calculation. 2 1 1 . A mātrā has b e e n m a d e e q u a l to a Nimesa (winking of the eye) by a person at leisure. Fifteen winkings of h u m a n eyes m a k e one Kāffhā.1 212. (Defective T e x t ) (?) Nine winkings m a k e a K s a n a or five winkings m a k e o n e Ksana. T w e n t y winkings m a k e one K ā s t h ā . T h r e e Kāsfhās m a k e one Prastha ( ? ) . Seven Prasthas m a k e one udaka ( ? ) . O n e m o r e (i.e. Eight Prasthas) m a k e one Lava.* (?) 213. It should be k n o w n t h a t t h i r t y Lavas m a k e one Kali. T h i r t y Kalās m a k e one Muhūrta. T h i r t y Muhūrtas m a k e one d a y a n d night. T h i s is the position. 214. O n e d a y a n d n i g h t consists of m o r e t h a n six h u n d r e d Kalas ( 3 0 x 3 0 = 9 0 0 ) . T h e s e should be known in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the m o v e m e n t s o f t h e m o o n a n d t h e S u n . 1. T h e units of time are re-stated here to give the idea of the t i m e of Ābhūta-samplava. •Prob. " L a v a " m e a n i n g -A L a v a consists of five Ksanas*.


976

Brakmānda PurOno

215-216. (?) Fifteen Nimesasmake one Kāsphā. T h i r t y Kāsfkās make one Kalā. T h i r t y Kalās make one Muhūrta. (Accord­ ing to a n o t h e r c a l c u l a t i o n ) Kalā is remembered as one t e n t h of a Muhūrta. Fortyfive Kalās m a k e w h a t is t e r m e d as one Muhūrta. T h u s Muhūrtas a n d Lavas a r e reckoned by those conversant with measurements. 217. In the same m a n n e r thirteen Palas of w a t e r con­ stitute a Jalaprastha according to M a g a d h a reckoning. 218-219. F o u r Prasthas filled with water m a k e one (?) Nālikoccaya. It contains four holes totally extending to four Ańgulas. E a c h hole is as big as a Māsa of gold (?) D u r i n g , t h e days when day a n d n i g h t a r e of equal d u r a t i o n two Nālikas (a period of twentyfour minutes) m a k e one Muhūrta. This calculation is always in accordance w i t h t h e peculiar movement of the S u n . 220. W h a t is mentioned as a d a y having m o r e t h a n six h u n d r e d Kalās should be known as h u m a n day. T h e stellar d a y comprises- ten m o r e . 2 2 1 . T h i s is remembered as a year according to Sāvana calculation a n d this constitutes one d a y a n d night according to divine reckoning. 222-224. M o n t h s , Ayanas (transits of t h e Sun) a n d years should be calculated on t h e basis of this day. T h e knowledge a n d terminology is based on t h a t . T h e m e a s u r e of the digits is mentioned as Kalā. W h a t is m e n t i o n e d as one day of B r a h m a consists of a crore, twenty lakhs a n d ninety thousand tiays according to the calculation of the Devas. 225. On learning this t h e sages (become) surprised. T h e y considered it wonderful. T h e n they sought the knowledge regarding t h e division of the n u m b e r of days. The sages said :— 226. We wish to h e a r the m e a s u r e m e n t a n d calculation according to h u m a n reckoning. Let it be brief w i t h very few letters a n d words. H u m a n calculation alone is in a c c o r d a n c e with our opinion. 227. On h e a r i n g their requests, the wind-god engaged in w h a t is beneficial to t h e worlds, said succinctly as follows


977

3.4.1.228-239 He could do it vision.

because he is endowed w i t h divine

power of

228. " T h e night a n d day (of god Brahma) have been r e c o u n t e d before. I shall calculate t h e n u m b e r of days in a y e a r t h r o u g h m u n d a n e measure a n d m e n t i o n the extent of d u r a ­ tion at t h e close of a day of B r a h m a . 229-231. F o u r h u n d r e d a n d thirtytwo million nine h u n d r e d a n d eighty thousand (432808OPOO y e a r s ) . This is the period of extent of annihilation. It has been so calculated by t h e

crores e i g h t h u m a n years of the period Brāhmanas.

W h e n all the worlds are burnt-down by t h e seven suns all the four types of creatures get merged in t h e M a h ā b h ū t a s (Great Elements). 232-236a. W h e n the world is flooded with water, when, everything mobile is dissolved a n d destroyed, w h e n t h e activity of a n n i h i l a t i o n is concluded, when Prajāpati becomes quiescent, when there is no light, w h e n everything is b u r n t d o w n a n d enveloped in t h e n o c t u r n a l darkness a n d w h e n it is presided over by ī ś v a r a — t h a t is t h e time when a vast expanse of Sea comes into being. T h e extent of d u r a t i o n of the vast expanse of Sea is as m u c h as t h a t of t h e day of the lord. T h e night is t h e period when there exists the Salila (motionless w a t e r ) . T h e period when it recedes is remembered as the d a y t i m e . His days a n d nights come one after t h e other successively. T h e d a y a n d n i g h t of the lord is r e m e m b e r e d as Abhūta samplava. 236b-238. It is called Ābhūta-samplava because w h a t e v e r living beings there are, whether mobile or immobile in t h e e n t i r e r a n g e of the three worlds become merged in t h e Bhūtas (Elements). All t h e subjects, merged like this.

of

t h e past, present a n d future g e t

Divine calculation ha? been reckoned as subservient to Parārdha (the n u m b e r one followed by seventeen zeroes). T h e u l t i m a t e longevity is declared as extending to twice t h e p e r i o d (of Parārdhas) 239.

T h i s m u c h is the period

of existence of Aja,

the


978

Brahmānda Purāna

Prajāpati. At t h e close of existence there is t h e Pratisarga 1 (Reabsorption) of B r a h m a , t h e P a r a m e s t h i n . 240. T h e b u r n i n g wick of the l a m p becomes extinguished by a violent gust of wind. In t h e same m a n n e r B r a h m a becomes quiescent d u e to Pratisarga. 241-243. B r a h m a gets merged in M a h a t etc., t h e great Iśvara, created by himself. This M a h a t gets merged in Avyakta. Thereafter, the G u n a s (Sattva, Rajas a n d T a m a s ) regain their equilibrium : T h u s Ābhūtasamplava has been recounted u n t o you by m e . T h i s withdrawal by complete washing w i t h w a t e r is a periodic {Naimittika) reabsorption carried out by B r a h m a . It has been briefly recounted. W h a t e k e shall I describe u n t o you ? If a n y one retains this always or listens to this frequently or glorifies this or describes this, he shall a t t a i n great spiritual achievement.

CHAPTER

TWO

The Description of the City of Śiva* Vāyu said :— 1. Special holy rites have been duly performed by persons of acute discernment a n d of extraordinary habits a n d practices, with t h e residue of w h a t is consigned to t h e sacred fire in the form of Homa a n d also with other things. 2-5. Along with the Devas, those persons stay behind as the residents of t h e world called Mahar. F o u r t e e n M a n u s who cause increase in reputation have been glorified. Devas, Sages, M a n u a n d Pitrs of the past, present a n d future 1.

VV.

239-243 describe w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n the life of g o d

Brahma

terminates. 2. Although the title of the chapter leads to believe that it must be a description only of Śiva-loka (the region of Ś i v a ) , it is a description of Bhuvana-koia or different regions (Iokas) constituting the universe. Siva's region c o m r s at the end.


3.4.2.6-10

979

who have been recounted, are mentioned b y m e a s persons of t h e past w h o h a d resorted to Maharloka, along with B r ā h m a n a s , Ksatriyas, Vaiśyas a n d other virtuous persons a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e Devas. T h e y are a c c o m p a n i e d b y persons with Śraddhā (faith a n d composure of m i n d ) w h o perform (holy rites etc.) in the same m a n n e r ( a s is expected) a n d w h o a r e n o t a r r o g a n t . T h e y closely a d h e r e t o the religious rites of four castes a n d stages in life as ordained in the Śrutis a n d Smrtis. W h e n the M a n v a n t a r a s come to a close, they retire from their authorized offices. The Sages said :— 6-7. "O Wind-god w h a t is established t h e r e in t h a t world which has been mentioned as Maharloka by you ? W h a t t h i n g has b e e n laid d o w n t h e r e a m o n g t h e rites t o b e carried o u t i n very w o r l d . " T h e wind-god conversant w i t h the Tattva (reality) : spoke t h e (following) sweet words in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e facts : — Viyu said :— 8. " O n l y fourteen Sth&nas (abodes) have b e e n c r e a t e d by the great sages. T h e y are those t h a t a r e called Lokas 1 (Worlds) where m e n stay. 9. T h e y say t h a t Seven of t h e m a r e Krtas a n d Seven a r e Akrtas. T h e seven worlds beginning w i t h Bhūh a n d e n d i n g with Satya are the Krtas. 10. T h e Akrtas are only seven. T h e y are t h e abodes t h a t a r e P r ā k r t a s (evolved by P r a k r t i ) . T h e s e Sth&nas h a v e been

1.

V V . 8-46 describe the seven worlds viz 1. Bhūr, 2. Bhuvas, 3. Svar,

4. M a h a r (in details) 5. J a n a , 6. T a p a s and 7. Satya. T h e s e seven are called krtas.

T h e location of 1-4 is ( 1 ) T h e earth, ( 2 ) T h e space between

a n d the sun, ( 3 ) T h e space between the sun a n d D h r u v a

the earth

( T h e Polar S t a r )

•(4) t h e space between D h r u v a a n d Jana-loka is Mahar-loka (V V. 3 9 - 4 0 ) . V V . 22-25 explain the terms jfana-loka (causing birth of Tapas ( R e g i o n for performers of Penance) a n d Satya

p e o p l e like M a n u ) ,

( = SaUāmātra, - of

pure

existence, the region of B r a h m a ) . T h e intervening verses state w h o stay in e a c h of these lokas ( r e g i o n s ) .


980

Brahmānda Purina

created as holding fast to- t h e Sthānins (Persons presiding over the Sthānas), created along with t h e m . 11-12. T h e E a r t h , the firmament, t h e heaven and what is r e m e m b e r e d as Mahar—these four Sthānas are r e m e m b e r e d as Āvarnakas (? Āvaranakas : 'Sheaths of the w o r l d s ' ) . It is said that they are teeming with excellent abodes a n d some are without t h e m . Those t h a t a r e Naimittikas (evolved by a c a u s e ) , remain, steady till Ābhūtasamplava (annihilation by merging into t h e Bhūtas i.e. E l e m e n t s ) . 13. J a n a , T a p a a n d S a t y a — T h e s e three worlds are Ekintikas (exclusive o n e s ) . T h e y r e m a i n steady till the Prasamyama ( U l t i m a t e R e - a b s o r p t i o n ) . 14-16a. I shall clearly recount these seven Sthānas. T h e Bhūrloka is t h e first a m o n g t h e m . Bhuvah is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e Second. T h i s should be known t h a t Svar loka is t h e third one. Mahah (Mahar) is r e m e m b e r e d as the fourth one. Jana is t h e fifth world. Tapah is considered as t h e sixth one. Satya is t h e Seventh world. Beyond t h a t there is absence of light. ~~" 16b-19. F o r m e r l y , at t h e u t t e r a n c e of the word Bhūh t h e Bhūrloka was evolved. W h e n t h e second word Bhuvah was uttered t h e firmament was evolved. W h e n the third word Svah was uttered the heaven manifested itself. B r a h m a evolved t h e Universe by m e a n s of these three Vyāhrtis ( U t t e r a n c e s ) . Therefore Bhūh is the terrestrial world; the Antarik$a( firmament is declared as Bhuvah. Svarloka is heaven. This is t h e conclusion arrived at t h e P u r ā n a ( l i t e r a t u r e ) . Agni (the fire-god) is t h e overlord of t h e Bhūta (i.e. t h a t which has c o m e i n t o existence). H e n c e , he is remembered asBhŪtapati. 20. V ā y u (the wind-god) is t h e overlord of Bhuvah. Therefore V ā y u (is called) Bhuvaspati. Sūrya ( t h e sun-god) is t h e overlord of heaven. Therefore, Sūrya (Sun) is called Divaspati. 2 1 . D u e to t h e u t t e r a n c e of Mahar t h e Maharloka c a m e into existence. T h e a b o d e of t h e Devas whose tenure of office has come to an e n d is t h e r e . 22. Jana is the fifth world. It is from it indeed t h a t Jonas (people) are b o r n . ( I t is called) Jana because it causes t h e b i r t h o f t h e subjects S v ā y a m b h u v a ( M a n u ) a n d others.


3.4.2.23-34

981

23-24. S v ā y a m b h u v a a n d others who have been glorified before perform p e n a n c e in this K a l p a in this world. ( T h e r e f o r e t h a t world) is called Tapas. R b h u , S a n a t k u m ā r a and others have sublimated their sexual urge. Therefore, t h a t world is called Tapas. Or there a r e persons t h e r e w h o have sanctified themselves by m e a n s of p e n a n c e . Therefore t h a t world is called Tapas. 25. T h e word Satya is t h a t of god B r a h m a . T h a t is r e m e m b e r e d a s s a t t ā m ā t r a ( P u r e Existence a l o n e ) . H e n c e , B r a h m a l o k a is Satyaloka. It is the Seventh world. It is very lustrous. 26-28. All t h e Devas, G a n d h a r v a s , Apsaras, Yaksas, G u h y a k a s a l o n g with t h e Rāksasas, Bhūtas (spirits, g o b l i n s ) , Piśācas ( G h o s t s ) , N ā g a s ) along with h u m a n beings—all these reside in Svarloka, M a r u t s , M ā t a r i ś v a n s ( T h e s e two a r e Wind-gods), R u d r a s a n d Aśvinīdevas a r e t h e residents of t h e E a r t h . T h e persons who d o not h a v e a n y ( p e r m a n e n t ) a b o d e h a v e t h e Bhuvar-loka (as their a b o d e ) . Adityas, Rbhus, heaven-dwellers.

Viśvedevas, Sādhyas a n d

Pitrs a r e

29. T h e sages Ańgirases resort to t h e Bhuvarloka. T h o s e persons i.e. t h e Devas who reside in t h e constellations a n d planets a r e (called) Vaimānikas. 30-31. (7) Those beginning with Śukra a n d e n d i n g with C ā k s u s a who have a l r e a d y passed away resort to t h e Bhūrloka (?) (svar-loka). T h e y a r e sanctified m u t u a l l y a n d they begin by m e a n s of Tanmātras. Mahar is t h e fourth a m o n g the worlds. T h e y stay in t h a t world t h r o u g h o u t t h e K a l p a (or those who stay t h r o u g h o u t the K a l p a reside in t h a t w o r l d ) . T h u s these worlds evolved o u t of the utterances of B r a h m a h a v e been r e c o u n t e d in t h e i r order. 32. T h e worlds h a v i n g Bhūrloka as t h e first a n d Mahar as t h e last, a r e proclaimed thus. Those seven Sūryas ( a t t h e time of u l t i m a t e dissolution) b u r n all those worlds by m e a n s of their flames. 33-34. M a r ī c i , K a ś y a p a , Daksa, S v ā y a m b h u v a , Ańgiras, Bhrgu, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u a n d o t h e r s — t h e s e a r e all


Brahmānda Purina

982

Prajāpatis. T h e y r e m a i n there along w i t h R b h u s etc. T h e y are devoid of possessions a n d the a t t i t u d e of " M y - n e s s " . T h e y have sublimated t h e i r sexual urge. R b h u , S a n a t k u m ā r a a n d others a r e t h e sages called Vairājas (? free from passion (or Sons of V i r a j a — P r a j ā p a t i ) . 35-37a. (Defective Text) T h e sixth world viz. Tapas is the world remembered as the place causing r e t u r n of all the fourteen M a n u s in the course of M a n v a n t a r a s including those of Sāvarnas. T h e n it is said t h a t they retain in their soul their Yogic power, t h e power of p e n a n c e a n d i n h e r e n t Sattva quality a n d r e t u r n to the sixth w o r l d on a c c o u n t of the reverse process (i.e. Reabsorption a n d withdrawal) . 37b-39. Satya is the seventh world. It is t h e world for those w h o never r e t u r n along the p a t h (traversed by t h e m i.e. those who a r e on the way to their dissolution, B r a h m a l o k a with its characteristic feature of Apratighāta. (Absence of repulsion a n d h i n d r a n c e ) h a s been r e c o u n t e d . Bhūrloka is declared d u e to its m e a s u r e of rotation. T h e d i s t a n c e between the E a r t h a n d the S u n is the firmament a n d it is r e m e m b e r e d as Bhuvarloka. T h e distance between the Sun a n d D h r u v a is r e m e m b e r e d as Divah the heavenly world. called

40. T h e space between D h r u v a a n d the J a n a Loka i s Maharloka.

their

All the seven worlds h a v e been explained. I shall m e n t i o n Siddhis-(Spiritual a c h i e v e m e n t s ) .

41-43. All those w h o reside in t h e Bhūrloka subsist e a t i n g food-grains a n d imbibing juices.

by

All those w h o are in the Bhuvarloka a n d Svarloka a r e Somapis (imbibers of Soma j u i c e ) a n d Ājyapās (those w h o d r i n k g h e e ) . Those who resort to the M a h a r l o k a a n d stay in t h a t fourth world have, it should be known, the m e n t a l achievement •of five characteristics. Everything t h a t they desire mentally is p r o d u c e d instantly. Devas worship m u t u a l l y by m e a n s of all kinds of Tajñas.

These


983

3.4.2.44-57 44-45. These Devas are of future. T h e f i r s t a n d t h e last are present.

t h e past, present a n d indicated through t h e

W h e n t h e g r o u p of Devas goes beyond Tapas (world) their relationship also recedes. T h e i r Siddhi (achievement) is m e n t a l (even when) their tenure of office ceases. 4 6 . T h e i r m e n t a l achievement should be known as very p u r e on a c c o u n t of m u t u a l interaction. T h e four worlds h a v e been recounted a n d t h e details of Jana too, O B r ā h m a n a s , h a v e been m e n t i o n e d by m e . I shall r e p e a t it once again for your s a k e . " Vāyu said :— 47-48. " M a r i c i , K a ś y a p a , D a k s a , Vasistha, A ń g i r a s Bhrgu, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u a n d o t h e r s — F o r m e r l y these a r e b o r n here mentally from god B r a h m a . 49-50. Thereafter, they establish t h e subjects a n d resort to Janaloka1 itself. On those occasions of b u r n i n g at t h e end of K a l p a s , when the worlds beginning with Bhūh a n d e n d i n g with Mahar a r e p e r v a d e d by fire completely, t h e flames of the S a m v a r t a k a fire overlap t h e m along w i t h t h e V&sanās (impressions of activities etc.) 5 1 . All those groups (of Devas) Y a m a a n d others w h o reside in Maharloka resort to Janaloka itself w h e n t h e Maharloka is ablaze a n d "burnt u p . 52. All those w h o are the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h a t place a r e persons with subtle bodies. These ( Y a m a a n d others) acquire the same ability or equal potentiality as t h e i n h a b i t a n t s (of Janaloka) a n d they are equipped with a physical form similar to t h a t of those persons. 53-57. T h e y move a b o u t in t h e Janaloka. T h e S a m v a r t a fire sweeps over t h e U n i v e r s e . W h e n the night of B r a h m a whose source of. origin is t h e unmanifest one, dawns, at t h e beginning of t h e d a y , they a r e 1.

In V V . 47-68, V ā y u describes

how

gods

etc. resort to J a n a l o k a

w h e n M a h a r l o k a suffers from the samvartaka fire at the e n d He

states

how

of the

world.

the time is endless; and h o w in the s a m e process of the s a m e

g o d s , sages etc? taking re-incarnation time continues ( a d i n f i n i t u m ) .


984

Brahmānda Purāna

b o r n as before in the same order. All those Sādhakas (Aspir­ ants after spiritual a t t a i n m e n t ) beginning with S v ā y a m b h u v a a n d ending with M a r l c i are b o r n like t h a t . T h e y are Devas and on their passing away the Y ā m a s a n d others are successively b o r n as the younger brothers of Prajāpati. T h e earlier ones are born earlier a n d the later ones later. In the family of t h e Devas the Devatās are r e m e m b e r e d as seven Sambhūtis ( B i r t h s ) . These seven Sambhūtis are born along with the K a l p a s a n d they have passed away. T h r e e others yet remain. All of t h e m are in the same order (or successively) r e b o r n . 58-61. T h e y have these repeated rapid successive births ten times. All these G a n a s (groups) perceive transience in the Bhāvas (all created t h i n g s ) . D u e to the force of inevit­ able future as well as t h a t of their meritorious r e p u t a t i o n , all of t h e m as well as the gods staying here resort to Vairāja. T h e y go to him after forsaking the worlds. Thereafter, in the course of this period, t h e Tapasvins (sages) who are Nityamuktas (eternally free i.e. those w h o have a t t a i n e d salvation) are born in their race at t h e instance of D h a r m a . After being b o r n here they fill those Sthānas ( a b o d e s ) . 62-63. ( T h e Sthānas m a y be concerning) the states of Devas, Sages a n d h u m a n beings. T h u s all t h e groups of Devas take r e p e a t e d births, ten times a n d when they resort to Vairāja Lokas ( t h e regions of B r a h m a ) , they stay there for a period of ten Upaplavas. (Secondary dissolutions). As the K a l p a s come to a close, they stay t h e r e in the Vairājaka a n d again revert to B r a h m a l o k a in their d u e order of priority. 64-66a. W h e n a K a l p a of Vairājaka (i.e. pertaining to Brahma) passes by in t h e world of B r a h m a , the Vairāja (? B r a h m a ) allots the SthSna in the Avyakta (Unmanifest one) T h u s they (Devas e t c . ) in accordance with the posteriority a n d priority obtaining in the "Brahmaloka resort to the Vairājalokas after going a n d r e t u r n i n g ten times. 66b-76. T h u s thousands of Deva Yugas h a v e passed by. It is impossible to r e c o u n t all details in the proper order of sequences of those persons who have a t t a i n e d d e a t h in the world of B r a h m a along with the sages. T h i s is because T i m e is


3.4.2.77-83

985

w i t h o u t a beginning a n d it is difficult to c o u n t everything completely. It is so. T h e r e is no d o u b t in it. It has been men­ tioned by me as it exists. On hearing this statement, t h e sages b e c a m e worried w i t h doubts. T h e y said to S ū t a w h o was conversant with the Purānas, w h o h a d great intellect and who was a disciple of Vyāsa. 77-79a. T h e y abide in the body of B r a h m a from which it is impossible to r e t u r n . After reaching t h a t world full of m e d i t a t i o n , they a t t a i n the S u p r e m e Bliss of B r a h m a n . 1 T h e r e b y they gain immortality. B r a h m a l o k a is mentioned as existing beyond a n d over the Vairāja worlds at a distance of six times, (their e x t e n t ) . It is the place where B r a h m a , the Purohita (one w h o has been p u t incharge beforehand) stays. 79b-83. All of t h e m are Pranavātmans (those w h o have fixed their souls in the mystic syllable O r h k ā r a ) . T h e y exist with clarity a n d p u r i t y of intellect. After realizing the Supreme Bliss of B r a h m a n , they a t t a i n Amrtatva ( i m m o r t a l i t y ) . T h e y a r e never overwhelmed by the Dvandvas (pairs of m u t u a l l y confli­ cting apposites such as heat, cold, happiness a n d sorrow e t c . ) . T h e y are devoid of three Bhāyas (states of existence such as Past, Present a n d F u t u r e ) . Those persons of great spiritual prowess a n d splendour are on a par w i t h god B r a h m a except his power of overlordship. T h e y are e n d o w e d w i t h majestic lustre ( P r a b h ā v a ) . Vijaya (Victory) Aiivarya ( d i v i n e faculties of omnipotence e t c . ) , Sthiti (continuous Existence), Vair&gya (non-attachment) and Darśana, (Vision) . All those denizens of t h e world of B r a h m a a t t a i n the goal of n o n - r e t u r n to S a m s ā r a (i.e. Moksa) along w i t h B r a h m a a n d Devas. At the a d v e n t of Pratisañcara (Re-absorption into P r a k r t i ) , d u r i n g the e n d of T a m a s (darkness) they cease all their activities. T h o s e learned persons are t h e n in an enlightened 1. V V . 77-89 descibc the condition of the persons w h o reach Satya (= Brahma) Loka. T h i s Purāna supports the state of Liberation described in Brahma Sutras I V . 4.17-21 in that the Liberated soul has all t h e advantages and specialities of Brahma except his power to create the world e t c (vide VV. 80-83).


986

Brahmūnda Purāna

state. T h e y a r e Ksanadarśins (persons who observe the mom­ e n t a r y n a t u r e of t h e w o r l d ) . All of t h e m get merged in t h e Avyakta ( t h e Unmanifest one) . 8 4 . T h u s t h e Devas a n d Sages p a r t a k e of i.e. worship the Satra (the sacrificial session in the form of) B r a h m a n . T h e Satra i.e. B r a h m a n is eternal (Sanitaria), i m m o r t a l , res­ plendent, over-existent, imperishable a n d i m m u t a b l e . 85. T h e y a r e Ūrdhvaretas (those w h o have sublimated their sexual e n e r g y ) . T h e y do not h a v e a n y t h i n g which can slay t h e m again (i.e. they are deathless). T h e i r faith evolved by_rerjeated holy rites is indicated in the V e d ā n t a s ( U p a n i s a d s 86. T h e r e , they engage themselves in t h e practice of Yogic union (with the S u p r e m e B r a h m a n ) . T h e y worship the highest goal. T h e y a b a n d o n their physical body, t h e cause of all sins a n d proceed a h e a d for their i m m o r t a l i t y . 87-89. T h e y are devoid of passionate a t t a c h m e n t . T h e y have c o n q u e r e d their anger. T h e y are rid of delusion. T h e y are truthful in speech. T h e y a r e c a l m a n d t r a n q u i l with their minds i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n . T h e y a r e compassionate. T h e y have conquered (i.e. controlled) their sense organs. Those w h o h a v e a t t a i n e d the identity w i t h the B r a h m a n , are remembered as p u r e persons above (defiling) contacts. Those Viras (heroic persons i.e. those who realized B r a h m a n ) w h o h a v e b u r n t their sins by austerities u n c o n n e c t e d with lustful desires, will a t t a i n the worlds from w h i c h they shall not • fall off. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as persons of immeasurable (infinite) happiness'. T h i s is t h e divine region of B r a h m a n . It is superbly resplendent in the most exalted firmament. After attaining it along w i t h B r a h m a , the Atnaras ( I m m o r t a l beings) cease to be worried a n d sorrowful (i.e^ a t t a i n the Moksa s t a g e ) " . The sages enquired : 90-91.

" W h a t shall be t h e Parārdha ? l W h a t is it

called Para ? We wish to know this. O excellent

one,

t h a t is mention

that to us." 1".

V V . 90 ffgive t h e units of time to tell about the life-span

of g o d

Brahma. T h e technical terms of numerals in V V . 100- 103a are worth noting.


987

3.4.2.92-104 Sūla replied : — Listen

from

me

to the reckoning of Parārdka as well

as

Para. 92. T h e m a i n n u m b e r s a r e one, ten, h u n d r e d a n d t h o u s a n d . All n u m b e r s till thousand should be understood. T e n Sahasras (thousands) m a k e one Ayuta. 93. O n e h u n d r e d thousand is mentioned as Niyuta by learned m e n . T e n times a h u n d r e d thousand is called Prayuta. 94. An Ayuta of t e n thousands is called a c r o r e * . T e n Kofis (crores) m a k e one Arbuda. T h e y know t h a t a h u n d r e d Kofis m a k e one Abja. 9 5 . L e a r n e d m e n say t h a t a thousand Kofis m a k e a Kharva. T h e y know t h a t ten thousand crores m a k e a JVikharva. 96. A h u n d r e d thousand Kofis m a k e w h a t is called Śańku. A thousand of t h o u s a n d Kofis is called Padma. 97. A thousand t h o u s a n d Kofis multiplied by ten, is called Samudra (or Jaladhi) by persons well-versed in reckoning. 98. A h u n d r e d thousand multiplied by a thousand' Kofis is called Antya. A million m u l t i p l i e d by a thousand crores is called Madhya. 99. A Kofi multiplied by a t h o u s a n d crores is d e c l a r e d as Parirdha. Parardha multiplied by two is called Para by t h e learned m e n . 100-103a. T h e y call h u n d r e d by the n a m e Parivrijiha a n d thousand by the word Paripadmaka. T h e other n u m b e r s ( E a c h is multiplied by t e n to get t h e next n u m b e r ) a r e Ayuta, Niyuta, Prayuta, Arbuda, Nyarbuda, Kharbuda, Kharva, JVikharva, Śanku, Padma, Samudra, Antya, Madhya a n d Parardha—Parardha m u l t i p l i e d by two makes Para. T h u s n u m b e r s u p t o eighteen digits have been n a m e d b y great sages for the purpose of counting. O n e should know these n u m b e r s beginning with h u n d r e d . 103b-104. T h e ( p e r i o d extending) to a. Parardha (?) y e a r s is remembered as the period of creative activity of B r a h m a d u r i n g t h e K a l p a s . A period extending as m u c h also r e m a i n s . At the end of it he takes rest ( ? ) . Para a n d Parardha have b e e n calculated a n d reckoned b y m e . • 1 0 , 0 0 0 — 1 0 , 0 0 0 ( I t should be DaSasahasrafiām Sahasram 1 0 , 0 0 0 < - 1 0 0 0 . )


988

Brahmānda Purāna

105-107. Since his prowess is t h e greatest, his longevity is t h e highest, his power of p e n a n c e , strength, virtue or D h a r m a , learning, fortitude, knowledge, realisation of B r a h m a n a n d faculties such as o m n i p o t e n c e e t c . a r e of t h e highest m a g n i t u d e , there is no living being which is g r e a t e r t h a n B r a h m a . He is established in t h e highest position. So he is the greatest of all objects.The greatest B r a h m a has b e e n reckoned by me (as Para). H a l f of his is Parardha. 108. T h e c o u n t a b l e a n d t h e u n c o u n t a b l e are always based on Tantras (Scientific T r e a t i s e s ) . T h e countable is observed t h r o u g h n u m b e r s . It is spoken of u p t o Parardha. 109-110. (Defective t e x t ) . W h e n a h e a p is seen no specific n u m b e r is observed. T h a t is t h e characteristic feature of t h e countlessness. In sand heaps e t c . unlimited n u m b e r is observed. T h a t is also its characteristic quality. Ability to count t h e sand particles is seen in fcvaras (powerful a n d potential lords) equipped with divine vision which is d u e to their p u r i t y . B r a h m a sees everything because he is well established in knowledge. 111-113. On h e a r i n g this, all those ascetics of t h e Naimisa forest h a d their eyes b e d i m m e d w i t h tears of joy. T h e i r words were choked d u e to delight. All those expounders o f the Vedas asked M ā t a r i ś v a n (the w i n d - g o d ) : — " O holy lord, how far off is t h e world of B r a h m a ? W h a t is its extent ? H o w is this calculated in Yojanas ? W h a t is t h e unit of measure­ m e n t ? H o w m u c h is a Yojana as well as K r o ś a . We wish to h e a r of it as it is in a c t u a l reality. 114. On h e a r i n g their u t t e r a n c e full of humility, M ā t a r i ­ śvan ( t h e Wind-god) uttered t h e following sweet words (ex­ p l a i n i n g everything) i n t h e p r o p e r o r d e r a n d i n t h e m a n n e r seen by h i m . Vāyu said :— 115. 1 1.

"I shall m e n t i o n

this to y o u . Listen to w h a t is

In V V . 115 ff V ā y u states the units of measuring distance

m i n e h o w l o n g was the world o f Brahma (from and

locations

of the

Sun

this

world).

The

to deter­ distances

and other Planets ( V V . 129-135) are imaginary

t h o u g h supported i n other P u r ā n a works. W . 138-145 state the distance and l o c a t i o n s of the higher worlds like Maharloka a n d others.


3.4.2.116-125

989

desired to be expressed by m e . T h e manifest p a r t evolving out of the unmanifest one is gross and it is called Mahān ( M a h a t ) . 116. T h e r e are ten parts of the Mahat. T h e gross p a r t is called Bhūtādi (i.e. Ahamkāra or Cosmic E g o ) . T h e m a g n i t u d e of Bhūtādi is m o r e t h a n a t e n t h p a r t ( ? ) . 117-118. Paramānu (Atom) is very subtle. It can be mentally conceived b u t it c a n n o t be seen by t h e eyes. W h a t c a n n o t be further broken up in the world should be known as Paramānu ( a t o m ) . W h e n the rays of the sun come t h r o u g h the window, m i n u t e dust particles a r e seen. T h e learned m e n Call t h a t particle a Paramānu. It is the first in the series of Unit! of m e a s u r e m e n t . 119-120. W h e n eight Paramānus j o i n together it is said to be of t h e size of t h e pollen dust of the lotus (Padmarajas) a n d it is called Trasarenu. T h e combination of eight Trasarenus is proclaimed as Ratharenu. T h e c o m b i n a t i o n of eight such (Ratharenus) is remem­ bered asBālāgra ( h a i r - t i p ) by the learned m e n . 121. Eight Bālāgras m a k e one Liksā (the egg of a louse) . Eight Liksās m a k e one Tūkā (a louse). T h e y call the combina­ tion of eight Yūkās one Tava (a grain of b a r l e y ) . Eight Tavas m a k e one Ańgula (finger-breadth). 122. Twelve Ańgulaparvans (finger-joints or finger-breadths il called a Vitasti (a s p a n ) . It should be known t h a t twentyone finger b r e a d t h s m a k e one Ratni (a cubit) ( t h e distance between the elbow a n d the closed fist). 123. Twentyfour Añgulas m a k e one Hasta (cubit—the distance between the elbow a n d the tip of the middle finger). T w o Ratns or forty two Ańgulas, it should be known, m a k e one Kisku. 124-125. L e a r n e d m e n call ninetysix Añgulas, a Dhanus. It is remembered t h a t the unit Dhanus is taken up in calculating Gavyūtis. A dhanus consists of two Danias with the fingers placed like a t u b u l a r vessel (?) Persons who know calculation call t h r e e hundred Dhanus units a Nalva. ' •From V a . P. 8^106 NālikS seems to be a measure but M W . , S K D . dp n o t support it. If ' N ā l i k ā ' is a measure, it is with a c o u p l e of Dhanu-stafts.

L e x i c o n s like equated here


990

Brahmānda Purāna

126. T w o t h o u s a n d Dhanus units m a k e one Gavyūti. E i g h t thousand Dhanus units m a k e one Tojana. 127-128. T h e m e a s u r e m e n t of the distance of a Tojana is based on this u n i t of Dhanus. It should be known t h a t a t h o u s a n d of these Dhanus m a k e t h e distance called ŚakrakoSa* (?) It has been reckoned so by the experts in the knowledge of calculation. Listen to the distances of worlds in the creation of B r a h m a w i t h this Yojana as the u n i t . 129. T h e sun is more t h a n a h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas from the surface of the E a r t h . T h e m o o n is two h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d Yojanas above the S u n . 130. T h e entire s tellar zone shines a full h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas above t h e m o o n . 131. T h e distance between t h e planets above the stellar zone is two h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas. E a c h of these worlds (planets) is so m u c h above the one below. 132. T h e planet B u d h a ( M e r c u r y ) moves b e n e a t h a l l the stars and planets. Śukra ( V e n u s ) moves above this. Lohita (Mars) is above t h a t . 133-135. Above t h a t , is Brhaspati (Jupiter) a n d Śanaiśc a r a (Saturn) is above t h a t . A h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas above Śanaiścara shines the entire zone of the Seven Sages ( t h e G r e a t B e a r ) . It is mentioned t h a t a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d Yojanas a b o v e the Sages ( T h e Great-Bear) is the son of U t t ā n a p ā d a namely D h r u v a w h o is stationed in a compact divine Vimāna in the firmament constituted by the stars. D h r u v a (Pole S t a r ) has become a post ( t o which the planets a r e tied as it w e r e ) . 136-137. T h e height oVthe three worlds has been explain­ ed by me in terms of Yojanas. It is presented for t h e people of different castes a n d stages in life in the three worlds to per­ form Tāgas to the Devas in the course of M a n v a n t a r a s . W h a t e v e r Yāga is performed in this world is remembered as the cause of sustenance of all beings born of divine wombs. 138-141. T h e three worlds have been explained. H e n c e ­ forth understand the following : — T h e Maharloka where the Kalpavāsins (i.e. those who stay alive t h r o u g h o u t t h e K a l p a ) stay is above (the position of) D h r u v a . It has been decisively •Probably K r o ś a as it is a distance of one thousand D h a n u s .


991

3.4.2.142-153

stated that its distance is a crore of Yojanas. Janaloka is situated two crores of Yojanas above Maharloka. It is , r e m e m b e r e d t h a t D a k s a a n d o t h e r sons of B r a h m a stay in Jana-loka as Sādhakas (Aspirants for spiritual a t t a i n m e n t s ) . T h e Tapoloka is situated above J a n a l o k a ( I t is the region) w h e r e the Devas (or the Devapitrs) n a m e d Vairājas stay. T h e y a r e devoid of the effects of b u r n i n g of all living beings in t h e destruction of the universe. T h e distance between Tapoloka a n d Satyaloka is r e m e m b e r e d as six times the previous distances i.e. six h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas. 142-145. T h a t Brahmaloka is called by t h e n a m e Apunarmiraka (where no death recurs i.e. there is no more r e t u r n to Saihs&ra). Those who worship B r a h m a stay there a n d they do BOt d r o p down to this Samsāra again. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t the portion above Brahmaloka within the Anda (i.e. Cosmic Egg) extends to a crore and fifty jfiyutas (i.e. fifteen million) Yojanas. T h e orbit of this world, the limit to its u p w a r d revolution a n d other movements, is re­ m e m b e r e d as fourteen crores a n d eleven lakhs of Yojanas. T h e worlds above D h r u v a have been thus explained in terms of Yojanas in the m a n n e r h e a r d by m e . Now I shall m e n tio n the allotment of abodes to the living beings of the downward drift (i.e. the n e t h e r worlds). 146-150. T h e following are t h e hells 1 where the creatures of terrible activities go on account of their sins :— T h e y are Raurava, Ghora (Rodha as per Vā. P.) Śūkara, Tāla, Taptakumbha, Mahājvdla, Śabala, Vimohana, Krmi, Krmibhaksa, Lālābhaksa, VUamsana, Adhah-Śiras, Pūyavaha, Rudhirāndhu, Visfākirna, Mūtrāklrna, Vaitarani,Krsna, Asipatravana, Agnijvāla, Mahāghora, Sandathśa, Aśvabhojarta, Tamas, Krsna-sūtra, Lofta, Abhija, Apratisfha a n d Vici a n d others. 151. All the N a r a k a s a r e situated u n d e r the jurisdiction of Y a m a . T h e y a r e of T ā m a s a quality. Persons of evil deeds fall in t h e m severally. 152-153. All these N a r a k a s beginning with R a u r a v a are m e n t i o n e d to be b e n e a t h the E a r t h . A m a n guilty of perjury

1. V V . 146-195 sins t h a t . l e a d to t h e m .

deal with seven hells, the tortures

therein

and the


992

Brahmānda Purāna

a n d one who indulges in c a l u m n y fall into t h e hell Raurava. A person who indulges in partiality when he ought to have b e e n detached falls into t h e hell Krūragraha. O n e w h o obstructs cows* or destroys foetus in t h e womb or one w h o sets t h e town on fire, falls i n t o Krūra-graha. 154. T h e slayer of a B r ā h m a n a , one w h o drinks liquor a n d a person who steals gold sinks into the hell Śūkara. A person who kills a K s a t r i y a as well as one w h o kills a Vaiśya will fall into the hell T ā l a . 155-156. T h e following persons fall i n t o t h e hell called T a p t a k u m b h a , v i z . — H e who commits Brāhmana-slaughter, t h e defiler of t h e preceptor's bed, those by w h o m a king's soldier or a horse-trader is harassed and by w h o m a p r o t e c t o r of wealth is tortured, one who sells a chaste w o m a n a n d one who forsakes a devoted follower—all these fall into T a p t a k u m b h a . 157-158. He who carnally approaches his d a u g h t e r or daughter-in-law falls into t h e N a r a k a ( n a m e d ) Mahājvāla. Those who sell t h e Vedas, those w h o censure t h e Vedas, those who slight elders a n d preceptors a n d those w h o hit t h e m w i t h wounding words, as well as t h e m a n w h o approaches a pro­ hibited w o m a n shall pass on to t h e hell Śabala. 159. He who transgresses t h e b o u n d s of m o r a l i t y a n d established m o r a l law falls i n t o t h e terrible hell of V i m o h a . He who performs sacrificial rites for causing b a r m to o t h e r persons falls into t h e hell K ī t a l o h a . 160. A person inimical to gods a n d B r ā h m a n a s , a person w h o does n o t h o n o u r elders a n d preceptors a n d he w h o con­ taminates gems a n d jewels goes over to the hell K r m i b h a k s a . 161. He who a l o n e a n d by himself eats t h e food w i t h o u t offering t h e same to Brānmanas a n d friends shall pass on to t h e foul-smelling hell L ā l ā b h a k s a a n d stay t h e r e . 162. T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r of arrows, the potter, the person who takes away gold coins, t h e person w h o is a professional physician a n d he who sets fire to a g a r d e n — a l l these fall into t h e hell Viśarhsana. * V ā . P. 101-152 read Rodha w h i c h is the n a m e of a hell. killer of cows, a destroyer of foetus a n d o n e w h o indulges in of towns e t c . ) is consigned to the hell Rodha

It m e a n s : T h e arson

(burning


993

3.4.2.163-173

163. He w h o takes m o n e t a r y gifts from evil m e n , he w h o performs sacrifices on behalf of those who a r e ineligible a n d u n w o r t h y of t h e m , a n d he who m a i n t a i n s himself t h r o u g h t h e stars ( i . e . a s t r o l o g e r ) — t h e s e pass on to t h e hell A d h o m u k h a (Adhahśiras). 164. A person who sells milk, liquor, salt, lac, scents, sweet juices, gingelly seeds—and other similar articles shall fall in t h e terrible hell n a m e d P ū y a v a h a . 165-169a. He w h o binds a n d fastens cocks, cats, birds, deer a n d goats shall also pass on to this hell. T h e person who looks after goats a n d sheep, t h e buffalokeeper, the Cakra-Dhvajin (? S t a n d a r d - b e a r e r of troops a n d realms ? ) , t h e B r ā h m a n a who is a professional p a i n t e r or actor, t h e bird-catcher, the village-priest w h o conducts religious cere­ monies for people of all castes a n d classes, a person w h o sets houses on fire, a person w h o administers poison, a p i m p , a person who sells Soma juice, a d r u n k a r d , a meat-eater, a b u t c h e r , \ a slaughterer of buffaloes etc., a deer-slayer, a Parvakāra (a priest who performs auspicious religious rites on o t h e r (i.e. unprescribed) days j u s t for profit, a spy or an informer a n d a betrayer of friends—all these fall i n t o hell R u d h i r a n d h u — s o say t h e learned m e n . 169b-172. T h e r e is no d o u b t in this t h a t those w h o deceive ( b y denying food)) to one who has occupied a seat in t h e row for t h e purpose of taking food, will fall i n t o t h e terrible hell n a m e d Vidbhuja. A m a n w h o habitually utters falsehood, an inauspicious fellow who reviles a n d abuses others—these sinners fall in t h e awful hell n a m e d M ū t r a k ī r n a . M e n w h o imbibe liquor a n d pass on to V a i t a r a n ī .

kill

sharks

a n d crocodiles

M a d people, m e n of deranged m i n d , m e n devoid of clean habits a n d activities, m e n w h o are habitually furious, m e n w h o cause sorrow to others a n d roguish cheats pass on to t h e hell Krsna. 173. T h e shepherds who c h o p off (trees in t h e ) foresta a r e b u t c h e r e d by m e a n s of saws a n d scissors by awfully terrible h u n t e r s of d e e r ( w h e n they fall) i n t o the, hell Asipatra.


994

Brahman da Purāna

174. A person w h o gives up the life of a religious m e n d i ­ cant (and relapses in t h e old b a d ways of life) falls into the hell Agnijvāla. T h e y are devoured by crows t h a t have beaks of iron and t h a t are of dark a n d variegated colours. 175. A person falls i n t o the hell called Sandarhśa due to his failure in observing the holy rites of performance of sacrifice (isfa) a n d of pūrta i.e. doing works of public charity (like dig­ ging of wells, construction of gardens etc.) 1 76. If the religious students u n d e r a vow of celibacy have seminal discharge d u r i n g day-dreams, if the fathers are t a u g h t by the sons, a n d if the fathers are ordered about by the sons— all of t h e m invariably pass on to the hell Śvabhojana. 177. Those who act contrarily to the rules of the castes a n d stages of life, those who perform holy rites with (uncontrol­ led) fury and excessive exultation—all these become ( p e r m a n e n t ) residents of hells. 178. T h e awfully terrible a n d great hell of fiery n a t u r e n a m e d R a u r a v a is situated above. It is remembered t h a t the dreadful hell of very chilly atmosphere is beneath it. 179. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t the hells being described (subse­ quently) are of this n a t u r e a n d order. O n l y seven hells are recounted as situated b e n e a t h the E a r t h . 180. T h e y are A n d h a t ā m i s r a a n d so on, the result of all evils. R a u r a v a is the first a m o n g t h e m . It is M a h ā r a u r a v a (very dreadful). 181. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t b e n e a t h it there is a chilly hell n a m e d T a p a . T h e third one is K ā l a s ū t r a . It is remembered t h a t there a r e great serpents of different kinds in it. 182. A p r a t i s t h a is the fourth one. Avīci is remembered as t h e fifth one. Loha is r e m e m b e r e d as the sixth a m o n g them. Avidheya is the seventh. 183. T h e (first hell) is n a m e d R a u r v a because it is dread­ ful. Since it is very hot it is remembered as Dakana ( B u r n i n g ) . T h e dreadful hell of chilly atmosphere is b e n e a t h it. It is t h e base hell n a m e d Tapa. 184. It is mentioned t h a t K ā l a s ū t r a is very because there a r e serpents there t h a t cut a n d destroy.

dreadful


995

3.4.2.185-195

T h e r e is no steadiness in the hell A p r a t i s t h a . It is r e m e m ­ b e r e d t h a t there is a p e r p e t u a l whirling therein. 185. Avīci is mentioned as very dreadful because of the squeezing and crushing by means of mechanical devices. L o h a is m o r e dreadful t h a n t h a t because of resorting to ( Ś r a y a n a t ) * activities. (?) 186. Since t h e body is constituted in t h a t m a n n e r it is r e m e m b e r e d as one t h a t cannot be enjoyed. Absence of remedy is t h e characteristic of this hell on a c c o u n t of the fact t h a t t h e sinners a r e subjected to pain, slaughter, fettering etc. 187. Those hells are connected (with one a n o t h e r ) from above as well as from below. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as devoid of illumination. T h e r e is "excess of misery in all of t h e m on a c c o u n t of sin. 188-189. These two (? R a u r a v a a n d T a p a ) a r e on a p a r with t h e worlds above but b o t h of them a r e devoid of illumina­ tion. W i t h their bodies having dimensions to a p a r t m e n t s on the tops of houses (?) the Naraka-dwellers a r e devolved thus d u e to their previous K a r m a n s , all of a sudden. T h e i r bodies a r e c a p a b l e of experiencing pain etc. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e excess of misery in all those hells is very severe. 190-192. T h e tortures t h a t t h e Naraka-dwellers are sub­ jected to are declared to be i n n u m e r a b l e . T h e r e , t h e misery is experienced by t h e m . W h e n their K a r m a n is almost exhausted they are born of a n i m a l wombs d u e to t h e residue of their K a r m a n s . T h e Devas a n d the Naraka-dwellers are stationed above a n d below. T h e i r physical bodies are evolved suddenly on a c c o u n t of D h a r m a a n d A d h a r m a ( M e r i t s a n d Sins) for t h e sake of Upabhoga (experiencing happiness a n d s o r r o w ) . T h e sorrow is experienced due to t h e relevant K a r m a n . 193-195. W i t h their faces b e n t down, t h e Devas look at t h e Naraka-dwellers stationed b e n e a t h . Similarly, t h e N a r a k a dwellers see all t h e Devas w i t h faces b e n t d o w n . Since there is equality between these two a n d this conception is n a t u r a l t h a t t h e r e is no such state as above or b e n e a t h in t h e sphere of Lokāloka. This n a t u r a l appellation is applicable to L o k ā l o k a . " *Ksayapāt

in

Vā.

P.

101.182

is

Jcsayagāt m e a n s 'watting a w a y of K a r m a s ' .

also

obscure.

T h e r e i n Karmapām


996

Brahmānda Purina

T h e n the B r ā h m a n a s engaged in the S a t t r a spoke to V ā y u again. The Sages said :— 196-197. " C a l c u l a t e the n u m b e r of all living beings residing in Lokāloka a n d moving about in the Universe a n d m e n t i o n it completely to u s " . On hearing these words of the Sages, M ā r u t a spoke t h u s : — Vāyu said :— 198-199. 1 T h i s fact cannot be understood even by means of divine vision. Even if it is understood (somehow) it c a n n o t be calculated by means of eyes. H e n c e , ultimately, O B r ā h m a n a ś , no question arises due. to t h e fact t h a t it. c a n n o t be imagined or measured. But u n d e r s t a n d w h a t is reckoned a n d decided by B r a h m a . 200. E a r t h l y worms t h a t are procreated by means of seminal effusion constitute a thousandth p a r t of the n u m b e r of immobile beings. 2 0 1 . All t h e a q u a t i c animals together constitute a thou­ sandth p a r t of the worms procreated by means of seminal effusion. L e t this be understood decisively. 202. It should be understood t h a t birds constitute a t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of t h e living beings dwelling in water. All of t h e m belong to this world. 203. Animals, t h e q u a d r u p e d s of the world are equal to a t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of the n u m b e r of birds. 204. Bipeds a r e reckoned as constituting a t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of the n u m b e r of q u a d r u p e d s . Righteous persons are reckoned as constituting a t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of bipeds. 205-206. A t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of the righteous persons go tcheaven. Persons w h o get salvation a r e e q u a l to a t h o u s a n d t h p a r t of the righteous persons in the heaven. 1.

V V . 198-210 contain the Furanic notion a b o u t

different kinds of species in this Brahmānda. T h e

reply

the to

population

of

the question

of

sages in. V V . 196-197 is imaginary from our point of view but people seriously believed in these figures in Puranic times.


997

3.4.2,207-217

Persons living in the regions of torture a r e equal to those a t t a i n i n g heaven. 207-210. Those evil-souled ones w h o a r e d e g r a d e d a n d fallen on account of their c o n t e m p t for piety (dharma) pass on to t h e hell R a u r a v a . In the p i t c h darkness therein, they experience h e a t a n d cold. O b s t i n a t e a n d hard-hearted persons who pass on to t h e regions of t o r t u r e experience excessively fierce p a i n . T h e hell Raurava, it should be known, is very h o t . It is essentially terrible a n d dreadful. T h e hell n a m e d A n d h a is still m o r e dreadful. T h e hell T a p a is of chilly atmosphere. T h u s saintly persons or righteous people going to h e a v e n a r e very rare. T h i s n u m b e r has been calculated by t h e self-born L o r d ( B r a h m a ) . This calculation of B r a h m a is s u p e r h u m a n a n d beyond all o r d i n a r y reckoning." The Sages said :— 211-212. " T h e following Lokas ( R e g i o n s ) have b e e n mentioned b y you v i z . — M a h a r , J a n a , T a p a , Satya, B h ū t a , Bhavya a n d Bhava. Tell us factually t h e m a g n i t u d e intervening spaces between t h e w o r l d s . "

and the nature

of

On h e a r i n g these words of those sages w h o h a d sublimated their sexual urge, god V ā y u who h a d visualized t h e a c t u a l s t a t e of affairs, spoke of this factual state. Vāyu said :— 213-217. R b h u , S a n a t k u m ā r a a n d others a r e e n l i g h t e n e d persons. By m e a n s of Yogic power, Pratyāhāra ( R e s t r a i n t over the Sense O r g a n s ) , meditation, a n d power of p e n a n c e , t h e y directly perceive their a b o d e t h a t is ordinarily c l e a r only by m e a n s of reasoning a n d speculation. T h e y h a v e purified intellect. T h e y have got rid of their outer cover of ignorance. T h e y a r e devoid of Rajas (sins or t h e quality called Rajas). T h e y a r e excellent good m e n identical w i t h B r a h m a n . T h e y a r e devoid of old age or decline. T h e y a r e endowed w i t h t h e quality of


998

Brahmānda Purāna

loving affection. T h u s those Yogins abide in t h e B r a h m a n . T h e y observe every t h i n g as performed by t h e masters a m o n g t h e sages called Vālakhilyas (?) in the same m a n n e r as is observed by me when my physical presence was there. T h e abode of Iśvara c a n n o t be comprehended by spiritually unsuccessful persons. Since he is very subtle, ī ś v a r a is comprehensible to the learned m e n only t h r o u g h their s u p e r - h u m a n power. 218-221. T h e following ten qualities of imperishable n a t u r e a r e present in Ś a ń k a r a viz. perfect knowledge, detach­ m e n t (absence of affection), divine faculties of omnipotence, omnipresence etc.,austerity, truthfulness, forbearance, fortitude t h e state of being the seer, self-contact a n d the state of being the presiding Deity. Because of his e m i n e n c e a n d supremacy, t h e lord richly endowed with Yogic power, is engaged in blessing B r a h m a . He renders h i m help by assuming the cosmic form. T h e a b o d e of t h a t lord is imperishable a n d p e r m a n e n t , undisturbed a n d steady. It is capable of coping w i t h a n y adversity. It is the eighth world. It is the highest one, p u r e intelligence a n d constituted of M ā y ā . L o r d M a h e ś v a r a is Māyl (one who is the master of M ā y ā ) . 222. T h e destruction proof of his existence.

of Devas is mentioned as t h e

Now u n d e r s t a n d further even as I expound this in detail a n d in t h e p r o p e r order. 2 2 3 . It is mentioned t h a t the world of B r a h m a is at a distance of t h i r t e e n crores a n d fifteen lakhs of Yojanas (131500000) from the E a r t h . 224. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e Anda of t h e lord (i.e. t h e Cosmic Egg) is higher up at a distance of one crore a n d fifty lakhs (15000000) of Yojanas beyond t h e world of B r a h m a . 225-227. T h i s is t h e u p w a r d r a n g e a n d b e y o n d it, it is r e m e m b e r e d , is t h e e n d of Gati (further m o v e m e n t ) . T h e Prakrits are r e m e m b e r e d as e t e r n a l a n d subtle. T h e y a r e called Prakrtis because p r o d u c t i o n is their characteristic sign. T h e y -are n o t well-comprehended because t h e Gunas a r e inter-


3.4.2;228-234

999"

d e p e n d e n t a n d intermixed. It is from t h e m t h a t t h e Ksetrajña. ( t h e Individual soul with the designation B r a h m a is evolved. He is the soul, t h e Adhikartr ( t h e Superintending a u t h o r i t y ) . T h e thing that is i m m u t a b l e , t h a t is t h e p r i m e cause, t h a t is t h e state of being the presiding a u t h o r i t y , t h a t cannot be produced, and that its greatest a b o d e is the Paramānu ( t h e minutest a t o m ) . I t lies e m b e d d e d i n t h e S u p r e m e Being. 228-230. L o r d M a h e ś v a r a is Aksaya (having no deterior­ ation) , Anūhya ( o n e w h o c a n n o t be c o n j e c t u r e d ) , Amūrti (having no physical form) a n d yet Mūrtimān (having a visible body). His (activity is) Prādurbhāva ( M a n i f e s t a t i o n ) , Tirobhāva ( V a n i s h i n g ) , Sthiti (Stability) a n d Anugraha (Blessing). L o r d Śiva w h o is like t h e a t o m i.e. very subtle is Vidhi ( t h e fate) a n d h e c a n n o t b e c o m p a r e d w i t h others. H e i s endowed with brilliance a n d he is t h e initial i l l u m i n a t o r of Tamos ( D a r k n e s s ) . T h e golden Egg t h a t was evolved at t h e out-set as Aupasargika (A relevant adjunct) is very h u g e a n d circular. It is evolved from ī ś v a r a . 231. T h e g e r m i n a t i o n of t h e Seed is from ī ś v a r a . Kfetrajña (individual Soul) is accepted as the Seed. T h e y call Prakrti as Toni (source of origin) a n d t h a t P r a k r t i is of t h e n a t u r e of N ā r ā y a n a . 232. T h e lord is for t h e purpose of creation of t h e worlds. He is the support a n d sustenance of t h e worlds. T h e creation of the noble-souled Lokadhātr ( C r e a t o r of t h e w o r l d s ) is excellent on account of correlation of Tattvas ( P r i m a r y substances). 233. In front of t h e world of B r a h m a a n d b e n e a t h t h e A n d a of B r a h m a , in b e t w e e n these two, t h e r e is a divine city free from illness a n d unhappiness. It is Manomaya ( m e n t a l in nature) . l 234. T h a t is t h e a b o d e of ī ś v a r a (the S u p r e m e L o r d ) when he adopts a physical body. T h a t is t h e region of I ś v a r a 1. V V . 233b-245 constitute a poetic description of the city of Ś i v a a n d V V . 249-259 describe the holy residents w h o dwell there. It is a Puranic description of the types of Liberation called Salokatā, Sarūpatā, S a m i p a t ā .


1000

Brahmānda Purāna

of u n m e a s u r e d prowess. T h e city is n a m e d Śivam. It is t h e refuge for those w h o a r e afraid of re-births. 235. Its i n t e r n a l e x t e n t , O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , is a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d Yojanas. It is stationed in t h e E a r t h l y zone. 236-237. T h e formidable external r a m p a r t - w a l l of has t h e brilliance of t h e S u n . T h e city is encircled by the having t h e splendour of t h e m i d - d a y sun, the splendour out-shines all other brilliance. T h e city is e q u i p p e d w i t h gates m a d e of gold a n d a d o r n e d w i t h strings of pearls. enclosures a r e well-arranged with b r i g h t golden adjuncts.

gold wall that four The

238-241. T h a t divine city is in t h e firmament. It is very beautiful. It is r e s o n a n t w i t h ' t h e sounds of bells. In t h a t excellent a n d beautiful city, those persons w h o have performed good holy rites a n d follow their h a p p y future destiny, rejoice in different places such as in a i r y open g r o u n d s w o r t h y of sports, in t h e inner a p a r t m e n t s m a d e of silver a n d studded with different kinds of jewels a n d gems. T h e y enjoy themselves in places full of b a n n e r s a n d ensigns a n d richly furnished w i t h all desirable objects. T h e y take delight in those places w h i c h shine splendidly with parks a n d gardens. T h e y revel in t h e a p a r t m e n t s m a d e of gold a n d resembling clouds at dusk or those m a d e of silver a n d resembling the Kailāsa m o u n t a i n . T h e y rejoice on t h e excellent tops of splendid palaces. T h e y a r e d e l i g h t e d w i t h t h e objects of enjoyment such as sweet sounds e t c . ( T h e y a r e t h e followers of B h a v a ) . 242-243. On t h e tops of palaces t h e sounds of Vedic M a n t r a s a r e h e a r d incessantly. Different kinds of auspicious stories a r e n a r r a t e d t h e r e . Sounds of musical instruments a n d songs a r e h e a r d all r o u n d . T h e r e a r e Samsravas (offerings of libations) everywhere. T h e r e are unparalleled assemblages of people. T h e s e a n d similar things a r e present on t h e tops of those palaces. 244-245. T h e r e is a splendid a n d auspicious palace of t h o u s a n d columns. It is m a d e of gold a n d it is studded w i t h excellent matchless gems a n d jewels all r o u n d , w i t h crystals resembling t h e m o o n , w i t h precious stones as lustrous as Lapis


3.4.2.246-254

1001

Lazuli a n d w i t h various o t h e r gems b r i l l i a n t like t h e m o r n i n g s u n or golden in colour or h a v i n g t h e brilliant lustre of fire." 246. On h e a r i n g this, t h e ascetics a n d t h e sages of N a i m i s a forest cried out. As they h a d some d o u b t s , they spoke these words to t h e Wind-god. The Sages enquired :— 247. " W h o are those noble-souled followers of Bhava ( G o d Śiva) w h o very m u c h deserve to be blessed a n d w h o rejoice very well in t h a t excellent city ?" 248. On h e a r i n g t h e speech of t h e sages V ā y u spoke these words : — Vāyu said : " L e t t h e fact be h e a r d as to by w h o m t h e devotion to t h e lord of t h e Devas has been pursued diligently. 249-250. T h e eternal a n d i m m u t a b l e region of Śiva, t h e status of sharing t h e same world as R u d r a , has been a t t a i n e d by those w h o sought refuge in M a h e ś v a r a w i t h single-minded devotion, by n o t thinking of a n y t h i n g else. T h e i r i n n e r soul is sanctified by m e a n s of p u r e thoughts, words a n d deeds. T h e y glitter on a c c o u n t of their modesty a n d simplicity. T h e y are not greedy. T h e y h a v e perfect control over their sense-organs •Ad they are endowed w i t h heroism. 2 5 1 . T h e y have a t t a i n e d identity a n d similarity with the form of Bhava, t h e excellent state of equality w i t h t h e lord. A l l of them a r e Vaiśvānara-Mukhas (having t h e god of fire for t h e i r m o u t h s ) . T h e y h a v e t h e cosmic form a n d {the m a t t e d

hair.

252. T h e y are blue-throated a n d white-necked. T h e y h a v e three eyes a n d s h a r p curved t e e t h . T h e crescent-moon makes t h e m a fine t u r b a n a n d they wear m a t t e d h a i r as t h o u g h it were a c r o w n . 253. All those heroes have ten a r m s . T h e y have t h e sweet smell of the interior of a lotus. All of t h e m shine like t h e mid-day sun. All of t h e m wear yellow robes. 254. All of t h e m hold t h e Pināka bow in their h a n d s . T h e y have t h e white bulls as vehicles. T h e y a r e e n d o w e d


1002

Brahmānda Purāna

w i t h brilliant lustre a n d they a r e bedecked in p e a r l necklaces. T h e y w e a r ear-rings. 255-256. T h e y are omniscient. T h e y perceive everything. T h e y are devoid of old age a n d d e a t h . T h e y divide themselves i n t o various forms by m e a n s of physical bodies h a v i n g s u p e r i o r lustre, a n d they sport a b o u t with different objects of enjoyment. T h e y enjoy r a r e pleasures a n d have t h e p o w e r to move a b o u t as they please. T h e y are Siddhas (persons with spiritual attainments) w h o are enlightened b y o t h e r Siddhas. 257-259. T h e r e a r e m a n y crores of groups of eleven R u d r a s of noble souls. M a h e ś v a r a t h e noble-souled lord of t h e Devas, t h e lord w h o is compassionate towards t h e devotees, t h e lover a n d consort of Pārvatī, rejoices a l o n g with these. I do not perceive a n y dissimilarity between those R u d r a s a n d noble-souled Bhava. I am speaking the t r u t h to y o u . " T h u s M ā t a r i ś v ā ( t h e Wind-god) concluded t h e sacred story h e a r d from I ś v a r a . 260-261. After h e a r i n g this extremely holy story of T r y a m b a k a all those sages having a lustre 'similar to t h a t of t h e sun, o b t a i n e d excellent d e l i g h t a n d very good blessing. After duly h o n o u r i n g V ā y u of g r e a t prowess they spoke to him. The Sages said : 262-263. " O highly exalted a n d fortunate Lord Samīrana ( W i n d - g o d ) , t h e excellent holy Aupasargika, t h e eighth a b o d e of I ś v a r a has been recounted to us by you. ' I t s situation a n d m a g n i t u d e has been factually r e l a t e d . T h a t great­ est region of t h e S u p r e m e Soul is richly endowed with Yogic Dharma. 264-268. T h e greatness of god M a h ā d e v a c a n n o t be perfectly c o m p r e h e n d e d even by t h e Suras. D u e to your greatness, t h e greatness of t h a t lord of immeasurable prowess ( h a s been understood by u s ) . If at all t h e r e is delusion in his devotees, it is only for t h e sake of further blessings a n d com­ parison. T h e richness a n d prosperity in t h e a b o d e of t h e lord of the Devas shines excessively. T h e glory of B r a h m a w h i c h h a s been endowed u p o n h i m is superb a n d matchless. It ( t h a t glory) h a s been placed ( h o u s e d ) in t h e a b o d e of t h e L o r d of t h e


100$

3.4.2.269-277

Cosmic, as if it is the bright light of the moon. T h e greatness of the noble-souled R u d r a s who are equal to M a h ā d e v a has b e e n related by you, ( t h e n a r r a t i o n of which seems as though the n e c t a r is oozing out of your m o u t h . O lord of holy rites, it h a s b e e n entirely i m b i b e d by us along with devotion to Śarva ( G o d Ś i v a ) . Is there anything related to the followers (of R u d r a ) t h a t has n o t been understood by us ? O P r ā n a (Life-breath), the excellent god, it behoves you .to explain this question duly. Sūta said :— 269. T h a t lord s a i d — " W h a t else shall I explain to you? O sages of holy rites, I shall recount whatever should be narrated by m e . " The Sages said :— 270-271. " T h e Adityas, the lions of great fury a n d exploits on either side (of the l o r d ) , t h e Vaiśvānaras, t h e B h ū t a g a n a s (groups of goblins) a n d t h e tigers which are t h e followers—what will be the state of these d u r i n g the dreadful Ābhūta-Samplava (annihilation of all living beings), when all living beings are destroyed ? Kindly tell us this exactly after taking into a c c o u n t t h e existence of I ś v a r a a n d his origin t h a t it u n m a n i f e s t . " 1 Viyu said :— 272-277. " ( I t is the place) w h e r e formerly t h e sons of B r a h m a called K u m ā r a s viz. S a n a n d a n a , S a n a k a a n d S a n ā t a n a had gone. K a p i l a was their leader. Asuri of great fame, t h e Sage Pañcaśikha and others like t h e m went there. After t h e lapse of some time, when cycles of K a l p a s h a d been c o m p l e t e d . 1.

When

V ā y u has already described the Ābhūta-sampiava (world-end)

w h i c h destroys worlds like Bhūr, Bhuvah etc, sages naturally w a n t to k n o w the fate of the residents

of

Siva's

city at

that time.

T h e author wants to

establish the greatness of Maheśvara. He replies that they ultimately in H i m w h o is the Subtlest Anu. the

author.

Historical

teachers

enter

T h i s shows the influence of Vaisesikas on of the

Sāñkhya

School,

Kapila,

Pañcaśikha are e l e v a t e d like the sages Sanaka, S a n a n d a n a etc.

Asuri,


1004

Brahmānda Purāna

when the Pralaya (Deluge) causing the end of t h e great Bhūtas (Elements) was i m m i n e n t , m a n y crores of R u d r a s a p p r o a c h e d gracious M ā h e ś v a r ī . After forsaking t h e sensual enjoyments of sound etc. those noble-souls pass on to M a h e ś v a r a , the Subtle one. W i t h their spiritual refulgence endowed with wisdom a n d perfect knowl­ edge, they enter t h e living beings a n d eschew the sensual enjoyments of eight types of bases. W i t h t h e compassion for the living beings (elements?) they leave off their station without excitement. T h e n they pass on to M a h e ś v a r a , the subtlest atom. 278. T h e n they cross the river of worldly existence, having a great whirlpool with births and deaths for its waters. T h e n they perceive t h e greatest, undivided a n d indivisible. 279-280. Seven Devīs (Mātrs) h a d been glorified including Devi (i.e. P ā r v a t ī ) . So also thousands of lions a n d Adityas, V a i ś v ā n a r a s (fire-gods), groups of goblins, tigers a n d other followers. Bhava, t h e perfect exponent of Sārhkhya a n d Yoga absorbs all of t h e m within himself. 2 8 1 . J o i n e d with Visnu, he creates once again t h e seven worlds a n d the five elements. Thereafter, he annihilates t h e m too. 282. R u d r a w h o is of the n a t u r e of S ā m a n a n d Yajur M a n t r a s , permeates decisively ( t h e whole Universe) w i t h i n a n d without. 283-286. He is t h e only lord a n d G o d , O B r ā h m a n a s . He is t h e cause of origin as well as t h e destroyer of t h e universe. T h e n those sages (? K a p i l a e t c ) who have a lustre similar to t h a t of the Sun, concentrate their m i n d s solely on h i m . T h e y are of truthful glory. T h e y impose the spiritual fire in their selves. T h e y keep their m i n d p u r e by means of good thoughts, words a n d activities with their m i n d s exclusively c o n c e n t r a t e d o n H i m . T h e y thus a t t a i n M a h e ś v a r a . T h e y a r e engaged in holy rites a n d fasts. T h e y a r e merciful a n d com­ passionate towards all living beings. Divine Yogic practice subsequent to t h e p r a c t i c e of Tama ( R e s t r a i n t of Senses) e t c . , h a s been mastered by t h e m . T h e y have thus b e c o m e rid of all,


3.4.2.287-295

1005

d o u b t s . After attaining M a h e ś v a r a by means of S u p r e m e devotion a n d refulgence endowed w i t h perfect knowledge, they have attained Rudrasālokya ( t h e status of living in t h e same world as R u d r a ) . T h e y have attained the eternal a n d i m m u t a b l e position. 287-288. He who is equipped w i t h t h e regular practice of austerities a n d reads this Śruti (narrative as holy as t h e Vedas) recounted by V ā y u attains Rudraloka, the cause of all worlds. No m a t t e r , w h e t h e r he is a B r ā h m a n a , K s a t r i y a or a Vaiśya (provided he is devoted to his own duties.) H e ' a t t a i n s the region of R u d r a , the cause of all worlds. 289-290. W h e n all created objects h a v e receded a n d t h e y abide in the P r a k r t i alone, there is no possibility of direct perception. T h e n everything is out of p e r c e p t i o n . N o t h i n g is possible to be seen at all. T h e r e c a n n o t be any word to n a r r a t e it. It c a n n o t be known. E v e n learned m e n are ignorant. Moreover, there is no question of going a n d returning. 291-293. By m e a n s of an imaginative grasp a n d by m e a n s of inference the following is mentioned after duly p o n d e r i n g over i t . 1 W h e n the u l t i m a t e cause, the eternal (Pradhāna) of t h e n a t u r e of Sat a n d Asat (Existent a n d non­ existent) stands by, t h e r e is an activity in it t h o u g h it c a n n o t be pointed out, b u t t h a t is d u e to (some inner) a u t o m a t i c cause. T h e seven Prakrtis e n t e r one a n o t h e r in this process of re-absorption e a c h having it two times. T h e Anda (Cosmic egg) by which everything is enveloped gets merged in w a t e r . 294. T h e seven c o n t i n e n t s , seven oceans, seven worlds a l o n g with t h e m o u n t a i n s — e v e r y t h i n g h a v i n g w a t e r for its covering becomes merged in Jyotis (the F i r e - e l e m e n t ) . 295. T h e Taijasa (fiery) covering gets merged in Māruta ( W i n d ) , the Vāyavya (gaseous) covering gets merged in Ākāśa (Ether). 1. the

V V . 293-297 describe the process of involution of the universe

Sāńkhya

(-Vedāntic)

way;

'annihilation a n d extension'.

Avyakta

and

Brahma

are

t h e causes

in of


1006

Brahmdnda Purāna

296. T h e covering of t h e sky merges with Bh ūtādi (Cosmic E g o ) . T h e Mahat ( G r e a t P r i n c i p l e ) , t h e characteristic feature of which is t h e intellect, swallows Bhūtādi (the source of Bhūtas). 297. T h e Unmanifest one swallows Mahat. Beyond t h a t t h e r e is Gunasāmya ( t h e equilibrium of the Gunas). T h e Avyakta a n d Brahma a r e thus t h e causes of a n n i h i l a t i o n and extension. 298-299. T h e y create a n d a n n i h i l a t e . Creation a n d withdrawal are d u e to modification (evolution and i n v o l u t i o n ) . M e n of perfect knowledge w h o have accomplished perfor­ m a n c e of activities, go quickly a n d get involved in re-absorption. T h e y observe perfect restraint. T h e Ksetrajñas (individual souls) get united with Karanas (sense-organs). 300. T h e y say t h a t the Avyakta (Unmanifest one) is K s e t r a a n d B r a h m a is called K s e t r a j ñ a . T h e i r U n i o n is without a beginning b u t is caused by Sādharmya (similarity of characteristics) and Vaidharmya (dissimilarity of characteristics). 3 0 1 . T h u s , O B r ā h m a n a s , in the activities of creation, the K$etrajña should be known. T h e knower of B r a h m a n also should be known separately, t h r o u g h the knowledge of Ksetra. 302. T h e state of being or not being the object of k n o w l edge of the Ksetra and Ksetrajña is r e m e m b e r e d . B r a h m a should be known as Avisaya (non-object) a n d K s e t r a is called Visaya: (object). 303. T h e Ksetra presided over by Ksetrajña, they say„ is for the sake of Ksetrajña. Since t h e bodies are m a n y , the embodied one (soul) is r e m e m b e r e d as manifold. 304-308. These souls are stationed without Vyūhas. (arrays) a n d Samkaras (intermingling) like the luminaries. Since t h e r e is t h e experience of happiness or sorrow,, different bodies, the multiplicity of individual souls should be understood by the knower. W h e n the w i t h d r a w a l of these different beings takes place, t h a t is b r o u g h t a b o u t n a t u r a l l y after t h e lapse of a g r e a t period of t i m e . 1

that

1.

W. 300-312 discuss the

the

self-born

Prakrti.

being

topic Ksetra and ' Ksetrajña

brings about

and

conclude

dissolution (of the universe) through


3.4.2.309-315

1007

T h e y r e t u r n along "with the residents of Brahmaloka, along with all those w h o have attained similarity to B r a h m a . T h e i r a t t a c h m e n t to t h e self-born lord is steady. D u e to their r e t u r n a n d due to the staying behind of Ātmanivāsins (residents of the Self i.e. Brahma's w o r l d ) , they begin to see defects therein. T h e n , they have Vairāgya (detach­ m e n t ) roused up a n d it causes destruction of their residence. 309-310. TheBhojya (object, Enjoyment or food) a n d Bhoktrtva ( t h e state of being the enjoyer) a r e m a n y . T h r o u g h this, they c o m p r e h e n d its n a t u t e ; the Ksetrajñas have the knowledge of their separateness. T h e n those residents of Brahmaloka see the multiplicity of individuals. T h e y are beyond cause in Prakrti. T h e y reside within themselves in the n a t u r e of the quiescent a n d invisible form. 311-312. All the conscious a n d unconscious are p u r e a n d free from blemishes a n d stains. T h e y are remembered as a t t a i n i n g absolution there itself. T h e y do not come back (to Sarhsāra). Since they are devoid of G u n a s , the Mirātmans (those without souls i.e. the non-sentient ones) too a r e . absorbed in Prakrti at the end in t h e opposite process. T h u s the process of dissolution t h r o u g h Prakrti has b e e n r e c o u n t e d .

by the self-born Being

313. He who abides by the discipline a n d conduct of life based on the castes a n d stages of life a n d listens to t h e n a r r a t i o n of this Pratisarga (dissolution) shall a t t a i n the status of having the same world as śiva. He will be endowed w i t h devotion a n d be free from a i l m e n t s . 314. If t h e Ś u d r a is n o t a liquor-addict, if he is a devo­ tee of Bhava (God Śiva) a n d if he has all sense-organs subjugated, he will be characterised by Apratighāta (absence of h i n d r a n c e a n d resistance) a n d will be staying till the ulti­ m a t e dissolution of all living beings. 315. Or he will be a t t a i n i n g the status of being the leader of Ganas i.e. groups of Siva's a t t e n d a n t s of all-time duration. T h e liquor-addict rejoices alongwith the groups of Bhūtas w h o imbibe liquor.


1008

Brahmānda Purāna

316. On being served a n d resorted to on the E a r t h , Bhava becomes t h e bestower of boons to m e n . " T h u s Lord V ā y u spoke these excellent words.

CHAPTER

THREE

Dissolution of the Universe Sūta continued : 1. I shall explain t h e process of dissolution at the end of a Para (? i.e. one full d a y a n d .night) of t h e Self-born L o r d ( B r a h m a ) , when t h e period of existence of the Lord lapses. 2. D u r i n g the process of Pratyāhāra (dissolution) the Avyakta ( t h e unmanifest one) sWallows t h e Vyakta ( t h e manifest o n e — t h e whole Universe) entirely in t h e same w a y as ī ś v a r a creates the manifest U n i v e r s e which is extremely subtle. 3-4. W h e n t h e extremely dreadful destruction of every­ thing beginning w i t h Dvyanuka (molecule of two atoms) a n d ending w i t h Para ( t h e greatest thing) is i m m i n e n t at the end of K a l p a , a n d is not visible to a n y one, at the close of M a n v a n t a r a , of the last M a n u , at t h e end of K a l i y u g a when everything is dissolved, it is called Samhāra ( A n n i h i l a t i o n ) . 5-7. W h e n t h e great " W a s h i n g off" begins to take p l a c e , 1 when t h e Bratyāhāra (lit. w i t h d r a w a l i.e. dissolution of t h e Universe) is i m m i n e n t , when in t h e course of t h a t dissolu­ tion, t h e Elements b o t h gross a n d subtle (Bhūtas a n d Tanmātras) are a n n i h i l a t e d , w h e n Vikāras (Evolutes of P r a k r t i ) beginning w i t h Mahat a n d e n d i n g w i t h Viśesa are destroyed, when the Pratisañcara (Re-absorption and dissolution) caused

1. V V . 5-25 describe the process of involution of Tattvas (TattvaPrasamyama) after the end of K a l p a . T h u s the element Prthvi is swallowed up by water as it (Prthvi) loses its peculiar characteristic viz. smell. T h e process m a y be indicated thus : T h e Element Prthvi W a r e f Fire Wind Ether (Akāśa) Bhūtādi B u d d h i M a h a t Guna-sāmya (equilibrium of Gunas, Sattva, Rajas and T a m a s ) or Prakrti.


3.4.3.8-19

1009

by its own characteristic n a t u r e has begun to function, t h e waters at t h e very outset swallow Gandha (smell) the quality of E a r t h . Thereafter, t h e E a r t h from w h i c h t h e quality of smell h a s been taken away, becomes fit for destruction. 8-9. W h e n the Gandha (smell, t h e subtle essence of the e a r t h ) is destroyed, t h e E a r t h transforms itself into the state of W a t e r . Waters then p e r m e a t e everything a n d move a b o u t here a n d there. Rasa ( t a s t e ) , the quality of the waters, gets merged w i t h Joytis (the fiery e l e m e n t ) . 10. Along with t h e destruction of Rasatanmātra ( t h e subtle element of rasa) waters become destroyed. W h e n t h e Rasa is taken away by the fierce fiery element, waters assume t h e state of Jyotis ( t h e element called F i r e ) . 11. W h e n the water is swallowed, Tejas (fiery ele­ m e n t ) looks a r o u n d on all sides. T h e n Agni ( T h e Fiery ele­ m e n t ) pervading everywhere evaporates t h a t water. 12-13. T h e n this entire universe is g r a d u a l l y filled w i t h flames. T h e n the flames spread on all sides, above a n d below, V ā y u (the wind element) swallows up Rūpa (colour o f ' f o r m ) t h e luminous quality of Jyotis. It t h e n gets merged therein like the flame of l a m p in t h e gust of wind. 14. W h e n Rūpatanmātra (form of colour, the essential q u a l i t y of F i r e ) is destroyed the fiery element calms d o w n bereft of its q u a l i t y of colour. T h e great element V ā y u t h e n blows off a n d destroys Tejas (the fiery e l e m e n t ) . 15-16. W h e n t h e world has become devoid of light, w h e n Tejas has merged into a n d has become identified w i t h Vāyu, Vāyu resorts to its root cause with w h i c h it has connec­ tion, below a n d on all sides. ĀkāSa (Ether) swallows Spars'a (the quality of t o u c h ) , the q u a l i t y of Vāyu. 17-19. T h e n Vāyu calms down a n d t h e E t h e r remains b e h i n d bare, possessing no form, no colour, no taste, no t o u c h a n d no smell. Filling up every thing with sounds, t h a t great ( e l e m e n t ) shines. W h e n t h a t becomes dissolved, only the E t h e r charaterised by sound remains behind. I t s subtle essence, t h e SabdaTanmātra t h e n covers t h e e n t i r e E t h e r a n d stands by. T h e r e t h e Bhūtādt ( t h e Cosmic E g o — A h a m k ā r a ) swallows t h e q u a l i t y śabda.


1010

Brahmānda Purāna

20-22. All the Bhūtas (Elements) a n d t h e Indriyas (SenseOrgans) become merged into Bhūtādi simultaneously. T h i s Bhūtādi is of the n a t u r e oīAbhim&na ( o r Ahamkāra—Cosmic E g o ) . It is r e m e m b e r e d as being of the n a t u r e of Tamos quality. T h e principle Mahat characterised by Buddhi (Cosmic intellect) swallows Bhūtādi. Mahān (Mahat) should be known as A t m a n . Those who p o n d e r over.reality call it by the follow­ ing synonyms viz. Sarhkalpa ( C o n c e p t i o n ) , Vyavasāya (Resolu­ tion, d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) , Buddhi (Intellect), Manas ( M i n d ) , Lińga ( E m b l e m ) , Mahān (Great) and Aksara (Imperishable). 23-24. W h e n t h e Bhūtas get merged into Gunasāmya (equilibrium of Gunas), t h e Mahat also becomes dissolved a n d Gunasāmya ( t h e equilibrium of three Gunas) abides within its Self. T h e causes of all Bhūtas get dissolved in the cause of Prasamyama ( c o m p l e t e r e s t r a i n t ) . T h u s there is t h e restraint ( a n d Re-absorption) of the Tattvas (Principles) along with their causes. 25-26. This Tattvaprasarhyama ( R e - a b s o r p t i o n of the Principles), O B r ā h m a n a s , is remembered as being r e c u r r e n t . It is r e p e a t e d often. Dharma ( v i r t u e ) , Adharma (sin), Tapas (penance), J nana ( k n o w l e d g e ) , Śubha (auspiciousness) Satyānrte (Truth and falsehood), t h e states of being up or b e n e a t h , happiness a n d sorrow, pleasure a n d displeasure—all these c u r r e n t in the worldly existence a r e r e m e m b e r e d as of the n a t u r e of Gunas.1 27. T h e auspiciousness a n d inauspiciousness of m e n of knowledge devoid of (adherence t o ) t h e O r g a n s of Sense—all their merits a n d sins get merged into Prakrti. 28-30. T h e merits a n d demerits of t h e living beings t h a t h a v e been stabilised in Prakrti, a r e declared to be congeni­ tal to the embodied beings. T h e same merits a n d evils in dif­ ferent situations join t h e soul a n d bodies. V i r t u e a n d S i n , are merely t h e two qualities of creatures. T h e y flourish t h r o u g h their causes along w i t h the creatures as t h o u g h t h r o u g h the s t a t e of being t h e effect. 1.

V V . 26-96 describe the nature of Gunas.


.3.4.3.31-40

1011

31-34. The sentient Gunas (i.e. Sattva etc.) presided over by the Ksetrajña (individual soul) get dissolved at the time of Primary Creation, Secondary Creation a n d worldly existence a n d the creatures come into contact w i t h or get separated from each other or move a b o u t here a n d there due to their own respective causes. These Vrttis (functions—causes of activity) a r e threefold according as they are of the n a t u r e of Sattva, Rajas and T a m a s . T h e y function on being presided over a n d activised by Purusa. T h e Sattva is of the n a t u r e of a t t a i n i n g the U p p e r p a r t a n d T a m a s is of the n a t u r e of (falling off) to the lower p a r t . T h e activiser of the two, in the m i d d l e is Rajas w h i c h moves a b o u t itself repeatedly. T h u s they function as the three qualities of the m i n d . 35. In all the worlds, a m o n g all living beings, all activities a r e begun by h u m a n beings t h r o u g h their reliance 1 on Avidyā. But t h a t should n o t be pursued by one who possesses knowledge of reality. 36. These three courses of expedients are r e m e m b e r e d as inauspicious a n d sinful by n a t u r e . W h e n overwhelmed w i t h T a m a s , t h e c r e a t u r e does n o t get at t h e t r u e state of affairs. 37-38. By n o t perceiving t h e reality, he under-goes bondage in different ways. He is b o u n d by t h e PrSkrta Bandha (Bondage of Prakrti), by Vaikārika Bandha (Bondage of its evolutes) a n d t h e third bondage t h r o u g h Daksinas* On being b o u n d thus the c r e a t u r e turns r o u n d a n d r o u n d (in worldly existence). T h u s these three bondages caused by ignorance have been recounted. 39-40. T h e following a r e t h e defects of t h e m i n d viz. (false) p e r c e p t i o n of eternity in w h a t is t r a n s i e n t ; perception of happiness in what is misery, t h e knowledge t h a t w h a t is n o t one's own is one's own a n d the decisive knowledge t h a t w h a t is n o t p u r e is p u r e . T h o s e who h a v e these m e n t a l defects do 1. V V . 35-53 describe the nature of Ignorance ( A j ñ ā n a ) . It causes three types of bondages ( V V . 3 7 - 3 8 ) , creates different defects such as, R ā g a ( A t t a c h m e n t ) , D v e s a (Hatred in the mind ( V V . 39-46) a n d leads to hell a n d birth i n lower species. *

T e c h n i c a l n a m e in S ā ñ k h y a System for the 3 r d B a n d h a ( B o n d a g e )


1012

Brahmānda Purāna

have t h e defects of knowledge through misapprehension. If Rāga ( a t t a c h m e n t ) a n d Dve$a ( h a t r e d ) recede, t h a t is cited as true knowledge. 4 1 . Ajñāna (ignorance) is the cause of T a m a s a n d Rajas. It has two-fold Karmans (i.e. the auspicious a n d inau­ spicious) as its result. T h e resumption of the physical body once again is the result of K a r m a n — T h u s great misery begins to function. 42. Trsā (Desire) is born of ears, eyes, skin, tongue a n d nose. This is the cause of rebirth. It is produced t h r o u g h K a r m a (results of the acts d o n e ) . 43. A m a n with a desire is said to be a Bāla (child i.e. i m m a t u r e ) . As a result of actions committed by himself theindividual soul moves r o u n d a n d round there itself like the oilpressing m a c h i n e . 44. H e n c e , it is t a u g h t t h a t Ajñāna (ignorance) is the root cause of all calamities a n d misfortunes. Coming to a decisive conclusion t h a t it is the sole enemy, one shall endeavour to active knowledge. 45. T h r o u g h perfect knowledge, one becomes ready to r e n o u n c e everything. T h r o u g h renunciation a n d sacrifice t h e intellect becomes detached. T h r o u g h d e t a c h m e n t , one becomes p u r e . H a v i n g b e c o m e pure one is liberated t h r o u g h Sattva quality. 46. Henceforth, I shall recount Rāga (attachment) t h a t destroys living beings. In regard to one who has not controlled himself, the c o n t a c t with the sensual objects brings a b o u t intense a t t a c h m e n t . 47-48. W h a t is desirable a n d undesirable that which is liked or disliked t h a t which causes unhappiness, pleasure, dis­ pleasure, affliction etc., excessive distress on account of t h e onset of misery a n d recollection of (previously experienced) happiness—all these constitute sensual a t t a c h m e n t . This is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e cause of re-birth in the m a t e r i a l world in the case of everyone beginning w i t h B r a h m a a n d ending with immobile beings. one

49-50. should

T h i s has Ajñāna as the precondition. H e n c e , avoid ignorance. If a n y one does n o t a c c e p t


3.4.3.51-60

1013

t h e words of sages as authority, n o r values good m a n n e r s a n d b r e e d i n g as practised by wise m e n , if a n y one is opposed to the discipline of four castes a n d stages of life a n d if one is antagonistic towards wise m e n a n d scriptural i n j u n c t i o n s — t h a t is the p a t h leading to h e l l , — t h a t is the cause of b i r t h in the lower species of animals. ... 51-52. Birth a m o n g the lower creatures-is spoken of by good people as the cause of the place of t o r m e n t a n d t o r t u r e of three kinds. T h e r e is obstacle everywhere in regard to t h e cause a n d object of knowledge in the six types of Tiryagyoni ( a n i m a l c r e a t i o n s ) . Anaiivarya (absence of divine or controlling power) is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e obstacle. 53-55. T h u s in the case of living beings a n d others, the TSmasi V r t t i (base p r e d i c a t i o n ) is four-fold (?). T h e m i n d is solely d e p e n d e n t on the intrinsic strength of its Sattva because it is observed to reveal itself in accordance with the Sattva. Tattvas can be comprehended only after viewing t h e m , in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h reality. T h e multiplicity of Saīīvas (? living beings) a n d Ksetrajñas (individual souls) is termed NānārthaDarśana (vision of different objects). T h e observation of multi­ plicity is Jñāna ( k n o w l e d g e ) . Toga is said to h a v e come o u t of Jñāna. Bondage is for h i m w h o is b o u n d by it a n d salvation is for h i m w h o is free from it. 56-57. W h e n the Samsāra (cycle of worldly existence recedes, one becomes free from the Lińga (subtle psychic body) and gets released. (?) Devoid of Sambandha ( c o n t a c t ) a n d Caitanya (con­ sciousness), he remains within his own self. Even while r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n his own self, he is c o n t a m i n a t e d by w h a t is called diversity a n d multiplicity. T h u s the characteristic feature of Jñāna a n d Moksa is succinctly r e c o u n t e d . 58-60. T h a t Moksa (salvation) is said to be three-fold by persons w h o see the reality. T h e first one is t h e Separation d u e to Ajñāna. In t h e second one, the Salvation is on a c c o u n t of Rāga-Sarñksaya(destruction of i n t i m a t e a t t a c h m e n t ) . T h e third one is d u e


1014

Brahmānda Purāna

to Trsn&ksaya (destruction of thirst i.e. intense a t t a c h m e n t ) . T h e cause of Salvation has thus been explained. Kaivalya •(Absolution) is d u e to Liñgābhāva (Absence of the m i n u t e b o d y called Liñgaśarira) a n d t h r o u g h K a i v a l y a there is N i r a ñjana (pure a n d unsullied s t a t e ) , a n d t h r o u g h the unsullied n a t u r e one becomes p u r e . T h e r e is no other leader (Neta). Henceforth, I shall mention Vairāgya (absence of a t t a c h m e n t ) by exposing their blemishes. 1 61-62. With respect to the fivefold sense-objects whether divine or h u m a n , one should pursue an a t t i t u d e of n o n - h a t r e d (apradvesa) as well as of n o n - a t t a c h m e n t (anabhisvańgā) due to observation of defects a n d blemishes. O n e should avoid completely, distress, pleasure a n d sorrow. After a d o p t i n g Vairāgya (absence of a t t a c h m e n t ) in this way, the embodied being should be free from t h e feeling of mine-ness ( t o objects in the external w o r l d ) . 63-65. O n e should p o n d e r over, by m e a n s of intellect. T h u s : " T h i s world is n o t e t e r n a l ; it is misery ( i n c a r n a t e ) . Thereafter, by resorting m o r e to the Sattva guna he should sanctify his m a n n e r of carrying out his activities. O n l y a person who has completely kept u n d e r his control all his passionate a t t a c h m e n t s becomes capable of observing defects a n d blemishes entirely. T h e n at t h e time of d e p a r t u r e ( d e a t h ) 1 , t h e U$mā (bodily h e a t ) becomes virulent on a c c o u n t of DaSās (humours of t h e b o d y in disorderly state ( p r o d u c e d occasion­ ally by causes d e p e n d e n t on p a r t i c u l a r circumstances. U r g e d by a violent gust of wind in t h e body, it pervades t h e whole a n d obstructs t h e blemishes: 66. D u e to t h e chilliness, t h e virulently excited Vāyu (Life-breath) pierces the Centres of Prānas (vital airs) and cuts off vulnerable parts of the body a n d rises u p . 67-69. It is t h e b r e a t h stationed in t h e a b o d e s of vital airs of all living beings. By contraction, t h e Jñāna becomes covered up a n d t h e activities also are enshrouded. T h e Jiva, h a v i n g the navel as its stable seat, is induced by its own actions 1.

V V . 61-72 t e a c h h o w to cultivate V a i r ā g y a ( n o n - a t t a c h m e n t ) .


1015

3.4.3.70-75

c o m m i t t e d before. It t h e n dislodges t h e Prims from t h e e i g h t limbs a n d upsets their activities. I n t h e e n d , a b a n d o n i n g t h e b o d y , it ceases to h a v e b r e a t h i n g activity. Being a b a n d o n e d by the vital airs thus, t h e person is called D e a d . 70. (Defective) J u s t as, in this world, d u r i n g a d r e a m it is observed t h a t the individual is being led here a n d there. It is gratifying to one w h o is subjected to it b u t actually t h e r e n o other l e a d e r * . 71-72. T h e t h i r d viz. the elimination of thirst or covetousness is spoken as t h e characteristic of L i b e r a t i o n . It is t h e observation of defects in five objects of sensual pleasures such as sound a n d others. Absence of h a t r e d , a b s e n c e of intense a t t a c h m e n t , avoidance of pleasure a n d agony ( a b o u t objects of sensual p l e a s u r e s ) — t h e s e are the desolations of eight-fold Prakrtis ( P r i m a r y essences which evolved the whole visible world.) 73. It should be known t h a t these Prakrtis a r e t h e eight causes m e n t i o n e d before in d u e order. T h e y a r e those b e g i n n i n g w i t h Avyakta the Unmanifest o n e ) a n d e n d i n g w i t h Bhūtas ( E l e m e n t s ) evolved o u t of Prakrti. 7 4 * * . A Śisfa (or a wise m a n ) is one w h o does not come i n t o clash with the scriptural injunctions. He is e n d o w e d w i t h t h e disciplinary conventions a n d consists of different castes a n d stages of life. T h e characteristic of t h e observance of the V a r n a s a n d A ś r a m a s is t h a t it causes t h e a t t a i n m e n t of godly abodes. 75. T h e eight abodes of gods a r e those b e g i n n i n g with t h a t o f B r a h m a a n d e n d i n g with Piśaca. T h e s u p e r n a t u r a l powers beginning w i t h Animā ( S t a t e of b e i n g very m i n u t e ) are the causes characterised as eight.

* 7 0 b is obscure, V ā . P. 102.92 corresponding verse reads : rañjanarti tadvadhe yas tu vettā netā na vidyate ' o n e w h o derives diversion in killing it ( t h e glow-worm) ceases to be

a

leader.' * * A s Śāstrāvirodhinah is in plural, so yukta a n d plural number.

Sif(a

should

also

be

in


1016

Brahmāngla Purāna

76-80a. ( T h e s e divine powers called Animā etc.) are seen as t h e cause in t h e unobstructed objects of t h e sense characterised by Sound e t c . T h e s e eight forms evolved by P r a k r t i become a t t a c h e d to Kselrajñas ( i n d i v i d u a l souls) in d u e order in the forms of G u n a s . 1

Those who a r e endowed w i t h eyes c a n see the cloud separately d u r i n g t h e rainy season. In the same way the Siddhas (persons with spiritual a t t a i n m e n t s ) see the Jivas with their divine vision, even as they take food a n d drinks, enter different wombs a n d r u n a b o u t in a definite order (in various directions such as) a l o n g the sides, above or below. T h e same individual Soul is mentioned by m e a n s of four different worlds t h a t a r e synonyms a n d so have the same connotations viz. Jiva, Prāna, Lińga a n d Karana. 80b-81. T h i s is of t h e n a t u r e a n d m a g n i t u d e of Vyakta a n d Avyakta. It enjoys everything entirely e n d i n g w i t h A v y a k t a a n d A n u g r a h a * (? Blessing) presided over by Ksetrajña. After realizing this a n d becoming p u r e , he is liberated t h r o u g h knowledge ( J ñ ā n a . ) 82-84a. W h e n t h e t r u t h is realized, t h e principle t h a t is lost comes o u t clearly. But in the different bodies t h a t have completely ceased to exist, t h e Karana ( i . e . I n d i v i d u a l Soul) differs from Avyakta a n d Jñānin (one w i t h k n o w l e d g e ) . O n e w h o is completely liberated from t h e body in t h e form of G u n a s as well as P r ā n a etc. does n o t take up a n o t h e r body, j u s t as t h e sprout ( n e v e r comes out) w h e n t h e seed is b u r n t . 84b-87. A Jñinī (one endowed w i t h knowledge) has t h e m i n d a n d b o d y n o t conversant w i t h t h e e n t i r e Universe. D u e to knowledge, he js enlightened of the four Daśās (situations, c o n d i t i o n s ) . He recedes w h e n stationed in Prakrti (i.e. n a t u r a l p o s t u r e ) . T h e y say t h a t Prakrti is real called u n r e a l .

t r u t h . Vikāra

(Evolute)

is

1. W. 76-95 give a desultory treatment of Ksetra a n d Ksetrajña. In the course of discussion, various terms e.g. Avyakta, Karana, Aksara Purusa, Sadbhāva, Asadbhāva and others are explained. •Vā. P. 102.81a reads avyaktāntagrhita ' e n d i n g w i t h Avyakta'


3.4.3.88-95

1017

Asadbh&va ( S t a t e of b e i n g non-existent) should be k n o w n usAnrta ( u n r e a l ) . Sadbhāva (state of b e i n g existent) is called Satya ( t r u t h or r e a l i t y ) . T h i s Satya (Brahman) is w i t h o u t n a m e a n d form. T h e y Call Ksetrajña as one with n a m e a n d form. He is called Ksetrajña because he knows the Ksetra (field or his b o d y ) . Since Ksetrajña passes on towards t h e Ksetra, it is said to be Śubha ( a u s p i c i o u s ) . 88. (?) Ksetrajña is r e m e m b e r e d . H e n c e it is mentioned as Ksetra by those w h o know it. Ksetra is seen to be w i t h o u t intelligence, b u t Ksetrjña is always endowed with consciousness a n d intelligence. 89. T h o s e who are conversant w i t h Ksetra, know it as Ksetra because of its impurity, defilement, destruction, Karana (cause) Ksatatrāna (protection form wounds or loss), Bhojyatva ( w o r t h y of b e i n g enjoyed), Visayatva (being the object of Senses). 90. All t h e objects beginning w i t h Mahat a n d ending w i t h Viśesa, possess variety of form a n d they a r e characterised by Vikāra ( c h a n g e , evolute). H e n c e t h e y are Vilaksana ( p e c u l i a r ) . Hence, verily, t h e Aksara (imperishable) a p p r o a c h e s t h e Ksara ( p e r i s h a b l e ) . 9 1 . It is called Ksara for t h e reason t h a t it wastes away along with t h e Vikāra ( c h a n g e of f o r m ) . 92. It is called Ksetra because it saves the person from worldly existence a n d hells. It is also called so as it saves from misery. 93. Sukha (happiness) a n d Duhkha (sorrow) a r e called Bhojya ( t h a t which can be enjoyed) because of Ahambhāva ( E g o t i s m ) . It is Visaya(object) since it is Acetana ( n o n - s e n t i e n t ) . T h a t w h i c h has t h e opposite qualities is r e m e m b e r e d as Vibhu. 94. It is called Aksara for t h e following reasons t o o — na ksiyate ( I t is n o t w a s t e d ) , na ksarati ( I t does n o t p e r i s h ) . It does not spread from Vikāra. It is n o t diminished (Aksina). 95. It is called Purusa because it h a s w i t h i n t h e (subtle) b o d y . It is called Purusa also because it has Pura i.e. t h e b o d y as t h e place of resort.


1018

Brahmānda Purāna

9 6 . * (?) If it is said by an ignorant person like this— 'Describe the person'. He is described (as follows). * He is pure. He shines unsullied. He is the knower. He is devoid of ignorance. 97. He is other than what could be called existent and non-existent, bound and liberated, mobile and stable. As he is devoid of any cause he cannot be pointed out. T h e r e is no sin** in him. 98-100. D u e to his purity, he is not a Drśya (a perceivable object). D u e to his state of being the Seer, he is of impartial vision. D u e to his buddhi (consciousness of being the Self) it is never deficient. It is spontaneous (without any cause or external stimulant. O n e does not lose sense (or err), by thinking through inference, what could be grasped only by imagination. W h e n one perceives the knower of the nature of D i r e c t Vision, with all the object quiescent (Śāntārtha) which cannot be specifically pointed out among the DrSyas, and Adrsyas (Visible and I n v i s i b l e ) , then it is difficult to hold. It is excellent. T h e knower cannot be seen as separate entirely. 101. T h e seer in the nature and capacity of the cause restrains himself by means of his own self. He remains within his own self, in the cause, in the Prakrti. 102-105. W h e t h e r the A t m a n is one1, other than existent or non-existent, (whether) it is here or elsewhere, (whether) it is one, it is separate, (whether) it is Ksetrajña or it is Purusa, whether it is Soul, or devoid of Soul, whether it is sentient or non-sentient, whether it is doer or non-doer, whether it is the enjoyer or one being enjoyed (object of enjoyment) that being is the Unsullied Ksetrajña. After attaining it, they do not return (to Samsāra). It cannot be expressed in words because of the impossibility of its being described. It cannot be grasped by •Vā P. 102.118 reads :

purusam kathayasvā'tha k a t h a m tajjñair vibhāsyate 'Describe the Purusa' (If requested thus) how he will be described by those who have realized him.' **'ahas'

(in 'ahas tasmin na vidyalt' is emended as 'amhas'.

V. V V . 102-108 discuss the nature of Atman.


3.4.3.106-113

1019

m e a n s of arguments a n d reasoning processes. It is undefinable because it c a n n o t be thought of or warded entirely. T h e t r u t h a n d reality c a n n o t be expressed by m e a n s of words} it c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d even by the m i n d . 106-108. T h e r e is neither expressibility n o r n o n expressibility (in words) in regard to Ksetrajña, which is devoid of qualities, is pure, quiescent, unsullied a n d u n d i minished. It is devoid of b o t h happiness a n d unhappiness. It is restrained (?) and tranquil. It is Nirātmaka (? It has no other A t m a n for itself). These are Samhāra (withdrawal) a n d Vistāra ( e x p a n s i o n ) . T h e y are becoming manifest a n d u n m a n i ­ fest. Everything presided over by Ksetrajña stands manifest, w h e n c r e a t e d ; or, it becomes unmanifest) when it is swallowed. Again it begins to function in creation. 109. At its end, it consciously resorts to the Adhiffkāna (Sub-stratum ? ) . T h e i r m u t u a l c o n t a c t is known as being b r o u g h t a b o u t by Sādharmya a n d Vaidharmya (similarity a n d dissimilarity. T h e Sarhyoga ( c o n t a c t ) of t h e g r e a t P u r u s a is proclaimed as beginningless. 110. As long as t h e period of P r i m a r y a n d Secondary creations lasts, t h e Universe continues to exist. At t h e outset, it restrains (?) everything a n d functions consciously for t h e sake of P u r u s a . 111-113. This (? Prakrti) is t h e cause of creation a n d a n n i h i l a t i o n or it is caused by ī ś v a r a . It has n e i t h e r beginning nor e n d . It approaches t h e universe frightening it arrogantly. T h u s , t h e third creation of Prakrti characterised by causation has been recounted. O n e is liberated after u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g t h e u l t i m a t e period. T h u s the three types of dissolutions have been r e c o u n t e d to you 'by me in detail a n d in the p r o p e r order. W h a t else shall ī begin ?


chapter four Re-creation of the Cosmic Egg1 The Sages Said :—* 1-4. T h e g r e a t n a r r a t i v e recounted by you has been h e a r d . T h e highly wonderful activities of t h e subjects along with t h e M a n u s , of t h e D e v a s along w i t h t h e Sages, of t h e M a n e s , G a n d h a r v a s a n d Bhūtas (goblins, spirits), of t h e ghosts, serpents a n d demons, of t h e Daityas, D ā n a v a s , birds a n d Yāksas h a v e been r e c o u n t e d by you. Different kinds of religious rites have b e e n discussed by you. T h e stories are of diverse features. T h e excellent n a r r a t i v e of births r e c o u n t e d by you in c h a r m i n g a n d polished words, h a s r e n d e r e d great pleasure to o u r m i n d s a n d ears, O Sauti. It delights us like nectar. 5 . After d u l y h o n o u r i n g a n d p r o p i t i a t i n g S ū t a , t h e great sages engaged in S a t t r a asked h i m a g a i n a b o u t t h e process of creative function : — 6-8a. " H o w does t h e process of creation begin to proceed o n c e again, O S ū t a , t h e highly intelligent one, w h e n all b o n d s have b e e n destroyed, w h e n t h e r e is equilibrium of G u n a s , w h e n everything is enveloped in darkness a n d T a m a s , w h e n t h e Vikiras (evolutes) h a v e not been discharged, when t h e A t m a n abides i n t h e unmanifest one, w h e n t h e creative activity by B r a h m a h a s n o t been started along w i t h t h e objects w o r t h y of being enjoyed, how does c r e a t i o n start. Tell us this even as we a s k " . 1.

In the previous t w o chapters the three typej

world are described rather desultorily in of dissolution

forms

an

N o w the author explains

important how

a

of dissolutions

Puranic

characteristic

the creation of

way.

The

(Lakfana)

of the

description

of a Purāna.

universe takes place

after

the world-destruction. T h e importance of this chapter is due to

the

c o n c l u d i n g chapter of the B r a h m ā n d a Purāna and

fact as

that

s u c h it

it forms

the

contains the

Phalatruti, genealogy of teachers w h o h a n d e d d o w n the text of this Purāna. 2.

T h e speech of the sages shows that they h a v e heard practically

topics contained in the

Purāna. T h e y

in a concluding ceremony. But they wish w o r l d is re-created after destruction.

have

duly honoured

to

hear o n e point

him

all

probably

viz h o w

the


3.4.4.8-19

1021

8b-9a. On being asked thus, L o m a h a r s a ń a began to explain the process of creation once again. 9b-l 1. " I n this connection I shall m a k e it known to you how the creative activity takes place. It should be known t h a t it is as it h a d been before. U n d e r s t a n d it succinctly. Inference should be on the basis of w h a t is seen. I shall m e n t i o n the arguments a n d reasons. T h e Unmanifest one (the B r a h m a n ) is d e e p a n d impene­ trable. It is inaccessible. It is thiat from which t h e words r e c e d e . a l o n g with the m i n d after failing to r e a c h it. 12. T h e G u n a (i.e. three G u n a s taken collectively as one in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the Vikāras (evolutes) remains in t h e equilibrium. P r a d h ā n a stands by in a state wherein it has the same D h a r m a s o r attributes. 13-14. T h e D h a r m a a n d A d h a r m a (merits a n d d e m e r i t s or sins) of all living beings always get merged in the Unmanifest one. T h e i r D h a r m a ( M e r i t ) which is solely of t h e n a t u r e of S a t t v a becomes sattled in S a t t v a g u n a . A d h a r m a (Sin) w h i c h is solely of t h e n a t u r e of T a m a s becomes set up in T a m a s G u n a . These two a b i d e by t h e Gunasāmya (Equilibrium of the G u n a s ) w i t h o u t a division. 15. All the activity of t h e P r a d h ā n a takes effect t h r o u g h B u d d h i (the principle Mahat). T h e Ksetrajña presides over those G u n a s without Buddhi in between. 16-19. T h u s it a g a i n attains t h e m t h r o u g h Abhimāna (identity by m e a n s of c o n c e p t s ) . W h e n it becomes necessary to function, t h e relationship of Bhojya ( O n e worthy of being enjoyed) a n d Bhoktrtva ( t h e state of being t h e enjoyer) of t h e two principles the Ksetra a n d Ksetrajña attains them. T h e r e fore the unmanifest one of the n a t u r e of G u n a remains in equilibrium a n d on being presided over by Ksetrajña attains Vaisamya (upsetting of the e q u i l i b r i u m ) . T h e n the Vyakta (Manifest one) resorts to b o t h , Ksetra a n d Ksetrajña. 1

1. brium

V V . 16-33 describe h o w the world of

disturbed.

Gunas

and

evolves

through

h o w this original balance of Gunas

the disequili-

(Gupa-sāmya)

is


Brahmānda Purāna'

1022

T h e Sattva ( G u n a ) presided over by Ksetrajña produces the Vikāras (evolutes) beginning w i t h Mahat and e n d i n g with. Viiesa ( p a r t i c u l a r s viz. bhūtas etc.) all together numbering; twentyfour. 20. (?) As t h e Ksetrajña, Pradhāna a n d Purusa begin to function, Adideva ( t h e primordial L o r d ) is for blessing P r a ­ d h ā n a , they say. 21-23. (Defective T e x t ) . Both of them are remembered, as subtle a n d beginningless. R a t h e r they are worthy of being produced. T h e y have beginningless m u t u a l connection. Every­ thing is joined to Ksetrajña without reference to Buddhi (?). Both of them stand by w i t h o u t Pratyaya (reliance) a n d not in vain (Amogha*) like the w a t e r and fish. W h e n they begin to function at the outset everything takes its own course. T h e ignorant one (Prakrti etc.) function, through t h e G u n a s n a m e d Rajas, Sattva a n d T a m a s . 24. By means of medicines named G u n a s , a man. becomes subdued by Rajas at the time of activity. He attains the state of Mahat, Bhūtādi, Viśesa a n d t h e sense-organs. 25. If a m a n is of truthful conception a n d meditation, if he meditates on t h e San-Nimittaka ( t h e Existent one, t h e C a u s e ) , to h i m Rajas, Sattva, T a m a s a n d t h e Avyakta a r e of mutually different D h a r m a s (Attributes). 26. People have recourse to t h e w a t e r * * in t h e middle of Ksetra (field), entirely at the beginning a n d at t h e e n d * * * ( ? ) Abhimānins (those w h o regard objects as referring to their o w n selves) are born with readily achieved instruments of activity. 27-28. All the Sattvas (? beings) take recourse ( t o their births) from the Avyakta at the outset itself. All those (living •Better 'anādyani' 'beginningless' as in Vā. P. 193.23. ••This is obviously corrupt, as water is irrelevant here. Vā. P. 103.27 (a corresponding verse) reads : ***Kfetra-tajjñās

tu

ksttra-tajjñāh—'the

sarvaśah knowers

of

ksetra'

(body)

i.e.

ksetrajñaht

(individual soul) "ksetrajñas are ever produced both at the beginning a n d at the e n d " .


1023

3.4.4.29-36

beings) w h o h a d been Sādhakas (spiritual aspirants) or Asādhakas a n d have b e c o m e (non-quiescent along with positions a n d opportunities take u p activities a n d are b o r n a g a i n a n d again. 29. D h a r m a a n d A d h a r m a are solely of t h e n a t u r e of •quality of e a c h o t h e r . T h e y give rise to each other through boons o r blessings. 30. F o r the sake of a similar c r e a t i o n * , the J ī v a ( I n d i v i ­ d u a l Soul) undergoes a c h a n g e at t h e beginning of creation. T h e G u n a s (qualities) cling on to h i m . H e n c e t h a t appeals to him. 31. O n being created a g a i n a n d again, the G u n a s have recourse to only those activities which they h a d h a d in the previous creation. 32. Violent or Non-violent, gentle or cruel, righteous or sinful, true or false—all these have recourse to h i m on being evolved by h i m . H e n c e t h a t appeals to h i m . 33. T h e multiplicity a n d diversity in t h e great BKutas" (Elements) in t h e sense-objects a n d in physical forms as well as t h e separation of living beings—all these take place through the Gunas. 34. T h u s t h e Re-creation has been succinctly recounted to you by m e . I shall r e c o u n t the origin of B r a h m a also very briefly. 1 35. F r o m t h a t Avyakta, t h e cause, t h e e t e r n a l one of t h e nature of Sat a n d Asat ( t h e Existent a n d non-existent) M a h e ś v a r a is b o r n t h r o u g h P r a d h ā n a a n d Purusa. 36. H a v i n g t h e appellation ' B r a h m a ' , he becomes t h e evolver. He creates the worlds once again of t h e n a t u r e of Abhimāna ( R e f e r r i n g a l l objects to t h e Self) a n d G u n a (Sattva etc.) *Savas-tulya-prasrstyatha in Bd. P. p o n d i n g verse) reads :

is

obscure. V ā . P.

103.31

(a

corres­

sarve tulyāh prasrsfārtham «A11 are e q u a l for the purpose of creation'. 1. V V . 34-38 M a h e ś v a r a , Brahma.

describe

the

H e r e ends the discourse by S ū t a .

same

bringing

in

Purānic

deities


1024

Brahmānda Purāna

37. T h e Ahamkāra (Cosmic E g o ) is b o r n of Mahat (Cosmic Intellect) a n d t h e Bhūtas (elements) a r e b o r n of it. T h e Bhūtas a n d the Indriyas (Sense-organs) are b o r n simulta­ neously from t h e A t m a n . 38. T h e different living beings a r e b o r n from the Bhūtas ( e l e m e n t s ) . It is thus t h a t the creation begins to function. T h e details thereof h a v e already been recounted to you in accordance with my understanding in the m a n n e r in which it has been heard by m e . Let it be retained in m e m o r y in the m a n n e r it has been recounted to you before." 39. On h e a r i n g thus a b o u t the origin of the worlds, their stability a n d their dissolution, t h e ascetics of t h e N a i m i s a forest h a d their Avabhrtha (Valedictory b a t h ) in the Sattra a n d became sanctified. T h e sages t h e n a t t a i n e d the holy world (the heavens)1 40. In the same m a n n e r you also worship duly Devatās etc., take the valedictory b a t h after t h e sacrifice a n d become p u r e . At the end of life be c o n t e n t e d ( t h a t you h a v e d o n e your duty), abandon bodies, a t t a i n t h e rrieritorions world a n d rejoice thus. 4 1 . These Naimiseyas (sages of t h e N a i m i s a forest), all those w h o performed Sattra, saw a n d touched (? all holy objects) a n d went to heaven after taking t h e Avabhrtha b a t h . 42. In the same m a n n e r , O B r ā h m a n a s , you too, after performing various Yajñas shall go at t h e end of your life, O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , to Svarga ( h e a v e n ) . 4 3 . Prakriyā is t h e first section where t h e story is taken u p . ( T h e o t h e r sections a r e ) Anusańga, Upodghāta a n d Upascahhāra? 44-46. It was thus t h a t Lord V ā y u , 8 engaged in t h e welfare of worlds, recounted this P u r ā n a consisting of four 1. Purāna.

T h e sattra (sacrificial session) concluded w i t h the conclusion of Just

as

the N a i m i s ā r a n y a

sages

{avabhrtha snāna) and w e n t to heaven, the later

took

the

audience

the

Valedictory bath of the Purāna

is

e x h o r t e d to take s u c h a b a t h a n d go to h e a v e n . 2.

R e v i e w o f the m a i n sections o f the Purāna.

3.

V ā y u seems t o b e a m e m b e r o f the a u d i e n c e w h e n the Purāna

narrated in the N a i m i s ā r a n y a sattra.

was


1025

3.4.4.47-57

sections a n d h o n o u r e d by the world. O excellent sages, he recounted it to t h e sages after a t t e n d i n g t h e S a t t r a in t h e N a i m i s a forest. After perfectly u n d e r s t a n d i n g this creation of Pradhānq, caused also by I ś v a r a , along w i t h t h e origin a n d dissolution of living beings t h e intelligent person will h a v e no occasion to be overwhelmed by delusion. 1 He will readily achieve this Grace. 47-48. T h e scholarly B r ā h m a n a w h o listens t o o r recites or teaches this ancient Itihāsa, rejoices in t h e regions of M a h e n d r a for eternal years. After a t t a i n i n g Sāyujya ( a b s o r p t i o n , identification) w i t h B r a h m a he rejoices along w i t h B r a h m a . 49. O n e w h o celebrates a n d proclaims t h e glory a n d r e p u t a t i o n of t h e renowned noble-souled Prajāpatis a n d lords of the Earths, attains final emancipation. 50-53a. T h i s P u r ā n a is r e c o u n t e d by K r s n a Dvaipāya'na, t h e e x p o u n d e r of B r a h m a n . It is conducive to w e a l t h , fame a n d longevity. It is meritorious. It is e q u a l in extent a n d value to t h e Vedas. He w h o proclaims a n d celebrates t h e glory of t h e lords of M a n v a n t a r a s as well as t h a t of t h e D e v a t ā s a n d Sages of a b u n d a n c e of w e a l t h a n d splendour, becomes rid of all sins. H e shall a t t a i n g r e a t merit. T h e scholar w h o always recites this on every holy occasion shakes off all sins. After a t t a i n i n g Soarga (heaven) he becomes c a p a b l e of final e m a n c i p a t i o n . 53b-55. If anyone recites a section of this ( P u r ā n a ) d u r i n g a Ś r ā d d h a rite to t h e B r ā h m a n a s , it passes on to t h e Pitrs bestowing everything desirable a n d everlasting benefits. T h i s is called P u r ā n a because it is a n c i e n t a n d still living (Purā Anati). He w h o knows t h e etymological m e a n i n g of this word gets released from all sins. So also, in t h e case of m e n of t h r e e V a r n a s w h o s t u d y this I t i h ā s a . 56-57. If a n y one, after listening to this P u r ā n a , directs his m i n d towards righteous activities, he rejoices in h e a v e n 1. Purāna.

V V . 4 6 - 5 7 g i v e t h e Pkala-lrtdi ( m e r i t

accruing

from

hearing

the


1026

Brahmānda Purāna

as m a n y thousand crores of years as there are hair-pores over his body. After attaining absorption in the B r a h m a n , he rejoices along with the gods. 58. This Ś&stra (scripture) is meritorious, sacred a n d renowned. It removes all sins. B r a h m a h a n d e d over this 1 P u r ā n a t o M ā t a r i ś v a n ( t h e wind g o d ) . 59. This was acquired from him by U ś a n a s . Brhaspati got it from h i m ( U ś a n a s ) . Thereafter, Brhaspati n a r r a t e d it to Savitr (sun-god). 60. Savitr recounted it to M r t y u ; M r t y u to I n d r a ; I n d r a to Vasistha a n d he recounted it to Sārasvata. 6 1 . Sārasvata i m p a r t e d i t t o T r i d h ā m a n ; T r i d h ā m a n t o Ś a r a d v ā n ; Ś a r a d v ā n to Trivista a n d he h a n d e d it over to Antariksa. 62. Antariksa recounted it to Carsin a n d he to Trayy ā r u n a . D h a n a ñ j a y a got it from T r a y y ā r u n a . He h a n d e d it over to Krtañjaya. 63. T r n a ñ j a y a got it from K r t a ñ j a y a a n d he imparted it to Bharadvāja. Bharadvāja recounted it to G a u t a m a . He gave it to N i r y a n t a r a . 64. N i r y a n t a r a t a u g h t it to Vājaśrava; he gave S o m a ś u s m a and he h a n d e d it over to T r n a b i n d u .

it

to

65. T r n a b i n d u recounted it to D a k s a . Daksa recounted it to Śakti. P a r ā ś a r a w h o was in the w o m b h e a r d this from Śakti. 66. J ā t u k a r n y a heard this from P a r ā ś a r a . Holy lord D v a i p ā y a n a heard this from him. O excellent B r ā h m a n a s , it has been then acquired by me from D v a i p ā y a n a . 67. T h i s has been n a r r a t e d to my son of unmeasured intellect. T h i s is the enumerative statement of all Gurus beginning with B r a h m a . It has been cited. 68-70. Gurus (Spiritual preceptors) are to be earnestly bowed to by learned m e n . T h i s P u r ā n a is conducive to wealth, renown a n d long-life. It is secred a n d capable of accomplishing

1.

The

Sauti, the

son

Introduction.

genealogy of

Sūta.

of

teachers w h o handed d o w n the

Purāna

T h i s list

o n e g i v e n in

is longer

than

the

unto


1027

3.4.4.71-73

a l l objects. It is destructive of sins. It should be listened to along with B r ā h m a n a s . This sacred excellent P u r ā n a should n o t be given to the i m p u r e and unclean, to the sinner a n d faithless. It should not be given to a student unless he has served a n d s t u d i e d for at least a year. It should not be given to the unlet­ tered or to one who is antagonistic. It should n o t be given to 1 one who is not like one's own son. 71-73. W i t h great m e n t a l purity, I b o w down to t h e 2 p r i m o r d i a l B r a h m a , the great lord, the most excellent of all excellent ones, the bestower of boons. He is established in Satyaloka. He is of the n a t u r e of Yajña. He is the lord of Devas a n d the creator of people. T h e y say t h a t t h e Avyakta ( t h e unmanifest) is his source of origin a n d t h a t this Kāla ( T i m e ) a n d Gati ( M o v e m e n t ) is his manifest body. Vahni (fire) is his m o u t h , the S u n a n d the M o o n a r e his eyes, the quarters his ears. V ā y u ( t h e W i n d god) is his vital b r e a t h . His words a r e V e d a s ; the firmament his body, the E a r t h his feet a n d t h e •stars the pores of his hairs. T h e entire sky constitutes his head a n d all lores a n d U p a n i s a d s constitute his tail.

1.

Usual

qualifications of the

listener to

the

Purāna. T h e s e are

-common to all h o l y scriptures. 2.

T h e usual concluding solutation to the Primordial P u r u s a .


LALITA

MAHATMYA


CHAPTER FIVE Agastya's Pilgrimage to sacred places: Manifestation of Visnu O b e i s a n c e to Śrī G a n e ś a : T h e episode of goddess Śrī L a l i t ā is n o w b e i n g commenced i 1 1. O b e i s a n c e u n t o you, O sole m o t h e r of t h e U n i v e r s e , t h e m o t h e r w h o has four a r m s , is a d o r n e d with t h e digit of t h e m o o n (on her f o r e h e a d ) , whose breasts a r e p l u m p a n d full, w h o has b e e n r e n d e r e d red by t h e red saffron a n d w h o holds a w h i t e lotus, a sugarcane, a noose, a goad, flowers a n d arrows in t h e hands. w 2. L e t t h e eternal Reality, a beautiful female D e i t y oi lovely form, be gracious for our welfare for e v e r — t h e D e i t y from w h o m learned m e n acquire t h e third Purusārtha viz. : K&ma i.e. all their desires a n d whose splendour is s u p r e m e . 3-4. T h e divine sage n a m e d Agastya, w h o h a d mastered the Vedas a n d V e d ā ń g a s , w h o was conversant w i t h t h e essence of ( t h e established doctrines) of all schools of philosophy (Darianas) a n d whose soul experienced the j o y of Bliss of B r a h m a n , moved round pilgrim-spots and shrines of wonderful miracles, m o u n t a i n s , forests, i m p o r t a n t (sacred) rivers a n d all countries. 5. In those different places, he saw all creatures enveloped in t h e darkness of ignorance a n d devoted to t h e satisfaction of t h e urges of h u n g e r a n d sexual desire. H e n c e , he t h o u g h t wor­ riedly a b o u t t h e m . 6. Even as he was p o n d e r i n g over thus in t h e course of his travel r o u n d t h e E a r t h , he h a p p e n e d to r e a c h t h e excellent 2 a n d highly meritorious city of K ā ñ c ī . 1.

As stated

in

Introduction

Srī Lalitopākhyāna is an

Appendix—an

a p o c r y p h a l p a r t — o f the B r a h m ā n d a Purāna (Bd. P.) It starts

with

set of Mañgalācarana verses—a prayer of Śri Lalitā, the m a i n divinity Upākhyāna a n d has a

different

set

of

interlocutors

viz.

Sage

a fresh of

this

Agastya

and

H a y a g r i v a ( a partial incarnation o f g o d V i s n u a s another s a g e ) . 2.

Conjeveram, 4 3 miles S W o f Madras. T h e eastern

portion

t o w n is Vismi-Kāñcī a n d the western is Śiva-Kāñci. T h e chief deity of

of t h e Śiva-


1032

Brahmānda Purāna

7. T h e r e t h e wise sage worshipped Śiva installed in t h e shrine of E k ā m r a , t h e lord of V ā r a n a Śaila as well as god­ dess K ā m ā k s ī , t h e destroyer of sins a n d defects of t h e K a l i Age. 8. J a n ā r d a n a (god Visnu) was delighted by t h e longt e r m p e n a n c e of t h e intelligent sage w h o constantly engaged himself in d e e p t h o u g h t s for t h e welfare of t h e world a n d w h o m e l t e d w i t h p i t y (for t h e w o r l d ) . 9-10. Assuming t h e Hayagrīva ( H o r s e - h e a d e d ) form t h e lord manifested himself in front of the sage. T h e person of t h e L o r d was constituted of p u r e cit (consciousness), w i t h his arms brightly shining with a conch, a discus, a rosary of beads a n d a book. It filled t h e e n t i r e universe w i t h its lustre of immeasur­ able brilliance. 11. O n seeing h i m , t h e sage was f i l l e d w i t h delight. H e frequently b o w e d d o w n with great h u m i l i t y a n d eulogised t h e lord of t h e universe. 12. T h e n t h e lord o f t h e universe said, " I a m pleased with y o u r p e n a n c e . O excellent B r ā h m a n a , welfare u n t o you. Choose y o u r b o o n . " 13-14. Asked t h u s by t h e lord, t h e excellent sage s a i d — " O L o r d , i f y o u a r e delighted w i t h m e , i t behoves y o u t o tell m e how a n d b y w h a t m e a n s c a n t h e i g n o r a n t a n d v u l g a r creatures g e t r e l e a s e d " . O n being asked b y t h e B r ā h m a n a t h u s , J a n ā r d a n a t h e lord of Devas said : 15-17. " T h i s same question was p u t t o m e formerly b y Śiva. T h e same question was asked thereafter by god B r a h m a . T h e n it was p u t by Durvāsas as subsequently by you. L e t my advice a n d directive be popularised a m o n g t h e people of all worlds by t h e noble-souled persons like you, t h e teachers of all living beings. T h i s is my b o o n . 18. I am t h e p r i m e cause of living beings, t h e original creator a n d t h e lord. I am t h e cause of creation, sustenance a n d dissolution of everything. K ā ñ c i is Śiva called Ekāmranātha and his consort is Kāmāk?i. T h e story seems to h a v e a Oravidian background as K ā ñ c i a n d t h e south appear n o w and then.


Lalitā-māhitmya

1033

5.19-27

19-22. I am T r i m ū r t i ( t h e T r i n i t y ) . I transcend t h e three G u n a s . I am devoid of G u n a s as well as am t h e substra­ t u m of G u n a s . I sport as I wish. I am t h e soul of all living beings. I am of the n a t u r e of P r a d h ā n a a n d P u r u s a . Even as I, O B r ā h m a n a , continued the assumption of the Cosmic form it was split i n t o forms n a m e l y P r a d h ā n a a n d P u r u s a . My form as P r a d h ā n a is of the n a t u r e of all G u n a s a n d the worlds. T h e o t h e r form which is beyond all G u n a s , is t h e G r e a t o n e . It is greater t h a n the greatest. On knowing these two aspects of those two forms thus, o n e is liberated from Sarhsāra. 23. At t h e e n d w h e n t h e effects of evil actions perish on account of austerities continued for a long t i m e as well as 1 t h r o u g h Tamas a n d Niyamas* (Restraints a n d holy observances) a n d Tyāgas ( r e n u n c i a t i o n of t h i n g s ) , Salvation is immediately attained. 24. T h a t form which is endowed w i t h G u n a s is a t t a i n e d by means of identity with these G u n a s . T h e other one which is the Cosmic form is acquired as a result of good actions a n d their enjoyment. 25. W h a t is obtained by good actions is obtained by r e n u n c i a t i o n a n d generosity t o o . Of those two, O ascetic, Tyāga ( r e n u n c i a t i o n a n d generosity) is very difficult to be practised by all. 26. T h e means t h a t is easy of access a n d free from loss a n d decay is t h a t based on Sat a n d Asat ( G o o d a n d evil) Karmans. 27. T h e Jñina (knowledge) that is acquired by means of t h e G u n a present in one's own self, w h e t h e r it is Sat or Asat a n d by means of unity of souls, bestows all Śiddhis. 1.

T h e moral

Celibacy,

observances viz.

Non-violence,

T r u t h , Non-stealing,

Possession-lessness. S o m e Smrtis enumerate ten Tamas.

Tamas are

obligatory. 2.

T h e restraints, Yogasūtra I I . 32

(cleanliness), santosa of

the V e d a s )

Niyamas. T h e r e

and is

(contentment), Īivara-Prayidhāna variation b o t h in

• N i y a m a s ' . c f . K P . I I . 11-20-29.

tapas

e n u m e r a t e the following : Śauca (austerities),

(complete the

svādhyiya

submission

number

and

to

(study

God),

restraints

as

under


Brahmānda Purāna

1034

28. M e r e l y by meditating on t h a t form, the sins a n d evils of those m e n w h o commit heinous crimes a n d those w h o a r e outside t h e pale of three Varnas, turn i n t o meritorious deeds. 29. T h e r e is no d o u b t indeed t h a t those who worship t h e supreme Śakti (power) in accordance w i t h the injunctions or otherwise are liberated souls. T h e y ( d o not suffer due) to worldly existence. 30. By worshipping a n d propitiating her ( t h e ParāSakti) a n d a so by means of the power of m e d i t a t i o n a n d Yogic practice, L o r d Śiva became t h e leader of all Siddhas a n d also b e c a m e t h e lord, half of whose body has the female Śakti form. 31-34. O t h e r Devas too with god B r a h m a ( t h e lotusb o r n lord) as their leader have become Siddhas d u e to the power of m e d i t a t i o n on her. H e n c e , in regard to the entire world, nowhere can t h e r e be a simultaneous a t t a i n m e n t of worldly enjoyment a n d salva­ tion without the p r o p i t i a t i o n of Goddess T r i p u r ā . Y o u shall a t t a i n liberation by keeping your m i n d a n d vital air fixed in her, by performing worship u n t o her, by directing all desires u n t o h e r a n d by performing all holy rites with the soul identified w i t h her. T h i s esoteric doctrine has been recounted, O excellent sage, by m e , because I have been pleased with your p e n a n c e . F u r t h e r , it is recounted with a desire for the welfare of all. M a y Devas, sages, Siddhas, h u m a n beings a n d others a t t a i n Siddhi (spiritual achievement) greater t h a n the greatest, by acquiring (this d o c t r i n e ) t h r o u g h your lotus­ like m o u t h " . 35. On h e a r i n g these words of Hayagrlva, the lord wield­ ing Śārñga bow, (sage Agastya) bowed down to him a n d spoke these words to V i s n u (slayer of M a d h u ) . 36. "O Lord ! It behoves you to recount to me of w h a t sort is t h a t form t h a t has been mentioned by you before, w h a t is its power a n d of w h a t ' t y p e are its sports. Hayagriva said : 37.

T h i s divine sage Hayagriva

is

another

p a r t i a l (in-


Lalitā-mihātmya

5.38—6.6

1035

c a r n a t i o n ) of m i n e . W h a t e v e r you wish to h e a r he deserves to relate t o y o u . " 38. After saying this a n d c o m m a n d i n g sage H a y a g r i v a (like-wise) H a r i , t h e lord of t h e universe, vanished in front of t h e p o t - b o r n sage Agastya. 39. Thereafter, ascetic Agastya w h o was struck with w o n d e r a n d whose hair were standing on their e n d ( d u e to surprise a n d emotion) went back to his Āśrama ( h e r m i t a g e ) along w i t h sage H a y a g r i v a .

CHAPTER SIX A Dialogue between Agastya and Hayagriva : The Nature of Violence, etc. 1. T h e n Agastya m a d e H a y ā n a n a ( H a y a g r i v a ) sit on a wonderful seat a n d a p p r o a c h i n g h i m , spoke these w o r d s : 2. "O holy lord conversant with all religious activities, the most excellent one a m o n g those w h o know all logically established doctrines (siddhāntas), seeing people like you is a c o n t r i b u t o r y cause for t h e prosperity of t h e world. 3. M e n t i o n in details to us all these things, n a m e l y — t h e manifestation of t h e g r e a t goddess, h e r other forms a n d t h e most i m p o r t a n t ones of h e r sporting activities a n d p a s t i m e s . " Hayagriva said : 4-5. ( T h e G o d d e s s ) is beginningless. S h e is t h e s u p p o r t of everything. Sat a n d Asat K a r m a n s a r e her forms. She c a n be perceived only t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n . M e d i t a t i o n a n d vidyās (lores) are h e r limbs H e a r t is h e r base. She becomes manifest on a t t a i n i n g t h e oneness of souls on the g r o u n d of c o n t i n u e d performance of holy rites. 6. At t h e outset, Śakti manifested herself t h r o u g h t h e profound m e d i t a t i o n of god B r a h m a . T h a t Śakti is wellknown by t h e n a m e of Prakrti. She is t h e bestower of S i d d h i desired, b y t h e Devas.


Brahmānda Purāna

1036

7-9. T h e second form a p p e a r e d when t h e c h u r n i n g for t h e sake of N e c t a r was being carried out. T h a t form fascinated Sarva ( Ś i v a ) . I t c a n n o t b e c o m p r e h e n d e d b y t h e m i n d o r expressed t h r o u g h words. On seeing it, even ī ś a (god Śiva) b e c a m e c h a r m e d a n d e n c h a n t e d a l t h o u g h he is omniscient. W h e n prohibited by h e r , he left off Pārvatī all of a sudden a n d he indulged in sexual intercourse w i t h h e r (i.e. M o h i n ī ) . He begot of her ( t h e son) Sāstā, t h e suppressor of Asuras. Agastya said : 10. Alas, h o w was it t h a t the chastiser of t h e god of Love, t h e lord of all Bhūtas (goblins a n d living beings), t h e lord who has all t h e senses u n d e r his control, was e n c h a n t ­ ed a n d fascinated by t h e goddess ( M o h i n ī ) a n d how he procreated a son ? Hayagriva said :.1 11. Formerly, t h e overlord of the city of i m m o r t a l ones, the lord endowed with prosperity a n d glory of victory, (ruled over and) protected t h e three worlds including Devas, Asuras a n d h u m a n beings. 12. M o u n t i n g on his lordly elephant t h a t was like the peak of Kailāsa, he moved a b o u t in all worlds ( d u l y ) h o n o u r e d a n d respected by everyone. K n o w i n g t h a t he (Indra) was elated, the i m m u t a b l e lord of Bhavānī called Durvāsas a n d sent him to his ( I n d r a ' s ) presence. 13. T h e sage D u r v ā s ā assumed t h e guise of an insane person. He wore a piece of skin of an antelope a n d held a staff in his h a n d . His b o d y was rendered greyish on account of dust. He walked along the p a t h of Vidyādharas (i.e. t h e sky). 14. In t h e m e a n t i m e a certain V i d y ā d h a r a lady of very beautiful form c a m e in front of h i m by chance. 15. After p r o p i t i a t i n g t h e great goddess Ambikā by m e a n s of a p e n a n c e for a long d u r a t i o n , she b e c a m e delighted in her m i n d on receiving a g a r l a n d h a n d e d over to h e r by t h e goddess. 1.

V V . 11-31 describe sage Durvāsā's curse to Indra for his arrogance.


Lalita-māhātmya 6.16-28

1037

16. On seeing t h a t Fawn-eyed lady, the leading sage •iked : " W h e r e are you going, O timorous lady ? W h e n c e was this got by you ?" 17. After bowing down to t h e noble-souled sage, she s a i d h u m b l y — " I t has been given, O B r ā h m a n a , by t h e goddess w h o was pleased with my long-term p e n a n c e . " 18. On h e a r i n g her words, he asked for t h a t excellent g a r l a n d . She became delighted on being requested thus a n d i m m e d i a t e l y she gave it to the noble-souled sage. 19. Saying, " l a m delighted a n d c o n t e n t e d " , h e quickly Received it with b o t h t h e h a n d s . He t h e n placed it on his own with devotion a n d very gladly spoke to her. 20-21. ' ' W h a t is not accessible to B r a h m a a n d others has been fortunately o b t a i n e d by me. Let your devotion to the lotus-like feet of t h e goddess be splendid a n d profound. You will have a splendid form a n d figure, O gentle lady, you m a y go happily." Becoming satisfied, she bowed down her h e a d •nd went away in t h e m a n n e r she h a d come.

before h i m

22-24. After sending her off, he once again resumed his walk along the p a t h of V id yā d h a r a s (i.e. firmament). He took up a lute from the h a n d s of a V i d y ā d h a r a girl. He took divine g a r l a n d s , unguents a n d ornaments (from other V i d y ā d h a r a gfcU). He wore t h e m at some places while he held t h e m up at 4ther places. ( H e burst o u t ) singing in some places a n d was laughing at other places. T h u s sporting a b o u t as he pleased, t h e sage went to the place where P u r a n d a r a ( I n d r a ) was present. T h e sage h a n d e d over the g a r l a n d kept in his h a n d s to Śakra ( I n d r a ) . 25. T h e lord of the Devas took the garland a n d placed it on the shoulder of the elephant. T h e e l e p h a n t took it a n d threw it on the ground. 26-28. O n seeing t h e garland h u r l e d down o n t o t h e g r o u n d , the ascetic spoke a n g r i l y — " T h e g a r l a n d h a n d e d over to you by me was not worn on the head by you. It has • been slighted a n d dishonoured by you w h o have become arrog­ ant on account of t h e lordship of the three worlds. I n d e e d , w h a t b worn by the great goddess is invariably honoured a n d


Brahmānda Purāna

1038

worshipped b y B r a h m a a n d others. T h e entire world r u l e d over by you including Devas, Asuras and h u m a n beings shall become ugly a n d devoid of splendour on a c c o u n t of my c u r s e . " 29. After cursing h i m thus, a l t h o u g h he was h o n o u r e d and worshipped by I n d r a w h o b e c a m e h u m b l e , t h e sage, O B r ā h m a n a , w e n t on silently remembering t h e future duties. 30. Thereafter his ( I n d r a ' s ) glory of victory went over to Bali t h e D a i t y a , Nityaśrī ( t h e eternal glory) passed on to Vāsudeva the eternal Purusa. 3 1 . I n d r a w e n t b a c k to his city a c c o m p a n i e d by all Devas. He lost all his splendour a n d magnificence. W i t h a dejected m i n d , t h e lord of Devas t h o u g h t a b o u t his state. 32. Seeing ill omens in t h e city of the i m m o r t a l ones, he sent for B r h a s p a t i a n d spoke these w o r d s : 1 33. "O holy lord, conversant with all holy rites, efficient one with the knowledge of the affairs of t h e three units of time (i.e. past, present a n d f u t u r e ) , inauspicious omens, which were never seen before, a r e being observed. 34. W h a t will be t h e effects of these ? W h a t is t h e remedy ?" On hearing these words of Devendra, B r h a s p a t i in reply uttered t h e s e words splendid a n d associated w i t h piety a n d of meaningful purpose. 35. " N o action (committed by m a n , O king, can perish even in h u n d r e d crores of K a l p a s unless a t o n e m e n t is performed or t h e resul^ is e x p e r i e n c e d . " Indra said '• 36. " O f w h a t n a t u r e is K a r m a n (Action) ? Of w h a t n a t u r e is a t o n e m e n t ? O holy B r ā h m a n a , I wish to h e a r every­ thing. Explain t o m e i n d e t a i l . " Brhaspati said : 37. Five types of actions c o m m i t t e d by a king, they say, constitute a sin, viz. : (violence) killing, stealing, drinking a n d sexual intercourse w i t h o t h e r women. 1.

V V . 32ff g i v e a discussion b e t w e e n Indra and Brhaspati

the nature of K a r m a . T h e nature of v i o l e n c e

chapter.

(Himsā)

is

regarding

discussed in

this


Lalitā-m&hitmya 6.38-46

1039

38-39. B r ā h m a n a s , Ksatriyas, Vaiśyas a n d Śūdras, the q u a d r u p e d s such as cows, horses, asses a n d camels, oviparous beings, a q u a t i c beings, animals of the lowest strata a n d the boneless creatures (i.e. reptiles), these are in this order, t e n t h o u s a n d , t h o u s a n d , h u n d r e d , ten, t e n , ten, f i v e , three, o n e a n d half in n u m b e r . * 40. In t h e m a t t e r mentioned, one can point out sin in t h e case of B r ā h m a n a s , Ksatriyas, Vaiśyas a n d w o m e n . Expia­ tion is for t h e father, m o t h e r , preceptor, m a s t e r a n d sons.** 4 1 . A sin c o m m i t t e d at the behest of a preceptor is signi­ ficant w h e n the c o m m a n d is d i s r e g a r d e d * * * (transgressed). A king m a y kill one B r ā h m a n a for the purpose of s u p p o r t ­ ing ten B r ā h m a n a s . 42. Or a B r ā h m a n a shall kill a B r ā h m a n a for the purpose of supporting a h u n d r e d B r ā h m a n a s . O n e shall punish a Vaiśya for t h e sake of five theologians or philosophers. 4 3 . For the sake o f t e n Vaiśyas, o n e shall punish one or ( m o r e ) Vaiśyas. Similarly, for t h e sake of a h u n d r e d Vaiśyas o n e shall punish one B r ā h m a n a . 44. F o r the sake of a thousand Śūdras, o n e shall p u n i s h a B r ā h m a n a ; for the sake of h u n d r e d a n d fifty Sūdras, one •hall punish one Ś ū d r a . 45. O n e shall eschew three-fourths (of property) for the sake of kinsmen a n d friends : h a l f for the sake of wives and sons a n d n o t h i n g for the sake of oneself. 4 6 . If a person kills a B r ā h m a n a or a K s a t r i y a or a Vaiśya or a cow or a horse or a n y t h i n g else in case he or it

*idam in V. 39 is meaningless. T h e o t h e r ( N ) edition reads : ānupūrvydd agham bhavet / 2.39 ' T h e sin will accrue in t h e aforesaid order'. ••Two crucial misprint* h a v e instead of pdpam

(adiśet)

read

rendered

'pādam'

the

(ādiiet)

verse meaning

absurd.

In 4 0 A

'one-fourth

a t o n e m e n t should be prescribed for B r ā h m a n a e t c . ' 40b.

( P u t r ā n ā m ) caiva nifkrtih is obscure.

N. reads naiva nifkrtih, ' T h e r e is no expiation at all in the c a s e of e t c . * * * N . 2.40 read* atdhakam for arthakam ' T h e sin is h a l f in transgressing the preceptor's order*.

of


Brahmānda Purāna

1040

were to a t t a c k h i m with an intention of killing him, he is not affected by its sinful effects. 47. T h e sin in killing and the merit in saving the following, O excellent one among the Suras, increases ten times t h e preceding one in the case of each succeeding o n e — o n e ' s own wife, son, brother a n d kinsman. 48. Good m e n say t h a t the a t o n e m e n t for t h e slaughter of the king, the B r ā h m a n a proficient in the Vedas, a pious m a n practising penance a n d holy rites, a n d one w h o is conver­ sant with the Vedas as well as V e d ā n t a is once, twice, fifty times a n d ten thousand times. 49. If ways a n d means of p r o t e c t i n g t h e m a r e provided for a n d liberal gifts are distributed a m o n g t h e m , they say t h a t the merits gradually increase in t h e case of succeeding one as mentioned before. In the case of visiting or bowing d o w n to t h e m or serving people similar to t h e m (the result is also similar). 50. F o r t h e sake of gods a n d B r ā h m a n a s , the king shall always kill lions, tigers a n d other animals t h a t cause h a r m to the p e o p l e . 1 5 1 . In cases of emergency, even for o n e m a y kill a n d eat animals fit for sacrifice.

one's own sake,

52. O n e shall n o t cook food solely for one's own sake. O n e shall n o t cook animals solely for one's own sake. By cooking for the sake of gods a n d B r ā h m a n a s , one is not affect­ ed by sins. 53-54. F o r m e r l y , goddess M ā y ā w i t h an inclination for enlivening the universe created Devas, Asuras a n d h u m a n beings as well as fourteen types of animals for the sake of protecting t h e m . After prescribing Yajñas a n d injunctions regarding t h e m she spoke to t h e m . 55-56. "O m e n , perform sacrifices u n t o Devas with these animals in accordance with these injunctions. Those who m a k e sacrificial offerings become sanctified and nourished by the Yajñas. He w h o does not continue this regular system a n d 1 . W . 50-7ā state circumstances condonable.

under w h i c h

violence

to

life i s


Lalitā-māhātmya 6.57-67

1041

routine thus evolved, shall become indigent a n d worthy of being cast i n t o hell in the course of every b i r t h . 57. F o r the sake of gods a n d manes, for guests a n d preceptors as well as on t h e arrival of a g r e a t m a n , a twiceb o r n person m a y kill animals w o r t h y of being used for sacrifice. 58. If in an emergency a B r ā h m a n a eats the m e a t of an a n i m a l w o r t h y of being sacrificed, he is not b l a m e w o r t h y or sinful. Rites ordained should be performed a n d activities forbidden should be avoided. 59. Formerly, there was a great sacrifice u n t o t h e Devas performed by Yuvanāśva. T h e r e was dispute a n d q u a r r e l a m o n g t h e Devas ( w h e n each s a i d ) , " T h i s i s m i n e " , "This is m i n e " . 60. T h e r e u p o n , B r a h m a , the grand-father of all t h e worlds, divided t h e animals a n d h u m a n beings a n d allotted t h e m to Devas severally. 6 1 . T h e r e a t , the g r e a t Śakti assisted by the groups of Bhūtas (goblins) b e c a m e furious. T h e n B r a h m a equipped w i t h tactful policies, said to h e r . 62. On seeing (the goddess) a p p e a r i n g in front, B r a h m a b e c a m e afraid of t h e goblins. He bowed down with p a l m s joined i n reverence a n d repeatedly said " B e p l e a s e d " . H e then continued: 63. " S i n c e you have a p p e a r e d in front of m e , I am c o n ­ tented a n d blessed. All these activities auspicious as well as inauspicious have been created by you. 64. Śrutis a n d Smrtis have been composed by you a l o n e . It is by you alone t h a t all t h e subsidiary sacrifices in a great K r a t u have b e e n a r r a n g e d a n d ordained b u t t h r o u g h me. 65. M a y all those animals, O great goddess, allotted severally to t h e Devas be your own. L e t t h e m be for the satis­ faction of Bhūtas (goblins, a n d o t h e r living b e i n g s ) . " 66. After saying this, P i t ā m a h a ( g o d B r a h m a ) vanished from their presence. He performed g r e a t K r a t u s in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e injunction laid down by h e r . 67. He performed t h e sacrifice for t h e g r e a t Śakti after killing a n i m a l s fit for sacrifice. T h e different divisions of t h e


Brahmānda Purāna

1042

s a m e are not recounted here because they have been m e n t i o n ­ ed in the Vedas. 68. Excepting a B r ā h m a n a the women a n d the Śūdras m a y accept m e a t . In cases of emergency even a B r ā h m a n a m a y c o n s u m e it w i t h the permission of t h e preceptor. 69. ( T h e M a n t r a s to be uttered) " T h i s P i n d a (mass of flesh) originates from Śiva. It has very m u c h a t t a i n e d the state of Śiva. U n d e r s t a n d , O sacrificial a n i m a l , you are not Aiiva (inauspicious). You are Sacchiva (good a n d auspicious). 70. Iśa is the m a k e r of t h e entire universe, its source of origin a n d dissolution. Since R u d r a is superior to the universe, you, O sacrificial a n i m a l , are R u d r a " . 7 1 . O n e is n o t smeared with sins a n d defects if one slaughters a horse, cow, elephant, camel, buffalo etc. (by u t t e r i n g this M a n t r a ) w h e t h e r it is for his own sake or for the sake of others. . 72-73. (Similarly, one is not defiled by killing) serpents, mice, hogs a n d scorpions causing h a r m to our domestic life. T h i s is something (like a sacrifice) in the case of those who carry on a house-holder's life a n d who desire t h e benefits of a holy r i t e . In t h e case of others who have achieved the power of great m e d i t a t i o n a n d will a n d whose splendour is very auspicious, it shall bestow t h e benefit of /;fāpūrta (sacrifice a n d charitable activities). W h a t they wish for c a n be achieved by Homos, Arcanās (worships) a n d other things.

means

of Japas,

CHAPTER SEVEN The Sins of Theft

and Drinking*

Indra said : 1. "O holy lord, t h e characteristic of violence has been entirely recounted. W h a t is t h e characteristic feature of s t e a l t h ? Tell me in detail". * N . continues the 2 n d chapter. H e n c e the 1st verse here is 2 . 7 0 in Our text teems to h a v e deleted N. 2.77 and 7 9 .

N.


Lalitā-mūhūtmya 7.2-10

1043

Brhaspati said : 2-3. " K i l l i n g of a n i m a l kind is a greater sin t h a n ordi­ n a r y sins. A sin still greater t h a n this is the m u r d e r of one w h o has sought shelter a n d has trusted you. Even if one kills (a m e m b e r of) the lowest a n d the last of all castes, a l t h o u g h he m a y be a great sinner b u t has trusted (himself to you) •one t h e n incurs a sin greater t h a n B r ā h m a n a slaughter. O n e has no m e a n s of a t o n e m e n t for the same sin. 4. T h e r e is no expiation at all for the sin of stealing w e a l t h a n d p r o p e r t y of a poor m a n , of a person w h o has earned it with very great h a r d s h i p , of a m a n w h o has realized B r a h m a n a n d of a person w h o has a large family consisting of his wife a n d children a n d who wishes to sustain himself with it. 5. T h e theft of the property of a person w h o has trusted you is a greater sin. O n e should never steal the wealth of a p o o r m a n w h e t h e r he has trusted you or not. 6. Therefore, one w h o unhesitatingly kills the thief of gold, gems a.nd jewels of twice-born ones a n d deities (in temples) acquires the fruit of a horse-sacrifice. 7. On account of theft ( i n regard to the p r o p e r t y ) •of the preceptor, deity, B r ā h m a n a , one's o w n friend, son a n d others, the sin accruing in this order is ten times t h e preceding one. 8. T h e person who steals wealth from a C ā n d ā l a , a S ū d r a , a Vaiśya, a K s a t r i y a a n d a B r ā h m a n a is defiled by sins ten times m o r e dreadful in e a c h case t h a n the previous one. The story of Kirdta Dvijavarman1 9. In this context they cite t h e following t r a d i t i o n a l legend. It is a g r e a t e r secret t h a n all other secrets. It is destruc­ tive of all sins. 10. Formerly, there was b o r n in the city of K ā ñ c i a thief n a m e d Vajra. All the people in t h a t beautiful excellent city were endowed with riches. All of them were h a p p y persons 1.

T h e story illustrates h o w the fruit i.e. merit of g o o d actions from

theft of property it distributed a m o n g t h e parties concerned.


1044

Brahmānda Purāna

devoid of illness. T h e y h a d perfect control over their senseorgans. T h e y were endowed with gracious s y m p a t h y (for others). 11. In this city flourishing exceedingly w i t h all sorts of riches, t h a t thief starting with a small a m o u n t a n d proceeding a h e a d little by little amassed a great deal of money. 12-13. He d u g a pit in the j u n g l e a n d greedily deposited wealth t h e r e i n . A c e r t a i n K i r ā t a (forester) saw h i m hiding it. In t h e m i d d l e of night, w h e n he ( V a j r a ) h a d gone far away, t h e K i r ā t a c a m e t h e r e a n d removed one-tenth of stolen wealth w i t h o u t being noticed by Vajra. He went along his way b e a r i n g t h e b u r d e n of firewood. 14. V a j r a w h o was covetous of w e a l t h covered the pit w i t h a rock and filled it with m u d a n d sand w i t h great l a b o u r . Thereafter, he went back to the city. 15. G e t t i n g m o r e a n d m o r e wealth, he thus deposited it u n d e r the g r o u n d . After reaching h o m e ; t h e delighted K i r ā t a said to* his wife. 16. "As I was going a b o u t g a t h e r i n g firewood, O timo/ T b u s w o m a n , this w e a l t h was acquired by me at a lonely place / on t h e way. O lady seeking wealth, keep this safe." I

17. On h e a r i n g it, she took w e a l t h a n d placed it within. T h i n k i n g a b o u t various things she spoke thus to her husband. 18. T h e B r ā h m a n a who passes by my house everyday saw me a n d said : — " E r e long you will be very f o r t u n a t e " . 19. If one (you) were amidst t h e w o m e n of the first four castes one would r a t h e r be a king's beloved. But Laksmī, t h e goddess of wealth, does not stay for a long time amongst Bhillas, K i r ā t a s a n d C ā n d ā l a s as well as in t h e family of a Śailūsa (Musician, actor, d a n c e r ) . T h i s is d u e to the curse of sage Vālmīki. 20. Still in t h e case of one blessed by merits, t h e cause of g r e a t fortune, his s t a t e m e n t c a n never be in vain, as seen before. 2 1 . O r , only t h a t w e a l t h which is acquired with verygreat difficulty by m e a n s of one's own efforts stays with onefor a long t i m e . All else goes away in course of time.


Lalitā-māhātmya

7.22-33

1045

22. O n e should utilize for sacred activities t h a t w e a l t h which comes to h i m by c h a n c e . H e n c e build a n d dig splendid tanks, wells etc. with this a m o u n t . " 23-24. On hearing these words of hers, urged by his o w n future fortune, he looked for a level ground with plenty of w a t e r in different localities. .Afterwards, he built a t a n k w i t h perennial supply of w a t e r in t h e eastern region. T h e water was free from impurities a n d the t a n k was one t h a t could be completed only by spending a big a m o u n t of w e a l t h . 2 5 . W h e n t h e entire wealth was spent o n w o r k m e n a n d t h e artisans a n d he still saw the work incomplete, he b e c a m e worried a n d anxious. 26-28. ( H e t h o u g h t t h u s ) — " U n k n o w n to h i m I shall follow t h a t thief n a m e d Vajra. I n d e e d m u c h wealth has been kept u n d e r t h e g r o u n d by h i m . L i t t l e by little I shall ultimately remove m u c h w e a l t h " . After m e n t a l l y deciding thus, he follow­ ed h i m without being observed by h i m . F e t c h i n g wealth in t h a t m a n n e r h e c o m p l e t e d t h e b u n d with t h a t ( m o n e y ) . I n t h e m i d d l e (of t h e tank) t h e r e was t h e p a l a t i a l t e m p l e of lord Ś ā r ń g i n ( V i s n u ) s u r r o u n d e d b y w a t e r (constructed b y h i m ) . 29. T h a t t a n k b e c a m e a very splendid a n d h u g e reser­ voir of w a t e r t h a t never dried u p . In the m i d d l e of the b u n d , he built a big shrine of Ś a ń k a r a . 30. T h e forest t h a t h a d been infested w i t h m a n y wild beasts was d e n u d e d . T h e r e b y h e p r e p a r e d m a n y excellent f i e l d s of very great value. 31-33. T h e fields were divided. Some were d e d i c a t e d to t h e Deities a n d others were d o n a t e d t o B r ā h m a n a s . H e invited m a n y B r ā h m a n a s o f w h o m t h e leader w a s D e v a v r a t a . H e m a d e t h e m pleased by m e a n s of gold a n d clothes a n d spoke these words : " W h e r e (i.e. w h a t a lot of difference t h e r e is) am I a K i r ā t a n a m e d V ī r a d a t t a selling firewood ? W h e r e is t h e con­ struction of t h e great b u n d ? W h e r e is t h e b u i l d i n g up of a g r e a t shrine ? W h e r e is t h e a l l o t m e n t of fields a n d abodes of B r ā h m a n a s ? It was only due to y o u r kindness, O excellent B r ā h m a n a s t h a t everything has been a c h i e v e d . "


1046

Brahmānda Purāna

34-37. Accepting t h a t offer, the B r ā h m a n a s , t h e leader of w h o m was D e v a v r a t a , who b e c a m e contented, n a m e d t h a t K i r ā t a as Dvijavarmā. Those noble-souled B r ā h m a n a s of great prowess n a m e d his wife Śilavati. F o r t h e sake of protecting t h e m , t h e K i r ā t a of great self-control took up his residence t h e r e itself along w i t h his wife a n d Kinsmen. Delighting all B r ā h m a n a s , he r ā t a p u r a after t h e n a m e of t h e priest.

n a m e d t h e city

Deva-

38-39. Thereafter, falling within t h e power of the pass­ age of T i m e , Dvijavarmā died a n d t h e messengers of Y a m a , B r a h m a , V i s n u a n d R u d r a assembled there. A war broke out a m i d them, a n d i t could b e compared only t o t h e w a r between Devas a n d Asuras. I n the m e a n t i m e sage N ā r a d a c a m e there a n d said : 40-41. " D o n o t f i g h t a m o n g yourselves. Listen t o m y -words. It was by m e a n s of theft t h a t this K i r ā t a constructed t h e Bund sometime back. He shall be transformed to a gaseous state a n d move a b o u t alone till t h e d e a t h of the owner of •wealth (i.e. V a j r a ) . As for h i m (i.e. V a j r a ) since he has taken away wealth from m a n y (he too shall move a b o u t in a gaseous s t a t e ) until all o f t h e m d i e . " 42. On h e a r i n g the words of N ā r a d a , all t h e messengers w e n t back. Dvijavarmā assumed a gaseous state a n d moved a b o u t in space for a' p e r i o d of twelve years. 4 3 . T h e sage said to his wife—"You have n o t committed a n y defect or sin. W i t h the meritorious acts committed by you, go to the region of B r a h m a from this w o r l d . " 44. On seeing h e r h u s b a n d transformed to a gaseous s t a t e she did n o t relish t h e idea of going t o ) t h e a b o d e of B r a h m a . A t t a i n i n g t h e state of complete indifference to worldly affairs, she spoke thus to t h e sage. 45-46. " I shall never go to the a b o d e of Brahma without m y h u s b a n d . I shall stay here itself till m y husband regains his body. Thereafter, I shall pursue the same goal as my husband. O r , is there a n y act of atonement and expiation to be performed by me or by hina ?"


Lalitā-māhātmya 7.47-59

1047

47-50. O n h e a r i n g her words thus t h e ascetic w a s pleased a n d he said : " Y o u r b o d y t h a t is c a p a b l e of experien­ cing j o y a n d sorrow c a n perform rites too. An a t o n e m e n t c a n be h a d t h r o u g h my influence. I shall m e n t i o n it to you. Before taking a n y food one m u s t have his holy d i p in t h e great Tirtha everyday. After devotedly worshipping Śiva along with A m b i k ā h e must m e d i t a t e o n M a h e ś a n a ( g o d Śiva) in-his h e a r t a n d t h e n r e p e a t t h e M a n t r a called Śatarudra Manu.1 ( I n t h e course of this period) he shall have only roots, fruits a n d bulbous roots for food. By r e p e a t i n g this M a n t r a one t h o u s a n d a n d eight times even the slayer of a B r ā h m a n a becomes liberated from sins. T h e r e is no d o u b t at all t h a t he will be liberated from all o t h e r sins as w e l L " 5 1 . After c o m m a n d i n g h e r t h u s t h e ascetic i m p a r t e d R u d r ā d h y ā y a t o h e r . After blessing t h a t w o m a n thus, h e vanished t h e r e itself. 52. For t h e sake of doing s o m e t h i n g pleasing to h e r h u s b a n d , she performed rites of m e d i t a t i o n a n d the repeti­ tion of the g r e a t M a n t r a s . L i b e r a t e d from t h e sin of theft, he regained his physical body. 53-55. Thereafter, t h e thief n a m e d Vajra m e t w i t h hisd e a t h . O t h e r s too t o w h o m t h e w e a l t h stolen b y h i m belonged passed away^ Y a m a called t h e m together a n d said t h u s : — " S i n has been c o m m i t t e d by you. Luckily some meritori­ ous deeds also have been performed. W h a t is t h e fruit t h a t y o u wish to experience first of t h e auspicious activities ? 56. O n h e a r i n g his words t h u s , V a j r a a n d others s a i d : — " A t t h e outset t h e fruit of meritorious deeds shall be enjoyed. Afterwards t h a t of the sins shall be e x p e r i e n c e d . " 57-59. Y a m a said once again. All of you go to heaven immediately, on the strength of this (meritorious d e e d of D v i j a v a r m ā ) along with your wives, sons a n d friends." T h e y got into an excellent aerial chariot w i t h D v i j a v a r m ā as t h e i r l e a d e r a n d guide. Endowed w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t benefits, t h e y w e n t speedily to h e a v e n . 1. N a m e of a celebrated h y m n in V ā j . Sarhhitā X V I . 1-66. But w a s t h e K i r ā t a l a d y regarded eligible for r e p e a t i n g V e d i c M a n t r a s ?

how-


1048

Brahmānda Purāna

Accompanied by his wife Dvijavarmā passed beyond all worlds a n d a t t a i n e d G ā n a p a t y a ( t h e state o f being t h e c o m m a n d e r of t h e G a n a s - A t t e n d a n t s of Ś i v a ) . E v e n t o d a y he rejoices in K a i l ā s a . " Indra said : 60. O highly intelligent one, m e n t i o n t h e divisions a n d the comparative merits of construction of bunds a n d other meritorious deeds. It is conducive to t h e increase of m e r i t . " Brhaspati said : 61-62. " D v i j a v a r m ā of g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n ( a t t a i n e d every­ t h i n g ) after acquiring half of the meritorious deeds. Vajra acquired a half of t h e r e m a i n d e r . O t h e r s were endowed with a f u r t h e ŕ m o i e t y of w h a t still r e m a i n e d . Action is c o m m i t t e d by one in four ways—by the m i n d , by t h e speech, by t h e casual m o v e m e n t of t h e body a n d by the wilful activity of t h e b o d y . These perish d u e to t h e expiatory rites performed by t h e very same parts of t h e body. Indra said : 6 3 . " W h a t is the n a t u r e of Asava ? ( L i q u o r ) . W h a t is its defect ? W h a t is its merit ? W h a t type of cooked food is defective ? M e n t i o n this in detail to m e . " 1 Brhaspati said : 64. T h e different types of intoxicating beverages are as follows : Paiffika ( m a d e from flour or r i c e ) , Tālaja (from t h e d a t e palm) Kaira (coconut p a l m - j u i c e ) , Mādhūka (made from honey or M a d h ū k a flowers), G u d a s a m b h a v a (prepared from molasses). In regard to sinful n a t u r e t h e later ones m e n t i o n e d above are half as dreadful as t h e earlier ones. 65. Āsava can be used as a beverage by t h e three castes beginning with the Ksatriyas. Excepting a B r ā h m a n a lady, 1.

Liquor-drinking

is a great

sin

(Mahāpāpa).

T h e remaining

c h a p t e r deals incidently w i t h different types of wines in ancient

India,

permission t o non-Brahmin m e n a n d w o m e n t o drink a n d strict

prohibition

for B r ā h m a n a s e v e n w h i l e w o r s h i p p i n g ' M o t h e r s ' ( Afāfr-goddesses).

the


Lalitā-māhātmya

7.66-75

1049

all w o m e n can d r i n k liquors beginning with t h e third one i.e. Kaira (coconut p a l m juice, a n d p r e p a r e d from honey a n d molasses). 66-67. A widow, a virgin a n d a w o m a n in her m o n t h l y period shall avoid drinking liquor. If a w o m a n drinks liquor o u t of covetousness a n d not in the c o m p a n y of h e r h u s b a n d , she is called U n m ā d i n ī (a m a d w o m a n ) . O n e should avoid h e r like a C ā n d ā l a w o m a n . 68. T h e r a t i o of d r i n k i n g liquors in the case of four castes beginning with the Brāhmanas shall be ten to eight or six to four. In the case of women it shall be half of the above. If they d r i n k in the c o m p a n y of their husbands it shall be one-fourth of the above. 69-71. After drinking liquor out of delusion, a Brāh­ m a n a should perform Krcchracāndrāyana expiation. Or he shall repeat Gāyatrī M a n t r a o r J ā t a v e d a s a M a n t r a t e n thousand times. If a m a n repeats A m b i k ā h r d a y a M a n t r a he shall become p u r e . A Ksatriya a m o n g the three castes shall be purified by r e p e a t i n g those M a n t r a s half the n u m b e r of times. In the case of women the n u m b e r of repetitions shall be onefourth or they c a n get t h e same done t h r o u g h B r ā h m a n a s . O n e should r e p e a t the M a n t r a s a thousand times u n d e r water a n d become purified thereby. 72. Laksmī, Sarasvatī, Gaurī, C a n d i k ā , T r i p u r ā , A m b i k ā Vaisnavī, Bhairavī, K ā l ī a n d M ā h e n d r ī are the M o t h e r s . 73. T h e r e a r e other Śakti goddesses. In worshipping t h e m the liquor p r e p a r e d from honey is a p p r o v e d of. A B r ā h m a n a who has mastered the V e d ā ń g a s shall perform worship without wine. 74. Those w h o are u n a t t a c h e d to worldly objects a t t a i n t h e greatest goal t h r o u g h their power (i.e. t h e power of M o t h e r s ) . T h e y shall eat only w h a t is dedicated a n d offered to t h e m first. W i t h o u t thinking a b o u t other deities they must be m e d i t a t e d u p o n . T h e y must identify themselves with Mothers. 75. T h i s r e m e m b r a n c e of the fact of the supreme power (parā-Śakti) is prescribed as the expiation for all sins com­ m i t t e d either knowingly or unknowingly.


Brahmānda Purāna

1050

76. T h e base fellow w h o drinks liquor without worship­ ping P a r ā Śakti shall stay in hell called R a u r a v a for a period calculated at t h e r a t e of a year for every d r o p soconsumed. 77. He who drinks liquor with a desire for enjoying pleasures is the vilest of m e n . Excepting a fall from preci­ pitous rock or i m m o l a t i o n into t h e fire, there is no other means of a t o n e m e n t for h i m . 78-79. A B r ā h m a n a should n o t drink liquor out of delusion or for t h e sake of friendship or because of passionate addiction. A B r ā h m a n a shall be purified of sinful defects d u e to the blessings of great m e n , by r e p e n t a n c e of one's own action, by worshipping Parāśakti, by t h e observance of Y a m a s ' a n d N i y a m a s , by m e a n s of Krcchracāndrāyana expiatory rites calculated on t h e basis of t h e n u m b e r of days (on which the sin is c o m m i t t e d ) . If t h e sin is c o m m i t t e d consciously t h e expiation shall be twice as m u c h .

CHAPTER EIGHT* Narration of sexual Crimes. Indra said : 1. W h a t is Agamyūgamana ? (carnally a p p r o a c h i n g a forbidden w o m a n ) . W h a t is its defect ? W h a t is t h e m e a n s of expiation ? O n o b l e sage, it behoves you to explain this in detail t o m e . Brhaspati said : 2. O n e ' s own m o t h e r , sister, wife of t h e preceptor a n d the wife of one's m a t e r n a l u n c l e — i f one carnally approaches a n y of these, there is no m e a n s of expiation (for this s i n ) . •This is chapter 3 i n N .


1051

Lalita-māhatmya 8.3-12

3. T h e sin in carnally a p p r o a c h i n g one's sister is t h e same as in the case of contact with one's mother. T h e same is t h e result in contacting t h e wife of the preceptor. And the pre­ ceptors are of various types. 4. Beginning with Brahmopadeśa (i.e. imparting t h e Gāyatrī M a n t r a ) a n d ending with (the exposition) of the V e d ā n t a philosophy, if everything is taught by one person alone, he is called Mahagu.ru (Great p r e c e p t o r ) . 5. If Brahmopadefa is imparted by one and the Vedas a n d Śāstras are i m p a r t e d by a n o t h e r or a n u m b e r of o t h e r persons, the former should be known as Ācārya a n d each of the latter a DeSika. 6. If one carnally approaches the G u r u ' s wife, it is t h e r u i n of his soul. If t h e wife of Acārya is defiled, o n e should perform Krcchra a n d Atikrcchra rites for twelve years, each of t h e m lasting for six years. 7-8. If a beloved of t h e m a t e r n a l uncle is a p p r o a c h e d , one should perform Krcchra rite for six years. If a B r ā h m a n a a p p r o a c h e s a young w o m a n of his own caste, he should observe fast for t h r e e nights a n d perform a h u n d r e d Prānāyāmas. If t h e w o m a n of his caste is a h a r l o t he becomes p u r e (by observing fast) for three n i g h t s . * 9-10. ( H e becomes p u r e ) in five days after the c o n t a c t with a K s a t r i y a w o m a n a n d in seven days after t h e c o n t a c t with a Vaiśya w o m a n . If one approaches a n y of the w o m e n of oilmongers, K i r ā t a s , fishermen, labourers etc., t h e purity c a n be regained in twelve days or by worshipping Dharāiakti ( t h e Śakti of E a r t h ) . If a B r ā h m a n a approaches a Śūdra or a G ā n d ā l a w o m a n by mistake, he can become p u r e in a year. 11. Dāsī (a slave, harlot) is of four types : D e v a d ā s ī , Brahmadāsī, S v a t a n t r ā * * (independent) a n d Sūdradāsikā. T h e first two are on a p a r with a K s a t r i y a w o m a n . 12. T h e o t h e r w o m a n is equal to a prostitute and t h e next one like a w o m a n of the lowest caste. If a B r ā h m a n a , out * N. reads dvirātrāt 'for t w o nights.' **(svadāsī—'personal

Dāsi'

in

N.


Brahmānda Purāna

1052

of delusion approaches his woman-slave, he shall acquire sin in t h e m a t t e r u n d e r reference. 13-14. If a n y one indulges in sexual contact with his own wife d u r i n g the period of menstruation, he should perform t h e Prājāpatya rite. If she is a n o t h e r m a n ' s wife, t h e observance of t h e rite shall be twice as m u c h . If she is a K s a t r i y a w o m a n , it shall be four times as m u c h . If she is a Vaiśya w o m a n , it shall be eight times. If she is a Ś ū d r a w o m a n , it shall be sixteen times as m u c h . If she is of a mixed caste, it ( t h e expiation) shall be thirtytwo times. If she is a harlot, t h e expiation is t h e same as in the case of a Ś ū d r a w o m a n . 15. If a person, out of delusion, desires to cohabit with his wife d u r i n g her m o n t h l y course, he shall become purified (after t h e act) only by taking b a t h , wearing n e w clothes a n d performing expiatory rites m e n t i o n e d before. 16. After fasting for the r e m a i n i n g p a r t of t h e day, he should take b a t h a n d perform religious rites. In the case of sexual contact with o t h e r women also, everything should be performed similarly. 17. If a person cohabits with a virgin w i t h o u t the legiti­ m a t e m a r i t a l rites, b u t w i t h t h e permission of her parents, he shall become purified by observing fast for three nights. F u r t h e r , he must m a r r y only t h a t girl. 18. If a n y o n e cohabits w i t h a virgin given in m a r r i a g e to a n o t h e r , he becomes purified after a q u a r t e r of the day. * If a n y o n e c a r n a l l y approaches a virgin w i t h t h e permission of her p a r e n t s he becomes purified in half a d a y . * * 19. If a person with t h e knowledge of his parents co­ h a b i t s w i t h a girl for a m o n t h even when she is a virgin, he •The T e x t N. shows that our text has m i x e d up

s o m e lines. T h e N. text

reads differently : Kanyāgantā pitroranujftayā sārdham tridinena viiudhyati j 'A person g o i n g to a girl given to another but with

the

permission

of

the parents, b e c o m e s purified in three days'. * * I n N. this line is preceded by the line : ekena

sańgatām jhatvā yo'nyasmai pratiyacchati

T h e person w h o

has

full knowledge that

his daughter goes with

-certain person a n d still gives her in marriage to another should be known .a Vrsala

( Ś ū d r a ) and be e x c o m m u n i c a t e d in all religious rites.'

a as


1053

Lalitā-māhātmya 8.20-32

should be known as a vrsala ( Ś ū d r a ) excommunicated in all religious r i t e s . * 20. If a w o m a n is m a r r i e d by one b u t a n o t h e r m a n cohabits w i t h h e r with t h e knowledge of t h e parents, a n d if t h e second m a n dies, t h e w o m a n does not become a widow. She can g o over t o the f i r s t m a n . 2 1 . But she must get blessings of B r ā h m a n a s a n d perform m a r i t a l rites. Rites of r e n u n c i a t i o n * (?) should be performed. So also t h e rites laid down in Śrutis, Smrtis etc. 22. If a w o m a n is at first m a r r i e d to a person b u t she is given to a n o t h e r by h e r father on t h e d e a t h of t h a t m a n , •he then becomes a m e r e tool in the h a n d s of t h a t m a n desirous Of enjoyment of pleasures. She is not worthy of taking p a r t in a n y holy r i t e . 2 3 . T h e entire universe consisting of t h e mobile a n d immobile beings, b e g i n n i n g with B r a h m a a n d ending with an a n t , is said to be evolved o u t of t h e five elements a n d is endow­ ed w i t h four instincts. 24-27. T h e y ( t h e instincts) a r e concerned with food, c o p u l a t i o n , sleep and fear. T h e y exist for ever. (Partially defec­ tive t e x t ) . W i t h o u t food t h e creature c a n n o t exist b u t food incites passion. H e n c e , passion is difficult to avoid, in t h e case of living beings. T h e creator of t h e universe m a d e it in the forms of m a n a n d w o m a n a n d t h r o u g h C u p i d (God of love a n d passion) caused t h e activity of t h e n a t u r e of creation, sustenance a n d destruction. If C u p i d is active, t h e whole universe is active a n d if he recedes it gets dissolved. Listen, I shall now m e n t i o n t h e secret m e a n s whereby those w h o a r e n o t endowed with knowledge a n d intellect c a n a t t a i n salvation by m e a n s of activity alone. 28-32. ( M a n t r a ) — " V ā s u d e v a is identical with every thing. He is t h e a n c i e n t P u r u s a . T h i s L a k s m i is t h e original P r a k r t i , t h e m o t h e r of t h e entire universe. F o r t h e satisfaction of five elements in e a c h c h u r n i n g sexual intercourse is being carried o u t . " If the sexual indulgence is after r e p e a t i n g * N . reads :

tayā karmāni " s h e should be m a d e

cribed in. Śrutis a n d Smrtis.

to

perform rites

pres­


Brahmānda Purina

1054 this M a n t r a , b o t h of them T h e r e is no sin in their case.

become persons of

holy rites.

This is in regard to those who have the power of p e n a n c e . In the case of o r d i n a r y persons, downfall alone is in s t o r e . F u r t h e r , this is in t h e case of one's own wife. Since fate is m o r e powerful t h a n they ( ? ) If t h e hearts of b o t h have m u t u a l identity, since t h e minds of b o t h melt w i t h devotion to t h e goddess, there is no sin in their case too, if the act is not committed on p r o h i b i t e d days. 33-34. ( M a n t r a ) — " T h i s is A m b ā , the m o t h e r of the u n i ­ verse. This m a n is Sadāśiva. F o r the pleasure of twentyfive principles, it is being c h u r n e d n o w " . If t h e churning is carried out with this M a n t r a , b o t h of them b e c o m e meritorious in their deeds, d u e to the power of this M a n t r a . T h e r e is no sin in their case. 35. Listen to this, O D e v e n d r a . T h i s is t h e secret. It is t h e destroyer of all sins simultaneously.

greatest

36. O n e should be endowed with devotion a n d faith. After taking b a t h he should stand u n d e r w a t e r . Thereafter, he shall r e p e a t PañcadaSiksari M a n t r a a thousand a n d eight times. 1

37. By propitiating parāśakti, one gets liberated from all' sins. T h e r e b y t h e sins c o m m i t t e d in the course of t e n million Kalpas perish. He gets rid of all calamities a n d obtains alL ambitions." Discussion about prohibited things : Indra requested :2 38. " O Holy lord, conversant with all holy rites a n d pious activities, O holy sage, engaged in the welfare of all living

1.

T h e esoteric fifteen-lettered mantra of Parāśakti

Hrim Ha Sa Ka Ha La Hrim 2.

is:

Ha Sa Ka La

Sa Ka La Hrī.

T h e r e m a i n i n g chapter discusses the last M a h ā p ā t a k a

viz

associa­

tion w i t h those w h o h a v e c o m m i t t e d o n e o f the M a h ā p ā t a k a s . A s i n the c a s e o f incest, Smrtis like

Manu XI.

181, Yāj

III

261

e t c . h a v e prescribed

different p e n a n c e s for such sinners but there is no u n a n i m i t y a m o n g t h e m .


1055

Laliti-mūh&tmya 8.39-49

beings, it behoves you to r e c o u n t the special features of t h e sin due to contact. Brhaspati said : 39. " T h e sin d u e to c o n t a c t is mentioned to be of four k i n d s : Kartā (the p e r p e t r a t o r ) is t h e most i m p o r t a n t one. T h e o t h e r s in d u e order a r e Sahakrt ( c o l l a b o r a t o r ) , Nimitta (instigator) a n d Anumata (abettor) . 40. T h e śin of these shall be t h u s : t h a t of the l a t t e r is o n e - t e n t h of t h e preceding o n e . O n e ' s p u r i t y is in accordance w i t h t h e m a n n e r m e n t i o n e d before. 41-43a. T h e sin of t h e people selling the following things 1 becomes reduced to t h e t e n t h from t h e earlier to t h e later in t h e o r d e r in which they a r e mentioned :—• L i q u o r , t h e flesh of an a n i m a l killed with a poisoned w e a p o n , g u m resin, mushroom, onion, garlic, wrightia antidysenteria, a gourd called M a h ā k a u ś ī t a k ī , fruit of Momordica Monadelpha, fungus ( M u s h r o o m of coloured variety), a d r u g called Hastinī, a p l a n t called Śiśulambikā Ficus Religiosa, t h e e g g p l a n t (the fruit o f ) , t h e clearing n u t p l a n t , t h e wood apple, jasmine. 43b-45. T h e sin of taking food supplied by these p e o p l e becomes reduced to t h e t e n t h from t h e earlier to the later in t h e o r d e r in which they are m e n t i o n e d , viz. : O n e w h o sells (plots or buildings) forming p a r t of a city or a village, t h e ( i m p l e m e n t s etc.) of a Vaiśya, t h e articles presented to prosti­ tutes, a servant, a citizen, a person staying in a r e m o t e village, a person of b a d r e p u t e , a physician, a forest dweller, a Śaivite, a p i m p , a person w h o sells cooked food, a person w h o m a i n ­ tains himself by dealing in weapons, a recluse a n d a person w h o censures V e d i c c o n d u c t of life. 46-49. If one independently takes in an edible fried in oil, one shall point out the sin m e n t i o n e d therein. He shall point out t h a t t h e thing seen by t h e m a l o n e a n d e a t e n by t h e m is free from sin.* 1.

V V . 4 1 - 4 5 . list t h e prohibited things for sale.

2.

W . 46-59 throw

light

on

complex

I n d i a a n d t h e superstition o f pollution b y sight.

social

situation i n

ancient


1056

Brahmānda Purāna

If one eats w i t h o u t b e i n g seen by others edibles fried in oil and cooked food belonging to B r ā h m a n a s , K s a t r i y a s , Vaiśyas a n d Śūdras t h e sin shall be one-fourth (?) If a B r ā h m a n a eats t h e food p r e p a r e d by his female slave a n d seen by her, t h e sin is half. If t h e cooked food is seen by a Veśyā ( h a r l o t ) t h e sin is three-fourths. T h e cooked food of a cowherd, except t h e four milk p r o d u c t s , shall be on a p a r with t h a t of a Ś ū d r a w o m a n . T h e cooked food p r e p a r e d in oil or ghee or mixed with jaggery taken from a Vaiśya does not become denied. 50-52. A fallen B r ā h m a n a w o m a n is on a p a r with a Vaiśya w o m a n . T h e r e is no h a r m if t h e food is seen by her. If a B r ā h m a n a eats t h e food of a Bruoa ( B r ā h m a n a - i m p o s t o r , a p r e t e n d e r ) h e shall perform a h u n d r e d P r ā n ā y ā m a s . O r h e shall repeat Drupadād M a n t r a (AV. 6.115.2-3) t h r e e times u n d e r water. Or he shall r e p e a t Idarft Visnu etc. ( R V . 1-22-17) or Tryambakam etc. ( R V . 7-59-12) u n d e r water. By observing fast for a night, he shall become free from sin. 53-54. O r h e shall r e p e a t t h e A n n a s ū k t a o r t h e M a n t r a Bhrgurvai vāruni. ( T a i t U p . I I I - l . l ) a n d sprinkle water over t h e food r e p e a t i n g t h e P ā v a m ā n i k a M a n t r a s . H e shall then r e p e a t t h e verse Brahmārpanam etc. (Bhagavad GUS I V . 24) observing holy rites. By observing fast for a night, he shall become p u r e . 5 5 . If a w o m a n eats t h e food of a Bruva etc., she shall feed B r ā h m a n a s for a d a y . If a B r ā h m a n a takes their food in an emergency, he is n o t defiled thereby. 56. If a person takes food inspired seven times by t h e m a n t r a Idarh Visnu etc. ( R V . 1-22-17) a n d m e d i t a t e s over it w i t h the idea " I a m H e " , h e shall n o t become defiled. 57. O r h e shall m e d i t a t e o n Sańkara, r e p e a t t h e M a n t r a Tryambakam etc. (RV. 7-59-12) a n d m e d i t a t e over it with t h e idea " I a m H e " , h e does not become defiled. 58-59. Listen, O D e v e n d r a , to these secret words of m i n e . O n e shall m e d i t a t e u p o n goddess P a r ā Śakti, repeat Pañcadaśāksari M a n t r a a n d take food after d e d i c a t i n g t h e same to her. If he repeats this everyday, t h a t B r ā h m a n a will never h a v e t h e sin from t h e defect of food. He need not be afraid of poverty.


1057

Lalitā-māhātmya 8.60—9.3

60-61. He need not fear sickness nor enemies. If he repeats t h e M a n t r a , h e shall a t t a i n salvation. Everywhere a n d at all times he shall meet w i t h auspiciousness. T h u s , O Śakra, the details regarding sins have been explained to y o u . So also means of a t o n e m e n t for t h e m . W h a t else do you wish to h e a r ?

CHAPTER

NINE

Churning of the ocean for Nectar Indra submitted '. 1. O holy lord, conversant w i t h all types of holy duties, the foremost a m o n g those w h o know t h e (events of the) three units of time (i.e. past, present a n d f u t u r e ) ; sinful activities a n d the m e a n s of remedy, thereof have been perfectly r e c o u n t e d b y you. 2. W h a t is t h a t K a r m a n of m i n e , as a result of which this m i s h a p has befallen me ? x W h a t is t h e m e a n s of a t o n e m e n t for t h e same ? M e n t i o n this, O most excellent one a m o n g tho.se w h o speak fluently. Brhaspati explained : 3. It is traditionally r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e n * D a n u was b o r n of D i t i a n d K ā ś y a p a a n d a d a u g h t e r called R ū p a v a t ī 1.

T h e story of I n d r a killing his preceptor Triśiras or Viśvajit on

s u s p i c i o n o f his c o m p l i c i t y with D a i t y a s

and

the

the

c o n s e q u e n t pursuit

by

B r a h m a - h a t y ā (the sin of B r ā h m a n a murder) a n d L o r d N ā r ā y a n a ' s division, of I n d r a ' s sin of B r a h m a h a t y ā a m o n g w o m e n , trees a n d t h e in Mbh. Udyoga 9-3-4;

Śānti 342.32-34 a n d

41

earth

is

found

a n d Udyoga 9 . 4 3 southern

recension a n d other P u r ā n a s . •Our text reads 'tato'—But N. reads suto 'a son'. Smriah in V. 3a in

our

text a n d suto i n N . m e a n s both. T h e texts presume that D a n u i s the n a m e a m a n a n d K a ś y a p a was his father.

MM.

Ādi

65.12

clearly states

of

that

D a n u w a s the daughter o f D a k s a a n d she w a s g i v e n i n marriage t o K ā ś y a p a . T h a t is K ā ś y a p a was the husband a n d not the father of D a n u . O t h e r endorse M b h . If Smxtah in V. 3a is e m e n d e d as

Smrtā

Purānas

the verse m e a n s

:

'A

beautiful girl remembered b y t h e n a m e D a n u was born t o Diti a n d K ā ś y a p a .


1058

Brahmānda Purāna

was also b o r n w h o m the father ( K ā ś y a p a ) gave to D h ā t ā (in marriage). 4. An excessively brilliant son Viśvarūpa was b o r n to her. He was always devoted to N ā r ā y a n a . He was a master of t h e Vedas a n d V e d ā ń g a s . 5. T h e n t h e lord of D a i t y a s chose t h e son of Bhrgu ( i . e . Śukra) as his priest. You were a p p o i n t e d here in t h e kingdom of the Devas as Vāsava. 6. Prior to this w h e n you were in S u d h a r m ā (the Assembly Hall of D e v a s ) , a certain question was p u t by you in t h e presence of sages. 7. " W h i c h is better, worldly existence or pilgrimage ? W h a t is its excellence ? Be pleased to bless me w i t h a decisive answer." 8-9. All of t h e m began to answer b u t before t h a t , as fate would have it, the following answer was given by me quickly. " P i l g r i m a g e is far m o r e excellent t h a n worldly existence." O n hearing t h a t the sages b e c a m e furious a n d cursed m e . 10. " G o immediately t o K a r m a b h ū m i , " L a n d o f holy r i t e s " i.e. B h ā r a t a (India) along w i t h your sons limited in n u m b e r d u e to p o v e r t y . " On being cursed t h u s by those infuriat­ ed sages, I b e c a m e dejected. I entered t h e city of K ā ñ c ī . 11-12. On seeing t h e city devoid of a priest, you b e c a m e worried in m i n d along with t h e Devas. For the sake of priest­ hood, Viśvarūpa was respectfully e n t r e a t e d by you. Viśvarūpa, the most excellent one a m o n g persons engaged in austerities, t h e sister's son of D ā n a v a s , b e c a m e t h e priest of Devas. 13. T h e priest of great power of p e n a n c e did n o t have a n y excessive e n m i t y towards D a i t y a s . At t h a t t i m e the lord of Daityas a n d Vāsava b e c a m e equally powerful. 14. T h e n once O king, you b e c a m e very furious a n d desired to kill the n e p h e w of t h e lord of D ā n a v a s . W i t h t h a t desire you h a s t e n e d to t h e forest w h e r e he was practising penance. 15-16. He was seated t h e r e along w i t h t h e sages. He a p p e a r e d like a m o u n t a i n w i t h t h r e e p e a k s . * By reciting t h e

•Viśvarūpa h a d three h e a d s a n d was h e n c e called Triśiras.


Zalitd-māhātmya

9.17-27

1059

V e d i c M a n t r a s h e caused t h e quarters t o reverberate. H e was c o m p l e t e l y engrossed in t h e Bliss of B r a h m a n — y o u considered t h a t (killing h i m ) will be for t h e welfare of all living beings. W i t h t h e favour of I ś a , all his heads were simultaneously c h o p p e d off by you. 17-18. On a c q u i r i n g t h a t sin, you were afflicted frequent­ ly. You w e n t to a cave in t h e M e r u a n d stayed t h e r e for m a n y years. On h e a r i n g t h e words of sages, B r a h m a c a m e to know a b o u t t h e d e a t h of his son. Being distressed d u e to t h e grief over t h e d e a t h of his son, he b e c a m e a n g r y a n d cursed you. 19-20. " D u e t o m y curse m a y Vāsava b e c o m e i m m e d i a t e ­ ly devoid of splendour a n d g l o r y . " Devas t h e n b e c a m e leaderless a n d bewildered. T h e y were harassed by t h e D a i t y a s . Separated from y o u a n d m e , fthey fled to t h e a b o d e of B r a h m a . After m a k i n g obeisance to h i m , they reported h i m everything t h a t h a d h a p p e n e d . 2 1 . T h e r e u p o n , t h e self-born lord (god B r a h m a ) b e g a n to p o n d e r over t h e r e m e d y for t h a t sin. But he was n o t able to f i n d a n y such remedy. 22-24. T h e r e a t , surrounded by t h e Devas, he a p p r o a c h e d N ā r ā y a n a . After bowing down t o h i m a n d eulogising h i m t h e four-faced L o r d s u b m i t t e d to h i m t h e relevant facts. After reflecting very m u c h , t h e lord of t h e world ( N ā r ā ­ y a n a ) , w i t h great sympathy, split t h e sin into t h r e e p a r t s a n d assigned t h e m to three different places viz. w o m e n , E a r t h a n d T r e e s . H e g r a n t e d boons too t o t h e m . 25-26. T h e boon t h e n g r a n t e d to t h e women was in contact w i t h h u s b a n d s a n d acquisition of sons in all seasons ( o r m e n s t r u a t i o n p e r i o d ) . T h a t granted to t h e trees of every type, was the ability to grow once again w h e n c u t . M a d h u s ū d a n a bestowed the boon of ability to fill up d u g o u t places of t h e E a r t h . T h e sin began to function in t h e m as menses in t h e case of women, exudation of sap in t h e case of trees a n d b a r r e n spot w i t h saline soil in t h e case of t h e E a r t h . 27. You, I n d r a c a m e out of t h a t cave a n d b e c a m e t h e l e a d e r of the Devas. You acquired t h e wealth a n d glory of k i n g d o m d u e to t h e favour of P a r m e s t h i n .


1060

Brahmānda Purāna

28-29. Pacified by him, D h ā t ā spoke to J a n ā r d a n a — " M y curse will not be in vain. Let it take effect after t h e lapse of some t i m e " ( O H a r i — N ) . On h e a r i n g the words of t h e sage of u n m e a s u r e d splen­ dour, the lord b e c a m e delighted. Conversant with the shape of future events he went away silently. 30. Till this t i m e you were ruling over t h e three worldsa n d being a r r o g a n t on account of your glory a n d suzerainty, you caused h a r m to t h e K a i l ā s a m o u n t a i n . 3 1 . Sage D u r v ā s ā , the holy lord, was sent by t h e omnis­ cient Lord Śiva. Desirous of suppressing your haughtiness sage Durvāsā cursed you. 32. T h e result of b o t h the curses has b e e n the same. See, the three worlds h a v e b e c o m e devoid of glory a n d brilliance. 3 3 . Tajñas are not being performed n o r Dūnas (charitable gifts) are being distributed. O Vāsava, there is neither raffia (Restraint on the sense-organs) nor Niyama ( H o l y observance of vows e t c . ) . Penance a n d austerities are not found anywhere. 34. All t h e B r ā h m a n a s a r e devoid of glory a n d splendour. T h e i r minds are overpowered by covetousness. T h e y a r e devoid of inherent strength a n d deficient in c o u r a g e . All of t h e m h a v e become m o r e or less Atheists. 3 5 . T h e e a r t h has lost all its essential j u i c e a n d h e r b a l products. It is b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e feeble a n d powerless. T h e sun has a d i m a n d grey d i s c ; t h e m o o n is bereft of its lustre. 3 6 . T h e fire-god is lacking in lustre, his form being adversely affected by wind a n d dust. T h e spaces of quarters, a r e not b r i g h t a n d t h e sky is not clear. 37. Devas a r e weak. T h e y a p p e a r entirely different. T h e three worlds including mobile a n d immobile beings a r e on the verge of r u i n . " Hayagriva said : 38. " E v e n as Brhaspati a n d M a h e n d r a were conversing thus, M a l a k a a n d o t h e r great Daityas a t t a c k e d Svargaloka (Heaven).


Lalitā-māh&tmya 9.39-50

1061

39. H a u g h t y on a c c o u n t of their physical strength, t h e y c h o p p e d off all trees in t h e whole of N a n d a n a park. T h e y h i t a n d b e a t t h e gardeners with different weapons. 40. T h e y smashed down t h e r a m p a r t wall a n d rushed i n t h e city. T h e y t h r a s h e d a n d t o r t u r e d t h e Suras staying in their palaces. 4 1 . Particularly, they a b d u c t e d t h e gem-like ( b e a u t i ­ ful) celestial Damsels. T h e r e u p o n , t h e Devas w h o were com­ pletely afflicted cried loudly. 42. On h e a r i n g such a noisy t u m u l t , Vāsava left his seat a n d b e g a n fleeing followed by all Devas. 4 3 . After r e a c h i n g t h e a b o d e of B r a h m a , V r s ā (i.e. I n d r a ) w i t h gloomy face recounted factually t h e entire activity of t h e D a i t y a s . 44. On h e a r i n g it, B r a h m a t h e creator of t h e worlds glanced a t H a r i h a y a ( I n d r a ) whose splendour a n d lustre h a d b e e n destroyed a n d w h o h a d b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d b y all Devas a n d said this to t h e m . 4 5 . " O I n d r a , d o seek refuge i n M u k u n d a along w i t h all Devas. T h a t destroyer o f D a i t y a s will b r i n g a b o u t y o u r welfare." 46. After saying this, B r a h m a himself, t h e g r a n d f a t h e r of t h e worlds, went to t h e ocean of M i l k a c c o m p a n i e d by h i m as well as Devas. 47. T h e n B r a h m a a n d o t h e r Devas eulogised L o r d J a n ā r d a n a , t h e great r u l e r of t h e worlds w i t h excellent words. 4 8 . T h e n t h e delighted lord Vāsudeva, t h e e t e r n a l l o r d w h o is eager to protect the universe, told Devas. Sri Bhagavān said : 49. " I shall perfectly b r i n g a b o u t a n increase i n y o u r case by m e a n s of my brilliance alone. W h a t is b e i n g suggested b y m e m a y b e carried out b y you all. 5 0 . Cast down i n t o t h e o c e a n of Milk all types of m e d i ­ cinal herbs. G e t i n t o a n alliance w i t h those Asuras a n d d o everything in collaboration w i t h t h e m .


Brahmānda Purāna

1062

1

5 1 . M a k e t h e M a n d a r a m o u n t a i n your c h u r n i n g r o d a n d V ā s u k i your c h u r n i n g r o p e . I shall stand n e a r to help you, O S u r a s . M a y t h e c h u r n i n g for t h e N e c t a r b e carried o u t . 52. All D ā n a v a s should be addressed in a concilia­ tory m a n n e r " O f course t h e benefit (of c h u r n i n g the ocean) is c o m m o n t o you a n d t o u s " . 5 3 . All of you will become strong a n d immortal by •drinking n e c t a r t h a t jvill come out when t h e ocean of milk is b e i n g c h u r n e d . 54. I shall m a n a g e everything in such a m a n n e r t h a t t h e D a i t y a s will only exert themselves b u t will n o t get any p a r t of Nectar". 55-56. All those Suras w h o were advised thus by •Śrīvāsudeva m a d e an alliance w i t h the Daityas of matchless power. T h e Suras and t h e Asuras b r o u g h t various kinds of herbs a n d cast t h e m i n t o t h e ocean o f Milk. T h e y m a d e t h e M a n d a r a m o u n t a i n which was spotlessly p u r e r t h a n t h e m o o n , their c h u r n i n g rod a n d Vāsuki t h e c h u r n i n g rope. W i t h very great effort they began to c h u r n t h e o c e a n . 57. T h e gods were allotted places near t h e tail of Vāsuki. T h e sons of D i t i were employed by Śauri ( V i s n u ) at t h e p o r t i o n of t h e h e a d . 58. Although t h e Daityas were very powerful, they b e c a m e pale a n d devoid of brilliance when their bodies were scorched a n d singed by t h e fiery breaths of t h a t ( s e r p e n t ) . 5 9 . T h e Suras w h o were pulling at t h e portion of the tail w e r e rendered robust a n d devoid of fatigue t h r o u g h a favour­ a b l e gust of wind i n d u c e d , b y Visnu. 6 0 . In t h e m i d d l e of the ocean of Milk, t h e exceedingly lustrous lord in t h e form of p r i m o r d i a l Tortoise b e c a m e t h e basis a n d support o f t h e M a n d a r a m o u n t a i n t h a t was r o t a t i n g therein. 1.

T h e story of c h u r n i n g the milk-ocean for nectar appears

Ādi. 18, V R I . 4 5 , Bh. P . V I I I 6 , 7

a n d other Purānas all

s u r a role o f V i s n u . T h i s P u r ā n a i s n o e x c e p t i o n a s 49r54.

can

in

b e seen from

T h e episode reflects against t h e greatness o f V i s n u .

Mbh.

affirming proVV.


Lalitā-māhātmya 9.61-71

1063

61. M ā d h a v a pulled Vāsuki speedily from t h e midst o f all Devas by assuming a separate form a n d from t h e midst of D a i t y a s by assuming a n o t h e r form. 62-65. In t h e form of B r a h m a (KSrma—Tortoise, in N) h e s u p p o r t e d the m o u n t a i n t h a t h a d occupied the ocean. I n a n o t h e r form, t h a t of the divine sage (i.e. N ā r ā y a n a ) , he enlivened Devas and rendered t h e m m o r e powerful a n d robust frequently w i t h great brilliance. By m e a n s of a n o t h e r splendour a n d r a d i a n c e t h a t c o u l d w i t h s t a n d use of force, t h e o m n i p o t e n t J a n ā r d a n a revived t h e serpent. W h e n t h e ocean of Milk continued to be c h u r n e d by t h e Devas a n d D ā n a v a s , S u r a b h i ( t h e D i v i n e Cow) , h o n o u r e d by the Suras c a m e up in front of t h e m . At t h a t time, O ascetic,, t h e Devas a n d Daityas a t t a i n e d great joy. 66-69. W h e n t h e o c e a n of Milk was once a g a i n c h u r n e d b y t h e Devas a n d D ā n a v a s , goddess V ā r u n ī w i t h t r e m u l o u s eyes on account of inebriety, rose up even as t h e S i d d h a s in t h e firmament b e g a n to t h i n k — " W h a t is t h i s " ? She smilingly stood in front of t h e Asuras. T h e Daityas did not accept her. Therefore, t h e y b e c a m e Asuras. T h e y were given the appellation Asura in t h e sense " T h o s e w h o d o not h a v e Surā ( l i q u o r ) " . 1 T h e r e u p o n , she stood in front of Devas. On t h e direction given by P a r a m e s t h i n ( B r a h m a ) Devas joyously accepted h e r . In view of the fact t h a t they accepted Surā, they b e c a m e glorified by the appellation S u r a . 70. W h e n the c h u r n i n g proceeded a h e a d , Pārijāta, t h e great tree, appeared in front of t h e m rendering t h e region a r o u n d fragrant by means of its sweet smell. 71. T h e intelligent groups of celestial damsels, of exces­ sively beautiful forms, O divine sage, a p p e a r e d in front of t h e m , captivating the minds of all people. 1.

A p o p u l a r e t y m o l o g y : A-sura

(Non-wine-imbibers). Originally

it is derived from ^as—'to t h r o w ' — w h o threw o u t g o d s . B u t in used with

V a r u n a and as

an adj.

( M W 1 2 1 - 1 ) . T h e A-sura is a

later

it

formation

s u c h P u r ā n a episodes a s i n V V . 6 6 - 6 9 .

Vedic

means 'divine', 'Supreme c o m e to

it is. Spirit'

be s u p p o r t e d

by-


Brahmānda Purāna

1064

72. T h e n t h e m o o n of cool rays rose u p . M a h e ś v a r a took it u p . T h e different kinds of poison rose u p . T h e species of N ā g a s accepted t h e m . 73. T h e n the g e m n a m e d K a u s t u b h a c a m e u p . J a n ā r ­ d a n a took it. Thereafter, t h e great medicinal herb n a m e d Vijayā ( H e m p ) , t h a t caused intoxication t h r o u g h t h e smell of its leaves, was b o r n . B h a i r a v a accepted it. 74. T h e n , dressed in divine robes lord D h a n v a n t a r i , himself stood up holding a pot filled w i t h N e c t a r in his h a n d . 75. T h e n , O storehouse of austerities, Devas, Daityas a n d sages all r o u n d b e c a m e delighted a n d c o n t e n t e d . 76. T h e n , from t h a t great ocean of Milk, goddess Śrī, t h e bestower of boons, c a m e up holding a lotus in h e r h a n d a n d seated in a full blown lotus. 77. T h e n w i t h a contented h e a r t , all sages eulogised t h e g r e a t goddess Srī by m e a n s of Srīsūkta*. T h e G a n d h a r v a s s a n g well. 78. All t h e groups of celestial damsels, t h e leader of w h o m was Viśvācī, d a n c e d . T h e G a ń g ā a n d other sacred rivers a p p r o a c h e d h e r for t h e purpose of h e r b a t h . 79. T a k i n g up t h e w a t e r kept in a sacrificial vessel (gold vessel in N . ) t h e eight elephants (supporters) of t h e quarters b a t h e d goddess Śrī occupying t h e lotus. 80. T h e ocean of Milk in an embodied form gave h e r a lotus g a r l a n d . T h e excellent a n d valuable Tulasī t h a t was b o r n t h e n identified itself w i t h H a r i . 8 1 . V i ś v a k a r m ā b e q u e a t h e d h e r all divine o r n a m e n t s . W e a r i n g divine g a r l a n d s a n d robes a n d a d o r n e d w i t h divine o r n a m e n t s , R a m ā proceeded towards t h e region of t h e chest of V i s n u even as all were w a t c h i n g h e r . 8 2 . Tulasī was h e l d by V i s n u of g r e a t potentiality. Goddess Laksmī w i t h t h e region of t h e chest of Visnu as h e r

*A supplementary

(kkila) Sūkta after R V . rv\ iv. 3 4 .


Lalitū-māhātmya 10.1-5

1065

a b o d e , t h e great goddess of all the worlds, looked at t h e Devas 1 w i t h eyes as if melting w i t h compassion.

CHAPTER TEN Manifestation of Mohini : Hayagriva said : 1. T h e n , on being accepted a n d assisted by lord Visnu of great might, t h e exceedingly courageous Devas w i t h M a h e n d r a ns their leader, b e c a m e highly delighted. 2. M a l a k a and other Daityas h a d become adversely disposed towards Visnu, so they were a b a n d o n e d by Śrī (the goddess of glory and f o r t u n e ) . H e n c e , they were extremely dejected. 3. So t h e Daityas snatched away t h e golden vessel t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e excellent essence of n e c t a r a n d t h a t h a d been held in his h a n d s by D h a n v a n t a r i . T h e r e a t a violent dispute arose between t h e Asuras a n d Devas. 4. In t h e m e a n t i m e , Visnu, the sole protector of all t h e worlds, earnestly p r o p i t i a t e d L a l i t ā 2 whose form was in u n i o n w i t h his own. 5. On seeing t h e dreadful battle between t h e Suras a n d Asuras, B r a h m a went back to his own region a n d Ś a m b h u r e m a i n e d in Kailāsa. 1.

T h e list o f ' J e w e l s ' t h a t were churned up

a n d their order of c o m i n g o u t differs in other

from

Purānas.

the For

milky

Bh. P. V I I I . 8 gives the following order a n d list of t h e 'jewels' : 1. (the divine c o w ) , 2. Uccaihśravas (a horse), 4.

Kaustubha

(a j e w e l ) ,

( D i v i n e damsels)

5.

7 . Laksmi

Pārijāta

3.

Airāvata

(poison

absorbed

by

6.

Apsaras

8 . V ā r u n i ( t h e wine-deity)

9. D h a n v a n t a r i ( w i t h a jar of A m r t a ) , the B h ā g a v a t a list d o e s Gandra, V i s a

the

Surabhi

(an elephant),

(a flowering t r e e ) ,

(a goddess),

ocean

example,

not

include

Nāgas) and Vijayā ( H e m p ) given in

o u r text. 2.

T h i s b e i n g t h e glorious story o f L a l i t ā , V i s n u

propitiated Lalitā t o assume P u r ā n a m e n t i o n s this.

is

shown

t h e e n c h a n t i n g form o f M o h i n i .

to

have

No

other


1066

Brahmānda Purān

6 . Vrsā ( I n d r a ) fought w i t h M a l a k a , t h e leader o f t h e Daityas. All t h e Suras fought w i t h Asuras. 7. T h e lord ( V i s n u ) , t h e leader of Yogins, p r o p i t i a t e d Māheśvarī. By m e d i t a t i n g solely on h e r , he became identical in form w i t h h e r . 8. She fascinated a n d e n c h a n t e d everyone. She was the very heroine i n c a r n a t e of the sentiment of love. She was richlyclad in a seductively c h a r m i n g dress a n d she was bedecked w i t h all o r n a m e n t s . 9. After stopping t h e terrific battle between t h e S u r a s a n d Asuras, she e n c h a n t e d t h e Daityas w i t h h e r smile a n d said : 10. " E n o u g h of fighting. Of w h a t avail a r e t h e weapons, t h a t t e a r a n d pierce t h e vulnerable points ? Of w h a t avail a r e vain a n d harsh utterances t h a t cause p a r c h e d t h r o a t s ? 11. I myself shall be t h e i m p a r t i a l M e d i a t o r between you a n d t h e heaven-dwellers. Both you a n d these Devas h a v e worked strenuously in this enterprise. 12. I shall distribute this wonderful n e c t a r equally a m o n g all of you. T h e excellent vessel of n e c t a r should be h a n d e d over t o m e " . 13. On h e a r i n g those words of hers, t h e Daityas were deluded by h e r utterances. Foolishly they gave t h e vessel of nectar to her. 14. T h a t lady of exquisite b e a u t y t h a t could fascinate the entire universe, m a d e separate rows of seats for t h e Suras a n d Asuras. 15. S t a n d i n g in between t h e two rows she spoke to t h e Suras a n d Asuras—"All of you be quiet. Everything will b e given b y m e i n d u e o r d e r " . 16. All of t h e m unanimously accepted h e r s t a t e m e n t . T h a t lady powerful e n o u g h to d e l u d e the entire world, began to d e s t r i b u t e . 17. She m a d e clinking sounds w i t h h e r golden ladle. T h e auspicious bangles jingled a n d tinkled. E q u i p p e d w i t h beautiful o r n a m e n t s , she shone like t h e m o s t exquisite of all fine arts.


Lalitā-māhātmya

10.18-29

1067

18. In h e r beautiful left h a n d t h a t resembled a lotus, t h e p o t of n e c t a r shone brilliantly. At t h e outset, she served t h e n e c t a r in t h e row of the Devas by means of her ladle. 19. Even as she was serving thus in d u e order, Sairŕihikeya ( R ā h u ) who was sitting in t h e middle (of t h e row of Devas) was pointed o u t to her by the m o o n a n d t h e sun. She cut h i m off with the h a n d holding t h e ladle. His h e a d a l o n e t h a t h a d consumed the n e c t a r went over to the sky. 20. Even after seeing it, t h e Asuras w h o were deluded r e m a i n e d quiet. In this m a n n e r , she distributed the entire q u a n t i t y of nectar a m o n g the Devas. She placed t h e vessel in front of the Asuras and vanished. 2 1 . On seeing the e m p t y vessel, all t h e Daityas a n d D ā n a v a s b e c a m e excessively furious. T h e y desired to fight t o o . 22. I n d r a a n d all o t h e r Suras h a d become stronger d u e to their imbibing the n e c t a r . W i t h their weapons they fought the weaker Asuras. 23. On being hit a n d pierced by t h e excellent S u r a s , h u n d r e d s of leading D ā n a v a s went to the ends of quarters a n d m a n y went to the P ā t ā l a . 24. T h e lord of t h e Devas w h o was glanced at (favour­ ably) by the goddess Śrī, conquered t h e D a i t y a n a m e d M a l a k a a n d got back his own glory. 25. After regaining his t h r o n e , M a h e n d r a , t h e c o n q u e r o r of demons, protected the t h r e e worlds as before, duly a t t e n d e d by the Suras. 26. As before, all t h e Devas r o a m e d a b o u t as they pleased w i t h o u t fear, in the three worlds consisting of mobile a n d i m ­ mobile beings. T h e y were delighted in their minds for ever. 27. After observing these activities of M o h i n ī , sage N ā r a d a , who was surprised very m u c h a n d w h o used t o m o v e a b o u t as he pleased, went to Kailāsa. 28. He was p e r m i t t e d by N a n d i n to go in. He bowed down t o P a r a m e ś v a r a (god Śiva). O n being d u l y received b y t h a t lord, he was gratified a n d he took his seat. 29. W h e n t h e sage w h o h a b i t u a l l y sported a b o u t as he pleased, was seated, t h e great lord, t h e consort of P ā r v a t ī , f a i r in complexion like crystal, asked h i m .


1068

Brahmānda Purāna

30. " O holy lord conversant with everything t h a t has taken place, O divine sage w h o have sanctified t h e seat you occupy, O sage fond of provoking quarrels, w h a t about the tidings there of the heaven-dwellers ? 3 1 . W h o has won, the p a r t y of Suras or t h a t of Asuras ? W h a t is t h e news regarding t h e N e c t a r ? W h a t is being d o n e by Visnu?" 32. On being asked thus by M a h e ś a , t h e excellent sage N ā r a d a who was extremely delighted a n d surprised spoke. Nārada said : 33. " O lord, you know everything because you a r e omniscient. Still, everything will be reported by me now, since I have been asked by you. 34. W h e n such a terrible battle took place between t h e Daityas and the heaven-dwellers, A d i n ā r ā y a n a of glorious brilliance assumed t h e form of M o h i n i . 35. O n seeing t h a t lady wearing grand splendid o r n a ­ m e n t s , t h e very e m b o d i m e n t of t h e sentiment of Love a n d R o m a n t i c feelings, t h e Suras a n d Asuras desisted from their active fighting. 36. T h e Daityas w h o were deluded b y h e r M ā y ā , were requested (to h a n d back) the vessel of n e c t a r . I m m e d i a t e l y they gave it to her a n d m a d e her t h e a r b i t r a t o r . 37. After receiving it with a c a p t i v a t i n g smile, t h a t goddess distributed t h e entire q u a n t i t y of n e c t a r a m o n g the Devas. 38. N o t being able to see her because she h a d vanished a n d finding t h e vessel (of n e c t a r ) e m p t y , t h e Daityas b e c a m e furious. T h e y with their faces blazing (flushed) with anger, rose once again to fight. 39. Since they h a d imbibed n e c t a r , t h e i m m o r t a l ones b e c a m e m o r e powerful w i t h excessive exploits. Defeated by t h e m a n d almost d e s t r o y e d b y t h e m , t h e g r e a t Daityas went down to Pātāla." 40-41. O n h e a r i n g a b o u t this episode, t h e i m m u t a b l e lord of Bhavānī h u r r i e d l y sent away N ā r a d a . Musing constantly o n w h a t h e ( N ā r a d a ) r e p o r t e d t o h i m a n d being wonderstruck, h e , a c c o m p a n i e d b y P ā r v a t i , b u t u n k n o w n t o all his atten-


Lalitā-māhātmya

10.42-52

1069

d a n t s ( P r a m a t h a s ) a n d (even) t o N a n d i n , S k a n d a a n d Vināyaka, a p p r o a c h e d Visnu. 42. On seeing Lord $iva a c c o m p a n i e d by his consort riding his vehicle (the bull) a r r i v e d at t h e shore of the (milky) o c e a n , Visnu got up from his seat, the body o* the serpent (Śesa) a n d c a m e over to h i m . 43-44. After getting down from his vehicle, ī ś a stood t h e r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y Pārvatī. O n seeing h i m Acyuta, Vistaraśravas, (i.e. Visnu) hastened to h i m . He received h i m d u l y w i t h m a t e r i a l s of welcome a n d worship. W i t h great joy a n d love, h e . e m b r a c e d the consort of Bhavāni very closely a n d asked h i m t h e purpose of his visit. 45-46. M ā h ā d e v a requested h i m — " Q lord P u r u s o t t a m a , O glorious L o r d a n d master of great Yogic p r a c t i c e , show me t h a t beautiful form of excellent magnificence, c h a r m i n g in every respect, which h a d b e e n assumed by y o u — t h e form t h a t bewitched a n d fascinated everyone, a n d which surpassed the power of the m i n d ( i m a g i n a t i o n ) a n d of speech ( b e i n g beyond description). 47. I wish to see t h a t form of yours which is t h e presiding deity of t h e sentiment of love. It should, by all means, be seen by m e . I n d e e d , you are like t h e divine cow t h a t yields everything t h a t is s o u g h t . " 48-49. O n being repeatedly requested thus b y M a h ā d e v a , H a r i t h e lord a n d master of g r e a t yogic practice, m e d i t a t e d with singleminded devotion o n t h a t (supreme d e i t y ) , b y m e d i t a t i n g on w h o m t h a t matchlessly miraculous form h a d been obtained by h i m ( b e f o r e ) . Smiling a little, he s a i d , — " B e it s o " a n d then vanished. 50. Śarva repeatedly sent his glances all r o u n d . T h e n he saw a beautiful g a r d e n in a c e r t a i n place, t h e like of which h a d never been seen before. 5 1 . T h e bees were d r i n k i n g honey a n d amusing t h e m ­ selves a m o n g rows a n d rows of full blown blossoms. T h e quarters were r e n d e r e d fragrant by t h e sweet smell from bunches of Campaka (Michelia Campaka) flowers. 52. Cuckoos were revelling a n d fluttering (by imbibing) t h e liquor-like n e c t a r from bunches of m a n g o blossoms. Peacocks


1070

Brahmānda Purāna

were engaged in d a n c i n g sports a m o n g s t u m p s of Aśoka trees. 5 3 . T h e h u m m i n g sound of the swarms of bees a p p e a r e d to be superior to the note of lutes. T h e g a r d e n shone brilliantly on a c c o u n t of Pātalī ( T r u m p e t flowers) red in colour a n d having excessive fragrance. 54. It h a d an elegant c h a r m with t h e clusters of t h e f l o w e r s o f T a m ā l a (xanthochymus p i c t o r i u s ) , T ā l a ( p a l m tree) a n d H i n t ā l a (Phoenix) a p p e a r i n g like a g a r l a n d . It was welldecorated by m e a n s of unsplit splendour a n d magnificence of lotus blossoms in t h e ponds along t h e b o r d e r s . 55. It a b o u n d e d in full blown flowers a n d beautiful sprouts moving gracefully in the gentle breeze. It was rendered fragrant by t h e continued flow of sweet smell of flowers t h e r e i n t h a t excelled even t h e flowers of heavenly tree S a n t ā n a . 56. A beautiful w o m a n was seen at t h e foot of a P ā r i j ā t a tree, there in t h a t g a r d e n full of flowers a n d pleasing to the minds of all p e o p l e . 57. She was reddish fair in complexion like t h e rising sun. She was p r o u d of h e r fresh youthfulness. (Defective t e x t ) . H e r feet, nails a n d lips were excellent and ruby-coloured. 58. By profuse application of the splendid red dye a n d lac, h e r feet were blood-red in colour. She was very c h a r m i n g w i t h lotus-like feet a d o r n e d w i t h anklets p r o d u c i n g sweet tinkling notes. 59. H e r shanks were c a p a b l e of suppressing t h e p r i d e of t h e quiver of t h e h e r o A n a ń g a ( L o r d of L o v e ) . She shone charmingly w i t h her thighs resembling t h e t r u n k of an e l e p h a n t as well as t h e stem of a p l a n t a i n tree in complexion ( a s well as s h a p e ) . 60. H e r excellent buttocks were covered with a soft glossy silk of very fine texture a n d pink colour. She was very b r i l l i a n t in a p p e a r a n c e w i t h big hips a n d loins. 6.1. A Golden girdle studded w i t h freshly cut r u b y stones heightened h e r b e a u t y . F r o m her navel of deep, depression resembling a d e e p e d d y , t h e beautiful lustre of h e r Trivali (skin in three folds considered to be a symbol of b e a u t y ) rose uplike waves.


Lalitā-māhātmya

1071

10.62-71

62- H u n d r e d s of pearl necklaces covered h e r breasts resembling buds about to burst open a n d moved a b o u t as if in swing. H e r frail waist was pressed down by her weighty and excessively p l u m p breasts. 63. She h a d arms tender like t h e Śirīsa (Acacia Sirissa) flowers. She was bedecked in bangles and bracelets. In h e r fingers she h a d rings. H e r neck was beautiful like t h e well polished conch-shell. 64-65. H e r chin was curved a n d shone like a m i r r o r . H e r lips were red in colour. H e r b r i g h t shining white teeth were set in beautiful rows. T h e y resembled the moon. T h e y h a d the lustre of j a s m i n e b u d . She appeared to reveal a n d r a d i a t e m o o n l i g h t . She shone with nose-rings 1 with big pearls. 66. H e r braid of hair tied up neatly a n d adorned with t h e i n n e r petals of K e t a k a flowers shone well. H e r eyes were long and fascinating. H e r forehead resembled half the disc of the M o o n . H e r beautiful forelocks were neatly arranged. 67. H e r ears were a d o r n e d with earings studded with rubies beautifying t h e tips of the ears. T h e betel leaf p r e p a r a ­ tion t h a t she was chewing was rendered fragrant by scented j u i c e , c a m p h o r a n d musk. 68. H e r face was as sweet as the disc of beautiful a u t u m n a l m o o n ; t h e m a r k o n h e r forehead m a d e o f Kastūrī (musk) shone gorgeously. She h a d beautiful tresses of h a i r thickly grown a n d bluish black in colour. 69-71. T h e saffron powder applied on t h e p a r t i n g line in the m i d d l e of t h e h e a d increased h e r lustre. H e r o r n a m e n t Uttamsa (a chaplet-like o r n a m e n t w o r n on t h e crown of the h e a d ) shone like the digit of t h e m o o n . H e r eyes were tremulous w i t h excessive r a p t u r e . She was in extremely r o m a n t i c a n d a m o r o u s guise bedecked in all sorts of o r n a m e n t s . On seeing t h a t lady engaged in playing w i t h her ball w i t h t h e jewels (jewelled o r n a m e n t s like bangles etc) swinging to a n d

1.

T h e m e n t i o n of nose-ring shows

must b e later t h a n the 10th cent. e v i d e n c e to prove t h i s ) .

Rock-cut

period d o n o t s h o w nose-rings.

that

this

work

(Lalitcpākhyina)

A . D . (P. K . G o d e h a d a d d u c e d a d e q u a t e temples a n d

frescos

of pre-10th

cent,


1072

Brahmānda Purāna

fro, Iśvara (Śiva) immediately left U m ā a n d r a n after t h a t lady. 72. O n seeing h e r beloved h u s b a n d r u n n i n g thus, U m ā was very m u c h shaken by surprise. She censured herself a n d her beauty, overwhelmed with s h a m e a n d envy, she stood there silently with t h e h e a d b e n t d o w n . 73. Śiva c a u g h t Jier somehow a n d e m b r a c e d h e r frequently. Shaking h i n i off repeatedly, she too r a n far away. 74. Seizing h e r once again, ī ś a who was completely u n d e r t h e influence of t h e god of Love embraced her impetu­ ously. His semen d r o p p e d d o w n t h e n . 75. M a h ā ś ā s t ā , t h e lord of great strength, was b o r n therefrom. He was c a p a b l e of dispelling t h e arrogance of m a n y crores of leading Daityas. 76. D u e to t h e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e d r o p s of t h a t semen, O suppressor of V i n d h y a m o u n t a i n , the e a r t h assumed t h e colour of silver a n d gold instantly at different places. 77. Similarly t h a t deity Viśvamohinī (the enchantress of t h e universe) vanished. T u r n i n g b a c k in t h e company of Gaurī, Giriśa (Śiva) too went to his m o u n t a i n . 78. I shall tell you a wonderful t h i n g , O h u s b a n d of Lopāmudrā.. Listen, this has been in my h e a r t . It has never b e e n revealed to a n y o n e . 79. Formerly, t h e r e was a d e m o n n a m e d B h a n d a s u r a . He was t h e leader of all Daityas. He h a d harassed Devas formerly in various ways as he pleased, since he was very clever. 80. F r o m his right shoulder he c r e a t e d a D a i t y a n a m e d Viśukra who was c a p a b l e of protecting his species. He was on a p a r w i t h Śukra a n d conversant w i t h all t h o u g h t s . 8 1 . He created Visāńga of defiled crest from his left shoulder. Bhanda, t h e D ā n a v a , created a sister too n a m e d Dūminī. 82. In t h e c o m p a n y of his brothers of fierce valour, this d e m o n killed all his enemies. W i t h increased heroism a n d prowess he hit a n d h u r t t h e entire cosmos. 83. O n seeing h i m enkindled i n spirit a n d splendour, B r a h m a , Visnu a n d M a h e ś a began t o f l e e immediately. T h e y stayed in their respective abodes p e r m a n e n t l y .


Lalitā-māhatmya

10.84—11.5

1073

84. At t h e very same time, stupefied on being thrashed by his arms, the groups of heaven-dwellers found themselves i n c a p a b l e of even b r e a t h i n g . 85-86. U t t e r l y bewildered a n d frightened some of t h e m hid themselves d e e p within the n e t h e r worlds; some in t h e waters of t h e o c e a n ; some in the corners of different quarters a n d some in bushes (on the tops) of m o u n t a i n s . T h e y a b a n d o n e d their wives, women-folk a n d children. T h e R b h u s (i.e. Devas) lost their offices of power. T h e y began to r o a m a b o u t in disguise. 87. B h a n d a considered everyone no better t h a n a b l a d e of grass—every one n a m e l y Yaksas, great serpents, Siddhas a n d Sādhyas, a l t h o u g h they were highly a r r o g a n t of their ability t o f i g h t . H e did not m i n d even B r a h m a , P a d m a n ā b h a (Visnu) a n d R u d r a as well as I n d r a , t h e wielder. of t h u n d e r b o l t . T h u s B h a n d a ruled over all the worlds. 88-90. It was to kill B h a n d a s u r a a n d to protect t h e t h r e e worlds, O sage, t h a t the third form (of t h e goddess.) rose up from the fire of great sacrifice. T h e y called t h e goddess of this form Lalitā a n d P a r ā d e v a t ā ( t h e s u p r e m e D e i t y ) . H e r four a r m s a r e a d o r n e d w i t h PSśa ( n o o s e ) , Ańkuśa ( g o a d ) , Dhanus ( b o w ) a n d the highest Śakti, having her form identical with the supreme B r a h m a n . A d e p t in c o n d u c t i n g warfare, s h e killed B h a n d a the leading D a i t y a in a b a t d e .

CHAPTER ELEVEN The Appearance of Demon Bhanda Agastya said : — 1. " H o w was B h a n d a s u r a b o r n ? H o w did T r i p u r ā m b i k ā originate ? H o w did she smash h i m in b a t t l e ? M e n t i o n everything i n d e t a i l ? " Hayagriva said : 2-5. After leaving Dāksāyanī a n d destroying h e r father's Y a j ñ a , Śiva b e c a m e engrossed in t h e Self, t h e essence of bliss


1074

Brahmānda Purāna

a n d knowledge, a n d observed his own spirit by means of his Self. He entered the region on the border of the H i m a v ā n on the banks of G a ń g ā , where he was attended u p o n by the sages. He b e c a m e characterised by the quality of being indif­ ferent to the m u t u a l l y opposed pairs (Dvandvas). T h a t lady of resolute determination propitiated Śañkara for a long time. After a b a n d o n i n g her body (i.e. as D ā k s ā y a n ī ) , she took rebirth as the d a u g h t e r of H i m a l a y a . 6. T h e lord cupid of m o u n t a i n s heard from N ā r a d a t h a t his d a u g h t e r h a d been R u d r ā n ī . H e n c e , he placed h e r n e a r Śiva for the sake of serving h i m . 7. In the m e a n t i m e , the Devas were harassed by T ā r a k a . 1 On being advised by god B r a h m a , they called cupid (the god of Love) a n d said thus : 8. " A t the beginning of the p e r i o d of creation, lord B r a h m a began procreating all subjects; But he never h a d pleasure or satisfaction in his m i n d . He performed penance for a long time mentally, verbally a n d physically. 9. T h e r e u p o n , the delighted Lord Visnu the bestower of boons u n t o all embodied beings a p p e a r e d there accom­ panied by-Laksmī. He asked B r a h m a to choose a n y boon as he liked. Brahma said : 10. "O lord, if you a r e pleased, let it be that I shall be able to create this entire universe consisting of mobile a n d immobile beings, without a n y strain. Let me be able to create, everything t h r o u g h your g r a c e " . 11. On being implored thus by B r a h m a , the lord glanced at Mahālaksmī. I n d e e d , it was at t h a t time that you manifested yourself, assuming a form t h a t could e n c h a n t the universe. 1.

An Asura chief. ( P E , p. 786) on the basis of s o m e Purānas s t a t e s

that he got a b o o n from Ś i v a 'that n o n e other

than

should be able to kill

( V V . 16-17)

him'.

O u r texi here

a

son

born

to

Śiva

attributes t h e

granting of the boon to g o d Brahma. Śiva w a s a w i d o w e r then and he be persuaded to marry to beget a son deputation of Cupid

the god

of Love

as narrated in t h e s u b s e q u e n t story.

for

killing

resulting

must '

Tārakāsura. H e n c e , in

Kama's

being

the

burnt


Laliti-māhātmya

11.12-24

1075

12. F o r serving you as weapons, t h e flower-arrows a n d t h e sugarcane bow were given to you. T h e delighted H a r i g r a n t e d you invincibility a n d t h e state of being always a Victor. 13. T h i s (Brahma) creates living beings t h r o u g h the cause i.e. one's own Karman (past a c t i o n ) , you shall be t h e witness t h r o u g h your own folk (aides). M a y y o u thus enjoy pleasure. 14. O Cupid, B r a h m a to whom boons h a v e been g r a n t e d , places the b u r d e n on you a n d realizes m e n t a l •satisfaction a n d remains care-free even today. 15-17. Y o u r strength a n d vigour will never be ineffective, your valorous exploit c a n never be futile. T h o u g h gentle a n d tender, your flowery weapons can never be in vain. T h e r e is a D ā n a v a n a m e d T ā r a k a to w h o m B r a h m a had g r a n t e d boons. He harasses all the worlds. Particularly he torments us. He has no cause to fear except from Siva's son. 18. Excepting you no one else can even say a n y t h i n g on this great task. This task can be achieved by you by means of your own h a n d s , a n d not through anyone else. 19. Accompanied by Gaurī, a n d surrounded by t h e sages, Śiva is n o w staying in the beautiful region of H i m ā c a l a . He is engrossed in the supreme Being. 20. U r g e h i m on to Gaurī. His son will t h e n be b o r n . Save us, O m i g h t y one, by performing this task t h a t can be easily a c c o m p l i s h e d . " 2 1 . O n being e n t r e a t e d b y the Devas thus, a n d being r e p e a t e d l y eulogised, the Cupid proceeded towards the ridge of t h e H i m a v ā n for the sake of his own destruction (as it h a p p e n e d later o n ) . 22. T h e lord of Love with his w e a p o n of flowery arrows raised, saw I ś ā n a seated there w i t h his eyes closed a n d engrossed in propitiating something. 2 3 . I n t h e m e a n t i m e the d a u g h t e r o f t h e H i m a v ā n , •equipped with wonderful personality c a m e t h e r e w i t h a desire to serve a n d p r o p i t i a t e Śiva. 24. T h e excessively powerful lord of Love, S m a r a saw -there, Girijā (Pārvatī) engaged in serving god Ś a m b h u after


1076

Brahminia

Purāna

a p p r o a c h i n g h i m with sweet scents, flowers a n d other materials of offerings. 25. Invisible to all living beings, he stood firmly not very far from h i m ( Ś i v a ) . W i t h his excellent flowery arrows he pierced M a h e ś v a r a . 26. On being hit by those arrows Siva b e c a m e one whose consciousness was completely p e r m e a t e d by t h e god of love. Forgetting all his duties, he glanced at G a u r ī , w h o was standing by h i m . 27. R e g a i n i n g his fortitude a n d m e n t a l steadiness, he b e g a n t o think w h a t i t was ( t h a t h a d upset h i m . ) T h e n h e saw in front of h i m the cupid, t h e lord of love, w i t h flowers for his w e a p o n standing in readiness to a t t a c k . 28. On seeing him, t h e trident-bearing lord Śiva wlm was c o m p e t e n t to b u r n t h e three worlds, opened his third eye a n d b u r n e d t h e shark-bannered lord C u p i d . 29. On being slighted thus by Śiva, d a u g h t e r of the m o u n t a i n b e c a m e dejected. Thereafter, w i t h t h e permission of h e r parents, she went to t h e forest for performing penance. 30. On seeing the ashes of the C u p i d , C i t r a k a r m ā , the lord of G a n a s , m a d e a m a n of wonderful form by m e a n s of those ashes. 3 1 . R u d r a saw in front of h i m t h a t person of wonderful form. Instantaneously he c a m e to life as t h o u g h K a m a h a d become embodied once a g a i n . He was excessively powerful a n d highly refulgent with the lustre e q u a l to t h a t of the m i d d a y sun. 32. C i t r a k a r m ā e m b r a c e d him joyously w i t h his arms a n d said, " O son, eulogise M a h ā d e v a . I n d e e d h e i s t h e bestower of achievement of all o b j e c t s . " 33. After saying this, t h a t person of immeasurable intellect t a u g h t h i m the M a n t r a Satarudriya. T h e boy bowed to R u d r a one h u n d r e d times repeating the Satarudriya. 34. T h e n t h e delighted lord M a h ā d e v a w i t h Bull as his b a n n e r , asked h i m t o choose a n y boon h e liked. T h e boy t h e n chose t h e b o o n .


Lalitā-māhālmya

11.35—12.5

10.77

35. " H a l f of the power of my antagonist will be u n i t e d w i t h my strength. Let my arrows make his i m p o r t a n t missiles a n d weapons f u t i l e . " 36. After promising h i m " B e it s o " a n d p o n d e r i n g over something, the lord g r a n t e d h i m t h e power to rule t h e k i n g d o m for sixty t h o u s a n d years. 37. O n observing this c o n d u c t t h e c r e a t o r said " B h a n d , b h a n d " 1 Therefore, h e i s being called B h a n d a i n worlds. 38. After g r a n t i n g this boon to h i m a n d bestowing on h i m missiles a n d weapons, t h e lord vanished t h e r e itself s u r r o u n d e d by all groups of sages (?)

CHAPTER TWELVE Manifestation

of Lalitā

Hayagriva said : 1. Since he ( B h a n d a ) was b o r n of t h e fire of a n g e r of R u d r a , t h e m i g h t y B h a n d a b e c a m e a D ā n a v a of dreadful nature. 2. T h e n Śukra, t h e extremely refulgent p r e c e p t o r of t h e Daityas, c a m e to h i m . H u n d r e d s of very powerful D a i t y a s too came to him. 3. U r g e d by t h e son of B h r g u ( i . e . Ś u k r a ) , B h a n d a called M a y a , t h e original architect a n d engineer a n d artisan o f t h e race o f Daityas, a n d spoke these meaningful words : — 4 . " I t was a t S o n i t a p u r a ' 2 t h a t all leading D a i t y a s stayed before a n d ruled t h e three worlds. G o t h e r e a n d re-build t h e city." 5 . O n h e a r i n g those words, t h e architect w e n t t o t h a t great city a n d by m e a n s of bis imaginative m i n d a n d p o w e r

1.

y/bhand—'to be fortunate'. Probably 'bhanditi' w a s a blessing.

2.

Although

Assamese

c l a i m Tejpur

as

ancient

c l a i m o f S o n i t a p u r a o n t h e bank o f K e d ā r - G a ñ g ā o r

Sonitapura,

Mandākini

about

m i l e s from U s ā m a f h i n K u m a u n appears m o r e a c c e p t a b l e — D e , p . 189.

the six


1078

Brahmānda Putāna

of vision, rebuilt t h e city to m a k e it resemble t h e Devas.

city of t h e

6. He ( B h a n d a ) was crowned by Śukra a n d the mighty Daityas. D u e to t h a t great glory, he shone w i t h great refulgence. 7. B h a n d a wore on his head the crown t h a t shone like t h e rising sun a n d t h a t was placed (on his h e a d ) by t h e son of Bhrgu. F o r m e r l y , it h a d been given to H i r a n y a - K a ś i p u b y B r a h m a . I t was lively and indestructible. I t h a d been w o r n b y m a n y D a i t y a rulers. 8. T w o lively C ā m a r a s (i.e. chowries) were used by h i m as his insignia. T h e y resembled t h e m o o n . T h e y h a d been m a d e by B r a h m a . N e i t h e r sickness nor miseries could assail one by resorting to t h e m . 9. He (Śukra) presented h i m an umbrella formerly m a d e by B r a h m a himself. People seated in its shade were never affected by even crores of missiles. 10. ( T h e p r e c e p t o r ) gave him a bow n a m e d Vijaya a n d a conch called ' t h e killer of enemies'. He gave h i m other very valuable o r n a m e n t s too. 11. H e presented h i m a n everlasting t h r o n e dazzling like t h e sun. Seated on t h e throne a n d bedecked in all o r n a m e n t s he b e c a m e magnificently brilliant like a gem t h a t h a d been whetted. 12. He h a d eight m i g h t y Daityas (as his assistants), viz.: Indraśatru, Amitraghna, V i d y u n m ā l i , Vibhīsana, U g r a k a r m ā , U g r a d h a n v ā , Vijaya a n d Śruti-Pāraga. 13. He h a d four beautiful K u m u d i n ī , Citrāńgx a n d Sundarī.

wives,

viz.:

Sumohinī,

14. All the Devas including Vāsava (Indra) who understood t h e (exigencies of t h e ) time served h i m . He h a d thousands of chariots, horses, elephants a n d foot-soldiers. 15. N o b l e ones w i t h huge bodies, they were very p r o u d •of their victory. All t h e D ā n a v a s followed the directives of the son of Bhrgu (i.e. Ś u k r a ) . 16. T h e y worshipped god M a h ā d e v a abiding by t h e injunctions (cult ?) of Śiva, T h e D ā n a v a s possessed sons, grand-


Lalitā-māhāimya

12.17-27

1079<

sons a n d a m p l e wealth. Yajñas were being performed all r o u n d in every household. 17. R g . , Yajus a n d S ā m a n M a n t r a s were frequently c h a n t e d in all the houses of Daityas. Mīmārhsā, N y ā y a a n d other systems of philosophy too were studied in every house. 18. T h e Devas accepted H a v y a offerings in the Yajñas of the Daityas too as in the case of i m p o r t a n t hermitages of sages a n d B r ā h m a n a s . 19. Even as B h a n d a carried on all these activities with great pride in his victory, sixty thousand years elapsed like half of a m o m e n t . 20-21. On seeing the D a i t y a increasing in power of p e n a n c e a n d physical strength a n d I n d r a deteriorating in prowess, the consort of K a m a l ā (i.e. V i s n u ) all on a sudden created a M ā y ā that e n c h a n t e d the worlds. J a n ā r d a n a , t h e lord of the Devas, told that M ā y ā : 22. " F a s c i n a t i n g a n d deluding all living beings by your own power do r o a m a b o u t as you please. No one will find you out. 23. G o hence immediately a n d e n c h a n t B h a n d a , the leader of Daityas. Ere long, you will enjoy all worldly p l e a s u r e s . " 24. After receiving this boon, Maya bowed to J a n ā r d a n a a n d requested for a few of the chief celestial damsels for assistance. 25. On being requested by her, the lord sent some celestial damsels. Accompanied by those ladies, chief of w h o m was Viśvācī, t h a t fawn-eyed lady (i.e. M ā y ā ) went to t h e excellent shore of M ā n a s a 1 lake where brilliant trees grew u p . 26. It was there t h a t the leader of the Daityas was sporting about in the company of his w o m e n . T h e r e , at t h e root of a C a m p a k a tree, the fawn-eyed w o m a n took up h e r residence a n d began to sing in sweet notes. 27. T h e n the leader of t h e Daityas c a m e there surrounded 1.

T h e purāna-writer h a d little

idea

M ā n a s a lake. It is a p o e t i c vision of t h e lake.

that there

are

no trees n e a r


1080

Brahmānda Purāna

by his m i g h t y ministers. He h e a r d the note of the lute a n d saw t h e excellent lady. 28. On seeing t h a t lady beautiful in every limb like a n o t h e r streak of lightning, he fell i n t o the deep abysm n a m e d C u p i d o f a n illusory n a t u r e . 29. His ministers too b e c a m e deeply affected by K a m a ( l o r d of Love) in t h e i r hearts. 30. On being requested continuously by the leader of Daityas a n d those (ministers also), the M ā y ā lady as well as h e r assistant damsels instantly promised t h e m a d e q u a t e pleasure. 3 1 . On a t t a i n i n g those ladies, the chief of w h o m was Mohinī, t h e y derived t h e greatest pleasure because (ordinarily) they could n o t be o b t a i n e d even by Aśvamedha a n d other great Yajñas. 32. T h e y forgot the Vedas a n d lord U m ā p a t i (Siva) too. T h e y forsook Yajñas a n d other auspicious rites. 3 3 . T h e i r priest too was struck down by contemptuous disregard. T h u s ten thousand years passed by as t h o u g h it were a m e r e M u h ū r t a ( 4 8 m i n u t e s ) . 34. W h e n t h e Daityas were thus deluded, O B r ā h m a n a , the Devas i n c l u d i n g Vāsava, became liberated from t o r m e n t . T h e y derived great pleasure. 35. O n c e , sage N ā r a d a c a m e there a n d saw Devendra seated in his throne a n d surrounded by all Devas. 36. After bowing d o w n to t h a t noble sage shining brillliantly like fire, t h e lord of Devas stood up in reverence with palms joined together a n d spoke these words : 37. "O holy lord, conversant with all sacred rites, the most excellent one a m o n g . those .who know the Para a n d Apara (the greatest thing a n d the lesser o n e s ) , you visit only such places as you wish to bless. 38. T h e cause of your arrival is t h e (future) of the splendid fortune in store for us. Listening to your nectar-like words very pleasant to the ears, O lord of sages, I shall cross all miseries a n d become blessed." Nārada said : 39. B h a n d a t h e leader of the Daityas

has

become


Lalita-māhātmya 12.40-50

1081

e n c h a n t e d by Visnu's M ā y ā . If liberated from h e r , he is likely to b u r n all t h e t h r e e worlds like a n o t h e r fire. 40. He is superior to you in regard to refulgence a n d power of magical delusion. It is necessary t h a t t h e refulgence of this super-strong D a i t y a should be removed. 4 1 . W i t h o u t propitiating goddess P a r a śakti, O Vāsava, it is impossible to achieve it by means of o t h e r types of austerities even in h u n d r e d s of crores of K a l p a s . 4 2 . P r i o r to the rise of the enemy, O ignorant one, p r o p i t i a t e t h e Deity. O n being p r o p i t i a t e d t h e goddess will b r i n g a b o u t your welfare." 43. O n being urged a n d enlightened thus b y him, Śakra, the lord of t h e groups of Devas, duly honoured t h e sage. Accompanied by all t h e Devas, he m a d e d u e prepa­ rations for p e n a n c e a n d went to the slopes of t h e H i m a v ā n . 44. Along with all the gods, he performed the great worship of P a r ā ś a k t i on the b a n k of BhāgīrathI t h a t was brilliant w i t h flowers in everyone of the seasons. Even since t h e n , t h a t place bestowing all sorts of accomplishments c a m e to be known by the n a m e I n d r a p r a s t h a . 1 45-46. In accordance with the procedure advised by the son of B r a h m a , they performed the excellent a n d great worship of the goddess. T h e y were engaged in Japa (repetition of t h e holy names a n d m a n t r a s ) and meditation. T h e y were steadfast in the severe p e n a n c e w i t h o u t t u r n i n g their m i n d or a t t e n t i o n to a n y t h i n g else. T h u s ten thousand years a n d ten days passed by. 47. On seeing the Asuras deluded, the highly intelli­ gent priest, t h e son of Bhrgu, approached B h a n d a s u r a a n d spoke thus. 48. " I t is relying on you alone, O leading king, t h a t the excellent Dānavas always sport a n d r o a m a b o u t as they please in t h r e e worlds without a n y fear. 49-50. H a r i always kills everyone belonging to your t r i b e . It was by h i m t h a t this M ā y ā was created whereby you

1.

T h i s is n o t t h e site of old D e l h i . T h e l o c a t i o n of this

is u n t r a c e d .

Indraprastha


1082

Brahm&nda Purāna

too have been deluded. On seeing you e n c h a n t e d a n d fascinated I n d r a , w h o is always eager to seek loopholes a n d v u l n e r a b l e points, is performing a great p e n a n c e to defeat you all. 5 1 . If the m o t h e r of the Universe is pleased t h e victory shall be his alone. A b a n d o n this lady created by M ā y ā . Go to t h e H i m a l a y a m o u n t a i n accompanied by y o u r ministers a n d create hindrances in the p e n a n c e of your e n e m i e s . " 52. On being told thus by his preceptor, t h e d e m o n B h a n d a left his excellent couch. Inviting t h e elderly ministers, he told t h e m everything as it h a d h a p p e n e d . 53-55. On hearing it a n d after critically examining it, Ś r u t a v a r m ā said to the king: " K i n g d o m was g r a n t e d to you by Śiva for a period of sixty thousand years. M o r e period t h a n t h a t , O heroic one, has passed by. It is impossible to redeem' t h e period g r a n t e d by Śiva. It is impossible to find a n o t h e r remedy for this w i t h o u t worshipping h i m ( Ś i v a ) . W h e t h e r it is misery or happiness, t h e result has to be experienced at t h e proper t i m e " . 56-57. T h e n t h e d e m o n n a m e d B h ī m a k a r m ā said, " T h e enemy should not be neglected. If obstacles are p u t in t h e holy rites of the e n e m y by us in accordance w i t h our power, t h e victory will be yours. T h e V i d y ā (magical a r t ) t h a t takes a w a y half the strength of the enemy in the b a t t l e has been g r a n t e d to you, O g r e a t king, by śiva himself. H e n c e , the victory will be your own, f o r e v e r " . 58. B h a n d a t h e leader of t h e D ā n a v a s agreed to his suggestion. Starting along w i t h the armies he w e n t to t h e vaHey of the H i m a v ā n . 59. On seeing D ā n a v a s eager to create obstacles in t h e p e n a n c e of god, the m o t h e r of the universe m a d e a huge lustrous r a m p a r t wall in front of t h e m t h a t could not be crossed. 60. On seeing it, t h e leading D ā n a v a was surprised a n d thought t h u s — " W h a t i s this?" T h e infuriated D ā n a v a t h e n shattered it with a very powerful missile. 6 1 . Again it a p p e a r e d in front of h i m , one t h a t could not be crossed by any of t h e D ā n a v a s . T h e bold d e m o n t h e n shattered it by m e a n s of the Vāyavya (having t h e wind as t h e presiding deity) missile a n d then roared.


Lalita-māhūtmya

12.62-74

1083

62. Again a n d a g a i n it was reduced to ashes a n d a g a i n a n d again it rose u p . T h e leader of the Daityas b e c a m e despondent on seeing this a n d went back to his city. 63. On seeing t h e M o t h e r of t h e Universe a n d noticing the lustrous r a m p a r t , t h e Devas trembled with fear a b a n d o n ­ i n g all their holy rites. 64. T h e r e u p o n , Ś a k r a said to t h e m — " I t was the leader of t h e Daityas w h o h a d come here. It is impossible to defeat h i m even if all of us join together. 65-66. Even if we flee, there is no place of refuge for us a n y w h e r e . H e n c e , we shall make a sacrificial pit one Yojana in b r e a d t h . Let it be splendid a n d d u g perfectly well. We shall prepare the sacrificial fire in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e injunction of a M a h ā y ā g a . O Suras, we shall then worship the greatest S a k t i by means of Mahāmāmsa (great flesh i.e. h u m a n flesh). 67. We shall become B r a h m a n or we will be able to enjoy h e a v e n . " On being told thus, the Devas with I n d r a as their leader duly performed H o m a by c h o p p i n g off t h e flesh to the c h a n t i n g of M a n t r a s . 68-69. W h e n all t h e flesh of t h e victim h a d been d r o p p e d into the holy fire including feet and h a n d s a n d w h e n Devas were desirous of offering the entire body, an excellent h u g e mass of brilliant lustre a p p e a r e d in front of t h e m . 70-73. F r o m its m i d d l e rose up a r a d i a n t circular halo of the shape of a wheel. T h e Devas including Vāsava saw M a h ā d e v ī in its m i d d l e . She h a d the lustre of t h e rising sun. She was t h e enlivener of the entire universe. She wast h e e m b o d i m e n t of B r a h m a , Visnu a n d Śiva. She was the. very limit of t h e essence of beauty. She a p p e a r e d to be the ocean of the juice of Bliss. She resembled the Japā ( C h i n a rose) flower. She wore robes of the colour of flowers of p o m e g r a n a t e . She was a d o r n e d by all kinds of ornaments. She was the very a b o d e of the sole sentiment of Love. W i t h the waves of gracious m e r c y wafting along t h e tips, h e r glancewas (as cool as) t h e moonlight. In her hands the noose, goad, sugarcane-bow with five arrows were shining. 74. On seeing the great goddess all Devas, including V ā s a v a ( I n d r a ) became delighted i n their minds a n d t h e y


1084

Brahmdnda Purāna

bowed down again a n d again to the goddess, t h e i m m a n e n t soul of e v e r y t h i n g . 75. On being glanced at by her, all of t h e m instantly b e c a m e liberated from ailments. T h e i r limbs b e c a m e tougher a n d stronger with the deficiencies remedied. T h e y b e c a m e mighty with a d a m a n t i n e bodies. T h e y eulogised t h e great goddess Ambikā, the bestower of all objects.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN A Hymn in Praise of Lalitā The Devas prayed i1 1. " B e victorious O goddess, the M o t h e r of the unTverśeT Be victorious, O goddess, greater t h a n the greatest. Bo victorious, O abode of weal a n d prosperity. Be victorious, O soul of t h e a r t of Love. 2. O K ā l ī of beautiful eyes; be victorious. O K ā m ā k s ī ( one of lovely a n d loveable eyes), O beautiful one, be victorious. Be victorious, O goddess w o r t h y of being propitiated by all t h e Suras. O Kāmeśī, goddess of love, bestower of h o n o u r , be victorious. 3. Be victorious, Q goddess, the e m b o d i m e n t of B r a h m a n , t h e soul of elegance a n d beauty of B r a h m a n , O N ā r ā y a n ī , O S u p r e m e one, be victorious, O goddess, t h e bestower of delight on all the worlds. 1.

T h e use of a string or series of epithets as a prayer of

as old as the Yajurveda in the 'Black' portion of w h i c h (Tai. Sara. IV.5.) a n d in the

'White'

portion

a deity

the Sata-rudriya

(Vāj.

Ch. 1 8 ) . T h e tradition was continued i n Purānas a n d w e h a v e ' a epithets o f V i s n u ' in the M b h . A n u . ch. 149.

is

we h a v e Rudrādhyāya

Here though

not

Sam.

thousand

a thousand

n a m e s , we h a v e a series of epithets glorifying Lalitā a n d hailing h e r

victory

and e q u a t i n g h e r w i t h the A l m i g h t y o r P a r a b r a h m a n ( V V 1-29). T h e r e is a separate sahasra-nāma of Lalitā with an erudic c o m m e n t a r y of Bhāskara-rāya alias Bhāsurānanda.


Lalitā-mihātmya

13.4-13

1085

4. Be victorious, O beloved of Srīkantha ( Ś i v a ) . Be victorious, O M o t h e r Śrīlalitā. Be victorious, O goddess, t h e c o n q u e r o r of glory, O bestower of a b u n d a n t riches a n d prosperity of victory. 5. Obeisance to t h e Cause of t h a t which is born a n d is yet to be born, Cause of I s t ā p ū r t a (holy a n d c h a r i t a b l e r i t e s ) , Obeisance to t h a t protectress of t h r e e worlds, O goddess w h o a r t greater t h a n t h e greatest. 6. H a i l to t h e goddess identical w i t h (all units of time such as) K a l ā m u h ū r t a , K ā s t h ā , days, m o n t h s , seasons a n d ' years. O b e i s a n c e to t h e goddess w i t h t h o u s a n d h e a d s ; 1 O goddess w i t h t h o u s a n d eyes a n d faces. 7. Bow to you a p p e a r i n g splendid with a thousand lotus-like h a n d s a n d feet, O goddess, m i n u t e r t h a n Atom, greater t h a n t h e greatest. 8. O m o t h e r w h o a r t greater t h a n t h e greatest, m o r e brilliant t h a n t h e most brilliant, the (nether-world) A t a l a ' constitutes your feet a n d V i t a l a , your knees. 9. R a s ā t a l a is t h e region of your waist. D h a r a n i ( E a r t h ) is your belly. Bhuvarloka is your h e a r t a n d t h e world Svar ( h e a v e n ) is your face. 10. T h e M o o n , Sun a n d Fire a r e your eyes, O A m b i k ā a n d t h e q u a r t e r s ( c a r d i n a l points) a r e your a r m s . T h e winds a r e your breaths a n d t h e V e d a s your,words. 11. Creation a n d formation of t h e worlds is your sport. Siva, t h e very e m b o d i m e n t of Cit ( S u p r e m e Consciousness) is o u r c o m p a n i o n ; t h e Bliss of t h e Sat (Existent, S u p r e m e Being). is your diet a n d your residence is in t h e hearts of good p e o p l e . 12. T h e Bhuvanas (Worlds) constitute your forms visible as well as invisible. T h e clouds a r e your tresses a n d the stars your flowers. 13. Dharma etc. a r e your a r m s . Adharma e t c . constitute your weapons. Tamas a n d Niyamas constitute t h e nails of y o u r h a n d s a n d feet.

1.

H e r e L a l i t ā is e q u a t e d w i t h P u r u s a in Purusa-Sūkta

2.

V V . 8-10 describe h o w

t h e different worlds — t h e

a n d t h e higher worlds constitute the b o d y of Lalitā.

(RV.X.90), nether-worlds


1086

Brahminda Purina

14. T h e utterances of Svāhā a n d Svadhā t h a t enliven t h e worlds constitute your breasts. T h e PrSnāyāma (Breath-control) is your nose a n d Sarasvati (the goddess of speech) your t o n g u e . 15. T h e Pratyāhāra rite is your sense-organs a n d m e d i t a t i o n is the excellent intellect. T h e power of Dhāranā is your m i n d a n d state of t r a n c e is your h e a r t . 16. T h e trees are the h a i r on your body. T h e d a w n is your robe. T h e past, present a n d future constitute y o u r physical form. 17. T h e m o t h e r of the universe is Tajñarūpā (whose form constitutes the Tajña), Viśvarūpa ( h a v i n g the universe for h e r form) a n d the sanctifier of all. It is she w h o , d u e to h e r mercy a n d kindness, creates at the outset t h e entire subjects. 18-19. T h o u g h she abides in the h e a r t of all, she is. invisible to the worlds. She is of t h e n a t u r e of fascination. It is she who, out of h e r sports, creates distinctions between names a n d forms. She stays presiding over t h e m b u t is n o t a t t a c h e d to t h e m . She is the bestower of w e a l t h a n d love. Obeisance t o t h a t g r e a t goddess. R e p e a t e d obeisance t o t h e o m n i p o t e n t goddess. 20. Obeisance, obeisance to t h a t great goddess at whose behest fire, sun, m o o n a n d winds function a n d so do a l s o t h e elements b e g i n n i n g w i t h the e a r t h . 2 1 . R e p e a t e d obeisance t o t h a t goddess who, a t t h e beginning of t h e (period of) creation, created B r a h m a , the primordial creator, t h e first bestower of plenty a n d w h o sustained h i m herself single-handed. 22. Obeisance, obeisance t o t h a t goddess b y w h o m t h e e a r t h is held u p , w h o is incomprehensible a n d immeasurable too, by w h o m t h e E t h e r is supported a n d in w h o m the s u n rises. 23. Obeisance, obeisance to t h a t goddess where the entire universe takes its origin, where it rests soundly a n d wherein at t h e p r o p e r time it gets merged. 24. Obeisance, Obeisance to you of the Rajas, n a t u r e as the origin. Obeisance, obeisance to you of t h e Sattva n a t u r e for t h e sustenance. Obeisance, obeisance to you of t h e Tamas n a t u r e as the destroyer. Obeisance, obeisance to you of t h e n a t u r e of Śiva w h e n devoid of G u n a s .


1087

13.25-32

Lalitā-mihatmya

2 5 . Obeisance, obeisance to" you, w h o a r e the sole m o t h e r of the universe. Obeisance, obeisance to you the sole father of the universe. Obeisance, obeisance to you, identical w i t h all forms a n d Tantras ( R i t u a l s a n d rites). Obeisance, obeisance to you, O goddess in the form of all Tantras ( Talismans a n d mystical d i a g r a m s . 26. O b e i s a n c e , obeisance to you, O chief p r e c e p t o r u n t o t h e worlds. R e p e a t e d obeisance to you, to t h e m a g n i ­ ficence of all types of utterances. Obeisance to Laksmī, t h e sole goddess of pleasure. Obeisance, obeisance to the o m n i p o t e n t one, O consort of god Ś a m b h u . 27. O m o t h e r , h o w c a n I describe y o u r excellent prowess a n d influence. It is w i t h o u t beginning, m i d d l e or e n d . It is not constituted of five elements. It c a n n o t be expressed by words or c o m p r e h e n d e d by mind. I t s magnificence a n d p o w e r c a n n o t be inferred. It is formless. It is w i t h o u t Dvandvas ( m u t u a l l y opposed p a i r s ) . It c a n n o t be perceived by t h e eyes. 28. Be gracious u n t o us, O goddess of t h e universe. Be pleased, O goddess saluted by t h e universe. Be pleased, O goddess of learning, of t h e form of t h e Vedas. Be pleased, O M ā y ā m a y ī ( o n e e q u i p p e d w i t h t h e magical power of d e l u s i o n ) , O Mantravigrahā ( w h o a r e t h e e m b o d i m e n t of M a n t r a s ) . Be pleased, O goddess of everything, O O m n i f o r m e d o n e . " 29. After eulogising the great goddess t h u s , all Devas including Vāsava ( I n d r a ) bowed d o w n t o h e r a g a i n a n d a g a i n a n d h u r r i e d l y sought refuge in h e r . 30. On seeing Vāsava bowing d o w n , t h a t goddess b e c a m e delighted. T h e bestower of boons on all embodied souls she asked h i m to request for a n y b o o n he liked. Indra requested : 3 1 . " ( D e f e c t i v e T e x t ) O goddess of welfare, if you a r e pleased, save o u r lives. We h a v e a p p r o a c h e d you seeking refuge. D u e to t h e h a r a s s m e n t of D a i t y a king, our life has become unbearable." Śrldevi replied : 32.

"I

shall myself defeat

Bhanda, b o r a of

Daitya


Brahmānda Purina

1088

r a c e . I shall eagerly g r a n t you t h r e e worlds including t h e mobile a n d immobile beings. 33-36. Let all t h e groups of Devas be joyous a n d free from fear. T h e m e n w h o eulogise me devoutly by m e a n s of this h y m n shall be blessed w i t h virtue, glory a n d fame for ever. T h e y will be richly endowed w i t h learning a n d humility. T h e y will have long life free from sickness. D u e to my blessing, let t h e m be endowed w i t h sons, friends a n d wives." O b t a i n i n g t h e b o o n t h u s , Devas as well as D e v e n d r a of g r e a t strength a t t a i n e d the greatest pleasure, on looking at her frequently.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN Manifestation of Kameśvara1 Hayagriva said : 1. At t h e same time, B r a h m a , t h e grandfather of worlds, desirous of seeing t h e goddess of Devas, c a m e there along with great sages.* 2. T h e n t h e r e arrived Visnu seated on t h e son of V i n a t a (i.e. G a r u d a ) . Śiva too, seated on his Bull, c a m e there to see t h e universal goddess. 3. N ā r a d a a n d o t h e r celestial sages c a m e in a g r o u p to t h e supreme Goddess. T h e n c a m e t h e groups of celestial damsels to see t h a t great Deity. 1. The Agamas regard 'Parama-Śiva* and his Śakti (Potency) called Lalitā here as superior to the trinity of the lower grade viz. Brahma, Visnu and Śiva. From philosophical standpoint there is no difference between Power and Master of the Power (Śakti and Śaktimān). When the Supreme Power (Pari Śakti) Lalitā is born, her consort (the Śaktimān) Parama Śiva must manifest. Here he has done so and is designated as Kāmeśvara due to his most beautiful form. 2. W. 1-8 tell us that Lalitā is a Supreme Deity, all lesser gods, divinities, Siddhis etc. come to pay obeisance to her.


Lalitā-māhātmya 14.4-15

1089

4-8. Viśvāvasu a n d other G a n d h a r v a s as well as Yaksas c a m e there. T h e n , o n being c o m m a n d e d b y B r a h m a , Viśvakarmā, the lord, built a divine city t h e r e o n a p a r with ( A m a r ā v a t i ) . t h e city of t h e i m m o r t a l ones. T h e n t h e goddess D u r g ā , the presiding deity of all M a n t r a s , a n d S y ā m ā t h e presiding deity of all lores, approach­ ed A m b i k ā . B r ā h m ī a n d other (divine) m o t h e r s c a m e there surround­ ed by their respective groups of goblins. Animā a n d o t h e r Siddhis (spiritual achievements) a n d crores of Yoginīs c a m e there; Bhairavas, Ksetrapālas, Mahāśāstā the leader of the Ganas ( g r o u p s of a t t e n d a n t s ) , M a h ā g a n e ś v a r a (i.e. V i n ā y a k a ) , S k a n d a , Batuka a n d V ī r a b h a d r a c a m e there a n d they bowed to the g r e a t goddess a n d eulogised h e r . 9-13. T h e city was beautiful w i t h its r a m p a r t s , a r c h e d gateways a n d multistoreyed buildings. It h a d big stables, pens e t c . to house horses, elephants a n d chariots. It looked splendid with m a n y r o y a l ' pathways a n d roads. T h e r e ' were c h a r m i n g abodes of S ā m a n t a s (barons a n d lords), ministers, twice-born castes, Vetālas, man-servants a n d maid-servants. T h e centrally situated royal p a l a c e was divine a n d was b e a u t i ­ f i e d with gateways a n d minarets. I t h a d m a n y halls. I t was rendered splendid by means of Assembly c h a m b e r s . T h e r e was a great hall of thrones. It was studded w i t h t h e nine kinds of precious stones a n d i t a p p e a r e d bright a n d beautiful. I n t h e middle there was a divine t h r o n e m a d e of G i n t ā m a n i (wishyielding) stone. It was self-luminous, unparalleled a n d similar to t h e rising sun. After scrutinizing all these, B r a h m a t h e g r a n d f a t h e r of t h e worlds, t h o u g h t thus : 14. " E v e n if he h a p p e n s to be ignorant a n d puerile, t h e person w h o presides over this city shall excel t h e worlds, d u e to the power a n d influence of this city. 15. A w o m a n alone does n o t deserve to rule over a k i n g d o m . A m a n too without a w o m a n (does n o t so deserve i t ) . T h e Śruti says t h a t one should c r o w n a m a n w h o has the characteristics of a great person, who has an auspicious precep­ tor a n d w h o is united in wedlock to a w o m a n w h o is agree­ able a n d suitable to h i m .


1090

Brahmānda Purāna

16. This lady shines like t h e e m b o d i m e n t of presiding deity of the sentiment of love. Excepting Ś a ń k a r a , no one else in t h e three worlds can be her bridegroom. 17-20. He has m a t t e d hairs and wears a garland of skulls. He has an uneven three n u m b e r s of eyes a n d holds a skull in his h a n d . T h o u g h fair in complexion he is of stained (black) neck. He smears ashes all over his body. Bones from the c r e m a t i o n ground constitute his jewels. Will t h a t extremely auspicious lady choose h i m who is the a b o d e of everything inauspicious ? " Even as god B r a h m a was thinking thus, M a h e ś v a r a (Śiva) appeared in front of h i m assuming a form t h a t fascinated t h e whole universe. He h a d a divine personality endowed with h a n d s o m e features of ten million K a n d a r p a s ( G o d of Love) i.e. he was ten million times m o r e beautiful t h a n K a n d a r p a ) , dressed in divine robes, a n d wore divine garlands a n d was be­ smeared with heavenly scents a n d unguents. He was a d o r n e d w i t h crown, necklaces, bracelets, earrings etc. He thus a p p e a r ­ ed in front of B r a h m a , assuming a form fascinating the world. 2 1 . B r a h m a , t h e grandfather of the worlds, embraced t h a t youthful h e r o h a v i n g a c h a r m i n g body a n d n a m e d h i m Kāmeśvara. 22. C o m i n g to t h e decision, " T h i s is a befitting bride­ groom for t h a t supreme Ś a k t i . " all of t h e m went to her accompanied b y h i m . 2 3 . B r a h m a , Visnu a n d M a h e ś v a r a eulogised P a r ā Śakti. On seeing t h a t fawn-eyed goddess t h e youthful Nīlalohita (Siva) b e c a m e overwhelmed with love a n d forgot his activities. 24-25. On seeing h i m w h o a p p e a r e d like S m a r a (god of Love) w h o h a d regained his physical body, t h a t lady of tender form was also overpowered by the god of love. She considered h i m (entirely) befitting herself. Being excited a n d afflicted by love, b o t h of t h e m eagerly gazed at e a c h o t h e r . Though l e a r n e d a n d self-controlled a n d specially conversant with all emotional feelings they behaved in a m a n n e r t h a t t h e i r conduct was n o t c o m p r e h e n d e d b y others. T h e y were a g i t a t e d a n d u n h a p p y in their m i n d s for a short while.


Lalitā-māhitmya

14.26—15.4

1091

26-29. T h e n B r a h m a spoke to t h e great goddess, t h e sole heroine ( r u l e r ) of t h e world : — " T h e s e Devas, sages a n d g r o u p s of G a n d h a r v a s a n d Apsarases wish to see you the goddess in t h e battlefield along w i t h your beloved h u s b a n d , O Goddess who is befitting a n d loveable to you ? W h o is t h a t blessed m a n ? F o r the p u r p o s e of protecting the worlds resort to t h e supreme P u r u s a . Be t h e queen of this city. Be installed in this excellent t h r o n e . You will be ceremoniously crowned by the exalted, sinless divine sages. We wish to see you seated in t h e t h r o n e along w i t h y o u r .husband. We wish to see you e q u i p p e d w i t h the emblems a n d insignia of imperial power, bedecked in all jewels.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN Festivities in Honour of the Marriage of Lalitā with KūmeSvara Hayagriva continued : 1. On h e a r i n g those words, t h e goddess with a t e n d e r smile over h e r lotus-like face spoke to t h e Suras, t h e leaders a m o n g w h o m were B r a h m a a n d Visnu. 2 . " O Devas, I a m always i n d e p e n d e n t . M y c o n d u c t o f life a n d my sports a n d pastimes a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h my own wishes a n d whims. My h u s b a n d shall be one whose c o n d u c t of life is befitting m i n e . " 3. After p r o m i s i n g — " L e t it be s o " along with all Devas, P i t ā m a h a (grandfather i.e. B r a h m a ) spoke to t h e great goddess, t h e following words c o n t a i n i n g D h a r m a a n d A r t h a ( t w o goals in l i f e ) . 4. " T h e m a r r i a g e between a w o m a n a n d a m a n is of four types. 1 1.

V V . 4-7 s h o w a

later

development,

m a r r i a g e of the Smrti P e r i o d [are n o t Kilakriti e t c . are also different.

mentioned

as all t h e e i g h t forms and

terms

used such

of as


1092

Brahmānda Purāna ( i ) Bought (i.e. contracted) for a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d (Kālakritā). (ii) Bought as a slave (Krayakrita) (iii) Given in m a r r i a g e by the parents (Pitrdattā). (iv) J o i n e d ( m a r r i e d ) of h e r own will (as in a LoveG a n d h a r v a - m a r r i a g e ) — (Svayamyutā).

5. It is a h a r l o t who is called Kālakritā (Bought for a fixed p e r i o d ) . T h e slave will be K r a y a k r i t a (Bought for a p r i c e ) . T h e Tuktā (she w h o is j o i n e d ) shall be o n e w h o is m a r r i e d according t o t h e G a n d h a r v a rite (i.e. when t h e w o m a n a n d m a n love e a c h other spontaneously). It is the Bhāryā (wedded wife) w h o is given in m a r r i a g e by the father. 6-7. T h e Yuktā will have c o m m o n characteristics ( w i t h her M a n ) . T h e Bhāryā would have been u n d e r the control o f her father. It is from t h e non-dualistic supreme B r a h m a n which is devoid of t h e state of being existent or non-existent a n d which is of t h e n a t u r e of Cit (Consciousness) of Ānanda (Bliss), t h a t Prakrti was b o r n . You were t h a t B r a h m a n a n d you alone were that Prakrti. 8. You are beginningless i m m a n e n c e in everything. You a r e of the n a t u r e of Kārya (effect) a n d Karana ( c a u s e ) . It is you w h o m S a n a k a a n d o t h e r Yogins seek. 9. T h e y praise you alone as the five-formed B r a h m a n (Pañcabrahma-Svarūpini) namely you are Sadrūpā (having the form of the E x i s t e n t ) , Asadrūpā (having the form of the non­ existent) , Karmarūpā ( h a v i n g the form of K a r m a n ) , Vyaktodayātmikā (of the n a t u r e of manifest o u t c o m e ) a n d Avyaktodayātmikā (of the n a t u r e of unmanifest o u t c o m e ) . 10. You alone create the universe at the outset. You alone protect it instantly. Resort to some P u r u s a with a desire to bless the w o r l d . " 11. On being entreated thus by B r a h m a a n d all Suras, the Goddess lifted up a garland a n d hurled it on to the sky w i t h h e r h a n d . 12. T h e g a r l a n d ' h u r l e d by h e r rendered t h e region of the firmament splendid a n d fell down on t h e neck of Kāmeśvara.


1093

Lalitā-māhūtmya 15.13-22

13. T h e n t h e Devas beginning w i t h B r a h t n ā a n d V i s n u rejoiced. On being wafted by gentle breezes, t h e clouds m a d e showers of flowers. 14. T h e n B r a h m a said t o Lord J a n ā r d a n a — " O H a r i , t h e m a r r i a g e of these two Blessed ones should be performed in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e religious injunctions. 15-18. T h e auspicious h o u r o b t a i n e d by t h e Devas is conducive to the welfare of the entire universe. T h e great goddess is similar in form to you. F u r t h e r , you are her b r o t h e r . It behoves you to give this auspicious lady to K ā m a ś i v a " . O n h e a r i n g his words, T r i v i k r a m a ( V i s n u ) t h e lord o f Devas affectionately gave her in m a r r i a g e to Ś a ñ k a r a in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e injunction. T h e Primordial lord Adikeśava ( V i s n u ) celebrated t h e auspicious ( m a r i t a l ) function of Śiva a n d Ś i v ā * , formally by offering w a t e r ( t o i n d i c a t e the Kanyādāna) in t h e presence of chief ones a m o n g gods, sages a n d pitrs as well as of G a n d h a r vas, celestial damsels a n d of all tribes of Devas. B r a h m a a n d t h e Suras offered t h e m presents : 19. B r a h m a gave t h e m , a sugarcane bow of imperishable n a t u r e a n d a d a m a n t i n e strength. H a r i . gave t h e m t h e i m m u t ­ able a n d unfading f l o w e r y weapon ( a r r o w s ) . 20. V a r u n a the lord of a q u a t i c beings gave t h e m Nigapāśa ( t h e serpentine noose). Viśvakarmā, the lord of subjects gave t h e m goad. 1

2 1 . Agni ( t h e f i r e - g o d ) gave a crown. T h e M o o n a n d t h e S u n gave t h e m two large ear-rings. T h e R a t n ā k a r a ( O c e a n god) himself gave an o r n a m e n t fully studded w i t h the n i n e precious stones. 22. T h e ruler of Suras gave t h e m an everlasting honey-vessel. T h e n K u b e r a gave a necklace full of C i n t ā m a n i s (Philosopher's stones). •Our text is cryptic, N. reads : divaTfi-pitr-mukhyānām Gandharvipsarasārh tathā / Sarvāsām dtva-jātSnām sānnidhye jala-pūrvakam jj X . 1 8 T h i s reading is a c c e p t e d in translation here. 1.

T h i s is beautifully represented in o n e of the

panels

T e m p l e , M a d u r a i . T h e r e the g o d i s called S u n d a r e ś v a r a ( Ś i v a ) .

in

Mināksi


1094

Brahmānd* Purāna

23. T h e consort of Laksmī (Visnu) gave t h e m an u m b r e l l a t h a t was an insignia of imperial power. T h e rivers G a ń g ā a n d Y a m u n a gave t h e m two chowries shining brilliantly like t h e m o o n . 24. T h e eight Vasus, R u d r a s , Adityas, Aśvinīdevas, guardians of t h e quarters, M a r u t s , Sādhyas, G a n d h a r v a s a n d t h e lords o f P r a m a t h a s were delighted a n d they presented t h e m their respective w e a p o n s . 25. T h e y gave t h e m chariots, horses, a n d elephants of g r e a t velocity a n d strength, camels free from sickness, a n d horses devoid of h u n g e r a n d thirst. T h e y gave t h e m (such a n i m a l s ) of a d a m a n t i n e shape a n d strength along with weapons a n d o t h e r requisites. 26-27. T h e n they m a d e elaborate a r r a n g e m e n t s for t h e auspicious imperial coronation of Śiva and śivā.1 B r a h m a t h e n m a d e a n aerial chariot n a m e d K u s u m ā k a r a . I t h a d never-fading f l o w e r garlands. I t was i m p r e g n a b l e t o w e a p o n s . It could go as it pleased in heaven, in firmament or over the l a n d . It was richly furnished. 2 8 . Its fragrance was pleasing to the m i n d , a n d very auspicious. Merely by inhaling it, delusion, sickness, h u n g e r a n d agony would perish instantaneously. 29-32. H e seated t h a t divine couple i n t h a t aerial c h a r i o t w h i c h was r e n d e r e d c h a r m i n g by m e a n s of chowries, fans, umbrellas a n d f l a g s t a f f ' s . T h e goddess went o u t of t h e royal p a l a c e , being served eagerly by the groups of Suras w i t h t h e sounds of musical i n s t r u m e n t s of different kinds such as lute, flute, d r u m e t c . By m e a n s of h e r own brilliance t h e goddess, desirous of sports, brightened t h e streets along which she passed. T h o u s a n d s of celestial damsels a n d other y o u n g ladies stood on t h e tops of every m a n s i o n with the Lāj&s (fried grains) a n d Aksatas ( u n ­ b r o k e n rice grains) in their h a n d s a n d showered t h e goddess with them. She slowly w e n t r o u n d t h e different streets delighted with vocal songs a n d notes of lutes, flutes etc. for the sake of auspi­ cious purposes. 1. VV. 26-54 describe the coronation of Lalitā and K&meśvara.


Lalitā-māh&tmya

15.33-46

1095-

33. After getting d o w n from t h e excellent a e r i a l chariot she accepted the N ī r ā j a n a rites (i.e. ceremonial waving of t h e lights) performed by the celestial damsels and e n t e r e d t h e great Assembly c h a m b e r . 34. Accompanied by Ś a m b h u , she occupied t h e t h r o n e . Omniscient t h a t she was, she understood what the noble people assembled there desired m e n t a l l y . W i t h the cast of her b e n i g n g l a n c e , she fulfilled all those desires. 35. On observing this activity of t h e goddess, B r a h m a t h e g r a n d f a t h e r of t h e worlds gave her t h e epithets of K ā m ā k s ī and Kāmeśvarī. 36. At her. bidding, a miraculous cloud showered on t h a t city excessively valuable articles and divine o r n a m e n t s . 37. In every house of the city of t h e goddess, C i n t ā m a n i (Philosopher's s t o n e ) , Kalpa (desire-yielding t r e e ) , K a m a l ā (Goddess Laksmī) a n d K ā m a d h e n u s (wish-yielding cows) stood for t h e purpose of t h e victory of t h e goddess. 38-42. (All the citizens) were equipped w i t h all desir­ able objects. T h e y were delighted forever. L e a v i n g off all other activities a n d qualities, they a t t e n d e d u p o n t h e goddess to w h o m their service appealed m u c h . B r a h m a , H a r i , M a h ā d e v a , Vāsava ( I n d r a ) , all other lords of the c a r d i n a l points, all the groups of Devas, N ā r a d a a n d o t h e r celestial sages,, S a n a k a a n d other Yogins, M a n u and other g r e a t sages, Vasistha a n d o t h e r ascetics, G a n d h a r v a s , Apsarasas, Yaksas a n d all o t h e r communities of demi-gods as well as all those people w h o used to live in Heaven, Earth and Firmament without suffering obstacles a n d difficulties—all of t h e m began to live in t h a t city w i t h o u t a n y h i n d r a n c e or suffering 43-45. T h e goddess who loved all of t h e m did n o t go away anywhere else from t h e people. W i t h g r e a t love she delighted t h e m always. In the great earthly world of t h e scholar­ ly king, t h e q u e e n was liked by all. She milked (i.e. bestowed) everything desired by the residents of t h e e n t i r e face of t h e e a r t h . T h u s K ā m a ś a ń k a r a accompanied by Ambikā ruled as t h e sole e m p e r o r of t h e t h r e e worlds for ten t h o u s a n d years w h i c h passed by like a m o m e n t . 4 6 . Thereafter once, the holy lord, sage N ā r a d a c a m e


1096

Brahminda Purāna

there, bowed down to t h e S u p r e m e Power (Para Sakti) and submitted humbly. 47. " O great goddess, you a r e t h e s u p r e m e B r a h m a n , you a r e t h e highest majestic lustre; you constitute the concepts like sad-bhāva (existence), a s a d b h ā v a ( n o n - e x i s t e n c e ) , alterna­ tive ideas a n d comprehensions. 4 8 . It is for t h e prosperity of t h e Universe t h a t you h a v e manifested yourself. All your activity O K a l y a n i (Auspicious D e i t y ) is for t h e protection of the good, for t h e destruction of t h e wicked a n d for of t h e prosperity of good people. 49. T h i s d e m o n B h a n d a , O goddess, harasses t h e t h r e e worlds. He c a n be s u b d u e d by you a l o n e . It is impossible for all o t h e r gods. 50. T h e gods h a v e stayed h e r e for a long t i m e engaged in serving you. At y o u r behest, they will go to their respective cities. 5 1 . W h a t e v e r h a d been inauspicious a n d void h i t h e r t o — m a y t h a t be full of affluence a n d r i c h n e s s . " O n being requested a n d r e m i n d e d thus b y N ā r a d a , t h e goddess despatched t h e i m m o r t a l ones to their respective abodes a n d regions. 52. After h o n o u r i n g t h e m duly, A m b i k ā despatched B r a h m a , H a r i , Ś a m b h u , Vāsava a n d other lords o f c a r d i n a l points. 53. Although they were allowed to go, t h e Suras thought t h a t it was an offence to a b a n d o n completely. T h e y continued to serve Śiva a n d Sivā t h e primordial p a r e n t s . T h e y served t h e m b y means o f their p a r t s ( a n d p a r t i a l i n c a r n a t i o n s ) . 54. T h i s n a r r a t i v e is conducive to longevity. It is t h e cause of all auspicious t h i n g s — t h e n a r r a t i v e of manifestation of M a h ā d e v ī a n d h e r coronation. 55. T h e scholar w h o gets u p early i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d recites this w i t h faith a n d devotion shall b e c o m e increasingly r i c h a n d one endowed with the power of speech flowing like nectar. 56. N o t h i n g inauspicious c a n befall t h a t intelligent one. He will a t t a i n immense glory as well as equality a n d even superiority over o t h e r s .


Lalitā-mOhātmya

1097

15.57—16.6

5 7 . His prosperity a n d magnificence shall be unshakea b l e . At every step he will have welfare. He will never h a v e a n y t h i n g to fear. He shall be brilliant a n d vigorous. 58-59. He will be free from sufferings of three kinds. He will be filled with Purusārthas (the objectives of h u m a n b e i n g s ) . H e w h o meditates o n the goddess (seated) o n t h e t h r o n e , everyday d u r i n g the three Sandhy&s (dawn, dusk a n d n o o n ) , shall b e c o m e t h e most excellent o n e a m o n g J ā p a k a s (who perform J a p a or repetition of holy names e t c . ) . W i t h i n six m o n t h s he will a t t a i n g r e a t fortune.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN March of Victory along with the army Hayagriva continued : 1. " T h e n Lalitā, t h e great goddess, the m o t h e r of worlds, set o u t in order to conquer B h a n d a D a i t y a , a t h o r n u n t o t h e three worlds. 2. She g a t h e r e d together the seven oceans in the form of a Mardala ( d r u m ) . T h e soldiers filled the sky with tremendously loud sound of the d r u m . 3-6. M a n y other instruments equally p r o d u c e d loud reports. T h e y were of different types of d r u m s 1 viz. Mrdañgas, Murajas, Pafaka, Dhakkā (A double d r u m ) , Lińganas (?) Selukas, Cymbals like J h a l l a r ī s a n d Rūndhas*, small d r u m s of different shapes like Huiukas ( d r u m s p r o d u c i n g Huauk s o u n d ) , Hunxjukas, Ghafas, big d r u m s like Ānakas, Panavas, Gomukhas, Ardhacandrikās, 1.

V V . 3-6 g i v e a ist of musical instruments of the m e d i a e v a l period.

M a n y of these are seen in the frescos and panels

of cave-temple

Ellora, etc. O u t of these Nihsāna is a Sanskritisation of a Persian

at

Ajanta,

word.

In

Marathi historical records they are c a l l e d ' N i ś ā n ' . •Here N. reads Jhattari-sañgha—A group

of

cymbals.

carszrītālas of the types of Lińgya and Alińgya*—N. X I . 5 .

'Jhariharas

and


Brahmānda Purāna

1098

Tavamadhyas, Musfimadhyas, Mardalas, Dindimas, J h a r j h a r a s , Bharitas, those of t h e types of Lińgyas a n d Ālińgyas, Uddhakas, Etadan4as, JVihsānas, Barbaras, Humkāras, Kākaturtdas a n d other instruments of music. W h e n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n for the battle started these musical instruments were sounded by the soldiers of Śakti. 7. A deity n a m e d S a m p a t k a r ī rose out of the goad, a missile of L a l i t ā P a r a m e ś ā n ī . She moved on along w i t h t h e o t h e r Śaktis. 8. Sampadlśvarī (i.e. deity S a m p a t k a r ī ) was reddish in colour like t h e m i d d a y sun. She was served by m a n y crores of rows of elephants, horses a n d chariots. 9. She m o u n t e d an elephant n a m e d K a n a k o l ā h a l a . It, was in a state of excitement, huge in size like a m o u n t a i n . It a p p e a r e d to relish a fierce b a t t l e . 10. A great a r m y shouting fiercely followed her, hitting the thick clouds by the fluttering clusters of b a n n e r s a n d emblems. 11. T h e horripilation o f t h a t deity S a m p a n n ā t h ā , h e m ­ m e d firmly within h e r stout breasts, shone like her desire within h e r h e a r t for an elaborate p r e p a r a t i o n for war. 12. A v i b r a n t thin-bladed sword held in her h a n d shone dreadfully like the terrifying knitting of eyebrows of K ā l a nātha (God of death). 13. Excellent elephants, crores a n d crores in n u m b e r , followed h e r like h u g e m o u n t a i n s blown by the portentous whirl-winds. 14. T h e n ( t h e d e i t y ) Atitvaritavikrānti1 ( E x t r e m a l y speedy like Horse g a U ° P ) b o r n of the lustrous weapon, noose of goddess Śrī L a l i t ā moved a h e a d , steated on a horse. 15. Along w i t h her, an a r m y consisting mainly of horses moved a h e a d digging a n d tearing the surface of the ground by means of their hoofs as though by means of hoes. T h e i r neighing sound reverberated. 1,

T h e goddess in c h a r g e of cavalry ( o f w o m e n , as these are śaktis)

is significantly gallop".

named

*'(a

śakti c a p a b l e of)

extremely

speedy horse-


LaUtū-tnāhālmya 16.16-28

1099

16-22. Different kinds of well-bred horses having various 1 auspicious marks followed her. T h e y were (designated accord­ ing to their land such as) Vanāyujas, K ā m b o j a s , P ā r a d a s , Sindhudeśajas, T a ñ k a n a s , Parvatīyas (of m o u n t a i n o u s regions), Pārasīkas, G h a t t a d h a r a s (of great stirring ability), D a r a d a s , Kālavandijas, Vālmikodbhūtas, Y ā v a n o d b h ū t a s a n d G ā n d h a r vas. T h e r e were horses of eastern territories, K a i r ā t a s , those, b o r n of frontier lands etc. T h e y were well trained. T h e y used to b e a r t h e riders properly. T h e y had good speed. T h e y were of steady minds. T h e y could particularly c o m p r e h e n d t h e m i n d s of their masters. T h e y could withstand the rigours of great battles. T h e y h a d m a n y good characteristics. T h e y h a d control over anger a n d fatigue. T h e y had been trained well in the five different kinds of p a c e s * . T h e y were modest. T h e y could gallop well. T h e y h a d the auspicious marks ( b y means of curly hairs e t c . ) such as Phalaśukti, Śvelafukti, Devapadma (Divine l o t u s ) , Devamani (Divinegem),Devasvastika (Divinesymbol of svastika), Svastikaśukti, Gadura (a kind of humplike bend) a n d Puspagandiki (smooth a n d flowery n e c k ) . T h e horses had all these auspi­ cious marks a n d characteristics t h a t could bestow victory a n d k i n g d o m . T h e y h a d the velocity of the w i n d . 23-28. T h e great goddess rode on a horse n a m e d Aparājita. It was exceedingly refulgent a n d it moved (fast). It h a d tall ( a n d stately) figure. T h e bridle glistened in its m o u t h . Thick clusters of manes fell on either side a n d shone. It used to shake its bushy tail w h e n t h e clouds were scattered all r o u n d . It shone brilliantly with t h e jewels a n d tinkling bells tied to its shanks. It a p p e a r e d to produce loud sounds of musical i n s t r u ­ ments by fiercely stamping the ground w i t h its hoofs. In o r d e r to achieve increasing victory, it a p p e a r e d to sound the musical i n s t r u m e n t viz. the E a r t h l y zone. Very frequently, it exhibited different kinds of ( t r o t t i n g a n d galloping) movements. W h e n the chowries shook on either side, it a p p e a r e d to possess wings. too. Its trappings a n d harness were very pleasant a n d fascinating.. Clusters of bells a d o r n e d it beautifully. T h e sound of these 1.

V V . 16-22

enumerate

the- different breeds

of horses

a n d the-

r e g i o n s from w h i c h they c a m e . •Such as ĀskaruKta etc, see Mallinātha's c o m m . on

SiiupAlaoadha—V.60.


1100

Brahmānda Purāna

bells a n d trappings a p p e a r e d to be its Humkāra (a roar of defiance) against t h e Asuras. T h e great goddess m o u n t e d this horse a n d proceeded a h e a d . 29. W i t h h e r four h a n d s she held t h e noose, t h e goad, t h e cane a n d t h e bridle of t h e horse. H e r exploits shone splendidly. 30. S h e resembled t h e m i d d a y sun with blazing splendour of t h e girdle spreading everywhere. Seated on t h e horse, she moved u p a n d down a s though causing t h e horse t o d a n c e . 3 1 . T h e loud sound of t h e W a r - d r u m s of Ś r ī d a n d a n ā t h ā ( t h e lady in c o m m a n d of t h e horse A r m y or cavalry) at the^ time of setting out, resembled the r u m b l i n g sound of t h e agitat­ ed sea a n d deafened t h e e n t i r e universe. 32. A few Śaktis rose up w i t h a r m s wonderfully h a r d as rocks. T h e y pierced t h e t e n quarters with terrible a d a m a n t i n e arrows. 33. A few fierce Śaktis of Ś r ī d a n d a n ā t h ā kept w a t c h over the v a n g u a r d o f t h e a r m y (of Ś r ī d a n d a n ā t h ā ) . W i t h swords a n d shields they leapt a n d s p r a n g a b o u t . 34. Śaktis with canes in their h a n d s tossed a n d struck t h e m h u n d r e d s of times to avoid t h e j a m m i n g of soldiers. T h e y moved a b o u t h e r e a n d t h e r e . 35. T h e Śaktis m o v e d in front holding aloft tall b a n n e r s a n d flags m a r k e d w i t h pictures of buffaloes, d e e r a n d lions. 36. T h o u s a n d s of Śaktis held t h e w h i t e u m b r e l l a of Śrī D a n d a n ā t h ā with t h e i r lustrous hands a n d moved a h e a d .

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN 1 The March of the Army of Śyāmalā Hayagriva said : 1. " A t the time w h e n D a n d a n ā t h ā set out, t h e sky shone as t h o u g h a d o r n e d w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e moons, d u e to t h e n u m e r o u s umbrellas of white lustre. 1. It is not understood w h y our text has m o r e t h a n t w o separate c h a p t e r s for describing t h e m a r c h o f Lalitā's army. T h e text N . i n o n e ( l 1th) •chapter has described the m a r c h of the total a r m y in 108 verses.


Lalita-m&h&tmya 17.2-12

1101

2 . T h e darkness t h a t g a t h e r e d together densely u n d e r the white umbrellas r u b b i n g a n d clashing against .one another, b e c a m e dispelled by the lustre of jewels fitted to their handles. 3. In the a r m y of K r o d a m u k h ī (Boarfaced Ś a k t i ) , h u n d r e d varieties of Tālavrntas (fans m a d e of palm-leaves) proceeded a h e a d enveloping the faces of q u a r t e r s , by means of t h e blazing lustre of d i a m o n d s (set in the fans). 4-5. T h e dreadful (Bhairavas) such as C a n d a - d a n d a a n d others proceeded a h e a d r u n n i n g in the V a n g u a r d of the a r m y of D a n d a n ā t h ā . T h e y h a d tridents in their h a n d s . T h e i r tawnycoloured m a t t e d hair rendered the quarters brightly illuminated as though, by means of lightning. By the fiery flames of their arrows, they wished to b u r n the hosts of Daityas. 6-8a. M a n y soldiers w i t h the faces of Boars p r o c e e d e d a h e a d . T h e y h a d t h e same size, s h a p e a n d o r n a m e n t s as the goddess Potrīmukhī (Boarfaced). In their h a n d s t h e y h a d the s a m e weapons as those of hers. T h e i r vehicles too were the same. F r o m their s h a r p curved t e e t h smoke a n d flames of fire issued forth covering up the whole of t h e sky. T h e y w e r e d a r k in com­ plexion like the T a m ā l a tree ( x a n t h o c h y m u s p i c t o r i u s ) . T h e y were tawny-coloured a n d h a d eyes of ruthless features. T h e y r o d e on thousands of buffaloes. 8b-12. After getting d o w n from the excellent c h a r i o t (drawn by) a g r o u p of elephants, Śrī D a n d a n ā t h ā "(DandaN ā y i k ā ) m o u n t e d a g r e a t lion, her own vehicle, well known by t h e n a m e Vajraghosa. It shook the thick cluster of its manes. It kept its m o u t h wide o p e n . I t h a d hideous features a n d large eyes. T h e q u a r t e r s were deafened by m e a n s of harsh sound p r o d u c e d by t h e gnashing of its curved teeth. It a p p e a r e d to g r i n d * the terrestrial sphere by m e a n s of its claws w h i c h were as h a r d as skulls a n d t h e o u t e r shell of the p r i m o r d i a l Tortoise a n d w h i c h sank d o w n as far as t h e P ā t ā l a . It was three Yojanas in height. It shook its tail to a n d fro w i t h g r e a t rapidity. •Our text reads

(pibantam b u t

N.

reads piksantam

formation from Pkt. Piftha. T h e root is untraced in M W .

probably

a back-


1102

Brahmānda Purāna

D a n d a n ā y i k ā m o u n t e d this leonine vehicle and m a r c h e d ahead. 13. As she betook herself to the task of slaying the Asuras with blazing fire of fury, the three worlds including the mobile a n d immobile beings, experienced excessive excitement a n d alarm. 14-15. Frightened in their hearts, all the groups of heaven-dwellers in t h e firmament t h o u g h t t h u s — " W i l l this Potrinī (Boar-faced deity) b u r n down now itself the entire universe by means of h e r fiery anger ? Will she split the e a r t h into two by striking it with her c l u b ? Or will she agitate a n d stir up the oceans by means of her w e a p o n plough. 16. T h e y fled far off hurriedly a n d in great fear a n d saw the goddess. W i t h their palms joined in reverence t h e Devas m a d e obeisance to her by r e p e a t i n g the twelve n a m e s a n d glorifying h e r in the firmament." Agastya said : 17. "O holy lord H a y a g r i v a , of excessive intelligence, w h a t are the twelve names of t h a t deity ? Tell m e . I am extremely eager t o h e a r t h e m . " Hayagriva said : 18-20. " L i s t e n to t h e twelve n a m e s of t h a t goddess, O p o t b o r n sage, on h e a r i n g which she will become pleased. T h e y a r e Pañcamī, D a n d a n ā t h ā , Sañketā, Samayeśvarī, Samayasańketā Vārāhī, Potrinī, Vārtālī, M a h ā s e n ā , Ajñā, Cakreśvarī a n d Arighnī. These a r e the twelve names mentioned by me O sage. If a m a n stays within the a d a m a n t i n e cage of twelve names, he will n e v e r meet w i t h misery in difficult situations. 2 1 . By means of these n a m e s Devas stationed in the firmament eulogised Sańketā m a n y times. For the purpose of blessing t h e m , she moved a h e a d once a g a i n . 22. T h e n t h e sounds'of t r u m p e t s were h e a r d in the firma­ m e n t indicating t h e starting of Sañketayogini w h o touched the feet of M a n t r a n ā t h ā . 2 3 . T h e n m a r c h e d out t h e a r m y o f Śaktis w h o mostly h a d t h e o r n a m e n t s expressive of t h e s e n t i m e n t of Love, w h o


Lalitā-mAhātmya 17.24-37

1103

were of dark complexion like tigresses a n d w h o held Vīnās in their h a n d s . 24-26. Some began to d a n c e a n d sing with the sweet notes of excited cuckoo. Some played on musical instruments such as lutes, flutes a n d d r u m s . T h e i r paces were regular a n d graceful. T h e dark-complexioned Śaktis moved a h e a d delighting the people of the entire universe. Some rode on peacocks. A few h a d swans as their vehicles. Some rode on mongooses. A few seated themselves on cuckoos. Some were stationed in covered palanquins. All of t h e m were of d a r k complexioned features. 27. Some rode on horses. Some were intoxicated by h o n e y from K a d a m b a ( C u r c u m a Aromatica) flowers; keeping M a n t r a n ā t h ā at the head, they moved a h e a d . 28-31. M a n t r a n ā y i k ā of dark complexion like the cloud, passed t h r o u g h these a n d other Śaktis. She was seated in a great chariot fitted with lofty flagstaff's. H e r a r m o u r h a d the colour of the rising sun. Pride and inebriation h a d m a d e her eyes roving. Small drops of sweat h a d m a d e her lotus-like face c h a r m i n g . H e r eyebrows a p p e a r e d to d a n c e gracefully as she repeatedly glanced at the entire a r m y of Śaktis, t h a t was excessively elated a n d h a u g h t y . A triangular umbrella m a d e of peacock feathers rose high above her proclaiming (her impor­ t a n c e ). A m o n g t h e m , o t h e r Śaktis d i d not have any scope of rising up glittering a n d refulgent. 32. T h e heaven-dwellers eulogised her by means of sixteen names. O Pot-born sage, listen to those sixteen names. 33-35. Sańgitayoginī, Śyāmalā, M a n t r a n ā y i k ā , M a n t r i n ī , Saciveśl, Pradhāneśī, Śukapriyā, Vināvatī, Vainikl, M u d r i n ī , Priyakapriyā, Nīpapriyā, K a d a m b e ś ī , K a d a m b a v a n a v ā s i n ī a n d S a d ā m a d ā . These are the sixteen names; O Pot-born sage. If a n y embodied person eulogises Saciveśānī even for once by means of these names, the entire u n i t of the three worlds will u n d o u b t e d l y stay in his control. 36. Wherever M a n t r i n ā t h ā casts h e r glance, the a r m y of enemies will readily a n d u n d o u b t e d l y fall down there. 37. As long as there is the discourse on the kingdom of L a l i t ā p a r a m e ś ā n ī a n d on t h e Śaktis as well, t h a t will be t h e bestower of victory everywhere.


1104

Brahmānda Purina

38. F r o m t h e y o u n g p a r r o t held in t h e h a n d of Sańgītayoginī, D h a n u r v e d a (Science of archery) issued forth holding up a bow kept in readiness. 39. T h e h e r o possessed four a r m s , three heads a n d three eyes. He devoutly bowed down to Pradhāneśī a n d spoke thus. 40. O goddess M a n t r i n ā y i k ā , you a r e p r e p a r i n g for t h e fight with B h a n d a , t h e leader of t h e Asuras. H e n c e , I should render all assistance to you. 4 1 . O m o t h e r of all worlds, this g r e a t bow is known by the n a m e of Citrajīva. It is c o m p e t e n t to e x t e r m i n a t e all D ā n a v a s . Accept it. 42. H e r e are two quivers with everlasting supply of arrows. T h e y a r e wonderfully embellished with gold. Accept t h e m for j h e purpose of destroying Daityas as well as for blessing me." 4 3 . After saying this, D h a n u r v e d a devoutly b e n t down his h e a d a n d h a n d e d over t h e bow a n d quivers which Priyakapriyā accepted. 44. T a k i n g up t h e great bow Citrajīva, (the great goddess) Śukapriyā played on t h e string repeatedly a n d produced a twanging sound. 4 5 . T h e universe was filled with t h e twanging sound of the bow of Sańgītayoginī along with t h e fulfilment of m e n t a l a n d visual delight of t h e heaven-dwellers. 46. She h a d two a t t e n d a n t s n a m e d Yantrinī a n d T a n t r i n ī . H o l d i n g t h e p a r r o t a n d t h e lute, they a t t e n d e d u p o n h e r instantaneously. 47. H o l d i n g t h e exceedingly c h a r m i n g bow, G h a n a ś y ā m ā ( t h e deity of cloud-like d a r k c o m p l e x i o n ) p r o d u c e d t h e twang­ ing sound on its string increasing its loudness with the tinkling sound of h e r bangles moving to a n d fro. 4 8 . Gītayoginī embellished with t h e bow Citrajīva shone like a row of clouds with t h e clusters of K a d a m b a flowers for u m b r e l l a a n d bow. 49. An a r r o w shone in h e r right h a n d . It was as s h a r p as t h e piercing glance of K ā l ī . It was as dreadful as a dancing serpent.


Lalitā-māhātmya

17.50—18.5

1105

50-51. W h e n the goddess seated herself in t h e chariot i t h wheels worthy of being sung a b o u t , (a n u m b e r of o t h e r deities) served h e r from behind. Those goddesses too h a d d a r k splendour like her. T h e y held arrows a n d bows. T h e i r number, r a n u p t o a t h o u s a n d Aksauhinīs. T h e y h a d great velocity b u t were languid with intoxication. W i t h their r u m b l i n g a n d rustl­ ing sound, they filled all q u a r t e r s . w

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN The Victorious March of the Army of Lalitā Parameśvari 1-12.

L a l i t ā moved a h e a d with the intention of w a g i n g

war. 1. She was assisted by R ā j a n ā y i k ā . T h e goad (in h e r h a n d ) blazed forth., She held a noose which a p p e a r e d like a serpent. H e r bangles m a d e a pleasing tinkling sound as she held t h e sugarcane bow a n d a set of five flowery arrows, shining brightly. 2. She scattered a cascade of r a d i a n c e from her person in all directions. It was m o r e dazzlingly red t h a n a t h o u s a n d suns. R a d i a t i n g t h e lustre of h e r face in all directions, she m a d e t h e sky a p p e a r as t h o u g h filled w i t h m o o n s . 3. She was r a d i a n t with t h e circular white umbrella (held above her) w h i c h gained t h e friendship of t h e sphere of t h e m o o n ( i . e . resembled i t ) . I t (the u m b r e l l a ) h a d a n extent of ten Yojanas w h i c h pervaded t h e t h r e e worlds a n d w h i c h Was studded with spotlessly p u r e white pearls. 4. She was fanned by t h e groups of female a t t e n d a n t s t h e chief of w h o m were Vijaya a n d others,, with a set of four Cāmaras (Chowries) t h a t was rendered splendid by m e a n s of jewels a n d precious stones a n d t h a t was as lovely as t h e cluster of lotuses or t h e spreading waves of lustre of fresh moonlight. 5. She was e n d o w e d w i t h a spodessly p u r e refulgence. She i n d i c a t e d h e r sole suzerainty by m e a n s of h e r Śakti (power, w e a p o n j a v e l i n ) . All t h e sections of h e r a r m y were embellished


1106

Brahmānda Purāna

b y m e a n s o f h u n d r e d s o f imperial insignia. H e r W e a l t h a n d g r a n d e u r were b e i n g eulogised by t h e vocal as well as instru­ m e n t a l music of the celestial deities. 6-8. She (justifiably) assumed and a d o p t e d t h e h o n o u r a n d pride of the imperial wealth t h a t filled up the cavities of t h e three worlds with troops of Śaktis (the various deities assisting goddess). T h e p r i d e could not be expressed in words, n o r could it be c o m p r e h e n d e d by means of intellect. It could not be defined clearly by stating " I t is like this or t h a t " . It could not be compared with a n y t h i n g else. She shed benign glances on the faces of all excellent Suras, the chiefs of w h o m were B r a h m a , Iśa, Vŕsnu a n d Vrsā ( I n d r a ) as they uttered prayers continuously, offered their services with a spirit of eagerness a n d vying with one a n o t h e r with palms joined together a n d kept close to their diadems. She at once r a n d e r e d the t h r e e worlds perfectly luminous by the refulgence arising from t h e five flowery arrows t h a t shone brightly. 9-1 l a . Auspicious shower of fried grains scattered by g r o u p s of celestial damsels having a refulgence like t h e streak of lightning, i n d i c a t e d their h o p e and wish for h e r victory. She was being ever served at her feet by Kāmeśvarī a n d o t h e r s of lovely a n d desirable lustre, w h o were very c h a r m i n g in their m a r t i a l dress a n d a c c o u n t r e m e n t s , w h o were eternal a n d w h o obscured t h e sun (i.e. surpassed the s u n ) by means of lustre of their glistening weapons. In t h e course of h e r m a r t i a l activity, she drove her c h a r i o t t h a t h a d t h e excellent n a m e Śrīcakra, t h a t scraped t h e clusters of clouds h i g h above by m e a n s :of flagstaffs m o r e t h a n ten Yojanas in height, a n d t h a t was e q u i p p e d with t h e power of continuously m a k i n g roaring a n d r u m b l i n g sounds. l l b - 1 2 . I n t h a t w a r (i.e. preparations for war) she h a d t h e t a w n y colour as she was robed in such a g a r m e n t free from impurities. She glittered with c h a r m i n g splendour. Lalitā moved a h e a d w i t h an i n t e n t i o n for waging w a r as she was being eulogised by t h e gods t h r o u g h twentyfive epithets of great value (like precious stones), a n d w h i c h were exceedingly c o m p e t e n t to s u b d u e sins of t h e whole w o r l d . "


Lalitā-māhātmya

18.13—19.2

1107

Agastya said : 13. "O Hayagrīva of great intellect, give me t h a t elixir of life gratifying a n d regaling my ears t h r o u g h the twentyfive n a m e s of L a l i t ā P a r a m e ś ā n ī . " Hayagriva said : 14-19. T h e twenty-five 1 names a r e Sirhhāsanā, Śrīlalitā, M a h ā r ā j ñ ī , P a r ā ń k u ś a , Cāpinī, T r i p u r ā , M a h ā t r i p u r a - S u n d a r ī , Sundarī, C a k r a n ā t h ā , Samrājñī, Cakrinī, Cakreśvarī, M a h ā d e v ī , K ā m e ś ī , Parameśvarī, K ā m a r ā j a p r i y ā , K ā m a k o t i g ā , C a k r a v a r tini, M a h ā v i d y ā , Sivānańgavallabhā, S a r v a p ā t a l ā , K u l a n ā t h ā , Amnāyanāthā, Sarvāmnāyanivāsinī a n d Ś r ń g ā r a n ā y i k ā . Those w h o eulogise Lalitā Parameśvarī of great dignity t h r o u g h these twentyfive n a m e s , will a t t a i n good fortune, the eight Siddhis a n d great r e p u t a t i o n . T h u s , Lalitā, the Divine M o t h e r , w h o was furious with Bhandāsura, moved a h e a d deploying t h e great a r m y of elaborate p r e p a r a t i o n and great impetuosity.

CHAPTER NINETEEN Deities stationed on the Chariots—Cakrar&ja2 Agastya said : 1-2. " M e n t i o n the n a m e s of those deities of manifest glory w h o were stationed in the steps of the leading c h a r i o t C a k r a r ā j a . O Hayagrīva, m e n t i o n all their n u m b e r s , their different splendid colours a n d t h e divine weapons t o o . "

1.

The

author

seems fond

of

presenting

series

garlands. He g a v e twelve epithets of D a n d a n ā t h ā ( P o t r i n i ) sixteen of Ś y ā m ā or Ś y ā m a l ā

of epithets (supra

like

17.18-20)

Mantrinī (supra 17.33-35). H e r e in V V . 14-19

he strings together twentyfive epithets of L a l i t ā . 2.

T h e struggle b e t w e e n Lalitā a n d Bhandāsura is a s y m b o l i c descrip­

t i o n of the struggle b e t w e e n g o o d a n d evil forces. the

chariot of L a l i t ā is equally symbolic.

Thus

the

description

F o r the c o n v e n i e n c e

•we draw t h e o u t l i n e of steps etc. of her chariot.

of

of, readers


1108

Brahmānda Purāna

Hayagriva narrated : 3. " I t is m e n t i o n e d t h a t ten Siddhidevīs were stationed on t h e n i n t h step of t h e brilliant chariot. Listen to their n a m e s from m e . 4-6. T h e y were A n i m ā , M a h i m ā , L a g h i m ā , G a r i m ā , ī ś i t ā , Vaśitā, Prāptisiddhi t h e seventh one, Prākāmyasiddhi, Muktisiddhi a n d t h e next one n a m e d S a r v a k ā m ā ( S i d d h i ) . T h e s e deities h a d four a r m s . T h e y resembled J a p ā f l o w e r s ( C h i n a r o s e ) . T h e y held in their h a n d s t h e C i n t ā m a n i (Philosopher's s t o n e ) , skull, t r i d e n t a n d collyrium leading to achievement. T h e y were full of kindness a n d were resorted to by Yogins. 7-8. T h e r e in t h e former half were t h e eight Śaktis beginning with B r ā h m ī viz.: E r ā h m ī , M ā h e ś v a r ī , K a u m ā r ī , Vaisnavi, V ā r ā h i , M ā h e n d r i , C ā m u n d ā t h e seventh one a n d ( C o n t i n u e d from the previous p a g e ) Cakra-Rāja The Chariot of Lalitā ĀnandaMahā-pītha I step

•'

Around this great seat of Bliss deities of the

form

of

time

of L a l i t ā

are stationed

(Kāla-rūpa)—They

with Lalitā

15 Eternal

are

on

par

[vide V V . 54-60]

II

3 deities viz. K ā m e ś ī , Vajreśi a n d B h a g a m ā l i n i the m o s t

step

Lalitā a n d c o m p a r a b l e t o her i n grandeur etc.

III

8 Rahasya-yoginī d e i t i e s — D e s t r o y e r s of Asuras.

beloved

of

[vide W . 49b-53]

step [ v i d e V V . 46-49a] IV 10 Nigarbha-yagini deities. T h e y are b e n e v o l e n t giving protection, s t e p d e l i g h t etc. t o all [vide V V . 4 1 - 4 5 } V 10 Kulottīrnā deities. Auspicious a n d kind-hearted, p o w e r s such as. step Sarva-siddhi-pradā [vide V V . 35-40] VI 12 Sampradāya deities or Ājñā-śaktis Fiery e l e m e n t p r e d o m i n a t e s as step t h e y rose from the ashes of K a m a . [vide V V J 2 8 - 3 4 ] VII step

6 Gupta-tarā deities like A n a ń g a - m a d a n ā etc. T h e i r n a m e s s h o w t h a t Eroticism was their forte [vide W . 24-27]

VIII step

T h e Śaktis are Gupta 'secret* Jvide V V . 17-23} 16 digits of t h e M o o n . T h e y are also called 'Nityā' Eternal Śaktis 1 0 M u d r ā devīs 10 siddhi-devis like A n i m ā etc.

[ v i d e W . 3-16] (ii)

8

Śaktis like B r ā h m i

known as " M a t r s " IX step

All Śaktis i n the I X s t e p are Prakafa ( M a n i f e s t ) Ś a k t i s .


Lalitā-māhātmya 19.9-23

1109

M a h ā l a k s m ī t h e eighth one. All of t h e m possessed only t w o a r m s . T h e i r person is red in complexion a n d they w e a r r e d g a r m e n t s . T h e y held skull a n d lotus ( i n their h a n d s ) . 9-12. ( O r ) some m e n t i o n t h e p r o c e d u r e for m e d i t a t i o n in a n o t h e r m a n n e r . Those deities a r e glorified t h u s . T h e y h a v e the forms a n d sizes like those of B r a h m a a n d others. T h e y h a v e weapons similar to those of B r a h m a a n d others. T h e y h o l d insignia a n d distinguishing marks of B r a h m a a n d others. Mudrādevis w h o were stationed in t h e region above theirs were still greater. W i t h their h a n d s h a v i n g t h e lustre of lotuses, they were engaged in expressing Mudrās ( M y s t i c a l Gestures). T h e y resembled t h e flowers of p o m e g r a n a t e . T h e y were c h a r m i n g in their yellow robes. T h e y h a d four a r m s in two of which t h e y held shields a n d swords. T h e y h a d roving red eyes d u e to intoxication. Listen to their n a m e s from m e . 13-15. They were SarvasamksobhinI, Sarvavidrāvinī, S a r v ā k a r s a n a k r n m u d r ā , Sarvavaśańkarī, S a r v o n m ā d a n a m u d r ā , S a r v a m a h ā ń k u ś ā y a s t i , Sarvakhecarikā Mudrā, Sarvabījā, Sarvayoni t h e n i n t h one a n d Sarvatrikhandikā. T h e s e three n a m e l y t h e Siddhis, Brāhmī, a n d others as well as M u d r ā s — all these w e r e manifest Śaktis. 16. T h e y were posted in t h e Raktaratha (Red c h a r i o t ) in order to slay t h e Asura B h a n d a . Listen from me to t h e n a m e s of those w h o were m e n t i o n e d before as (deities) of secret n a m e s {Guptas). 17-21. These were Śaktis in t h e form of sixteea digits of the m o o n viz. : K ā m ā k a r s a n i k ā , B u d d h y ā k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā ( D i g i t ) , A h a m k ā r ā k a r s i n ī , Ś a b d ā k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā , Sparśākarsanikā N i t y ā ( E t e r n a l ) , R ū p a k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā , Rasakarsanikā N i t y ā , G a n d h a k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā , t h e e t e r n a l , C i t t a k a r s a nikā, D h a i r y a k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā , Smrtyākarsanikā Nityā, N ā m ā k a r s a n i k ā K a l ā , Bījakarsanikā N i t y ā , Atmakarsanikā K a l ā , A m r t ā k a r s a n ī N i t y ā a n d Sarlrakarsinī K a l ā . T h e y were i n t h e eighth step a n d a r e glorified by t h e epithet Guptas (secret o n e s ) . 22-23. T h e y resembled t h e coral tree. T h e y were c h a r m ­ ing w i t h their smiles. T h e y h a d four a r m s a n d t h r e e eyes. T h e i r crowns shone brightly like t h e m o o n a n d t h e s u n .


1110

Brahmānd'a Purāna

H o l d i n g bows a n d arrows, shields a n d swords, O Potborn sage, they got themselves r e a d y for slaying the Asura B h a n d a . T h e y h a d divine refulgence. 24. T h e deities n a m e d Guptatarās stationed them­ selves on the seventh step of the chariot C a k r a r a t h a t h a t h a d the brightness of the l a m p blazing in the evening. 25-27. T h e y were A n a ń g a m a d a n ā , A n a ń g a m a d a n ā t u r ā , Anańgalekhā, Anańgavegā, A n a ń g ā ń k u ś ā a n d the next one A n a ń g a m ā l ā ń g ī . These deities h a d the lustre of the C h i n a Rose. T h e y held sugarcane bow, flowery arrows, boquets of flowers a n d lotuses. T h e y were excessively valorous a n d used to a b i d e by the c o m m a n d s of L a l i t ā . Furiously angry at B h a n d a s u r a they stood by shining brightly. 28-31. T h e deities n a m e d S a m p r a d ā y a s ( T r a d i t i o n a l ones) the chief a m o n g w h o m was Sarvasamksobhinī resorted to the sixth step of the leading chariot C a k r a r a t h a . T h e clusters of their tresses h a d been tied into an o r n a m e n t a l b r a i d . T h e saffron m a r k on their foreheads shone brightly. T h e y were excessively impetuous by n a t u r e . T h e y h a d the lustre on a p a r with t h a t of fire of d e a t h . T h e y h a d bows a n d arrows of fire. T h e y held swords in t h e form of Fire a n d shields n a m e d Vahnicakra. T h e i r physical bodies were brightly illuminated. T h e y were furious towards the leader of the Asuras. T h e y rose up from the ashes of K a m a . These exceedingly powerful deities were the Ajñāśaktis (Śaktis of behest) of Lalitā. 32-34. T h e i r names are—Sarvasamksobhinī, Śarvavidrāvinī, Sarvākarsanikā Śakti, Sarvāhlādanikā, Sarvasammohinī Śakti, S a r v a s t a m b h a n ā , śaktikā, Sarvajrmbhanaśakti, Sarvonmādanaśaktikā, Sarvārthasādhikāśakti, Sarvasampattipūranī, S a r v a m a n t r a m a y ī śakti a n d Sarvadvandvaksayańkarī. T h u s the names of S a m p r a d ā y ā deities have b e e n m e n t i o n e d . 35-37. T h e n next, the deities stationed on t h e fifth step a r e r e m e m b e r e d as K u l o t t ī r n a s . T h e y were like t h e crystals with illuminated brilliant bodies. T h e y held axe, noose, m a c e , bell a n d jewels. W i t h knitted brows they were excessively furious towards the e n e m y of the gods. O Pot-born sage, listen to the names of these too. 38-40. T h e y are goddess Sarvasiddhipradādevī, Sarvasampatpradā, goddess Sarvapriyañkarī, S a r v a m a ń g a l a -


Lalitū-māhātmya 19.41-54

111*

karinī, S a r v a k ā m a p r a d ā d e v ī , Sarvaduhkhavimocinī, Sarvamrtyupraśaminī, Sarvavighnanivārinī, Sarvāńgasundarīdevī a n d Sarvasaubhāgyadāyinī. T h u s the t e n D e v ī s have b e e n m e n t i o n e d . T h e i r m i n d s were filled with kindness. 41-44. T h e s e were ten famous deities stationed on t h e fourth step, n a m e d Nigarbhayoginls. T h e y have been glorified as h a v i n g a lustre e q u a l to t h a t of a p e a r l necklace. They are Sarvajñā, Sarvaśakti, Sarvaiśvaryapradā, Sarvajñānamayīdevī, Sarvavyādhivināśinī, Sarvādhārasvarūpā,, S a r v a p ā p a h a r ā , S a r v ā n a n d a m a y ī Devi, Sarvaraksāsarūpinī a n d t h e t e n t h deity should be k n o w n as S a r v e p s i t a p h a l a p r a d ā . 4 5 . All these should be k n o w n as h a v i n g four a r m s . T h e y held the t h u n d e r b o l t , javelin, iron club a n d discus. T h e y were r e a d y to slay the Asura B h a n d a . 46-49a. T h e deities n a m e d Rahasyayoginīs were stationed on the third step of the leading chariot C a k r a r a t h a . T h e y were wellknown presiding . deities of speech. T h e i r lustre was like t h a t of the red Aśoka (Jonesia Asoka Roxb). T h e y held bows, a n d arrows in their h a n d s . Armours covered their whole bodies. T h e y shone with lutes a n d books too. T h e y were Vaśini, K ā m e ś ī , Bhoginī, V i m a l ā , A r u n ā , Javinī, Sarveśī: a n d K a u l i n ī . These eight deities a r e r e m e m b e r e d as t h e cause of the slaughter of D a i t y a s . 49b-52. T h e n , t h r e e deities were stationed on t h e second step of the leading chariot C a k r a r a t h a . T h e y were seated on. on t h r e e (different) seats. T h e y were endowed w i t h eight a r m s in which they held bows, arrows, a d r i n k i n g bowl, a citron, (fruit) a n d dagger as well as shields, serpentine noose a n d a bell of loud sound, T h e y were intoxicated d u e to liquor. T h e y used to keep secrets guardedly. T h e y were K ā m e ś ī , Vajreśī a n d t h e other one Bhagamālinī. These t h r e e deities a r e r e m e m b e r e d as ones filled with w r a t h towards B h a n d a . 5 3 . T h e y h a d t h e same greatness a n d g r a n d e u r a s t h a t o f L a l i t ā a n d they h a d the same refulgence. T h e y a r e glorified as one's most beloved Śrīdevī. 54. T h e n next, fifteen imperishable deities are m e n t i o n e d as having fixed up their residences all r o u n d on t h e Ā n a n d a m a h ā p ī j h a ( t h e great seat of Bliss), on t h e step in t h e middle: of the chariot.


1112

Brahmānda Purāna

55. T h e y a r e also e t e r n a l i n t h e form o f K ā l a ( T i m e ) . T h e y h a d stationed themselves after p e r v a d i n g t h e universe. T h e i r bows i n d i c a t e d their a g i t a t i o n a n d fury against B h a n d a s u r a a n d o t h e r Daityas. 56-59. T h e y h a d t h e i r forms a n d persons on a p a r w i t h those of t h e G o d d e s s ; their weapons too were like those of t h e Goddess. It is for r e n d e r i n g h e l p to all t h e worlds t h a t they exist in every Yuga. O Pot-born sage, c o m p r e h e n d fully from me t h e i r n a m e s : T h e y a r e : — K ā m e ś ī , B h a g a m ā l ā , Nityaklinnā, Bherundā, Vahnivāsinī, M a h ā v a j r e ś v a r i , D r u t i , Tvaritādevī, t h e n i n t h o n e K u l a s u n d a r ī , N i t y ā , N ī l a p a t ā k ā , Vijaya, S a r v a m a ń g a l ā , J v ā l ā m ā l i n i k ā a n d G i t r ā . T h u s t h e f i f t e e n deities have been recounted. 60. A c c o m p a n i e d by these deities whose a t t e n t i o n was solely on r e n d e r i n g service, goddess P a r a m e ś v a r ī set off in o r d e r t o c o n q u e r t h e wicked B h a n d a s u r a . 6 1 . Seven steps a r e mentioned i n t h e excellent chariot ( n a m e d ) Giticakra1 (Geyacakra also. See verse 63) t h a t belonged t o M a n t r i n ā t h ā a n d t h a t h a d g r e a t wheels. T h e r e listen t o those deities of t h e Devi.

1. of

T h e following is t h e outline of the Geya Cakra or Glti-Cakra ( c h a r i o t

Mantrinfnāthā Geya

(giti)

Cakra

I

( t ) Mantrini ( i i ) Sańgita-Yogini T h e administrative h e a d a n d s e c o n d

step

t o Lalitā o n l y

[vide W .

II

Rati, Priti and M a n o j ā ( 3 deities)

[vide W . 63-64]

61-63]

step III

5 deities of arrows of Kama e.g. Drāvini, So?lni

step 5 k ā m a d e v a s b e l o w these deities e.g. Kāmarāja, K a n d a r p a [vide IV step

8

Śaktis or Mātr devatās

(mentioned

W . 65-69a]

in W 7-8 a b o v e )

8 virgin deities like Laksmi, Sarasvati, R a t i e t c . [vide W

69b-72a]

V

16 deities like V ā m ā , J y e s t h ā e t c well-armed well-armoured

«jep

t o f i g h t ( v i d e W . 7 2 b 76)

7

f

veW*

ready


Lalita-māhātmya

1113

19.62-72

62. Sańgītayoginī is m e n t i o n e d as t h e most beloved deity of Śrldevī. H e r a b o d e was a seat in t h e m i d d l e of t h e step in the c h a r i o t G e y a c a k r a . 63-64. M a n trim.

T h e same first step was t h e place of residence

of

T h e n t h e deities stationed o n t h e second step i n t h e excellent c h a r i o t G e y a c a k r a w e r e R a t i , Prīti a n d M a n o j ā w i t h lutes a n d bows i n their h a n d s . T h e y were dark-complexioned like t h e T a m ā l a (a tree w i t h very d a r k leaves). T h e y were competent to exterminate Dānavas. 65-69a. T h e deities of.the arrows of t h e god of Love were stationed on t h e t h i r d step. T h e y were five viz.: D r ā v i n i , Śosinī, Bandhinī, M o h i n ī a n d U n m ā d i n ī . All these f i v e h a d resplendent bows in their h a n d s . T h e r e on t h e same step were stationed five gods too b e n e a t h the deities. T h e y were K ā m a r ā j a , K a n d a r p a , M a n m a t h a , M a k a r a d h v a j a a n d the f i f t h one M a n o b h a v a . All these w e r e c a p a b l e of e n c h a n t i n g the three worlds. M a r k s on their foreheads w i t h K a s t ū r i ( M u s k ) shone brilliantly. T h e y glittered w i t h pearls. T h e i r entire b o d y was covered w i t h a r m o u r . T h e y h a d t h e lustre of flowers of P a l ā ś a ( B u t e a F r o n d o s a ) . T h e y a r e called P a ñ c a k ā m a s (Five K ā m a s o r gods of L o v e ) . T h e y eagerly sought t h e killing of B h a n d ā s u r a . 69b-72a. T h e deities m e n t i o n e d before, t h e chief of w h o m was B r ā h m ī a n d t h e eighth one was C a n d i k ā (instead of M a h ā l a k s m ī as in vv. 7 a n d 8 above) stationed on t h e fourth step of t h e leading chariot G e y a c a k r a . T h e r e in the same step b u t b e n e a t h t h e m were Laksmī, Sarasvatī, R a t i , Piiti, Kīrti, Śānti, P u s t i a n d T u s t i . These Śaktis a r e m e n t i o n e d a s K u m ā r ī s

( C o n t i n u e d from t h e previous p a g e ) VI

8 Bhairavas such as A s i t ā ñ g a , R u r u etc.

step VII step

5 deities l i k e M ā t a ń g i , S i d d h a l a k s m i

(vide V V . 7 7 - 7 9 a )

3 G a n a p a s or Ksetrapālaj like K s e t r a p a 2 goddesses Lafcsmi, Sarasvatl 2 T r e a s u r e s — Ś a ń k h a , P a d m a 10 Śaktis of t h e dikpāl&s (guardians of quarters)


1114

Brahmānda Purāna

( V i r g i n s ) , O Pot-born sage. T h e i r eyes were red d u e to a n g e r . T h e y held Kuntas (Lances, spears) a n d discus in o r d e r to kill D a i t y a of g r e a t strength. 72b-76. T h e r e were sixteen other deities beginning w i t h V ā m ā . T h e y were stationed on the fifth step of t h a t p r o m i n e n t chariot Gīticakra. Listen to their names from m e — V ā m ā , J y e s t h ā , R a u d r ī , Śānti, Ś r a d d h ā , Sarasvatī, Śrībhūśakti, L a k s m ī Srsti, Mohinī, P r a m ā t h i n ī , Aśvasinī, Vīci, Vidyunmālinī, Surānandā and Nāgabuddhikā. T h e y h a d t h e lustre of ruby. T h e y were eagerly desirous of agitating t h e entire universe. At every step, they m a d e elaborate p r e p a r a t i o n s for t h e great b a t t l e * . T h e y were covered w i t h a d a m a n t i n e a r m o u r s . Others w e r e engaged i n l o u d boisterous laughs. T h e y held various weapons a n d missiles such as t h e thunderbolt, batons, Śataghnīs a n d Bhuśundikās. 77-79a. T h e n those stationed on t h e sixth step of t h e leading c h a r i o t Gīti (i.e. G ī t i c a k r a ) were t h e Bhairavas beginning w i t h Asitāńga. T h e y were dreadful d u e t o t h e i r weapons. T h e y held t h e t r i d e n t a n d t h e drinking bowl. T h e y were blue-complexioned. T h e y were—Asitāńga, R u r u , G a n d a , K r o d h a , U n m a t t a b h a i r a v a , Kapālī, Bhīsana a n d S a r h h ā r a — these were t h e eight Bhairavas. 79b-80. T h e n , stationed on t h e seventh step of t h e leading chariot Gīti were M ā t a ń g ī , Siddhalaksmī, M a h ā m ā t a ń gikā a n d M a h a t ī , Siddhalaksmī r e p e a t e d again. T h e y were redcomplexioned. T h e y held bows a n d arrows. 81-86a. Beneath t h e same step were stationed G a n a p a (the heads of Ganas, Ksetrapālas), Ksetrapa, Durgāmbā and Bātuka w i t h weapons in their h a n d s . T h e r e itself, b e n e a t h t h e step were stationed Laksmī, Sarasvatī, a n d the treasures Ś a ń k h a a n d P a d m a — a l l of t h e m held weapons in t h e i r h a n d s . T h e y were furious w i t h B h a n d a of fierce valour a n d exploits, t h e e n e m y of t h e entire world. T h e ten leaders of t h e quarters beginning .with Śakra a n d e n d i n g w i t h Visnu were stationed in t h e same step b u t b e n e a t h , in the forms of Śaktis. T h e y held t h u n d e r b o l t , spear, K ā l a d a n d a (staff of K ā l a ) , a sword, a noose, a flag, a *N.xii.77 reads correctly : Mahā-samara-sannāha.


Lalitā-māhātmya

19.86-95

1115

m a c e , a trident, the missile of D a r b h a grass a n d t h e discus. T h e y devoutly served M a n t r i n ā t h ā always in order to destroy t h e Asura followers, the wicked unbelievers, of Bhanda, thorns for t h e whole of the universe. 86b-90a. T h e protectors of the c a r d i n a l points resorted to t h e Gīticakra because they were eager to r e m i n d a n d inform L a l i t ā ( a b o u t t h e task of slaying B h a n d a ) t h r o u g h the support of M a n t r i n ā t h ā . All the submissions (and petitions of request) of all Devas to M a h ā d e v ī yielded results if they were submitted t h r o u g h M a n t r i n ī . 1 Petitions to a queen submitted t h r o u g h the i m p o r t a n t ones result in the acquisition of fruit by the servants. Otherwise, how could they even a p p r o a c h Śrīdevī whose refulgence was blazing forth a n d whose prowess' was invincible. 90b-92. Because she was t h e deity of the lore of Music, she was the most beloved one of Śrīdevī. In t h e case of fulfilment of tasks she never transgresses w h a t is m e n t i o n e d by her. In the Śakti empire of Śrīdevī, t h e deity Mantrin'ī was powerful e n o u g h to d o , u n d o a n d alter all activities or to refrain from doing anything. H e n c e , all protectors of the q u a r t e r s , desirous of victory of Srīdevī c o n t i n u e d to serve M a n t r i n ī who was h e r chief Aide. 93.95. T h u s , the names of all deities stationed in t h e steps of excellent chariot named Gakrarāja of Lalitādevī have been completely recounted. H e r divine weapons for the purpose of slaying B h a n d ā ­ sura have also been mentioned. T h e deities on the steps of G e y a c a k r a have also b e e n mentioned. T h o s e m e n who listen to these names of all deitiesshall be liberated from all sins. T h e y shall be victorious.

1.

Procedure of appeals etc. to Lalitā a n d the functions of M a n t r i n ū


1116

Brahmānda Purāna CHAPTER

TWENTY

The Deities on the Kiricakraratha Hayagriva said : 1. "O intelligent one, listen to t h e deities stationed in t h e five steps of the p r o m i n e n t c h a r i o t Kiricakra1 (Boar-wheeled). Victory to those w h o listen to their n a m e s . 2-5. D a n d a n ā y i k ā ( l e a d e r of t h e Army) was stationed on t h e first step n a m e d Bindu. She, the destroyer of the h a u g h t y a n d wicked t h o r n s of worlds a p p e a r e d to m a k e Jayairi (glory of victory) d a n c e there by m e a n s of different kinds of flames. She h a d t o r n a n d pierced the h a u g h t y D ā n a v a s with

1.

T h i s is a

description

of t h e

chariot of the

commander-in-chief,

D a n d a - n ā t h ā , the boar-faced deity ( P o t r i n i ) . T h e chariot has five steps, t h e distribution of deities

etc.

is

rather confused.

M a y be d u e

but

to s o m e

t e x t u a l confusion. W h a t e v e r is precise is recorded in the following outline. Seat of Potrijfi 1

Centre of the C h a r i o t — B i n d u ( V i d e V V . 2-5)

Step JI

Centre of the Chariot : 3 deities—Jrmbhini, M o h i n i , Stambhini

Step III

[ V i d e V V . 6-8] 5 deities such as Andhinī [ V i d e V V . 9-12a]

Step IV Step

6 deities out

of Mātrs, Mothers

Prob.

7 deities D h ā t u n ā t h ā s

IV

deities c o n s u m e

Step

e.g.

Step Prob.

Other side of the s t e p : 2 chowrie-bearing v.l.

V

or

of eight

siddhis.

deities A n d D a n d a n ā t h ā ' s

( V i d e V V . 12b-33)

states that

this

chariot

has 5 steps but without specifically

m e n t i o n i n g t h e V s t e p , this is called the 6 t h s t e p in the text. 8

deities

e.g. Vārtāli, V ā r ā h i etc are stationed here. On

Dandanāthā's Step

of Candida

Yaksinī, Ś a ñ k h i n i so called as these

7 dhātus of the body, bestowers

Lion. VI

with exception

M a h ā l a k s m i , Vārāhi, six are stationed here.

their left

buffalo.

B e l o w t h e m 8 guardians of quarters, gods, demi-gods, N ā g a s etc.

are

stationed ( V i d e W . 3 4 - 5 5 ) On the wheel 3 deities

: Jrmbhini,

Stambhini, M o h i n i [ T h e

deities as on the II step of this kiri-cakra-ratha

vide

W

6-8

same above

a n d Ksetrapāla a t t h e extremity o f this step. B e l o w the V I S t e p : 1 0 0 0 deities a n d 1 0 Bhairavas

[Vide W. 56-86]


Lalitā-mihātmya

20.6-14

1117

t h e terrific blow of her snout. She a p p e a r e d to be t h e n i g h t for t h e clear perception of the rays of h e r curved t e e t h resembling t h e crescent m o o n . H e r creeper-like tender body was dark in complexion like t h e clusters of clouds in t h e r a i n y season. S h e was a p e r m a n e n t o r n a m e n t to t h e leading chariot K i r i c a k r a . S h e was the Potrini (Boar-formed Deity) who h a d m a d e all t h e revolving worlds her a d o p t e d children. 6-8. T h r e e deities viz. : Jrmbhinl, Mohihi a n d Stambhini h a d occupied the second step at t h e same centre of t h a t chariot. It resembled a full-blown p o m e g r a n a t e flower. T h e deities w h o were c o m p e t e n t t o suppress D ā n a v a s , h e l d t h e pestle, plough a n d liquor p o t studded with m a n y precious stones and jewels by means of their sprout-like h a n d s w h e r e bangles set with rubies dazzled brilliantly. These deities h a d very s h a r p a n d dreadful eyes. T h e y wished to b u r n D a i t y a soldiers by m e a n s of the fiery flames (emanating from t h e eyes) without hesitation. T h e y continued to serve the Boarfaced goddess ( S ū k a r ā n a n ā ) . 9-12a. Five deities beginning w i t h Andhinī were station­ ed on t h e t h i r d step of t h e excellent leading chariot K i r i c a k r a . T h e y h a d fixed t h e i r base in t h e Devlyantra. T h e y a p p e a r e d to split the three worlds by m e a n s of their boisterous laughter. T h e y a p p e a r e d like t h e flames of fire w h i c h b u r n s the u n i ­ verse at the end of the world a n d which h a d assumed t h e guise of w o m a n . W i t h their tongues lolling a n d licking t h e sides, they were desirous of l a p p i n g up t h e flowing blood of all t h e soldiers of B h a n d ā s u r a . T h e y were dazzling in their brilliance. T h u s they used to serve D a n ^ a r f ā t h ā of terrific exploits, continuously. 12 b-14. Six deities were stationed on t h e fourth step of t h e leading chariot K i r i c a k r a . T h e y w e r e Brāhmī a n d others excepting the fifth one (i.e. Vārāhi) a n d t h e e i g h t h o n e ( L e . C a n d i k ā or M a h ā l a k s m ī ) . T h e i r bodies a p p e a r e d to dis­ charge blazing flames from t h e Safcakra (six mystical nerve plexuses i n t h e b o d y ) . T h e y a p p e a r e d r e a d y t o d r i n k (i.e. t o destroy) D ā n a v a s by m e a n s of g r e a t m a n y series of exploits. It was at t h e behest of D a n d a n ā t h ā t h a t they resorted to t h a t region.


1118

Brahmānda Putānec

15-19a. Seven deities called Dhātunāthās were stationed in their respective places beneath t h e same step. T h e y were Yaksinī, Śańkhinī, Lākinī, Hākinī, Śākinī, Dākinī and ( a n o t h e r ) Hākinī who h a d the united ( a n d c o m b i n e d ) forms of all of t h e m . All these d e m o n s t r a t e d the exploits of their mighty arms. T h e y a p p e a r e d ready to drink (i.e. destroy) all living beings a n d the E a r t h . T h e y d r a n k a n d consumed the seven Dhātus, essential ingredients, of the b o d y (viz. the b l o o d ) , skin, flesh, fat, bones, m o r r o w and the semen of enemies. T h e y h a d hideous faces. W i t h their harsh leonine roars they filled ten quarters. T h e y were called Dhātunāthās and they were the bestowers of eight Siddhis beginning with Animā (minuteness). 19b-21a. T h e y were experts in deluding, slaying, p a r a ­ lysing (stupefying), striking, swallowing, a n d exterminating the wicked Daityas. In regard to those w h o are habitually devout, they were c o m p e t e n t to annihilate all adversities. T h e y were called Dhātunāthās (since) they were present in all Dhātus (essential secretions of the b o d y ) . 21b-22a. T h e y were adventurous enough to drink within half a m o m e n t all the oceans t h a t a p p e a r e d to kiss the sky by t h e series of waves. 22b-24. T h e y h a d cart-shaped t e e t h a n d terrible eyes. T h e y were equally ready to swallow those w h o acted mali­ ciously against their mistress, those w h o transgressed convention­ al rules a n d established practices, those w h o engaged themselves in mischief by injuring the followers of V e d i c injunctions maliciously, those who were inimical to heroes a n d the Wicked Daityas w h o spoiled a n d obstructed Yajñas. T h e y used to serve continuously D a n d a n ā y i k ā in the form of Potrini. 25-26, On the other side of the same step in a divine temple were stationed two deities well-known as Krodhini and. Stambhini. T h e y fanned w i t h two Cāmaras (Chowries) as t h e bangles r o u n d their tender creeper-like h a n d s moved to a n d fro. T h e y were excessively p r o u d after drinking liquor a n d t h e blood <»f soldiers in the a r m y of demons. T h e y h a d perpetual laughter in their faces a n d their eyes rolled about, continuously.


Lalita-māhatmya

20.27-43

1119

27-30. T w o excellent weapons, ploughshare a n d pestle, assuming the form of deities, took up their residence on either side of the leading chariot K i r i c a k r a . T h e y held the bodies of their own weapons at the place of their own crown. T h e y were r e m e m b e r e d by the Devas as the destroyers of everyone antagonistic to the universe. It was with these two weapons t h a t Lalitā D a n d a n ā y i k ā would cut off a n d kill D ā n a v a n a m e d Visañga, in the battle. 31-33. T h e r e was an exceedingly terrible lion wellknown as C a n d o c c a n d a at the same step in front of D a n d a n ā t h ā . T h e sky echoed with his roaring sound a n d the cardinal points were deafened by the sounds produced by it while gnashing its teeth. It h a d four h a n d s and three eyes. It held trident, sword and nooses sewn a n d tied. Its body was brilliant. By seeing alone ( a n d observing everything), it served Goddess Potrini continuously. 34-36. Eight deities beginning with Vārtālī were station­ ed on the sixth step of the leading chariot Kiricakra. T h e y were renowned in the eight quarters. T h e i r voices were as loud as the sound produced when eight mountains clashed with o n e a n o t h e r or fell over one a n o t h e r . Eight serpents served the purpose of their shining o r n a m e n t s . T h e i r strength and splend­ o u r was never ruined or eliminated. T h e y h a d sacrificed crores of Dānavas in the fire of the prowess of their mighty arms. T h e y used to serve D a n d a n ā t h ā Lalitā day a n d night. 37-38. T h e i r names are also well known. O Pot-born sage, Listen : Vārtālī, Vārāhī, V ā r ā h a m u k h ī , Andhinī, Rodhinī, J r m b h i n ī , M o h i n ī a n d S t a m b h i n ī . ' T h e y were competent i n agitating, paralysing a n d exterminating enemies. 39. T h e royal vehicle of D a n d a n ā t h ā , a buffalo of dusky white colour, was always stationed on the left side of those deities on the same step. 40-43. Its two horns were half a Krośa a p a r t (1 K r o ś a = 3 kilometres) a n d its body was a Krośa long. Its body was covered with m a n y hairs h a r d a n d sharp-edged like swords. It was dreadful w i t h its formidable tail resembling the b a t o n of t h e g o d of d e a t h . It h a d t h e lustre of t h e d a r k m o u n t a i n of collyr i u m or blue antimony. It was furious, lofty a n d hideous. All


1120

Brahmānda Purāna

t h e p a r t s of t h a t (buffalo) were stout a n d excellent like the massive m o u n t a i n of a n t i m o n y . Its d e e p a n d h o t b r e a t h issuing forth a n d spreading everywhere stirred up the oceans. It seemed to laugh derisively at the buffalo of K ā l a ( G o d of d e a t h ) by means of its crackling a n d rattling g r u n t . T h e cloud Puskarāv a r t a was scattered about by its hoofs. 44-47. On the same step b u t b e n e a t h were stationed I n d r a and o t h e r s — t h e eight g u a r d i a n deities of cardinal points. T h e y h a d fixed their abodes in different ways at differ­ ent places. T h e y h a d come there to inform Lalitā a b o u t the fulfilment of tasks. T h e r e were I n d r a , the sixtyfour crores of celestial damsels, Siddhas, Agni, Fire god, Sādhyas, o t h e r Viśvedevas, Viśvakarmā, M a y a , mothers of exalted state a n d strength, R u d r a s , the a t t e n d a n t s a n d dreadful Piśācas. T h e leaders of Rāksasas a n d m a n y Rāksasas used to wail there. 48-53a. M i t r a s , G a n d h a r v a s , w h o were always experts in singing a n d whose wellknown leaders were Viśvāvasu a n d o t h e r s ; other Bhūtaganas (groups of goblins), V ā r u n a , Vasus, V i d y ā d h a r a s , K i n n a r a s , Māruteśvara (wind-god), C i t r a r a t h a , chariot-makers, artisans, T u m b u r u , N ā r a d a , Yaksa, Soma, Yakseśvara ( K u b e r a ) , lord Govinda the consort of K a m a l ā , along w i t h Devas, ī ś a n a w h o is terrible d u e to his trident a n d who is the devourer of t h e universe, B r a h m a , Aśvinīputras w h o were efficient in t h e science of Medicine, lord D h a n v a n t a r i a n d o t h e r G a n a n ā y a k a s (leaders of Ganas) who h a d gratified bees by m e a n s of ichor exuding from their excellent temples (were stationed t h e r e ) . 53b-55. A n a n t a , Vāsuki, T a k s a , Karkofa, P a d m a , M a h ā p a d m a , Ś a ń k h a p ā l a , Gulika, S u b a l a — t h e s e leading ser­ pents surrounded by crores of other serpents were stationed there. In this m a n n e r , m a n y deities were stationed there on active d u t y . T h e y h a d fixed their mansions all r o u n d beginning w i t h the eastern q u a r t e r etc. 56-60. T h e r e itself on t h e wheel were stationed t h r e e deities : J r m b h i n i , S t a m b h i n i a n d M o h i n ī . T h e y were t h e presiding deities of Northwest a n d resorting to t h a t q u a r t e r they stationed themselves in the form of a wheel.


Lalitā-māhātmya 20.61-72

1121

I n t h e extremity o f t h e same step o f t h e resplendent chariot K i r i c a k r a , K s e t r a p ā l a shone continuously serving Kitīśvarī. He held a skull a n d a m a c e . He h a d a huge b o d y w i t h t h e h a i r standing u p r i g h t . He h a d d a r k complexion and features like the dust a n d moss at t h e b o t t o m of P ā t ā l a . He a p p e a r e d to rend t h r o u g h t h e sphere of t h e cosmic egg by m e a n s of his boisterous laughter as t h o u g h by means of a t h u n d e r b o l t . By means of sound from his Damani (a kind of d r u m ) , he split t h e hollow space between heaven a n d e a r t h . He held in his h a n d a Phanipāśa (A serpent in t h e form of noose) which h a d three hissing hoods. 6 1 . Very near h i m was stationed t h e goddess's vehicle, a lion. It was seated on this, t h a t she began h e r activity w h e n desirous of slaying Bhandāsura. 62-65. T h e characteristics of t h e lion, the Vehicle of the goddess of Devas, have been described before. Beneath the same step (were stationed a t h o u s a n d deities). T h e y h a d lustre similar to t h a t of D a n d a n ā t h ā . T h e y were a d o r n e d w i t h all sorts of o r n a m e n t s a n d weapons similar to those of D a n d i n ī . T h e y were d a r k in complexion. T h e y were Boar-faced. T h e y kept their tresses embellished w i t h t h e crest by means of t h e digit ( i . e . crescent) of t h e M o o n . T h e y whirled t h e p l o u g h s h a r e a n d the pestle w i t h their h a n d s frequently. T h e y filled skulls by means of overflowing currents of blood of those w h o plotted against Lalitā, who w r o u g h t mischief against Ś y ā m ā a n d w h o maliciously treated t h e Mistress. T h e y wore t h e intestines of those who h u r t a n d assailed their devotees. 66-68. T h e y used to wear on their breasts garlands by a n u m b e r of shaven skulls of those who protested against their own religious cults or conventional com­ m u n i t y . T h e r e was a continuous flow of blood from those heads. T h e deities w h o served Kītīśvarī a r e said to be a thousand. T h e n a m e s of all those deities will be mentioned in t h e c h a p t e r (?) on t h e thousand n a m e s of D a n d i n ī , O Pot-born saint. N o t e n o w again here. 69-72a. T h e n , n e a r those boar-faced deities was station­ ed t h e vehicle of D a n d i n ī , a black antelope. It was as a conven­ t i o n a l c u s t o m ( t h a t the a n t e l o p e stood t h e r e ) . T h e ( s p a c e


1122

Brahmānda Purāna

b e t w e e n ) t h e horns was a q u a r t e r of a Krośa, the length of its face was a q u a r t e r of t h a t . T h e length of legs was a Krośa. It always used to keep its tail upright. Its belly h a d a white lustrous p a t c h . By m e a n s of a loud grunting sound, it laughed derisively at the exploits of the deer t h a t was t h e vehicle of wind-god. This excellent vehicle was stationed in a p a r t of the same step. 72b-74. T h e ocean of liquor, assuming t h e form of a deity, was stationed there on the same step of the leading chariot Kiricakra. It held in its h a n d a l u m p of m e a t , red like a ruby m o u n t a i n . Its eyes rolled. It wore a g a r l a n d of golden lotuses. It was e m b r a c e d by M a d a ś a k t i (Deity presiding over t h e power of intoxication) t h a t held a red lotus. 75-77. ( L a t e r on) whenever D a i t y a B h a n d a b e c a m e active in the b a t t l e , Śaktis h a d perspired profusely a n d b e c a m e thirsty, on those occasions. Surāsindhu ( O c e a n of L i q u o r ) would scatter himself in various places a n d dispel t h e fatigue of deities in the course of war. T h a t miracle will u n d o u b t e d l y take place, O sage, then when the b a t t l e (is being d e s c r i b e d ) . You will h e a r it being recounted by me joyously. 78. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t b e n e a t h the same step in all t h e eight quarters a n d above as well as below, ten (male deities) beginning with H e t u k a h a d fixed their residences. 79. T h e y were t h e excellent a n d great Bhairavas wellknown for their profound exploits. By t h e enkindled splendour of their weapons, they surpassed even the sun by day. 80-83. At t h e end of K a l p a , at the behest of D a n d i n ī they destroyed the entire universe. T h e y were of fearful n a t u r e . G n a s h i n g their t e e t h a n d biting t h e lips with t h e m (in a n g e r ) , they used to pierce a n d scatter t h e clouds with the tips of their tridents. T h e y were H e t u k a , T r i p u r ā r i , t h e third one Agnibhairava, Yamajihva, E k a p ā d a , K ā l a , K a r ā l a k a , B h ī m a r ū p a , H ā t a k e ś a as well as t h e one w i t h t h e n a m e Acala. These ten well-known (Bhairavas) stayed at t h e extremities of the chariot K i r i c a k r a a l o n g with ten crores of soldiers. 84. T h u s the deities of ( t h e c h a r i o t ) K i r i c a k r a of D a n d a n ā t h ā beginning w i t h J r m b h i n i a n d ending w i t h


1123

Lalitā-māhātmya 20.85-96 Acalendra have

been

enumerated.

T h e y sanctify t h e

three

worlds. 85. T h e r e in the battle, m a n y D ā n a v a s would be killed by the groups of deities stationed t h e r e . Showers of blood would be d r u n k by t h e m . 86. T h u s Kiricakra the excellent chariot of D a n d a n e t r ī , with diverse protective devices t h r o u g h t h e groups of deities stationed on the steps, moved ahead. 87. Wherever the chariot Cakrarāja went the excellent chariot Goya also w e n t ; wherever t h e chariot Geya ( p r o ­ ceeded) the excellent chariot K i r i c a k r a also a c c o m p a n i e d it. 88. In the midst of thousands of the armies of Śakti, these three splendid chariots t h a t a p p e a r e d like t h e t h r e e worlds set in motion, proceeded on a n d on. 89. It a p p e a r e d as though ( t h e m o u n t a i n s ) M e r u , M a n d a r a a n d V i n d h y a h a d joined together a s one u n i t . T h e r e was a loud t u m u l t u o u s sound in the groups of armies of Śaktis. T h e entire earth shook on being rent (as it w e r e ) by the creaking sound of their wheels. 90-94a.* T h e r e were six charioteers in the leading chariot of Lalitā, n a m e d Cakrarāja ( a n d other c h a r i o t s ) . T h e y were glorified as experts in holding the bridle a n d keeping the staff (whip) raised. T h e first is Irādevī, t h e n T r i p u r a - b h a i r a v ī , a n o t h e r is S a m h ā r a - b h a i r a v a , the next is Raktayoginivallabha, the fifth is Sārasa, the next (sixth) is C ā m u n d ā . These deities are remembered as charioteers. T h e c h a r i o t e e r of t h e leading chariot G e y a c a k r a was H a s a n t i k ā . S t a m b h i n ī is r e m e m b e r e d as the charioteer of the p r o m i n e n t chariot Kiricakra. 94b-95. T h e excellent chariot of Lalitā h a d a height of ten Yojanas. T h e excellent chariot G ī t a c a k r a h a d a height of seven Yojanas. 96. A great u m b r e l l a studded with pearls and having an e x t e n t of ten Yojanas was present only in t h e chariot of Laliteśānī a n d nowhere else ( n o t in t h e o t h e r c h a r i o t s ) .

•The lines are j u m b l e a consistent.

up in

print.

I follow the text

N

w h i c h is


1124

Brahmānda Purāna

97. This alone has been glorified as indicative of t h e imperial p o w e r of Śakti. O r d i n a r y umbrellas were provided in t h e other two chariots. 98-99a. T h e n t h a t imperial deity Lalitā, t h e g r e a t goddess of all Śaktis, t h e sovereign Deity w h o h a d ascended t h e rulership of a g r e a t e m p i r e a d v a n c e d against d e m o n B h a n d a w i t h a desire to accomplish his d e a t h . 99b-100. At t h a t t i m e t h e c a r d i n a l points reverberat­ ed w i t h t h e s o u n d s ; t h e e a r t h q u a k e d a n d all the living beings b e c a m e excited a n d a g i t a t e d a t t h e d e p a r t u r e o f Laliteśā. T h e divine d r u m s ( D u n d u b h i s ) sounded a n d showers of flowers fell on everyone. 101-106. T h e celestial musicians viz. t h e G a n d h a r v a s beginning w i t h Viśvāvasu, T u m b u r u a n d N ā r a d a a n d Saras­ vatī herself b e g a n to recite auspicious verses of victory along w i t h excellent songs. T h e i r faces b e a m e d w i t h delight. H a i r s s t a n d i n g on their ends over their bodies served as o r n a m e n t s . T h e y r e p e a t e d l y eulogised Laliteśvarī a d d i n g " B e victorious, be victorious". Delighted, p r o u d a n d elated, they b e g a n t o d a n c e a t every step. T h e seven sages beginning w i t h V a s i s t h a r e p e a t e d h y m n s a n d verses from R k , Yajur, S ā m a n a n d A t h a r v a V e d a s increasing t h e i r good wishes for h e r victory a n d glory in t h e same m a n n e r as w h e n t h e sacrificial fires of g r e a t p u r i t y a r e m a d e to blaze forth by m e a n s of Havis offerings. Excellent persons a d d e d t h e i r b e n e d i c t i o n s of great power. Being e u l o ­ gised by t h e m a n d shining in h e r excellent c h a r i o t , L a l i t ā set off a l o n g w i t h the soldiers in order to c o n q u e r t h e A s u r a Bhanda.


1125

Lalita-māh&tmya 21.1-13

CHAPTER TWENTYONE Boasting

of Bhandasura

Hayagriva continued : 1. On h e a r i n g t h e loud noise of t h e m a r c h of goddess Lalitā on h e r c a m p a i g n (against B h a n d a s u r a ) , those w h o resided in the city of B h a n d a s u r a , b e c a m e exceedingly agitated. 2-3. T h e city of the wicked a n d evil-minded D a i t y a B h a n d a w h i c h was on the shore of the great ocean n e a r the m o u n t a i n M a h e n d r a h a d b e e n notorious i n the three worlds b y t h e n a m e o f Ś ū n y a k a . 1 I t was the p e r m a n e n t residence o f the elder b r o t h e r of Visańga. 4. In t h a t very same city e x t e n d i n g over a h u n d r e d Yojanas, t h e Asuras b e c a m e afraid d u e to their nervousness (on h e a r i n g about) the invasion (lit. coming) of Śrtdevī. 5. T h a t entire city of the Asuras e x t e n d i n g over a h u n d r e d Yojanas b e c a m e frequently enveloped in smoke, as it were caused by p o r t e n t o u s p h e n o m e n a indicating a great calamity.2 6. T h e walls in the city of t h a t D a i t y a u n d e r w e n t u n ­ timely cracks. G r e a t meteors hovered r o u n d the city a n d fell d o w n from the sky. 7. E a r t h q u a k e , the first a n d foremost a m o n g p o r t e n t o u s p h e n o m e n a occurred t h e r e in the city af Śūnyaka. T h e e n t i r e e a r t h b l a z e d forth. 8-13a. T h e dwellers in the city of t h a t D a i t y a experienc­ e d a n u n t i m e l y tremor i n their h e a r t s . H e r o n s , vultures, cranes a n d o t h e r birds p e r c h e d themselves on the tops of flagstaffs a n d looking at t h e disc of the sun, they hooted a n d crowed loudly. M a n y devils a n d goblins t h a t could n o t be seen w i t h t h e eyes, seemed to speak out harshly t h r o u g h e t h e r e a l voices.

1.

T h e l o c a t i o n is i m a g i n e d to be in Orissa. T h e r e is no coasted

town

i n Orissa w h i c h c a n b e e v e n linguistically c o n n e c t e d w i t h Sūnyaka. 2.

VV.

5-20 describe

the

evil portents in

t h e city

of

Śūnyaka,.

Brahmanical a h d J a i n works a g r e e w i t h majority of these p o r t e n t s a n d implications, e.g. Thānāhga Sutta J a i n teachers omens.

405.8,

6 0 8 for

8

Mahānimittas.

like B h a d c a b ā h u D h a r a s e n a were experts

in

their

Ancient

interpreting,


1126

Brahmānda Purūnu

In all quarters b a n n e r s a p p e a r e d soiled a n d dirty. Being smoky, they caused perplexity a n d bewilderment a m o n g Daityas a n d Rāksasas. G a r l a n d s a n d o r n a m e n t s of the womenfolk of t h e D a i t y a s d r o p p e d down a t i n o p p o r t u n e m o m e n t s . Crying a n d l a m e n t i n g bitterly " A l a s ! Alas ! " , they shed profuse tears. M i r r o r s , armours, flags, swords, jewels, robes a n d other assets b e c a m e u n c l e a n a n d soiled frequently. 13b-l7. Everywhere h a r s h a n d loud sounds of goblins a n d evil spirits were h e a r d — o n mansions, terraces, sport-halls, u p p e r a p a r t m e n t s , cowpens, m a r k e t places, assemblies, oblong, ponds,, q u a d r a n g l e s , crossways, small terraces n e a r t h e g a t e w a y p a i n t e d turrets, a r m y c a m p s , fortified abodes, in Nahdyāvarta houses (i.e. buildings w i t h no gates on the w e s t ) , in Vicchanda~ kas (Multi-storeyed buildings) t h a t h a d been a g i t a t e d , in t h e frontiers a n d boundaries of i n n e r a p a r t m e n t s for t h e exclusive use of ladies, in Svastikas (mansions of a peculiar n a t u r e ) , in lying-in-chambers, on m i n a r e t s a n d sloping roofs, in windows, rooms, abodes a n d b a r n s — e v e r y w h e r e loud a n d h a r s h utter­ ances of devils a n d goblins were h e a r d by t h e crowds of people residing in the city of Daitya. 18-20. Everything b e c a m e loose a n d scattered a n d dreadful. Looking at the sun, the crows began to crow in a harsh n o t e . While they were crying shrilly like this, crores of skulls fell on t h e e a r t h . D r o p s of blood fell d o w n in t h e midst of altars. Bunches of hairs, smoke-coloured a n d grey, fell down all r o u n d . On seeing these p o r t e n t o u s p h e n o m e n a on t h e e a r t h , sky a n d heaven, t h e residents of t h e city r e p o r t e d to B h a n d a of renowned prowess a b o u t the same. 2 1 . A l t h o u g h t h e series of those p o r t e n t o u s p h e n o m e n a were intense a n d dreadful, B h a n d a did n o t lose his courage. He w e n t to t h e c h a m b e r of consultation a n d deliberation. 22. T h e leader of Daityas occupied an excellent t h r o n e t h a t h a d been wonderfully studded with m a n y gems a n d t h a t a p p e a r e d to be a piece of the b o d y of M e r u (i.e. golden). 2 3 . W i t h t h e thick cluster of rays of t h e gems a n d jewels fitted i n t o his shining crown, t h e lord of D ā n a v a s b r i g h t e n -


Lalitā-māhātmya

21.24-37

1127

ed t h e limits of cardinal points a n d himself shone brilliantly. 24-25. T h e c h a m b e r hall-dais was a large one extending to a Yojana. As he was seated on t h e elevated t h r o n e , his younger brothers Viśukra a n d Visańga served h i m . T h e i r valour, heroism a n d physical m i g h t was formidable. T h e y were dreadful w i t h their powerful arms, the t h o r n s for t h e three worlds. 26. T h e y never disobeyed the c o m m a n d s of their elder b r o t h e r . T h e y e n h a n c e d his great r e p u t a t i o n acquired b y c o n q u e r i n g the three worlds. 27. W i t h their b e n t down heads, they pressed his footrest. After joining t h e palms together in reverence, they sat on the ground. 28. W h e n t h a t excellent one a m o n g t h e enemies of t h e Devas was present in t h e c h a m b e r of a u d i e n c e , all t h e vassal kings of D a i t y a s c a m e to see h i m . 29. E a c h of t h e m h a d countless armies. D e c l a r i n g t h e i r own respective n a m e s , they bowed down to B h a n d a , the lord. 30. He h o n o u r e d all those Asuras w i t h benign look with steady pupils a n d remained t h u s for a while. 3 1 . Viśukra said to his elder b r o t h e r , t h e lord of D ā n a v a s . His voice was like the sound of g r e a t ocean w h i l e it was being c h u r n e d or t h a t of t h e billows. 32-33. ' ' O lord, t h e sinful evil-natured base Suras h a v e b e e n defeated b y you. T h e i r strength a n d b r a v e r y h a v e h e e n destroyed by your m i g h t y a r m s . T h e y could n o t get any person anywhere to seek refuge. Being d e s p o n d e n t (and d e s p e r a t e ) , they r u i n e d themselves by falling i n t o the fire full of b l a z i n g flames. 34. F r o m t h a t god of fire, a certain w o m a n has c r o p p ­ ed u p . She is p r o u d of h e r strength. T h e Devas themselves beginning with Vāsava, have created h e r . 35-37. It is reported t h a t a large n u m b e r of women a t t e n d a n t s equipped with different kinds of weapons have b e e n encouraged to exhibit their exploits by those overenthusiastic Devas again. Alas ! t h e butchery of adverse fate. If a g r o u p of feeble w o m e n were to c o n q u e r us in spite of o u r being power­ ful, it c a n also be conjectured t h a t a stone is split by m e a n s of


1128

Brahm&nda Parana

sprouts. Of course this guess can only p r o d u c e c o n t e m p t u o u s joke. 38. Is this n o t ridiculous ? Is this not shameful ? T h e y m u s t be afraid of even those soldiers who will fight from t h e front line of o u r forces. 39. Heaven-dwellers beginning with Śakra h a v e become cowards. T h e bodies of B r a h m a a n d others h a v e b e c o m e e m a ­ ciated w i t h grief, d u e to my power a n d weapons. 40. W h a t need one say of Visnu ? T h a t M a h e ś v a r a too has b e c o m e frightened. T h e r e is n o t h i n g to be m e n t i o n e d of others. All those g u a r d i a n s of quarters h a v e fled. 4 1 . T h e p r o u d a n d conceited Devas h a v e b e e n hit b y o u r s h a r p a n d invisible arrows t h a t have fallen on t h e i r limbs. T h e i r coats of m a i l h a v e been hit a n d pierced. 42. Despite t h e fact t h a t we a r e e n d o w e d with such great valour a n d such powerful arms, a m e r e w o m a n is rush­ ing against us to c o n q u e r us. 4 3 . Although she is merely a w o m a n , she should never be thought of lightly. E v e n an insignificant e n e m y should n o t be c o n d e m n e d by those who a r e desirous of victory a n d confi­ d e n t of themselves. 44. H e n c e , servants should be d e s p a t c h e d to drive h e r o u t . T h a t p r o u d a n d puffed u p w o m a n should b e b r o u g h t dragging her by h e r tresses. 4 5 . O L o r d , t h a t wicked w o m a n shall after sometime take up the work of a slave u n t o t h e fawn-eyed ladies staying in your h a r e m . 46. O u r enemies are afraid of each a n d every individual soldier in o u r armies. I n d e e d , t h e t h r e e worlds including t h e mobile a n d i m m o b i l e beings 'are frightened. 47. F u r t h e r , t h e m i n d of your majesty is t h e authority". T h e D ā n a v a ( V i ś u k r a ) submitted thus a n d by e n c h a n c e d t h e fury of t h e D a i t y a B h a n d a .

ultimate doing so

4 8 . T h e exceedingly powerful Visańga who was efficient, thoughtful a n d p r u d e n t spoke thus to t h e g r e a t D a i t y a , his h a u g h t y elder b r o t h e r . 49.

"O L o r d , O suppressor of enemies, you alone k n o w


Lalita-māhātmya 21.50-60

1129

•everything t h a t should be d o n e . In t h e m a t t e r of policies t h e r e is n o t h i n g t h a t should be m e n t i o n e d to you. 50. Every action should be carried out after d u e delibe­ r a t i o n . Careful t h o u g h t is the u l t i m a t e course. If a n y work is p u r s u e d w i t h o u t t h o u g h t , it will destroy one at t h e very root. 5 1 . Spies should be carefully sent to the e n e m y - c a m p a n d their strong a n d weak positions should be u n d e r s t o o d by one w h o wishes to achieve victory. 52-53. A king shall have spies as his eyes. He should be of steady intellect. He should be suspicious a n d always cautious b u t behave outwardly a s t h o u g h h e h a d n o suspicion a t all. H e should keep his exchange of ideas a n d counsel as a secret confined to himself a n d his ministers. He should e m p l o y t h e six expedients of s t r a t a g e m . Such a king attains victory a n d h o n o u r e d position everywhere. A rash a n d inconsiderate fellow will r u i n himself quickly. 54. An u n d e r t a k i n g w i t h o u t p r o p e r reasoning a n d -deliberation causes loss and r u i n . T h a t carried o u t after d u e deliberation is conducive to pre-eminent victory. 55. Indifference or disregard in the case of enemies should n o t be indulged in by kings t h i n k i n g t h e m to be m e r e animals or w o m e n or insignificant o n e . It is sure t h a t power exists in everyone. 56. H i r a n y a k a ś i p u , t h e lord of all living beings, was killed by a certain spirit t h a t h a d assumed a body partially of a m a n a n d partially of an a n i m a l a n d t h a t h a d manifested himself o u t of a pillar. 57. Formerly, a w o m a n C a n d i k ā , a manifestation of M ā y ā , h a d killed M a h i s a , Ś u m b h a a n d N i ś u m b h a i n t h e battlefield. 58. I n t h a t b a t t l e m a n y Daityas h a d b e e n destroyed by her. H e n c e , I say t h a t no indifference should be shown in t h e case of a n y w o m a n . 59. It is Śakti ( p o w e r ) t h a t is the cause of glory of victory everywhere. But we h a v e no fear of a n y o n e w h e t h e r w o m a n or m a n w h o m i g h t h a v e b e c o m e t h a t seat of power. 60. It is the n a t u r a l characteristic of t h e world t h a t Śakti manifests itself, everywhere. But let t h e activity of t h a t evil-minded w o m a n b e found out a n d understood b y you.


1130

Brahmānda Purāna

6 1 . W h o is she ? F r o m where did she originate? W h a t is her h a b i t a n d practice? W h a t is her basic support ? W h a t is the extent of h e r strength? W h a t is the source of assistance for her ? O Lord, let this be t h o u g h t over by y o u . " 62-63. On being told thus by Visańga ( B h a n d a spoke thus) : — " W h e r e is ( t h e need for) deliberation in t h e case of exceedingly powerful heroes ? In our a r m y there are hundreds of generals of g r e a t i n h e r e n t strength c o m m a n d i n g Aksauhinīs. T h e y can quaff off seas a n d oceans. T h e y a r e competent to b u r n down t h e t h r e e worlds. O (foolish fellow) indulging in tidings of misfortune, w h y a r e you needlessly afraid of women ? 64-69. Everything connected with her has been observed by me t h r o u g h spies. A certain w o m a n having t h e n a m e L a l i t ā originated from fire. T r u e to h e r n a m e she is soft a n d delicate in features like a flower. T h e r e is no intrinsic strength, no vigour a n d experience or wisdom in affairs connected with w a r . She is indiscreet in c a r r y i n g o u t h e r tasks, but" she depends m u c h on M ā y ā . D i d she n o t c r e a t e from herself a g r o u p of w o m e n really non-existent, d u e to t h e power of h e r M ā y ā ? It is on a c c o u n t of this, t h a t she exerts himself like this. O r , as you say, we shall g r a n t t h a t t h e r e is a g r e a t a r m y . But, b y w h o m c a n B h a n d a whose greatness surpasses t h a t o f t h e t h r e e worlds be defeated? Even n o w t h e heaven-dwellers a r e i n c o m p e t e n t even to b r e a t h e because they a r e perplexed a n d bewildered d u e to the pressure of my powerful a r m s . 70-72. S o m e h a v e h i d d e n themselves d e e p in t h e cavities of netherworlds, some in the waters of t h e sea, some in t h e corners of the c a r d i n a l points a n d some a m o n g t h e bushes on the tops of m o u n t a i n s . T h e y a r e excessively frightened. T h e y have a b a n d o n e d their wives, children a n d their assets. T h o s e b r u t e s have d r o p p e d down from the positions of a u t h o r i t y . Now they a r e m o v i n g a b o u t in disguise. T h i s frail w o m a n , w h o is b o r n not very long ago, does n o t know t h a t I h a v e such v a l o u r a n d power of a r m s . T h a t is why she is h a u g h t y . 73. Foolish ladies do n o t know a n y t h i n g . In vain do t h e y imagine t h a t they a r e bold a n d a d v e n t u r o u s . Confused i n


Laliti-mihātmya

21.74-92

1131

r e g a r d t o right a n d w r o n g actions, they become victims o f ruin. 74-75. O r , if, after keeping h e r at the h e a d , the heavendwellers, great serpents, Siddhas, Sādhyas vainly p r o u d of war, B r a h m a , P a d m a n ā b h a (Visnu), R u d r a , lord of the Suras (i.e. I n d r a ) or other guardians of the quarters, do come, I am c o m p e t e n t e n o u g h to smash a n d crush t h e m . 76. Or t h e generals in my armies who a r e p r o u d a n d confident of their ability in w a r will pound a n d smash t h e enemies as t h o u g h they were ripe cucumbers. 77-90. T h e following sons of m i n e are extremely m i g h t y : — Kutilāksa, K u r a n d a , K a r a ń k a , Kālavāśita, V a j r a d a n t a , Vajram u k h a , Vajraloma, Balāhaka, Sūcīmukha, P h a l a m u k h a , Vikata, V i k a t ā n a n a , K a r ā l ā k s a , K a r k a t a , M a d a n a , Dlrghajihva, H u m b a ka, H a l a m u l l u ñ c a , K a r k ā ś a , K a l k i v ā h a n a , Pulkasa, P u n d r a k e t u , C a n d a b ā h u , K u k k u r a , J a m b u k ā k s a , J r m b h a n a , Tīksnaśrñga, T r i k a n t a k a , C a t u r g u p t a , G a t u r b ā h u , Cakorāksa, Catuhśiras, Vajraghosa, U r d h v a k e ś a ^ M a h ā m ā y a , M a h ā h a n u , M a k h a ś a t r u M a k h a s k a n d ī , Sirhhaghosa, Śirālaka, A n d h a k a , S i n d h u n e t r a , Kūpaka, Kapilocana, Guhaksa, Gandagalla, Candadharmā, Y a m ā n t a k a , L a d u n a , Pattasena, Purajit, P ū r v a m ā r a k a , Śvargaśatru, Svargabala, Durgākhya (Durga), Svargakantaka, A t i m ā y a , B r h a n m ā y a , U p a m ā y a , Ulūkajit, P u r u s e n a , Visena, Kuntisena, Parūsaka, Malaka, Kaśūra, Mañgala, Draghana, K o l l ā t a , Kujilāśva, Dāsera, Babhriivāhana, Drstahāsa, D r s t a ketu, P a r i k s e p t ā , A p a k a ñ c u k a , M a h ā m a h a , Mahādamstra, D u r g a t i , Svargamejaya, Satketu, Sadvasu, S a d d a n t a , Satpriya, D u h ś a t h a , D u r v i n ī t a , G h i n n a k a r n a , M ū s a k a , Attahasi, M a h ā ś ī , Mahāśīrsa, Madotkata, Kumbhotkaca, Kumbhanāsa, Kumbhagrīva, G h a t o d a r a , Aivame4hra, Mahanda, Kumbhānda, Pūtināsika, P ū t i d a n t a , Pūticaksus, Pūtyāsya, P ū t i m e h a n a a n d others 'like t h e m . T h e y a r e on a p a r w i t h H i r a n y a k a ś i p u , in bravery a n d H i r a n y ā k s a in great strength. 91-92. H u n d r e d s of heroic sons have been b o r a to e a c h of t h e m . M y generals a r e all p r o u d a n d aggressive. W h e n they a r e followed by my sons they will destroy all h a u g h t y a n d vile Devas in the battle. If a n y o n e Were t o be angry even if t h e y h a v e thousands of excellent Aksauhinis, they will surely be


1132

Brahmānda Purina

reduced to ashes in t h e b a t t l e . W h a t t h e n , alas ! in regard to a feeble w o m a n ? 9 3 . All of t h e m in h e r battle-field exhibit their m a g i ­ cal illusory power of M ā y ā . B u t o u r soldiers take delight in Mahāmāyā (greater M ā y ā ) . T h e y will m a k e t h e i r a r m y r e d u c e d to ashes. 94-95. H e n c e , let not your m i n d be dejected by baseless a n d needless d o u b t s a n d fears". After saying thus, t h e leading D a i t y a got up from t h e throne a n d said to Kutilāksa, his general of very g r e a t s t r e n g t h : " I say, get u p . P r e p a r e a n d mobilise the entire a r m y (for battle). 96. Post t h e soldiers at all t h e e n t r a n c e s all r o u n d t h e city of Śūnyaka. Fortify all the.fortresses. M a k e a r r a n g e m e n t s for fixing h u n d r e d s of K s e p a n i k ā s (slings a n d similar instru­ m e n t s to discharge missiles). 97. Arrangements should b e m a d e b y ministers a n d priests for evil rites of Black magic. E q u i p yourself fully w i t h weapons a n d missiles. T h e w a r is i m m i n e n t . 9 8 . Send a h e a d someone from t h e c o m m a n d e r s of t h e armies along w i t h m a n y divisions of soldiers. L e t h i m be formidable a n d dreadful to look a t . 99-101. D r a g t h a t foolish w o m a n conceited on a c c o u n t of t h e strength of t h e Devas, by m e a n s of h e r tresses after she has been defeated by t h a t general in t h e course of t h e b a t t l e . " After speaking thus to Kutilāksa of great strength, t h e c o m m a n ­ d e r of t h e a r m y in c h a r g e of three thousand soldiers, he h i m ­ self went to t h e h a r e m . T h e n t h e sounds of t h e d r u m s of m a r c h of victory of Śrīdevī who was rushing on as t h e soldiers passed over, were h e a r d by t h e leading D a i t y a s . T h e y caused excessive e a r a c h e for t h e m .


Lalitā-māhitmya 22.1-19

1133

CHAPTER TWENTYTWO Durmada and Kuranda slain 1-2. T h e sound of t h e D u n d u b h i ( t h e great w a r - d r u m ) of the leading Asuras t h a t rose up t h e n , became a p r o u d res­ ponse of s o u n d to t h a t p r o d u c e d by the war-drums of t h e a r m y of Śrīlalitā. T h e three worlds shook a n d trembled on account of t h a t sound t h a t deafened the worlds, suppressed the cardinal points, a n d stirred up the bowels of the ocean. 3. T h e sound of the war-drums of the Daityas suppressed t h e c a r d i n a l points, pierced the caves of m o u n t a i n s a n d over­ whelmed the extensive firmament. 4. T h e j h a l l a r l (a kind of d r u m * ) of t h e demons pro­ d u c e d a loud, harsh and discordant sound resembling the p r o u d r o a r of infuriated Huthkāra of the great Man-lion ( V i s n u ) . 5. T h e r e u p o n , crores of Daityas p r o d u c i n g reverberating c h a t t e r i n g noise furiously p r e p a r e d themselves ( t o fight) against Parameśvarī ( L a l i t ā ) . 6. O n e of t h e m covered himself with a coat of mail wonderfully studded with gems a n d jewels of various kinds a n d colours. He shone like a mobile lofty R o h a n a m o u n t a i n ( A d a m ' s peak in C e y l o n ) . 7. A certain soldier shook arid waved an extremely bright and glistening sword t h a t w a s j e r r i b l e like the Kālarātri ( N i g h t of destruction) a n d t h a t h a d been preserved well by the w e a p o n maker. 8. Stroking the tip of his spear by means of his fingers, a certain soldier m o u n t e d on a horse'displayed different kinds of movement in t h e street. 9. Some soldiers rode on elephants of huge-sized bodies as t h o u g h on m o u n t a i n s propelled a n d tossed about by t h e violent gusts of winds of p o r t e n t o u s p h e n o m e n a . 10-19a. Crores of Daityas were fully equipped w i t h coats of mail a n d h a d t h e following weapons a n d missiles in their h a n d s . 1 viz. : Paffiśas (a spear w i t h a sharp edge) * M W p. 429A 1.

W . 10-19a

give a list o f w e a p o n s used

in mediaeval

India. T h e

varieties of arrows, use of fire-arms and projectiles are note-worthy.


Brahmānda Purāna Mudgaras (a hammer-like w e a p o n ) , Bhiduras ( T h u n d e r b o l t s ) , Bhindipālas (a short javelin thrown with h a n d ) , Druhanasf JDrughanas (Mallets, wooden m a c e s ) , Bhuśundis (fire arms MW) Kufhāras ( d a g g e r s ) , Musalas (Pestles, clubs), Gadās (Maces)„ Śataghnis (bombarding i n s t r u m e n t s ) , TriSikhas (Three-pronged arrows), Viśikhas ( I r o n - t i p p e d a r r o w s ) , Ardhacakras ( A r r o w s with crescent-shaped tips), Mahācakras (great discuses), Vakrāńgas (arrows of crooked s h a p e s ) , Uragānanas (serpent-faced arrows), Phaniśirjaprabhedas (different kinds of missiles shaped like hoods of serpents), different kinds of bows m a d e of h o r n * etc., batons, KsepanikaSastras (Different kinds of slings and similar devices for discharging missiles), Vajrabānas ( a d a m a n t i n e arrows), Drsadvaras (excellent rocks a n d pebbles for hurling) » missiles of various sorts a n d shapes such as Tavamadhyas, Musfimadhyas, Valalas a n d Khantfalas, daggers of h u u i d f e o T o f v a r i e t i e s ' w i t h a n g u l a F middles, fang-shaped, tips etc., no6seT"of diverse varieties Pāśatuna'as (snout-like nooses) Kākatuna'as ( w e a p o n s shaped like the beaks of c r o w s ) , a n d thousands of similar weapons a n d missiles very dreadful a n d capable of destroying living beings. T h e y rode on various animals a n d birds such as horses, elephants, donkeys, camels, wolves, hounds, crows etc., vultures, herons, tigers, a n d others on lions e t c . Some r o d e on Śarabhas (eight-footed fabulous a n i m a l s ) , Bherundas (a species of b i r d s ) , Boars, Vy&las (savage beasts, snakes), ghosts e t c . T h u s seated on various vehicles they m a r c h e d against L a l i t ā with violent fury filling up t h e i r m i n d s . 19b. B h a n d a sent t h e crooked a n d fraudulent D ā n a v a the chief of an a r m y division, n a m e d D u r m a d a , against Lalitā,. along with ten Aksauhinīs. 20. A c c o m p a n i e d by those exceedingly m i g h t y soldiers of leonine strength, who a p p e a r e d to be desirous of b u r n i n g the entire universe, t h a t general proceeded towards Lalitā. 2 1 . Splitting a n d piercing t h e fourteen worlds by m e a n s of loud sounds of big war-drums a n d shouting a n d howling along w i t h boisterous laughs, D u r m a d a w e n t in h e r direction. 22. Thereafter, on being c o m m a n d e d by B h a n d a s u r a , Kutilāksa of g r e a t strength deployed T ā l a j a ń g h a along w i t h t e n Aksauhinīs at t h e Eastern e n t r a n c e to t h e city of Ś ū n y a k a for t h e sake of its protection.


Lalitā-mahātmya 22.23-33

1135

23. At the southern e n t r a n c e to the city, he empolyed a D a i t y a n a m e d T ā l a b h u j a a c c o m p a n i e d by ten Aksauhinīs, for its protection. 24. At the western e n t r a n c e to the city, he appointed t h e D a i t y a n a m e d Tālagrīva along with ten Aksauhinīs for its protection. 25. He directed T ā l a k e t u , the exceedingly powerful ( D a i t y a ) , to be at the n o r t h e r n entrance to the city along w i t h t e n Aksauhinls, for the sake of its protection. 26. He directed ten Aksauhinīs to stay in a circle along t h e r a m p a r t wall in the cubicles a n d bunks over the copings. 27. T h u s , by means of fifty Aksauhinīs of soldiers, he m a d e d u e a r r a n g e m e n t s for the defence of the city of Ś ū n y a k a a n d reported it to his master. Kutilāksa reported : 2 8 . "O Lord, at the behest of your Majesty, armies have been deployed for the defence of the city. At the outset D u r m a d a has already b e e n despatched towards t h a t wicked Lalitā. . 29. T h a t frail w o m a n c a n easily be m a d e frustrated merely by means of our domestic servants, yet the royal con­ vention is t h a t p r o p e r a r r a n g e m e n t for the defence of the city should be m a d e . " 30. After saying thus to B h a n d a , the ruler of the D a i t y a s , the excessively h a u g h t y Kutilāksa, accompanied by the c o m m a n d i n g officers of different divisions of the a r m y kept the entire a r m y on the alert^and r e a d y to a c t . 3 1 . A D ā n a v a h a d previously been sent as a messenger* b y Kutilāksa. I n t h e c o m p a n y o f a n a r m y , with t u m u l t u o u s u p r o a r , h e h a d encircled t h e a r m y o f Lalitā. 32. W i t h a g r e a t clatter a n d clutter, thousands of D a i t y a soldiers waved their swords a n d fell on t h e soldiers of Śakti. 3 3 . T h o s e dreadful Śaktis with boisterous laughters a n d shouts, fought w i t h t h e D ā n a v a s w i t h their swords gleaming brightly. *For dūia N. reads yastu ' T h e D ā n a v a w h o was despatched previously'.


1136

Brahmānda Purāna

34. I n t h e course o f t h a t w a r between Śaktis a n d D ā n a v a s , t h e three worlds b e c a m e exceedingly agitated a n d heavy dust spread t h r o u g h o u t t h e sky. 35. Intensified in t h e shafts of t h e chariots, amplified by t h e t r u m p e t s of elephants a n d scattered by t h e d e e p b r e a t h s of t h e horses, t h e dust columns rose up in t h e sky. 36. On seeing h i m rushing in a c c o m p a n i e d by ten Aksauhinīs, Sampatsarasvatī furiously r a n towards h i m in t h e battlefield. 37. Horses a n d e l e p h a n t s in their r u t occupied (and g u i d e d ) by t h e Śaktis equal (in strength) to S a m p a t k a r ī t h r a s h e d a n d smashed t h e a r m y o f D ā n a v a s . 38-41. W h e n t h e noisy m u t u a l f i g h t gathered intensity w i t h clattering a n d cluttering melee, war-drums were sounded loudly a n d dust columns were raised profusely. G r e a t streams of blood of thousands of D ā n a v a s struck down by the Śaktis b e g a n to flow here a n d t h e r e . T o r n a n d cut off by t h e arrows, t h e b a n n e r s rolled a n d wallowed scattering their emblems along w i t h scores of umbrellas. T h e m y r i a d s of umbrellas t h a t h a d fallen on t h e b a t t l e g r o u n d red w i t h blood could be com­ p a r e d to the m o o n in t h e midst of r e d clouds at dusk. 42. Like t h e mass of flames of t h e K a l p a fire t h a t enve­ lops t h e fine ocean, t h e soldiers of D a i t y a s surrounded t h e a r m y of Śaktis. 43. H e a p s of heads of t h e D ā n a v a s rolled down on t h e battle-field w h e n the necks (of Dānavas) h a d been chopped off by t h e s h a r p edges of t h e brilliant weapons of the army of Śaktis. 44. T h e battle-ground b e c a m e entirely f i l l e d with heads w i t h lips bitten ( a n d firmly pressed by t h e t e e t h ) , terrible w i t h knitted eyebrows a n d w i t h eyes t u r n e d red d u e to fury. 45. W h e n the b a t t l e t h a t terrified all worlds t h u s b e g a n , Śaktis w h o b e c a m e excessively furious thrashed a n d smashed t h e a r m y of the Daityas. 46. Struck d o w n by t h e w e a p o n s of Śaktis a n d h i t by t h e armies of goddess Sampaddevī in this m a n n e r , t h e D ā n a v a s fell d o w n senseless here a n d t h e r e a n d died there ( o n t h e battlefield).


Lalitā-mūhātrnya 22.47-58

1137

47. T h e r e u p o n , D u r m a d a t h e suppressor o f enemies encouraged his a r m y t h a t h a d b e e n utterly vanquished a n d r o u t e d , m o u n t e d a c a m e l i m m e d i a t e l y a n d rushed against t h e a r m y (of Ś a k t i s ) . 48. G o a d e d furiously a n d occupied b y D u r m a d a , t h e longnecked c a m e l vehicle w i t h elevated back moved a h e a d (quickly). 49. ( T h e D a i t y a s ) with fury in their m i n d s followed t h a t vicious ( D u r m a d a ) w h o was seated on a c a m e l . Desirous of fighting w i t h Śaktis, he consoled t h e frightened D ā n a v a s . 50. Like t h e cloud t h a t showers t h e forest with water, he showered t h e circular military a r r a y of S a m p a t k a r ī ' s forces in all q u a r t e r s w i t h arrows w i t h their points dazzling brilliantly. 5 1 . Struck a n d h i t w i t h m a n y arrows b y t h a t D a i t y a of u n b e a r a b l e i n h e r e n t strength, in t h e course of b a t t l e , t h e a r m y o f S a m p a t k a r ī b e c a m e a s t h o u g h s t u n n e d a n d stupe­ fied for a m o m e n t . 52. W i t h h e r eyes r e d d e n e d on a c c o u n t of a n g e r , S a m p a d a m b i k ā r o d e o n t h e e l e p h a n t R a n a k o l ā h a l a a n d fought with him. 53-55, H e r h a n d t h a t a p p e a r e d m o r e beautiful w h e n t h e tinkling bangles m o v e d to a n d fro, drew t h e bowstring in t h e course of b a t t l e u p t o her ear. D u e t o t h e dexterity a n d quickness w i t h which h e r h a n d m o v e d , no one saw t h e d r a w i n g (of t h e string) or t h e discharge (of t h e a r r o w s ) . T h e bow was seen in a circular form only w h e n t h e arrows were fixed. T h e arrows discharged forth from t h e b o w of S a m p a t k a r ī , c a m e r a p i d l y i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e sun's (rays) in t h e sky a n d their tips shone clearly. T h e arrows t h e n b u r n e d t h e enemies. 56. T h e f i g h t between her (i.e. goddess) a n d D u r m a d a was excessively intensified. Flames issued forth w h e n t h e arrows c a m e i n t o clash w i t h one a n o t h e r . 57. Darkness was caused by t h e arrows of S a m p a d d e v ī a n d t h e d e m o n , discharged a n d scattered b y t h e m a t the outset as they concealed t h e sun. 58.

I n t h e m e a n t i m e , sparks a n d f l a m e s were ignited b y


1138

Brahmānda Purāna

t h e rapid clash of t h e arrows and they h a d t h e a p p e a r a n c e of eddies a n d whirlpools. 59.' T h e e l e p h a n t R a n a k o l ā h a l a m o u n t e d b y t h a t lady of excellent hips (i.e. S a m p a d a m b i k ā ) exhibited m a n y kinds of valorous feats in the course of b a t t l e . 60-62. He (the elephant) thrashed a few D a i t y a s w i t h his t r u n k ; some by kicking t h e m with his feet; other D ā n a v a s by hitting t h e m with his raised up tusks as powerful as ironclubs, others with lashing blows of his tail as tough as stems of trees; other enemies with shrieks a n d howls, still others w i t h t h e h e a v y pressures of his huge b o d y ; others by piercing t h e m with his nails a n d some D a i t y a s by b u t t i n g u p o n t h e m w i t h his huge h e a d . T h u s t h e e l e p h a n t of Sampaddevī displayed various feats of cleverness a n d bravery. 6 3 . W i t h his face reddened with w r a t h , D u r m a d a h i t a n d removed a precious gem from t h e crown of S a m p a t k a r ī , w i t h a powerful a n d tough arrow. 64. T h e r e a t , h e r eyes became red with a n g e r . D u r m a d a was hit with arrows discharged by her. W o u n d e d by t h e m on t h e chest, he gave up his ghost instantaneously. 65. T h e r e u p o n , t h e excellent soldiers in the a r m y of Śaktis shouted uproariously. M a n y other excellent D ā n a v a s , t h e foremost a m o n g t h e soldiers of D u r m a d a were killed by them. 66. Those w h o survived d e a t h a m o n g D a i t y a s were vanquished completely. T h e y fled from battle-field a n d took refuge in the city of Śūnyaka. 67-68. On h e a r i n g t h a t news, the lord of D ā n a v a s b e c a m e furious as t h o u g h he blazed forth w i t h i n himself, d u e to his own intrinsic mighty power. Surveying (all round) with savage eyes, he placed his h a n d on his sword a n d spoke to t h e chief c o m m a n d e r of the armies, K u t i l ā k s a who was n e a r h i m . 69-71. " H o w d i d t h a t wicked w o m a n strike d o w n t h e m i g h t y D u r m a d a in t h e fight ? Mischievous a n d grievous indeed is t h e w a y of fate. N e i t h e r a m o n g t h e Suras nor a m o n g t h e Yaksas n o r a m o n g t h e leading Uragas (serpents) was his powerful attack ever withstood. E v e n t h a t D u r m a d a


Lalitā-māhātmya

1139

22.72-83

has been killed by a feeble w o m a n . Do i n d e e d d e s p a t c h the general n a m e d K u r a n d a who is p r o u d of taking p a r t in battles, i n order t o defeat t h a t wicked w o m a n a n d d r a g h e r b y plaited hair violently". 72. Oh being sent forth thus by h i m , K u t i l ā k s a called u p o n K u r a n d a of great strength with brawny arms, to present himself in front of t h e lord. 73-74. K u r a n d a c a m e there a n d m a d e obeisance to his master. K u t i l ā k s a said to h i m : " G o a n d ask the soldiers to be ready. You a r e an a d e p t in the e m p l o y m e n t of M ā y ā , O Soldier, skilful in diverse wonderful tactics in war. You a r e equally skilful in treacherous battle. T h r a s h a n d defeat t h a t w o m a n . " 75. T h u s directed by Kutilāksa in the presence of his lord, king K u r a n d a of fierce exploits set out immediately from t h e city. 76. T h e dreadful K u r a n d a , went to the battle surrounded by By m e a n s of his elephants, horses to p o u n d a n d suppress the sphere

the elder b r o t h e r of D u r m a d a , twenty Aksauhinīs of soldiers. a n d foot-soldiers he a p p e a r e d of e a r t h .

77. T h o u g h he was h a u n t e d by the evil spirit of grief a n d anger, he was steady a n d bold in his m i n d . Seated on his horse of g r e a t velocity he galloped on enveloping t h e extremities of c a r d i n a l points by m e a n s of dust columns. 78. He took up his h o r n - m a d e bow a n d m a d e a dreadful twanging sound. W i t h continuous discharge of arrows, he showered the great a r m y of S a m p a t k a r ī . 79-83.

He taunted and threatened

goddess

Sampatkarī

thus: " O sinful w o m a n , you have killed m y y o u n g e r b r o t h e r D u r m a d a who was justifiably p r o u d of his ability in w a r . In vain do you possess a g r e a t haughtiness with only an iota of real valour. Look. W i t h these i r o n arrows, I shall n o w a n d h e r e d e s p a t c h you to t h e city of Antaka (god of d e a t h ) . My Ranapūtanās (Evil demonesses of b a t t l e ) d r i n k t h e exceedingly tasty a n d h e a r t e n i n g spate of female blood of e x t r a o r d i n a r y n a t u r e gushing out from t h e crevasses ( o p e n wounds) of your body.


1140

Brakmānda Purāna

O vile w o m a n , you will n o w reap t h e fruit of sin arising o u t of t h e slaughter of t h e younger b r o t h e r . See the

prowess of my arms". After t h r e a t e n i n g S a m p a t k a r ī seated on an excellent elephant, h e encouraged his a r m y t o a t t a c k a n d subjugate t h e a r m y of Saktis. 84. T h e r e u p o n , C a n d ī who p r e p a r e d herself to thrash a n d smash t h e a r m y of K u r a n d a of great m i g h t encouraged her own a r m y . 85. G e t t i n g interested in an unusually delightful battle,, she ( C a n d ī ) c a m e there riding on her horse a n d spoke these affectionate words to h e r ( S a m p a t k a r ī ) . _ 86. " D e a r friend, Sampatkarī, m a y my words be listened' to with love. H a n d over t h e fight w i t h this fellow to be pursued by m e , resulting in good benefits. 87. F o r b e a r awhile. This fellow will be engaged by me in fight. You have b e e n requested in t h e c a p a c i t y of a friend. D o not have a n y hesitation i n this r e g a r d . " 88. On h e a r i n g these words of hers, S a m p a d d e v ī of pleasant smiles, t u r n e d away h e r a r m y t h a t was a b o u t to face Kuranda. 89-90. Horses e q u a l in velocity to t h e wind a n d a p p e a r ­ ing like the billows of t h e ocean of t h e a r m y , were m o u n t e d by the Śaktis having a lustre similar to t h a t of t h e rising sun. W i t h their h a r d hoofs they frequently scraped t h e g r o u n d . T h e y rushed against t h e a r m y of K u r a n d a in a single file. 91-93. T h e D ā n a v a s of h a u g h t y n a t u r e were encouraged by K u r a n d a . T h e y fought w i t h Śaktis in the a r m y of Ambikā seated on a horse. T h e s e Śaktis were conversant w i t h t h e workings of minds of horses in t h e course of t h e b a t t l e . T h e y were skilful in the different m a n i p u l a t i o n s of t h e b r i d l e in order to m a k e t h e horses t u r n back, spring etc. T h e y could encourage t h e horses t h r o u g h signs from t h e tips of fingers or toes. T h e y were equally good at guiding t h e horses in their different m o v e m e n t s , in t r e a d i n g w i t h their hoofs a n d five types of trots a n d paces. 94. W h e n t h e fight between Śaktis a n d demons w e n t on like thus, ( t h e goddess) m o u n t e d a speedy horse-


Laliti-mahitmya

1141

22.95-106

n a m e d Aparājita. R i d i n g the K u r a n d a k a of evil c o n d u c t .

horse,

she

rushed

against

95-96. Goddess T u r a g ā n a n ā (Horse-faced) w h o a p p e a r e d delicate a n d greceful w i t h t h e b r a i d of h a i r moving to a n d fro, w h o was as dazzling as t h e digit of t h e a u t u m n a l m o o n , whose face was as beautiful as t h e sphere of t h e m o o n t h a t is red at dusk, smilingly took up h e r jewel-set bow a n d showered K u r a n d a w i t h series of arrows. 97. Arrows fitted w i t h golden feathers were discharged by t h e goddess seated on t h e horse spread over t h e extremities of q u a r t e r s . T h e y p e r v a d e d ten directions. 98. K u r a n d a of fierce exploits, t h e elder b r o t h e r of D u r m a d a , furiously showered t h e goddess m o u n t e d on t h e horse by m e a n s of arrows issuing forth from t h e Śārńga bow. 99. E v e n t h e horse of t h e goddess seated on t h e horse, speedily split a n d h i t the a r m y w i t h its h a r d a n d dreadful hoofs. I t t h r a s h e d a n d smashed D ā n a v a s . 100. M a n y of t h e armies of t h a t e n e m y fainted a n d swooned from far at t h e neighing sound of t h a t horse whose sound resembled t h e p o r t e n t o u s r o a r o f t h e ocean a t t h e time of u l t i m a t e dissolution ( o f the universe). 101. T h e Hayāsanā (Horse-seated goddess ) moving a b o u t here a n d t h e r e a m o n g t h e troops of Daityas, released her divine w e a p o n Pāśa (noose) of b l a z i n g a p p e a r a n c e . 102. F r o m t h a t Pāśa crores of o t h e r Pāśas as terrible as serpents issued forth. T h e y b o u n d t h e entire a r m y a n d overpowered t h e m . 103. T h e r e u p o n , K u r a n d a k a w h o h a d b e c o m e furious on a c c o u n t of the fact t h a t his soldiers h a d b e e n b o u n d , c u t off with a single a r r o w the string of h e r jewel-set bow. 104. A b a n d o n i n g t h e bow when t h e string h a d been cut off, H a y ā s a n ā w h o h a d become very furious struck at t h e chest of t h a t vicious fellow w i t h h e r goad. 105. T h e life-blood of K u r a n d a k a was quaffed by t h a t b l a z i n g goad. T h e r e u p o n he fell down on t h e g r o u n d like a tree h i t b y t h u n d e r b o l t . 106. Some dreadful P ū t a n ā s issuing forth from t h a t


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Brahmānda Purāna

goad devoured the e n t i r e a r m y along with t h e blood oozing out of the noose a n d vanished thereafter. 107. W h e n K u r a n d a t h e leader of t w e n t y Aksauhinīs was killed thus, t h e D a i t y a s w h o survived d e a t h fled quickly. 108. On h e a r i n g t h a t K u r a n d a was struck down in t h e b a t t l e along with his younger b r o t h e r by t h e armies of Śaktis, the lord of Śūnyaka heaved a d e e p sigh like a hissing serpent.

CHAPTER TWENTYTHREE Five Asura Generals Slain Hayagriva continued : 1. W h e n K u r a n d a was thus slain by t h e goddess seated on the horse, t h e d e m o n B h a n d a said to K u t i l ā k s a once again in his eager desire for war. 2. "Alas ! W h a t could n o t have occurred even in a d r e a m , w h a t has never been h e a r d before, w h a t has not even been suspected by us in o u r m i n d s — s u c h a calamity has befallen us. 3 . K u r a n d a a n d D u r m a d a h a d been very m i g h t y b r o t h e r s . T h e power of this wicked fraudulent female slave (practitioner of black m a g i c ) is g r e a t e r t h a n we expected. 4. N o w despatch five of our generals b e g i n n i n g with K a r a ń k a along w i t h a h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs to t h e battle-field. 5. T h e y a r e genuinely proud-of ( t h e i r ability in) fighting. T h e y are g r e a t heroes r e a d y to give up their bodies in fighting battles. In every respect they will v a n q u i s h t h a t vainly p r o u d woman." 6. On h e a r i n g these words of B h a n d a , K u t i l ā k s a hurriedly s u m m o n e d the f i v e generals beginning w i t h K a r a ń k a . 7. D i r e c t e d by K u t i l ā k s a , they bowed d o w n to t h e i r lord a n d master a n d a p p e a r e d to be ready to enter even fire (for his s a k e ) . Blind w i t h fury, t h e y set o u t from t h e city.


Lalita-māhātmya

28.8-20

1143

8 . O n h e a r i n g t h e t u m u l t u o u s a n d u n b e a r a b l e sound o f their d r u m s at the time of their d e p a r t u r e on t h e i r m a r c h , even the elephants g u a r d i n g t h e q u a r t e r s squirmed a n d w r i t h e d , a s they experienced a sort of shattering of t h e i r ears. 9-10. A h u n d r e d Aksauhinls of soldiers m o v e d a h e a d with clusters of flags a n d b a n n e r s fluttering, horses etc., stirred up in. excitement a n d elephants in their r u t . It was full of neighing horses a n d t r u m p e t i n g e l e p h a n t s . T h e foot-soldiers shouted a n d screamed a n d t h e wheels of chariots creaked w i t h a r u m b l i n g sound. 11. W h e n t h e dust particles of t h e g r o u n d were raised by t h e rims of the wheels, they obscured t h e lustre of t h e sun. H e n c e , it a p p e a r e d to be covered with showers of snow. 12. T h e e n t i r e universe a p p e a r e d to be covered w i t h dust. In some places, it was very noisy on a c c o u n t of t h e harsh sounds of w a r - d r u m s . 13. T h e soldiers of the D a i t y a s were overspread w i t h t h e columns of dust t h a t rose t h e r e . H e n c e , t h e n u m b e r of soldiers could be conceived in t h e form " I t is so m u c h " . 14. Banners of m a n y varieties w i t h t h e e m b l e m s of fish, snake etc. fluttered in t h e d u s t c o l u m n s like fishes in t h e great ocean. 15. On seeing t h e m rushing at t h e a r m y of L a l i t a , all t h e i m m o r t a l ones (Suras) b e c a m e frightened a p p r e h e n d i n g b r e a k d o w n a n d collapse o f t h e Śaktis. 16. T h e five h a u g h t y generals, t h e chief of w h o m was K a ŕ a ń k a , created in t h e course of their fight a h u g e M ā y ā (illusory demoness) n a m e d Sarpinī. 17. T h e wicked Sarpinī c r e a t e d by t h e m was a Ranaśāmbari (A sorceress of war) of smoky complexion w i t h smokecoloured lips a n d breasts. 18. T h e hollow of her belly was as h u g e a n d extensive as a great ocean. She m o v e d a h e a d in t h e b a t t l e g r o u n d frightening t h e m i n d s of Śaktis. 19. She was like a n o t h e r vicious K a d r u being t h e source of origin of m a n y serpents of m a g i c a l a n d illusory bodies. She h a d m a n y serpents serving t h e purpose of o r n a m e n t s . 20.

R o l l i n g on t h e ground at t h e front line of the:


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generals, she m a d e m a n y sinuous m o v e m e n t s a n d screamed i n as excessively dreadful m a n n e r . 2 1 . I t was b y m e a n s o f this very same M ā y ā t h a t those leading Asuras b e c a m e victorious formerly. T h e five evilsouled Daityas beginning w i t h K a r a ń k a w e r e as if desirous of their own d e a t h . 22. T h e n b e g a n t h e b a t t l e between t h e Śaktis a n d t h e enemies of gods. T h e y incited one a n o t h e r ' s excessively violent fury by one a n o t h e r ' s heroically boastful u t t e r a n c e s . 23. On a c c o u n t of excessive confusion a n d perplexity, Śaktis a n d D ā n a v a s could n o t distinguish o n e another. W i t h t h e w e a p o n s i n t h e i r h a n d s they b e g a n t o strike indiscriminately. 24-28. T h e f i g h t between Śaktis a n d t h e demons gathered intensity. I t b e c a m e m o r e a n d m o r e dreadful. W h e n t h e weapons clashed together, sparks of fire were p r o d u c e d . . T h e series of arrows discharged by t h e m were so i n n u m e r a b l e t h a t all t h e spaces b e t w e e n t h e c a r d i n a l points were h i d d e n a n d covered u p . T h e gushing s t r e a m of blood was so profuse t h a t even e l e p h a n t s were c a r r i e d away b y t h e currents. M a n y chariots got stuck up a n d r e n d e r e d motionless in t h e swampy, slushy mire of (dead bodies a n d ) flesh. Tufts of hairs a n d tresses floating on t h e streams of blood shone like g a t h e r i n g mosses and o t h e r a q u a t i c p l a n t s . I t was extremely cruel, destructive a n d dreadful on a c c o u n t of t h e terrific lionlike r o a r . T h e dust particles increased t h e gathering darkness. I t gave m o r e a n d m o r e satisfaction a n d pleasure to t h e demonesses. Blood flowed from t h e neck (and throats) of t h e Daityas w h e n they were c u t off by a row of soldiers a r m e d w i t h w e a p o n s . T h e n Sarpini was u r g e d b y t h e f i v e (generals) along w i t h their a r m y . She c r e a t e d m a n y kinds of serpents from h e r own body. 29-32. M a n y kinds of serpents c a m e out of the b o d y of Sarpini a n d m o v e d a b o u t h e r e a n d t h e r e . Some were like T a k s a k a a n d K a r k o t a k a . Some h a d t h e lustre o f Vāsuki a n d o t h e r i m p o r t a n t serpents. T h e i r bodies were of various sizes a n d colours, ( a n d h a d terrible (poisonous s i g h t ) . T h e y could b u r n t h r e e worlds w i t h different kinds oi poisonous b r e a t h s coming o u t like flames. By m e a n s of their m o u t h s where t w o forked tongues m o v e d a b o u t , they s c a t t e r e d various kinds of


Lalita-Māh&tmya 23.33-43

1145

1

p o i s o n in t h e a r m y of Śaktis. T h e poisons were Pārada (quicksilver), VatsanAbha (A strong poison from a c o n i t e ) , JCālakūfa poison of a n o t h e r type, Saurāsfra poison of very dreadful n a t u r e , Brahmaputra (a poison of a n o t h e r v a r i e t y ) , Śauklikeya ( m o r e correctly Śaulkikeya, a poison t h a t is p r o d u c e d in Śulkikā) a n d various o t h e r kinds of poison. 33. V e r y terrific serpents w i t h t w o faces a n d smokecoloured bodies c a m e out of t h e p a i r of eyes of Sarpini. T h e y w e r e extremely furious. 34. Crores of serpents issued forth from t h e ear cavity of Sarpini. T h e y h a d yellow colour a n d t h r e e h o o d s . T h e i r m o u t h s were hideous d u e to their fangs. 35- F r o m t h e m o u t h of Sarpini issued forth a n u m b e r o f serpents. T h e y h a d b l u e colour t h r o u g h o u t . T h e y h a d m o u t h s at t h e front as well as at t h e tail-end along w i t h hoods. 36. O t h e r serpents of b r i n d l e d a n d variegated colours, w i t h four m o u t h s a n d four feet issued forth from h e r nostrils. T h e y h a d f i e r c e splendour. 37-39. M a n y dreadful red coloured serpents issued forth from h e r g r e a t h a n g i n g folds of skin, thick a n d circular breasts a n d t h e hollow cavity of navel. T h e y held Halāhala variety of poison. T h e y b i t soldiers i n t h e a r m y o f Śaktis. T h e y b u r n e d everyone by m e a n s of poisonous fires. T h e y twined r o u n d t h e m a n d b o u n d t h e m w i t h their noose-like bodies. T h e y struck t h e m w i t h their h o o d s . T h u s they m a d e t h e a r m y o f Laliteśī u t t e r l y bewildered a n d confused. 40-43a. T h o u g h they were split a n d cut frequently by t h e crores of w e a p o n s of Śaktis, t h e y increased in n u m b e r more and more. T h e y t h e n glided a n d crawled re­ gaining t h e fullness a n d compactness of their original b o d i e s . M a n y serpents d i e d b u t others were b o r n . A t t h e d e a t h o f o n e m a n y others sprang u p . Since t h e wicked Sarpini t h e r o o t cause did n o t perish, other serpents were p r o d u c e d (in p l e n t y ) on t h e destruction of serpents (originally) c r e a t e d by her.

1. W . 30-32 g i v e various varieties o f poisons k n o w n i n a n c i e n t I n d i a . T h e y h a d regional varieties like Sauras{ra, Brahmaputra, e t c .


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Brahmānda Pur&na

43b-48a. O n being b u r n t b y the poisonous f i r e s , t h e bodies of soldiers in t h e a r m y of Śaktis b e c a m e ruined a n d overwhelmed by misery. W h e n t h e troops of Śaktis stood bewildered, u n a b l e to decide w h a t should be done, on a c c o u n t of serpents, those five D ā n a v a s exhibited m a n y feats of valour. K a r a ń k a occupied a chariot to which h u n d r e d s of donkeys h a d been yoked. H e smashed a n d thrashed t h e a r m y o f Śaktis w i t h a discus t h e edge of w h i c h was very s h a r p . A n o t h e r general o f B h a n d a D a i t y a n a m e d V a j r a d a n t a fought riding on a camel h i t t i n g a n d h u r l i n g a d a m a n t i n e arrows, T h e n V a j r a m u k h a m o u n t e d a g r e a t ass a n d pierced a n d struck t h e troops of Śaktis by t h e edges of his spears. 48b-50. A n o t h e r powerful general of t h e armies n a m e d V i j r a d a n t a rode in a chariot w i t h two vultures a n d began to fight w i t h arrows. Encouraged in t h e battle by those wicked . generals, t h e h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs of soldiers gathered together playfully a n d fell (on t h e i r e n e m i e s ) . Sarpini of evil activity a d o p t e d m a n y M ā y ā s a n d crores of serpents every m o m e n t .

created

51-53. O n seeing t h e a r m y overpowered a n d u n n e r v e d in t h a t m a n n e r , goddess N a k u l ī (Mongoose) b e c a m e furious. R i d i n g o n G a r u d a , she j u m p e d into t h e f r a y . She h a d t h e lustre of t h e m o l t e n gold. She was b o r n of t h e p a l a t e of L a l i t ā . T h e entire r e a l m o f speech a n d language constituted h e r features. S h e was endowed with a d a m a n t i n e teeth. She despatched h e r a r m y towards Sarpini. 54. G a r u d a whose elevated shoulders were occupied by h e r (goddess Nakulī) a n d w h o could toss even m o u n t a i n s w i t h his wings, moved a h e a d in t h e b a t t l e g r o u n d like a m o b i l e Sumeru. 5 5 . O n seeing t h e dreadful serpents b o r n o f M ā y ā o f Sarpini, Nakulī h a d h e r eyes t u r n e d r e d d u e to a n g e r a n d she opened her mouth.


Lalitā-māhātmya 23.56-66

1147

56. T h e r e u p o n , the tips of t h e thirtytwo teeth of goddess Śnnakulīdevī t u r n e d into thirtytwo crores of mongooses w i t h golden lustre. 57. C u t t i n g t h e groups of serpents of (demoness) Sarpini into pieces by means of the crushing power of their curved teeth a n d n e u t r a l i z i n g their poison, golden ichneumons capable of dispelling poison wandered here a n d there in the course of t h a t dreadful w a r . 58. Raising up their ears a n d shaking u p their hairs on a c c o u n t of excessive fury, t h e elated mongooses opened their m o u t h s a n d bit t h e serpents. 59. F o r everyone of the illusory serpents there arose an i c h n e u m o n a n d it cut off the b o d y (of t h e serpent) w i t h t h e p e n e t r a t i n g thrust of its sharp teeth. 60. W i t h their tongues resembling t e n d e r sprouts, t h e mongooses b e g a n licking up the two corners of their m o u t h s t h a t h a d b e c o m e red d u e to the drops of blood exuding from t h e bodies o f serpents. T h e n they j u m p e d a b o u t a n d leapt i n the battle. 61. T h e excessively tremulous b o d y of t h e serpents w h i l e b e i n g b i t t e n by the mongooses quivered frequently along w i t h t h e coiled hoods. 62. In t h e course of t h e battle, t h e jewels stuck on to t h e weighty hoods of t h e serpents shone even after they h a d b e e n b i t t e n to d e a t h by the groups of mongooses. 6 3 . W i t h their coiled hoods shattered a n d forced o u t b y t h e blows of t h e mongooses, t h e serpents a p p e a r e d like t h e flames of fires of their own great treachery (mahādroha.)* 64. W h e n the magical a n d illusory groups of s e r p e n t s were thus b r o k e n i n t o pieces by the sets of ichneumons S a r p i n i b e c a m e excessively angry. 65. After fighting a g r e a t b a t t l e with h e r , t h a t goddess. Nakulī fixed the extremely ruthless G&rua'a ( h a v i n g G a r u d a for its d e i t y ) missile to h e r arrow. 66. T h a t G ā r u d a missile which i l l u m i n a t e d the faces o f *N. 18.64 reads mahākopa ('fire of) great anger or rage' ?—a better reading


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Brakmānda PurOna

t h e quarters through formidable flames e n t e r e d t h e b o d y of Sarpini a n d absorbed a n d extinguished the Sarpamūyā. 67. W i t h t h e destruction of t h e M ā y ā Power, Sarpini got dissolved. On account of her destruction, t h e five excellent generals b e c a m e furious. 68. T h a t Sarpini by m e a n s of whose strength those gene­ rals contemptuously disregarded all t h e Suras, was led to h e r d e a t h d u e to t h e prowess of mongooses (or of goddess N a k u l ī ) . 69. H e n c e , those generals b e c a m e excessively furious on account of t h e loss of their powerful support. W i t h a united effort, they showered goddess Nakulī by m e a n s of m u l t i t u d e s of weapons. 70. Seated on her G a r u d a chariot, t h a t heroine of t h e a r m y fought with all t h e five t h o u g h she was alone. W i t h g r e a t d e a l of dexterity she showered weapons a n d missiles. 7 1 . She showered a n d wielded t h o u s a n d s of missiles a n d w e a p o n s such as spears w i t h s h a r p edges, pestles a n d javelins. W i t h h e r a d a m a n t i n e teeth, she bit t h e m in their weak a n d vulnerable vital p a r t s . 72. T h e r e u p o n , t h e servants of t h e D a i t y a k i n g yelled o u t dreadfully piteous cries of agony, as they were t o r t u r e d by the mongooses of formidable power. 73. Some of t h e mongooses with blazing fury leaped from t h e sky with terrible shrieks a n d b e g a n biting t h e a r m y of their enemies. 74-75. Some were b i t t e n in their e a r s ; others in their n o s e s ; still others were b i t t e n on t h e tops of their heads. Some of the mongooses engaged in m u t i l a t i n g a n d disfiguring activities c a m e a n d bit t h e backs (of the d e m o n s ) . T h o s e enemies of gods assailed by the mongooses fell down m a i m e d a n d m u t i l a t e d in their bodies, w i t h their coats of m a i l broken t h r o u g h . D u e to g r e a t fright, they cast off all their weapons. 76. Some mongooses entered t h e o p e n m o u t h s of t h e enemies. T h e y pulled at t h e m as if they were bodies of serpents a n d bit the b o t t o m s of their tongues. 77. O t h e r mongooses entered t h e ears of t h e enemies of t h e Devas. I c h n e u m o n s of very small size entered the different p o r e s of t h e i r bodies.


Lalitā-māhātmya 2.3.78-87

1149

78. On observing his own armies assailed a n d cast i n t o w r e t c h e d condition b y t h e mongooses, K a r a ń k a became angry. 79-80. T h e other e x t r e m e l y powerful a n d dexterous generals of t h e a r m y showered volleys of arrows on every i c h n e u m o n like t h e clouds (showering w a t e r s ) . T h e arrows issuing forth from t h e m i g h t y bows of the generals of t h e a r m y of t h e D a i t y a s c a m e into violent clash w i t h t h e tips of the t e e t h of ichneumons. 81-82. F i r e issued forth from the a d a m a n t i n e t e e t h of i c h n e u m o n s struck a n d w o u n d e d by h u n d r e d s of volleys of a r r o w s of t h e generals. T h e a r m y o f t h e i c h n e u m o n s was t h r a s h e d a n d shattered by those n u m e r o u s arrows w i t h shining tips j o i n t l y a n d play­ fully discharged by t h e five generals. W i t h their bodies shattered a n d broken by the crores of arrows discharged h e r e a n d there by t h e generals t h e mongooses s u r r o u n d e d Nakulī. 83. T h e r e u p o n , goddess Nakulī, t h e sole deity of speech a n d language, (identical w i t h Sarasvatī) b e c a m e very furious at t h e r e t r e a t of t h e mongooses. 84. She fixed a g r e a t missile n a m e d Aksinanakula ( u n d i minishing ( u n e n d i n g mongoose) to h e r Ś ā r ń g a bow. T h e missile h a d faces ( p o i n t s ) alt r o u n d a n d , its tip was enveloped by flames of fire. 85-88. Mongooses, crores in n u m b e r , issued forth from t h a t missile. T h e y h a d a d a m a n t i n e limbs, hairs a n d curved teeth. T h e y were very swift. T h e y Had the intrinsic strength of t h u n d e r b o l t . T h e y m o v e d a h e a d in a crowd. T h e y were as terrible as n u m e r o u s t h u n d e r b o l t s gathered together. T h e y tore u p t h e g r o u n d h u r r i e d l y with their a d a m a n t i n e claws. T h e y a p p e a r e d splendid w i t h their eyes as lustrous as d i a m o n d s a n d o t h e r gems. T h e hissing sound they p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h their nostrils resembled t h a t at t h e fall of t h u n d e r b o l t s . W i t h t h e crores of their t e e t h , t h e y p o u n d e d a n d crushed t h e a r m y of t h e d e m o n s . Free from t h e b l a m e of mischievousness, they displayed m a n y kinds of exploits. 89.

W o u n d e d a n d r u i n e d in every limb by

those crores


1150

Brahminda Purāna

of mighty mongooses as terrible as t h u n d e r b o l t , t h e base D ā n a ­ vas began to perish. 90-91. W h e n the whole a r m y t h a t consisted of a h u n d r e d Aksauhinls (at t h e beginning) was struck down by t h e groups of ichneumons of a d a m a n t i n e power, t h e excellent generals found only themselves left behind. T h e y were seized by g r e a t fright as well as anger. D & w i n g their bows, t h e y fought m o r e vigorously. 92. Fighting witll t h e m in various ways goddess Nakulī chopped off t h e h a r d h e a d of K a r a ń k a by m e a n s of h e r s h a r p edged spear. 93. Flying up seated on G a r u d a , she cut off w i t h h e r sword t h e h e a d s of t h e other four enemies alsd'of w h o m K ā k a v ā . śita was the chief. 94-95. On seeing such an ease a n d active dexterity of goddess Nakulī Ś y ā m a l ā m b i k ā h o n o u r e d t h a t deity of g r e a t intrinsic strength w h o destroyed t h e wicked Asuras. Śyāmāmbikā g r a n t e d to h e r t h e status of b e i n g h e r own satellite deity. 96. W h o is n o t pleased a n d delighted w h e n good qualities a r e observed?

extremely

T h e d e m o n s w h o escaped d e a t h b e c a m e highly frigh­ tened. T h e y sought refuge in Nakulī. 97-99. On seeing t h e m she kindly said to t h e m smilingly " D o n o t b e afraid. G o a n d tell y o u r king t h e detailed news o f the w a r . " O n being sent b y h e r t h u s they were delighted. T h e y b e c a m e afraid once a g a i n on seeing t h e battle-field. T h e y i m ­ mediately fled to t h e city of Ś ū n y a k a . O n hearing t h e news from t h e m , B h a n d a b e c a m e f i e r c e o n a c c o u n t of a n g e r .


Lalitā-māhātmya

24.1-13

1151

CHAPTER TVVENTYFOUR Seven generals beginning with Balāhaka killed Hayagriva continued : 1. " W h e n they were killed, the lord of Ś ū n y a k a b e c a m e b l i n d w i t h fury. H e a v i n g a d e e p sigh, he spoke t h u s to K u t i ­ lāksa w i t h his m i n d agitated on account of his eagerness for •war". 2-3. " O gentle commander-in-chief; Sorrow has befallen u s . K a r a ń k a a n d o t h e r generals w h o h a d been displaying t h e exploits of their a r m s a n d dispelling t h e pride of Devas t h r o u g h the magical power of Sarpini, have been struck •down by t h e magical power of t h a t sinful deity. 4. We have seven generals beginning w i t h Balāhaka. Send t h e m to the battle-field as they have formidable power of arms. 5-7. Along with t h e m despatch thirty Aksauhinīs. T h e y a r e devoted to the application of M ā y ā . T h e y will smash a n d shatter the a r m y of Lalitā. O, they will bring victory to us. T h e y will surely come back to m e . T h e y are b o r n of Kīkasā. T h e seven brothers, chief of w h o m is Balāhaka, possess vehement valour a n d power of exploits. T h e y a r e always victorious. Certainly they will a t t a i n victory in t h e battle­ field". 8-11. O n being told t h u s b y t h e d e m o n B h a n d a , K u t i ­ lāksa s u m m o n e d t h e seven efficient a n d p r o u d generals, t h e chief of w h o m was Balāhaka. T h e y were Balāhaka, S ū c ī m u k h a , Phālam u k h a , V i k a r n a , V i k a t ā n a n a , K a r ā l ā k s a a n d K a r a t a k a . All these seven were vigorous a n d mighty. After bowing down to B h a n d a s u r a , these seven brothers, t h e sons of Kīkasā, went out of the city. T h e y were extremely enthusiastic a b o u t t h e war. T h e y were assisted a n d p r o t e c t e d b y one a n o t h e r . 12. T h e chiefs and t h e soldiers in t h e a r m y consisting of t h i r t y Aksauhinīs followed t h e m t h e n , scraping the region of clouds t h r o u g h t h e n u m e r o u s b a n n e r s a n d flags. 13. T h e a r m y was war-like a n d terrible. S t a m p i n g w i t h t h e i r feet they ( t h e soldiers) pressed down the e a r t h . T h r o u g h t h e columns of dust particles, they d r a n k up every d r o p of ocean.


1152

Brahmānda Purān'a

14. T h r o u g h t h e sounds (beatings) of t h e different ward r u m s such as Bherī, Nihsānas, T a m p o t t a s , P a n a v a s and Anakas, they rendered the entire universe full of qualities of t h e E t h e r (viz. sound) at every step. 15. T a k i n g the a r m y consisting of thirty Aksauhinīs, t h e extremely p r o u d sons of Kīkasā started as t h o u g h to enter Viśva ( t h e lord, i.e. to their d e a t h ) . 16. T h e y were furious a n d h e n c e t h e y b e c a m e red ( i n their face). T h e i r a r m o u r s were brightly illuminated by the suns' disc. T h e i r weapons a n d o r n a m e n t s glittered. T h e i r hairs were tied up above heads. T h u s the generals moved a h e a d . 17-18. Formerly, these h a u g h t y demons h a d been des­ p a t c h e d to suppress the seven worlds by the great d e m o n B h a n d a desirous of c o n q u e r i n g the entire universe. H a v i n g observed their g r e a t strength t h r o u g h t h a t sub­ j u g a t i o n of the seven worlds, they were now sent by t h a t wicked n a t u r e d D a i t y a desirous of conquering the a r m y of Lalitā. 19. T h e y hastened to the b a t t l e ground waving weapons in their h a n d s . W i t h great fury they rushed towards the a r m y of Śaktis. 20. W i t h their loud shouts a n d shrieks they m a d e t h e ten directions echo loudly. T h e p r o u d Daityas ( t h e n ) w e n t to the place where t h e a r m y of goddess was present. 2 1 . T h e a r m y of goddess L a l i t ā too was standing in readi­ ness. It was dreadful on account of weapons. T h e soldiers t u r n e d towards the enemies displaying their ruthlessness by knitting their eyebrows. 22-23. T h o u s a n d s of Saktis joined the forces of L a l i t ā . Some h a d nooses, some iron clubs, others discuses, maces, sharp-edged javelins etc. O t h e r s h a d bows. T h e s e fierce Śaktis a p p e a r e d to d r i n k the ocean of D a i t y a s . 24-25. T h e D ā n a v a s t h r e a t e n e d a n d t a u n t e d Śaktis thus and fought w i t h t h e m — " C o m e on, come on, O wicked sinful base w o m a n ! By a d o p t i n g M ā y ā tricks, you delude only stupid fellows. W e shall send y o u a u today t o t h e abode o f the god of D e a t h , by means of o u r highly terrific arrows resembling hissing s e r p e n t s . " 26-27. A certain Śakti cut t h e neck of a leading D a i t y a by h i t t i n g with a sharp edged-spear. T h e blood gushing out


Lalitā-mOkātmya

24.28-41

1153

from his neck flowed upwards. N u m e r o u s vultures hovered over it in a circle a n d perched u p o n it ! T h e lustre of t h e u m b r e l l a of t h e god of d e a t h was e n h a n c e d by t h e m . 2 8 . A c e r t a i n d e m o n discharged a javelin in t h e course of t h e b a t t l e . A certain Śakti cut off his javelin w i t h an a r r o w . T h e same a r r o w killed h i m too. 29. A certain Śakti riding on an elephant trained h e r e l e p h a n t in t h e art of b u t t i n g against mounds, on the b r o a d chest of a wicked D a i t y a . 30. A certain Śakti suddenly struck in its forehead t h e e l e p h a n t on which a soldier of t h e enemy was seated. She struck it with a sword a n d gave it t h e pleasure of heaven ( i . e . killed it.) 3 1 . W i t h a discus hurled by means of her h a n d , a c e r t a i n Śakti broke the bow of a certain Asura into two a n d thereby m a d e two replicas of h e r eye-brows. 32. (Defective t e x t ) A n o t h e r Sakti exterminated t h e enemies w i t h s h a r p arrows a n d granted pleasure to her dagger in h e r own Romāli (A line of h a i r on t h e a b d o m e n a b o v e the navel (i.e. the dagger was given r e s t ) . 33. W i t h a blow of h e r m a c e , certain Śakti smashed t h e chariot wheel of h e r enemy a n d g r a n t e d pleasure to h e r b u t ­ tocks w i t h it (i.e. scratched it with i t ) . 34. W i t h her fierce sword a certain Sakti cut off t h e pole, of t h e chariot of a lordly D ā n a v a a n d e n h a n c e d the pleasure of the e a r t h . 35. T h e a r m y of Saktis infiltrated i n t o t h e a r m y of Daityas a n d t h e a r m y of Daityas infiltrated i n t o the a r m y of Śaktis. 36. T h e close intermingling of Śaktis and t h e demons was like t h a t of w a t e r a n d milk. D u r i n g the time of fighting it confused b o t h of t h e m . 37. W h e n t h e trunks a n d the tusks o f t h e m a d elephants of t h e Daityas were cut off by t h e swords of Śaktis they a p p e a r e d like h u g e boars. 38-41. T h u s a fight ensued which was dreadful even to t h e heroes. Cowards could not even r e m e m b e r a b o u t it w i t h i n


1154

Brahminda Purāna

themselves. It was terrific even to terrible men. It was impass­ a b l e due to t h e (incessant) exchange of weapons. Balāhaka m o u n t e d on a h u g e vulture n a m e d Sarhhārag u p t a . F o r m e r l y it h a d risen out of fire. Its beak a n d o t h e r limbs were as sharp as a t h u n d e r b o l t . Its staff-like shanks could be c o m p a r e d to the b a t o n of K ā l a (god of D e a t h ) . It was of fierce valour and exploit. It was of grey colour like smoke. T h e move­ m e n t of its wings was very dreadful. After r i d i n g on this vulture, t h e h a u g h t y D a i t y a fought in various ways. W h e n it stretched its wings they extended to half a K r o ś a . It stood thus shrieking a n d howling w i t h terrible sounds. O p e n i n g its beak t h a t appeared like a fire-pit, it devoured soldiers in t h e army. 42. S a m h ā r a g u p t a the huge vulture of cruel eyes bore Balāhaka w h o k e p t the bow well d r a w n in the course of t h e battle. 4 3 . Seated on t h e back of v u l t u r e w i t h his b o d y moving up a n d down, Balāhaka appeared like t h e Balāhaka cloud ( a t t h e time of dissolution) clinging to a K ū t a m o u n t a i n w i t h wings. 44. T h e l e a d i n g Daitya, S ū c ī m u k h a m o u n t e d on his vehicle crow. T h e root of its wings was as s h a r p ( h a r d ) as needle. R i d i n g on this he fought a hard battle. 45-47. It was elated a n d intoxicated. W i t h its long beak, it resembled t h e peak of a m o u n t a i n . It was very dreadful with its staff-like shanks having the size of the staff of t h e god of d e a t h . It was on a p a r with the cloud P u s k a r ā v a r t a k a . Its com­ plexion was similar to the colour of m u d . Its wings extended u p t o a K r o ś a . This crow of harsh cry m o u n t e d by S ū c ī m u k h a smashed the great troop of Śaktis by pecking at t h e m with its beak. 48. T h e n (the next general) P h ā l a m u k h a took up a ploughshare as his w e a p o n . R i d i n g on a h e r o n resembling a m o u n t a i n , he shone brilliantly in t h e b a t t l e . 49. T h e leading D a i t y a n a m e d Vikarna, the extremely mighty general, rode on his vehicle t h e B h e r u n d a bird a n d fought a fierce b a t t l e . 50.

A fierce cock of extremely dreadful n a t u r e b o r e ( t h e


Lalitā-m&hātmya 24.51-61 general) n a m e d V i k a t ā n a n a w h o h a d spear for his w e a p o n in the b a t t l e .

1155 a

lustrous sharp-edged

5 1 . Surveying the a r m y of Śaktis from t h e front with blazing eyes, a n d roaring loudly, t h e cock m o v e d about mak­ ing the hairs on its neck stand on their ends. 52. T h e sixth general n a m e d K a r ā l ā k s a was t h e weight­ iest and t h e most conspicuous. His loud cry was as harsh as the sound of t h u n d e r b o l t . He moved a h e a d with a ghost for his vehicle. He was intrepid d u e to his mastery of black magic p r a c t i ­ sed in c r e m a t i n g grounds. 53-54. It was by repeating those M a n t r a s t h a t the ghost was formerly s u b d u e d by h i m a n d b r o u g h t u n d e r his control. In t h e battle-field the ghost' carried h i m on his back w h e n goblins p e r v a d e d h i m . T h e ghost h a d long a r m s . H e kept his h e a d b e n t down a n d the feet were kept wide a p a r t . Assuming the form of a vehicle, t h e ghost bore K a r ā l ā k s a . 55-57. Another c o m m a n d e r was K a r a t a k a b y n a m e . H e was t h e crest jewel of t h e a r m y of Daityas. He p o u n d e d a n d smashed the a r m y of Śaktis with a Vetdla (vampire) for his vehicle. T h e v a m p i r e h a d cruel ruthless eyes with a body a Yojana tall. T h i s v a m p i r e was subdued by h i m a n d b r o u g h t u n d e r his control by means of M a n t r a s in t h e c r e m a t i o n g r o u n d . D i r e c t e d b y D a i t y a t h e v a m p i r e p o u n d e d a n d smashed t h e a r m y of Śaktis. Sitting on t h e shoulders of t h a t excellent v a m p i r e , D ā n a v a fought with Śaktis in various ways.

the

58. T h u s , these seven evil-souled h a u g h t y D ā n a v a s , c o m p a r a b l e to t h e seven oceans, harassed a n d t o r m e n t e d t h e soldiers of Śaktis there. 59. Formerly, these seven Daityas h a d p r o p i t i a t e d t h e sun-god by means of p e n a n c e . Boon h a d b e e n g r a n t e d to t h e m by the sun-god w h o h a d been pleased w i t h their p e n a n c e . 60-61. "O sons of Kīkasā, O fortunate ones, I am d e l i g h t e d n o w b y y o u r p e n a n c e . Welfare u n t o you all. Choose your boon".


1156

Brahm&nda Purina.

W h e n the sun-god said thus, t h e sons of KIkasā w h o h a d become e m a c i a t e d d u e t o p e n a n c e , earnestly requested for a n i n t r a c t a b l e b o o n like this. 62-65. " O T a p a n a (sun-god), you must b e present i n t h e cavities of our eyes d u r i n g fights. W i t h your intense h e a t a n d refulgence you m u s t b u r n our antagonists. O lord, when­ ever you are present w i t h i n o u r eyes, let everything t h a t be­ comes the object of o u r vision be motionless. Viewed by our eyes, invigorated by your presence, t h e soldiers of our a n t a g o ­ nists will become i n c a p a b l e of wielding their weapons. W h e n t h e weapons are m a d e motionless a n d blocked, O lord, by our vision alone, o u r immobilized enemies can be killed w i t h great facility." 66. T h i s was t h e boon t h a t they acquired formerly from t h e sun-god. W i t h this boon g r a n t e d to t h e m , t h e sons of Kīkasā moved a b o u t in t h a t battle-field with g r e a t haughtiness. 67. Looked at by t h e m when eyes h a d been p e n e t r a t e d a n d occupied by the sungod, t h e i n n u m e r a b l e weapons of Śaktis b e c a m e immobilized a n d they found their zeal (in w a r ) futile. 6 8 . W h e n t h e missiles a n d w e a p o n s were blocked a n d immobilized by those seven sons of Kīkasā, of great i n h e r e n t strength, Saktis could n o t exert themselves. 69. E v e n w h e n they exerted themselves they were over­ come m u c h by t h e immobilization of their weapons. So Śaktis h e a v e d a d e e p sigh a n d sat quiet. 70. T h e r e u p o n , finding a suitable opportunity, t h e D a i t y a s w h o were directed by their masters, rose up with different kinds of weapons a n d smashed t h e a r m y of Śaktis. 71. T h o s e Saktis w h o were deprived of their activity a n d w h o were p r e v e n t e d from using their weapons b e c a m e perplexed a n d agitated on a c c o u n t of their arrows t h a t could pierce even a d a m a n t i n e coats of mail. 72. T h e Saktis whose bodies h a d been wounded a n d pierced by t h e n u m e r o u s weapons of Daityas in t h e b a t t l e field a p p e a r e d like t h e creepers of K a ń k o l a with plenty of good sprouts.


Lalitā-māhātmya 24.74-84

1157

73. All those Saktis whose weapons were immobilized by t h e m shrieked a n d wailed. Crying piteously, t h e y resorted to goddess L a l i t ā . 74. T h e n , at the b i d d i n g of t h e goddess, t h e deity T i r a s k a r a n i k ā ( M a g i c a l veil), t h e body-guard of D a n d a n ā t h ā rose up in t h e a r e n a of t h e b a t t l e . 75. T h a t M a h ā m ā y ā ( g r e a t deity of magical powers) got i n t o an aerial chariot n a m e d T a m o l i p t a w i t h doors all r o u n d a n d assured Śaktis a b o u t freedom from fear. 76-77. T h e deity was dark-complexioned l^ke T a m ā l a t r e e . She wore a dark-coloured bodice (or a r m o u r ) . She was seated in t h e aerial c h a r i o t T a m o l i p t a of d a r k colour, yoked w i t h dark-coloured horses. She took up a twanging bow n a m e d Vāsantī M o h a n a . After roaring like a lion, she showered arrows furious like serpents. 78. T h e Daityas were unable t o b e a r t h e arrows t h a t h a d t h e form a n d features of black serpents, t h a t resembled i r o n clubs at their lower ends a n d t h a t c h a r g e d w i t h t h e missile Mohana. 79. T h e wicked ones, t h e chief of w h o m was B a l ā h a k a , were being smashed a n d p o u n d e d by t h e arrows of M a h ā m ā y ā h e r e a n d t h e r e . T h e y t h e n b e c a m e extremely furious. 80. Thereafter, at t h e b i d d i n g of D a n d a n ā t h ā , the deity, M o t h e r Tiraskaranī discharged the g r e a t missile n a m e d Andha ( B l i n d i n g o n e ) amidst t h e g r o u p of enemies. 8 1 . Those seven Daityas beginning w i t h B a l ā h a k a , w h o h a d b e e n h a u g h t y o n a c c o u n t o f b o o n g r a n t e d b y the sungod w e r e w o u n d e d by t h e missile A n d h a a n d their eyes were covered as if w i t h piece of cloth. 82. T h e i r eyes were afflicted by t h e b l i n d i n g arrows t h a t were discharged from t h e bow M a h ā m o h a n a of t h e goddess Tiraskaranikā. 83. All those seven became blinded. T h e y did n o t look at a n y t h i n g . In t h e absence of t h a t vision, t h e immobilization of weapons c a m e to an e n d . 84. O n c e again those (Śaktis) raised weapons in t h e i r h a n d s roaring like lions. W i t h a desire to kill Daityas, t h e y m a d e p r e p a r a t i o n s for t h e b a t t l e .


Brahmānda Purina

1158

85. T h e y kept the deity T i r a s k a r a n i k ā of great might in front of t h e m . D u e to t h e use of t h a t good (effective) means, they became extremely delighted a n d fought. 86. " O M o t h e r T i r a s k a r n i k ā o f exalted fortune well done, "well d o n e . You have a p p r o p r i a t e l y screened off these wickedsouled enemies. 87. You a r e t h e great medicinal h e r b for screening ( b l i n d i n g ) t h e eyes of the wicked. T h i s t r o o p of Daityas has been blinded by you. 88. O deity, this task of t h e Devas has b e e n perfectly carried out by you since you have b r o u g h t a disaster a m o n g these Daityas w h o c a n n o t be conquered by us. 89. Therefore, on hearing t h a t it was by you alone t h a t these seven great asuras of wicked c o n d u c t have been killed, L a l i t ā will derive great satisfaction. 90. If this is d o n e the deity D a n d i n ī will become pleased. M a n t r i n ī too of exalted fortune will surely get the greatest pleasure. 9 1 . H e n c e , you alone, do kill these seven Daityas in t h e a r e n a of battle. Raising up our weapons we shall destroy the entire a r m y of these D a i t y a s " . 92. Oh being told thus a n d encouraged by those Śaktis on a c c o u n t of their zeal for w a r ( t h a t deity T i r a s k a r a n i k ā ) proceeded towards t h e a r m y of Balāhaka by means of t h e vehicle T a m o l i p t a . 93. On seeing h e r advancing, those seven base Asuras i m m e d i a t e l y r e m e m b e r e d t h e boon granted by t h e sun god. 94. Although t h e splendour of t h e sun e n t e r e d t h e i r eyes, t h a t destructive power within t h e eyes was overcome w h e n t h e eyes h a d been covered by the prowess of Tiraskaranikā. 95. T h e g r e a t asura B a l ā h a k a h a d formerly been blind d u e to his p r i d e on being g r a n t e d t h e boon as well as on a c c o u n t of his power of weapons. He was blind d u e to anger also. N o w he literally b e c a m e blind on account of the missile (of t h e d e i t y ) . Therefore, t h e deity Antardhidevata (i.e. Tiras­ k a r a n i k ā ) dragged h i m by his hairs a n d c u t h i m off by m e a n s of Jier sword. 96.

After

c u t t i n g off, with

an

a r r o w , t h e h e a d of his


Lalita-māhātmya 24.97—25.1

1159

vehicle vulture, the deity T i r a s k a r a n i k ā proceeded towards Sūcīmukha. 97. After cutting off his h a r d head w i t h a blow of h e r sharp-edged spear, she gradually killed the o t h e r five Daityas too. 9 8 . T h e deity A n t a r d h i d e v a t ā m a d e a g a r l a n d w i t h t h e seven severed heads of the Daityas by joining one a n o t h e r by m e a n s of their own tresses. W e a r i n g t h a t g a r l a n d r o u n d h e r neck she r o a r e d loudly. 99. In the height of their fury, Śaktis killed their a r m y wholly a n d m a d e m a n y rivers of their blood flow. 100. W h a t was d o n e by m o t h e r M a h ā m ā y ā was t h e greatest miracle t h e r e , d u e to the glorious act of covering up t h e eyes of generals beginning with Balāhaka. 101. A few w h o survived the killing b e c a m e u t t e r l y con­ fused a n d frightened. In their extreme agony, t h e y sought shel­ t e r in t h e lord of Ś ū n y a k a w h o himself was crying. 102. T h o s e Daityas w h o survived b e g a n to praise D a n ^ i n ī a n d M a h ā m ā y ā again a n d again. T h e y were pleased because they were able to receive t h e graceful blessing glance from her. 103. T h e Śaktis w h o were t h e r e shook their heads in a p p r o b a t i o n saying " W e l l done, well d o n e . " At every step they praised the deity Tiraskaranikā.

CHAPTER TWENTYFIVE Flight of Visańga1 Hayagriva continued : 1. " T h e r e a f t e r , on h e a r i n g the killing of those (Daityas) though they h a d the power of P e n a n c e , B h a n d a , the great Asura, sighed deeply like the Lord of Black serpents. 1. T h i s chapter describes h o w N i t y ā Śaktis repulsed the surprise a t t a c k o n t h e rear o f t h e army b y d e m o n s under V i s a ń g a , under cover o f darkness.


1160

Brahmānda Purāna

2. Desirous of victory in t h e b a t t l e , B h a n d a of fierce haughtiness, called his b r o t h e r s a n d took counsel w i t h t h e m in a solitary place. 3. T h e crown prince too in the c o m p a n y of Visańga, the younger b r o t h e r , m a d e obeisance t o B h a n d a s u r a a n d went t o the counsel c h a m b e r in anger. 4. W i t h his m i n d turbulently agitated ( t h e lord of D a i t y a s ) held consultations w i t h his very trustworthy ministers beginning w i t h Kutilāksa r e g a r d i n g the conquest of Lalitā. Bhanda

said:

5. " A l a s ! the downfall of D a i t y a s (enemies of the Suras) is i m m i n e n t . Powerful fate has begun to be indifferent now. 6. T h e heaven-dwellers used to r u n away even at t h e very m e n t i o n of the n a m e s of my servants. T h i s adverse calamity has befallen such great m e n as we were. 7. Durdhātā (wicked fate) a n d the inevitable future convert a strong m a n i n t o a e u n u c h , a rich m a n i n t o a p o o r m a n a n d a m a n of longevity i n t o one w i t h o u t long life. 8. W h e r e ( h o w powerful) is the intrinsic strength of o u r arms? W h e r e is w o m a n , the wicked L a l i t ā ? T h i s cruel decision has been arrived at by F a t e suddenly a n d unexpectedly. 9. T h e generals who h a d become excessively aggressive on a c c o u n t of Maya of Sarpini, have been struck d o w n in the b a t t l e ground by h e r whose heroism is of e x t r a o r d i n a r y nature. 10. If a w o m a n w h o possesses unrestricted p r i d e thus a n d w h o makes use of M ā y ā strikes at us, fie u p o n o u r strength e a r n e d by t h e use of powerful arms." 11. My tongue feels a s h a m e d to ( h a v e b e e n compelled to) speak of this context. Should a w o m a n of wicked pride suppress a n d smash my a r m y ? 12-13. H e n c e , in this connection, let e n d e a v o u r b e m a d e for c u t t i n g off h e r roots. H e r activity has been understood by m e t h r o u g h spies. T h a t Woman of great strength stays b e h i n d all t h e armies. T h e a r m y consisting of horses, elephants, chariots •etc. is moving in front.


Lalita-māhātmya 25.14-29

1161

14. I n this very o p p o r t u n e m o m e n t m a k e a n a r r a n g e ­ m e n t for someone to attack her from the rear. P e r h a p s Visańga m a y be c o m p e t e n t enough to carry out this task of a t t a c k i n g her from t h e r e a r . 15. L e t fifteen generals w h o h a d p r o u d l y served in m a n y battles a n d w h o a r e genuinely p r o u d of their rich experience as veterans, go along with h i m w i t h earnest desire for war. 16. She h a s n o t m a n y a t t e n d a n t s in the back. She is p e r h a p s g u a r d e d by a few. F o r t h a t very s a m e reason, she c a n easily be taken captive. 17. H e n c e , O Visańga, m a k e an e l a b o r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n ^and be aggressively p r o u d of it. C a r r y o u t t h e a t t a c k from t h e r e a r , very cautiously a n d secretly. 18. O n l y a limited n u m b e r of soldiers n e e d a c c o m p a n y y o u . But let some valorous generals p r o u d of their conquest of t h e g u a r d i a n s of c a r d i n a l points come w i t h you fully equipped. 19. L e t fifteen Aksauhinīs of soldiers proceed a h e a d { i n t h e usual m a n n e r ) . But in a disguise, you p o u n c e u p o n t h a t wicked w o m a n a n d kill h e r . 20-25a. She alone is t h e greatest root cause of all Śaktis. If she is e x t e r m i n a t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e roots t h e entire t r o o p of Śaktis will perish like t h e cluster of leaves of a lotus in t h e w a t e r w h e n t h e bulbous r o o t at t h e b o t t o m is c u t off. A brilliant c h a r i o t is moving on b e h i n d all o t h e r c h a r i o t s . T h e b o d y of. t h a t c h a r i o t is t e n Yojanas in height. A great u m b r e l l a studded w i t h pearls shines above all. It carries in it four Cāmaras frequently moved to a n d fro. Its lofty flag staffs scrape t h e region of clouds. T h a t wicked fawn-eyed w o m a n is c o m i n g in t h a t c h a r i o t . After finding h e r o u t by m e a n s of these signs, you quietly p o u n c e u p o n h e r . Defeat t h a t w o m a n o f evil c o n d u c t . D r a g h e r b y t h e tresses a n d smash h e r . 25b-29. W h e n t h e a r m y of g r e a t intrinsic s t r e n g t h has proceeded a h e a d , t h a t w o m a n g u a r d e d b y only w o m e n will soon come u n d e r your control. Listen to t h e n a m e s of generals w h o shall assist y o u a n d whose d u t y it is to h e l p you in t h e war, w i t h o u t a n y lethargy.


1162

Brahmānda Purāna

T h e f i r s t o n e i s M a d a n a k a b y n a m e . Dīrghajihva i s t h e second. T h e n t h e following : H u m b a k a , H u l u m u l l a , K a l k a ś a , (v.l. K a r k a ś a ) , K a l k i v ā h a n a , Pulkasa, P u n d r a k e t u , C a n d a b ā h u , K u k k u r a , J a m b u kāksa, J r m b h a n a Tīksnaśrńga, T r i k a n t a k a , C a n d r a g u p t a , (v.l. C a t u r g u p t a in S u p r a 2 1 . 8 0 ) . These are t h e fifteen generals mentioned. 30. T h e s e generals of g r e a t strength, beginning w i t h M a d a n a , will come w i t h you. E a c h of t h e m will have an Aksauhinī ( o f a r m y ) w i t h h i m . 3 1 . C a r r y o u t this a t t a c k from t h e r e a r b y doing everything in closely g u a r d e d secret, so t h a t t h e e n e m y ' s c a m p does n o t u n d e r s t a n d y o u r m o v e m e n t . 32. I n this m a t t e r you a d o p t t h e m a t u r i t y (of experience) of g r e a t m e n . O V i s a ń g a , y o u will a t t a i n excellent v i c t o r y " . 3 3 . After t h e w o r k of d e l i b e r a t i o n was t h u s completed, Dānava Bhanda with m a n y wicked ministers d e s p a t c h e d Visańga well g u a r d e d b y t h e generals. 34. T h e n , w h e n t h e y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o f t h e crowned prince b e g a n a n a t t e m p t t o a t t a c k from t h e r e a r o n Śrī L a l i t ā Devi, t h e s u n c a m e t o t h e m o u n t a i n o f setting. 3 5 . W h e n t h e first d a y of t h e w a r was over, t h e first d a y t h a t was terrifying to all t h e worlds, darkness set in w i t h a desire to drive it o u t . 1 36. A dense darkness t h a t h a d smoke-like colour like t h a t h a d t h e lustre of t h e b o d y of a wild Boar a n d t h a t h a d t h e splendour of t h e b l u e t h r o a t of a peacock spread every­ where. 37-42a. It was as if rolled into a l u m p a m o n g t h e b u s h e s ; i t seemed t o r u n t h r o u g h t h e j o i n t s ; i t a p p e a r e d t o come o u t from t h o u s a n d s of crevices of t h e e a r t h ; it a p p e a r e d to come o u t densely from t h e caves of m o u n t a i n s ; whenever at a n y p l a c e t h e light of l a m p s spread it a p p e a r e d to a c t like a c o w a r d ; it was given s u p p o r t as it w e r e in t h e lustre of t h e blue lotus on t h e ears of w o m e n ; it seemed to have combined together in t h e m a t u r e e l e p h a n t s ' of t h e q u a r t e r s as well as in c o l l y r i u m ; it a p p e a r e d to h a v e secured t h e friendship of t h e shining v e r d a n t m e a d o w s ; it a p p e a r e d to have t h e loving e m b r a c e of 1.

H e r e e n d s the first d a y of the battle.


Lalitā-māhātmya 25.42-54

1163

glittering swords; it a p p e a r e d to have secretly p e n e t r a t e d t h e thickly grown trees of the forest. G r a d u a l l y t h e dense darkness increased a n d spread everywhere. T h e entire universe was enveloped by darkness t h a t a p p e a r e d to have t h e lustre of t h e b l u e bodice a n d jacket of the w o m a n (in t h e from of) night. 42b-46a. To t h e wicked Asuras, t h e n i g h t time (is favourable as it) contributes their increase in strength, as t h e i r skill in t h e use of M ā y ā is e n h a n c e d in it. W h e n t h e assemblage of darkness increases like the s p l e n d o u r of polished swords, the a r m y was deployed ( i n t o a c t i o n by t h e highly powerful V i s a ń g a ) . T h e generals b e g i n n i n g w i t h D a m a n a p u t o n darkcoloured coats of mail. T h e y wore dark-coloured t u r b a n s . All their e q u i p m e n t s were dark-coloured. It seemed as if they b e c a m e one w i t h dense darkness. T h e y went b e h i n d V i s a ń g a after he h a d m a d e obeisance to the elder b r o t h e r . 46b-50a. He was desirous of c o n q u e r i n g M a h e ś v a r ī ( t h e g r e a t goddess). He p u t on round his chest t h e a r m o u r n a m e d M e g h a d a m b a r a k a . His dress a n d a c c o u t r e m e n t were f i t t e d for t h e n o c t u r n a l b a t t l e . I n t h e s a m e m a n n e r , t h e entire a r m y too h a d dark-coloured .armour a n d other things. N o D u n d u b h i was sounded. T h e r o a r i n g r u m b l i n g sound of t h e Mardala was not h e a r d . T h e sound of Panavas, Ānakas a n d Bheris did n o t rise u p . Enveloped in darkness, they proceeded a h e a d with concealed movements t h a t could n o t b e seen b y t h e enemies. T h e y h a d t a k e n their swords out o f their scabbards. 50b-54. T h r o u g h the n o r t h e r n p a t h they surrounded t h e a r m y of L a l i t ā t h a t was proceeding towards t h e west. T h e y t h e n resorted to the eastern p a r t . T h e y proceeded a h e a d slowly a n d cautiously at every step without m a k i n g a n y noise even in b r e a t h i n g . T a k i n g their steps very slowly, they went back once a g a i n in t h e direction of the city. T h e r e they p o i n t e d out the a r m y of Lalitā to their own p e o p l e who asked a b o u t it. F o r t h e purpose of a t t a c k i n g t h e rear, Dānavas returned quietly w i t h t h e a r m o u r s covering their bodies. T h e y saw t h e lofty chariot Cakrarāja t h a t resembled t h e m o u n t a i n s M e r u a n d M a n d a r a a n d was surrounded by t h e excessively refulgent Śaktis.


1164

Brahmānda Purāna

55-56. T h e r e ( h e saw) t h e goddess in t h e excellent chariot staying u n d e r t h e umbrella studded w i t h pearls. She resembled a t h o u s a n d suns ( i n refulgence). She was seated facing t h e west. She was being served by K ā m e ś v a r ī a n d o t h e r " N i t y ā " deities w h o h a d t h e same affluence as she herself, t h r o u g h pleasant conversations and other pastimes in t h e i r excellent chariot. 57-58. She was eagerly a n d joyously looking at t h e g r e a t a r m y proceeding a h e a d . Visańga considered t h a t lady w h o h a d been p r e p a r i n g for an extra-ordinary b a t t l e in such circumstances (as mentioned before) as t h e goddess herself. T h a t wicked-souled D a i t y a a t t a c k e d t h e r e a r o f t h a t leading C h a r i o t with his soldiers. 59. I t was t h e r e t h a t t h e encircling a r m y o f Śaktis beginning w i t h A n i m ā ( p o t e n c y of assuming m i n u t e form) a n d h u n d r e d s of soldiers beginning w i t h A n i m ā m a d e a great t u m u l t u o u s sound. 60-65. T h e D ā n a v a s of great inherent s t r e n g t h started w a r in diverse ways smashing (the a r m y of Lalitā) by m e a n s of sharp-edged spears, h a m m e r s , javelins h u r l e d with h a n d s , Bhuśuna'is (a sort of missile) a n d t h r o u g h spears n a m e d Śaktis t h e blows from w h i c h were as ruthless as those of t h u n d e r b o l t . T h e g r o u p of Saktis seated in t h a t chariot b e c a m e suddenly excited a n d a g i t a t e d w h e n t h e i r enthusiasm for t h e b a t t l e was suddenly upset, w h e n t h e i r bodies were afflicted by adverse circumstances. By t h a t t i m e t h e d e m o n s h a d come a n d occupied t h e n i n t h step of t h e leading chariot C a k r a n ā t h a . W i t h invisible weapons called Vipāfas they b e g a n to split a n d tear. T h e t r o o p of Śaktis was caught in a difficult situation. T h e i r vulnerable points were w o u n d e d w h e n t h e a r m o u r s were h i t a n d split by t h e arrows of D ā n a v a s whose forms were h i d d e n by darkness a n d whose weapons a n d coats of m a i l were invisible. H e n c e t h e t r o o p of Śaktis l a m e n t e d before Lalitā.- A g r e a t fear beset t h e m as before. 66-68. O n h e a r i n g a b o u t this, L a l i t ā b e c a m e furious. I n t h e m e a n t i m e B h a n d a w h o was fierce as well as efficient in secret m a n o e u v r e s , sent K u t i l ā k s a of great prowess a l o n g w i t h


Lalitā-māhitmya

25.69-79

1165

t e n Aksauhinīs of soldiers to t h e battle-field for destroying t h e a r m y of Lalitā. K u t i l ā k s a fought a great b a t t l e in such a w a y t h a t t h e a r m y p r o c e e d i n g a h e a d could n o t r e t u r n o n h e a r i n g t h e t u m u l t u o u s sound from b e h i n d . 69-70. T h u s , t h e b a t t l e was two-sided b o t h i n t h e r e a r as well as in front. T h e r e was a g r e a t chaotic a n d t u m u l ­ t u o u s sound i n t t h e array o f Śaktis. T h e D a i t y a s w h o a r e powerful at n i g h t were enveloped in darkness a n d were highly h a u g h t y , b r o u g h t about a g r e a t d e a l of disorder in t h e c a m p of t h e goddess. 7 1 . Crores a n d crores of enemies (of D ā n a v a s ) fell d o w n after being g i r t a n d b o u n d b y evil-souled V i s a ń g a , t h e generals beginning w i t h M a d a n a ( D a m a n a ) a n d • t h e excellent soldiers, 72. T h e chariot C a k r a r ā j a encircled by t h e volleys* of a r r o w s a n d ( h u n d r e d s of o t h e r ) missiles of Daityas shone like a lordly m o u n t a i n s u r r o u n d e d by flights of cranes. 73. An a r r o w discharged by t h e vicious-souled Visańga w h o h a d occupied t h e lowest step (of t h e c h a r i o t ) shattered t h e royal fan of t h e goddess. 74. W h e n t h e troops of Śaktis b e c a m e bewildered by this accidental m i s h a p , t h e Nityā deities, t h e chief of w h o m was K ā m e ś v a r ī b e c a m e excessively furious. 75. On observing t h e lotus-like, face of Srīdevī m a r k e d by the brows knitted slightly, t h e N i t y ā deities b e c a m e greatly worried a n d exerted themselves all t h e m o r e . 76. These N i t y ā deities were K ā l a s v a r ū p i n ī s (having time units for their f o r m s ) . E v e r / o n e of t h e m h a d a T i t h i ( L u n a r d a y ) for h e r physical form. On seeing t h e fury of t h e empress, they exerted themselves for t h e fight. 77. T h e y bowed to t h e goddess t h e great queen of g r e a t dignity a n d magnificence. W i t h their voice choked on a c c o u n t of their eagerness for fighting t h a t h a d risen in t h e m suddenly they spoke. 78-79.

Tithinityā deities said :

"O Empress, O goddess of t h e Devas, cowardly a n d vicious Daityas eagerly devoted t o M ā y ā a n d deceit a r e p r e p a n g t o a t t a c k your a r m y sent a h e a d a n d g u a r d e d well


1166

Brahmānda Purāna

b y g r e a t Śaktis beginning w i t h D a n d i n ī , M a n t r a n ā t h ā a n d others. B y a t t a c k i n g from t h e r e a r they a r e pressing h a r d t h e excellent chariot. 80. H e n c e , we shall suppress t h e p r i d e of t h e enemies of gods w h o have concealed their bodies b e h i n d darkness. J u s t observe it for a few m o m e n t s . 8 1 . T h e r e a r e two N i t y ā deities : one Vahnivāsinī, the o t h e r J v ā l ā m ā l i n ī . I n the b a t t l e with t h e light kindled b y t h e m b o t h , D a i t y a s will be clearly seen by us. 82. After suppressing t h e p r i d e of these Daityas engaged in a t t a c k i n g from t h e rear*, we shall i m m e d i a t e l y r e t u r n to serve t h e lotus-like feet of ( Y o u r H i g h n e s s ) . C o m m a n d u s , O g r e a t queen for t h e suppression of vicious fellows". 83-84. W h e n this was s u b m i t t e d by t h e N i t y ā deities, she said, " L e t i t b e s o " . T h e n the deity N i t y ā n a m e d K ā m e ś v a r ī bowed to goddess L a l i t ā . It was she w h o was sent by t h e m to kill those Daityas of evil c o n d u c t w h o were b e n t u p o n fraudulentine w a r . She assumed a face reddened d u e to anger a n d blazing like t h e rising sun. She kept h e r bow r e a d y d r a w n a n d said. 8 5 . " O sinful fellows, stop. You a r e engaged i n frau­ d u l e n t w a r after getting t h e help of darkness. I shall cut y o u off". 86. She t a u n t e d t h e m t h u s . After e x t r a c t i n g arrows from the quiver, she stepped d o w n (from t h e last rung) while h e r m o v e m e n t faltered a little d u e to a n g e r . 87. O t h e r Nityā deities too moved on, such as Bhagamālā a n d others. T h e y h a d bows i n their h a n d s . T h e y too got d o w n from t h e step. 88. T h e N i t y ā deities J v ā l ā m ā l i n ī a n d Vahnivāsinī got ready for the b a t t l e . T h e y brightened t h e b a t t l e field by means of their refulgence. 89. W h e n t h e a r e a of t h e b a t t l e was thus illuminated, t h e wicked D ā n a v ā s b e c a m e excessively furious as their bodies could be seen clearly. 90.

Those fifteen N i t y ā deities beginning w i t h K ā m e ś v a r i


Lalitā-m&hūtmya

1167

25.91-102

w i t h weapons in their h a n d s a n d r o a r i n g Daityas easily as t h o u g h in a play.

like

lions

smashed

9 1 . T h e r e in the battle-field a great t u m u l t u o u s sound arose as t h o u g h t h e waves of the ocean were lashing at the shores, when it was stirred by the M a n d a r a m o u n t a i n (while c h u r n i n g for A m r t a ) . 92. Those N i t y ā deities drew their Prānakodandas (life-breath-bow). W i t h their a r m s w h e r e bangles were m o v i n g to a n d fro they c o m m e n c e d a dreadful w a r . 93. T h e b a t t l e t h u s went on for three Yāmas ( w a t c h e s ; o n e Y ā m a - t h r e e h o u r s ) . T h e Aksauhinīs were killed b y the s h a r p arrows of N i t y ā deities. 94-97. At first with h e r arrows K ā m e ś ī killed t h e the wicked D a m a n a ( M a d a n a ) . B h a g a m ā l ā tore u p the general Dīrghajihva. T h e deities Nityaklinnā a n d B h e r u n d ā killed H u m b e k a a n d H u l u m a l l a k a (v.l. H a l a m u l l u ñ c a supra I I I . i v . 2 2 - 7 9 ) . V a h n i v ā s ā killed Kaklasa (v.l. Karkas'a) with her s h a r p arrows. W i t h her arrows Mahāvajreśvarī split up K e k i v ā h a n a (v.l. K a l k i v ā h a n a ) . Sivadūtī sent Pulkasa to the a b o d e of Y a m a (god of D e a t h ) . T v a r i t ā tore asunder P u n d r a ketu with m i g h t y arms. T h e N i t y ā deity K u l a s u n d a r ī killed Caruiabāhu and Kukkura. 98. N ī l a p a t ā k ā a n d Vijaya proud of their victory m a d e a sacrificial offering of J a m b h a n a in the battle-field. T h e Nityā deity S a r v a m a ń g a l i k ā c h o p p e d off T ī k s n a ś r ń g a . T h e N i t y ā deity J v ā l ā m ā l i n ī killed the terrible T r i k a r n a k a ( i . e . Trikantaka). 99-101. Citrā killed G a n d r a g u p t a g r e a t evil conduct.

(v.l.

C a t u r g u p t a ) of

W h e n all t h e wicked generals h a d b e e n killed, Visańga b e c a m e extremely angry. T h e powerful D a i t y a moved a h e a d . W h e n only two ghatis r e m a i n e d of the last Yama of the night for two G h a t i k ā s t h a t vicious fellow fought with the Nityās. In view of t h e impossibility of victory he wished to r u n away. 102. Visańga's a r m o u r was split by the s h a r p arrows issuing from the bow d r a w n by the h a n d of Kāmeśvarī. He


1168

Brdhmānda Purāna

b e c a m e bewildered in his m i n d very m u c h . H e fled along w i t h t h e soldiers w,ho survived killing. 103. T h i s wicked D ā n a v a was n o t killed by t h e m because he was to be killed only by D a n d a n ā t h ā ' s arrow, the refulgence of which was like t h a t of t h e staff of K ā l a . 104. W h e n the wicked V i s a ń g a , t h e b r o t h e r of B h a n d a f l e d , t h e night too d a w n e d . All t h e c a r d i n a l p o i n t s b e c a m e bright. 105. " I t is not p r o p e r to chase a w a r r i o r w h o flees from the battle-field". T h i n k i n g thus, t h e N i t y ā deities refrained from fighting at t h a t time. 106. T h e N i t y ā deities w h o were p r o u d of their victory a n d whose bodies w e r e d r e n c h e d in blood oozing from t h e wounds m a d e by t h e weapons of D a i t y a s , bowed down to goddess Śrīlalitā. 107-109. T h u s a great terrifying battle took place then$ a t night. O n h e a r i n g t h e news the g r e a t q u e e n looked a t t h e forms of N i t y ā deities w o u n d e d by t h e weapons. She glanced at t h e m w i t h h e r merciful side-glance. By t h a t m e r e glance all t h e wounds were healed. L a l i t ā b e c a m e pleased w i t h t h e exploits of N i t y ā deities.

CHAPTER TWENTYSLX Bhandāsura's Sons Slain Hayagriva said : 1. " E v e n t h e m i g h t y K u t i l ā k s a w h o was a c c o m p a n i e d by an a r m y of t e n Aksauhinīs was u t t e r l y defeated in t h e b a t t l e b y t h e s h a r p arrows o f D a n d a n ā t h ā a n d h e f l e d from t h e field. T h e a r m y consisting of ten Aksauhinīs was destroyed by her at night. 2. On h e a r i n g this news B h a n d a b e c a m e bewildered. O n h e a r i n g a b o u t t h e fraudulent b a t t l e o f t h e wicked d e m o n s d u r i n g t h e night, M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā b e c a m e dejected.


Lalitā-māhātmya 26.3-16

1169

3. "Alas a great c a l a m i t y h a d befallen the goddess through D a i t y a s . Shallow-minded t h a t we were we h a d gone very far a h e a d . 4. P r o p e r defence of p r o m i n e n t chariot M a h ā c a k r a h a d not b e e n provided for t h r o u g h soldiers'. Availing of this o p p o r t u n i t y , d a m a g e has been effected by the wicked demons d u r i n g t h e night. 5-6. We must reflect on this p o i n t — " W h a t h a p p e n e d there? W a s the b a t t l e fought by our lady? Did the other Śaktis fight with the great Asuras? W h a t should be d o n e now? W h a t does the great goddess t h i n k ? " 7. On being agitated by these doubts a n d fears, D a n d a ­ n ā t h ā a n d others proceeded towards Lalitā, keeping M a n t r i n ī in front of t h e m . 8. W h e n the n i g h t d a w n e d , all those h o n o u r e d generals of t h e troops of Śaktis c a m e a n d stood a r o u n d the l e a d i n g chariot. 9. M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā y i k ā got down from . their vehicles, placed the a r m y b e n e a t h a n d they themselves ascended the c h a r i o t (of the goddess). 10-11. By means of h u r r i e d paces, they climbed up those n i n e steps. T h e y were ( d u l y h o n o u r e d ) a n d informed by Śaktis stationed on the different steps. M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā y i k ā a p p r o a c h e d ths great queen. W i t h the eight limbs touching the ground (i.e. by p r o s t r a t i n g before t h e goddess), they s u b m i t t e d t o t h e goddess thus : — 12. "O Ambikā, we h e a r d t h a t a great c a l a m i t y took p l a c e . H a r m has b e e n caused b y the wicked Daityas b y a fraudulent b a t t l e . 13. T h a t vicious fellow of evil c o n d u c t is afraid of an o p e n b a t t l e . He desires to achieve victory by deceitful m£ans. 14. F o r t u n a t e l y , the arrows etc- of the vicious demons h a v e not t o u c h e d t h e person of our lady. H e n c e he is alive. 15. O great queen, it is by seeking the sole support of your majesty's feet t h a t all of us live a n d achieve w h a t we desire. 16. H e n c e , it is our d u t y to defend the person of Y o u r Majesty. T h e p r o m i n e n t Daityas a r e experts in t h e use of


1170

Brahmānda Pur&na

M ā y ā . In this connection let t h e deliberations and consultations b e held. 17. T h e base D ā n a v a s beginning with B h a n d a should be defeated d u r i n g t h e period of their misery. (Henceforth) they shall not be able to carry on fraudulent war n o r shall they p e n e t r a t e this a r m y . 18. For t h a t purpose an enormous c a m p h u n d r e d Yojanas in extent should be built on the southern side of the m o u n t a i n Mahendra. 19-22. Let a r a m p a r t of blazing fire be m a d e for •defence. For suppressing the haughtiness of t h e enemy, let t h e intervening space of o u r c a m p site be m a d e a h u n d r e d Yojanas in length. T h e gate of the r a m p a r t wall of fire should be in the south because Śūnyaka the city of the enemies is situated in the southern region. M a n y a t t e n d a n t s should be employed at the e n t r a n c e . T h e y should be a r m e d a n d be ready to stop those who go in or come out. O n l y those who a r e always active, w h o are ready to forego sleep a n d w h o are never idle should be engaged. 23-24. In case it is a r r a n g e d in this m a n n e r , the frau­ d u l e n t attack designed to be carried o u t by o u r enemies, t h e wicked (demons), will be impossible. T h e y c a n n o t m a k e a major surprise attack during untimely hours such as dusks, mid-nights etc., If not, the evil-minded Daityas who a d o p t m a n y M ā y ā tactics will strike t h e entire g r e a t a r m y like robbers who p l u n d e r everything before our eyes". 25. After h e a r i n g these words of M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a ­ n ā t h ā , Lalitā spoke thus, shedding pearls, as it were, by m e a n s of the white sparkles of t h e teeth. 26. " T h i s counsel of your is the result of a very good deliberation a n d a fine intelligence. T h i s is the p a t h of shrewd a n d wise people. This is t h e ancient a n d e t e r n a l policy. 27. It is only after making proper a r r a n g e m e n t for the defence of one's own a r m y by adopting strong measures t h a t t h e offensive against t h e enemy's forces should be u n d e r t a k e n by the leading persons who wish to a t t a i n v i c t o r y . " 28. After saying thus to M a n t r i n ī and D a n d a n ā t h ā t h a t goddess L a l i t ā called the- N i t y ā deity J v ā l ā m ā l i n i a n d spoke hus.


Lalitā-māhātmya

26.29-40

1171

29. "O d e a r one, y o u have t h e form of fire. Y o u r fea­ tures are fiery flames. Let the defence of this g r e a t a r m y be provided for by you. 30. After encircling t h e g r o u n d to the extent of a h u n d r e d Yojanas assume the form of a fiery flame t h i r t y Yojanas in height. 31. Leaving an opening of a Yojana r e t a i n y o u r blazing body elsewhere. H a v i n g adopted the n a t u r e of a fiery flame protect the entire a r m y " . 32. After saying this to the N i t y ā deity J v ā l ā m ā l i n i k ā , Lalitā the goddess a t t e m p t e d to proceed to the n o r t h e r n region of the M a h e n d r a . 33. T h a t Nityā deity who h a d t h e eternal features of blazing fiery flames a n d who presided over t h e Caturdaśi (fourteenth) L u n a r d a y said " S o b e i t " a n d bowed down t o her. 34. As directed by h e r a l o n e before, t h e region of ground having the M a h e n d r a m o u n t a i n to its n o r t h (see verse 18) was encircled (by the N i t y ā deity who) blazed in the form of a fiery enclosure. 35-36. ( T h e Nityā deity) h a d the features of a garland of fiery flames or the Ketakī flowers forming a circle in the sky. By entering t h e enormously spacious enclosure, t h e a r m y of D a n d a n ā t h ā , the a r m y of M a n t r i n ā t h ā a n d t h e large a r m y of other great Śaktis also became liberated from fatigue a n d shone well. 37-40. D a n d i n i placed t h e leading c h a r i o t Rājacakrar a t h a in t h e middle. She placed her own chariot on t h e left side. On t h e right side she placed t h e chariot of Ś y ā m a l ā . On the back she p l a c e d Sampadīśī and in the front H a y ā s a n ā . After placing (different persons) all r o u n d G a k r a r ā j a r a t h a , she stationed a t t h e e n t r a n c e the deity n a m e d S t a m b h i n i w h o a p p e a r e d fierce with a blazing staff for h e r w e a p o n a n d w h o •was accompanied by twenty Aksauhinīs of soldiers. T h i s deity of D a n d a n ā t h ā is well known as Vighnadevī also. After a r r a n g i n g for t h e complete defence of the c a m p , w h e n the sun h a d risen well up in t h e sky, t h e deity Potrini resorted to w a r once again.


1172

Brahmānda Purāna.

4 1 . T h e r e u p o n , m a k i n g a g r e a t d e a l of t u m u l t u o u s shout a n d u p r o a r , t h e g r e a t a r m y of Śaktis set o u t from t h e fiery enclosure t h r o u g h t h e opening. 42. O n h e a r i n g t h a t t h e interior o f t h e c a m p o f L a l i t ā h a d been well g u a r d e d thus, B h a n d a , t h e ferocious D ā n a v a , felt t h e fever of g r e a t i n d i g n a t i o n all over again. 43-45. H e h a d consultation once again w i t h Kutilāksa a n d others, w i t h V i s a ń g a a n d Viśukra as well as with his own sons. In order to carry on t h e battle in one extensive onslaught, t h a t fierce D ā n a v a B h a n d a called his sons G a t u r b ā h u a n d others w h o resembled t h e four oceans a n d w h o were efficient in all activities connected with w a r . Blazing w i t h fierce fury, he sent t h e m to t h e b a t t l e front. 4 6 . His sons t h i r t y in n u m b e r , were mighty, with hugebodies. I shall m e n t i o n t h e i r n a m e s , O Pot-born sage, listen. 47-50. T h e y w e r e C a t u r b ā h u , Cakorāksa, t h e third one Catuśśiras, Vajraghosa, Ū r d h v a k e ś a , M a h ā k ā y a ( M a h ā m ā y a i n I I I . iv. 2 1 . 18), M a h ā h a n u , M a k h a ś a t r u , M a k h a s k a n d ī , Simhaghosa, S i r ā l a k a * , L ā d u n a , P a t t a s e n a , Purājit, P ū r v a m ā r a k a , Svargaśatru, Svargabala, D u r g ā k h y a ( i . e . one n a m e d D u r g a ) , S v a r g a k a n t a k a , Atimāya, B r h a n m ā y a a n d t h e powerful Upamāya. T h e s e were t h e h a u g h t y evil-minded sons of Daitya,. B h a n d a . T h e y h a d vigorous physical bodies a n d heroism on a p a r w i t h t h e i r father. 5 1 . After coming they devoutly saluted the feet of B h a n d a . Glancing at t h e m w i t h delighted eyes, t h a t D ā n a v a t h e destro­ yer of his own family, spoke these words gravely. 52. " O ! m y sons, w h o c a n b e equal t o you o n t h e E a r t h ? It is w i t h your help alone t h a t t h e universe was former­ l y conquered b y m e . 53. In t h e course of the b a t d e , y o u h a v e furiously pulled t h e tresses of (devas such as) Śakra, Agni, Y a m a , N i r r t i a n d Varuna. •Eight names are omitted here (3.4.21.82) they are Andhaka, Sindhuhetra, Kūpaka, Kūpilocana, Guhāk?a, Gandagalla (Gandavella),. Candadharma, Yamāntaka.


Lalitā-māhātmya

26.54-64

117$

54. You know ( h o w to wield) all kinds of missiles a n d weapons. But, even w h e n you all a r e wakeful a n d alert, t h i s deprivation has befallen o u r family. 55. A certain way-ward a n d n a u g h t y w o m a n , who employs M ā y ā tactics a n d who is foolishly p r o u d a b o u t ( h e r capacity for) fighting a n d is accompanied by m a n y women on a p a r with herself, is harassing us. 56. Therefore, you should certainly b r i n g h e r u n d e r your control in t h e course of b a t t l e . She should be c a p t u r e d alive by you w h o a r e e q u i p p e d with blazing weapons. 57. T h e r e is impropriety in sending y o u all against o n e w o m a n despite t h e fact t h a t you a r e blind w i t h i m m e a s u r a b l e fury. Still this is h o w fate works. 58. Please e n d u r e this one t h i n g c o n t r a r y to your heroism and glory". After saying thus, B h a n d a , the leading D a i t y a , despatched t h e m to t h e battlefield. In o r d e r to assist t h e m he sent twoh u n d r e d Aksauhinīs of soldiers too. 59. Being t h e Tilakas (the sacred m a r k on t h e forehead) on t h e face of (the lady in t h e form of) t h e a r m y consisting of two h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs, they ( t h e sons of B h a n d a ) went o u t from t h e i r a b o d e with arms in their h a n d s a n d their brows wellk n i t t e d in a n g e r a n d frown. 60. At t h e d e p a r t u r e of t h e sons of B h a n d a t h e e a r t h q u a k e d . T h e r e were m a n y evil portentous p h e n o m e n a . T h e universe b e c a m e excessively frightened. 6 1 . As t h e princes went along t h e streets in their vehicles, t h e elderly w o m e n of the city showered those princes of great s t r e n g t h with fried grains. 62. T h e b a r d s a n d t h e panegyrists eulogised the princes. T h e ladies of t h e city performed t h e rite of ceremonious waving of lights as a m a r k of good wishes at every door. 6 3 . W h e n they set off, t h e e a r t h a p p e a r e d as t h o u g h it was being split; it seemed as t h o u g h the sky was being d r a g g e d a n d it looked as though t h e sea was being c h u r n e d up a n d revolving. 64.

T a k i n g with t h e m an a r m y consisting of two h u n d r e d


Brahmānda Purāna

1174

Aksauhinīs of soldiers, t h e sons of B h a n d a set out from the city with faces r e n d e r e d cruel on a c c o u n t of eyebrows raised in anger. 65-67. T h e y boastingly said to one a n o t h e r — " I n the course of t h e battle we shall devour the armies of Śaktis in a m o m e n t . W i t h sharp arrows we shall reduce their weapons to powder. W i t h our v e h e m e n t violence a n d velocity, we shall suppress t h e enclosure of fiery r a m p a r t wall. We shall quickly arrest a n d c a p t u r e t h a t vainly p r o u d a n d foolish L a l i t ā " . T h e y swaggered thus to one a n o t h e r by loudly proclaiming heroic boasts. T h e sons of B h a n d a thus a p p r o a c h e d t h e enclo­ sure of fiery r a m p a r t . 68. Blinded by youthfulness a n d a r r o g a n c e , with their power of vision all b u t restrained and with eyebrows lifted up crookedly, t h e y m a d e loud noise like t h e r o a r of a lion. 69. It seemed as if t h e whole cosmic egg was being split by it, because it h a d great impetuosity a n d the velocity of the terrible t h u n d e r i n g of clouds at t h e time of world-dissolu­ tion. 70. T h e o u t c o m e of this loud sound t h a t h a d not been experienced before excited a n d stirred up the ears a n d the minds of Saktis. 7 1 . After coming they m a d e a great u p r o a r t h r o u g h their soldiers a n d discharged different weapons t h a t increased the splendour of aerial chariots. 72. On h e a r i n g t h a t the sons of D a i t y a B h a n d a the chief of w h o m was G a t u r b ā h u h a d c o m e for t h e purpose of fighting, Bālā (the d a u g h t e r of Lalitā) showed interest in it. 1

73-77a. She was the d a u g h t e r of L a l i t ā Devī. She always stayed n e a r t h e goddess. She was w o r t h y of being wor­ shipped by all Śaktis. She was an a d e p t in m a r t i a l feats a n d exploits. H e r form a n d features were like those of L a l i t ā . She was always like a nine y e a r old girl yet she was a great 1.

T h i s means it w a s after a b o u t

nine

or

ten

years

after

marriage that she undertook the c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t Bhandasura. A poetic

b a l a n c e is

effected

Lalitā's sort

of

by m a t c h i n g the daughter of L a l i t ā against the

sons of Bhandasura in the battle.


Lalitā-mūhatmya 26.77-88

1175-

m i n e of all lores. H e r b o d y was like t h e rising sun. H e r cree­ per-like slender body was in complexion. She was p e r p e t u a l l y present n e a r t h e foot-rest of t h e great queen. She was at it were t h e vital b r e a t h of the goddess moving externally. She was her fourth eye. She b e c a m e furious a n d t h o u g h t t h u s : " I shall immediately kill those sons of B h a n d a who h a v e come h e r e " . After m a k i n g u p h e r m i n d thus, B ā l ā m b ā submitted t o t h e great queen. 77b-80. " M o t h e r , t h e sons of B h a n d a , t h e g r e a t D a i t y a , h a v e c o m e to fight. I wish to fight w i t h t h e m . I am interested in this because I am a y o u n g girl. My a r m s t h r o b w i t h an itching sensation for w a r . T h i s is my playful activity. It should n o t be curbed by y o u r orders of prohibition. I n d e e d I am a girl loving toys a n d playful pastimes. By this play of fighting for a m o m e n t , I shall become delighted m e n t a l l y . " On being requested thus the goddess replied to K u m ā r i k ā . 81-83. " D e a r child, your limbs are very t e n d e r a n d soft. You a r e only nine years old. This is your first step a n d per­ formance. Y o u r training in warfare is fresh a n d recent. Y o u a r e m y only d a u g h t e r . W i t h o u t you, m y b r e a t h i n g activity does n o t go on even for a m o m e n t . Y o u a r e my very vital b r e a t h . D o n o t g o i n for the great war. W e have D a n d i n ī , M a n t r i n ī a n d crores of o t h e r Śaktis for fighting. D e a r child, w h y d o y o u c o m m i t this b l u n d e r ? " 84-85. Although prevented thus by Śrī Lalitādevī, t h e girl was overcome by adolescent curiosity. She requested once a g a i n for permission to fight. On observing her stead-fast decision, Śrīlalitā, t h e m o t h e r , g r a n t e d h e r permission after closely clasping h e r in h e r a r m s . 86. She took off one of h e r a r m o u r s a n d gave it to h e r . F r o m h e r weapons she gave h e r t h e requisite w e a p o n s a n d sent h e r off. 87. K u m ā r i k ā (the virgin goddess) got i n t o t h e covered p a l a n q u i n t h a t h a d been extracted b y t h e g r e a t q u e e n from t h e staff of her bow a n d to which h u n d r e d s of swans were yoked for d r a w i n g . 88.

W h e n she ( t h e girl) was set out for t h e

battle,

the


1176

Brahmānda Purina

deities stationed on all t h e steps bowed d o w n to her with p a l m s j o i n e d in reverence a n d held their swords erect. 89 .Being saluted by t h e m , she got d o w n from t h e excel­ lent chariot G a k r a r ā j a r a t h a a n d entered t h e a r m y stationed a t the bottom. 90. On seeing t h e girl red-faced in fury coming o n , M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā were frightened. T h e y said these words : 91-93. " W h y , O princess, have you actively engaged yourself in battle? W h y are you suddenly despatched to t h e w a r front by t h e g r e a t queen herself? W h e n t h e soldiers are present a n d ready, this is n o t proper. Since you, O girl, a r e t h e personified life of Śrīdevī, recede from your enthusiastic p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n war. W e a r e m a k i n g obeisance t o y o u " . T h o u g h earnestly requested by them, she moved on stead­ fast in h e r decision. 94. M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā y i k ā were immensely surprised. T h e y went along with h e r on either side in order to g u a r d h e r . 95. Followed by b o t h of t h e m along w i t h p l e n t y of sol­ diers, K u m ā r i k ā w e n t o u t t h r o u g h t h e o p e n i n g i n t h e f i e r y enclosure. 96. Seated in her covered p a l a n q u i n , she accepted a n d acknowledged t h e series of palms j o i n e d in reverence by way of obeisance of t h e armies of Śaktis along w i t h their leaders. 97-98. T h a t virgin, t h e suppressor of enemies, rushed at t h e wicked sons of B h a n d a . She h a d no p r i v a t e a n d local a r m y . T h e entire a r m y o f L a l i t ā b e c a m e her own a r m y . T h e n com­ m e n c e d t h e w a r w h e r e haughtiness a n d feats of exploits were displayed. 99-100. T h e Virgin showered volleys of arrows on t h e leading Daityas. T h e f i g h t t h a t t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e great q u e e n fought w i t h t h e sons of Asura B h a n d a was a t h i n g covetable to b o t h Suras a n d Asuras. On seeing t h a t n i n e year old girl discharging volleys of arrows seated within the p a l a n q u i n , D a i t y a princes b e c a m e surprised very m u c h . 101. T h e female a t t e n d a n t s moving u p a n d down every m o m e n t informed t h e g r e a t q u e e n a b o u t the magnificent fight c a r r i e d on by t h e girl.


Lalitā-māhātmya

26.102-117

1177

102. M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā r e m a i n e d there as silent onlookers b u t they never left her in t h e course of t h e b a t t l e . 103. T h o u g h t h e virgin h a d only one single physical form she a p p e a r e d differently to each one of those sons of D a i t y a like a series of reflections of t h e sun. 104-107. H e r face was red w i t h anger like t h e r e d lotus. "With fire-crested arrows she h i t a n d pierced t h e vulnerable a n d vital parts of their bodies. Along w i t h the different kinds of shouts of " W e l l d o n e " of the heaven-dwellers w h o stood watch­ i n g i n t h e f i r m a m e n t , M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā too gave expression to t h e i r surprise. Being praised t h u s by these, t h e active a n d agile virgin w e n t on fighting. By discharging m i r a ­ culous missiles a n d counter missiles, she h i t a n d injured all of t h e m a n d exhibited h e r strength d u r i n g t h e second d a y o f the battle. 108. By discharging t h e N ā r ā y a n a missile, t h e d a u g h t e r of t h e g r e a t queen r e d u c e d t h e a r m y consisting of two h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs to ashes within a. trice. 109. By. t h e destruction of t h e Aksauhinīs within a short w h i l e , they b e c a m e furious. D r a w i n g their big bows fully, t h e y r u s h e d in a b o d y w i t h ease. 110. T h e r e u p o n , a t u m u l t u o u s a n d c h a o t i c sound rose from t h e midst of Śaktis a n d the heaven-dwellers. T h a t virgin t h e n d i s c h a r g e d t h i r t y arrows simultaneously. 111. T h e h e a d s of all t h i r t y sons of B h a n d a were struck d o w n by t h e t h i r t y arrows w i t h crescent-shaped tips, discharged b y h e r w i t h g r e a t dexterity. 112. W h e n the sons of B h a n d a a t t a i n e d t h e a b o d e of t h e god of d e a t h thus, those celestials s t a n d i n g in t h e sky were surprised very m u c h . T h e y showered flowers. 113. T h a t d a u g h t e r of t h e g r e a t q u e e n w h o h a d killed t h e armies of Asuras was very joyfully e m b r a c e d by Mantrinī and Dandanāthā. 114. W i t h shouts of 'well d o n e ' p r o c l a i m i n g h e r victory a n d increasing in t h e i r brilliance, d u e to h e r feats of exploits, t h e d a n c i n g Śaktis m a d e uproarious sounds exciting t h e t h r e e worlds. 115-117. T h e leading generals of Śaktis w i t h D a n d -


Brahmānda

1178

Purina

a n ā t h ā a t t h e h e a d o f t h e m all, w e n t u p i n order t o r e p o r t t h a t wonderful performance to t h e g r e a t q u e e n . On h e a r i n g about t h e praises of the excellent work of the a r m s of h e r d a u g h t e r , submitted by t h e m , goddess Lalitāmbikā derived great pleasure. T h e e n t i r e t r o o p of Śaktis became excessively surprised at h e r exploits never observed before a m o n g D e v a s .

CHAPTER TWENTYSEVEN The Exploits of GananStka1 Hayagriva narrated : 1. W h e n t h e sons were killed, t h a t leader of t h e D a i t y a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r u i n of t h e whole family h a d set in. He w a s over-whelmed w i t h t h e fire of grief a n d l a m e n t e d . 2. " A l a s my sons, of liberal qualities. O my sons devot­ ed solely to m e . O my sons instilling n e c t a r into my eyes. Alas ! my sons, t h e cause of my flourishing family. 3. You were eager to break t h e pride of all excellent Suras, O my sons ! Y o u were like t h e god of love e n c h a n t i n g t h e m i n d s of all damsels of Suras. 4 . D o reply u n t o m e ! D o b o u n c e into a n d d a n c e i n m y l a p . W h y have you forsaken this your father now ? W h y have you gone in search of happiness (elsewhere) ? 5. O my sons, w i t h o u t you, my kingdoms do n o t a p p e a r splendid. My abodes a r e e m p t y a n d void ! My royal councilc h a m b e r is void w i t h o u t y o u ;

T h i s chapter shows t h a t t h e belief in the elephant-headed g o d as the destroyer of difficulties or i m p e d i m e n t s in an undertaking was at the t i m e of the author of this

Māhātmya

and

people

used

g o d G a n e ś a first e v e n in formal worship of other deities. T h i s

Ganeśa current

to worship

super-position

or priority of G a n e ś a worship is attributed to the b o o n of Lalitā as a reward o f his exploits i n the c a m p a i g n against Bhandāsura ( V . 1 0 4 ) .


Lalitā-māhātmya

1179

27.6-17

6. O dejected ones (?), how were you all wholly killed ? H o w did t h a t wicked w o m a n a b r u p t l y kill in the battle all of you, t h e prowess of whose mighty a r m s could not be challenged a n d w h o a r e , as it were, the sprouts of my family ? 7-9. All my happiness is ruined ! Hereafter, as the family has decayed, adventuresome n a t u r e a n d happiness too h a v e decayed. It was t h r o u g h the merits of my previous births that I o b t a i n e d you all. But today you all have been destroyed. So I too am ruined. Alas ! my sons, I am d o o m e d . I am caught in adversity ! I am u n f o r t u n a t e , O my sons ! " T h u s he l a m e n t e d , shedding profuse tears o u t of grief. W i t h his tresses left dishevelled, he began to grumble a n d b a b b l e . W i t h a broken h e a r t , he fell i n t o a swoon a n d d r o p p e d down from his royal seat. 10. Viśukra, Visańga a n d K u t i l ā k s a consoled B h a n d a , in t h e assembly c h a m b e r ( b y emphasizing) on t h e crooked workings of fate. Viśukra said :

/

11. "O lord, have you become a victim of sorrow like an o r d i n a r y u n c u l t u r e d fellow ? You are l a m e n t i n g over y o u r sons w h o h a v e courted d e a t h in the g r e a t b a t t l e . 12. This is the righteous a n d eternal p a t h laid d o w n in t h e case of heroes; if they m e e t with deserved d e a t h , t h e i r d e a t h in t h e b a t t l e should not be bewailed. 13. But it is this alone t h a t torments t h e m i n d like a painful d a r t for destruction, t h a t a w o m a n comes suddenly a n d kills excellent soldiers in t h e b a t t l e " . 14. W h e n this was addressed by t h a t D a i t y a , t h e sorrow for his sons was eschewed by B h a n d a a n d an anger like t h e fierce fire of D e a t h was assumed by h i m . 15. He suddenly drew his Yama-like fierce sword from its s c a b b a r d . K e e p i n g his p a i r of eyes distended, he shone brilliantly w i t h his splendour. 16-17. " N o w itself I shall h a c k down t h a t wicked w o m a n to pieces with this sword and shall strenuously leap i n t o the b a t t l e along with my k i n s m e n " — s a y i n g t h u s in faltering words d u e to anger, he began to hiss like a serpent.


1180

Brahmānda Purāna

He stood u p , shook his sword a n d moved on like a person excessively intoxicated. 18. All t h e leading D ā n a v a s b e c a m e bewildered. T h e y restrained h i m a n d u t t e r e d these scathing words against Lalitā, d u e to great anger. 19. " F o r t h a t purpose, O lord, this flurried agitation need not be evinced by you. We shall carry on w a r e n t h u ­ siastically along w i t h our army. 20. At your slightest behest we are c a p a b l e of subjugat­ ing a n d suppressing t h e entire universe violently. W h a t then, with regard to t h a t stupid w o m a n ? 2 1 . Shall we quaff of t h e seven oceans? Or shall we smash t h e m o u n t a i n s to smithereens ? Or shall we twin t h e three worlds upside down ? 22. Shall we massacre all Suras ? Shall we split their abodes ? Shall we crush a n d p o u n d the guardians of quarters ? Give us permission a n d c o m m a n d us, O highly intelligent o n e " . 2 3 . After h e a r i n g this u t t e r a n c e full of haughtiness a n d pride, t h e furious D a i t y a spoke these words with his eyes turnedred d u e to w r a t h . 24. "O Viśukra, you go to the c a m p of t h e enemy with your body concealed by means of M ā y ā a n d operate the great Tantra (mystical d i a g r a m ) J ayavighna"1 25. On hearing his words Viśukra w e n t towards the a r m y of L a l i t ā in great fury, with his body concealed by m e a n s of Māyā. 26. E v e n as he was getting ready to go, t h e sun set m a k i n g the faces of c a r d i n a l points red by the collection -of rays diffused in all directions. 27. Sandhya (Dusk) was full of Anurāga (Love, red c o l o u r ) . She followed t h e sun as he went away (i.e. s e t ) . She a p p e a r e d 1.

T h e eight deities presiding over the Y a n t r a w h i c h brings or creates

difficulties in getting success (Jaya-vighna) are the personifications of tenden­ c i e s w h i c h create disaffection

among

people

(vide V V . 3 6 - 3 9 ) . T h e adverse effects of the 4 3 - 5 2 . T h e Yantra

and

Yantra

demoralise

m a y b e symbolic o f the f i f t h - c o l u m n i s t s o r

a g e n t s of the ancient period.

The

•dates from t h e days of Atharvaveda.

belief in such

the army

are described destructive

in

VV.

the

enemy-

black

magic


Lalitā-māhātmya

27.28-39

1181

to be eager to indulge in sexual dalliance in the bowers of t h e n e t h e r world. 28. As t h e sun d r o p p e d i n t o the western ocean with great r a p i d i t y , w a t e r rose up in a great splash d u e to the c o n t a c t w i t h his body. T h e d r o p s of water so raised shone as stars in t h e sky. 29. T h e n a dense darkness as black as collyrium set i n . It a p p e a r e d to m a k e his S a v a r n a (a m a n of the same caste, having t h e same colour) t h e evil-minded sword meaningful (i.e. purposeful). 30. Seated in his m a g i c a l chariot a n d concealed a n d enveloped in thick gloom, the rogue reached the c a m p of L a l i t ā in an invisible form. 3 1 . After going t h e r e , the evil-minded D a i t y a saw t h e circular fiery enclosure extending to a h u n d r e d Yojanas a n d blazing brilliantly. 32. He went r o u n d t h e enclosure and o b t a i n i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y c a m e n e a r t h e s o u t h e r n d o o r . T h e h a u g h t y fellow t h o u g h t for a m o m e n t . 33. T h e r e , a t t h e e n t r a n c e , h e saw g u a r d s w h o h a d g r e a t i n h e r e n t strength, w h o were cautious a n d alert, w h o held weapons in their h a n d s , w h o were seated in t h e i r respective vehicles a n d w h o h a d p u t on coats of m a i l . 34-35. T h e y were Saktis, t h e chief of w h o m was S t a m b h i n i a n d w h o were e q u i p p e d with twenty Aksauhinīs. T h e y h a d b e e n engaged b y D a n d a n ā t h ā for g u a r d i n g the e n t r a n c e always. On seeing them, Viśukra w^s very m u c h surprised. After p o n d e r i n g for a long time, he stood outside t h e enclosure a n d p r e p a r e d t h e mystical d i a g r a m i n a n a m u l a t e . 36-39. He wrote (inscribed) t h e excellent Tantra in a h u g e rocky slab a Gavyūti (i.e. 3 kilometres) in length a n d t h e same in width. In t h e eight directions he d r e w t h e figures of eight tridents with t h e Samhārāksara (syllables signifying D e a t h or killing) on t h e t o p . T h e Tantra ( a m u l e t ) h a d eight presiding deities n a m e l y Alasā, Krpanā, Dinā, Nitandrā, Pramilikā Klibā, Gitā a n d Ahamkārā. He j o i n e d these eight deities over t h e eight tridents. V i ś u k r a w h o was an expert in M ā y ā , infused t h e Tantra w i t h a Mantra.


1182

Brahmānda Purāna:

40. He performed t h e worship of Yantra a n d offered goats etc. as oblation. In t h e course of b a t t l e , (?) t h a t Asura h u r l e d t h e Tantra into t h e e n e m y c a m p . 4 1 . In the course of t h e battle ( t h a t Yantra) hurled by t h a t wicked-souled D a i t y a w h o was standing outside the rampart-wall crossed the r a m p a r t a n d fell into the c a m p . 42. As an adverse effect of t h a t Yantra, t h e Śaktis stationed within the c a m p b e c a m e dejected in their minds. T h e y set aside weapons a n d a d o p t e d t h e a t t i t u d e of renouncing everything. 43-52. " W h a t is to be d o n e by killing Asuras? E n o u g h of this clash of weapons with o t h e r weapons. W h a t is t h e benefit achieved by victory? Injury to living beings yields sin. Is this for t h e sake of Devas ? W h a t shall befall us then? It is futile to m a k e a t u m u l t u o u s sound. Excepting this there is no other benefit from warlike activities. W h o is our mistress and great queen? A n d w h o is this D a n d a n ā y i k ā ? W h o is t h a t M a n t r i n ī of d a r k complexion ( Ś y ā m ā ) ? W h e n c e is our state of being servants a n d only one lady is t h e Mistress? W h a t , then is the g r e a t benefit t h a t is enjoyed ? No purpose is served by weapons t h a t pierce t h r o u g h t h e vital parts of the enemy. Let this war that brings a b o u t wounds in the body a n d loss of weapons to us come to a close. It is sure t h a t d e a t h will befall us in the course of b a t t l e . O u r lives t h e n become fruitless. T h e r e will surely be d e a t h in battle. W h a t a t r u e perception is this ? T h e r e is no benefit to be obtained t h r o u g h enthusiasm. Sleep alone is conducive to pleasure. N o t h i n g else yields m e n t a l rest so m u c h as Ātasya (Idleness). Even if the queen knows us to be like this, w h a t will t h a t queen do? H e r very status as a queen has been collectively conceded to her by us. T h a t being so, if she is a b a n d o n e d by us, h e r strength becomes destroyed. If she is without power, w h a t p u n i s h m e n t c a n she m e t e ? " In this m a n n e r , Śaktis left off all their p r e p a r a t i o n s for w a r a n d cast away their weapons. O v e r w h e l m e d by sleep, they a p p e a r e d to be reeling a n d movjng unsteadily at t h e entrance. 53.

T h e r e was dullness

a n d a p a t h y everywhere.

There


Lalitā-māhātmya

27.54-66

1183

w a s great laziness (and delay) in their activities. T h e whole of t h e g r e a t c a m p of Śaktis b e c a m e slack. 54-56. T h a t D ā n a v a was desirous of harassing a n d t o r m e n t i n g t h e whole of t h a t c a m p after m a k i n g Śaktis dejected in m i n d as a result of t h e g r e a t Y a n t r a called Jqyavighna. W h e n it h a d passed m i d n i g h t on t h e second d a y of war, he went out of t h e city once a g a i n surrounded by thirty Aksauhinīs of soldiers. Viśukra, the D a i t y a , c a m e to the c a m p of t h e e n e m y once again. 57. T h e n the sounds of his war d r u m were h e a r d . Still those Śaktis were devoid of a n y activity in the c a m p . 5 8 . In view of their exalted glorious state M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā were n o t adversely affected by t h e Vighnayantra. T h e y b e c a m e worried a b o u t t h e effect on t h e Śaktis. 59-60. " A l a s ! A g r e a t d a n g e r a n d c a l a m i t y has befallen us. W h a t is t h a t the adverse effect of which has m a d e our soldiers devoid of alertness a n d exertions? T h e y h a v e set aside their w e a p o n s . T h e y h a v e lost their t u r b u l e n c e . Sleep a n d lethargy have m a d e t h e m reel a n d heave. T h e y d o not m i n d our exhortations. They d o not worship the supreme goddess. Indifference is extensively practised by t h e m . T h e s e Śaktis h a v e b e c o m e d i s i n t e r e s t e d . " 61. Thus Mantrinī and D a n d a n ā t h ā in their great a n x i e t y climbed up t h e Cakrasyandana chariot a n d spoke to t h e great q u e e n . Mantrini said : 62. " O goddess, w h a t i s this a b e r r a t i o n d u e to? T h e Śaktis have ceased to be active. O g r e a t queen, they do n o t p a y heed to y o u r c o m m a n d s w h i c h t h e entire universe abides by. 63-66. T h e y a r e d e t a c h e d from one a n o t h e r . T h e y h a v e t u r n e d their faces from all activities. T h e y keep grim aspect in their sleepy drowsiness a n d lethargy. T h e y m a k e vulgar state­ m e n t s — " W h o i s this D a n d i n i ? W h o i s M a n t r i n ī ? W h o i s t h e great queen? Of w h a t avail is w a r ? Of w h a t n a t u r e is i t ? " T h e s e a r e the n u m e r o u s t a u n t i n g r e m a r k s they m a k e . I n the m e a n ­ time t h e exceedingly powerful e n e m y has c o m e piercing e a r t h a n d heaven with t h e terrific sounds of w a r d r u m s .


1184

Brahmānda Pur ana

W h a t is relevent in this context, O g r e a t q u e e n , m a y kindly be taken u p " . After saying this, M a n t r i n ī bowed down along w i t h Dandinī. 67. T h e r e u p o n , goddess L a l i t ā glanced at the face of K ā m e ś v a r a , she then laughed displaying a row of extremely red teeth. 68. In t h e mass of lustre of her smile, a certain god became visible. His face h a d the features of an elephant. I c h o r was oozing from t h e m i d d l e of his t e m p l e . 1 69-71. T h e mass of m a t t e d h a i r of his h e a d a p p e a r e d like a mass of P ā t a l ā ( t h e tree b e a r i n g t r u m p e t ) flowers. He held the crescent m o o n ( o n his h e a d ) . I n his ten h a n d s h e held citron fruit, m a c e , sugargane-bow, t r i d e n t ( t h a t h a d a fine f o r m ) , lotus, noose, (a b l u e l o t u s ) , b u n c h of (rice) g r a i n t h a t grants boons, t h e goad, a n d a jewelset p o t . He h a d a pot-belly. H e was moon-crested. H e h a d a p l e a s a n t r u m b l i n g sound. He was embraced by Siddhilaksmi. He bowed down to Maheśvarī. 72. After being blessed by her, t h e great elephant-faced lord of t h e G a n a s quickly set off from t h e r e to shatter t h e great Yantra called Jayavighna. 73. T h e enclosure saw where.

elephant-faced lord Jayavighna t h e a m u l e t

moving a b o u t w i t h i n secretly fixed some­

74. By h i t t i n g w i t h his tusks t h a t p r o d u c e d dreadful noise very difficult to bear, t h a t lord r e d u c e d t h e h u g e slab of Jayavighna to p o w d e r instantaneously. 75. Along w i t h t h e wicked deities posted t h e r e , r e d u c e d t h a t Yantra to p o w d e r a n d cast it off in a i r .

he

76. T h e r e u p o n , Śaktis got rid of their lethargy. M a k i n g a t u m u l t u o u s u p r o a r , they p r e p a r e d themselves for carrying o n f i g h t w i t h w e a p o n s i n t h e i r a r m s .

1.

T h e birth of G a n e ś a from t h e l a u g h of Lalitā

(as

P ā r v a t l ) i s a n attempt t o e n h a n c e the greatness o f Lalitā. T h e G a n a n ā t h a s or V i g h n a n ā y a k a s (the 'masters' of vighnat

against six

impediments)

in V V . 77-82 e m p h a s i z e the auspicious powers of these deities.

from

forms

of

given,


Lalitā-māhStmya 27.77-93

1183

77-82. T h e elephant-faced lord, w i t h u n i m p e d e d vigorous r o a r issuing forth from his throat, h a d in the n i g h t destroyed the Jayayantra created by him. On h e a r i n g this news, B h a n d a b e c a m e greatly agitated. T h a t elephant-faced lord created numerous other elephantfaced heroes similar to himself in features. F r o m the m i d d l e of their temples ichor was oozing out. T h e fragrance thereof caused t h e fluttering movements of big black bees. Their h u m m i n g sound appeared to be the song of praise of those heroes. W h e n they threw the filaments of p o m e g r a n t e flowers h e r e a n d there, the splendour of their h a n d s increased. T h e y 1 were ever ready to drink up playfully, all t h e oceans. T h e y were served by the Śaktis, the chief of w h o m was R d d h i . Āmoda was their leader. T h e six V i g h n a n ā y a k a s were Āmoda, Pramoda, Sumukha, Durmukha, Afighna a n d Vighnakartā. T h e y were the presiding deities of H e r a m b a s n u m b e r i n g seven crores. 83. Coming out of t h e enclosure of fiery r a m p a r t - w a l l those elephant-faced heroes moved ahead for assisting M a h ā g a n a p a t i i n the b a t t l e . 84-86. T h e y m a d e u p r o a r i o u s sounds t h r o u g h their wrathful humkāras a n d clashed with the D ā n a v a s . W i t h their hissing Phūtkāra sound they deafened the worlds. T h e g r o u p of armies of all the G a n a s rushed at the armies of Daityas. T h e leader of G a n a s split D ā n a v a s by means of sharp arrows. T h e n G a n a n ā t h a fought with Viśukra of great prowess, when h a u g h t y humkāras intercepted the twanging sounds of bows. 87-93a. K n i t t i n g his brows, Viśukra bit his own exces­ sively red lips a n d then fought w i t h h i m . T h e quarters a n d their inter-spaces became agitated by means of various sounds such as t h e sounds p r o d u c e d when weapons c a m e into clash w i t h one a n o t h e r , the humkāras of t h e Daityas, the sounds of hoofs of horses of Daityas, t h a t resembled t h e sounds p r o d u c e d by a n u m b e r of spades^ o p e r a t e d together, t h e t r u m p e t i n g sounds of leading elephants, the cries of agony d u e to fear, the neighing sound of a n u m b e r of horses, t h e creaking sounds of the wheels of chariots, the t w a n g i n g sounds of bows, t h e c h a t t e r i n g sounds of troops, the loud sounds o


1186

Brahmānda Parana

t h e hissing arrows, n u m e r o u s heroic utterances of t h e soldiers, boisterous laughs of great kings, lion-like roars e t c . T h u s t h e intensified b a t t l e w e n t on increasing. T h e evil-souled Viśukra h a d thirty Aksauhinīs of soldiers. T h e G a n a n ā t h a s of g r e a t heroism fought with e a c h one of them. 93b-97. T h o u s a n d s of elephant-faced heroes who h a d issued from t h e m o u t h of G a n a n ā t h a , frightened the a r m y of Daityas. T h e y encircled t h e m by means of their trunks a n d pierced their vital p a r t s with t h e tusks. T h e y enraged t h e m by the fanning movements of their ears c o m p a r a b l e to t h e clouds Puskarāvartakas at the end of a K a l p a . T h e y scattered flags a n d b a n n e r s t h r o u g h the d e e p b r e a t h s of their nostrils. T h e y p o u n d e d t h e m with their chests as lustrous as h a r d as t h e rocky declivity of m o u n t a i n s . T h e y crushed a n d pressed t h e m b y hitting a n d s t a m p i n g t h e m w i t h their feet. T h e y struck t h e m with their stout bellies. T h e y pierced t h e m with tridents. T h e y chopped t h e m by h i t t i n g with discuses. T h e y frightened t h e armies w i t h the loud sounds of conches. W i t h great enterprises they reduced t h e entire a r m y to powder. 98. T h e n (Viśukra) b e c a m e highly furious. S t a n d i n g in front of his a r m y , he sent a Gajāsura (An Asura in t h e form o f a n e l e p h a n t ) against t h e lord. 99. G a n e ś v a r a fought with the Gajadaitya ( D e m o n in t h e form of an e l e p h a n t ) of wicked n a t u r e who r o a r e d like a ferocious lion a n d who was accompanied by seven Aksauhinīs of soldiers. 1 0 0 . O n observing t h e power o f Gajāsura decreasing a n d t h a t of ( G a n e ś v a r a ) increasing, Viśukra fled from t h e battle-field. 101. Alone a n d single-handed t h a t l e a d e r ofheroes with a mouse for his vehicle m o v e d a b o u t (in the battle-field) a n d smashed Gajāsura along w i t h his seven Aksauhinīs of soldiers. 102. After Gajāsura h a d been killed a n d Viśukra h a d fled, M a h ā g a n a p a t i went to t h e presence of Lalitā from t h e battle­ field. 103. T h a t n i g h t w h i c h was a Kūlarātri ( n i g h t of night­ m a r e ) for the D a i t y a s , c a m e to a close. L a l i t ā b e c a m e d e l i g h t e d a t his exploits.


Lalitū-mihātmya

1187

27.104—28.10

104. Highly pleased the great q u e e n g r a n t e d the following b o o n to G a n e ś v a r a viz.: the right of being worshipped before t h e worship of all o t h e r deities.

CHAPTER TWENTYEIGHT Viśukra and Visañga Slain Hayagrlva said : 1. On h e a r i n g t h a t his brother, the great D a i t y a , had been vanquished in the battle, and t h a t his a r m y was slaughtered, B h a n d a , the Daitya, b e c a m e extremely distressed w i t h great anxiety. 2. Bhanda, the D a i t y a , sent b o t h of his brothers together to the battle along with all t h e soldiers. 3 . T h e two Daityas, V i s a ń g a a n d Viśukra b e c a m e excessively angry a n d directed by B h a n d a , the D a i t y a , they strained themselves to the utmost. 4. An a r m y t h a t shook the three worlds followed Viśukra, the crown prince of great strength, a c c o m p a n i e d by his younger brother. 5. T h e crown prince s u r r o u n d e d by Aksauhinls of soldiers increased in great vigour.

four

hundred

6-8. T e n h a u g h t y nephews beginning w i t h Ulūkajit, born of D h ū m i n ī , the sister of B h a n d a , swaggered on a c c o u n t of their valour. T h e y h a d been trained in t h e use of weapons by Bhanda, their great uncle. As generals, they started on m a k i n g ten directions reverberate on account of loud twanging sounds of their bows. These nephews increased the pleasure of b o t h the m a t e r n a l uncles (on account of these a c t i v i t i e s ) . 9. T h e y h a d their several vehicles w h i c h they got in full of p r i d e . T h e y kept their weighty bows ready d r a w n a n d followed Viśukra. 10. V i ś u k r a reached the battle-field riding on his •elephant. He was fully rendered splendid w i t h the u m b r e l l a a n d


1188

Brahmānda Purāna

chowries t h a t constituted the symbol of glory of being t h e Crown P r i n c e .

of t h e status

1 1 . T h e r e u p o n , surrounded b y the a r m y m a k i n g a n uproarious t u m u l t u o u s sounds, Viśukra roared terrifically like a lion. 12. Śaktis were excited within their hearts on account of their agitation. Proudly a n d excitedly, they went o u t of enclosure of fiery r a m p a r t - w a l l in rows. 13. By their physical splendour, they a p p e a r e d to m a k e the sky full of lightning streaks. T h e circle of firmament was rendered enveloped with red lotuses, as they lifted up t h e i r faces eager to carry on battle. 14-18a. T h e n t h e younger brothers of B h a n d a , very, ferocious in fighting, h a d come (to t h e battle-field). M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā y i k ā c a m e to fight, seated in their excellent chariots Kiri-cakra as well as J ñ e y a c a k r a ( G e y a c a k r a ) the crest-jewel of all chariots. T h e y came there simultaneously with the circular (royal u m b r e l l a held aloft a n d being fanned by chowries. T h e i r great victory was being sung by the dancing celestial damsels. T h e y set out to carry on war. At the b i d d i n g of Lalitā, an a r m y of a h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs h a d been placed by b o t h of t h e m for the purpose of protecting the glorious C a k r a r a t h a r ā j a . Excepting this a r m y , t h e entirer e m a i n i n g divisions of the a r m y set o u t eagerly for the b a t t l e . 18b-20a. Seated in h e r chariot, D a n d a n ā t h ā went a h e a d . W i t h only a single finger of one h a n d , she was whirling her weapons of ploughshare a n d with t h e o t h e r h a n d she was brandishing t h e pestle frequently. H e r lotus-like face resembling t h e snout of a b o a r , shone with the sparkling digit of the m o o n as its crest-jewel. In the battle, she was (genuinely) p r o u d of h e r exploits. She was striking the e n e m y from the front. 20b-25. ( M a n t r i n ī ) seated in the chariot Geyacakra followed her. Highly p r o u d as she was, she filled t h e universe w i t h the sound of her bow. H e r tresses were b r a i d e d a n d t h e m o o n shone like a t e n d e r blossom placed within it. T h r e e eyes ( ' T h e third e y e ' i n N . ) shone (in her forehead) with t h e lustre of a sacred m a r k of saffron. H e r h a n d s resembling lotus were m a d e more beautiful with bangles studded with jewels..


Lalita-māhātmya 28.26-34

1189

She was whirling an arrow d r a w n from the quiver. D a n c i n g celestial sages were excited w i t h great delight. T h e y felicitated h e r with n e c t a r i n e words of blessings like " B e victorious. Be e x a l t e d " . By means of the (creaking) sounds p r o d u c e d by friction of t h e rims of wheels of t h e leading c h a r i o t Geyacakra, she tore up (as it were) the surface of the E a r t h along w i t h the hearts of Daityas. By means of musical compositions t h a t surpassed every thing else in the world a n d t h a t e n c h a n t e d t h e minds of t h e entire universe, m a n y celestial ladies sang h e r glory. 26. Eight thousand Aksauhinīs of soldiers, h a u g h t y of their ability to wage war, led by her, resembled t h e limitless ocean at the close of a K a l p a . 27. A m o n g the multitudes of troops of her Śaktis, some h a d the refulgence of gold, some resembled the p o m e ­ g r a n a t e flowers a n d some h a d t h e lustre of clouds. 2 8 . O t h e r s were saffron-complexioned. A few were pinkcoloured like the P ā t a l ā ( T r u m p e t ) flowers; some h a d robes (shining) like t h e crystal m o u n t a i n a n d some w e r e pleasingly t e n d e r a n d beautiful t h o u g h d a r k in colour. 29-3la. O t h e r s h a d the lustre of d i a m o n d s ; some others were c o m p a r a b l e to emeralds. Some displayed t h e i r bodily lustre wielding different kinds of weapons including t h e five arrows (of c u p i d ) opposed to one a n o t h e r a n d mingled w i t h hundred-edged thunderbolts. T h u s i n n u m e r a b l e Śaktis moved on. 31b-33. O Pot-born sage, warlike p r e p a r a t i o n s a n d equip­ m e n t s of M a n t r i n ī were similar to those of D a n d a n ā t h ā . M a n y things in D a n d i n ī were of the same n a t u r e as in t h e great q u e e n , such as o r n a m e n t s , dress etc., the characteristics of prowess a n d influence, possession of good qualities, according of p r o t e c t i o n to those w h o seek refuge, ability to kill D a i t y a s , w o r t h y of being worshipped by all a n d o t h e r powers. O n e t h i n g specially to be m e n t i o n e d in the case of D a n d i n ī was t h e signet ring of o r d e r held in her h a n d as a symbol of ministership g r a n t e d by the great queen. 34. W h e n the armies o f M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā moved on thus, t h e e a r t h reached a breaking point d u e to t h e i r b u r d e n a n d it heaved like a swing.


1190

Brahmānda Purāna

35. T h e r e u p o n , a chaotic a n d uproarious b a t t l e ensued. It caused h o r r i p i l a t i o n . T h e waters of t h e seven oceans t u r n e d into a slushy moss by t h e dust particles t h a t rose u p . 36. T h e cavalry fought w i t h those on horse-back. T h o s e riding in t h e chariots fought with those stationed in chariots. T h e elephant-riders fought with those w h o r o d e on e l e p h a n t s . T h e infantry fought with swords. 37. In the course of t h e battle D a n d a n ā t h ā fought w i t h Visańga. D r a w i n g h e r jewel-studded bow, Śyāmā fought with Viśukra. 38. A ś v ā r ū d h ā ( D e i t y seated on a horse) powerfully fought with Ulūkajit. W i t h a great desire for fighting, S a m p a dīśā c a m e into clash with the D e m o n Purusena. 39. T h e deity Nakuli challenged a n d c a m e i n t o a clash with Kuntisena. 40. U n m a t t a b h a i r a v ī fought w i t h M a l a d a . L a g h u ś y ā m ā fought w i t h K u ś ū r a . 4 1 . Svapneśī waged w a r with the leading D a i t y a n a m e d M a ń g a l a . Vāgvādinī clashed w i t h D r a g h a n a i n t h e battle. 42. C a n d a k ā l ī fought with the wicked K o l ā t a . T h e h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs of deities fought w i t h the Aksauhinīs of t h e Daityas. H i g h l y furious b o t h the armies fought a great b a t t l e mutually. 43-44. As the fight went on, Viśukra, t h e wicked D ā n a v a , observed the a r m y of Śaktis increasing in power a n d his own a r m y decreasing in power. O v e r w h e l m e d w i t h great indignation, he drew his heavy bow a n d discharged Trsāstra1 (the missile of thirst) over t h e a r m y of Śaktis. 4 5 . T h e whole a r m y was afflicted brilliant as the flames of a forest-fire.

by

that

(missile) as

On the t h i r d d a y of the battle, w h e n only a Y ā m a ( a b o u t t h r e e hours) h a d passed since sun-rise, Śaktis b e c a m e afflicted a n d over-powered by the T r s ā s t r a (missile of thirst) discharged by Viśukra. 1.

T h e author's i n g e n u i t y in converting

vices, virtues,

mental handicaps into Astras " m i s s i l e s " appears n o w

a n d then.

physical It

its c l i m a x in Bhandāsura's fight with Lalitā, Infra c h . 2 9 . H e r e this

and

reached Astra

is

c a p a b l e of making the w h o l e army thirsty. Its effect is described in V V . 4 5 - 5 3 .


Lalita-māhātmya 28.46-57

1191

46-47. An a c u t e fever of thirst raged a m i d s t Śaktis. I t stirred u p a n d agitated the sense organs. I t m a d e the root of the p a l a t e p a r c h e d . It rendered the e a r cavities rough a n d arid. It caused feebleness a n d fatigue all over t h e body. It caused their bodies fall flat on the g r o u n d w i t h the weapons d r o p p i n g off one by one. 48. T h e a r m y of Śaktis was excessively afflicted by a thirst t h a t m a d e t h e m inactive in the battles a n d destroyed their enthusiasm. On seeing this, M a n t r i n ī a n d Potrinī b e c a m e extremely anxious. 49-52. Seated in her chariot ( M a n t r i n ī said to D a n d a n ā ­ t h ā w h o was also seated in h e r c h a r i o t a n d w h o was suspicious a n d afraid of great c a l a m i t y . She w a n t e d her to find a r e m e d y for t h e same. She said " D e a r friend Potrinī, this missile of thirst of the wicked fellow weakens a n d impairs o u r a r m y . Alas ! the adverse activity of fate ! T h e b a t t l e has been a b a n d o n e d by the troops of Śaktis, the roots of whose p a l a t e s h a v e b e e n p a r c h e d u p , whose refulgence has been dispelled a n d whose weapons have been d r o p p e d down. N o n e of t h e m is fighting nor even holding the w e a p o n . D e a r friend, they a r e i n c a p a b l e of even speaking since the (roots of their) palates have been dried u p . W h a t will M a h e ś v a r ī say on h e a r i n g a b o u t this miserable plight of ours. Injurious disservice has been done by the Daityas. L e t t h e r e m e d y be t h o u g h t of. 5 3 . A m o n g the sixteen thousand Aksauhinīs, d e a r Potrinī, there is not even a single Śakti who is not afflicted by thirst. 54. On seeing this o p p o r t u n i t y when the a r m y has cast off its weapons, the D ā n a v a s , ever eager to strike at weak a n d vulnerable points, are alas ! striking a n d killing by m e a n s of arrows. 55-56. In this m a t t e r some means of activising t h e m in war must be devised by you a n d m e . T h e r e is an o c e a n of cold w a t e r in one of the steps of your chariot. C o m m a n d h i m todispel the thirst of all Śaktis. T h e thirst of these c a n n o t be q u e n c h e d by m e a n s of small quantities of w a t e r or other beverages. 57. T h a t Madirāsindhu (ocean of liquor) alone will satisfy the troops of Śaktis. C o m m a n d t h a t noble-souled one


1192

Brahmānda Purāna

w h o is capable of encouraging t h e m to fight, w h o can dispel their entire thirst a n d w h o c a n e n h a n c e their g r e a t s t r e n g t h . " 58. W h e n this was advised, D a n d a n ā t h ā was delighted by t h e suggestion of a good means. T h e d e i t y called Surasindhu (ocean of l i q u o r ) c o m m a n d e d h i m t h u s on t h e battle field. 59-63. T h e golden-coloured ocean of liquor was languid w i t h intoxication a n d with reddened eyes. H e was adorned with garlands. H e saluted D a n d a n ā t h ā a n d stood r e a d y t o carry out h e r behests. He divided himself into various units of various colours. Some were of pale red h u e like t h e youthful (i.e. m i d d a y ) s u n . Some were dark-coloured like Tapiccha ( I n d i a n c i n n a m o n ) , Some were white in colour. T h e king of oceans split into m a n y units by t h e w i n d , showered crores of sweet currents (of liquor) as thick as t r u n k s of elephants. T h e ocean fell in t h e midst of the a r m y of Śaktis, being p o u r e d d o w n by the B a l ā h a k a clouds at the close of a K a l p a , beginning w i t h Puskarāvartaka. 64. T h e ocean of liquor showered those (beverages), by t h e mere fragrance of which even the d e a d m a n m i g h t rise up perfectly well a n d t h e weak ones would become very strong. 65. Quaffing those series of liquor torrents surpassing Parārdha (1 followed by 17 zeroes) in n u m b e r , by m e a n s of their m o u t h s distressed by thirst, Śaktis rose u p . 66-67. By m e a n s of volleys of thousands of arrows deterously discharged, K a d a m b a v a n a v ā s i n ī (Resident of K a d a m b a F o r e s t ) , the deity of wonderfully miraculous performances built a great r a m p a r t wall all r o u n d t h e a r m y (of Śaktis) lest the shower of l i q u o r should fall amidst Daityas. 68-70. By this action all Devas b e c a m e surprised. In the midst of t h e b a t t l e Śaktis d r a n k p l e n t y of liquor of various kinds capable of increasing strength a n d enthusiasm. T h e y d r a n k it as they pleased selecting t h e liquor of p a r t i c u l a r taste they liked. On t h e t h i r d d a y of t h e b a t t l e , till the end of t h e second P r a h a r a ( i . e . till m i d d a y ) ( o r , for a period of two


Lalitā-māhātmya

28.71-78

1193

P r a h a r a s i.e. for six hours) t h e ocean of liquor showered t o r r e n t s of liquor continuously.

1

71-76. T h e oceans of liquors showered torrents of liquors of various kinds 2 , such as G a u d ī (spirit distilled from molasses), Paistī (spirit distilled from m e a l ) , M ā d h v l (liquor m a d e from h o n e y ) , t h e excellent K ā d a m b a r ī (spirit distilled from K a d a m b a flowers (Nauclea C a d a m b a , ) H a i n t ā l ī (spirit from t h e p a l m of t h e variety, H i n t ā l a (elatepaludosa) L ā ń g a l e y a (spirit from t h e p a l m of t h e variety L ā ń g a l a (Mithonia superba) m a n y varieties of p a l m - m a d e spirits, divine liquors m a d e from t h e K a l p a t r e e . Liquors coming from various countries, liquors w i t h good taste, fragrance, liquors with pleasant odour, liquors r e n d e r e d sweet smelling by means of Bakula flowers ( M i m u s o p s E l e n g i ) , liquors sparkling w i t h foams a n d bubbles, liquors m a d e pleas­ ing by m e a n s of Bakula flowers ( M i m u s o p s E l e n g i ) , liquors sparkling w i t h foams and bubbles, liquors w i t h a pleasing sound when t h e foams rise, liquors with all types of tastes such as Katuka (pungent), Kasāya (astringent), Madhura (sweet), Tikta ( b i t t e r ) , Isadāmla (slightly s o u r ) , Katvāmla ( p u n g e n t a n d s o u r ) , Madhurāmla (sweet a n d s o u r ) , liquors w i t h diverse colours, liquors of slimy n a t u r e , Chedinis (? those t h a t pierce a n d t e a r ) ; liquors dispelling the p a i n of wounds of weapons, liquors t h a t bring a b o u t union in a broken bone, cool liquors t h a t dispel vertigo a n d giddiness while fighting. L i q u o r s light a n d lukewarm a n d different varieties of liquors t h a t dispel distress a n d bestow victory. T h e Madirārnava ( o c e a n of liquor) showered different kinds of liquors in torrents. 77. E a c h one of t h e Y o g i n ī s (i.e. Śaktis) joyously d r a n k t h e t o r r e n t of liquor as big as the t r u n k of A i r ā v a t a e l e p h a n t u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y for the period of one full Yāma. (3 h o u r s ) . 78. Śaktis went on d r i n k i n g liquor joyously w i t h their eyes closed. T h e i r faces were supine a n d m o v i n g to a n d fro with lolling tongues. 1. T h e battle seems to h a v e c o m e to a standstill for s o m e t i m e while Śaktis were drinking wine. T h e period is recorded in V. 70 a n d 77 a n d effects of drinking in V V . 82-84, 96-97. 2.

Varieties of w i n e in ancient India.


1194

Brahmānda Parana

79. After p r o p i t i a t i n g t h e m by m e a n s of torrents of liquors of various kinds in this m a n n e r , the ocean of liquor assumed a divine form a n d c a m e there. 80. H e a p p r o a c h e d D a n d a n ā t h ā a n d after bowing t o her spoke these words in a p l e a s a n t a n d majestic tone. 8 1 . " L o o k , O great q u e e n , O deity, the leader of D a n d a m a n d a l ā ( M u l t i t u d e s of t r o o p s ) , t h e a r m y of Śaktis t h a t h a d been stupefied before h a d been revived and gladdened by me. 82. Some of t h e m a r e d a n c i n g and singing with their girdles a n d waistbands tinkling sweetly. Some of t h e m a r e clapping their h a n d s in front of those w h o d a n c e . 83. Some are laughing (boisterously) w i t h their beauti­ ful breasts shaking a n d bouncing. A few of t h e m lean on o n e a n o t h e r ' s bodies w i t h t h e laziness a n d slackness d u e to delight. 84. Some begin to swagger as girdles a n d g a r m e n t s begin to slip d o w n from their hips. Some h a v e got up r e a d y for fighting b u t without any weapon. T h e y simply shake a n d shiver". 85. On seeing Śaktis thus pointed out by the ocean of liquor, D a n d i n ī was extremely satisfied a n d she said to him. 86. "I am gratified, O ocean of liquor. A good h e l p a n d assistance has b e e n r e n d e r e d by you. T h i s is a work on behalf of the Devas. It has b e e n achieved w i t h o u t a n y h i n d r a n c e . 87. D u e to my favour henceforth, in the age of D v ā p a r a you will be extremely worthy of being used by Yājflikas (priests who perform sacrifices) in t h e i r sacrifices like t h e drinking of s o m a . 1 88-89. All t h e deities will drink you after you have b e e n sanctified by m e a n s of M a n t r a s in the course of sacrifice. After drinking you, purified by the M a n t r a s , let the people a t t a i n Siddhi (spiritual a c h i e v e m e n t ) , Rddhi ( p r o s p e r i t y ) , strength, heavenly bliss a n d salvation. All these great people will d r i n k y o u — v i z . : M a h e ś v a r ī , M a h ā d e v a , Baladeva, Bhārgava, D a t t ā t r e y a , V i d h i a n d V i s n u . 1.

Soma-j\i\ce is e q u a t e d w i t h w i n e and the use of Soma in sacrifices is

attributed to the wine-ocean's provision of w i n e to Śaktis in this VV.

87-89.

battle

vide


1195

Lalitā-māhātmya 28.90-101 90-93. On being worshipped in you will bestow all kinds of S i d d h i s . "

the

course

of

Yāga,

After gratifying the ocean of liquor by g r a n t i n g boons thus D a n d i n ī urged M a n t r i n ī for fighting once again a n d asked h e r to hasten it. Again the fight between Śaktis and Dānavas resumed. T h e loud a n d boisterous l a u g h t e r of joy pierced eight cardinal points a n d m o u n t a i n s . Intoxicated d u e to fresh wine a n d w i t h their eyes rendered red, Śaktis u p o n the troops of Daityas in a body a n d sportively.

was the the fell

94. Śaktis h a d the refulgence of b e a m i n g p r i d e . T w o things connected w i t h t h e m shone on a c c o u n t of t w o o t h e r t h i n g s — t h e eyes sparkled on account of redness d u e to inebriation a n d the weapons d u e to the blood of D a i t y a s . 95. T h e war between Śaktis and demons was t u m u l t u o u s t h a t it was as if the god of d e a t h himself began a n n i h i l a t e the subjects u n d a u n t e d .

soto-

96-97. D u e to inebriation, Śaktis were stumbling in their steps. T h e i r eyes h a d become r e d d e n e d . T h e y were u t t e r ­ ing heroic words though theysyllables faltered n o w a n d t h e n . T h e y were proud of their ability to wage war. All t h e i r limbs a n d eyes b e c a m e delighted with hairs standing on their ends like the b u d s i n t h e K a d a m b a p l a n t (Nauclea C a n d a m b a ) t h a t a p p e a r simultaneously. These Śaktis annihilated t h e armies of t h e crown Prince. 98. D a n d i n ī shattered a h u n d r e d Aksauhinīs; M a n t r i n ī annihilated a h u n d r e d a n d fifty Aksauhinīs. 99. A ś v ā r ū d h ā a n d others w i t h their eyes red d u e to i n e b r i a t i o n (collectively) led a h u n d r e d a n d fifty Aksauhinīs to the,mansion of god of D e a t h . 100. In t h e course of t h e b a t t l e , t h e deity Turagārohinī smashed a n d shattered Ulūkajit with the excessively sharp goad a n d m a d e h i m a guest in the other world (i.e. killed h i m ) . 101. S a m p a t k a r ī a n d others, generals of the divi­ sions of t h e a r m y of Śaktis, checked a n d restrained. o t h e r s the chief of w h o m was Purusena (?) a n d ultimately tore t h e m up.


1196

Brahmānda Purāna

102. W h e n t h e sun set, t h e entire a r m y h a d b e e n killed. T h e r e u p o n , Śyāmalā b e c a m e excessively angry a n d fought w i t h Viśukra. 103. By discharging missiles and counter missiles M a n t r i n ī displayed a g r e a t deal of war-like activity dreadful even t o t h e heaven-dwellers a n d c o n t i n u e d t h e w a r . 104-106a. O n e by one she cut off a n d split t h e keen a n d s h a r p weapons of Viśukra of great prowess. She cut his flagstaff, charioteer, bowstring, t h e staff of t h e bow etc. by m e a n s of arrows. W i t h t h e miraculous missile n a m e d Brahmaśiras t h a t h a d t h e brilliance a n d splendour of t h e sparkling fire she shattered Viśukra. He fell d o w n w i t h his b o d y g r o u n d to powder. 106b-107. D a n d a n ā t h ā w h o was extremely p r o u d of h e r ability fought w i t h Visańga, the great D a i t y a . She hit h i m w i t h a dreadful iron c l u b . T h a t wicked D ā n a v a raised w i t h his h a n d a m a c e resembling t h e staff of K ā l a a n d fought an extremely dreadful b a t t l e . 108-110. Engaged in fighting with maces, they shattered e a c h o t h e r ' s limbs. T h e i r dreadful a n d boisterous laughter reverberated (in t h e battle-field). T h e y went r o u n d a n d r o u n d ( e v e r y w h e r e ) . T h e y displayed different kinds of strategic move­ ments. T h e y h e a v e d from side to side. T h e y encircled e a c h o t h e r quickly. By striking e a c h other by m e a n s of batons a n d rods, they stupefied e a c h other frequently. Both of them were equally p r o u d a n d keenly observed t h e weak a n d vulnerable points i n a t t a c k i n g e a c h other. T h e i r g a r m e n t s were stirred u p w h e n t h e great iron club a n d the tip of t h e rod came into a clash. T h u s b o t h of t h e m equally unassailable fought w i t h one another. 111. She fought with h i m till mid-night. D a n d a n ā ­ yikā w h o b e c a m e very furious began to strike at Visańga. 112 ^ She dragged h e r enemy with the ploughshare t h a t pierced a n d w e n t d e e p into his h e a d . Potrinī struck a h a r d blow with her ironclub. 113. On a c c o u n t of t h e blow from t h e iron club, t h e great Asura h a d to a b a n d o n his vital airs. W i t h his body shattered i n t o a h u n d r e d pieces he fell on t h e g r o u n d .


Laliti-māhātmya

1197

28.114—29.7

114. After c o m p l e t i n g t h e great task thus, M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā y i k ā spent t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f t h e n i g h t there itself in t h e direction of t h e c a m p .

CHAPTER TWENTYNINE Slaying of Bhandāsura Agastya said : 1. O highly intelligent sage Hayagrīva, t h e strength of M a n t r i n ī has been described. T h e slaying of Visańga by D a n d a ­ n ā t h ā i n b a t t l e h a s b e e n described. 2. I wish to h e a r a b o u t t h e exploits of Śrīdevī ; n the course of t h e b a t t l e . After seeing t h e m i s h a p of his b r o t h e r , w h a t did B h a n d a do, d u e to t h e grief thereof? 3. H o w far was he enthusiastic in fighting the b a t t l e ? W i t h w h o m did he fight ? After his brothers a n d sons were killed w h o were his allies a n d followers? Hayagriva said : 4. Listen to this, O highly intelligent one. T h e narrative of L a l i t ā is destructive of all sins. It is holy a n d it yields qualities, (i.e. siddhis like) A n i m ā (minuteness) etc. 5. D u r i n g t h e equinoctial periods as well as d u r i n g t h e transits of t h e sun, on holy occasions a n d d u r i n g the five P a r v a n * days, it bestows Siddhis a h d ' g l o r y . It destroys all sins. 6 . O n h e a r i n g t h a t t h e r e i n t h e b a t t l e his brothers h a d b e e n killed, B h a n d a was overwhelmed w i t h great grief. He b e g a n to l a m e n t loudly. 7. W i t h his hairs dishevelled a n d scattered, he fell on t h e g r o u n d in a swoon. He d i d n o t get a n y consolation. He b e c a m e emaciated d u e to t h e sorrow for his b r o t h e r . *viz. : the 8 t h and 14th Tithi per fortnight. T h e Full moon and the n e w moon days. A n d the sun's passage from one rāśī (sign of zodiac) to

Another. (V.P.IH.11.118)


1198

Brahmānda Purina

8 . Again a n d a g a i n h e w e n t o n l a m e n t i n g . O n b e i n g pacified repeatedly by K u t i l ā k s a , he got rid of his sorrow a n d b e c a m e very furious. 9-11. His forehead a p p e a r e d ruthlessly dreadful because the brows were vibrating. His eyes b e c a m e red like glowing coal. He sighed a n d b r e a t h e d like a hissing black serpent. He began to hold his sword again a n d a g a i n in his h a n d a n d shook it ( t h r e a t e n i n g l y ) . Suddenly he said to Kutilāksa the chief of the entire army. O u t of anger, he b e g a n to p r o d u c e H u r h k ā r a sound. Like the cloud at t h e time of dissolution, he began to roar. 12-13. " M y brothers a n d sons were killed in b a t t l e by t h a t wicked w o m a n w i t h t h e help of Māyā,, I shall p u t out t h e great fire of sorrow, for my brothers and.jsons w i t h the liquid blood coming o u t of t h e t h r o a t of t h a t wajtton w o m a n . 14-18.

G o , O K u t i l ā k s a , get t h e a r m y r e a d y " .

After saying this he wore on his che*t a h u g e a n d thick coat of m a i l capable of withstanding the i m p a c t of vajra. On his back he tied two quivers. He whirled t h e bow w h e n the excessive twanging sound of t h e string was as h a r d as the deep b r e a t h . Furious like t h e fire at t h e destruction of the world, he ^rushed out of his city. T h e r e were altogether forty excellent generals including T ā l a j a ń g h a a n d others posted at the eastern gate w h o were four in n u m b e r , w h o h a d held all kinds of weapons, w h o wore coats of mail a n d w h o were h a u g h t y ; the thirtyfive generals included Kutilāksa w h o was t h e lord of all armies a n d who was very furious and. lastly B h a n d a himself. 19-20. T h e i r weapons flashed. T h e i r hairs shone brightly. W i t h brilliant coats of mail, they m a r c h e d out. T h e r e were two thousand Aksauhinis with eightyfive forming the l a t t e r half ( R e a r g u a r d ) . T h i s a r m y . followed B h a n d a in o r d e r to suppress t h e enemy sportingly a n d collectively w h e n B h a n d a ­ sura went out fully a c c o m p a n i e d by his a r m y , only women remained b e h i n d in t h e city of ś ū n y a k a . 2 1 . T h e lord of Daityas w h o was a g r e a t chariot-fighter a n d h a u g h t y in war, m o u n t e d his excellent chariot called Abhila to which a t h o u s a n d lions were yoked.


Lalitā-māhātmya 29.22-33

1199

22. He hastened w i t h great lustre like t h e fire of •world-destruction whose flames blazed. T h e n a m e of his sword w a s G h ā t a k a . It h a d the same shape as the C a n d r a h ā s a sword. 23. W h e n the armies moved here and there, dust columns w e r e raised. Being u n a b l e to bear their b u r d e n , it appeared as t h o u g h the e a r t h went t o t h e heaven. 24. Some of t h e m who could not be contained on the e a r t h moved a h e a d along the p a t h of the sky. Some mighty warriors moved on riding on t h e shoulders of some. 2 5 . Neither in the cordinal points nor on the sphere of t h e e a r t h nor in the sky could they be contained. T h e y moved on w i t h very great difficulty as t h o u g h they were addicted by t h e close c o n t a c t of one a n o t h e r . 26. Since the pressure was very great, m a n y of the sol­ diers were crushed a n d ground i n t o powder by the wheels of c h a r i o t s . Some were t r a m p l e d b e n e a t h the feet of elephants as they fell on the g r o u n d . 27. A loud r o a r resembling t h e rumbling sound of the c l o u d was given o u t by h i m w h o was moving on along with all the soldiers. 28. T h e universe b e c a m e torn asunder by t h a t exces­ sively h a r s h leonine r o a r coming o u t of t h e m o u t h of B h a n d a , the Daitya. 29. T h e oceans b e c a m e dried u p . T h e m o o n a n d the sun fled. T h e stars fell d o w n from the sky. T h e e a r t h b e g a n to heave to a n d fro. 30. T h e elephants of t h e c a r d i n a l points b e c a m e frighten­ e d . T h e heaven-dwellers swooned. T h e c a m p o f the Śaktis b e c a m e excited on a c c o u n t of a sudden a n d u n e x p e c t e d fear. 3 1 . In the t m i d d l e of t h e b a t t l e , Śaktis held their vital b r e a t h s w i t h very g r e a t difficulty. T h e y took up o n c e a g a i n their weapons t h a t h a d b e e n d r o p p e d d o w n w i t h fear before. 32-33. T h e c i r c u l a r enclosure o f f i e r y r a m p a r t t h a t h a d been calmed d o w n before rose up in flames once a g a i n . On a c c o u n t o f t h e leonine r o a r o f t h e leading D a i t y a , t h e twanging sounds of t h e bows of a r m y generals and t h e shrieks a n d sounds of warriors, universe b e c a m e


1200

Brahmānda Purāna

filled up with sound. Goddess L a l i t ā decidedly t h e D a i t y a B h a n d a h a d stirred out a n d so she fight herself.

inferred t h a t u n d e r t o o k to

34. Considering t h a t t h e g r e a t f i g h t w i t h t h e D a i t y a B h a n d a , of vicious c o n d u c t , was n o t possible for t h e o t h e r śaktis she herself took up t h e task. 35-38. H e r gloriously splendid great c h a r i o t n a m e d Cakra-rājaratha moved a h e a d . T h e four V e d a s were its four g r e a t wheels. 1 T h e four P u r u s ā r t h a s ( t h e four a i m s in life i.e. Dharma ( v i r t u e ) , Artha ( w e a l t h ) , Kama (love), a n d Moksa (liberation from samsāra) were ilS g r e a t horses. Bliss was t h e flag fitted to it. It h a d nine steps. T h e deities stationed on t h e nine steps kept their heavy oows r e a d y d r a w n . T h e y h a d m o r e t h a n a P a r a r d h a (1 followed by 17 zeroes) of a t t e n d a n t s . T h e chariot was defended from all directions by these w h o were stationed on all steps. It was ten Yojanas in height a n d t h e side of t h e base was four Yojanas. T h u s the leading chariot Cakrarāja of t h e g r e a t queen shone r e m a r k a b l y as it moved on. 39-41. W h e n it (cakra-rāja-ratha) moved a h e a d , t h e other chariots w i t h Ś y ā m ā a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā also moved on. T h e chariot Geyacakra went a h e a d a n d K i r i c a k r a was i n t h e rear. T h e vehicles of t h e o t h e r Śāktis were Parārdhas in n u m b e r . T h e y were man-lions, camels, donkeys, pythons, deer, birds, horses, elephants, Bherundas, Ś a r a b h a s , tigers, V ā t a m r g a s (swift antelopes) etc. a n d other a n i m a l s also b e c a m e her vehicles. 42. Śaktis who repeatedly e n d e a v o u r e d to kill B h a n d a a n d his Asura followers were of multifbrmed n a t u r e . Although the opening of t h e circular fiery r a m p a r t extended to a Y o j a n a in length, it was n o t sufficient for t h e o u t w a r d m a r c h of t h e army. 4 3 . Desirous of an easy exit for all t h e armies, t h e N i t y ā deity n a m e d J v ā l ā m ā l i n i k ā enlarged the opening further.

1.

As observed in N o t e 1 on Ch. 19, the chariot of Lalitā

symbolizes

V e d i c religion; the Vedas, Purusārthas etc. are parts of her chariot.


Lalitā-māhātmya

1201

29.44-54

4 4 . T h e n t h e gloriously splendid m o t h e r of t h e worlds, t h e g r e a t q u e e n of excessive valour a n d exploits, w e n t out of t h e fiery city t h r o u g h t h e excellent opening. 45. T h e divine D u n d u b h i s ( w a r d r u m s ) sounded. Showers of flowers fell d o w n . T h e great royal u m b r e l l a set with pearls was seen shining brilliantly in the firmament. 46. Pleasingly clear omens indicating t h e glory of victory occurred in t h e a r m y of Lalitā. Portentous ill-omens occurred in the a r m y of enemies. 47-48. T h e r e u p o n , t h e battle between t h e two armies started. As the volleys of arrows spread everywhere, a dense darkness settled above t h e m . As herds of e l e p h a n t s were being killed t h e drops of blood flowing from t h e m carried a w a y t h e (severed) heads by which t h e white u m b r e l l a s of t h e D a i t y a s were concealed. 49. N e i t h e r t h e q u a r t e r s n o r t h e sky, n e i t h e r the m o u n t a i n s n o r t h e earth, n o t h i n g was seen. O n l y t h e dust column was seen increasing in size. 50-54. As t h e two armies fought with e a t h o t h e r a river of blood flowed. 1 T h e d a n c i n g headless bodies a p p e a r e d like t h e p l a n t s a n d trees on t h e banks, on either side. T h o u s a n d s of tresses of t h e Daityas a p p e a r e d like t h e t e n d e r shoots of Saivāla ( M o s s ) . T h e circular w h i t e umbrellas shone like t h e white lotuses. T h e series of feet of elephants c u t by t h e wheels of chariots or by discuses (of the heroes) a p p e a r e d like tortoises. T h e necks a n d cheeks of t h e great D a i t y a s killed by Śaktis a p p e a r e d like t h e rocky slabs. W h e n t h e chowries fell d o w n w i t h their handles cut off, they a p p e a r e d like t h e foam ( i n t h a t river of b l o o d ) . Broken swords of keen edges a p p e a r e d like t h e dense thickets of creepers on t h e banks. T h e river of blood a p p e a r e d to be sparkling w i t h p e a r l caskets on a c c o u n t of t h e series of eyes of t h e D a i t y a heroes. H u n d r e d s of vehicles of D a i t y a s a p p e a r e d like h u n d r e d s of fishes a n d crocodiles. T h u s river of blood flowed.

1.

It is a good picture of the battlefield—occurring

in details

War-Parvans of the M b h . and repeated elsewhere in this text also.

in

the


1202

Brahmānda Purāna

55. On t h e fourth d a y of the b a t t l e , beginning in the m o r n i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g to two Praharas (six hours) t h e terrible b a t t l e between t h e t w o armies ensued causing fear even to t h e god of D e a t h . 56-58. Thereafter a terrible b a t t l e ensued between Śrilalitādevī a n d B h a n d a . It caused a great d e a l of uproarious t u m u l t in t h e different quarters d u e to the excitement of th& discharge of missiles a n d counter missiles. It was extremely terrific on account of H u m k ā r a - s (hissing sounds of defiance) of t h e soldiers a n d t h e twanging sounds of bow-strings as well as due to dreadful arrows which were taken out from quivers, discharged from excellent bows a n d which were c a p a b l e of taking away lives. On account of h e r dexterity t h e movements of her lotus-like h a n d s while discharging the arrows were not at all perceived in d e t a i l . Listen, O Pot-born sage, listen, I shall describe everything t h a t h a p p e n e d in the battle. 59. W h e n one arrow was fitted to the b o w a n d discharged it b e c a m e ten w h e n leaving t h e bow, h u n d r e d while moving t h r o u g h space, t h o u s a n d while falling a m i d s t t h e a r m y of D a i t y a s a n d w h e n they c a m e into c o n t a c t with t h e bodies of D a i t y a s they developed i n t o crores. 60-61. By m e a n s of g r e a t arrows t h e great q u e e n caused very dense darkness, pierced h e a v e n a n d e a r t h and pierced i n t o t h e vital p a r t s of t h e terrible Daityas. W i t h his eyes t u r n e d red on account of anger, B h a n d a showered volleys of arrows on goddess L a l i t ā . 62. 1.

Dānava 1

He discharged a great missile n a m e d Andhatāmisraka

As stated elsewhere this battle symbolizes t h e struggle between

good a n d evil forces. T h e missiles also signify evil forces u s e d ' b y B h a n d a a n d good forces c o u n t e r e d by Lalitā.

I

g i v e .below

the list of so-called Astros

discharged by B h a n d a a n d d e s t r o y e d by Lalitā with a counter ( g o o d ) force. Astros used

by Bhanda and Lalitā VV.

Bhanda

62-138 Lalitā

1.

Andha-Tāmisraka (great darkness)

(the great sun)

2.

Pākhapaa

Gāyatrī

(Heresy)

Mahātarani


Lalitā-māhūtmya

1203

29.63-67

(the g r e a t d a r k n e s s ) . M ā h e ś v a r ī dispelled it by t h e a r r o w n a m e d Mahātarani ( t h e great sun) . 6 3 . B h a n d a t h e g r e a t hero discharged the missile Pākkandāstra (Heresy) in t h e course of b a t t l e . For dispelling it, t h e m o t h e r of t h e universe discharged t h e missile of Gay atri. 64. B h a n d a discharged the missile Andhāstra (Blindness) t h a t was destructive of t h e vision of Śaktis. T h e m o t h e r subdued it by means of t h e great- missile Caksus-mattā (Endow­ m e n t with eyes.) 65. In the course of great b a t t l e , B h a n d a discharged the missile n a m e d Saktināśa ( D e s t r u c t i o n of Saktis. ( T h e goodess) dispelled its p r i d e by the missile of Viśvāvasu. 66. B h a n d a , the extremely infuriated D ā n a v a discharged t h e missile Antakāstra ( w i t h A n t a k a t h e god of d e a t h as t h e presiding d e i t y ) . T h e goddess destroyed its power by t h e missile of Mahāmrtyuñjaya (with lord Śiva t h e c o n q u e r o r of the god of d e a t h as t h e presiding lord) 67. B h a n d a discharged the missile n a m e d Sarvastrasmrtināia. (Destruction of the m e m o r y of all missiles). Cakreśī continued from 3.

previous page

Andhāstra

Caksusmattā

(Blindness) 4.

Śaktināśa

(Possession of eye-sight) Viivāvasu

(Destruction of Śaktis) 5.

Antaka

Mahā-Mrtyuñjaya

(god of D e a t h ) 6.

Sarvāstra-smrtināśa ( D e s t r u c t i o n of memory of Astras)

7. 8.

Bhaya

( L o r d Śiva, conquerer o f d e a t h ) Dhāranā ( R e t e n t i o n of m e m o r y )

(Fear)

Mahirogas (great diseases)

Indrāstra Vaifnava (created Acyuta, A n a n t a and Govinda—burnt

'9.

Ayur-nāiana (Destructive of L o n g e v i t y )

10.

Mahāsurāstra (creating great Asuras) like M a d h u , K a i t a b h a etc.

Jl.

Kāla-samkarsin (Death-controller) Durgā (Demon-killing

goddess)

w i t h her original w e a p o n s .

Mūkāstra (causing

disease

Humkāra

dumbness)

Mahāvāgvādini ( T h e highly e l o q u e n t one)

by


1204

Brahmānda Parana

destroyed its power by m e a n s of t h e missile Dhāranā ( R e t e n t i o n in memory). 68. B h a n d a discharged the missile of Bhaya (fear) t h a t m a d e all Śaktis afraid. J a g a d a m b i k ā ( t h e m o t h e r of the worlds) discharged t h e missile of Indra t h a t bestowed freedom from fear. 69. T h e D ā n a v a discharged the missile of Mahārogas ( g r e a t diseases) a m o n g the armies of Saktis. T h e r e u p o n p u l m o n a r y consumption a n d thousands of other diseases began t o ravage. 70. In o r d e r to achieve their eradication a n d prevention, Lalitā, t h e great goddess, discharged the great missile of the great M a n t r a of the t h r e e names (of Lord V i s n u ) . 7 1 . Acyuta, A n a n t a a n d Govinda rose u p from t h e missile. By their H u r h k ā r a alone they b u r n e d those diseases and gave (relief a n d ) delight, (to t h e Saktis) . 72. T h e y bowed down to M a h e ś ā n ī . T h e y were employed ( b y h e r ) to suppress sickness of h e r devotees in all the t h r e e worlds. T h e y w e n t t o their own region. 73. B h a n d a , the Dānava, discharged t h e missile Āyumāśana (Destructive of longevity). T h e q u e e n discharged the missile in the form of Kālasankarsani ( D e a t h c o n t r o l l i n g ) . 74-79. B h a n d a , the D ā n a v a , discharged the dreadfully powerful missile of Mahāsurāstra. T h e r e u p o n , thousands of (Asuras) very powerful with huge bodies rose up from t h e missile; such a s : — Madhu, Kaitabha, Mahisa, Dhūmralocana, the Asuras beginning with Canda, M u n d a , Ciksura, C ā m a r a , R a k t a b ī j a , Ś u m b h a , N i ś u m b h a , the K ā l a k e y a s of g r e a t strength, others too such Asuras n a m e d D h ū m r a e t c . rqse from the missile w i t h t h e i r h a r d a n d powerful weapons, all those excellent D ā n a v a s smashed a n d crushed the a r m y of Śaktis. T h e y shrieked a n d howled dreadfully. Śaktis, crushed a n d c r u m b l e d by the Daityas, cried aloud " H ā , H ā " (Alas), a n d sought r e f u g e ' i n L a l i t ā immediately saying " p r o t e c t u s " . T h e r e u p o n , Devi b e c a m e furious. In h e r fury, she burst i n t o a boisterous l a u g h t e r of challenge.


Lalitā-mah&tmya

29.80-90

1205

80. T h e r e u p o n arose a glorious deity n a m e d D u r g ā . S h e h a d a cosmic form evolved by t h e refulgence of all Devas. 81-84. She wielded a n d wore t h e following w e a p o n s a n d o r n a m e n t s viz. t h e t r i d e n t given by Śūlin ( L o r d Ś i v a ) , t h e discus given by C a k r i n (Lord V i s n u ) , t h e c o n c h given by V a r u n a , Śakti (Javelin) given b y t h e Firegod, t h e bow a n d t h e p a i r of inexhaustible quivers given by M a r u t s in t h e course of t h e g r e a t w a r , t h e t h u n d e r b o l t given by I n d r a , a goblet given by D h a n a d a ( K u b e r a ) , t h e g r e a t staff J C ā l a d a n d a , t h e noose given by P ā ś a d h a r a ( V a r u n a ) , a w a t e r p o t given by B r a h m a , a bell given by Airāvata, t h e sword a n d t h e shield given b y M r t y u , t h e necklace given b y t h e ocean a n d t h e o r n a m e n t s given by V i ś v a k a r m a n . 85-86. W i t h h e r gloriously splendid limbs having r a y as brilliant a n d sparkling as a row of t h o u s a n d - r a y e d suns she m a d e all weapons gleam a n d glitter. She a p p e a r e d splendid with other equipments and a c c o u t r e m e n t s given by others. T h u s riding on h e r vehicle lion, N ā r ā y a n i (goddess D u r g ā ) carried o n w a r . 87-88. D ā n a v a s such as M a h i s a a n d others were struck down by h e r . She carried on w a r in t h e same way as formerly as explained in Candikāsaptaśati*, dispelling t h e haughtiness of M a h i s a a n d others. After c o m p l e t i n g t h a t difficult task she bowed d o w n before Lalitā. 89. T h e wicked D ā n a v a discharged t h e missile Mūkāstra ( t h a t of d u m b n e s s ) a m o n g t h e armies of Śaktis. T h e m o t h e r of t h e universe discharged t h e missile n a m e d Mahāvāgvādini (the great and eloquent o n e ) . 90. 1

I n t h e course

o f b a t t l e t h e h a u g h t y a n d ferocious

•The work is popularly k n o w n as Saptaiatī. tioned before in

this

Purāna t h o u g h

It is,

the author

however,

states

:

not men­

"as

formerly-

explained". 1.

F r o m V.

90

onwards

Bhanda

used

an

Astra for c o u n t e r a c t i n g

w h i c h G o d V i s n u h a d t o incarnate. H e r e the N i n e Aoatāras o f V i s n u

as

k n o w t h e m t o d a y are g i v e n a n d n o t the ones i n

Bd. P.

(such as D a t t ā t r e y a e t c ) .

the body

of the

we


1206

Brahmānda Purāna

D ā n a v a B h a n d a (discharged missiles a n d ) created base Asuras w h o stole away the Vedas, t h e fund of lores. 91-92. Those ( A s u r a s ) were t u r n e d a w a y by t h e great queen, by the nail of t h u m b of h e r r i g h t h a n d . Bhanda, t h e extremely heroic D a i t y a , discharged Amavāstra (missile of ocean) in t h e course of t h e b a t t l e . T h e r e a t t h e a r m y of Śaktis sank down in a flood of u n ­ controllable waters. T h e n t h e p r i m o r d i a l tortoise extending to a Yojana in l e n g t h was b o r n from t h e nail of t h e index finger of the right h a n d of Śrl-Lalitādevī. 93. T h e Śaktis w h o were s u p p o r t e d by h i m by m e a n s of t h a t huge skull-like shell of large a r e a b e c a m e delighted. T h e y discarded t h e i r fear of the Sāgara (sea) missile. continued from previous page O n e more point a b o u t the Avatāras of V i s n u is that they arise from nails of the fingers of Lalitā i n d i c a t i n g the greatness of

Lalitā

the

as c o m p a r e d

with V i s n u . Bhanda

Lalitā

(uses the opponent for w h o m

(Incarnation of Visnu)

V i s n u incarnated) 1.

Veda-stealing d e m o n

The

fish-incarnation

out

of

the

nail

of

is

implied

right

hand

thumb. 2.

Tortoise-incarnation

Arnavāstra

supported

Śaktis on its back 3.

D i v i n e Boar ( V a r ā h a )

Hiranyāksa

H e killed H i r a n y ā k s a 4.

Hiranyakaśipu

Man-Lion (Tore to pieces

5.

Balīndra (Bali)

Vāmana

6.

Sahasrārjuna

7.

Paulastya ( R ā v a n a )

8.

Rājāsura

Hiranyakaśipu

9.

Paraśurāma K a d a n d a R ā m a , son o f Daśaratha

(A great n u m b e r of

Caturvyūha

(Vāsudeva, Sańkarsana,

d e m o n s were born as kings

P r a d y u m n a a n d Aniruddha)

Kali missile

Kalki

( B u d d h a is not mentioned h e r e ) 10. Mahā-Moha

Śāmbhava

( g r e a t delusion) T h e n b y discharging

the N ā r ā y a n a ,

Pāśupata a n d

Mahākāmeśvara

missiles, the great goddess killed all t h e soldiers of Bhanda, his 40 Generals, a n d finally the Asura B h a n d a himself.


Lalitā-māhātmya

29.94-106

1207

94. T h e lord t h e n quaffed t h e e n t i r e q u a n t i t y of w a t e r i n t h e ocean. T h e n t h e wicked D ā n a v a discharged the g r e a t missile of Hiranyāksa. 95-96. F r o m it thousands of Hiranyāksas were b o r n w i t h clubs a s their weapons. O n being h u r t a n d killed b y t h e m , t h e armies of t h e Śaktis b e c a m e a g i t a t e d d u e to g r e a t fright in t h e course o f war. T h e y b e c a m e scattered h e r e a n d t h e r e . T h e r e u p o n , a h u g e white Boar rose up from t h e nail of the m i d d l e finger of t h e right h a n d of Śrī L a l i t ā . It was like t h e Kailāsa mountain. 97. Crores a n d crores of those H i r a n y ā k s a s were utterly a n n i h i l a t e d w h e n they w e r e smashed a n d crushed as well as torn a s u n d e r by t h a t snouted Boar as h a r d as a d a m a n t . 98-100. T h e r e u p o n , B h a n d a k n i t t e d his eyebrows d u e to g r e a t anger. H i r a n y a s (Hiranyakaśipus) crores in n u m b e r were b o r n from his eyebrows. T h e y were as brilliant as t h e blazing sun. T h e i r w e a p o n s too were refulgent a n d brilliant. T h e y smashed a n d crushed the a r m y of Śaktis as well as P r a h l ā d a w h o was as it were t h e greatest Bliss of the' Śaktis. It was he w h o b e c a m e a boy. He was afflicted by H i r a n y a a n d so sought refuge i n L a l i t ā . T h e queen b e c a m e merciful t o w a r d s h i m . 101-104. T h e n in o r d e r to p r o t e c t P r a h l ā d a w h o was in t h e form of Bliss of Śaktis, t h e g r e a t goddess shook t h e tip of t h e ring finger of h e r riglit h a n d . F r o m it arose J a n ā r d a n a with t h e face of a lion a n d the body of a m a n b e n e a t h t h e neck. He shook t h e thick cluster of m a n e s . H i s three eyes shone. Claws were his weapons. He h a d t h e forms of K ā l a a n d R u d r a . H e m a d e shouts o f dreadful boisterous laughs. H e h a d thousand staff-like h a n d s . He was r e a d y to obey t h e c o m m a n d s of L a l i t ā . W i t h i n a m o m e n t , by m e a n s of his claws as h a r d as t h u n d e r b o l t , h e tore u p all t h e H i r a n y a k a ś i p u s w h o originated from t h e eyebrows of B h a n d a . 105. B h a n d a , t h e g r e a t Asura, t h e n d i s c h a r g e d against t h e goddess L a l i t ā t h e extremely dreadful missile Balīndra t h a t was destructive of all deities. 106. F o r destroying t h e p r i d e of t h a t missile, h u n d r e d s of V ā m a n a s c a m e out from t h e highly powerful t i p of t h e


1208

Brahmānda Parana

small finger of the right h a n d of the great q u e e n . 107-108. T h e y increased in size every m o m e n t . T h e y were very m i g h t y w i t h nooses in their h a n d s . T h e y were b o r n of the tip of small finger of t h e right h a n d of t h e wife of K ā m e ś a . (i.e. L a l i t ā ) . T h e y were highly enthusiastic a n d they ha.d h u g e bodies. T h e y tied w i t h nooses all t h e Balīndras b o r n of t h a t missile. T h u s they destroyed t h a t missile too. 109. I n t h e course o f b a t t l e , B h a n d a , t h e D a i t y a , discharged H a i h a y a missile. F r o m t h a t were b o r n thousands a n d crores of Arjunas w i t h thousand h a n d s . 110-111. Arising from t h e nail of the t h u m b of the left h a n d of Śrī L a l i t ā a n d blazing w i t h anger, R ā m a of Bhrgu family m a d e t h e r o a r i n g sound of a lion. He tore up these fellows by t h e sharp edge of his axe. W i t h i n a m o m e n t he destroyed these Arjunas n u m b e r i n g thousands. 112-113. T h e r e u p o n , t h e infuriated D a i t y a B h a n d a m a d e a hissing huriikāra sound o u t of anger. F r o m t h a t H u m k ā r a rose ( R ā v a n a ) w i t h his sword C a n d r a h ā s a . H e was s u r r o u n d e d by Rāksasa-armies n u m b e r i n g a thousand Aksauhinīs. T a k i n g his younger b r o t h e r K u m b h a k a r n a a n d his son M e g h a n ā d a w i t h h i m , he smashed the a r m y of Śaktis to a large e x t e n t . 114-116. T h e r e u p o n , from the nail of the index finger of t h e left h a n d of Śrī L a l i t ā was b o r n K o d a n d a r ā m a accom­ p a n i e d b y L a k s m a n a . M a t t e d hair constituted his crown. O n his back he h a d tied up his quiver by means of creepers. He was d a r k i n complexion like the blue lotus. H e repeatedly m a d e the twanging sound from his. bow. By means of divine missiles, he destroyed the Rāksasa a r m y in a m o m e n t . He crushed P a u l a s t y a (i.e. R ā v a n a ) and his b r o t h e r K u m b h a k a r n a . L a k s m a n a killed M a g h a n ā d a t h e great h e r o . 117-118. D ā n a v a Bhanda, then discharged the extremely terrible missile of Dvivida. F r o m it w e r e b o r n m a n y monkeys w i t h reddish-brown eyes. On a c c o u n t of a n g e r t h e i r faces b e c a m e extremely copper-coloured. Every one of t h e m was


Lalita-māhatmya 29.119-133

1209

on a p a r w i t h H a n u m ā n . T h e y destroyed the a r m y of Śaktis. T h e y p r o d u c e d h a r s h a n d cruel Krethkāras (shrill s o u n d s ) . 119-120. T h e n from t h e nail of t h e m i d d l e finger of t h e left h a n d of Śrī L a l i t ā issued forth T ā l ā ń k a w i t h eyes r e d like mid-day, his m i d d l e eye r e d d u e to a n g e r . He h a d tied a blue g a r m e n t o n his body. H e was a s p u r e a s t h e K a i l ā s a m o u n t a i n . He destroyed all those monkeys b o r n of D v i v i d a missile. 121-125. T h e m i g h t y d e m o n discharged t h e g r e a t missile n a m e d Rājāsura. F r o m t h a t missile m a n y d e m o n i a c kings c a m e o u t such as Śiśupāla, D a n t a v a k t r a , Śālva, t h e king of K ā ś i P a u n d r a k a Vāsudeva, R u k m ī , D i m b h a k a , H a m s a k a , Ś a m b a r a , P r a l a m b a , Asura, Bāna Karñsa, t h e wrestler Cānūra, M u s t i k a , U t p a l a ś e k h a r a , Arista, D h e n u k a Keśī, K ā l i y a , the twin-Arjunas (Terminalia Arjuna) Pūtanā, Śakata (cart), T r n ā v a r t a a n d o t h e r Asuras, the great h e r o n a m e d N a r a k a , t h e Asura M u r ā w h o h a d the form of Visnu e t c . M a n y of t h e m rose up along w i t h these armies w i t h weapons in their arms. 126-129. In order to destroy all of t h e m t h e e t e r n a l lord (Visnu) originated from the r i n g finger of t h e lotus-like left h a n d of Śrīdevī. He m a d e a Caturvyūha ( g r o u p of four deities). T h e y b e c a m e four distinct Beings viz.: Vāsudeva, S a m k a r s a n a , P r a d y u m n a a n d A n i r u d d h a . All o f t h e m h a d weapons lifted u p . T h e y destroyed all those g r e a t Asuras w h o were in t h e guise of kings of evil c o n d u c t . T h e y h a d been functioning like a b u r d e n on t h e E a r t h . 130. W h e n they were destroyed, Asura B h a n d a b e c a m e highly furious. He discharged the dreadful Kali missile t h a t caused violation a n d transgression of v i r t u e . 131-132. T h e r e u p o n , from t h e K a l i missile were b o r n kings A n d h r a s a n d P u n d r a s , Kirātas, Śabaras, Hūnas a n d Yavanas who h a d sinful activities. T h e y were t h e trans­ gressors of Vedic injunctions. T h e y were inimical to virtuous activities. T h e y killed living beings. T h e y upset the disciplines of four castes a n d stages of life a n d b r o u g h t a b o u t m i x t u r e of castes. T h e y h a d dirty limbs. T h e y smashed a n d t o r t u r e d t h e armies of L a l i t ā a n d Śaktis again a n d again. 133. T h e r e u p o n , J a n ā r d a n a n a m e d K a l k i was b o r n of t h e n a i l of small finger of sparkling lotus-like left h a n d of Śrī Lalitā.


1210

Brahmānda Purāna

134-136. He was riding on a horse. His glory was b r i g h t a n d brilliant. H e m a d e a n Affahāsa (boisterous laugh of challenging) by his sound resembling the blow of thunder­ bolt, t h e K i r ā t a s swooned a n d died. Śaktis were delighted. T h e leaders of t e n Avatāras ( I n c a r n a t i o n s ) completed this difficult task, b o w e d down to L a l i t ā and stood by with palms j o i n e d in reverence. T h e y h a d been engaged by m o t h e r Lalitā to defend virtue a n d piety in every K a l p a t h r o u g h t h e births of Fish e t c . T h e y t h e n s t a r t e d for V a i k u n t h a . 137. W h e n all t h e miraculous missiles were thus destroyed, t h e evil-minded (Asuras) discharged t h e missile of Mahāmoha ( g r e a t delusion a n d fainting). T h e Śaktis. swooned on a c c o u n t of t h a t . 138. By discharging t h e Sāmbhava missile (that of L o r d (Śiva) t h e m o t h e r split up t h e M a h ā m o h a missile. As t h e great b a t t l e took place t h u s with t h e continuous flow of missiles a n d counter missiles t h e sun, t h e lord of rays was a b o u t to reach the western m o u n t a i n (the m o u n t a i n of setting). 139. T h e n by m e a n s of N ā r ā y a n a missile t h e goddess L a l i t ā m b i k ā r e d u c e d all Aksauhinīs to ashes, in t h e course of the battle. 140. T h e n by t h e Pāśupata missile which h a d the lustre of t h e enkindled fire of Destruction of t h e world t h e great q u e e n smashed a n d crushed forty generals. 141-142. T h e only one left out was t h e g r e a t Asura B h a n d a . All t h e kinsmen of t h e wicked fellow h a d already beed killed. He blazed w i t h fury. He was a great d e m o n of m u c h i n h e r e n t strength a n d fierce valour. He h a d caused a great havoc in t h e entire universe. T h e m o t h e r Lalitā, t h e great goddess killed h i m by m e a n s of Mahākāmeś'ara missile t h a t h a d the splendour of a thousand suns. 143-144. His city Ś ū n y a k a was over-run by t h e flames of t h a t missile. Suddenly it was completely b u r n e d down along with w o m e n a n d children, cowpens, riches a n d granaries. O n l y the b a r e g r o u n d r e m a i n e d . D u e to destruction of B h a n d a t h e t h r e e worlds d a n c e d w i t h delight. 145. After carrying out this task of the Devas, K ā m e ś v a r ī whose conduct was never blame-worthy, w h o was t h e o r n a -


Lalitā-mAhātmya 29.146—30.1

1211

m e n t a l glory of the chariot Śrīcakrarājaratha, who was t h e m o t h e r of the three worlds, who was equipped with all shining assets a n d who was endowed with the glory of victory, shone brilliantly. 146. All her soldiers h a d been subjected to fatigue on account of their work in the battle-field (viz. fighting). T h e y h a d been b u r n e d by the fire of powerful arrows of B h a n d a , the Asura. W h e n the sun set, Sri D e v a t ā whose prowess was well-renowned b r o u g h t t h e m t o her c a m p . 147. O leading ascetic, if a n y o n e reads even once ( t h e narrative) of the slaying of B h a n d a , the D ā n a v a , carried o u t thus by L a l i t ā m b ā , all his sorrows will be destroyed. He will be master of all eight Siddhis. Both worldly enjoyment a n d salvation a r e within his reach. 148. Those m e n who read this narrative on holy days will a t t a i n flourishing excellent fortune. This n a r r a t i v e of Lalitā's valour is destructive of all sins. It is sacred a n d condu­ cive to the a t t a i n m e n t of all Siddhis.

CHAPTER THIRTY Resurrection of Madana

(God of Love)

1

Agastya said : 1. O Hayagrīva, O highly intelligent one, t h e excellent narrative has been h e a r d . T h e excellant valour of goddess L a l i t ā h a s been described by you. 1.

Bhandāsura w a s created out of the ashes of M a d a n a w h e n he was.

burnt d o w n by g o d Śańkara. N o w Bhandāsura is killed by Lalitā. h a d then no body to exist. At this time Tārakāsura w a s a

Madana

growing m e n a c e .

According to his boon, only Siva's son c o u l d kill h i m . Ś i v a w a s

a

widower

engrossed in penance. Formerly, attempt to t e m p t Ś i v a h a d failed. So M a d a n a must be given a body and be deputed to tempt ś i v a . R a t i was appealing, so g o d s presented R a t i to Lalitā. O u t of compassion she revived her husband. H e was blessed by Lalitā and was sent to Śiva. T h i s time gated. He married Pārvati and g o t a son Skanda.

Siva

was

subju­


1212

Brahmānda Purāna

2. On account of flawless a n d meritorious anecdotes of the goddess, I have become extremely delighted, O H a y a ­ griva, T h e g r e a t power of M a n t r i n ī a n d D a n d a n ā t h ā also has been heard. 3. After t h e night of the fourth day of t h e b a t t l e h a d dawned, O Hayagriva, w h a t did Ambikā do after t h e b a t t l e was over? Hayagriva said : 4. Listen, O Pot-born Sage, O intelligent one, to w h a t h a d been d o n e b y J a g a d a m b ā after D ā n a v a , B h a n d a , h a d been killed. 5. W i t h h e r eyes immersed in n e c t a r (as it w e r e ) , she repeatedly delighted t h e entire a r m y of Śaktis harassed a n d bruised by h u n d r e d s of weapons of D a i t y a s . 6. By the c u r r e n t of nectarine glances of the supreme goddess L a l i t ā , ś a k t i s got rid of their fatigue d u e to h e r w a r . T h e y b e c a m e delighted i n their m i n d s . 7 . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , Devas w i t h B r a h m a a n d Visnu as their leaders, b e c a m e gratified d u e to the smashing of B h a n d a a n d they a p p r o a c h e d t h e goddess to serve h e r . 8-10. B r a h m a , Visnu, R u d r a , Devas beginning with I n d r a , Adityas, Vasus, R u d r a s , M a r u t s , S ā d h y a — d e i t i e s , Siddhas, K i m p u r u s a s , Yaksas, N i r r t i a n d other night-wanderers, P r a h l ā d a a n d o t h e r great Daityas a n d t h e residents of t h e entire cosmic egg c a m e there a n d gladly eulogised t h e great goddess seated on the t h r o n e . 1 Brahma and others said : 11. Obeisance, obeisance to y o u , O s u p r e m e lady of t h e universe; salutes to you O goddess Tripurā, Hail to you, O destroyer of B h a n d a t h e great Asura. Obeisance to you, O K ā m e ś v a r ī , Vāmakeśi (one having beautiful tresses). 12. O C i n t ā m a n i (wish-yielding j e w e l ) , O goddess e x p e r t in bestowing w h a t is anxiously t h o u g h t of, O unimagin1. D e v a s have c o m e in deputation to plead Rati's case. As usual Lalitā must be propitiated by singing a string of her e p i t h e t s — a g l o w i n g tribute to her. H e n c e her epithets in V V . 11-30.


Lalitā-māhHttnya 30.13-18

1213

able deity, O cluster of waves in t h e form of Cit (consciousness), O deity w i t h g a r m e n t s of diverse colours, O M o t h e r of t h e universe of variegated forms, O deity n a m e d C i t r ā , O e t e r n a l o n e , O bestower of pleasure, Obeisance to you. 13. O bestower of salvation, O deity w i t h t h e crescent m o o n as crest-jewel, O deity of sweet smiles, O lady discussing administrative policies with Mudreśvarī, O d e i t y fond of Mūdras (mystical gestures), O deity, obeisance, obeisance t o you. 14. O destroyer of the cruel god of d e a t h , O lady w i t h t e n d e r body, O lady taking up t h e b o d y of K a l i while in fury, O deity w i t h t h e face of a Boar, O deity w h o has protected a l l troops a n d armies, O deity clasping to your own bosom t h e fear of all (i.e. one w h o dispels their fears), obeisance to you. 15. O dark-complexioned deity with six a t t e n d a n t deities, O goddess w o r t h y of b e i n g sought by t h e words of V e d a s a l o n g with t h e i r six ancillary subjects, O deity stationed in t h e six mystical cakras in t h e body, e q u i p p e d with Sadūrmis (viz. : Śoka (grief), Moha ( d e l u s i o n ) , Jarā ( o l d a g e ) , Mrtyu ( d e a t h ) , Ksut (hunger) a n d Pipāsā (thirst) or six plaits in the tresses, 0 S a d b h a v a r ū p ā (the four types of living beings, Avidyā a n d t h e supreme spirit—having these six as her forms), O Lalitā, 1 bow to you. -~ 16. O Kama (Lovely goddess), O Śivā, O deity identi­ cal w i t h t h e chief e t e r n a l things, O deity e q u i p p e d w i t h lustre, O deity w i t h large eyes resembling petals of lotus, O bestower of desires, O K ā m i n i (lovable o n e ) , O deity w o r t h y of being desired by S a m b h u in t h e guise of K ā m e ś v a r a , O p r e ­ siding deity of all a r t s , salute to you. 17. O deity first one a m o n g divine penances, O deity h a v i n g forms of groups of cities, O divine being, O deity as lustrous as a thousand suns, O refulgent one, O deity e n d u e d w i t h s y m p a t h y , O consort of t h e overlord of Devas, obeisance t o you. 18. O deity w o r t h y of being always served by t h e eight Siddhis beginning w i t h Animā ( M i n u t e n e s s ) , O deity residing in Sadāśiva's own shining conch, O c u l t u r e d one, O deity w i t h


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feet which aire the sole refuge of good people a n d w h i c h are worthy of being worshipped, O M o t h e r of t h e world, obeisance, obeisance to you. 19. O deity w o r t h y of being served by t h e Mātrs (Mothers) t h e chief a m o n g w h o m is Brāhmī, O deity beloved of B r a h m a n , O deity w h o severs the (worldly) b o n d a g e of o n e who has realised B r a h m a n , O royal Swan (swimming) in. the n e c t a r i n e c u r r e n t of B r a h m a n , O goddess of B r a h m a , O Śrīlalitā, bow to you. 20. O deity served by t h e Mudrās (Mystical gestures by m e a n s of fingers) t h e chief of t h e m being Samksobhinī, O destroyer of worldly existence, O deity h a v i n g features of worldly sports, O deity with eyes resembling lotuses, p e r p e t u a l obeisance to you, O Lalitā, O presiding deity, O eternal one, O deity a t t r a c t i n g h e r lord t h r o u g h t h e sixteen digits, O presid­ ing deity w o r t h y of b e i n g served by t h e P r a m a t h a s . 2 1 . O e t e r n a l one, O deity w i t h merciful activitiesdevoid of fear, O lady w i t h black forelocks of hairs, Obeisance, Obeisance to you. O deity w o r t h y of b e i n g p e r p e t u a l l y served by t h e h a u g h t y lady a t t e n d a n t s of A n a ń g a (cupid) beginning w i t h A n a ń g a p u s p a ; O destroyer of everything inauspicious a n d ugly, O deity w i t h groups of letters for h e r form, O L a l i t ā who h a s k i l l e d all enemies, obeisance to you. 22. O deity w i t h extremely i l l u m i n a t e d form of great mobility, s u r r o u n d e d by fourteen series of flames, t h e chief of w h o m being Samksobhiñī. O deity possessed of your own spirit, O deity endowed w i t h graceful b e a u t y , O deity t h e resort of everything splendid, O deity w i t h auspicious feet, O b e i s a n c e to you. 23. O deity worthy of being saluted by Śaktis, Siddhas a n d others including Śarva, O deity whose lotus-like feet have been c o m p r e h e n d e d by Sarvajña (Śiva), O deity surpassing everything, O omnipresent deity, O bestower of all types of Siddhis (spiritual a t t a i n m e n t s ) , O ś r ī Lalitā, obeisance be to you. 24. O deity t h e r e a l m a r o u n d w h o m is resorted to by those deities w h o were b o r n at t h e outset from Sarvajña as well.


Laltta-mākātmya

30.25-30

1215

as by other deities too, O deity t h e fulfiller of desires of all Devas, O m o t h e r of t h e e n t i r e world, protect us. 25. I salute you t h e deity with a n u m b e r of super h u m a n powers of speech such as Vaśini (Bringing others u n d e r control) etc., O deity having (a chariot) as your vehicle ( t h e chariot) t h a t has t h e increasing splendour of its wheels; O deity w i t h tresses as d a r k as clouds, O ocean of speech, O bestower of boons, O beautiful one, protect t h e universe. 2 6 r O Empress e n d o w e d with arrows a n d other divine weapons, O deity acting like a forest-fire ( i n b u r n i n g d o w n ) t h e forest-like a r m y of B h a n d a , the Asura, O ocean of refulge­ n c e t h a t blazes brightly, O deity w h o is being served all r o u n d , O b e i s a n c e to you. 27. O Kāmeśī, O Vajreśī (goddess of t h u n d e r b o l t ) , O Bhageśī (goddess of exalted s p l e n d o u r ) , O deity without form, O virgin, O K a l ā , O deity powerful e n o u g h to wipe off even god of d e a t h , O deity who reduced t h e a r m y of Daityas only as a legend (i.e. completely destroyed them) ; O K ā m e ś a k ā n t ā (beloved of K ā m e ś v a r a (Lord Śiva), O Kamalā, obeisance to you. 28. O deity stationed on Bindu ( M y s t i c a l point in t h e mystical d i a g r a m ) ; O deity having the soul form of t h e digit of the Bindu, O deity identical w i t h Bindu, O deity t h a t has increasingly cherished t h e illumination of Cit (consciousness), O deity with the necklace swinging to a n d fro on the big breasts resembling ( t h e b u d s of) lotuses; O L a l i t ā of growing prowess, obeisance to you. 29. O deity w i t h p e r p e t u a l residence on t h e lap of K ā m e ś v a r a , O deity identical with K ā l a ( T i m e ) , O goddess taking pity on o t h e r s ; O deity with t h e form of Kālī, t h a t rises up at t h e close of K a l p a , O deity t h e bestower of desires, O deity identical w i t h t h e wish-yielding creeper K a l p a latā, salute to you. 30. O deity a c c o m p a n i e d by V ā r u n ī ( V a r u n a ' s wife as a t t e n d a n t ) ; O deity as cool as the moon w i t h a b u n d a n t n e c t a Tine rays, O deity h a v i n g eyes like those of a fawn, O deity naving t h e face resembling t h e lotus, O deity t h e p e r p e t u a l sole base of t h e essence of agreeable loveliness, O presiding


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goddess of all lores, obeisance to you. 3 1 . B h a n d a a n d other fierce Asuras who h a d become a nuisance a n d source of vexation to t h e entire universe have been killed in b a t t l e by your prowess, because you were born of Cidagni (fire of spiritual consciousness) having been caused to manifest yourself by Śrī Ś a m b h u n ā t h a . 32. After assuming fresh forms a n d bodies. (or after making all our bodies fresh) by m e a n s of currents of a b u n d a n t n e c t a r of mercifulness, O beautiful deity worthy of being attained by c u l t u r e d people *, t h e entire world has been resuscitated and rendered full of joy. 33-34. L o r d Śiva is in the form of the second flow of refulgence of Śrī S a m b h u n ā t h a of great a n d noble heart. He is detached because he h a s been staying p e r m a n e n t l y (v.l. perform­ ing penance) in t h e h e r m i t a g e of S t h ā n u . He has discarded all sensual enjoyments on account of bereavement from Satī. We were engaged in an a t t e m p t to join him with the girl U m ā w h o has taken b i r t h in t h e family of t h e lord of the m o u n t a i n H i m a l a y a . T h u s ( i n this connection) w e h a d persuaded t h e cupid to go n e a r t h a t lord who was engaged in a severe penance. 35. M a d a n a was burned with t h e fire in his forehead because he was angry t h a t there was an obstacle in his detached .state a n d pursuance of p e n a n c e . T h e r e u p o n , M a d a n a was reduced to ashes a n d it was from these ashes t h a t B h a n d a s u r a was b o r n . 36. Thereafter, t h a t evil-minded wicked fellow very h a u g h t y a b o u t his ability to fight in war, was killed by you. N o w K a m a has become Atanu (bodiless) for o u r sake. H e n c e you kindly do resuscitate K a m a immediately. 37. T h i s R a t i is dejected d u e to her bereavement from h e r h u s b a n d . She has a t t a i n e d the ungraceful a n d inauspicious state of widowhood. O Śrī L a l i t ā , she will b e c o m e blessed with a lord a n d h u s b a n d if t h e u n i o n w i t h K a m a is b r o u g h t a b o u t b y you. ed by

38. As before, t h e moon-crested lord m a y become e n c h a n t ­ t h e m i n d b o r n god of love u n i t e d w i t h her. Iśa will ere

•Not obtainable to frightened fellows i.e. Sabhī-\-Alabhye,


Lalitā-māhātmya

30.39-47

1217

long m a r r y t h a t (girl) Pārvatī who h a d served h i m m u c h for a long t i m e . 39. By their union K u m ā r a ( S k a n d a ) , t h e leader of all the armies of Devas will be b o r n . It is t h r o u g h t h a t hero, alone t h a t the king of demons n a m e d T ā r a k a should be defeat­ ed a n d driven away. 1 40. He is a friend of Bhanda, t h e D a i t y a of vicious soul. He is a veritable c o m e t (an ominous calamity) u n t o t h e t h r e e worlds. If he is killed in b a t t l e by t h e son of Śrīkantha, (Śiva) really it will be a re-establishment of o u r vital b r e a t h s once again. 4 1 . H e n c e , O M o t h e r T r i p u r ā , dispel the misery of widowhood of R a t i whose tresses have become dishevelled (by n o t b e i n g c o m b e d ) . (You can d o this) b y resuscitating t h e excellent h e r o M a n m a t h a who is c a p a b l e of removing t h e affected pride of the people. 42. O deity w i t h the designation T r i p u r ā , this helpless widow whose body has become very e m a c i a t e d on account of the d e a t h of her h u s b a n d takes refuge in you a n d bows down to you. H e n c e , please direct a digit of your compassionate glance towards h e r " . Hayagriva said : 4 3 . After eulogising M a h e ś ā n ī thus, t h e excellent Devas beginning w i t h B r a h m a showed her R a t i w h o h a d become u n t i d y a n d emaciated on a c c o u n t of grief. 44. T h a t R a t i who h a d a b a n d o n e d all h e r o r n a m e n t s on a c c o u n t of widowhood, whose face was covered w i t h flow of tears, whose tresses h a d become scattered, a n d whose colour h a d become greyish on account of dust particles, bowed down to Jagadambā. 45-47. On seeing her, the great goddess b e c a m e compas­ sionate. T h e n from her benign side-glance M a n m a t h a was r e b o r n . He h a d a smiling lotus-like face. He was m o r e h a n d ­ some t h a n in his previous body. He b e c a m e (as if) highly intoxicated (excited) w i t h joy. H e h a d only two h a n d s . H e h a d 1.

Gods wanted to kill Tāraka for w h i c h Śañkara must be tempted to

marry. T h e pleading for R a t i is in their o w n interest.


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all kinds of ornaments. Flowers were his bow a n d arrows. By his gentle glance he delighted R a t i his wife as even in t h e previous birth. T h e gentle lady R a t i found herself immersed in t h e g r e a t ocean of bliss. On seeing h e r husband, she b e c a m e exultant w i t h joy. 4 8 . On knowing t h a t b o t h of t h e m h a d their minds filled with devotion a n d t h a t their inner souls h a d great bliss, t h e lotus-like face of the great queen b e a m e d with smile. Look­ ing at R a t i who h a d kept her h e a d bent down d u e to shyness, she spoke to Syāmalā thus :— 49. "O Śyāmalā, let her take b a t h a n d let her be adorned with girdle a n d other ornaments. Let her wear gar­ ments too as before, a n d then be b r o u g h t here q u i c k l y " . 50-52. T a k i n g h e r behests with great humility, Śyāmā did every t h i n g as directed. ( T h e goddess) got t h e auspicious rite of m a r r i a g e of t h e pair performed by Vasistha a n d other Brahminical sages in accordance with the injunctions regarding m a r r i a g e . T h e celebration included dances and songs of all t h e celestial damsels. On seeing this the sages, ascetics a n d gods I n d r a and others praised L a l i t ā Ambikā saying " W e l l d o n e , Well done !" T h e y t h e n eulogised h e r . 53-54. M a k i n g showers of flowers, all of t h e m b e c a m e delighted in their m i n d s . Both of t h e m bowed d o w n to Laliteśvari with great devotion after coming to her side a n d stood there with their p a l m s joined in reverence. T h e n the hero K a n d a r p a bowed down to Maheśvarī. W i t h devotion filling his mind, he appealed to her in the following words. 55. " O m o t h e r Lalitā, the physical b o d y o f m i n e which h a d been b u r n e d by t h e eye of ī ś a has been restored to me d u e to t h e grace of your b e n i g n side-glance. 56. I am your son. I am y o u r slave, employ me a n y w h e r e in any t a s k " . On being told thus P a r m e ś ā n ī spoke to t h e sharkemblemed deity (i.e. c u p i d ) . Śri Devi said : 57. " O d e a r one b o r n o f the m i n d (i.e. c u p i d ) , come o n . You have n o t h i n g to be afraid of. O cupid, w i t h no h i n d -


Lalitā-māhātmya

30.58-67

1219

r a n e e t o y o u r a r r o w , e n c h a n t a n d fascinate t h e entire universe, d u e t o m y favour. 58-60. T h e courage of ī ś v a r a will be upset w h e n y o u r a r r o w s fall o n h i m . I m m e d i a t e l y h e will m a r r y G a u r ī , t h e d a u g h t e r of t h e lord of M o u n t a i n H i m a l a y a . T h o u s a n d s of -crores of K ā m a s will be b o r n of you, d u e to my favour. T h e y will p e n e t r a t e everyone's body a n d bestow excellent sexual p l e a s u r e . O n a c c o u n t o f his n o n - a t t a c h e d n a t u r e Iśa m a y get angry. E v e n t h e n h e will n o t b e c o m p e t e n t t o b u r n down y o u r physical body. 61-63. Be the e n c h a n t e r of all living beings w i t h your invisible physical form. Afraid of separation from his wife he (Bhava) * will give her. half of his body. W i t h his m i n d struck by your arrows, he will b e c o m e a g i t a t e d in his m i n d . F r o m today onwards, O K a n d a r p a , on a c c o u n t of my g r e a t favour those who censure you or those w h o are averse to you will definitely become emasculated a n d u n m a n l y in every birth. Destroy sinners of vicious souls a n d those w h o t o r t u r e a n d harass my devotees by m a k i n g t h e m fall for forbidden women. 64. If people's m i n d is eager for my worship a n d if they respect my devotees, see t h a t you e n a b l e t h e m to h a v e t h e pleasure of love by a r r a n g i n g for t h e fulfilment of all their desires." 65. These were t h e words of behest of Śrī L a l i t ā Devī. T h e cupid received the c o m m a n d of the goddess h u m b l y a n d said " L e t it be s o " . W i t h p a l m s joined in reverence, he set o u t from t h a t place. 66. F r o m all the hair-pores of t h e lord of Love arose m a n y M a d a n a s whose features were splendid a n d w h o could e n c h a n t t h e entire universe. 67. After fascinating a n d e n c h a n t i n g t h e entire sphere o f t h e world t h r o u g h t h e m , t h e cupid w e n t once a g a i n t o t h e h e r m i t a g e of S t h ā n u with the desire to c o n q u e r the mooncrested lord. •Bhava ( Ś i v a ) the enchanter o n e w i t h his body not visible to all beings.

living


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68-70. He was a c c o m p a n i e d by his friend V a s a n t a (the season-spring), his general, the m o o n with cool rays, a n d his bosom friends a n d associates (sexual desire) a n d the g e n t l e breeze of low speed. He was a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e K ā h a l ī sound ( T r u m p e t s a n d drums) of t h e chirping cooing sound of t h e cuckoos. He was richly e n d o w e d w i t h t h e sentiment of lover's heroism. His b o d y was closely e m b r a c e d by R a t i . He shook his victorious bow. As t h e l e a d e r of all heroes, he c a m e face of face with t h e enemy of t h e c u p i d i.e. Lord Śiva. He stood t h e r e fearlessly. 71. He struck w i t h his arrows, t h e moon-crested lord w h o was engaged in p e n a n c e . T h e r e u p o n , t h e moon-crested lord struck by t h e volleys of K a n d a r p a ' s arrows got r i d of his a t t i t u d e of n o n - a t t a c h m e n t . H e a b a n d o n e d t h e difficult rite o f p e n a n c e . 1 72-74. H e a b a n d o n e d all regular observances. H e a b a n d o n e d his m e n t a l courage. He b e c a m e sick w i t h , love by frequently m e d i t a t i n g u p o n P ā r v a t ī . H i s cheeks b e c a m e p a l e . He heaved deep sighs. T e a r s c a m e o u t of his eyes. He was agonized by pangs of s e p a r a t i o n a n d loss of courage. He recollected again a n d a g a i n the d a u g h t e r of t h e lord of t h e m o u n t a i n w h o h a d been seen b y h i m before. Neither the digit of t h e M o o n on his h e a d n o r G a ń g ā was c a p a b l e of dispelling t h e scorching sensation in the b o d y of t h e tridentb e a r i n g lord as it was being heated by t h e fiery arrows of t h e cupid. 75. He frequently rolled in t h e flowery bed b r o u g h t by t h e circle of his G a n a s ( a t t e n d a n t s ) t h e chief a m o n g w h o m were N a n d i n , Bhrńgi a n d M a h ā k ā l a . 76. S u p p o r t e d by t h e h a n d of N a n d i n he w e n t on from one flowery bed to a n o t h e r flowery bed a n d m o v e d resflessly on it a g a i n a n d again. 77. N e i t h e r on t h e flowery bed n o r in t h e n e c t a r exuding from t h e crescent M o o n nor in t h e snowy cold waters (of G a ń g ā ) did t h e h e a t of fever of his b o d y c o m e d o w n . 1.

T h e Love-lorn c o n d i t i o n of Ś i v a like an ordinary

i n W . 71-84. I t i s the Purānas.

author's s p e c i a l contribution

person is described not

found i n

other


Lalitā-māh&tmya

30.78-88

1221

78-80. Desirous of suppressing t h e fiery flames of love of his b o d y , Śiva occupied t h e rocky slabs of frozen snow. He b e g a n to d r a w t h e figure of t h e d a u g h t e r of t h e lord of t h e m o u n t a i n on picture slabs w i t h his nails. But looking at it, it increased further his own pangs of love. After d r a w i n g h e r picture in t h e posture of standing h u m b l y w i t h stooping h e a d a n d body on account of bashfulness a n d looking up by m e a n s of side-glances alone, he placed t h a t p i c t u r e slab on his limbs w h e r e h e h a d horripilation. T h e deity o f u n e v e n n u m b e r of eyes (i.e. Śiva) suffered m u c h on a c c o u n t of g r e a t i m a g i n a r y connections ( w i t h h e r ) great sexual e m o t i o n a n d further distress from love-god. 81-83. He saw her alone everywhere. He directed his m i n d only towards her. H e conversed with h e r alone f i x i n g h e r form in front by m e a n s of his own m a d delirium. His h e a r t b e c a m e identified with hers, his m i n d w i t h h e r m i n d , he con­ sidered h e r as his u l t i m a t e goal. He spent days a n d nights by h e r nectar-like anecdotes. He was always engaged in describing her c o n d u c t . He was eager to see h e r form. He b e c a m e a g a r d e n e r w r e a t h i n g imaginary garlands of pleasurable enjoy­ m e n t s with h e r . Identifying himself w i t h h e r , Śiva b e c a m e extremely distressed. 84. On observing t h a t this p a i n of passion could not be treated otherwise, D h ū r j a t i exerted himself very m u c h for t h e sake of m a r r i a g e . 85. After e n c h a n t i n g t h e lord t h u s at t h e behest of Lalitā, K a n d a r p a t o r m e n t e d t h e d a u g h t e r of t h e lord of t h e m o u n t a i n b y m e a n s ofhis arrows. 1 86-88. H e r petal-like lips b e c a m e d r i e d up by t h e h o t winds of h e r b r e a t h s rendered soiled by the fiery flames ' of separation. H e r cheeks b e c a m e very pale. She d i d not experience a n y steady relish either in food or in h e r b e d or even in sleep. She was continuously sprinkled w i t h cooling devices by thousands of h e r a t t e n d a n t s . Again a n d a g a i n she was distressed and agonized. She could n o t suppress t h e p a i n from t h e great fire of love. 1. Pārvatī's fascination for Śiva is t h e subject epic Kumārasambhava.

of Kālidāsa's beautiful


1222

Brahmānda Purāna

89. Scorched a n d distressed by the fire of separation, Pārvatī could n o t sleep at all. By the feverish distress of h e r b o d y she e n h a n c e d the sorrow of her father. 90. On observing t h a t his d a u g h t e r ' s pangs of separation from Śiva were irremediably severe, the lord of m o u n t a i n s felt great sorrow. 9 1 . She was t h e n urged by her father t h u s — " O gentle lady, you do p r o p i t i a t e lord M a h e ś v a r a by m e a n s of penance a n d a t t a i n h i m as your h u s b a n d " . 92. F o r securing her husband, Pārvatī performed a very severe p e n a n c e on the peak of the m o u n t a i n H i m a l a y a , n a m e d Gaurīśikhara. 9 3 . She practised a dreadfully severe p e n a n c e by stay­ ing in water d u r i n g the winter a n d by standing in the middle of fires w i t h the eyes fixed on t h e sun d u r i n g the s u m m e r . 94. Gratified by t h a t p e n a n c e Śiva g r a n t e d his proxi­ m i t y to her. He accepted her as his wife in accordance with the religious injunctions regarding m a r r i a g e ceremony. 95. T h e n after requesting for her h a n d t h r o u g h the seven sages at the outset, he married the lotus-eyed d a u g h t e r , on being offered by the lord of the m o u n t a i n . 96. Engaged in amorous dalliance w i t h h e r for a long time, M a h e ś v a r a stayed in the a b o d e of his father-in-law in the city of O s a d h i p r a s t h a . 97. Thereafter, he came back to Kailāsa along with all t h e P r a m a t h a s ( a t t e n d a n t s ) . H e b r o u g h t Pārvatī there a n d thereby m a d e the lord of t h e m o u n t a i n (all the m o r e ) pleased. 98-101. He c o u n t i n u e d to sport with h e r on Kailāsa, M a n d a r a , V i n d h y ā d r i , Hemaśaila, M a l a y a , P ā r i y ā t r a k a a n d in various o t h e r places. T h e r e b y M a h e ś v a r a derived great pleasure. He discharged a powerful semen into h e r . She was u n a b l e to b e a r . She cast it off on the e a r t h . T h e e a r t h cast in i n t o the fire. He cast it a m o n g the K r t t i k ā s . T h e y discharg­ ed it i n t o t h e waters of G a ñ g ā . T h e river deposited it in t h e forest of Sara reeds. M a h ā s e n a the great h e r o of six faces


Lalitā-māhātmya

30.102-107

was b o r n t h e r e . 1 (Śiva) g r e w u p .

Nursed

1223 by G a ń g ā

t h e son

of

Dhūrjati

102. D a y by day, he grew up into a highly valorous h e r o . He was t r a i n e d by his father a n d he acquired all lores. 103. On being p e r m i t t e d by his father he b e c a m e t h e general of t h e a r m y of t h e Devas. He killed T ā r a k a along w i t h Dānavas. 104. T h e r e u p o n , he m a r r i e d Devasenā offered by Ś a k r a w h o was highly pleased when t h e leading D a i t y a T ā r a k a was slain. 105. T h a t glorious d a u g h t e r of Śakra n a m e d D e v a s e n ā became excessively delighted on securing S k a n d a as h e r husband. 106. After n e a t l y accomplishing the task of D e v a s thus, t h e god of love who e n c h a n t e d t h e entire sphere of t h e universe went t o Ś r ī p u r a a g a i n . 107. T h e r e in t h e holy city of Ś r ī n a g a r a 2 he w e n t to t h a t place, where L a l i t ā Parameśvarī stayed for the sake of t h e pros­ p e r i t y o f t h e worlds. H e w e n t t h e r e i n order t o serve h e r .

1.

T h e story of Skanda's birth, his killing of T ā r a k a a n d his

with D e v a s e n ā are recorded in M b h and other

Purānas.

marriage

T h u s in Mbh

Ami

83.68-82 86.5-14 we are told h o w he w a s born a n d the causes of the differ­ ent

epithets given to him. For his different mothers v i d e Mbh Vana 2 3 0 . 6 , 1 5 .

H i s killing T ā r a k a

(Mbh Salya 4 6 . 7 3 - 7 5 ) . H i s marriage

with D e v a s e n ā

(Mbh. Vana ch. 2 2 9 ) . But in Maharashtra, p e o p l e b e l i e v e that taken a v o w not to see a w o m a n a n d has w o m a n trying to see h i m will be

a

uttered

widow

a standing

for seven

Skanda curse

has

that

a

births. S u b r a h m a n y a

(i.e. S k a n d a ) in S o u t h I n d i a is a married g o d . 2.

Like every g o d great or small, S k a n d a is said

to h a v e settled

Śrinagar to serve Lalitā, an a t t e m p t to e n h a n c e Lalitā's g l o r y .

at

Brahmanda Purana 4  

Purana, Wisdom, Vedas

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