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[re]Forum in Berlin

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Architecture in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture at The Savannah College of Art & Design Nick Place Savannah, Georgia June 2017

Hsu-Jen Huang Ph.D, Committee Chair Arpad Ronaszegi, Committee Member Scott Budzynski Ph.D, Committee Member


CONTENTS


List of Figures

1

Abstract

6

Chapter 1: Speculative Germany 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

The Fracture of Germany The Social and Economic Classes of a Reunified Germany Historical Consciousness of a Mending Country Berlin: The Divided City

8 9 12 14

Chapter 2: Speculative Identity 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Contemporary Berlin City of Design Cultural Metropolis Singularity National Pride

18 18 20 21 22

Chapter 3: Speculative Development of Berlin 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Polycentric Development Transformative Character Integration Redevelopment New Collective Memory

26 29 30 35 38

Chapter 4: Ideas & Strategies 4.1 4.2 4.3

Berlin and the Uncanny An Alternate Plan for Berlin New Babylon

42 43 44

Chapter 5: Location 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Macro Analysis Demographics Climate Analysis Site Selection Site Transformation Site Analysis

48 51 54 57 59 61

Chapter 6: Representative Identity 6.1

Representative Identity

66


6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

Technology Berlin Aesthetic Music Time Period Pop Culture The Berlin Aesthetic

66 66 66 67 67 68

Chapter 7: Design Process 7.1

Computational Design

72

Chapter 8: Final Design 8.1

Final Algorithm

82

Chapter 9: Conclusion 9.1

[re]Forum in Berlin

118

Appendix

119

Bibliography

141


LIST OF FIGURES

1


Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3

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9 10 13

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19 20 21 22 23

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26 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 39

http://bit.ly/2qDjhh1 http://bit.ly/2rHolRx http://bit.ly/2sgJDCF

43 44 44

By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author

48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 52

Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Figure 3.14 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Figure 3.17 Figure 3.18 Figure 3.19 Chapter 4 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10

2


Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure 5.18 Figure 5.19 Figure 5.20 Figure 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.23 Figure 5.24 Figure 5.25 Figure 5.26 Figure 5.27 Figure 5.28 Figure 5.29 Figure 5.30 Figure 5.31 Figure 5.32 Figure 5.33 Figure 5.34 Figure 5.35 Figure 5.36 Figure 5.37 Figure 5.38 Figure 5.39 Figure 5.40 Figure 5.41

By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author http://bit.ly/2re0xTO http://bit.ly/2rHg3sS ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online ESRI Online By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author

53 53 53 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 62 62 62 62 63 64

By Author http://bit.ly/2qD1oit http://bit.ly/2rHkdRs http://bit.ly/2rn9YyS

67 67 68 68

By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author

72 73 75 76 77 79 79 79 80

By Author

83

Chapter 6 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Chapter 7 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.9 Chapter 8 Figure 8.1

3


Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 8.6 Figure 8.7 Figure 8.8 Figure 8.9 Figure 8.10 Figure 8.11 Figure 8.12 Figure 8.13 Figure 8.14 Figure 8.15 Figure 8.16 Figure 8.17 Figure 8.18 Figure 8.19 Figure 8.20 Figure 8.21 Figure 8.22 Figure 8.23 Figure 8.24 Figure 8.25 Figure 8.26 Figure 8.27 Figure 8.28 Figure 8.29 Figure 8.30 Figure 8.31 Figure 8.32 Figure 3.33

By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author By Author

84 85 86 87 87 88 89 91 92 92 93 94 95 96 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 105 107 109 111 113 115

4


5


Abstract

[re]Forum in Berlin

Nick Place

June 2017

The aim of this thesis is to address the disconnect between the current generation and the modern identity of Berlin, Germany. Concentrating on the contemporary focus of technology and automation, computational design is the driving force behind the redesign of an existing public forum in the central Mitte district of Berlin. The material culture of Berlin and the importance of musical associations throughout the city and its importance to the existing urban culture provides the data necessary for algorithmic form generation. Using the idea of layering, multiple tiers of music influence the formation of the structure; Time Period, Pop Culture, and the Berlin Aesthetic. These extracted data values each affect separate functions of the algorithm, therefore generating an exclusive framework. Growing above the existing statue of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, one of the competing monuments of the city, there is no attempt to conceal history, but rather to allow for different perspectives on the past, while remaining grounded in the present. Through computational design, under the influence of culturally significant music, Marx-Engels Forum is transformed into an embodiment of history as a physical manifestation of the city culture through the Berlin Aesthetic.

Keywords: historical consciousness, reunification, separation, generational identity, cultural memory, computational design, berlin aesthetic, social impact, urban culture, automation 6


Chapter 1: Speculative Germany

7


from the League of Nations and “In Berlin, Germany’s wounds still lie open everywhere.” -Brian Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin

commenced a campaign across Europe under the simplified idea that Germany was taking what was rightfully theirs for the betterment of

1.1

The Fracture of Germany The history of Germany is

the country and for the expansion of Germany. And with the invasion of Poland, Great Britain and France

one of many colors. The bulk of

declared war, thus igniting the

the issues came to light when the

flame that would come to be World

National Socialist German Workers’

War II.

Party, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, most widely known in the United

After a long campaign, the

States of America as the Nazi

destruction of most major German

Party. Under the Nazi Party rule, the

cities and a devastating attempt

governing system soon became a

at genocide and the “ethnic

dictatorship, ruling through fear and

purification” of Germany, the Nazi

enforcing racist and discriminatory

Party was eventually defeated, and

practices, most notably anti-

with that came a strenuous and

Semitism casually under the guise

rather passive aggressive struggle

of German pride.12 Extremely

for power of the country3. During

unhappy with the terms of the strict

the Cold War, Germany was taken

provisions put upon Germany after

control of, and split between the

World War I dictated through the

communist Soviet Union, and the

Treaty of Versailles. Going against

Democratic United States and

these sanctions, Hitler withdrew

supporting Allies. Germany was 8


establishment of a new democratic government, the reunification of East and West Germany was initiated (Figure 1.2).

1.2

The Social and Economic Classes of a Reunified Germany Following the reunification of Germany, many unexpected complications swiftly emerged. Among these, and one of the largest economic issues was

Figure 1.1 East and West Germany

the spread of capitalism. What

thenceforth divided in half, East

was left of the industry of the

Germany (communism) and West Germany (Democracy)(Figure 1.1).

4

This act is what has created the largest fracture in social classes currently existing in the country today. The Western portion of the country prospered while the East suffered. After about 45 years of the tension between the two competing powers, the Soviet Union fell, and the Berlin Wall along with it, and with that the 9

socialist East Germany simply couldn’t keep when introduced into the same market as the already prosperous West German industries. Two widely different economies (socialist and capitalist) were merged together, with no prior precedent, which created clashes between economic and social classes. Nowadays, the Berlin Wall has been down for about twenty-seven years and


Figure 1.2 The Fall of the Berlin Wall

one of the highly debated topics

are only interested in money and

is whether or not East and West

that 45% believe westerners are

Germany are really truly unified

shallow.5 The study goes on to

as one. In 2012, twenty-two

further elaborate with comments

years after the reunification, the

from an editorial newspaper with a

Allensbach Institute conducted a

musing that the east tends to think

major study on the social views

of the north in an overwhelmingly

and prejudices held between and

negative way. However, when

against those from the East and

westerners were interviewed, they

the West. According to the study,

viewed those hailing from the east

71% of those in the east viewed

as “distrustful,� however only a

the westerners as being arrogant,

very small percentage of them

57% think that those from the west

viewed their fellow countrymen

10


as arrogant. It seems that these rather massive gaps in wealth have

thereby weakening the social foundation for health.”7

created an understandable amount of friction between the two broken halves of a 6continually mending country, and this in turn has resulted in the differences in social views and perceptions carried on from one half to the other. The most crucial problem caused by this separation is the lack of cohesion within the population. The creation of a cohesive

description. The events of World War II and the Cold War ruptured the existing underlying social structure of the German population, creating an overall deterioration in the overall well-being of the nation. This brings up many questions, such as the ever so prominent pondering as to what the long

country is imperative. Veronique

term effects might be for such a

Heon-Klin approached the subject

critical disruption. Veronique Heon-

in The Influence of Geopolitical

Klin expands upon that aspect as

Change on the Well-Being of a

well by saying, “Such upheaval

Population: The Berlin Wall by flatly

also causes short-and long-term

stating:

psychological distress for the

“Social cohesion is widely recognized as a fundamental precondition for healthy populations. It is also well established that cohesion is a result of social, cultural, and political integration within a society. Events or processes that rupture ties within and among social groups can undermine social cohesion, 11

Germany fits right into this

affected individuals,” and that “divided social groups can come to hate each other.” 8This backs up the study results of the Allensbach Institute on the overall mentality of both sides of Germany. After 40 years of separation, the country of


1.3

Germany has be reunified, but not

Following the bombings by the

successfully on either a micro or a

Allies of almost every major city

macro scale. This conclusion just

in Germany, a large portion of the

begs the question; What can be

country had to be reconstructed,

done?

from the ground up. Among the

Historical Consciousness of a Mending Country History is something that

most devastated cities were Dresden, Frankfurt and of course the capital city, Berlin. In the cities, specifically in Berlin, it seems

one cannot, nor should forget.

impossible to turn a corner and

History and the recollection of the

not see some sort of monumental

past is what makes something

icon or museum dedicated to

whole. Providing the answers

either those who lost their lives in

for the most basic of questions

the holocaust, or just those badly

of Who? Where? And most

affected by the campaign over forty

importantly and serious the

years ago under the rule of the

question of why? History paints a

Nazi Party. These monuments vary

vivid road map for all who inquire,

wildly, whether it is something as

and is something that should

simple as the Holocaust Museum

always be evoked, whether it is

of the Jewish Memorial, all the way

to learn from past mistakes or to

to the naming of streets after Stalin

make predictions for the future.

and the Soviet Union; anything to

Just by simply visiting Germany it will become readily apparent that the entire country has a love-hate relationship with remembrance of the past.

illustrate the appreciation for the ousting of Nazism is something that the “New Germany� wishes to publicize in order to announce an enigmatic and loosely defined 12


Figure 1.3 Berlin From Space At Night

13

future of the country and its

of recent history” is astonishing. 10

democratic government.9 How

Could this be due to the fact that

much does this really affect the

the remainder of people directly

Citizens of Berlin, and their daily

affected are on their way out, and

life though? The answer to that

with it bringing a new age group to

can only be described, or at least

inhabit the country and its cities?

determined by taking a close look

Perhaps it is for the best for the

at the citizens, and the different age

new generation to live with these

groups who are affected. According

monuments, in a remembrance of

to Felix Lutz makes an observation

their own, and with that create a

that in terms of the younger

new collective memory with which

generations, the “remarkable loss

to commemorate the country’s


rich history without opening up old

in debt to some, it might be even

scars. Pushing past the conflicting

more shocking that according to

identities of the countries past,

recent statistics, the city of Berlin

and now the present and how it

is in more debt than the American

relates to the rest of the world

city of Detroit.11 However, due to

is something that could be

German law prohibiting bankruptcy

implemented to direct attention

in national cities, they must make

to the more internal issues on a

due with sixty-three billion euros

much more micro scale, affected

of hefty debt, distributed through

by the economical portions of the

every citizen, cushioned by the low

past conflicts, in lieu of focusing

interest loans the city is allowed

solely on the world view, and how

to take our annually through the

they fit into the grand spectrum of

federal government.12

the European and whether or not redemption has truly been granted. 1.4

Berlin: The Divided City In modern day Berlin, division is still very real (Figure 1.3). Berlin has now become a town for the youth. Cutting edge architecture in addition to various company startups, coupled with the overall famous affordability in living costs and it sounds like the perfect place. However, while it may be common knowledge that Berlin is

The idea of Berlin is alluring all in its own right, however compared to the rest of the country Berlin is swarmed by immigrants and expatriates looking to enjoy the widely publicized “Berliner Lifestyle.� However, due to this sudden influx of upper to middle class workforces, those native to the city as victim to gentrification and thus forced out of their homes due to skyrocketing prices.13 However, the government has recently been working diligently

14


on a way to aid the struggle of

exposure, the most opportunistic

Berlin natives with affordable public

and architectural intervention must

housing initiatives prohibiting

be left to the micro scale, towards

qualifying renters from being

unification efforts in a local form

priced out of their homes, with

through the built environment.

their rent being solely based upon income,14 Aside from the financial difficulties facing a surprisingly high number of Berliners, the city itself is also still physically divided. Subtle hints consisting

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

of artifacts of the past post-war eras, the differences between

8 9

East and West Berlin in terms of Wealth is widely abundant through

10

types of commerce available on

11 12 13

either side, and even down to the paving of the streets and paths, or especially the architecture. This undoubtedly affects the ways in which the two sides view each other, such as what was previously mentioned earlier in the chapter. Whether or not it is due to direct effect from certain age groups or through prejudices thrust upon the younger groups due to influential 15

14

“Nazi Party - World War II.” “German Territorial Losses, Treaty of Versailles, 1919.” “The Holocaust.” “How Did the Cold War Start and End?” “Germans Still Divided, More than Two Decades after Reunification.” Ibid. Héon-Klin et al., “The Influence of Geopolitical Change on the Well-Being of a Population: The Berlin Wall.” Ibid. Alan Bairner, “The Cultural Politics of Remembrance: Sport, Place and Memory in Belfast and Berlin.” Lutz, “Evolution and Normalization: Historical Consciousness in Germany.” “Pleite-Städte.” Ibid. “Berliner Haben Zukunftsängste Wegen Steigender Mieten”; Obermueller, “Save Berlin.” O’Sullivan, “Berlin’s Bold New Affordable Housing Plan Stops the Rent From Getting Too Damn High.”


16


Chapter 2: Speculative Identity

17


the foreigners tend to flock to the “All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin. And therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words, ‘Ich bin ein Berliner.’”

most central of Berlin’s twelve boroughs (Figure 2.1) whereas the native Berliners sprawl out towards the surrounding districts, with the

-John F. Kennedy

older inhabitants settling on the 2.1

western side.2 Berlin is gaining

Contemporary Berlin

the reputation around the world

The contemporary Berlin

as being a cultural icon in an ever-

of today is worlds apart from its

proliferating era of technology,

pre-reunification predecessor, fully

boasting an impressive number of

developed into a cosmopolitan

venues for music and art. Post-

metropolis known throughout the

Wall Berlin is also known as an

world. Boris Grésillon addresses

experimental playground for not

the shift in identity of the ‘New

only the artists, but for architects

Berlin’ by describing Berlin as the

and designers in kind.

“only German city to have been confronted, in its very fabric, by the fact and the consequences of

2.2

City of Design Due to this increasing

reunification.“1 Officially, the city

motivation towards pursuing the

is no longer divided politically,

creative arts, in 2005 the City of

but the imaginary barriers remain.

Berlin was awarded by the United

The population of the city is no

Nations Educational, Scientific and

longer mostly native Germans, but

Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

is widely consisting of foreigners

the title of “City of Design” and was

making the city a giant multicultural

added to the index of the Creative

environment. Ironically enough,

Cities Network. Due to the inclusion 18


Figure2.1 Boroughs of Berlin

19

of various schools of the arts and

architecture and design, all the way

private art institutions, design

to photography and fashion.3 This

and educational opportunities

unique dichotomy between the

are prevalent throughout the city

urban landscape and the artistic

with an unprecedented freedom

mindset sets a unprecedented

to explore artistic interests not

model of Berlin as a city who

seen anywhere else in Europe.

truly understands the relationship

This open-minded mindset

between the urban structure and

ranges widely from the fields of

the social interactions, inevitably


reconstructing the city’s cultural profile. 2.3

Cultural Metropolis Referring back to the work of Boris Grésillon, “Berlin is not only the German city best endowed with cultural facilities, but it is also unique within Europe.”4 This uniqueness, or singularity, assigned to Berlin is namely due to the way in which the city was developed on an urban scale through an unusual dichotomy of opposing cultural centers, which will be covered in more detail in a later chapter. This prolific Cultural Renaissance however was sparked before the Wall’s demise along the perimeter within the confines of the western territory of West Berlin. Brian Ladd, in Ghosts of Berlin writes about this link to the Berlin Wall and the birth to new artistic experimentation by referring to the wall as “an all-purpose bulletin board as well as an experimental

Figure 2.2 Kruezchev-Brunecker Kiss Mural

studio for art with political overtones,” 5which eventually spiked interest to tourists and travelers alike. This also brought about a flux of international artists from around the world, aiming to make the Wall their canvas through various murals, many well known to this day (Figure 2.2). Upon the fall of the wall, due to both sides of Berlin developing as two separate entities, Berliners found themselves with twice the cultural facilities that cultural European cities have, such as Paris. Even today the city of Berlin’s cultural repertoire has increased exponentially, consisting of three operas, at 20


installations (figure 2.4), all the way to massive sculptures (figure 2.5). 2.4

Singularity One of the reason’s that Berlin remains a point of interest throughout the world as an object of curiosity is its major differences between other European cultural metropolitan cities in the attitude and character that the city portrays as a monument to the experimental nature of its cultural substance. Additionally, it is the only European

Figure 2.3 Berlin Street Grafitti

least eight symphonic orchestras and hundreds of choirs, theaters, galleries and museums, making it the up-and-coming cultural hub of Europe.6 Today Berlin remains a shining beacon to the arts and a successful model of sociospatial relationships between the urban landscape and creativity, prominently displaying art ranging from graffiti (figure 2.3) and wall 21

city in history that has been literally and figuratively separated, developing separately under different political and economic systems, while suddenly being merged together, creating a diverse and detailed social structure between east and west Germans and the increasing population of multicultural inhabitants and youth. While there are many other contributing factors to the individuality of Berlin, these are the


most important in establishing and recognizing the underlying identity. 2.5

National Pride For many years, the idea of national pride in Germany was an extremely awkward and uncomfortable subject. Due to the backlash of the events of WWII under the leadership of Hitler and the Third Reich, and the division of the “Iron Curtain” brought about through the onset of the Cold War, Germany unwillingly became an unintentional monument to a malfunctioning political system.

Figure 2.4 Berlin Wall Installation

On the subject, Brian Ladd says,

“Some Germans fear that the weight of past misdeeds has made their fellow Germans uncertain what it means to be German and afraid to act in the name of Germany. The German thus accused see things differently: they say that any move to discard the burdens of the past will return Germany to blind confidence and thus to disaster.”7

Within the very recent history however, German national pride has begun to manifest itself through the success of Germany in the World Cup in 2014 (Figure 6). Although it may be a somewhat new topic, football has offered the country an appropriate outlet to exhibit national pride. Journalist Alex Taylor addresses a call-to-

22


Figure 2.5 The Molecule Man on the River Spree

action for the exhibition of German

remembrance and progress in the

pride in an online article when

urban landscape of the German

saying, “This self-inflicted guilt by

capital is imperative for the

association has gone on far too

understanding of the transformative

long.�8

character of not only the German While there is a difference

between the pride of a nation and the pride of a city, such expression is extremely important for the process of reconstructing a modern identity, free from the negative connotations of generations past and the weight of the shackles of history. Representing release from the dichotomy of historical 23

people, but also the inhabitants of Berlin, whether they are native Germans, or the foreign population that make up the multicultural amalgamation that makes Berlin the cultural metropolis that it is today.


1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8

Grésillon, “Berlin, Cultural Metropolis: Changes in the Cultural Geography of Berlin since Reunification.”, 284. “Demographic Data for Berlin.” “Berlin | Creative Cities Network.” Grésillon, “Berlin, Cultural Metropolis: Changes in the Cultural Geography of Berlin since Reunification.”, 285. Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape., 26. Grésillon, “Berlin, Cultural Metropolis: Changes in the Cultural Geography of Berlin since Reunification.” Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape., 11. Taylor, “German Pride Is No Longer an Awkward Concept, but a Celebration of.”

24


Chapter 3: Speculative Development of Berlin

25


3.1

Polycentric Development Various models of urban development exist throughout Europe, but often the two models of choice are monocentric and polycentric development. Monocentric development is the organization of an urban area, or region around a single center, which can be affiliated with various motives, such as politics, social, culture, but is usually driven by economics.(Figure 3.1)1 The other model is polycentricism. This model follows similar organization but focuses around multiple hubs. Berlin, like numerous other European cities follows a structure of polycentrism (Figure 3.2). In the case of Berlin though, this polycentrism was directly

Figure 3.1 Monocentric Organization

related to the placement, and physical intervention of the Berlin Wall, and how it forced the two halves of the city to develop separate from each other.2 Referring to Chapter 2, the division of the city is what made Berlin the cultural metropolis that is it today. Both East and West Berlin developed their own cultural centers, from which they organized around. To the east, there was the Mitte, more specifically the area around Alexanderplatz (Figure 3.3) and in the west, the district of Charlottenburg and the area around the metro station by the Zoologischer Garten (Figure 3.4).3 More recently however, a newer cultural center formed after the fall of the Wall with the construction of the new Potsdamer Platz (Figure 3.5). When referring to the

Figure 3.2 Polycentric Organization

26


three cultural hubs (Figure 3.6) Before the fall of the wall, architects Oswald Mathias Ungers and Rem Koolhaas wrote a manifesto suggesting a massive urban transformation for the city of Berlin long before the fall of the wall in 1977. The proposal of the manifesto was the radical idea of developing the city for a shrinking number of inhabitants. By focusing on specific areas to develop, and leaving the remainder to its own devices, the city of Berlin would Figure 3.3 AlexanderPlatz

27

essentially become a series of ‘islands’ connected by a highway system with

Potsdamer Platz development, Boris

the rest of the city a deteriorated

Grésillon says that it is, “A new urban

sea of green, coined by the authors

centre, intended both for business

as the ‘Green Archipelago.’5 Berlin

and culture, is being created from

has undoubtedly developed much

scratch, perhaps a deliberate policy

further than the proposal of the

on the part of Berlin authorities to

‘Green Archipelago’, but to a certain

signify that business and culture are

degree retains a similar structure in

by no means incompatible, certainly

that the previously mentioned cultural

a new model of urban centrality in the

centers are the ‘islands.’ However, the

German capital.”4 Thus being said,

remaining areas of the city failed to

the cultural structure of the city was

deteriorate, and in turn transformed

altered, organizing the city around

into the developing areas that they are


Figure 3.4 Zoologischer Garten Station

Figure 3.5 Potsdamer Platz

28


today. 3.2

Transformative Character After the destruction of most the city following allied bombings in WWII and the reconstruction efforts after the fall of the Wall, the city of Berlin

Figure 3.6 Basic Organization of Berlin

began to transform. To generate a new identity for the city, and to harness the creative energy brought about through the artistic developments of both sides of Berlin, the city allowed for experimentation and manipulation of the urban landscape through the implementation of more alternative design towards the reconstruction of the city. Brian Ladd mentions Berlin as, “the quintessential modern city, the place of the most outrageous experimentation ---- in architecture…” and “Architects find that they and their work receive more attention in Berlin than almost anywhere else, although

Figure 3.7 Contemporary Stilwerk Building

not all that attention is welcome or flattering.”6 While the acceptance of this new wave of architecture seems great for attracting the attention of

29


Figure 3.8 Building with scars from WWII

3.3

young architects and urban planners,

Berlin’s past (Figure 3.8). While most

the real success lies in proper

of the newly constructed buildings

integration, and the acceptance of

throughout the city streets remain

both those who call to remember, and

uncontested, many controversial

those who wish to forget.

projects have taken place, some

Integration Berlin is a truly modern city. Spread

being more successful than others whether it is through acts of reconstruction, or commonly through

across the urban landscape the likes

the monumentalizing of the country’s

of contemporary architecture (Figure

past.

3.7) lives in harmony with architecture of the city’s past, some surviving structure still bearing the scars of

Daniel Libeskind won critical acclaim in 1999 for his design for 30


Figure 3.9 Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum

31

the Jewish Museum in Berlin (Figure

through the language of architecture.8

3.9). Through his competition

The metaphoric expression of space

winning design, Libeskind used the

represented through the building to

concept of ‘lieu de mémoire’ by

this day create an experiential journey,

Pierre Nora, otherwise known as

bringing about a true phenomenology

‘place of memory’.7 In the process

of built space. These elements of

of constructing a place of memory,

experience are especially present

Libeskind focused on the three

in areas of the museum such as the

main axes on which he organized

Schalechet (Figure 3.10) installation

his concept: The Axis of Continuity,

located in the ‘memory void’ section,

the Axis of Exile, and the Axis of

the stair of continuity (Figure 3.11) and

Holocaust, which he embodied

Garden of Exile (Figure 3.12).


Figure 3.10 Schlaechet in the ‘Memory Void’

Norman Foster’s design for the remodeling of the Reichstag in 1999 is also an additional piece of noteworthy architecture in terms of integration with the surrounding urban fabric and what it stands for (Figure

Figure 3.11 Staircase of Continuity

3.13). While not as experiential and

of Germany’s political system, towards

emotionally evocative as the Jewish

the promise of a bright future. While

Museum by Libeskind, the design

exhibiting the grand classical design

still embodies political metaphors,

of the original Reichstag building, the

embodying the underlying principles

building serves as a ‘living museum’ 32


Figure 3.12 The Garden of Exile

in cohesive symbiosis with a new

is a testament and Memorial to the

glass dome atop the roof (Figure 3.14),

Murdered Jews of Europe during the

meant to embody the transparency

events of WWII. The main controversy

of the government and the political

stems from the way in which many

processes that take place below.910

visitors act when interacting with the

A more controversial addition to the city of Berlin however that has received much speculation in terms of its passivity is the Holocaust Memorial designed by architect, Peter Eisenman, which opened to the public in 2005 (Figure 3.15). The monument itself 33

public memorial, and whether this is an appropriate response due to not understanding the true severity of what the holocaust is and the horrors that it represents. In a case study of the memorial, Quentin Stevens describes the memorial as such:


Figure 3.13 Reichstag Exterior

“The memorial as built is a five-acre field of 2711 plain gray concrete stelae (pillars) arranged in straight rows along two axes, with narrow aisles that allow walking in between them. The stelae are of varying heights, generally becoming taller toward the center of the field; the ground surface also undulates, creating a complex three-dimensional space.”11

and sensory experience, meant to be ‘analogous’ to the experience of holocaust victims, and yet people are oftentimes seen running, laughing, and climbing on the pillars, and in many cases drinking.12 This is viewed by many as exhibiting a deep disrespectful attitude, and are not considered as tolerable actions. For many

The memorial is meant to evoke an understanding of the severity of the crimes perpetrated against the jewish people through metaphorical

years, however, the memorial has stood, and has now become an accepted, permanent fixture in the urban fabric of the capital city of 34


Figure 3.14 Reichstag Dome by Lord Norman Foster

3.4

Berlin. However, there are current

not they represent the city of Berlin, or

developments in the city that are

the character of the German people

still currently very controversial.

in a positive and constructive way.

Redevelopment Berlin, as the transformative

35

One of these ongoing projects, which is currently under construction is the reconstruction and development of

metropolis that it is, is still undergoing

the Berlin Palace, otherwise known

major redevelopment. While many

as the Berliner Stadtschloss (Figure

projects are ongoing, there are two

3.16) across from Lustgarten Park

currently under development that are

and the Berliner Dom (Figure 3.17),

controversial and offer a degree of

which are all both culturally and

questionability as to whether they are

historically important site in Berlin. The

not only necessary, but whether or


design currently under construction features a northern façade and rooftop dome as a complete reconstruction of the original palace, and featuring a contemporary eastern façade, representing the past and present. Wolf Burchard refers to the

13

controversy of the palace and its construction in an article for Apollo Magazine. He says:

Figure 3.15 Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe by Peter Eisenman

controversy over the reconstruction of the Berlin City Palace, prospectively named the Humboltforum, stems from many factors, but mostly comes from the argument over its necessity

“The debate as to whether Berlin is in need of a rebuilt royal palace has gone quiet, since it is too late to stop the construction; it is the new function that must be addressed. Will the content be worth of the elaborate façade? The eyes of the world will soon be on the Schloss – not just for its success or failure as a museum or as an exercise in reconstruction, but as yet another intriguing example of Germany’s engagement with its cultural and political past.”14

and appropriateness over the reconstruction of a palace embodying

This statement raises an

the monarchy of a German past just

increasing awareness over the void

for the exhibition of art and various

that Berlin is attempting to fill with

intercultural exchanges. The new

its still plentiful barren landscape 36


Figure 3.16 Construction of the new Humboldtforum (Old City Palace)

brought on by the aftermath of

extension to the building, providing

WWII and the Cold War. The real

additional space to properly display

question though; is there a more

an increasing collection of modern

meaningful alternative?

art. The competition winners are

The second current redevelopment within the city of Berlin is that of the Kulturforum, a collection of various cultural buildings, adjacent to the Neue National Galerie (Figure 3.18), and Potsdamer Platz. The new development taking place is an architectural design competition for a new museum, connecting to the Neue National Galerie as an 37

the Basel, Switzerland based firm Herzog & de Meuron, for their proposal of a perforated ‘shed’, to extend the National Galerie. (Figure 3.19)15 Among forty other competitors in the competition, their design was chosen, but it remains unclear why. Clearly their design does not reflect the new transformative nature of Berlin and German identity that is clearly in


Figure 3.17 The Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral)

Germany’s haunted past.

need of development to represent the optimistic future of a ‘New Berlin’. Instead, the firm seems to have decided to make less of

3.5

New Collective Memory As previously mentioned

a visual statement, coming off

throughout the chapters, tension

as a meek, literal translation of

exists within the city of Berlin,

a storage warehouse or barn.16

between those who wish to forget,

The time to implement a cutting-

and those who wish to remember. This

edge redevelopment has arrived,

dichotomy creates a ghostly veil of

illustrating a prominent modern

remembrance over the city, impeding

presence through expressive

any future progression towards a

architectural language to tell a

new national identity. Yael Zerubavel

new story of Berlin, and away from

speaks on the issue by saying that 38


Figure 3.18 Neue National Galerie by Mies Van Der Rohe

Figure 3.19 Winning Design for National Galerie Extension by Herzog & de Meuron

39


“the cultural interplay of ‘history’ and ‘legend’ reveals the transformative character of collective memory and

1

2

its susceptibility to conflicting views that turns the past into a contested area.”17 Maurice Halbwach says, “The mind reconstructs memories under the pressure of society,”18 and due to that, through the elimination of societal pressure, the freedom to generate new memories can

3 4 5

6 7 8 9

arise. Through the creation of a new paradigm for the construction of social space and place in the architectural and urban landscape, a new model for sociospatial structure can exist. Applying this new system to an area

10

11

12

13

of redevelopment currently under controversy, a new modern site of remembrance can be created, in order to generate the means for a new collective memory for the newer generation, in an attempt to create an understood national identity and to evoke the newly found sense of

14 15 16

17 18

Oueslati, Alvanides, and Garrod, “Determinants of Urban Sprawl in European Cities.” Grésillon, “Berlin, Cultural Metropolis: Changes in the Cultural Geography of Berlin since Reunification.”, 6-7. Ibid. Ibid. Ungers and Koolhaas, The City in the City Berlin: A Green Archipelago. Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape., 3-4. Pješivac, “Between Museum, Monument and Memorial: Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum in Berlin (1999).”, 101-104 Ibid. Stungo, “Arts: Germany Recalling As Berlin Is Rebuilt, Norman Foster’s Reichstag and Daniel Libeskind’s New Jewish Museum Are Symbols of the Need to Remember, but Also to Move on.” Lisa, “Foster & Partners’ Beautiful Green Renovation of Berlin’s Old Reichstag Parliament Building.” Stevens, “Visitor Responses at Berlin’s Holocaust Memorial: Contrary to Conventions, Expectations and Rules.”, 37. Ibid. Burchard, “Royal Remains: As Berlin’s Humboldt Forum Is Being Constructed on the Site of the Former Stadtschloss, It Raises the Question--Often a Fraught One in the Post-War Period--of What Rebuilding a German Palace Means Today.”, 148- 152. Ibid., 152. Mairs, “Herzog & de Meuron to Extend Mies van Der Rohe’s Neue Nationalgalerie.” Ibid. Zerubavel, The Historic, the Legendary, and the Incredible: Invented Tradition and Collective Memory in Israel., 118. Halbwachs, On Collective Memory., 52.

National Pride. 40


Chapter 4: Ideas & Strategies

41


“Amidst the ruins of monuments no longer significant because deprived of their systematic status, and often of their corporeality, walking on the dust of inscriptions no longer decipherable because lacking so many words, whether carved in stone or shaped in neon, we cross nothing to go nowhere.” -Anthony Vidler, The Architectural Uncanny

a history of the uncanny, with the separation and reconstruction, the invasion of an endless parade of monuments plagues the city without hinting to the current cultural growth, but instead emphasizing the past. In The Architectural Uncanny, the ”uncanny principle” of Sigmund Freud is expanded upon equating

4.1

Berlin and the Uncanny Berlin today is an edifice of the uncanny. The uncanny, as written upon by Anthony Vidler in The Architectural Uncanny is essentially a simplified term to describe the transition of the familiar to the unfamiliar; the idea of something new and foreign invading something familiar.1 The idea of the uncanny, at least on the level of architecture is not of the architecture itself, but more of acting as a cultural representation of estrangement, and through that, the architecture is invested with uncanny qualities. Berlin has

to the dichotomy between what Freud calls heimlich and unheimlich, or simplified to homely vs. the unhomely.2 Using the uncanny as a strategy for change is therefore a powerful tool, especially on a large scale urban level. Utilizing the uncanny in a metropolitan way, a distance can be created from reality caused by reality. An architectural intervention that itself acts culturally as a representation of estrangement can not necessarily become a repeated architectural practice, but become a representation of that past estrangement; a world estranged 42


Figure 4.1 The “Collective Plan,” Hans Scharoun 1946

and decentered. 4.2

An Alternate Plan for Berlin Following the end of WWII,

43

river. This design decentralized the city and created functional divisions throughout, dividing them into cells with approximately 1,000 residents

the fate of Berlin was uncertain

per cell. These proposed cells

and became this “Tabula Rasa”

were to be separated into industrial

of immense potential. During this

and commercial districts, which

time, Hans Scharoun was hired to

were set aside and separated the

create a new city plan, referred to

entire region through only road

as the “collective plan”, which was

and rail connections. Similar to

collectively designed with a group

the previously mentioned Green

of chosen designers. This plan was

Archipelago proposed by Rem

used as an opportunity for them to

Koolhaas and Oswald Ungers,

break away from the shackles of

where the city is essentially divided

the past governments and to adapt

up into separate islands, the

to the natural form of the spree

plan remained a pipe dream and


remained on paper, never to break ground due to the preservation of almost all underground infrastructure remaining intact despite the devastation of the city on the surface.3 Abstracting this idea of decentralization and applying it to the already

Figure 4.2 New Babylon, Constant Nieuwenhuys,1956-1974

polycentric city plan of Berlin, a successful intervention can be implemented to make a statement of change, while simultaneously remaining centered with the existing urban fabric. 4.3

New Babylon New Babylon is a concept

Figure 4.3 New Babylon, Constant Nieuwenhuys,1956-1974

of all work in order to offer the

that stems from an idea of visual

free creation of your own life and

artist Constant Nieuwenhuys

to focus on play, while leaving the

from 1956-1974.4 As a way to

work aspect of daily life behind.

create a worldwide city for the

5

future, New Babylon is a means

Babylon is a city composed of

of investigating the potential

megastructures that are built and

added value that art can provide

connected above the existing city,

in ways of intensifying daily life

allowing the inhabitants to travel

through creative expression. This

between environments created

is achieved through the automation

inside the structures in search of

In an architectural sense, New

44


“new sensations” and to eliminate any limitation on the creation of mood and atmosphere and for the environments to be created by the “activity of life.”6 Using this idea of New Babylon and existing above the existing city, a statement can be made in terms of coexistence with the past and current city for the creation of an image for the future. 1 2 3 4 5 6

45

Vidler, The Architectural Uncanny., 3-14. Ibid., 23 Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape., 177-178. “Constant Nieuwenhuys and His New Babylon Project 1956-1974 | Foundation Constant / Stichting Constant.” Ibid. Ibid.


46


Chapter 5: Location

47


5.1 Macro Analysis

Waterways & Bodies of Water Harbors & Locks Berlin Limits

Figure 5.1 Waterways & Infrastructure

Railways Berlin Limits

Figure 5.2 Railways

48


Future Developmental Areas Agricultural Land

Figure 5.3 Environmental Relationships

Protected Areas Vegetation Areas Designated Gardens

Figure 5.4 Developmental Relationships

49


Low Medium High

Figure 5.5 Urban Density

Very High High Low Very Low Lowest

Figure 5.6 Population Density

50


5.2 Demographics

Pankow

Reinickenborf

Lichtenberg Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg

Spandau

Mitte

MarzahnHellersdorf

CharlottenburgWilmersdorf

Steglitz-Zehlendorf

Tempelhof-Schรถneberg

Figure 5.7 Boroughs of Berlin

Figure 5.8 Boroughs Distribution

51

Neukรถlln

Treptow-Kรถpenick


Figure 5.9 Population By Borough

Figure 5.10 Population By Land Area (sq. km.)

52


Figure 5.11 Ethnicity Distribution

Other (Americas)

Iranian Arab

Afro-German/Black African

Turkish

South Asian

Other European

East Asian

Former Yugoslavia Y

Southeast Asian

Russian

Other

Polish Ethnic German

Figure 5.12 Ethnicity Breakdown 65 and up 40 to 65 25 to 40 15 to 25 Under 15

Figure 5.13 Age Group Breakdown

53


5.3 Climate Analysis

Figure 5.14 Sun Path Diagram vs Dry Bulb Temperature (C)

Figure 5.15 Wind Rose (m/s)

54


Figure 5.16 Hourly Dry Bulb Temperature (C)

Figure 5.17 Hourly Wind Speed (m/s)

Figure 5.18 Hourly Relative Humidity (%)

55


Figure 5.19 Psychometric Chart

Figure 5.20 Comfortable Hours in Comfort Polygon - Hourly

Figure 5.21 Comfortable Hours in Internal Heat Gain Polygon - Hourly

56


5.4 Site Selection

Figure 5.22 Berlin City Limits

400

0 100 50

Figure 5.23 Site Macro Context

57

200


Marx-Engels Forum is a public park located in the city of Berlin, nestled within the Mitte district along the banks of the River Spree. Created while under communist rule in the East, the park is dedicated to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the authors of the Communist Manifesto, where

Figure 5.24 Marx-Engels Forum, ca. 1986

the two are displayed as statues, positioned in the center of the park for public use and perusal. The current state of the forum however is in disarray as the city of Berlin is currently installing a new metro line underneath the plaza. The future of the park is uncertain at this point, with no concrete plans for the future.1

1

Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape.

Figure 5.25 Marx-Engels Forum, 2016

58


5.5 Site Transformation

59

Figure 5.26 Berlin, ca. 1650

Figure 5.29 Berlin, ca. 1800

Figure 5.27 Berlin, ca. 1690

Figure 5.30 Berlin, ca. 1850

Figure 5.28 Berlin, ca. 1750

Figure 5.31 Berlin, ca. 1880


Figure 5.32 Berlin, ca. 1910

Figure 5.33 Berlin, ca. 1940

Figure 5.34 Berlin, ca. 1986

60


5.6 Site Analysis

Figure 5.35 Berlin Site Extents

61


Site

Site

Building Footprints

Roadways Cycling Paths Railways

Figure 5.36 Figure Ground

Figure 5.37 Circulation

Site

Place of Worship

Development

Points of Interest

Traffic Components

Site

Playgrounds

Transportation Infrastructure

Future Development Areas

Figure 5.38 Infrastructure

Figure 5.39 Development

62


Figure 5.40 NE Site Context

63


Figure 5.41 SW Site Context

64


Chapter 6: Representative Identity

65


6.1

Representative Identity

to this generational interest in automation, computational design

For the purpose of this

will be implemented as a form-

thesis, three areas of the urban

finding method through the use of

culture of Berlin will be selected

an algorithm.

as parameters and criteria for the proposal of an urban and architectural intervention:

6.3

Berlin Aesthetic

1.) Technology

Due to the material culture

2.) Berlin Aesthetic

of Berlin, places and venues play a major role in defining the city. Berlin

3.) Music 6.2

is defined aesthetically with a very

Technology

grungy tone spread throughout the city in every borough. This grunge

During the current modern

being a societal norm is a unique

era, Berlin has become an official

identifier not usually present in

startup hub of Europe. Due to the

other cities or urban areas making

chic aesthetic and attitude of the

is an exclusive characteristic.

city, coupled with the unbelievably low cost of living, the city has garnered interest from all over the world. Due to this peaked interest, it is said that a new startup is born every twenty minutes1, which has attracted many well-known startup companies such as SoundCloud and WorkHub.2 This focus on Technology in Berlin, in addition

6.4

Music Berlin is, and will forever be a city of Music. Deeply engrained in the roots of the city, Berlin has long been a cultural hub for the music world, setting the tone for the rise to prominence of Techno music and birthplace for innovation. Berlin 66


Figure 6.2 When I See You Smile - Bad English

2.) Pop Culture Figure 6.1 Berlin Housing Block

3.) Berlin Aesthetic

today leads the world, dramatically changing the way music is made

6.5

and listened to, while also sporting

In the month of November,

the greatest and most famous

1989 topping the Billboard was

nightclub scene in the world,

When I See You Smile by the

with many doubling as cultural institutions across the city.

band Bad English.4 This song is

3

chronologically important due

As a representation of

to coinciding with the fall of the

the city, the parameters for the

Berlin Wall and the reunification of

computational algorithm will be

Germany and the city of Berlin.

defined through layers of music, each with varying importance to the culture and history of Berlin: 1.) Time Period 67

Time Period

6.6

Pop Culture During the 70’s, David Bowie moved to Berlin to recover


Figure 6.3 Heroes - David Bowie

from a cocaine addiction and recover from a near physical and mental breakdown.5 During his time there, he became a pop culture icon for the city, remaining prominent in Berliner culture for decades to come. During his time living in Berlin, Bowie recorded three albums, but the first song he wrote in the summer of 1977 was the song Heroes, becoming a motif for the city and eventually a “rock anthem” for Berlin.6 6.7

Figure 6.4 Boarding Time - Sizarr (Official Video)

crucial aspect to the urban culture of the city of Berlin is the “Berlin Aesthetic” and understanding the importance of the visible and mental aspects that make Berlin unique and separate from all other cities. The Song Boarding Time by the German band Sizarr captures the Berlin Aesthetic both lyrically and visually in their music video, with imagery projected through sounds and sights, representative of the Berliner lifestyle.

The Berlin Aesthetic As previously mentioned, a 68


1 2 3 4 5 6

69

“One Born Every 20 Minutes - Berlin Is the City of Startups | Talk Business.” “Startups in Berlin • • Berlin Startups List.” “The History Of Techno In Berlin.” “The Hot 100 - 1989 Archive | Billboard Charts Archive.” “Bowie in Berlin: ‘He Drove Round the Car Park at 70mph Screaming That He Wanted to End It All’ | Music | The Guardian.” Ibid.


70


Chapter 7: Design Process

71


7.1

Computational Design The process behind the algorithmic driven design for

around the trails of the swarm agents, generating a unique form influenced from the music data.

this project is based upon the relationship and interactions between world coordinate locations and audio spectrum data. The

Music Clubs

Music

surrounding music venues and nightclubs determine the location parameters of the algorithm, representative of current Berlin culture. The spectrum data to be analyzed and interpreted is the

Spectrum Plot Data

Location Points

song When I See You Smile by the band Bad English, which was the number one rated song on November 9, 1989, the day that the Berlin Wall Fell. The spectrum from this audio file was plotted to extract the decibel and frequency values, which were then used to control

Computation

the trajectories of flocking swarm agents which are emitted from the locations of music venues and nightclubs. Once the paths of the agents hit the extents of the site, isosurface geometry is then formed

Iterations

Figure 7.1 Simplified Process

72


When I See You Smile - Bad English -No. 1 Billboard Spot November 1989

Frequency (Hz) Level (dB) 21.533203 -76.929901 43.066406 -75.803566 64.599609 -74.339226 86.132813 -74.470978 107.666016 -73.955330 129.199219 -74.868996 150.732422 -76.387672 172.265625 -75.433037 193.798828 -75.895988 215.332031 -76.636993 236.865234 -76.089279 258.398438 -75.726814 279.931641 -75.017792 301.464844 -74.667824 322.998047 -74.325089 344.531250 -73.507622 366.064453 -70.573807 387.597656 -71.350227 409.130859 -72.677765 430.664063 -69.901451 452.197266 -69.807098 473.730469 -71.819527

73

Figure 7.2 Algorithmic Process

495.263672 516.796875 538.330078 559.863281 581.396484 602.929688 624.462891 645.996094 667.529297 689.062500 710.595703 732.128906 753.662109 775.195313 796.728516 818.261719 839.794922 861.328125 882.861328 904.394531 925.927734 947.460938 968.994141

-70.812401 -68.577240 -64.214706 -50.076782 -39.720657 -41.191547 -56.420509 -68.525352 -70.104836 -70.715508 -69.114059 -66.430008 -52.935520 -41.301682 -41.370167 -52.440166 -55.234497 -38.200478 -32.829147 -38.535191 -56.961197 -62.821392 -66.543159

990.527344 -68.700058 1012.060547 -68.945160 1033.593750 -68.614471 1055.126953 -67.203247 1076.660156 -65.519791 1098.193359 -64.409615 1119.726563 -61.426025 1141.259766 -53.329803 1162.792969 -38.680367 1184.326172 -35.556267 1205.859375 -43.392353 1227.392578 -61.164925 1248.925781 -65.700874 1270.458984 -67.714592 1291.992188 -69.827209 1313.525391 -70.603561 1335.058594 -69.942169 1356.591797 -70.747795 1378.125000 -70.411720 1399.658203 -70.409920 1421.191406 -71.118973 1442.724609 -71.583641 1464.257813 -71.397263

MUSIC DATASET ANALYSIS

1485.791016 -70.763260 1507.324219 -67.696884 1528.857422 -61.670368 1550.390625 -55.360664 1571.923828 -49.573997 1593.457031 -52.265003 1614.990234 -65.926071 1636.523438 -72.083862 1658.056641 -73.334595 1679.589844 -69.503517 1701.123047 -62.141739 1722.656250 -55.435646 1744.189453 -47.775459 1765.722656 -42.006264 1787.255859 -44.882084 1808.789063 -59.819096 1830.322266 -67.588165 1851.855469 -69.717155 1873.388672 -70.604301 1894.921875 -70.270309 1916.455078 -70.400513 1937.988281 -70.203583 1959.521484 -70.179939

A FLOCKING AGENTS


City Connections Relations To Contextual Music Culture

A

B

B GEOMETRY GENERATION 74


Urban Extents - Macro

Urban Extents - Micro

Site Extents - Micro

75

Figure 7.3 Micro & Macro Form Generation


Iso

Plan

Iso

01

Iso

Plan

02

Iso

04

Iso

Plan

Plan

Iso

Plan

Figure 7.4 Morphology Iterations

Plan

03

Iso

05

Iso

07

Plan

Plan

06

Iso

08

Plan

09 76


N

50M

200M 100M

Figure 7.5 Site Plan - Macro

77

Humboldt University

Lustgarten & City Palace


Fernserhturm TV Tower

Alexander Platz

Music Culture Locations

78


AA

BB

BB

N

25M

100M 50M

Figure 7.6 Site Plan - Micro

25M

100M

50M

Figure 7.7 Section AA

25M

100M

50M

Figure 7.8 Section BB

79

AA


01

Existing Site Conditions

02

Restoration of the Past

03

Relations to Existing Music Culture

04

Paths Created from Music Data from Points

05

Geometry Formation I

06

Geometry Formation II

Figure 7.9 Transformation Diagrams

80


Chapter 8: Final Design

81


8.1

Final Design As the project progressed, the project evolved into a more complex algorithmic design process incorporating more than one song and dataset into a layering of music, each separately

system was also incorporated into a layered framing and paneling system, algorithmically driven to manifest the grungy berlin aesthetic that is representative of the material culture Berlin has adopted. The program of the site and

representing an exclusive tier of

the generated structure is also

Berlin urban culture. The chosen

highly varied and loosely defined

tiers are: Time Period, Pop Culture

to allow the inhabitants to choose

and the Berlin Aesthetic, whose

how to inhabit the space, while

songs are previously mentioned

still remaining representative of a

in Chapter 6. The data from the

typical public forum found in most

spectrum plot of each song now

cities throughout Europe. The

each controls different attributes

existing centered circular plaza of

of the swarm agents flight patterns

Marx-Engels Forum is transformed

independently from each other.

and sunk into the ground and

Those attributes each being

replaced with structurally reinforced

separately controlled are particle

glass, moving the existing

speed, particle acceleration and

monuments back to the center,

particle mass. With each of these

with the addition of a nightclub

attributes being controlled by a

underneath allowing a new

different song, the generated form

perspective of the past, with the

is much more interesting on an

future towering overhead.

aesthetic level in addition to a more defined theoretical framework. A highly varied aged copper paneling

82


When I See You Smile -Bad English

Heroes -David Bowie

Boarding Time - Sizarr

83

Figure 8.1 Final Form Finding Algorithm


Figure 8.2 Final Form

84


85

Figure 8.3 Form Elevational Exploration


Figure 8.4 Experiential Perspectives on Existing Site

86


N

100M

25M 50M

Figure 8.5 Final Site Plan - Micro

Figure 8.6 Final Site Section

87


01 Existing Conditions

03 Music Relationships

05 Geometry formation I Figure 8.7 Final Transformation Diagrams

02 Landscape Creation

04 City Flocking

06 Geometry formation II

88


N

50M

200M

100M

Figure 8.8 Final Site Plan - Macro

89


90


Figure 8.9 Panelization Algorithm

91


Figure 8.10 Leg Panelization

Figure 8.11 Experiential Paneling View

92


93

Figure 8.12 Panel Density I


Figure 8.13 Panel Density II

94


95

Figure 8.14 Leg Density Study


Figure 8.15 Cable Connections

96


Figure 8.16 Framing System Algorithm

UP

UP

UP

0

1

Level 5 1 : 500

5

15

25

50 m

Figure 8.17 Underground Level

Figure 8.18 Experiential Framing View

97


Figure 8.19 Framing Detail View

98


Event Space Day or evening events Premiere celebrations Performance Space Concerts Theatre Exhibition Space Art Galleries Night Club

Retail

Dancing Bar DJ

Misc Shops Dining Cafe Resturaunt Exterior Space Communal space Rest space Meeting space 99

Figure 8.20 Program Distribution


Figure 8.21 Developable Layouts

Figure 8.22 Generated Layouts

100


Figure 8.23 First Floor

101

Figure 8.24 Second Floor


Figure 8.25 Third Floor

Figure 8.26 Fourth Floor

102


103

Figure 8.27 Aerial View


104


105

Figure 8.28 Nightclub Interior


106


107

Figure 8.29 Plaza Exterior


108


109

Figure 8.30 Marx-Engels Plaza


110


111

Figure 8.31 River View


112


113

Figure 8.32 Form Interior


114


115

Figure 8.33 Composite Image


116


Chapter 9: Conclusion

117


9.1

[re]Forum in Berlin Berlin is a city of its own accord. While split between calls for remembrance and calls to forget, a tensional flux exists, splitting the city into an unbalanced dichotomy between generational identity, leaving reunification as just an idea of the past. As the future development of Berlin falls under increasing speculation, a balance between past and present identities must be created more than ever. Architecture should be representative of those who inhabit it, and should manifest the surrounding culture it embodies, especially with a city as culturally rich as the cosmopolitan metropolis of Berlin.

118


Appendix: Exhibition

119


Thesis Exhibition at Eichberg Hall, Savannah College of Art and Design: Final Boards & Models

120


121


122


123


124


125


126


127


128


129


130


131


132


133


134


135


136


137


138


139


140


Bibliography

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Profile for Nick Place

[re]Forum in Berlin - Nick Place - Master's Thesis - Savannah College of Art and Design  

[re]Forum in Berlin - Nick Place - Master's Thesis - Savannah College of Art and Design  

Profile for nickplace
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