Ngoc bich do thesis seminar book fall 2015

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TABLE OF CONTENT THESIS STATEMENT............................................................................................................2 RESEARCH......................................................................................................................... 4

The Extrovert Ideal World.................................................................................................5

What defines an introvert?........................................................................................... 7

PROGRAM......................................................................................................................... 16

Encouraging creativity.....................................................................................................17

Facilitating Learning.........................................................................................................19

Building Relationship.......................................................................................................... 21

Enabling Collaboration..................................................................................................... 23

PRECEDENTS...................................................................................................................... 26

Tibetan Monastery............................................................................................................27

The Salk Institute................................................................................................................. 31

35 The SteelCase Headquarter.............................................................................................

51 The Thermal Bath Vals.......................................................................................................

SITE SELECTION............................................................................................................... 58

59 Macro.................................................................................................................................... Micro..................................................................................................................................... 65

CITATION............................................................................................................................. 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................... 88

“In a gentle way, you can shake the world”


THESIS STATEMENT Participation is an effective method to explore prospects, but usually the outspoken, decisive, and assertive people secure the attention, which leads to a loss of the good ideas from less vocal crowd. Modern Western society, therefore, treats introversion as a pathology that one must overcome in order to survive and be of service to others. This cultural bias wants to “cure” the unheard and invisible introverts by constantly encouraging and forcing them into constant group projects and well-designed “productive” settings. Working in a group helps introverts to push their boundaries, but in an attempt to fake extroversion they become inauthentic and lose creativity. Introverts prefer a low-stimulation background. They take time to observe and approach the situation in solitude. In understanding and nurturing the introverts we will initiate an equality movement that brings back values and meanings to them which alters how the world sees them, but more importantly, how they see themselves. They will be aware of their gift instead of feeling guilty about wanting their solitude. As a result, these introverts can accept their nature and materialize their inner talents to contribute to the society which offers them a sense of belonging. This thesis, consequently, is defining various optimal stimulating environments with a balance between public and private through the careful use of filters and barriers as well as the connections between these spaces to allow introverts to thrive and collaborate in ways that embrace their nature and are beneficial to the world.




RESEARCH “Once you understand what a person’s core projects are … it puts us in a position where we can actually treat humans as humans.” - BRIAN LITTLE, director of the Social Ecology Research Group in the Department of

Psychology of Cambridge University

This Thesis is going to assess the cultural bias against introverts and how it is treated i

as a disappointment, a pathology that needed to be cured. Introverts in our modern educational and professional systems are forced to changed by constantly being placed in group project and “productive settings”. These environments usually are wide open for interaction and minimized square footage, with no visual or acoustical privacy which brings along constant distraction, surveillance, tension and hostility. The main argument is that this personality favor is a loped sided perspective and needs to be brought back to balance in order for the world to grow and attain its full potential. My research will show why this diversity of personality is natural and beneficial to the world development and what kind of environments allow introverts to thrive and collaborate in the most effective and exciting ways.




The Extrovert Ideal World Public


to observe the discussion and engage the situation

method to explore ideas and prospects. In

in their own way. When being pushed by society,

these situations, the outspoken, quick decision

introverts have to fake their extraversion, and thus

making and assertive people usually get the

become inauthentic and less creative. As a result, they

group to go their way, which is not necessarily

are depleted of potential and eventually converted

the best direction to follow. Unfortunately,

to glorified laborers with little responsibility, flexibility

good ideas are lost in the less vocal crowd.

and autonomy. Their aspiration and intellectual value

Noticing this trend, society has taken steps to

will vanish to leave space for management control

improve these unheard and invisible introverts

and maximization of collaborative efficiency.









forcing them into group projects.


This bias does not only exist in the business ground. We also set up our world as a reflection of our social

Working as a group helps introverts refrain

personality sovereignty. It happens so early in one’s life

from being cerebral, push their limit, act more

that they internalize the concept of anti- introversion

gregarious, and appear to be confident.

without realizing that it comes from the society

However, free will suggested by Dr. Schwartz’s

standard and it is against the natural formation of

research cannot carry them infinitely beyond

the human brain. At a young age when one enters


their genetic limits. Introverts prefer lowstimulation environment which ceases to iv

exist in amodern work setting. They take time


preschool, they are expected to be happy in a group.

“We’re told that to be great is to be bold. To be happy is to be sociable. Introversion now falls somewhere between a disappointment and pathology.” ii

- SUSAN CAIN, a lawyer, lecturer, author and mother of the Quiet Revolution for Introverts.




The Extrovert Ideal World A study carried out by interviewing teachers at public and private schools in New York, Michigan, and Georgia found that kids are meant to be trained to express themselves in a team with the spirit vii

of “corporate America.” Therefore, the architecture behind it has to be a big open void to allow free flow of communication and information. Along with it came all the distraction that introverts cannot escape from given that they want to follow their passion in this world designed for the opposite of what they identified themselves with.

valued. Every design decision is made with this model of facilitating group interaction in mind. When collective effort shrinks down to a few socially skilled leaders’ judgment, group work will kill creativity, relationship and affirmation. Aristotle’s The Rhetoric ask people to explore all available means in search of the truth thus, introverts must be heard. To solve this, we have to reinvent the way we collaborate. The human’s mind is boundless yet his body is defined in time, and space. So the question posed is how to bring people together to produce, share and contribute to their field of expertise without going against their character traits, to have the opportunity to gravitate

Research done by Young, Glaxo Smith

toward the like-minded fellow human and have the

Kline, Alcoa, and H.J. Heinz shows that from

possibility of extending their creative power into real

1970s to 2010, the space per employee

life situations without any losses along the way? This

of the average company shrank from 500

will be the equality movement that we must pursue to


square feet to 200 square feet. The work

offer introverts a meaningful life of contributing to this

force shifted to team and group work is highly

interconnected and ever changing world.

“The squeaky wheel gets the grease”



“Those who know do not speak Those who speak do not know.” - LAO ZI, The Way of Lao Zi

“The wind howls, but the mountain remains still”




What defines an introvert? Research shows that a third to a half of

a neocortex – the new brain which is responsible for

the population is introverted. But people act

thinking, planning, language, decision making. It is the

as extroverts to fit in. While shyness is the fear

seat of rationality which makes us human. Introverts

of social judgment and public humiliation,

are mainly governed by the neocortex, and thus

introverts are those who prefer a minimally x

stimulating environment. (Figure 1)

“Introversion is not shyness; introversion is a preference for environments that are not overstimulating.”

Introversion is not the commonly stigmatized condition as being antisocial but is deeply

rooted in our neurobiological system. The limbic system, which we share with the most primitive mammals, is highly interconnected with the Amygdala - the “pleasure center”. This is where dopamine is created and discharged. Extroverts are reward driven; they crave dopamine- the reward chemical released when engaged in social situations, risk,





However, the human brain also develops



require less dopamine and are very sensitive to the environment (Figure 2, 3). As a result, they are very easily overwhelmed by stimulation. Social interactions usually tax their energy and leave them exhausted. Therefore introverts tend to enjoy quiet concentration, prefer meaningful conversation with a small group or one-on-one interactions, listen more than they talk, think before they speak, and have a more cautious xi

approach to risk than extroverts.

Figure 1. Introvert Research

Figure 2. The Limbic System and Amygdala

Figure 3. Introvert -Extrovert Brain Pathway




What are their powers? What roles and values can they offer to the

inventors who shut their doors to the world, preferred

rest of the society? It is true that extroverts

to spend time in solitude, studying the projects they

have extremely appealing character which

were passionate about. These were the people who

helps to confirm their social status, power ,

had the confidence to live inside their head and bring

and even perceived appearance. Talkative

extraordinary work to the outside. The creativity comes

people are rated as more intelligent, more

to them not despite of their introversion but because


of it. Without introverts, the world would never be





desirable to become friends with according

introduced to

to a study by Laurie Helgoe. xii

“The theory of Gravity

The theory of relativity


Yeats’s “The Second Coming”

introverts, mankind would be left without

Chopin’s nocturnes

many magnificent works and inventions from

Peter Pan

literature to art, science and all other fields,


including business. Most entertainment forms

The Personal Computer

come from hard work in solitude, which is the

Schindler’s List, E.T., and Close Encounters of





art perfected by many introverts. In the past,

the Third Kind

there are artists, scientists, explorers, writers,

singers, actors, performers, mathematicians,

And many more works…

Harry Potter” xiii

“The squeaky wheel gets the grease”

History has shown that western society has tended to favor men of action over men of contemplation. But in the 20th century,


the US moved into the era that historians called “a culture of character” where people lived in an agricultural community. They learned to find out the true nature

of their neighbors over the years of living

role models like Abraham Lincoln, Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, and Rosa Parks who were praised for their modesty xiv

- LAO ZI, The Way of Lao Zi

“The wind howls, but the mountain remains still”

together rather than listen to what he had to polish his identity. There used to be

“Those who know do not speak Those who speak do not know.”


believed to be the wise ones because the protruding nail will

get hammered down.


Additionally, greatest religious leaders like Jesus, Moses, and

and unassuming nature.

Buddha all went into the wilderness then brought back their

This respect for introversion is more visible

revelation to benefit the community. They were never the ones

in far eastern culture like Japanese,

who followed the crowd and were confined by the socially

Chinese, Korean, societies that not only

constructed concept. The introverts used to have their own

tolerate introverts but celebrate them

value in every culture around the world. Nonetheless, at the

because they exist as a community;

turn of the 20th century, big business evolved, we moved to

and they need harmony to sustain the

the city. In need to distinguish ourselves from the crowd, we

economy and society. People who have

need to better our image through the pursuit of charisma,

the strength to hold back their tongue are

magnetism, thus extroverts rule.





How do they operate? Professor Brian Little, director of the Social

Introverts do need their dose of social interaction,

Ecology Research Group in the Department

physical and mental stimulation. Nevertheless, they

of Psychology of Cambridge University once

usually prefer silence, to be with their own thoughts,

said that “There are two type of people. The

come up with solutions much later after a period of

type who likes to divide people into two types,

processing. They feel more comfortable listening

and the type who doesn’t.”

instead of speaking and dominating the conversation.

While making clear distinction between introverts






insensitive, this research focus on those people whose introversion is the dominant personality. There are people who are ambiverts which means they fall in the middle of the introvert- extrovert spectrum. Carl Jungthe psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology and the concept of introvertextrovert emphasized that “there is no such thing as a pure introvert or extrovert. Such a person would be in the lunatic asylum.” xvi

In this way, introverts learn more, understand other people more deeply and motivate them rather than impose their own mindset on people’s approach. Therefore in a research by Adam Grant from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, introverts are found as more effective and successful leaders than extroverts as a result of their introverted nature of listening and facilitating ideas instead of putting their own stamps on the project. With the gift of quietness, introverts communicate and learn more effectively because they listen to understand, instead of racing to the end for an answer. xvii

Figure 4. Introvert figures of the world

They are also much calmer in stress driven decision making situation. In business, introverts are less likely to lose a big investment in comparison to extroverts. Warren Buffet, the legendary investor and one of the wealthiest men in the world in response to the Wall Street’s crash on 2008 claimed that “Once you have ordinary intelligence, xviii

what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble in investing � (Figure 4). If introversion is a trait that can help solve so many problems and achieve numerous goals in various fields, why is the world still organized around only extroverts? How do we improve this situation to bring back yin and yang for the society to grow happier and healthier?




What are their patterns?

Figure 5. Natural connection soothes introverts

Figure 6. Introvert concentrate better alone

Figure 7. Introvert enjoys one-on-one conversation

Figure 8. Introvert listens more than talks

Figure 9. Introverts prefer solitude than crowd




PROGRAM “If our artistic rhythms- a result- are to be significant, our prior meditations -the cause- must be so.” - LOUIS H. SULLIVAN MISSION •

To enhance the quality of introverts’ life by providing an environment for

them to thrive in and explore their potential

To bring about an innovative perspective on educational, recreational

and leisure systems by developing the first architectural prototypes for


To empower introverts, celebrate their talents and promote their roles in

modern society.


To provide spaces that introverts feel most energized and comfortable to

be in.

To initiate creative projects and ideas to among naturally formed groups.

To help introverts establish deep and meaningful relationships with like-

minded people.

P R O G R A ,M



Encouraging C R E A T I V I T Y Albert Einstein once said that inventors,

connection to nature and easy accessible to one

and creators need to be loners because what

another in case people would like to discuss their

makes them great is not intellect but character.

ideas in depth with one of their peers.


This is in fact verified. Research shows that in a group, people tend to mimic each other’s opinion xx

and behavior without realizing it. So the loud and assertive ones will made the group’s final decision. This means a traditional way of collaboration does not explore but kill original and authentic ideas from the members. Therefore, I want to maximize the creative capacity of introverts by making spaces for individual work and appropriate collaboration environment. In order to achieve this, I propose a place that has many

hubs for people to go off

and create by themselves. When needed, they will gather in

green space for idea exchange,

inspiration and guidance. Those hubs would be designed for visual, acoustical control yet have

Figure 10. Group brainstorm produces homogeneity

Figure 11. Open plan office for creative career

“Group brainstorming is largely worthless save for its socializing role. Instead, individual idea generation combined with group evaluation and expansion-a hybrid process-appears to work best.�


ADAM MCDOWELL, From Canadian Business Magazine

P R O G R A ,M



Facilitating L E A R N I N G To be creative, we need to learn and be inspired from others. But our learning system now is heavily designed around groups. Studies show that in school, people’s respect for others is based on their verbal ability not their originality or insight, which leads to the rearrangement of the traditional desk set up so that everyone facing each other to encourage extroversion. (Figure 13) They do science together, art together, xxi and then math, even write poems together. Introverts find themselves unusual, out of place because they

either cannot fit in or are exhausted in trying to focus and keep up. (Figure 12) Thus I will incorporate an effective learning environment that is sensitive to the level of stimulation for introverts to help not only them but the society to reach full potential. It will change how the world sees them and how they see themselves.

Figure 12. Group project distractions

Figure 13. Modern classroom set up

Another issue with the modern educational

and psychological withdrawal pattern to cope with

set up is that classrooms are usually distributed

the physical layout of the building. Therefore, the

along one tight corridor for strictly utilitarian use of

connections between spaces in architecture need to

circulating. Maria Konikova stated that “the rooms

be crucially defined in order to ease social interaction

(dormitory rooms that hve the same floor lay out as

and naturally form smaller groups of discussion along

modern classroom) opened up directly onto the

the way. There might need to be some specific

hallway, and tidbits about the French Revolution,

program to achieve that goal.


say, or Benjamin Franklin’s breakfast, would drift from one classroom to another: Distracting at best xxii

So as to accomplish this category, the proposed

and frustrating at worst.” This is no space for


introverts to go through not to mention how they

learning by themselves, from one another

can mingle or discusses ideas. In a study by Jen

and from instructors. However, these spaces

Warnick, she claimed that these served spaces

should be designed toward maximizing introverts’

that people have to go through force them

concentration and interest. There will be a

into “excessive, unwanted, and uncontrollable

that offers books and technological measures to


interaction” with fellow students. People who







initiate self-learning and exploring.

occupied these spaces usually were found to distance themselves from others, avoid eye contact or conversation altogether. The reason is that these circulation spaces seem practical yet offer little daylight or escape if students want to avoid interaction. Therefore they develop physical

P R O G R A ,M



Establishing R E L A T I O N S H I P S Our education is a reflection of the business world. They move toward efficiency and maximum collaboration using open office floor plan. It not only overwhelms and disrupts an introvert’s productivity but also prevents them from establishing meaningful relationship in the work place. You cannot have a deep and personal conversation with noise, visual distraction and constant xxv

surveillance going on. (Figure 16)

Figure 14. Traditional drop in chat

Without personal connections with your coworkers, boss and client, you cannot build trust, form deeper connections and share crazy ideas. (Figure 14) This defeats the purpose of interaction. My thesis will define environments that protect and encourage personal , and professional discussion with distraction filter and barriers as well as the ability to personalize the spatial comfort need.

Figure 15. Visual and Acoustical Barriers for Privacy

To achieve this goal, I propose a cafĂŠ where local introverts can meet to discuss about personal or professional life experience. They can also come here to work and build connection with other like-minded introverts. There will be an event space for celebrating the work and expertise of these groups. It will not only be an adhesive to bring them together but also a way to showcase their worth and pride to the society to help them understand and value introverts.

Public spaces will also be included. Nonetheless these should be very carefully design with

attention to scale, material and green spaces so as to encourage interaction in a moderate way for introverts.

Figure 16. Modern Office with little Privacy for Personal or Professional Discussions, more interruptions and distractions.

P R O G R A ,M



Enabling C O L L A B O R A T I O N Friendship




For this goal, there will be proposed spaces such as

collaboration. We all know Apples and Steve

laboratories for individual work, various sizes

Jobs, but not many of us know about the

of meeting rooms and green space that have

friendship and collaboration between him

direct connection to nature.

and Steve Wozniak. Wozniak prefers solitude like most introverts. He alone invented the first

This collaboration facilitating place will play an

personal computer. He advised young people

important role in empowering introverts because

to work by themselves if they want to create

it is the symbol of contribution. Therefore, it will

something innovative and extraordinary. It


was however, Steve Jobs who brought his

leadership courses,

ideas to the public. Therefore, imagine how

lecture halls for research about introverts and how

much the world can achieve if we appreciate

to unleash their power.

and design for this personality diversity and their “collaboration”.(Figure 17) It does not mean that introverts and extroverts are not meant to work together but that introverts’ way of collaborating with one another or with the member of the opposite sides should be reinvented and reshaped.

conference rooms and classrooms for public speaking studio, and

“Group brainstorming is largely worthless save for its socializing role. Instead, individual idea generation combined with group evaluation and expansion- a hybrid process- appears to work best.”


Figure 17. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs collaboration on designing the second personal computer.

P R O G R A ,M



PRECEDENTS “Logic will take you from A to B but imagination can take you everywhere� - ALBERT EINSTEINS A large portion of modern technology is the result of introverts’ dedication and talent, yet there are limited environments for them to forge their passion and individual ideas together. In this thesis, such a place will be defined and designed based on research that has been done on how to create conditions for introverts to thrive, collaborate and celebrate their unique personality traits. A facility for introverts should focus on how to promote naturally formed groups to encourage creativity, improve self- expression, stimulate learning, support solitude and provide collective entertainment. The precedents that illustrate and further explore these properties are of a wide spectrum. The most interesting precedents not only answer the question posed by the thesis argument but also invoke ideas and raise questions for more exploration.







How to help introverts push their limit without compromising their talents and productivity? The first precedent is chosen with the question

in public interaction which results in declined

of what types of spaces will encourage human

creativity and productivity. However, sharing

interaction and creativity without draining energy

space is effective in this case because it enforces

out of them. And how do we help introverts push

discipline, providing social warmth and nurturing

their limit without compromising their talents and

inspiration in the community. Architecture helps

productivity? By observing a Tibetan monk’s daily

tremendously through the provision of optimal

routine will reveal the answer to generating a

natural light from windows on three sides with

space for introverts and their collaboration.

a filter screen, the organized pattern of carpet

A Tibetan monk’s day is an alternating cycle of different scales and speeds of mental and physical tasks. They start out with a communal prayer and meditation session, which happens xxvi

in the biggest hall of the monastery. In this large enclosed space, these monks focus their energy on their devotion together, enhancing their happiness and performance through the day. For introverts, it is very tiring and hard to retain energy after being excessively engaged


and tiles indicating an ordered sitting layout, the perfect acoustical quality achieved by wall and ceiling material to ensure harmonious sound or complete stillness and a central well of light from clerestory windows. All of these elements help to focus the mind of each monk on their task yet learn to be aware of the other’s existence. It can be implemented as a space of being together, whether people choose to sing, to do art, to invent or even enjoy silence together. This is one way

to help introverts get accustomed to being in a

These monks use up their energy yet the surrounding

crowd. However, it is not any crowd. It is the “tribe”

context offers them a generous return. Architecturally

that they belong to, that will support, nurture and

speaking, the courtyard offers physical, visual and

grow with them. This “tribe” will be the first one to

mental comfort for the occupants. There are potted

shout out to the world about the significance of

plants and cobble stones to breakdown the vastness

their existence. Tribes as described by Seth Godin

of the space connecting to the sky above. They are



are about faith and belief in an idea. In this case,

also provided a loggia on four sides which makes the

the belief is that introverts have their own power

transition between the inside and outside smoother.

and they need to wield it right, to stretch, adapt

This way, they have to be in a community doing an

and contribute with this gift born with them.

intimidating task but the architecture with shaded

The next chore of the monks is the debate xxix

session which takes place in the courtyard


An answer is demanded after every hand clap which is emotionally intimidating and physically

spaces inside the loggia suggests that they can retreat for a moment before going back out instead of being trapped in the middle and never have the option to hide momentarily.

intense. They need some source of energy to

courtyard plays a significant role in the monastery because it connects the activities with naturethe never ending source of rejuvenation. It is the void to be filled and the sky above will be




hold onto and channel from which is why the

s cu










the source of energy ready to be distributed.


Figure 18. Monastis Main Praying Hall Diagram









How to provide optimum stimulation environments for introverts to thrive and to offer places for collaboration? Solitude and social time should be balanced as learned from the monastic life. Nevertheless, the spaces that accommodate them should not be distinct or clearly separated. Louis Kahn referred to the Salk Institute as a place of “intellectual xxxi retreat� located in La Jolla CA, is a sanctuary

Figure 19. Kahn’s sketch of the Salk Institute

for the scientists and researchers who are most renowned as introverts. Kahn is very sensitive in providing quiet and separated lab room, studio and offices that have view toward the ocean and connected to other similar function space for collaboration.(Figure 23) This is achieved by the distinct shape of each tower interconnected

Figure 20. The Salk Institute looking at the Pacific Ocean

and set at an angle toward the ocean. (Figure 22) The use of concrete is very clever and effortless in delivering a calm and relaxing space for xxxi

concentration and quiet collaboration. These connections to nature and human interaction are

Figure 21. Human Scale Issue in the Courtyard

close enough to keep them stimulated yet far enough to not overwhelm their neocortex. The neocortex does not have to spend energy on calming the brain down; instead, it will focus on the task. Originally, Kahn wanted two courtyards in between four base buildings, but Salk argued that it would divide the institute into A people and B people. Therefore in the end there is only one courtyard with no natural landscape except for the water gap that bisects the whole architecture complex and connects to the Pacific xxxii Ocean. Scientists and researchers require time alone to do their work but there should be spaces that facilitate xxxiii their interaction, discussion and trust building. Therefore the courtyard is intended for people to dine together, xxxiv attend concerts, exercise and reflect. However, this space seems to break the complex in half rather than

bridging it. This was lively, filled with nature and activities in Kahn’s sketch (Figure 19) but they decided to follow xxxv

Luis Barragan to let the bare courtyard be “a facade to the sky” without “even a blade of grass”. It is a magnificent piece of architecture but the courtyard never fulfilled its intended function because the sky and the ocean are nature not human’s scale. This combined with the solemn architecture providing a sublime space for no human gathering but photographers. (Figure 20, 21)


O /




Figure 22. A typical Office with view to the Ocean

Figure 23. Relationship of Office to Offices and Nature







How to provide optimum stimulation environments for introverts to thrive and to offer places for collaboration? From there, I understand that architects cannot provide a big monolithic open space and expect that people especially introverts would somehow gather and exchange ideas and form relationships. They need different types of space for different purposes. For example, collaboration does not mean one large space for people to occupy. It will not

Figure 24. Meeting Room with acoustical and visual privacy

fulfill its intended function without offering the right stimulating and privacy levels. These spaces need to be designed according to the program happening there, the number of people and the nature of the activities. SteelCase headquarter is an excellent design that takes into account different elements that influence the success of spaces. It caters to a variety of actions and especially made with introverted employees in mind.

Figure 25. Smaller meeting room

The CEO of SteelCase has partnered with Susan Cain- the mother of the quiet revolution to define spaces that will facilitate productivity, creativity and collaboration in a way that supports and brings about the introverts inner talent. This is very important because a research done by Adam Grant reveals that the CEO of the top 11 most successful companies in America are all introverts. Aware of that, this company wanted to create spaces that can accommodate this portion of its workforce, nurture them and give them the position they deserve. They only provide 60 fixed workplace. The other 108 people are nomadic, they can pick where they want to work. The company offers very private niches that can be personalized, rooms for small group meetings (figure 25), larger room for bigger meetings (figure 24). The café is designed primarily for a relaxed working experience. They used materials and colors that calm the space down and filter the acoustical and visual distraction that a normal office can offer.xxxvi There are five types of distinct spaces distributed through the company in order to empower the introverts in the office. These spaces were designed with careful attention paying to interior arrangement, technology, furniture, material to fit the expectation of different postures, work models for quiet and privacy.xxxvii The most important and successful design principles enforced by SteelCase are •

Permission to be alone

Control over the environment

Sensory Balance

Psychologically safe




How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts to be themselves, to spark deep conversation & meaningful relationship? Their spaces allow quiet and private

their sound masking methodologies to guarantee

space without any interruption rather than

a space that is free of audible interruptions. The

modern open office floor plan that the world

principles then are applied to design various spaces

is moving toward. The environment control

such as “Be Me”, “Flow”, “Studio”, “Green Room” and

offers introverts the options of adjusting the

“Mind Share”.

stimulation and find their right comfort zone which varies from person to person. Unlike what is expected from the society, introverts do seek sensory stimulation. Nevertheless, they prefer them in form of warm, relaxing


Research has shown that in modern office setting, introverts have to face many problemsxxxix •

No quiet, private places in the workplace

Interrupted every 11 minutes, take 23-25 minutes to get back into the flow.

feeling derived from nature and organic xxxviii


. The psychologically safe is

and more

explained as spaces where introverts can go and be invisible to the world around. It

31% full time employees work away comfort and familiarity found at home or

need. These spaces utilize the V.I.A (vertical

superior acoustic performance along with

engaged workers.

from their location. They seek emotional

gives way to their rejuvenation time or focus

intelligent architecture) walls that provide

Moving while working makes healthier

in the office. •

Half of the meeting time is spent on one other worker.



How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves and encourage quiet concentration?

to be

BE ME A space free of gaze and interruptions from coworkers, where introverts can be alone, be themselves, be happy, creative and productive. It encourages vitality throughout a day by lounging, working, or even taking a nap. Couches and furniture resemble living room amenities except for they support mobile devices xl

with power. •

This space enforces the permission for introvert to be alone and be themselves.

It is protected from the gaze and interruption of the outsiders, encouraging vitality by providing couches, coffee table and desk for work, relax or even close eyes for a moment.

Lagunitas lounge sofas bring comfort to the worker and also has power plug for devices.

Personal table allows mobility and support electronic devices.

The guest seating area is also for storage or personalized belongings.

Vertical Intelligent Architecture (V.I.A) provide complete audible sealant.

V.I.A. with attached monitor for amplification of digital content.

The lighting integrated into the wall is controlled by the users of space.

An app call RoomWizard II allows the room to be booked ahead of time.




How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves encourage uninterrupted flow of work?

to be

FLOW As stated in the name, this space is designed for complete solitude to fuel creativity and focus. It is kept free from visual or audible distractions for deep focus, strategic thinking and getting into the flow. Materials xl

chosen are all natural which provides calming state of mind and out of cognitive distraction. •

A place protected from all visual and acoustical distraction for better concentration, strategic thinking and planning.

Material are primarily natural which provide warm and cozy feeling for better concentration and comfort.

V.I.A ensure the room audible sealant.

V.I.A. allows the users to display analog content.

The desk is design to have work content spread on it.

Bookshelves are designed to hold work content, strategic thinking and planing folders as well as personal belongings.

Monitor integrated into the V.I.A wall allow amplification of digital content.

The level of lighting can be controlled by the users of space.

Room can be reserved ahead of time or on the spot through RoomWizard II.




How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves to connect and to be understood?

to be

GREEN ROOM This space offers the right stimulating environment for connect, share, and build trust before, during or after a meeting. The lounge posture generates a calm, relaxed, comfortable feeling while tools in this room support working and sharing of digital content. The seating are very informal where people can sit at a right xl

angle to one another creating an individual sense of space and psychological safety. •

A location for building trust and discuss ideas for clients and business informally and formally.

The lounge configuration allows relaxed, calm and comfortable discussion and idea exchange. It also exudes the cozy feeling of a living room instead of an office meeting room.

The comfortable furniture provides the familiarity of home.

Individual sense of space and psychological safety are created through the design of perpendicular seating position of the couch.

V.I.A. allows ultimate acoustic performance and blocks noises from outside.

V.I.A let the digital content be amplified.

The users of space can adjust the lighting of the room.

RoomWizard II is also used here for reserve the room.




How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts to be themselves, to feel comfortable with collaborating? MIND SHARE This is where introverts can engage in deep conversation with a colleague, to confide and build trust, to chat and form meaningful relationship. The V.I.A glass treatment will determine how much people can see into the room but the content would be shielded from any passerby. Integrated media scape and white xl

board support brainstorming, building and building digital information. •

Mind share is the space where workers can come to discuss ideas, engage in deep conversation with top secret content with comfort.

A place where idea is easily shared and accepted in confidence.

Personal conversation or professional discussion are confidential in this space.

Integrated technology with monitor and white-board support work and brainstorming without the loud, social domination and interruption of traditional group work.

V.I.A. provides excellent acoustic sealant.

Monitor integrated into the wall allows amplification of digital content.

RoomWizard II let people reserve the room ahead or on the spot.

A third guest can seat on the storage- couch design piece of furniture.



How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves?

to be

STUDIO This is a more active space where individuals can escape to rejuvenate through activity like stretching, meditating or resetting which keep good blood flow for the brain, refresh the body and allow creative ideas to come. The environment is under control of the users in term of customizing lighting, music, volume, digital xl

content on the integrated monitor based on mood, task or personality. •

An active room for people to escape to and stretch or exercise and refresh their body and mind for a new creative impulse and stroke of productivity.

Space can be controlled in term of music, lighting, mood, volume and digital content depending on the user’s mood, personality or task.

The open floor space allows users the opportunity to stretch, meditate and reset.

The speakers are integrated into the V.I.A wall and are under the user’s control.

V.I.A. ensures maximum acoustical privacy.

The lounge seating allows comfortable and relaxed seating postures.

The monitor content can be changed at the discrete of the user.

Lighting is adjustable according to the user’s mood.

Analog and digital resource material can be stored on the wall integrated shelves.








How to achieve the right stimulation level of all 5 senses? What is an ideal transition between these environments? SteelCase headquarters provides very interesting variations of spaces that pursue the right stimulation to calm and relax people. So I look for more architectural elements and also ask what the smooth transitions between these spaces would look like. It takes me to the Thermal bath Vals in Switzeland by Peter Zumthor. While Louis Kalhn’s use of nature denies human’s social interaction are present in the Salk Institute, Peter Zumthor uses nature as a source of energy to facilitate human’s congregation for recharging. The Thermal Baths also use cold material, water and natural surroundings to bring people together. The difference is that Zumthor’s “meander”- negative space between building blocks that connects them all, allows people to pick and follow their own path. Then they will be rewarded with their own discoveries of xli

experience and crowd of similar path takers, thus a group is naturally formed. These architectural gestures also break up the building into smaller and more comprehensible spaces for people to hold onto while they explore the Bath house. (figure ) They go through a series of expansion and compression spaces, alone and xlii

accompanied. The alteration gives them enough social presence and time to be alone and reconnect with themselves. Finally in the open bath that looks up to the sky and the mountains, people are there together. They feel less intimidated by nature and the architecture because they have the warm presence of their fellow humans who are predetermined to be there. The use of thin stone slab also add to the human scale experience in the vast nature setting, it is very comforting rather than intimidating as in the Salk Institute. More

importantly, they have water to submerge in and

and flowers petals are very smart to keep people

to be protected with human scale architecture.

engaged, yet not over stimulated.

Water is a significant feature here because it provides comfort and also a common substance that connect people. This can be interpreted literally or figuratively in my thesis design. Water does not have to be that essential unification. Lighting, sound, color or even mood can be the determine factors instead. (Figure 28-33) Using water in this way, the Thermal Baths succeed in balancing and intersecting private

All of these spaces can be accessed in different order that one choose. They can find their own path, to be with people in the big outdoor pool or retreat to a more private experience, whichever suits his temperament. These transition and path are made very effortless with the use of light, shadow, the ceiling gaps and the flow of water. They don’t feel like they are running away from the crowd but rather exploring and following what bring balance to their heart.

and public space as well as letting people take their own path and providing them gathering spaces to have collective experience and sense of unity at the end.

Figure 26. Appropriate Scale using Stone Slab

using the difference relationship of the human

of stimulation that soothe the 5 senses. There are room for water that makes music, rooms with water that u can taste, the use of heat, light, color



body and water. He provides the right amount
















It focuses on how to calm and relax people


Figure 27. Smooth Transition




Figure 28. Public Baths facing Nature

Figure 29. Semi Private Baths

Figure 30. Transition Space

Figure 31. Indoor Transition Space

Figure 32. Changing Room

Figure 33. Transition Space



SITE SELECTION “We are in the Yin and the Yang of the creative process� - CYNTHIA WEIL

Society favors extroverts over introverts because even though the latter also have

significant contribution to the world’s development in various fields and professions. With calm and contemplative nature, introverts usually work better with computer related projects. There are numerous places promoting extroverted activities yet limited facilities for introverts to collaborate and thrive.

In search of a site, I wonder where is the most suitable place that needs to return the

personality favor to the equilibrium state. I found Singapore. Like many other Asian Countries, it used to value introverts and solitude. However, the scale is now tilted toward extroverts because of the foreign favor policies enforced by the government to bring in talents from the West. The concept of Westernization is closely accompanied by the extroversion ideal of these cultures.







Macro - S I N G A P O R E One of the fastest growing technology

comparison to the rest of the world xlviii . (Figure 35)

hubs in the world is Singapore. With robust

Most offices in Singapore have an open floor plan

research facilities and limited application

design or are switching to this design because of the


xlix spatial and communication efficiency. Therefore,




country’s xliii

condition is an incubator for innovation


people in Singapore are subjected to constant public

Moreover, it enforces the liberal immigration

surrounding yet remain isolated mentally. For introverts,

policies for skilled workers which attract young

this environment is very undesirable because they

professionals from all over the globe of all

need their solitude time to regain energy and acquire


fields, especially technology. (Figure 34) The country’s size is about two third that of New York City yet is 3.7 times denser in population and hosts an amount of tourist that


creativity. This condition confirms that Singapore is the appropriate site for this thesis which will potentially benefit the technology passionate introverts, which in turn boosts the country’s inspiration and productivity.

is one fifth of its population each month xlv . It

Singapore used to value the Asian culture which

also offers jobs for foreigners who make up

celebrated introversion and its wisdom. Nevertheless,


a third of its population. This vast cultural

it is now reaching for the global economy and

diversity, stress and the highly competitive

technology by enforcing state policy that encourages

setting segregate people and weaken social

investment and extreme influence from the West.


empathy and solidarity. Moreover, Singapore

Thus, introversion is not only replaced by extroversion

has the longest working hours on average in

but also devalued and is threaten to be extinguished.

Figure 34. Singapore in the World Map



1/5 pop

Figure 35. Singapore Current Situation




Macro -S I N G A P O R E- Introvert Activities

Figure 36. Technology Conventions

Figure 37. Book Appreciation Clubs

Figure 38. Book Stores and Libraries

Figure 39. Public Speaking Class

Figure 40. Outdoor Excercise Clubs



Macro -S I N G A P O R E - Introvert Network

Figure 41. Coffee Shop

Figure 42. Library

Figure 43. Technology Convention

Figure 44. Garden and Park

Figure 45. Leadership Development Convention




Micro - T H E NATIONAL DESIGN CENTER Since entertainment like music, art, literatures

the building down. It is located in the cultural

are mostly the result of creative working in solitude,

district, across from the national public library and

these introverts need a place to meet, create and

is easily accessible to the general public from any

celebrate their character traits. Where is a site that

where in the country through the MRT.

is inherently rich with the heritage of creativity, learning, relationship and collaboration? It is the National Design Center.

This site is right on the path connecting professionals from work place to home. Hence, this is a very advantageous site for the development

It was a Church Community School in 80s

of a facility that celebrates the introvert’s talent

and 90s, then turned into an Opera Institute in the

and brings back the balance of personality

20s, and in 2011 was officially implemented as a design center for art, fashion, architecture, and technologies. It is an adaptive reuse of an existing building, very sensitive to the urban fabric. It is beautifully designed and successfully engages the public. The exterior respects the historic facade and leave the urban fabric undisturbed yet welcomes the public through the offseting of the entry. (figure )So I intend to renovate, adjust and enhance features for introverts instead of tearing

Figure 46. National Design Center Entrance & Loggia

diversity to effectively collaborate and contributes to the world. To create such a place for introverts, the site has to be where introverts naturally gravitate toward on a daily basis. There is a rising introvert community online dedicated to the growth and the betterment of each li

members and the group as a whole. Nevertheless, during their offline meeting, they have no specific facility to go to or equipment that can empower their skills and aspiration in working together on a side project. This kind of place when made will fuel not only inventions but also meaningful human relationships. There are events like hackathons, fashion design conventions, digital fabrication exhibitions, fraud conventions and computer technology conference that appeal to these introverts. One of the common hosting places for these events is the National Design Center. (Figure 36- 45) Located in the arts, cultural, learning and entertainment district of Bras Basah- Bugis of Singapore, this is lii the ideal site to invite public to come and create. Its existence speaks to the society about the importance of

introversion because all of art and entertainment forms start with solitude and quiet creativity. It has pre-war and post-war architecture elements which are intertwined to provide atriums, gallery, and collaborative spaces for a variety of events including art, fashion, technology, visual communication and industry design. In addition to its interesting program, this place is within 15 minutes of MRT ride away from the National University of Singapore, Singapore University of Technology and Design as well as the technology companies like Google, IBM, Facebook and Hewlett-Packard. It is accessible and welcoming to the public of all ages and classes which is very suitable for the approach of the thesis on nurturing and developing introvert talents of all backgrounds. In conclusion, the National Design Center of Singapore is the best fit site to cultivate a place for technological enthusiastic introverts because of the national long public exposure time, the lack of facilities for introvert community and the existing beneficial background and established identity of the building.




Micro - THE USERS Introverted





scientists, artists, or computer enthusiasts who contribute to the civilization by excavating their personal tendency to be alone, listen, observe and liii

analyze information. Therefore, this architecture thesis will be established to serve “creators� from various backgrounds, perspectives, age ranges and experiences. (Figure 47- 50) By facilitating the infusion of these introvert

Figure 47. Introverted Children

individuals, the result will bring out ideas, bonding opportunities, and promote the culture of quiet. In these social encounters, they will hopefully develop their creative power, build trust and are free from the conventional group work threat from liv

the extrovert world , to blossom and fulfill their mission of coming to earth with their special trait.

Figure 48. Introverted Students

Figure 49. Introverted Workers, Young Adults, Professionals

Figure 50. Introverted Artists, Inventors, Creators




N.D.C - Location & Benefits The National Design Center of SIngapore is located in one of the densest area of cultural and social activities of the country. It is accessible by the subway system from any places. This cultural district has many casual as well as formal destinations that introverts often come to hang out or to be themselves such as Figure 51. National Design Center Location

coffee shops, libraries, bookstores, parks,




(Figure 53-56) The National Design Center is also on the path connecting many companies and university to apartment and home around the country




convinience for people to stop at this third place to recharge, and reinvent the social norm. Figure 52. MRT System around the Country

Figure 53. Workplaces

Figure 54. Houses and Apartments

Figure 55. Library Concentration

Figure 56. Schools and Universities




N.D.C -History The National Design Centre is located at 111 Middle Road in Singapore. This building used to be St Anthony’s Convent from 1879 to 1994 with the traditional classroom setting that allows introverts to be themselves by not being constantly on the spotlight (Figure57). From 1995 to 2009, the N.D.C became the Nanyang Acadamy of Fine Arts, then from 1995 to 2009 it was the Chinese Opera

Figure 57. St Anthony’s Convent classroom

Institute. Students were taught various media of art form, to be creative, to better express themselves and to speak for the unheard (Figure 58, 59). In






renovated for the National Design Center of Singapore where it hosts classes, exhibitions, conventions for a wide spectrum of art, technology and creative fields. (Figure 60)

Figure 58. Nanyang Acadamy of Fine Arts

Figure 57. Chinese Opera Institute

Figure 60. National Design Center - Presentation




N.D.C -Architectural Context

Figure 61. Front view from Victoria Street

Figure 62. Historic Facade (2) & Modern Facade (1 on far left) looking toward the National Public Library

Figure 63. Courtyard Peek from Queen St.

Figure 64. Church Next Door From Queen St.




N.D.C -Architectural Context

Figure 65. Street Fabric from Queen St.

Figure 66. Art Museum on Queen Street

Figure 67. Streetscape from Victoria Street




N.D.C -Architectural Context

Figure 68. Singapore National Library- acrross the street from the site

Figure 69. Elevation of the National Design Center on the Middle Road




N.D.C -Architectural Context

Figure 70. Courtyard with Reflecting Pool

Figure 71. Suspended Galleries and Meeting Rooms

Figure 72. Outdoor Courtyard made Indoor by adding Skylight




N.D.C -Architectural Context

Figure 73. School Chapel renovated into Atrium

Figure 74. Daylighting Quality

Figure 75. Catholic School Courtyard now served as Atrium




N.D.C -Architectural Drawings

Figure 76. Ground plan

Figure 77. Second Floor




N.D.C -Architectural Drawings

Figure 78. Fifth Floor

Figure 79. Section




N.D.C - General Approach Direction Introverts are found to be more creative at art, science and technology because of their power of concentrating and dwelling on the projects that they pusue. This building means to celebrate the product of creativiity and the its forming process. The National Design Center, however, was designed with extroverts in mind. The spaces provided here are vast opening for exhibition and conference opportunities. Though it seems lively with broken

Figure 80. Open Plan Office

down stall set up, it is not an ideal space for introverts to meander, explore or share ideas just like the courtyard of the Salk Institute. The smaller room and meeting pods are hung and distributed elegantly around this central courtyard. With the same strategy of modern classroom and open office plan, these spaces fail to serve

Figure 81. Group Work Desk Set up

the introvert community. Looking from the outside, it is a solemn place full of order and hierrarchy which is unsuitable fo creativity and unwelcoming to the every day visit of the public. The goal of my thesis is therefore to renovate the building to procide spaces for introverts to thrive and collaborate. The whole building will also stand as a bold statement of the quiet power in the heart of Singapore- the country where east meets west.

Figure 82. Exhibition

Figure 83. Design Exhibition in the Interior Courtyard




PRECIS Participation is the fastest way to explore ideas. Those who are loud, bold and decisive often secure the spotlight, thus the group follows their lead without paying attention to what the less vocal people have to share. Recognizing this loss of intelligence, the society treats introversion as a disappointment, a pathology that needs to be cured by constantly placing introverts in group projects and “productive settings”. These environments found in both educational and professional systems usually are wide open for interaction, maximized space with minimized cost, with no visual or acoustical privacy which brings along constant distraction, surveillance, tension and hostility. Introverts are those who prefer minimally a stimulating environment. They cannot concentrate or feel comfortable in these socially prescribed “productive” situations. It leads to the loss of productivity, personal connections, and ultimately their creative ability. Therefore, the program of this thesis will explore spaces that facilitate creativity, learning, relationship building, and collaboration. It can be called a center for the quiet nature empowerment where the introvert tribe is recognized, supported and nurtured. This will be achieved by creating various optimal stimulating spaces for introverts to thrive and to collaborate through the uses of boundaries, barriers and filters. Additionally, the links and transitions between these spaces are also very crucial to their connection with nature for energy revitalization, social interaction and contribution opportunities. The introverts’ contributions have been overlooked in many countries even those that used to value them. Singapore is on the verge of extreme westernization and tilts its scale toward extrovert sovereignty. The people here suffered from constant public engagement because of their high population density, long

working hours, extroverted entertainment industries, and an intricate network of online introvert communities with limited facilities to form physical existence. The specific site therefore is chosen for its rich heritage of creativity and education background associated with introverts and in proximity with the introvert community’s satellite meeting places. The National Design Center was where creativity, learning, friendship and collaboration fostered throughout history. Its location and surrounding transportation system offer easy accessibility for introverts from all fields and age groups. The current building, however, is also designed with extroverts and their operating preferences in mind. The intention of this thesis is to renovate the building to provide spaces for introverts to thrive and collaborate. It will also stand as a bold statement of introvert power in the heart of Singapore- the country where east meets west.

“Rhetoric is the counter part of dilectic... Rhetoric is the art of finding in any given case all the available means of persuation or the practices of logical discussion as employed in investigating truth� - ARISTOTLE, The Rhetoric





Adam Mcdowell, “Why The World Needs More Introverts,” Canadian Business 86, no.20 (2012): 6364.


Mcdowell, “Why The World Needs More Introverts,” 64.


Susan Cain, Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking (New York: Broadway, 2012), 118.


Ibid, 122-125.


Andrew Feenberge and Darin Barne, Community in a digital age (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), 268.


Susan Cain, “Quiet,” Talks at Google, 43:48, February 8, 2012.

vii Купить

книгу, “Susan Cain - Quiet - The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking,”

Metaver, Last Modified 2013, Accessed November 20, 2015. power%20of%20introverts%20in%20a%20world%20that%20can’t%20stop%20talking viii Ibid. ix

Mcdowell, “Why The World Needs More Introverts,” 63.


Susan Cain, “Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking,” Chronicle of Higher Education (2013): 40.


Adam Grant, “Author Brian Little on Personality and the ‘Art of Well-being’,” Wharton University of Pennsylvania (2015).





Susan Cain, Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking, 5.

xiii Susan

Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.

xiv Ibid. xv

Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, Accessed November 15, 2015.

xvi “Myers

Briggs Type Indicator”,


John Francis, “Walk the earth ... my 17-year vow of silence,” TED, 19:20, February, 2008.

xviii Susan

Cain, Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking, 176.

xix Mcdowell,

“Why The World Needs More Introverts,” 63.


Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.



xxii Maria Konikova, “The Open Office Trap”, The New Yorker, Last Modified January 7, 2014, Accessed November

20, 2015. xxiii Jen

Warnick, Building Happiness Architecture to Make You Smile, (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2008), 64.

Ibid, 64-65.


xxv Susan

Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.

xxvi “Monastic xxvii Susan

(religious) Activities” Accessed October 4, 2015.

Cain, Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking, (New York: Broadway, 2012),

97-111. xxviii Seth

Godin, Tribes- We Need You To Lead Us,(New York: Penguin Group, 2008), 9.

xxix “Monastic

(religious) Activities”

xxx Ibid. xxxi Jacobs

DeCroes Charlotte, Jonas Salk, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 254.


Ibid, 255.


David Brownlee and David De Long, Kahn, 136.


Blythe Camenson, Introverts & other Solitary Types, (New York: The McGraw Hill Company, Inc., 2006) 65-74.


“Salk Institute / Louis Kahn” Last modified May 28, 2010. . Accessed October 5, 2015. http://www.archdaily. com/61288/ad-classics-salk-institute-louis-kahn/

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David Brownlee and David De Long, Kahn, 139. “Steelcase- The Quiet Ones.” Accessed November 20,2015. quiet-ones/










Donahue, Thomas. Peter Zumthor, (Nebraska: Houchen, 2004), 138.


Ibid, 139.


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Blythe Camenson, Careers for Introverts &Other Solitary Types (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006), 2-4.


Susan Cain, Quiet - The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking (New York: Broadway, 2012), 87, 93.




CITATION Images 1.Diagram 2. Diagram 3. 4. Diagram 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 12. Diagram 13. ssjm1101commoncore~3.JPG 14.` 15. Diagram 16. 17. 18. Diagram




19. 20. 21. Diagram 22. 23. Diagram 24. 25. 26. Diagram 27. Diagram 28. 29. Ibid 30. Ibid 31. Ibid 32. Ibid 33. Ibid 34. Diagram 35. Diagram 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

42.,_Li_Ka_Shing_Library,_Singapore_ Management_University_-_20141028-01.jpg 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Team__208595.jpg 50. 51Diagram 52 Diagram 53 Diagram 54 Diagram 55 Diagram 56 Diagram 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. “National Design Center Singapore,� Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https://,+Singapore/@1.2983343,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9




62. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https://,+Singapore/@1.2983343,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 63. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https://,+Singapore/@1.2983343,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 64. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https://,+Singapore/@1.2983343,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 65. Ibid 66 Ibid 67 Ibid 68. Ibid 69. “National Design Centre SCDA Architect,” Architecture Record, Building_Types_Study/adaptive_reuse/2015/1502-National-Design-Centre-SCDA-Architects-slideshow.asp 70. Diagram 80. 81. 82. 83. Ibid




BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOK Andrew Feenberge and Darin Barne, Community in a digital age, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. Blythe Camenson, Introverts & other Solitary Types, New York: The McGraw Hill Company, Inc., 2006. Brian E. Carpenter,Network Geeks: How they built the internet, New York: Copernicus Books, 2013. Brownlee, David Bruce, David Gilson Long, and Calif Angeles. Louis I. Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art: 1991. Donahue, Thomas. Peter Zumthor, Nebraska: Houchen, 2004. Gerald M. Phillips, Communication and the Small Group, New York: The Bobbs – Merrill Company, 1966. Holly Black and Cecil Castellucci, Geektastic : stories from the nerd herd , New York: Little Brown, 2010. Howard, Rheingold, the Virtual Community- Homesteading On The Electronic Frontier, 1993. Jacobs DeCroes Charlotte, Jonas Salk, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. Jane Wernick, Building Happiness- Architecture to Make You Smile, London: Black Dog




Publishing, 2008. Jen Warnick, Building Happiness Architecture to Make You Smile, London: Black Dog Publishing, 2008. Kent C. Bloomer, Charles W. Moore, and Robert J. Yudell, Body, Memory, and Architecutre, Massachusetts: Yale University, 1997. L. Adams and Stephan A.Smith, Electronic Tribes- The Virtual Worlds Of Geeks, Gamers, Shamans, and Scammers, Texas: University of Texas Press, 2008. Marti Olsen Laney, The Introvert Advantage: How to Thrive in an Extrovert World, New York: Workman Publicing Company, Inc., 2002 Nan Ellin, Architecture of Fear, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. Seth Godin, Tribes- We Need You to Lead Us, New York: Penguin Group, 2008. Sophia Dembling, The Introvert’s Way: Living a Quiet Life in a Noisy World, New York: Penguin, 2012. Stephen H. Segal and Zaki Hasan, Geek wisdom: the sacred teachings of nerd culture, Philadelphia: Quirk Books, 2011. Steven G. Jones, Cyber society 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community, California: SAGE Publication, Inc., 1998 Susan Cain. Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking, New York: Broadway, 2012. Theodore M. Mills, the Sociology of Small Groups, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1967.

JOURNAL ARTICLE ONLINE Adam Grant. “Author Brian Little on Personality and the ‘Art of Well-being’,” Wharton University of Pennsylvania (2015). Accessed October 23, 2015. Adam Mcdowell. “Why the world needs more introverts” Canadian Business Vol, 85 Issue 20 (2012): 63-64. Accessed September 3, 2015. 3d4207%2526AN%253d83816970%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdat a=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=83816970&db=afh Conelly Gail. “ Interviews; Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking, The (Book); School environment; Authors; Classroom environment; Introverts”. Principle May/June (2014): 33-36. Accessed September 10,2015. 53d4207%2526AN%253d96290449%2526db%253deft%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdat a=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=eft&AN=96290449 Devora Zack. “Leadership tips for introverts” Canadian Business Vol.87 Issue 5/6 (2014): 14. Accessed September 10,2015. 56e2bd1bca%40sessionmgr4001&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%25 26AN%253d95983101%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdG U9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=95983101&db=afh Ed Smith. “Left Field” New Statesman Vol,141 Issue 5123 (2012): 62. Accessed September 7, 2015. http:// mgr4004&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526AN%253d79989045%2526db%253dafh%25 26site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=79989045&db=afh Emma Teitel. “Shout if you’re an introvert” Maclean’s Vol.126 Issue 36 (2013): 1. Accessed September 7, 2015.



112 0sessionmgr4004&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d 90117355%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=90117355&db=afh James G. Skakoon. “Introverts Rule” Mechanical Engineering Vol. 137 Issue 4 (2015): 16. Accessed September 5, 2015. 3d4207%2526AN%253d101694235%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=101694235&db=afh Judy Jensvold. “Defending introverts” Christian Century Vol.130 Issue 2 (2013): 6. Accessed September 10, 2015. 5eda91%40sessionmgr4002&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%252 6AN%253d84957515%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNp dGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=84957515&db=afh Matthew Hutson. “Self-Promote (The Introverts’ Edition)” Psychology Today Vole. 42 Issue 6 (2009): 25. Accessed September 10, 2015. %2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d44835302%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4 207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=44835302&db=afh Mehmet Oz. “Charms of the Quiet Child” Time Vol.179 Issue 5 (2012): 46. Accessed September 10, 2015. 0sessionmgr4001&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d 70949925%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70949925&db=afh Richard Stengel. “What if Introverts ruled the world?” Time Vol. 179 Issue 5 (2012): 2. Accessed September 3,2015.

d4207%2526AN%253d70949897%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata =JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70949897&db=afh Sarah Korones. “Just be quiet” Psychology Today Vol.45 Issue 1 (2012):23. Accessed September 12, 2015. detail?sid=924f276d-b499-4caf-81c9-50f56eaf8589%40sessionmgr4004&crlhashurl =login.x%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526db%253dafh%2526AN%253d70180244%2526si253dehostive&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70180244&db=afh Yang Peidong, “Authenticity” and “Foreign Talent” in Singapore: The Relative and Negative Logic of National Identity.” Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 29, no. 2 (July 2014): 413-414, accessed Oct 25th 2015. in_Singapore_The_Relative_and_Negative_Logic_of_National_Identity._SOJOURN_Journal_of_Social_ Issues_in_Southeast_Asia_29_2_408-437

ONLINE VIDEO John Francis, “Walk the earth ... my 17-year vow of silence,” TED, 19:20, February, 2008. Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.

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“How Singapore became a hub for tech start-ups,” Straits Times, accessed Oct 21st 2015, http://www. “How Singapore become an entrepreneur hub?” Harvard Business Review, accessed Oct 20th 2015, “Introvert Network, Singapore,” Meetup, accessed Oct 21st 2015, networkingintroverts/ “Life in Cities more densely populated”, Lift, accessed Oct 20th 2015, http://limpehft.blogspot. com/2013/02/life-in-cities-more-densely-populated.html “Monastic (religious) Activities” Accessed October 4, 2015. html “Population Report”, Singapore Department of Statistic, accessed Oct 21st 2015, http://www.singstat. “Salk Institute / Louis Kahn” Last modified May 28, 2010. . Accessed October 5, 2015. http://www. “Singapore hidden poverty problem,” BBC, accessed Oct 21st 2015, business-26268500 “Steelcase- The Quiet Ones.” Accessed November 20, 2015. quiet-ones/ “Thinking about moving to an open-plan office? Think again…,” Sandbox Adviser, Oct 21st 2015, http:// Geek Psychologist. “Are the Contributions of Influential Introverts Under Recognized and Under Appreciated?”. Accessed September 5, 2015.

General Assembly. “How the internet empower the introverts”. Accessed September 15, 2015. https://blog. Maria Konikova, “The Open Office Trap”, The New Yorker, Last Modified January 7, 2014, Accessed November 20, 2015. Metaver, Купить книгу. “Susan Cain - Quiet - The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking,” Last Modified 2013, Accessed November 20, 2015. Susan%20Cain%20-%20Quiet%20-%20The%20power%20of%20introverts%20in%20a%20world%20 that%20can’t%20stop%20talking Research Gate. “On the Internet No One Knows I’m an Introvert”: Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Internet Interaction”. Accessed September 7,2015. the_Internet_No_One_Knows_I’m_an_Introvert_Extroversion_Neuroticism_and_Internet_Interaction Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, Accessed November 15, 2015. cain_the_power_of_introverts?language=en The Observer. “Society Needs Both Introverts and Extroverts to Keep Things Interesting”. Accessed September 2, 2015. Time. “Why Gadgets are great for introverts”. Accessed September 14,2015. http://ideas.time. com/2012/08/16/gadgets-are-great-for-introverts/


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