TABLE OF CONTENT THESIS STATEMENT............................................................................................................2 RESEARCH......................................................................................................................... 4
The Extrovert Ideal World.................................................................................................5
What defines an introvert?........................................................................................... 7
Building Relationship.......................................................................................................... 21
Enabling Collaboration..................................................................................................... 23
The Salk Institute................................................................................................................. 31
35 The SteelCase Headquarter.............................................................................................
51 The Thermal Bath Vals.......................................................................................................
SITE SELECTION............................................................................................................... 58
59 Macro.................................................................................................................................... Micro..................................................................................................................................... 65
CITATION............................................................................................................................. 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................... 88
“In a gentle way, you can shake the world”
- MAHATMA GANDHI
THESIS STATEMENT Participation is an effective method to explore prospects, but usually the outspoken, decisive, and assertive people secure the attention, which leads to a loss of the good ideas from less vocal crowd. Modern Western society, therefore, treats introversion as a pathology that one must overcome in order to survive and be of service to others. This cultural bias wants to “cure” the unheard and invisible introverts by constantly encouraging and forcing them into constant group projects and well-designed “productive” settings. Working in a group helps introverts to push their boundaries, but in an attempt to fake extroversion they become inauthentic and lose creativity. Introverts prefer a low-stimulation background. They take time to observe and approach the situation in solitude. In understanding and nurturing the introverts we will initiate an equality movement that brings back values and meanings to them which alters how the world sees them, but more importantly, how they see themselves. They will be aware of their gift instead of feeling guilty about wanting their solitude. As a result, these introverts can accept their nature and materialize their inner talents to contribute to the society which offers them a sense of belonging. This thesis, consequently, is defining various optimal stimulating environments with a balance between public and private through the careful use of filters and barriers as well as the connections between these spaces to allow introverts to thrive and collaborate in ways that embrace their nature and are beneficial to the world.
RESEARCH “Once you understand what a person’s core projects are … it puts us in a position where we can actually treat humans as humans.” - BRIAN LITTLE, director of the Social Ecology Research Group in the Department of
Psychology of Cambridge University
This Thesis is going to assess the cultural bias against introverts and how it is treated i
as a disappointment, a pathology that needed to be cured. Introverts in our modern educational and professional systems are forced to changed by constantly being placed in group project and “productive settings”. These environments usually are wide open for interaction and minimized square footage, with no visual or acoustical privacy which brings along constant distraction, surveillance, tension and hostility. The main argument is that this personality favor is a loped sided perspective and needs to be brought back to balance in order for the world to grow and attain its full potential. My research will show why this diversity of personality is natural and beneficial to the world development and what kind of environments allow introverts to thrive and collaborate in the most effective and exciting ways.
The Extrovert Ideal World Public
to observe the discussion and engage the situation
method to explore ideas and prospects. In
in their own way. When being pushed by society,
these situations, the outspoken, quick decision
introverts have to fake their extraversion, and thus
making and assertive people usually get the
become inauthentic and less creative. As a result, they
group to go their way, which is not necessarily
are depleted of potential and eventually converted
the best direction to follow. Unfortunately,
to glorified laborers with little responsibility, flexibility
good ideas are lost in the less vocal crowd.
and autonomy. Their aspiration and intellectual value
Noticing this trend, society has taken steps to
will vanish to leave space for management control
improve these unheard and invisible introverts
and maximization of collaborative efficiency.
forcing them into group projects.
This bias does not only exist in the business ground. We also set up our world as a reflection of our social
Working as a group helps introverts refrain
personality sovereignty. It happens so early in oneâ€™s life
from being cerebral, push their limit, act more
that they internalize the concept of anti- introversion
gregarious, and appear to be confident.
without realizing that it comes from the society
However, free will suggested by Dr. Schwartzâ€™s
standard and it is against the natural formation of
research cannot carry them infinitely beyond
the human brain. At a young age when one enters
their genetic limits. Introverts prefer lowstimulation environment which ceases to iv
exist in amodern work setting. They take time
preschool, they are expected to be happy in a group.
“We’re told that to be great is to be bold. To be happy is to be sociable. Introversion now falls somewhere between a disappointment and pathology.” ii
- SUSAN CAIN, a lawyer, lecturer, author and mother of the Quiet Revolution for Introverts.
The Extrovert Ideal World A study carried out by interviewing teachers at public and private schools in New York, Michigan, and Georgia found that kids are meant to be trained to express themselves in a team with the spirit vii
of “corporate America.” Therefore, the architecture behind it has to be a big open void to allow free flow of communication and information. Along with it came all the distraction that introverts cannot escape from given that they want to follow their passion in this world designed for the opposite of what they identified themselves with.
valued. Every design decision is made with this model of facilitating group interaction in mind. When collective effort shrinks down to a few socially skilled leaders’ judgment, group work will kill creativity, relationship and affirmation. Aristotle’s The Rhetoric ask people to explore all available means in search of the truth thus, introverts must be heard. To solve this, we have to reinvent the way we collaborate. The human’s mind is boundless yet his body is defined in time, and space. So the question posed is how to bring people together to produce, share and contribute to their field of expertise without going against their character traits, to have the opportunity to gravitate
Research done by Young, Glaxo Smith
toward the like-minded fellow human and have the
Kline, Alcoa, and H.J. Heinz shows that from
possibility of extending their creative power into real
1970s to 2010, the space per employee
life situations without any losses along the way? This
of the average company shrank from 500
will be the equality movement that we must pursue to
square feet to 200 square feet. The work
offer introverts a meaningful life of contributing to this
force shifted to team and group work is highly
interconnected and ever changing world.
“The squeaky wheel gets the grease”
- AMERICAN PROVERB
“Those who know do not speak Those who speak do not know.” - LAO ZI, The Way of Lao Zi
“The wind howls, but the mountain remains still”
- JAPANESE PROVERB RESEARCH
What defines an introvert? Research shows that a third to a half of
a neocortex – the new brain which is responsible for
the population is introverted. But people act
thinking, planning, language, decision making. It is the
as extroverts to fit in. While shyness is the fear
seat of rationality which makes us human. Introverts
of social judgment and public humiliation,
are mainly governed by the neocortex, and thus
introverts are those who prefer a minimally x
stimulating environment. (Figure 1)
“Introversion is not shyness; introversion is a preference for environments that are not overstimulating.”
Introversion is not the commonly stigmatized condition as being antisocial but is deeply
rooted in our neurobiological system. The limbic system, which we share with the most primitive mammals, is highly interconnected with the Amygdala - the “pleasure center”. This is where dopamine is created and discharged. Extroverts are reward driven; they crave dopamine- the reward chemical released when engaged in social situations, risk,
However, the human brain also develops
require less dopamine and are very sensitive to the environment (Figure 2, 3). As a result, they are very easily overwhelmed by stimulation. Social interactions usually tax their energy and leave them exhausted. Therefore introverts tend to enjoy quiet concentration, prefer meaningful conversation with a small group or one-on-one interactions, listen more than they talk, think before they speak, and have a more cautious xi
approach to risk than extroverts.
Figure 1. Introvert Research
Figure 2. The Limbic System and Amygdala
Figure 3. Introvert -Extrovert Brain Pathway
What are their powers? What roles and values can they offer to the
inventors who shut their doors to the world, preferred
rest of the society? It is true that extroverts
to spend time in solitude, studying the projects they
have extremely appealing character which
were passionate about. These were the people who
helps to confirm their social status, power ,
had the confidence to live inside their head and bring
and even perceived appearance. Talkative
extraordinary work to the outside. The creativity comes
people are rated as more intelligent, more
to them not despite of their introversion but because
of it. Without introverts, the world would never be
desirable to become friends with according
to a study by Laurie Helgoe. xii
“The theory of Gravity
The theory of relativity
Yeats’s “The Second Coming”
introverts, mankind would be left without
many magnificent works and inventions from
literature to art, science and all other fields,
including business. Most entertainment forms
The Personal Computer
come from hard work in solitude, which is the
Schindler’s List, E.T., and Close Encounters of
art perfected by many introverts. In the past,
the Third Kind
there are artists, scientists, explorers, writers,
singers, actors, performers, mathematicians,
And many more works…
Harry Potter” xiii
“The squeaky wheel gets the grease”
History has shown that western society has tended to favor men of action over men of contemplation. But in the 20th century,
- AMERICAN PROVERB
the US moved into the era that historians called “a culture of character” where people lived in an agricultural community. They learned to find out the true nature
of their neighbors over the years of living
role models like Abraham Lincoln, Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, and Rosa Parks who were praised for their modesty xiv
- LAO ZI, The Way of Lao Zi
“The wind howls, but the mountain remains still”
together rather than listen to what he had to polish his identity. There used to be
“Those who know do not speak Those who speak do not know.”
- JAPANESE PROVERB
believed to be the wise ones because the protruding nail will
get hammered down.
Additionally, greatest religious leaders like Jesus, Moses, and
and unassuming nature.
Buddha all went into the wilderness then brought back their
This respect for introversion is more visible
revelation to benefit the community. They were never the ones
in far eastern culture like Japanese,
who followed the crowd and were confined by the socially
Chinese, Korean, societies that not only
constructed concept. The introverts used to have their own
tolerate introverts but celebrate them
value in every culture around the world. Nonetheless, at the
because they exist as a community;
turn of the 20th century, big business evolved, we moved to
and they need harmony to sustain the
the city. In need to distinguish ourselves from the crowd, we
economy and society. People who have
need to better our image through the pursuit of charisma,
the strength to hold back their tongue are
magnetism, thus extroverts rule.
How do they operate? Professor Brian Little, director of the Social
Introverts do need their dose of social interaction,
Ecology Research Group in the Department
physical and mental stimulation. Nevertheless, they
of Psychology of Cambridge University once
usually prefer silence, to be with their own thoughts,
said that “There are two type of people. The
come up with solutions much later after a period of
type who likes to divide people into two types,
processing. They feel more comfortable listening
and the type who doesn’t.”
instead of speaking and dominating the conversation.
While making clear distinction between introverts
insensitive, this research focus on those people whose introversion is the dominant personality. There are people who are ambiverts which means they fall in the middle of the introvert- extrovert spectrum. Carl Jungthe psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology and the concept of introvertextrovert emphasized that “there is no such thing as a pure introvert or extrovert. Such a person would be in the lunatic asylum.” xvi
In this way, introverts learn more, understand other people more deeply and motivate them rather than impose their own mindset on people’s approach. Therefore in a research by Adam Grant from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, introverts are found as more effective and successful leaders than extroverts as a result of their introverted nature of listening and facilitating ideas instead of putting their own stamps on the project. With the gift of quietness, introverts communicate and learn more effectively because they listen to understand, instead of racing to the end for an answer. xvii
Figure 4. Introvert figures of the world
They are also much calmer in stress driven decision making situation. In business, introverts are less likely to lose a big investment in comparison to extroverts. Warren Buffet, the legendary investor and one of the wealthiest men in the world in response to the Wall Streetâ€™s crash on 2008 claimed that â€œOnce you have ordinary intelligence, xviii
what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble in investing â€? (Figure 4). If introversion is a trait that can help solve so many problems and achieve numerous goals in various fields, why is the world still organized around only extroverts? How do we improve this situation to bring back yin and yang for the society to grow happier and healthier?
What are their patterns?
Figure 5. Natural connection soothes introverts
Figure 6. Introvert concentrate better alone
Figure 7. Introvert enjoys one-on-one conversation
Figure 8. Introvert listens more than talks
Figure 9. Introverts prefer solitude than crowd
PROGRAM “If our artistic rhythms- a result- are to be significant, our prior meditations -the cause- must be so.” - LOUIS H. SULLIVAN MISSION •
To enhance the quality of introverts’ life by providing an environment for
them to thrive in and explore their potential
To bring about an innovative perspective on educational, recreational
and leisure systems by developing the first architectural prototypes for
To empower introverts, celebrate their talents and promote their roles in
OBJECTIVES AND GOALS •
To provide spaces that introverts feel most energized and comfortable to
To initiate creative projects and ideas to among naturally formed groups.
To help introverts establish deep and meaningful relationships with like-
P R O G R A ,M
Encouraging C R E A T I V I T Y Albert Einstein once said that inventors,
connection to nature and easy accessible to one
and creators need to be loners because what
another in case people would like to discuss their
makes them great is not intellect but character.
ideas in depth with one of their peers.
This is in fact verified. Research shows that in a group, people tend to mimic each otherâ€™s opinion xx
and behavior without realizing it. So the loud and assertive ones will made the groupâ€™s final decision. This means a traditional way of collaboration does not explore but kill original and authentic ideas from the members. Therefore, I want to maximize the creative capacity of introverts by making spaces for individual work and appropriate collaboration environment. In order to achieve this, I propose a place that has many
hubs for people to go off
and create by themselves. When needed, they will gather in
green space for idea exchange,
inspiration and guidance. Those hubs would be designed for visual, acoustical control yet have
Figure 10. Group brainstorm produces homogeneity
Figure 11. Open plan office for creative career
â€œGroup brainstorming is largely worthless save for its socializing role. Instead, individual idea generation combined with group evaluation and expansion-a hybrid process-appears to work best.â€?
ADAM MCDOWELL, From Canadian Business Magazine
P R O G R A ,M
Facilitating L E A R N I N G To be creative, we need to learn and be inspired from others. But our learning system now is heavily designed around groups. Studies show that in school, peopleâ€™s respect for others is based on their verbal ability not their originality or insight, which leads to the rearrangement of the traditional desk set up so that everyone facing each other to encourage extroversion. (Figure 13) They do science together, art together, xxi and then math, even write poems together. Introverts find themselves unusual, out of place because they
either cannot fit in or are exhausted in trying to focus and keep up. (Figure 12) Thus I will incorporate an effective learning environment that is sensitive to the level of stimulation for introverts to help not only them but the society to reach full potential. It will change how the world sees them and how they see themselves.
Figure 12. Group project distractions
Figure 13. Modern classroom set up
Another issue with the modern educational
and psychological withdrawal pattern to cope with
set up is that classrooms are usually distributed
the physical layout of the building. Therefore, the
along one tight corridor for strictly utilitarian use of
connections between spaces in architecture need to
circulating. Maria Konikova stated that “the rooms
be crucially defined in order to ease social interaction
(dormitory rooms that hve the same floor lay out as
and naturally form smaller groups of discussion along
modern classroom) opened up directly onto the
the way. There might need to be some specific
hallway, and tidbits about the French Revolution,
program to achieve that goal.
say, or Benjamin Franklin’s breakfast, would drift from one classroom to another: Distracting at best xxii
So as to accomplish this category, the proposed
and frustrating at worst.” This is no space for
introverts to go through not to mention how they
learning by themselves, from one another
can mingle or discusses ideas. In a study by Jen
and from instructors. However, these spaces
Warnick, she claimed that these served spaces
should be designed toward maximizing introverts’
that people have to go through force them
concentration and interest. There will be a
into “excessive, unwanted, and uncontrollable
that offers books and technological measures to
interaction” with fellow students. People who
initiate self-learning and exploring.
occupied these spaces usually were found to distance themselves from others, avoid eye contact or conversation altogether. The reason is that these circulation spaces seem practical yet offer little daylight or escape if students want to avoid interaction. Therefore they develop physical
P R O G R A ,M
Establishing R E L A T I O N S H I P S Our education is a reflection of the business world. They move toward efficiency and maximum collaboration using open office floor plan. It not only overwhelms and disrupts an introvertâ€™s productivity but also prevents them from establishing meaningful relationship in the work place. You cannot have a deep and personal conversation with noise, visual distraction and constant xxv
surveillance going on. (Figure 16)
Figure 14. Traditional drop in chat
Without personal connections with your coworkers, boss and client, you cannot build trust, form deeper connections and share crazy ideas. (Figure 14) This defeats the purpose of interaction. My thesis will define environments that protect and encourage personal , and professional discussion with distraction filter and barriers as well as the ability to personalize the spatial comfort need.
Figure 15. Visual and Acoustical Barriers for Privacy
To achieve this goal, I propose a cafĂŠ where local introverts can meet to discuss about personal or professional life experience. They can also come here to work and build connection with other like-minded introverts. There will be an event space for celebrating the work and expertise of these groups. It will not only be an adhesive to bring them together but also a way to showcase their worth and pride to the society to help them understand and value introverts.
Public spaces will also be included. Nonetheless these should be very carefully design with
attention to scale, material and green spaces so as to encourage interaction in a moderate way for introverts.
Figure 16. Modern Office with little Privacy for Personal or Professional Discussions, more interruptions and distractions.
P R O G R A ,M
Enabling C O L L A B O R A T I O N Friendship
For this goal, there will be proposed spaces such as
collaboration. We all know Apples and Steve
laboratories for individual work, various sizes
Jobs, but not many of us know about the
of meeting rooms and green space that have
friendship and collaboration between him
direct connection to nature.
and Steve Wozniak. Wozniak prefers solitude like most introverts. He alone invented the first
This collaboration facilitating place will play an
personal computer. He advised young people
important role in empowering introverts because
to work by themselves if they want to create
it is the symbol of contribution. Therefore, it will
something innovative and extraordinary. It
was however, Steve Jobs who brought his
ideas to the public. Therefore, imagine how
lecture halls for research about introverts and how
much the world can achieve if we appreciate
to unleash their power.
and design for this personality diversity and their “collaboration”.(Figure 17) It does not mean that introverts and extroverts are not meant to work together but that introverts’ way of collaborating with one another or with the member of the opposite sides should be reinvented and reshaped.
conference rooms and classrooms for public speaking studio, and
“Group brainstorming is largely worthless save for its socializing role. Instead, individual idea generation combined with group evaluation and expansion- a hybrid process- appears to work best.”
Figure 17. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs collaboration on designing the second personal computer.
P R O G R A ,M
PRECEDENTS â€œLogic will take you from A to B but imagination can take you everywhereâ€? - ALBERT EINSTEINS A large portion of modern technology is the result of introvertsâ€™ dedication and talent, yet there are limited environments for them to forge their passion and individual ideas together. In this thesis, such a place will be defined and designed based on research that has been done on how to create conditions for introverts to thrive, collaborate and celebrate their unique personality traits. A facility for introverts should focus on how to promote naturally formed groups to encourage creativity, improve self- expression, stimulate learning, support solitude and provide collective entertainment. The precedents that illustrate and further explore these properties are of a wide spectrum. The most interesting precedents not only answer the question posed by the thesis argument but also invoke ideas and raise questions for more exploration.
How to help introverts push their limit without compromising their talents and productivity? The first precedent is chosen with the question
in public interaction which results in declined
of what types of spaces will encourage human
creativity and productivity. However, sharing
interaction and creativity without draining energy
space is effective in this case because it enforces
out of them. And how do we help introverts push
discipline, providing social warmth and nurturing
their limit without compromising their talents and
inspiration in the community. Architecture helps
productivity? By observing a Tibetan monkâ€™s daily
tremendously through the provision of optimal
routine will reveal the answer to generating a
natural light from windows on three sides with
space for introverts and their collaboration.
a filter screen, the organized pattern of carpet
A Tibetan monkâ€™s day is an alternating cycle of different scales and speeds of mental and physical tasks. They start out with a communal prayer and meditation session, which happens xxvi
in the biggest hall of the monastery. In this large enclosed space, these monks focus their energy on their devotion together, enhancing their happiness and performance through the day. For introverts, it is very tiring and hard to retain energy after being excessively engaged
and tiles indicating an ordered sitting layout, the perfect acoustical quality achieved by wall and ceiling material to ensure harmonious sound or complete stillness and a central well of light from clerestory windows. All of these elements help to focus the mind of each monk on their task yet learn to be aware of the otherâ€™s existence. It can be implemented as a space of being together, whether people choose to sing, to do art, to invent or even enjoy silence together. This is one way
to help introverts get accustomed to being in a
These monks use up their energy yet the surrounding
crowd. However, it is not any crowd. It is the “tribe”
context offers them a generous return. Architecturally
that they belong to, that will support, nurture and
speaking, the courtyard offers physical, visual and
grow with them. This “tribe” will be the first one to
mental comfort for the occupants. There are potted
shout out to the world about the significance of
plants and cobble stones to breakdown the vastness
their existence. Tribes as described by Seth Godin
of the space connecting to the sky above. They are
are about faith and belief in an idea. In this case,
also provided a loggia on four sides which makes the
the belief is that introverts have their own power
transition between the inside and outside smoother.
and they need to wield it right, to stretch, adapt
This way, they have to be in a community doing an
and contribute with this gift born with them.
intimidating task but the architecture with shaded
The next chore of the monks is the debate xxix
session which takes place in the courtyard
An answer is demanded after every hand clap which is emotionally intimidating and physically
spaces inside the loggia suggests that they can retreat for a moment before going back out instead of being trapped in the middle and never have the option to hide momentarily.
intense. They need some source of energy to
courtyard plays a significant role in the monastery because it connects the activities with naturethe never ending source of rejuvenation. It is the void to be filled and the sky above will be
Fo DISCIPLINE cus
hold onto and channel from which is why the
the source of energy ready to be distributed.
Figure 18. Monastis Main Praying Hall Diagram
THE SALK INSTITUTE
How to provide optimum stimulation environments for introverts to thrive and to offer places for collaboration? Solitude and social time should be balanced as learned from the monastic life. Nevertheless, the spaces that accommodate them should not be distinct or clearly separated. Louis Kahn referred to the Salk Institute as a place of â€œintellectual xxxi retreatâ€? located in La Jolla CA, is a sanctuary
Figure 19. Kahnâ€™s sketch of the Salk Institute
for the scientists and researchers who are most renowned as introverts. Kahn is very sensitive in providing quiet and separated lab room, studio and offices that have view toward the ocean and connected to other similar function space for collaboration.(Figure 23) This is achieved by the distinct shape of each tower interconnected
Figure 20. The Salk Institute looking at the Pacific Ocean
and set at an angle toward the ocean. (Figure 22) The use of concrete is very clever and effortless in delivering a calm and relaxing space for xxxi
concentration and quiet collaboration. These connections to nature and human interaction are
Figure 21. Human Scale Issue in the Courtyard
close enough to keep them stimulated yet far enough to not overwhelm their neocortex. The neocortex does not have to spend energy on calming the brain down; instead, it will focus on the task. Originally, Kahn wanted two courtyards in between four base buildings, but Salk argued that it would divide the institute into A people and B people. Therefore in the end there is only one courtyard with no natural landscape except for the water gap that bisects the whole architecture complex and connects to the Pacific xxxii Ocean. Scientists and researchers require time alone to do their work but there should be spaces that facilitate xxxiii their interaction, discussion and trust building. Therefore the courtyard is intended for people to dine together, xxxiv attend concerts, exercise and reflect. However, this space seems to break the complex in half rather than
bridging it. This was lively, filled with nature and activities in Kahn’s sketch (Figure 19) but they decided to follow xxxv
Luis Barragan to let the bare courtyard be “a facade to the sky” without “even a blade of grass”. It is a magnificent piece of architecture but the courtyard never fulfilled its intended function because the sky and the ocean are nature not human’s scale. This combined with the solemn architecture providing a sublime space for no human gathering but photographers. (Figure 20, 21)
EA Y SK
OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE
Figure 22. A typical Office with view to the Ocean
Figure 23. Relationship of Office to Offices and Nature
How to provide optimum stimulation environments for introverts to thrive and to offer places for collaboration? From there, I understand that architects cannot provide a big monolithic open space and expect that people especially introverts would somehow gather and exchange ideas and form relationships. They need different types of space for different purposes. For example, collaboration does not mean one large space for people to occupy. It will not
Figure 24. Meeting Room with acoustical and visual privacy
fulfill its intended function without offering the right stimulating and privacy levels. These spaces need to be designed according to the program happening there, the number of people and the nature of the activities. SteelCase headquarter is an excellent design that takes into account different elements that influence the success of spaces. It caters to a variety of actions and especially made with introverted employees in mind.
Figure 25. Smaller meeting room
The CEO of SteelCase has partnered with Susan Cain- the mother of the quiet revolution to define spaces that will facilitate productivity, creativity and collaboration in a way that supports and brings about the introverts inner talent. This is very important because a research done by Adam Grant reveals that the CEO of the top 11 most successful companies in America are all introverts. Aware of that, this company wanted to create spaces that can accommodate this portion of its workforce, nurture them and give them the position they deserve. They only provide 60 fixed workplace. The other 108 people are nomadic, they can pick where they want to work. The company offers very private niches that can be personalized, rooms for small group meetings (figure 25), larger room for bigger meetings (figure 24). The café is designed primarily for a relaxed working experience. They used materials and colors that calm the space down and filter the acoustical and visual distraction that a normal office can offer.xxxvi There are five types of distinct spaces distributed through the company in order to empower the introverts in the office. These spaces were designed with careful attention paying to interior arrangement, technology, furniture, material to fit the expectation of different postures, work models for quiet and privacy.xxxvii The most important and successful design principles enforced by SteelCase are •
Permission to be alone
Control over the environment
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts to be themselves, to spark deep conversation & meaningful relationship? Their spaces allow quiet and private
their sound masking methodologies to guarantee
space without any interruption rather than
a space that is free of audible interruptions. The
modern open office floor plan that the world
principles then are applied to design various spaces
is moving toward. The environment control
such as “Be Me”, “Flow”, “Studio”, “Green Room” and
offers introverts the options of adjusting the
stimulation and find their right comfort zone which varies from person to person. Unlike what is expected from the society, introverts do seek sensory stimulation. Nevertheless, they prefer them in form of warm, relaxing
Research has shown that in modern office setting, introverts have to face many problemsxxxix •
No quiet, private places in the workplace
Interrupted every 11 minutes, take 23-25 minutes to get back into the flow.
feeling derived from nature and organic xxxviii
. The psychologically safe is
explained as spaces where introverts can go and be invisible to the world around. It
31% full time employees work away comfort and familiarity found at home or
need. These spaces utilize the V.I.A (vertical
superior acoustic performance along with
from their location. They seek emotional
gives way to their rejuvenation time or focus
intelligent architecture) walls that provide
Moving while working makes healthier
in the office. •
Half of the meeting time is spent on one other worker.
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves and encourage quiet concentration?
BE ME A space free of gaze and interruptions from coworkers, where introverts can be alone, be themselves, be happy, creative and productive. It encourages vitality throughout a day by lounging, working, or even taking a nap. Couches and furniture resemble living room amenities except for they support mobile devices xl
with power. •
This space enforces the permission for introvert to be alone and be themselves.
It is protected from the gaze and interruption of the outsiders, encouraging vitality by providing couches, coffee table and desk for work, relax or even close eyes for a moment.
Lagunitas lounge sofas bring comfort to the worker and also has power plug for devices.
Personal table allows mobility and support electronic devices.
The guest seating area is also for storage or personalized belongings.
Vertical Intelligent Architecture (V.I.A) provide complete audible sealant.
V.I.A. with attached monitor for amplification of digital content.
The lighting integrated into the wall is controlled by the users of space.
An app call RoomWizard II allows the room to be booked ahead of time.
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves encourage uninterrupted flow of work?
FLOW As stated in the name, this space is designed for complete solitude to fuel creativity and focus. It is kept free from visual or audible distractions for deep focus, strategic thinking and getting into the flow. Materials xl
chosen are all natural which provides calming state of mind and out of cognitive distraction. •
A place protected from all visual and acoustical distraction for better concentration, strategic thinking and planning.
Material are primarily natural which provide warm and cozy feeling for better concentration and comfort.
V.I.A ensure the room audible sealant.
V.I.A. allows the users to display analog content.
The desk is design to have work content spread on it.
Bookshelves are designed to hold work content, strategic thinking and planing folders as well as personal belongings.
Monitor integrated into the V.I.A wall allow amplification of digital content.
The level of lighting can be controlled by the users of space.
Room can be reserved ahead of time or on the spot through RoomWizard II.
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves to connect and to be understood?
GREEN ROOM This space offers the right stimulating environment for connect, share, and build trust before, during or after a meeting. The lounge posture generates a calm, relaxed, comfortable feeling while tools in this room support working and sharing of digital content. The seating are very informal where people can sit at a right xl
angle to one another creating an individual sense of space and psychological safety. •
A location for building trust and discuss ideas for clients and business informally and formally.
The lounge configuration allows relaxed, calm and comfortable discussion and idea exchange. It also exudes the cozy feeling of a living room instead of an office meeting room.
The comfortable furniture provides the familiarity of home.
Individual sense of space and psychological safety are created through the design of perpendicular seating position of the couch.
V.I.A. allows ultimate acoustic performance and blocks noises from outside.
V.I.A let the digital content be amplified.
The users of space can adjust the lighting of the room.
RoomWizard II is also used here for reserve the room.
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts to be themselves, to feel comfortable with collaborating? MIND SHARE This is where introverts can engage in deep conversation with a colleague, to confide and build trust, to chat and form meaningful relationship. The V.I.A glass treatment will determine how much people can see into the room but the content would be shielded from any passerby. Integrated media scape and white xl
board support brainstorming, building and building digital information. •
Mind share is the space where workers can come to discuss ideas, engage in deep conversation with top secret content with comfort.
A place where idea is easily shared and accepted in confidence.
Personal conversation or professional discussion are confidential in this space.
Integrated technology with monitor and white-board support work and brainstorming without the loud, social domination and interruption of traditional group work.
V.I.A. provides excellent acoustic sealant.
Monitor integrated into the wall allows amplification of digital content.
RoomWizard II let people reserve the room ahead or on the spot.
A third guest can seat on the storage- couch design piece of furniture.
How to provide optimum stimulation for introverts themselves?
STUDIO This is a more active space where individuals can escape to rejuvenate through activity like stretching, meditating or resetting which keep good blood flow for the brain, refresh the body and allow creative ideas to come. The environment is under control of the users in term of customizing lighting, music, volume, digital xl
content on the integrated monitor based on mood, task or personality. •
An active room for people to escape to and stretch or exercise and refresh their body and mind for a new creative impulse and stroke of productivity.
Space can be controlled in term of music, lighting, mood, volume and digital content depending on the user’s mood, personality or task.
The open floor space allows users the opportunity to stretch, meditate and reset.
The speakers are integrated into the V.I.A wall and are under the user’s control.
V.I.A. ensures maximum acoustical privacy.
The lounge seating allows comfortable and relaxed seating postures.
The monitor content can be changed at the discrete of the user.
Lighting is adjustable according to the user’s mood.
Analog and digital resource material can be stored on the wall integrated shelves.
How to achieve the right stimulation level of all 5 senses? What is an ideal transition between these environments? SteelCase headquarters provides very interesting variations of spaces that pursue the right stimulation to calm and relax people. So I look for more architectural elements and also ask what the smooth transitions between these spaces would look like. It takes me to the Thermal bath Vals in Switzeland by Peter Zumthor. While Louis Kalhn’s use of nature denies human’s social interaction are present in the Salk Institute, Peter Zumthor uses nature as a source of energy to facilitate human’s congregation for recharging. The Thermal Baths also use cold material, water and natural surroundings to bring people together. The difference is that Zumthor’s “meander”- negative space between building blocks that connects them all, allows people to pick and follow their own path. Then they will be rewarded with their own discoveries of xli
experience and crowd of similar path takers, thus a group is naturally formed. These architectural gestures also break up the building into smaller and more comprehensible spaces for people to hold onto while they explore the Bath house. (figure ) They go through a series of expansion and compression spaces, alone and xlii
accompanied. The alteration gives them enough social presence and time to be alone and reconnect with themselves. Finally in the open bath that looks up to the sky and the mountains, people are there together. They feel less intimidated by nature and the architecture because they have the warm presence of their fellow humans who are predetermined to be there. The use of thin stone slab also add to the human scale experience in the vast nature setting, it is very comforting rather than intimidating as in the Salk Institute. More
importantly, they have water to submerge in and
and flowers petals are very smart to keep people
to be protected with human scale architecture.
engaged, yet not over stimulated.
Water is a significant feature here because it provides comfort and also a common substance that connect people. This can be interpreted literally or figuratively in my thesis design. Water does not have to be that essential unification. Lighting, sound, color or even mood can be the determine factors instead. (Figure 28-33) Using water in this way, the Thermal Baths succeed in balancing and intersecting private
All of these spaces can be accessed in different order that one choose. They can find their own path, to be with people in the big outdoor pool or retreat to a more private experience, whichever suits his temperament. These transition and path are made very effortless with the use of light, shadow, the ceiling gaps and the flow of water. They donâ€™t feel like they are running away from the crowd but rather exploring and following what bring balance to their heart.
and public space as well as letting people take their own path and providing them gathering spaces to have collective experience and sense of unity at the end.
Figure 26. Appropriate Scale using Stone Slab
using the difference relationship of the human
of stimulation that soothe the 5 senses. There are room for water that makes music, rooms with water that u can taste, the use of heat, light, color
body and water. He provides the right amount
It focuses on how to calm and relax people
Figure 27. Smooth Transition
Figure 28. Public Baths facing Nature
Figure 29. Semi Private Baths
Figure 30. Transition Space
Figure 31. Indoor Transition Space
Figure 32. Changing Room
Figure 33. Transition Space
SITE SELECTION â€œWe are in the Yin and the Yang of the creative processâ€? - CYNTHIA WEIL
Society favors extroverts over introverts because even though the latter also have
significant contribution to the worldâ€™s development in various fields and professions. With calm and contemplative nature, introverts usually work better with computer related projects. There are numerous places promoting extroverted activities yet limited facilities for introverts to collaborate and thrive.
In search of a site, I wonder where is the most suitable place that needs to return the
personality favor to the equilibrium state. I found Singapore. Like many other Asian Countries, it used to value introverts and solitude. However, the scale is now tilted toward extroverts because of the foreign favor policies enforced by the government to bring in talents from the West. The concept of Westernization is closely accompanied by the extroversion ideal of these cultures.
Macro - S I N G A P O R E One of the fastest growing technology
comparison to the rest of the world xlviii . (Figure 35)
hubs in the world is Singapore. With robust
Most offices in Singapore have an open floor plan
research facilities and limited application
design or are switching to this design because of the
xlix spatial and communication efficiency. Therefore,
condition is an incubator for innovation
people in Singapore are subjected to constant public
Moreover, it enforces the liberal immigration
surrounding yet remain isolated mentally. For introverts,
policies for skilled workers which attract young
this environment is very undesirable because they
professionals from all over the globe of all
need their solitude time to regain energy and acquire
fields, especially technology. (Figure 34) The countryâ€™s size is about two third that of New York City yet is 3.7 times denser in population and hosts an amount of tourist that
creativity. This condition confirms that Singapore is the appropriate site for this thesis which will potentially benefit the technology passionate introverts, which in turn boosts the countryâ€™s inspiration and productivity.
is one fifth of its population each month xlv . It
Singapore used to value the Asian culture which
also offers jobs for foreigners who make up
celebrated introversion and its wisdom. Nevertheless,
a third of its population. This vast cultural
it is now reaching for the global economy and
diversity, stress and the highly competitive
technology by enforcing state policy that encourages
setting segregate people and weaken social
investment and extreme influence from the West.
empathy and solidarity. Moreover, Singapore
Thus, introversion is not only replaced by extroversion
has the longest working hours on average in
but also devalued and is threaten to be extinguished.
Figure 34. Singapore in the World Map
Figure 35. Singapore Current Situation
Macro -S I N G A P O R E- Introvert Activities
Figure 36. Technology Conventions
Figure 37. Book Appreciation Clubs
Figure 38. Book Stores and Libraries
Figure 39. Public Speaking Class
Figure 40. Outdoor Excercise Clubs
Macro -S I N G A P O R E - Introvert Network
Figure 41. Coffee Shop
Figure 42. Library
Figure 43. Technology Convention
Figure 44. Garden and Park
Figure 45. Leadership Development Convention
Micro - T H E NATIONAL DESIGN CENTER Since entertainment like music, art, literatures
the building down. It is located in the cultural
are mostly the result of creative working in solitude,
district, across from the national public library and
these introverts need a place to meet, create and
is easily accessible to the general public from any
celebrate their character traits. Where is a site that
where in the country through the MRT.
is inherently rich with the heritage of creativity, learning, relationship and collaboration? It is the National Design Center.
This site is right on the path connecting professionals from work place to home. Hence, this is a very advantageous site for the development
It was a Church Community School in 80s
of a facility that celebrates the introvertâ€™s talent
and 90s, then turned into an Opera Institute in the
and brings back the balance of personality
20s, and in 2011 was officially implemented as a design center for art, fashion, architecture, and technologies. It is an adaptive reuse of an existing building, very sensitive to the urban fabric. It is beautifully designed and successfully engages the public. The exterior respects the historic facade and leave the urban fabric undisturbed yet welcomes the public through the offseting of the entry. (figure )So I intend to renovate, adjust and enhance features for introverts instead of tearing
Figure 46. National Design Center Entrance & Loggia
diversity to effectively collaborate and contributes to the world. To create such a place for introverts, the site has to be where introverts naturally gravitate toward on a daily basis. There is a rising introvert community online dedicated to the growth and the betterment of each li
members and the group as a whole. Nevertheless, during their offline meeting, they have no specific facility to go to or equipment that can empower their skills and aspiration in working together on a side project. This kind of place when made will fuel not only inventions but also meaningful human relationships. There are events like hackathons, fashion design conventions, digital fabrication exhibitions, fraud conventions and computer technology conference that appeal to these introverts. One of the common hosting places for these events is the National Design Center. (Figure 36- 45) Located in the arts, cultural, learning and entertainment district of Bras Basah- Bugis of Singapore, this is lii the ideal site to invite public to come and create. Its existence speaks to the society about the importance of
introversion because all of art and entertainment forms start with solitude and quiet creativity. It has pre-war and post-war architecture elements which are intertwined to provide atriums, gallery, and collaborative spaces for a variety of events including art, fashion, technology, visual communication and industry design. In addition to its interesting program, this place is within 15 minutes of MRT ride away from the National University of Singapore, Singapore University of Technology and Design as well as the technology companies like Google, IBM, Facebook and Hewlett-Packard. It is accessible and welcoming to the public of all ages and classes which is very suitable for the approach of the thesis on nurturing and developing introvert talents of all backgrounds. In conclusion, the National Design Center of Singapore is the best fit site to cultivate a place for technological enthusiastic introverts because of the national long public exposure time, the lack of facilities for introvert community and the existing beneficial background and established identity of the building.
Micro - THE USERS Introverted
scientists, artists, or computer enthusiasts who contribute to the civilization by excavating their personal tendency to be alone, listen, observe and liii
analyze information. Therefore, this architecture thesis will be established to serve â€œcreatorsâ€? from various backgrounds, perspectives, age ranges and experiences. (Figure 47- 50) By facilitating the infusion of these introvert
Figure 47. Introverted Children
individuals, the result will bring out ideas, bonding opportunities, and promote the culture of quiet. In these social encounters, they will hopefully develop their creative power, build trust and are free from the conventional group work threat from liv
the extrovert world , to blossom and fulfill their mission of coming to earth with their special trait.
Figure 48. Introverted Students
Figure 49. Introverted Workers, Young Adults, Professionals
Figure 50. Introverted Artists, Inventors, Creators
N.D.C - Location & Benefits The National Design Center of SIngapore is located in one of the densest area of cultural and social activities of the country. It is accessible by the subway system from any places. This cultural district has many casual as well as formal destinations that introverts often come to hang out or to be themselves such as Figure 51. National Design Center Location
coffee shops, libraries, bookstores, parks,
(Figure 53-56) The National Design Center is also on the path connecting many companies and university to apartment and home around the country
convinience for people to stop at this third place to recharge, and reinvent the social norm. Figure 52. MRT System around the Country
Figure 53. Workplaces
Figure 54. Houses and Apartments
Figure 55. Library Concentration
Figure 56. Schools and Universities
N.D.C -History The National Design Centre is located at 111 Middle Road in Singapore. This building used to be St Anthonyâ€™s Convent from 1879 to 1994 with the traditional classroom setting that allows introverts to be themselves by not being constantly on the spotlight (Figure57). From 1995 to 2009, the N.D.C became the Nanyang Acadamy of Fine Arts, then from 1995 to 2009 it was the Chinese Opera
Figure 57. St Anthonyâ€™s Convent classroom
Institute. Students were taught various media of art form, to be creative, to better express themselves and to speak for the unheard (Figure 58, 59). In
renovated for the National Design Center of Singapore where it hosts classes, exhibitions, conventions for a wide spectrum of art, technology and creative fields. (Figure 60)
Figure 58. Nanyang Acadamy of Fine Arts
Figure 57. Chinese Opera Institute
Figure 60. National Design Center - Presentation
N.D.C -Architectural Context
Figure 61. Front view from Victoria Street
Figure 62. Historic Facade (2) & Modern Facade (1 on far left) looking toward the National Public Library
Figure 63. Courtyard Peek from Queen St.
Figure 64. Church Next Door From Queen St.
N.D.C -Architectural Context
Figure 65. Street Fabric from Queen St.
Figure 66. Art Museum on Queen Street
Figure 67. Streetscape from Victoria Street
N.D.C -Architectural Context
Figure 68. Singapore National Library- acrross the street from the site
Figure 69. Elevation of the National Design Center on the Middle Road
N.D.C -Architectural Context
Figure 70. Courtyard with Reflecting Pool
Figure 71. Suspended Galleries and Meeting Rooms
Figure 72. Outdoor Courtyard made Indoor by adding Skylight
N.D.C -Architectural Context
Figure 73. School Chapel renovated into Atrium
Figure 74. Daylighting Quality
Figure 75. Catholic School Courtyard now served as Atrium
N.D.C -Architectural Drawings
Figure 76. Ground plan
Figure 77. Second Floor
N.D.C -Architectural Drawings
Figure 78. Fifth Floor
Figure 79. Section
N.D.C - General Approach Direction Introverts are found to be more creative at art, science and technology because of their power of concentrating and dwelling on the projects that they pusue. This building means to celebrate the product of creativiity and the its forming process. The National Design Center, however, was designed with extroverts in mind. The spaces provided here are vast opening for exhibition and conference opportunities. Though it seems lively with broken
Figure 80. Open Plan Office
down stall set up, it is not an ideal space for introverts to meander, explore or share ideas just like the courtyard of the Salk Institute. The smaller room and meeting pods are hung and distributed elegantly around this central courtyard. With the same strategy of modern classroom and open office plan, these spaces fail to serve
Figure 81. Group Work Desk Set up
the introvert community. Looking from the outside, it is a solemn place full of order and hierrarchy which is unsuitable fo creativity and unwelcoming to the every day visit of the public. The goal of my thesis is therefore to renovate the building to procide spaces for introverts to thrive and collaborate. The whole building will also stand as a bold statement of the quiet power in the heart of Singapore- the country where east meets west.
Figure 82. Exhibition
Figure 83. Design Exhibition in the Interior Courtyard
PRECIS Participation is the fastest way to explore ideas. Those who are loud, bold and decisive often secure the spotlight, thus the group follows their lead without paying attention to what the less vocal people have to share. Recognizing this loss of intelligence, the society treats introversion as a disappointment, a pathology that needs to be cured by constantly placing introverts in group projects and “productive settings”. These environments found in both educational and professional systems usually are wide open for interaction, maximized space with minimized cost, with no visual or acoustical privacy which brings along constant distraction, surveillance, tension and hostility. Introverts are those who prefer minimally a stimulating environment. They cannot concentrate or feel comfortable in these socially prescribed “productive” situations. It leads to the loss of productivity, personal connections, and ultimately their creative ability. Therefore, the program of this thesis will explore spaces that facilitate creativity, learning, relationship building, and collaboration. It can be called a center for the quiet nature empowerment where the introvert tribe is recognized, supported and nurtured. This will be achieved by creating various optimal stimulating spaces for introverts to thrive and to collaborate through the uses of boundaries, barriers and filters. Additionally, the links and transitions between these spaces are also very crucial to their connection with nature for energy revitalization, social interaction and contribution opportunities. The introverts’ contributions have been overlooked in many countries even those that used to value them. Singapore is on the verge of extreme westernization and tilts its scale toward extrovert sovereignty. The people here suffered from constant public engagement because of their high population density, long
working hours, extroverted entertainment industries, and an intricate network of online introvert communities with limited facilities to form physical existence. The specific site therefore is chosen for its rich heritage of creativity and education background associated with introverts and in proximity with the introvert communityâ€™s satellite meeting places. The National Design Center was where creativity, learning, friendship and collaboration fostered throughout history. Its location and surrounding transportation system offer easy accessibility for introverts from all fields and age groups. The current building, however, is also designed with extroverts and their operating preferences in mind. The intention of this thesis is to renovate the building to provide spaces for introverts to thrive and collaborate. It will also stand as a bold statement of introvert power in the heart of Singapore- the country where east meets west.
â€œRhetoric is the counter part of dilectic... Rhetoric is the art of finding in any given case all the available means of persuation or the practices of logical discussion as employed in investigating truthâ€? - ARISTOTLE, The Rhetoric
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Andrew Feenberge and Darin Barne, Community in a digital age (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), 268.
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Mcdowell, “Why The World Needs More Introverts,” 63.
Susan Cain, “Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking,” Chronicle of Higher Education (2013): 40.
Adam Grant, “Author Brian Little on Personality and the ‘Art of Well-being’,” Wharton University of Pennsylvania (2015).
Susan Cain, Quiet –The Power of Introverts in a World that can’t stop Talking, 5.
Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.
xiv Ibid. xv
Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, Accessed November 15, 2015. https://www.ted.com/talks/susan_cain_the_power_of_introverts?language=en
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John Francis, “Walk the earth ... my 17-year vow of silence,” TED, 19:20, February, 2008.
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“Why The World Needs More Introverts,” 63.
Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.
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Warnick, Building Happiness Architecture to Make You Smile, (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2008), 64.
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Godin, Tribes- We Need You To Lead Us,(New York: Penguin Group, 2008), 9.
xxx Ibid. xxxi Jacobs
DeCroes Charlotte, Jonas Salk, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 254.
David Brownlee and David De Long, Kahn, 136.
Blythe Camenson, Introverts & other Solitary Types, (New York: The McGraw Hill Company, Inc., 2006) 65-74.
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19. https://moreaedesign.wordpress.com/author/mikecarrell/ 20.http://www.pentaxforums.com/forums/12-post-your-photos/221340-architecture-salk-institute-la-jollacalifornia.html 21. Diagram 22. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/17/fc/cb/17fccb2f92082b71859a64d1f257ec11.jpg 23. Diagram 24. http://www.steelcase.com/insights/articles/quiet-ones/ 25. http://www.steelcase.com/insights/articles/quiet-ones/ 26. Diagram 27. Diagram 28. http://www.greekarchitects.gr/en/degrees/made-of-stone-and-water-for-the-human-body-id2843 29. Ibid 30. Ibid 31. Ibid 32. Ibid 33. Ibid 34. Diagram 35. Diagram 36. https://www.techinasia.com/talk/memoirs-of-an-introvert-how-to-network/ 37. http://www.substation.org/wp-content/uploads/open-roads-2.jpg 38. http://www.amiehu.com/2015/01/8-introverted-activities-in-singapore.html 39. http://buonavistatoastmastersclub.com/ 40. http://www.amiehu.com/2015/01/8-introverted-activities-in-singapore.html 41. http://www.aspirantsg.com/top-cafes-by-location-in-singapore-best-cafehopping-list/
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62. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https:// www.google.com/maps/place/National+Design+Centre,+Singaporefirstname.lastname@example.org,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 63. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https:// www.google.com/maps/place/National+Design+Centre,+Singaporeemail@example.com,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 64. “National Design Center Singapore,” Google Maps Street View, accessed Oct 26th 2015, https:// www.google.com/maps/place/National+Design+Centre,+Singaporefirstname.lastname@example.org,103.8534182,1225m/ data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x31da1a3b43be1ddb:0x4b7fe825d8b75aa9 65. Ibid 66 Ibid 67 Ibid 68. Ibid 69. “National Design Centre SCDA Architect,” Architecture Record, http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/ Building_Types_Study/adaptive_reuse/2015/1502-National-Design-Centre-SCDA-Architects-slideshow.asp 70. Diagram 80. http://www.maison-objet.com/en/asia/news/singapore-asian-road-show 81. http://www.maison-objet.com/en/asia/news/singapore-asian-road-show 82. http://www.maison-objet.com/en/asia/news/singapore-asian-road-show 83. Ibid
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JOURNAL ARTICLE ONLINE Adam Grant. “Author Brian Little on Personality and the ‘Art of Well-being’,” Wharton University of Pennsylvania (2015). Accessed October 23, 2015. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/thescience-of-personality-understanding-yourself-and-those-around-you/ Adam Mcdowell. “Why the world needs more introverts” Canadian Business Vol, 85 Issue 20 (2012): 63-64. Accessed September 3, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=4b98d8c8-33db4ff5-ba83-d4664700c1c3%40sessionmgr4003&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%25 3d4207%2526AN%253d83816970%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdat a=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=83816970&db=afh Conelly Gail. “ Interviews; Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking, The (Book); School environment; Authors; Classroom environment; Introverts”. Principle May/June (2014): 33-36. Accessed September 10,2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=e7ba8645-bc53423f-a9db-32afe6aa14dd%40sessionmgr4002&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%2 53d4207%2526AN%253d96290449%2526db%253deft%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdat a=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=eft&AN=96290449 Devora Zack. “Leadership tips for introverts” Canadian Business Vol.87 Issue 5/6 (2014): 14. Accessed September 10,2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=cf122925-4ef1-4a6f-94e4-fc 56e2bd1bca%40sessionmgr4001&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%25 26AN%253d95983101%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdG U9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=95983101&db=afh Ed Smith. “Left Field” New Statesman Vol,141 Issue 5123 (2012): 62. Accessed September 7, 2015. http:// web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=dd75cab7-53ef-4586-bad6-ec105e87fc9c%40session mgr4004&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526AN%253d79989045%2526db%253dafh%25 26site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=79989045&db=afh Emma Teitel. “Shout if you’re an introvert” Maclean’s Vol.126 Issue 36 (2013): 1. Accessed September 7, 2015.
http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=8d5432f7-875e-40ea-825b-19d0808f29df%4 0sessionmgr4004&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d 90117355%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=90117355&db=afh James G. Skakoon. “Introverts Rule” Mechanical Engineering Vol. 137 Issue 4 (2015): 16. Accessed September 5, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=9e9e06ed-7346-4fbeba84-1812a0dd0ef8%40sessionmgr4004&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%25 3d4207%2526AN%253d101694235%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=101694235&db=afh Judy Jensvold. “Defending introverts” Christian Century Vol.130 Issue 2 (2013): 6. Accessed September 10, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=1375f3d8-318c-4012-9b76-9e4b4c 5eda91%40sessionmgr4002&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%252 6AN%253d84957515%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNp dGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=84957515&db=afh Matthew Hutson. “Self-Promote (The Introverts’ Edition)” Psychology Today Vole. 42 Issue 6 (2009): 25. Accessed September 10, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=2276c190aa57-445a-b80e-cfbd8eed74dd%40sessionmgr4005&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue %2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d44835302%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4 207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=44835302&db=afh Mehmet Oz. “Charms of the Quiet Child” Time Vol.179 Issue 5 (2012): 46. Accessed September 10, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=adc3898f-7b73-4339-80a9-ab57c4f31965%4 0sessionmgr4001&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253d4207%2526AN%253d 70949925%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70949925&db=afh Richard Stengel. “What if Introverts ruled the world?” Time Vol. 179 Issue 5 (2012): 2. Accessed September 3,2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=cdf0c6e8-6152-42309f55-ff7ebaa2d834%40sessionmgr4005&crlhashurl=login.aspx%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526hid%253
d4207%2526AN%253d70949897%2526db%253dafh%2526site%253dehost-live&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata =JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70949897&db=afh Sarah Korones. “Just be quiet” Psychology Today Vol.45 Issue 1 (2012):23. Accessed September 12, 2015. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/ detail?sid=924f276d-b499-4caf-81c9-50f56eaf8589%40sessionmgr4004&crlhashurl =login.x%253fdirect%253dtrue%2526db%253dafh%2526AN%253d70180244%2526si253dehostive&hid=4207&vid=0&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70180244&db=afh Yang Peidong, “Authenticity” and “Foreign Talent” in Singapore: The Relative and Negative Logic of National Identity.” Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 29, no. 2 (July 2014): 413-414, accessed Oct 25th 2015. http://www.academia.edu/7477000/Yang_P._2014_Authenticity_and_Foreign_Talent_ in_Singapore_The_Relative_and_Negative_Logic_of_National_Identity._SOJOURN_Journal_of_Social_ Issues_in_Southeast_Asia_29_2_408-437
ONLINE VIDEO John Francis, “Walk the earth ... my 17-year vow of silence,” TED, 19:20, February, 2008. Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, 19:04, November 22, 2015.
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General Assembly. “How the internet empower the introverts”. Accessed September 15, 2015. https://blog. generalassemb.ly/internet-perfect-introverts/ Maria Konikova, “The Open Office Trap”, The New Yorker, Last Modified January 7, 2014, Accessed November 20, 2015. http://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/the-open-office-trap Metaver, Купить книгу. “Susan Cain - Quiet - The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking,” Last Modified 2013, Accessed November 20, 2015. http://metaver.pbworks.com/w/page/63549345/ Susan%20Cain%20-%20Quiet%20-%20The%20power%20of%20introverts%20in%20a%20world%20 that%20can’t%20stop%20talking Research Gate. “On the Internet No One Knows I’m an Introvert”: Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Internet Interaction”. Accessed September 7,2015. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11346051_On_ the_Internet_No_One_Knows_I’m_an_Introvert_Extroversion_Neuroticism_and_Internet_Interaction Susan Cain, “The Power of Introverts,” TED, Accessed November 15, 2015. https://www.ted.com/talks/susan_ cain_the_power_of_introverts?language=en The Observer. “Society Needs Both Introverts and Extroverts to Keep Things Interesting”. Accessed September 2, 2015. http://www.fordhamobserver.com/society-needs-both-introverts-and-extrovertsto-keep-things-interesting/ Time. “Why Gadgets are great for introverts”. Accessed September 14,2015. http://ideas.time. com/2012/08/16/gadgets-are-great-for-introverts/