NextStepSTEM 2020 Magazine By NextStepU

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DEPARTMENTS 06 27 28 30

Publisher's Note Inspiring Letters from STEM Majors STEM Scholarships Ad Index

SPECIAL FEATURES 10 Is Your Brain Wired For STEM?

There is increasing evidence we really aren't wired that specifically at birth... By Jim Paterson

12 4 Ways to Build STEM Skills

Carol S. Dweck,, Ph.D. Psychology "In a growth mindset, challenges are exciting rather than threatening. So rather than thinking, oh, I am going to reveal my weaknesses, you say, wow, here's a chance to grow. "

And set yourself up for career success By University Tutor

20 10 Unexpected STEM Careers

STEM is wide-reaching and can cut across many fields By Jim Paterson


26 10 Hot Careers In Health Care

IS YOUR BRAIN WIRED FOR STEM? We Are Not Wired That Specifically At Birth...

Interested in health care? Here are some popular careers to consider By NextStepU

STEM EDUCATION 16 Strategies HAS ONLINETo Improve Your Grade In Math LEARNING You need to GONE master math in order to progress up the MAINSTREAM ? academic ladder By Amelia Mezrahi

18 STEM Summer Enrichment Program Update A list of summer and Pre-College STEM programs for high school Students By NextStepU


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020

4 WAYS TO BUILD STEM SKILLS Regardless Of Your Degree Or Career, There Are Vital Benefits To Improving Your STEM Skills


10 UNEXPECTED STEM CAREERS Students Might Not Consider These Fields Which Could Turn Out To Be A Surprisingly Good Fit For Them.

20 STEM CAREER AND LIFE 24 Exploring Careers In Cyber Security

Today, with the advent of technology and rapid developments in AI, cyber security has become a prominent field. By Jori Hamilton

28 STEM Scholarship Resources

EXPLORING CAREERS IN CYBER SECURITY This Field Is Poised To Be A Lucrative Career Option In The Years To Come.


As the demand for STEM graduates is growing, there are a number of scholarships for those majoring in them By Amelia Mezrahi

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE YOUR GRADE IN MATH Most People Have Had That Moment Of Embarrassment When Their Math Skills Failed Them...

STEM SCHOLARSHIP RESOURCES Here Are a Few Scholarships to Consider If You Are Majoring In STEM


28 STEM Magazine

Winter 2020 [5]


PUBLISHER'S NOTE We are excited to bring to you this year's NextStepU STEM Magazine. It has been four years since we first embarked on the


idea of publishing a magazine focused only on topics in STEM and the three pillars of

Amelia Mezrahi | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chief Revenue Officer:

education, career and life. Our goal was and remains to promote an education and a career in STEM to those studying in middle

Rob Aronson | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


school, high school and college. In my past letters, I have mostly focused on the promise of STEM and the exciting news of advancements we have seen that year. While this year has

David Mammano | ----------------------------------------------------------------------


also seen continued progress in science across fields such as genetics, medicine and astronomy, we also have had to pause and think about the

Kate Alexander |

major events that have taken a heavy toll on our communities. From the


Art Director:

impact of brush fire disasters in Australia to the spread of the coronavirus to the impact of the internet, social media and AI on our privacy, science and technology trends are driving the headlines. Growing concerns for our future,

Silvio Del Monaco | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

especially due to the dire threat of global warming, have prompted our youth

Advertising Sales:

to organize a global climate strike and create a movement to demand action

Rob Aronson |

to combat climate change. We also became aware how a small germ like the


Editorial and Contributions:

coronavirus can quickly spread and force communities to completely alter their daily lives.

Valarie Akerson, Carol S.. Dweck, Jacquelynne Eccles, Ed

While all of this can be slightly discouraging, we also hope these challenges will inspire a future generation of scientists, doctors, engineers and technologists to work together to solve the ever more complex set of issues facing the world today. This is where you come in. Through your hope, hard

Grocholski, Jori Hamilton, Amelia Mezrahi, Patricia Morrell, James Paterson, Robert Schmerling, University Tutor ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cover Photography:

work, ingenuity, and will to change the world, you can have a great impact in so many areas. I believe in you and I know you can use your skills to create out of the box solutions that address many of the most pressing issues of our times. This is why STEM skills are now more important than ever before. In this issue, first we explore what it takes to succeed in STEM. The article "Is

Photos of Carol S. Dweck ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For questions, comments or advertising information, please contact us at or through

Your Brain Wired for STEM?" challenges the notion that people are born scientists or engineers. Success is not based on innate talent. Rather success stems from a growth mindset, a state of mind, which is outlined in Carol

Next Step Universe is a proud member of the National Association for College Admissions Counseling.

Dweck’s book "The Mindset". The article "4 Ways to Build STEM Skills" looks at how to leverage degrees and coursework in school as well as develop a

For advertising information email us at

passion by joining clubs and other science organizations to develop your

Some inside photos from and @Copyright

readiness. There is also an article with tips to improve your math proficiency.

2020 by Next Step Universe. All rights reserved. Material in this

Second, we examine careers opportunities you should consider. The article "10 unexpected STEM Careers" explores many occupations that might not have occurred to you. For example, we have dug deeper into a career in Cyber Security as internet breaches have dominated headlines for much of the last few years. From data hacking to securing elections, cyber security is in hot demand. At the same time, healthcare is about one fifth of the economy and only growing each year. We look at "10 Hot Careers in Healthcare" for you, discussing the educational requirements, expected salary and working environments for each of them. Your support and readership of our magazines are always appreciated. We are inspired by the letters you write to us and would love it if you keep them coming. We wish you a great semester and year.

publication may not be reproduced in any form without permission. Copying, reproduction or transmittal of this publication by any means is strictly prohibited without the permission of the publisher. The publisher reserves the right to edit or omit all material submitted for publication, including advertisements, article contributions, and event listings. Although this publication is thoroughly edited, the publisher is not liable for any damages due to editing changes, cancellations, errors, and omissions. All corrections should be directed to our editor. All work submitted for publication is assumed to be the provider's original work, and the publisher accepts no liability as a result of publishing such works. NextStepU® is a nationally registered

With warmest regards,

trademark. Unauthorized use of the Next Step names, logos, or

Amelia Mezrahi

indicia is prohibited. We strive to make sure the information and


advice is accurate, but it is up to you to do your own research.

Next Step Universe


Good luck!

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020


800-388-7123 OR 315-386-7123 ADMISSIONS@CANTON.EDU





Is your BRAIN wired for STEM? By Jim Paterson

It is often assumed some students are “good at math” or “just aren’t artistic”, but there is increasing evidence we really aren’t wired that specifically at birth, and that students should not be discouraged from STEM or other careers because of such assumptions.

And if you did the same for 1,000

the attention of STEM advocates

mathematicians and artists, it’s unlikely

because it indicated that the number of

that any clear pattern of difference in

high school students expecting to enter

brain structure would emerge.”

careers in STEM fields had declined from

Those false assumptions, however,

36% in 2017 to 24% now. Ed Grocholski,

leads some parents and educators and

senior vice president at JA, also believes

the eventually students themselves to

those choices are often based on

believe they are destined to use their

preconceived ideas about a student’s

researcher Robert Schmerling say that

brain a certain way – and perhaps are

tendencies and suitability for STEM

even the idea that we are “right brained”

not well equipped to succeed in fields


or “left brained” probably doesn’t hold

such as science or math.

In fact, increasingly experts like Harvard

water Those

“Along with students having those

theories suggest that some people are

initial ideas about their abilities, they

born with a brain that makes them more

have preconceived notions about STEM

intuitive and creative and prone to

fields,” says Jacquelynne Eccles, an

thinking in broader more descriptive ways, while others are more analytical and logical and care about details. He says that research has repeatedly shown that there is no proof that different types of thinking happens in certain specific parts of the brain or that certain people have brains that lead them to be “good at” certain subjects. “In fact,” he writes, “if you performed

education professor at the University of California Irvine who has studied the issue. “They just don’t know enough about certain careers to know if they might find one of those fields that would match their preferences and abilities.” She says girls in particular may make such mistaken assumptions. A recent survey ttps:// by Junior Achievement (JA) got the

“Our research indicates that teens are often attracted to careers they believe they would be good at. A lack of confidence in being able to manage STEM subjects could be a factor in this decline,” he says. Famed Sanford University education researcher Carol Dweck has for three decades been trying to convince people that a “growth mindset” is important to develop in young people, and that a “fixed mindset” can keep them trapped in thinking that they can’t succeed in some fields. Increasingly educators are adopting this thinking about learning and in some cases worry about the way in which students limit their choices.

a CT scan, MRI scan, or even an autopsy on the brain of a mathematician and compared it to the brain of an artist, it’s unlikely you’d find much difference.


STEM Magazine

From left to right: Robert Schmerling, Harvard; Jacquelynne Eccles, U. of California, Irvine; Ed Grocholski, Sr. VP Junior Achievement

Winter 2020




Carol S. Dweck Ph.D. Psychology and book author

So, what can educators and parents do to encourage students to explore STEM careers and avoid predetermined ideas about them? Open minds. Experts say students should consider their abilities, background and interests, but shouldn’t make assumptions based on the false notion that they aren’t “good at” a subject in the STEM field. Young people and the adults with whom they interact should keep an open mind about the student’s abilities. Inventory skepticism. Career interest inventories can be helpful, but they also can reinforce preconceived ideas students have about themselves. So, students who I can learn anything I want to. When I am frustrated I persevere. I want to challenge myself. When I fail, I learn. Tell me I try hard. If you succeed, I am inspired. My attitude and effort determine everything

I am either good at it or I am not. When I am frustrated I give up. I don't like to be challenged. When I fail, I am no good. Tell me I am smart. If you succeed, I feel threatened. My abilities determine everything.

believe they aren’t good at math aren’t likely to respond favorably to a question about how much they’d enjoy doing something analytical or related to math or science. They are a useful tool, but not the final word. Make it mindset. Dweck wants educators to encourage students to believe they can learn – and experts think they should believe they can have careers in any field too. “This growth mindset is based on the belief that your basic qualities are things you can cultivate through your efforts,” she writes in her most recent book” Explore deeper. Eccles is convinced students often steer away from STEM careers because they have inaccurate views about what the work involves based on limited exposure. More and varied experience with STEM might change their mind. Record relief. Even if a student hasn’t followed a path toward a STEM major or career in

Source: Carol S. Dweck, mindset, the new psychology of success

high school or college, they should be encouraged to explore how they can still pursue one moving forward.

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020





Build STEM Skills AND Set Yourself Up for Career Success

By University Tutor

 As a high school or college student soon set to enter the workforce, STEM skills can benefit you in a multitude of ways. Regardless of your degree field, there are vital benefits that a background in STEM studies can provide when you begin your first post-college job. You can gain STEM skills in college that will support your career goals by enrolling in a STEM-focused elective, considering a STEM minor, or engaging in a STEM-related hobby. Â


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020

" STEM skills have a positive benefit to students entering the workforce, no matter your college major. "



Here are four ways to build STEM skills that can set you up for success after college


Consider a minor in STEM studies It is typically beneficial for you to select a minor that relates to your major area of study, as well as one that will foster additional skills that will be beneficial when entering the workforce. Regardless of your major, a minor in STEM studies can give you the extra boost you’re looking for. Most schools offer minor options in areas like computer science, engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. Some schools also offer STEM studies minors—or a specific minor covering all aspects of STEM. Research what options are available to you at your school, as well as talk with your advisor to establish a plan that works best for you.

Enroll in STEM-focused elective courses If a minor in a STEM field is more of a time commitment than you’re looking to make —or, if you already have another minor area of study in mind—consider incorporating STEM-focused electives into your schedule. If you’re a communications major for example, a course in web design or graphics creation could teach you skills valuable when searching for a job. Additionally, if you’re a business major, IT-related courses


may give you knowledge you can carry into your first job after graduation. Note also that depending on your major, some general education courses—like science and math—will also provide vital STEM skills you can take with you after college. Set aside time to read through your college’s list of courses to see what unique electives could enhance your STEM knowledge and support your career aspirations.


Engage in a STEM hobby Both your school and community likely offer a variety of STEM-geared organizations you can join to further your skills. Many colleges have a selection of science and math-based clubs, as well as organizations that cater to specific interests, like robotics. If you’re enrolled in any STEM-related classes, ask your classmates or instructor if they know of any relevant organizations you could be a part of. Groups like these can instill a multitude of skills applicable to your intended career path.

Consider incorporating STEM-focused reading into your free time Your campus library likely offers a plethora of online resources and reading material you can take advantage of to expand your knowledge in these subject areas.

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020





From our perspective, who you become is as important as what you learn. At Erskine College, we’re committed to thoughtful liberal arts scholarship and individual attention. Our Christian academic community provides an educational experience as distinctive as the students and faculty that create it. Get to know Erskine. And get to know the big advantages of a small college.



EDUCATION By Amelia Mezrahi

Strategies to Improve Your Grade in Math

Most people have had that moment of

combine what you learned in the first two.

to do a lot of them. Math is a field where

embarrassment when their math skills

Students only become more lost as time

repetition is often a key to mastery.

failed them. Perhaps they were trying to

goes on and soon forget to where they

When you finish studying a unit, make

calculate the tip or divide a check with

should go back and restart.

sure you are able to quickly and

friends while going out. Perhaps their mind froze up on them at that precise second a

consistently solve problems. Practice Instead, it is more important to focus

reduces errors and increases your speed,

teacher called out to them in class. Many

completely on each exercise at hand. It

both of which boost your confidence

people find math a challenging field in

may take time to understand each lesson

and reduce anxiety for tests

school. But math is a core subject. As a

thoroughly and internalize what you


student you need to master each level of it

have learned. But your comprehension will

as you progress up the academic ladder. For

steadily improve as you keep working

(hopefully with the solutions at the back

those students that occasionally find

at it. When you have the basics down pat

of the book) so you can run through a

themselves struggling in this area, here are

and you are completely comfortable, the

series of problems and quickly check

four tips to help you succeed in your math

future lessons will be easier to follow.

your answers. You can also utilize online


Start with any review materials

tools to help you practice-- you can What to do if you face a roadblock? If

use calculators, worksheets and many

after several reviews it is still not making

helpful math websites such as Kahn

sense, it is time to seek help. Perhaps a

Academy. The internet is usually full of

materials, for example in Algebra, you

teacher, parent, friend or guide can simplify

practice problems.

might not quite fully grasp part of the

the problem or approach it from a different


material. This might prompt you to plow

direction. But again once you have

forward, skip to the next page and focus on

mastered that material, you will be much

problems even if you think that they are

the next lesson instead. Unfortunately, that

more successful in all the future lessons

too easy for your math level. Solving

will only make things worse. Most of math is

that build off of it.

these problems will give you the

It's Accumulative Sometimes when you start studying new

confidence boost you need while

accumulative - your knowledge base grows gradually as each piece is built directly on

Then start with a few simpler

Problem Solving

preparing you for the harder ones. Often

Math is all about finding solutions to the

the harder questions will just be similar

second class is based on the first one. The

problems presented to you. The easiest way

problems where they have added some

third class might require you to carefully

to get better at solving math problems is

extra digits or

what you learned in prior lessons. The


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020



" You need to master math in order to progress up the academic ladder.

perhaps an additional step to solve. Once

points on math exams are simple errors

Be strategic in the order of your studies.

you’ve now practiced and mastered the

caused by a student’s haste on problems

You also want to make sure you

more straightforward questions, move on

that they have seen before and normally

don’t study math (

to the tougher ones. When you have seen

can solve easily.It is very frustrating when

when it's midnight. The end of the night

and solved many practice problems, the

you lose points on the problems you have

when you just want to sleep is not the

actual exam will feel like a piece of cake.

correctly answered a hundred times before.

time your mind is ready to focus on your

most challenging coursework. But

Jot Them Down

Study Somewhere Quiet

many people put off their worst subject

With some problems, especially word

Math is very demanding in terms of

until last. If possible, study first thing

problems (, you may

concentration and focus, so you should

in the morning or whatever time of day

be tempted to solve them in your head

study someplace where it's quiet and

is your peak productivity.

rather than writing them down. Do

peaceful. Some people tend to study with

not depend on mental math, especially for

music playing or have the TV in the

Some students have an almost instant

exams, as it is just too easy to make a minor

background. This is often a mistake for any

attachment to and passion for math,

mistake. Instead, make sure you write down

subject, but especially risky in math, which

which makes them eager students. For

all the parts of the problem carefully and

requires your complete concentration.

most people, math is one of their harder

clearly on a piece of paper. Look at and

subjects. What students should

double check all the numbers and the

If you're one of those people that might

remember is that no matter their

equations you need to solve this problem

read a problem 4-5 times before you feel

aptitude, there are lots of simple

before start working on it. By doing this, you

you understand it, distractions increase

strategies that can improve their

are allowing your mind to break down the

the time needed to solve problems while

performance. Hopefully these quick tips

problem logically into simple steps. You are

also dramatically increasing the risk

can help put you on that path to

not only less apt to make a simple

of simple errors.

greater confidence and higher grades.

calculation error, but also avoid missing or misinterpreting the instructions. This is particularly common issue with word problems where phrasing might be tricky. One of the most frequent ways students lose

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020



SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS There are many different options for summer and pre-college programs for high school students. Search online resources to search by location and interests, such as and


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020




For high school students, one or two

"The STEM field is constantly

them about how those in STEM fields think and solve problems.

images often come to mind when they

changing, so careers that are on the

think about careers in STEM fields –a

horizon are ones that haven’t even been

“Students of all ages are fascinated

scientist in a white lab coat peering into

thought about yet,” says Patricia Morrell,

about their world, and science helps

a professor emeritus at the University of

them conceptualize it, and understand

Portland School of Education and past

how knowledge about the world is

president of the Association for Science

developed by scientists. It engages

Teacher Education. “STEM is wide-

students as it captures their interest and

reaching and cutting across many

helps them build literacy about the

fields,” she said. She quickly rattles off


a microscope or perhaps a mathematician facing a white board jammed with obscure calculations. And too often, their limited view of the work in STEM fields creates a strong perception that they won’t enjoy – or won’t succeed in – those careers. But experts say that if young people are exposed to a variety of STEM careers, they are likely to find several fields that may interest them and be surprised at some of the jobs they did not expect. They also may find that the training is not as difficult, long or tedious as they believe.


STEM Magazine

several areas where “exciting new work is being done that can help people, feed them or provide them with the latest technology – and greatly increase sustainability, for instance”. Valarie Akerson, a professor of science education at Indiana University, agrees and says beyond introducing students to careers, educators need to excite

Winter 2020

Here are 10 careers that students might not consider when discussing STEM fields which could turn out to be a surprisingly good fit for them. Valarie Akerson, Professor of science education at Indiana University






A range of jobs related to care for animals are available – from positions working as veterinary or zoo technicians to wildlife preservation experts –sometimes involving very specific work with very specific breeds. Ornothologist spend their lives studying birds and Ichthyologiara study fish, for instance. There are a rapidly growing number of careers related to sustainability and the environment Practitioners in this field examine the environmental impact of human action or find ways to lessen it. There is also a need for planners and sociologists who understand environmental science to handle the scientific results, formulate strategies to protect local communities and gain public support. And a wide variety of new technologies are emerging in the field which are creating new jobs for technicians.



Increasingly everything uses data.


There is a growing need for people trained in sports


medicine or who can help athletes train, improve and avoid injury. At the same time, sports analytics is a fast-growing field for students who might love the numbers and data at

The careful analysis and

the center of sports. It reaches beyond the athlete

interpretation of data and then the to everything from assessing which

thoughtful communication of the

players teams should recruit to using data to determine

results is a career that has been

what plays and strategies have the highest likely payoffs for

included in one list of the sexiest


jobs in the 21st century It requires a logical mind and creativity in understanding the data, but not as many math skills as some might think. And it’s showing up in fields ranging from sports to beer


There are a growing number of careers in meteorology

WEATHER WISE because of our increasing interest in knowing exactly how the weekend weather will be and more importantly our increasing concern about dramatic weather events given climate change.


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020


STEM CAREER AND LIFE Even elementary and middle school educators have figured



out that one way to get students interested in STEM is through robotics, but high school students might find that there is more to the field than cars built from LEGOs. NASA, for instance, lists a number of



space-related positions – from rover driver to the experts who area planning a return to the moon – and the robotics lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology can show students what is possible at the cutting edge of the field.



Law enforcement and detective

The American Chemical Society will

work often interests students and

be quick to tell you that cooking is a

increasingly STEM fields are coming

chemical process

into play in the investigation of crimes –

– and great restaurants are often

from all sorts of forensics and DNA

recognizing that fact and hiring people who understand how food

analytics to the use of electronic

with various characteristics blends,

surveillance. Cybersecurity is an

smells, tastes and reacts. Restaurants

especially booming field where there offer a variety of

are not nearly enough trained

career paths and the field of molecular

technicians, and there are many

gastronomy (yes, it’s a science!) is one

potential career options

of the hottest in the restaurant in the field.

industry today.

1 0


A student who has a knack for and interest in writing may dream of writing the next great American novel, but to pay the bills they might also get a minor in a STEM field and



Those who work with soil and plants increasingly rely on

find a way to write about it. There are

scientists who possess a sophisticated understanding of

an endless number of journals,

the earth and plants and the interaction of the two.

companies and publishers that need

Careers can

good writers who can translate

range from advising farmers on how to optimize crop

complex STEM-type concepts

yields on their land, to managing greenhouses.

into readable, easily accessible prose.

Managing the health and wellbeing of animals using

The two fields aren’t as far apart as

sustainable methods is a significant concern for those in

some think



STEM Magazine

Winter 2020



Today, with the advent of technology and

technology are

rapid developments in the IT field, cyber

especially well suited to further pursue this

security has become a prominent field.


From small businesses to multinationals and even governments moving their processes

Depending on the particular career, you

online, securing information and data has

may need to get a master’s in cyber security

never been of more importance. While

to further supplement your undergraduate

businesses and other entities might have

education. However, there are many cyber

the knowledge to detect hackers, they don't

security careers that are open to those even

often have the talent to defend themselves

with a bachelor’s degree.

from them — and that’s why cyber security professionals are so much in demand today. In fact, earning an advanced degree in Cyber Security often leads to an increased skill set such as expertise in forensics. These new skills in turn lead to better pay and

Cyber Security Specialist A cyber security specialist is a great entry level position for those looking to pursue cyber security. A security specialist works with their employer to build secure

more opportunities for advancement in the

computer systems. While specific duties

field. Even though the benefits of a career in

may differ depending upon one’s place of

cybersecurity do go beyond a paycheck, it’s

employment, a security specialist will

nice to know what salary professionals in

commonly be required to monitor security

this field can anticipate. Cyber security

administrations, ensure accurate security

professionals report an average salary of

tools are functioning properly, implement

$116,000 a year, or $55.77

basic cyber security training to colleagues an hour — nearly

and develop system-specific security

three times the national median income for

requirements. In this way, starting out as a

full-time salary or wage workers.

security specialist gives you a good overview of various cyber security niches.

Thus, cyber security is poised to be a

Depending upon your employer and the

lucrative career option in the years to come.

nature of your job as a specialist, earning

The ability to balance the hard sciences


potential will vary. For instance,

within larger spectrums such as economic

specialists who have more managerial

policies, business management, ethics of

duties such as a security officer or manager

privacy, politics, and others is valued in the

tend to earn more, while those in relatively

cyber security field. Those with a knack for

technical roles such as a security engineer

mathematics, science, and information

or web security analyst earn slightly less.

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020

STEM CAREER AND LIFE can't hack. Conversely, cryptographers

business acumen. It should go without saying

Penetration Tester

also use their knowledge to decode

that at all levels, business leaders need to pay

Another of the many cyber security paths

sensitive information that might

attention to cyber security you can choose is

otherwise remain hidden., but it is the CISO who

penetration tester. Pen testers are also

ensures that all security standards are met

known as ethical hackers. Usually, penetration testers look for weaknesses in the security of IT systems, networks and applications of a company. They are given permission by their employers to try and infiltrate the security of the system. Penetration testers do so using the same methods black hat hackers would use, to eventually determine whether systems are protected against

All industries, from the banking sector and financial services to telecommunications and health care utilize encryption technology developed by cryptographers. Cryptographers also have the potential to work for the government within the military or at large universities. A cryptographer’s duties may change

across various functions of the business and are in line with company decisions.

Cybersecurity Education outlines the general duties of a CISO Some of these duties include:

● Overseeing company-wide security policies and procedures for your company. ‘

depending on the employer.

● Staying current with the latest

trends and technologies in cybersecurity

Having a strong penchant for

cyber threats. If they are successful in

mathematics and logic is useful on the

infiltrating a company’s system, then

● Staying up to date with

journey to becoming a cryptographer.

developments in new cybersecurity software

major security upgrades are an absolute

According to experts at Cyber Security


Education you will

also need to possess skills in number

effectively prevent a security breach

theory, programming languages,

Pen testers have a variety of responsibilities Some of these include:

● Examining and assessing how

cybercriminals are behaving, so as to

The CISO differs from the CIO (Chief

algorithms, and data structures to succeed as a cryptographer. Depending

Information Officer) in that the CIO mainly

on the type of entity you aim

works with general technical issues that a

● Documenting and discussing

to work for, you may need additional skills

company might face. On the other hand, a

findings with management

outside of cybersecurity to become a

CISO is more concerned with the security of

● Designing and implementing new

cryptographer. For instance, a

the corporation's computer systems and

penetration tools and tests.

cryptographer who works for the military might need to be fluent in a foreign


● Uncovering security holes and pinpointing methods attackers could use

For this sort of career, it is integral to keep up to date with changing hacking

language so as to accurately intercept

To become a CISO, you will have to

foreign communication signals.

supplement your knowledge of cyber security with additional training and courses.

patterns and behavior. To become a

A career as a cryptologist demands

penetration tester, you will need to

strong dedication and a willingness to

master specialized ethical hacking skills

take on new challenges. Since the field of

with requisite training and certifications.

cryptography is continuously changing,

You might start off as a security specialist

you must be willing to independently

Sometimes, depending on the nature of the

prepare you for management. While all this requires effort, reaching a top position like


Cryptographers, or cryptologists, employ codes to protect information from unauthorized viewing. Essentially, they are tasked with writing code hackers JORI HAMILTON IS A WRITER AND JOURNALIST FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST WHO COVERS SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUES, HEALTHCARE, AND POLITICS. YOU CAN FOLLOW HER WORK ON TWITTER @HAMILTONJORI.

get an MBA with an IT/security focus, so as to properly hone your leadership skills and

and then move up to this role within your study so as to stay ahead of the curve.


company you work, you might even have to

CISO is definitely worth it.

Chief Information Security Officer

These are just a handful of the careers you

A Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

can look into when you study cyber security.

might well be the pinnacle of the cyber

With continuous developments in technology,

security profession. The path to get here is not always an easy one, but hard work and a willingness to continually learn will get you there. The CISO is in charge of many functions and needs to not only have an excellent cyber security knowledge but to also possess a sharp

STEM Magazine

the cyber security field is one that is everchanging, and thus sure to stay exciting. If you gravitate towards dynamic work environments with interesting challenges, be sure to take some cybersecurity classes next semester - you might just find your calling!

Winter 2020






Physical and occupational therapists work with patients to recover body function, usually after an injury. Occupational therapists (OT) focus on helping a patient including their functions for daily living while physical therapists (PT) focus on improving the range of motion or pain reduction, especially after major illness. OT and PT often involves working with patients with gym and other equipment to improve patient function. While OT can happen at home, PT is usually at hospital, recovery facility or office. Both normally require at least a master’s degree, with many PT therapists taking an additional year to earn a doctorate. Median salary is about $88,000 (PT), $84,000 (OT)





Speech language pathologists diagnose and treat speech and language disorders, including voice and swallowing issues. They may work in healthcare facilities or their own practices and treat everyone from young children working on developing language skills to stroke victims improving the ability to swallow. The job is very rewarding, but requires excellent listening and communication skills. Speech pathology usually requires a 2 year program post college. Median salary: $78,000

Physician assistants (PAs) are health care practitioners that are responsible for the care of patients while working under the supervision of a physician. Their work closely resembles that of doctors and they may spend their days on everything from diagnosing the common cold to suturing or treating injuries like sprained ankles. The key difference between PA and ordinary doctors is that PAs always work in conjunction with doctors (sometimes remotely) while physicians operate on their own. PAs must complete a 2 year specialized masters program after receiving their college degrees. Median salary: $109,000



With the explosion of services like 23andme, the public is increasingly focused on its genetic heritage. Geneticists work with patients to understand inherited conditions and suggest potential treatments. They also research family risk factors for disease, for example working with future parents to understand the chance they will pass on a particular genetic mutation. Cutting edge research looks to develop custom gene therapies based on our genomes, for example determining which heat medication is a patient is most likely to respond to given their DNA profile. They also interact with both laboratories that collect data and physicians making medical recommendations to patients. Genetic counseling is a 2 year masters degrees program taken after receiving a bachelor’s degree. Median salary: $80,000



Radiology and MRI technologists are experts in using imaging technology to aid in the diagnosis of patients. Radiology focuses on using X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans, while Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI) machines are able to take highly detailed scans of the human body. Mammography is a subfield of radiology. Imagery machines require careful maintenance and calibration and technologists are trained to operate these technologies. Technologists are also patient facing and it is a good career for people looking for social interaction. As the price of the equipment falls demand for MRI technologists will only grow. Some MRI/Radiology programs are 2 year associate programs while other programs are part of 4 year degrees. Median salary: $60,000 for Radiology and $71,000 for MRI


STEM Magazine

Winter 2020





Registered nurses must pass formal examinations and get a diploma in nursing. They have a significant degree of responsibility, working on everything from managing teams of nurses and care providers to recording patients’ medical histories, administering medicine or running diagnostic tests. RNs work in clinics, hospitals, or other health facilities. RNs typically have a 4-year bachelor’s degree. Median salary: $72,000

Nurse practitioners serve on the front lines of medical care and as with Physician assistants perform roles of direct patient care (under the supervision of doctors). Nurse practitioner training tends to be more specialized than Physician’s assistants and work can range from everything from surgical specializations to psychiatric medicine to neonatal nursing. Coming out of the nursing profession, nurse practitioners take pride in focusing on the patient holistically. Nurse practitioner programs last 2-4 years after college. Median salary: $108,000





Registered dietitians/nutritionists work on everything from advising patients on their diet to overseeing the menus of commercial kitchens. With the rise of food allergies and obesity, diet is being used as part of wholistic treatments from cancer to heart disease. Dietitians have a bachelor’s degree and must complete an accredited practice program. Nutritionists complete a certification program and do not need a degree. Both may take on individual clients or work at institutions like schools or hospitals. These jobs are often attractive for their predictable hours and are growing rapidly. Median salary: $60,000

Orthotics and prostheses may be required as a result of loss of limb due to diabetes or cardiovascular disease. They are also necessary to combat injuries, birth defects or other accidents. Orthotics use devices to enhance a person’s limb while prosthetics is limb replacement. There is a growing need for medical supportive devices such as artificial limbs (hands, arms, legs, etc.), braces, or other medical devices to assist patients in leading more productive lives. This requires a master’s degree including a “hands-on” clinical experience as part of the program. Median salary: $69,000



Health care is the fastest growing sector of the economy. As the size and complexity of hospitals and medical practices increases, the need for professional managers has grown massively. The job is challenging and require understanding budgets as well as working with employees. The job can be equal parts stressful and exciting as you are empowered to effect change in organizations and make a difference for both patients and the bottom line. Some managers have a degree in health care administration or business while others have master’s degrees in public health, business administration or public administration. Median salary: $100,000




Ben H. in Sonoma, CA Grade: 12

Katherine S. in Clarksville, MD Grade: 10

INTENDED MAJOR: ASTROPHYISICS/ASTRONOMY My passion for astronomy and astrophysics sometimes seems too complex to describe as I’ve been fascinated with the universe for most of my life. My uncle, an astronomer by hobby, showed me the night skies through his telescopes, letting me see the rings of Saturn. I was also fascinated by spacerelated TV shows that exposed me to cosmology and astrophysics. Over the years, I have pursued these interests by watching science videos, visiting science museums, and reading books, such as The Edge of Physics by Anil Ananthaswami, about physics and the history of science. In the summer of my junior year, I visited UC Berkeley, where a family member who worked at the university showed me the physics laboratories. The highlight was a close look at the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), which has two main purposes: to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe and to create a map of the universe. Such a map would be a significant accomplishment. In addition to helping us better understand the universe, astronomers might discover other Earth-like

INTENDED MAJOR: Computer Science My initial interest in STEM started when I was in 7th grade and joined the team at my middle school to participate in the Maryland FIRST Lego League (FLL) robotics competition. Our robot completed tasks such as opening a door and putting rings onto a hook. My job on the team was to develop the computer program that our robot executed. Although the programming in FLL was as simple as moving blocks, my involvement in the project first sparked my interest in AI. At the end, my team won the championship and represented Maryland State in the FLL Internationals. In the 8th grade, my teacher introduced me to a website called Code Academy that teaches various programming languages such as Java, Javascript, C++, and Python. I learned Python and Java skills which served as the foundation of my knowledge. The website taught me the basic rules of those programming languages through various complex tasks. Over several summers, I participated in STEM camps at the Center for Space Science of Johns Hopkins University and the Center for Chesapeake

planets, which could potentially hold life. After reflecting a bit more, I know why I am so drawn to the cosmos. It is

Bay Ecosystems Research to conduct field investigations and to analyze

my belief that life has no inherent meaning. Everyone makes his or her own

real world data. Working along with top scientists and professionals, we

meaning and I choose to believe in discovery. I plan on pursuing a career

learned to develop possible solutions to determine the affects of physical,

path in which I may work on DESI-like projects.

chemical, and biological influences on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In the past three years at high school, I took several STEM AP/GT courses such as Computer Science Principles, Java, Biology, Chemistry, Physics,

Sharvya S. in San Diego, CA Grade: 12

and Environmental Sciences. I truly fell in love with STEM and happily found that the computer programming skills I acquired could be


used to solve real-world programs via object oriented designs, classes,

After volunteering for 100+ hours at a nearby hospital and providing

objects, data types, and control statements.

necessities to patient rooms, there was one patient interaction in particular that inspired me. While helping a lady in the room who was recovering from a major surgery and chatting with her, I realized how much patients like to interact with other people while in a hospital and how a little kindness can go a long way. Through this realization, I decided to establish an organization named Penpals for Patients, which creates and sends homemade cards/letters to nursing homes and hospitals. My organization created more than 300 handmade cards filled with uplifting messages and stickers, and we sent them to local charities/hospitals.

INTENDED MAJOR: COMPUTER SCIENCE I want to help people by utilizing technology. With tech, you can create anything you can imagine and I want to leverage it to create a more equitable world. I hope to use tech for social and political change. I especially want to help historically disadvantaged people like ethnic minorities, women, and LGBTQ+ people.

I also developed an interest in doing research after spending many hours interning and assisting postdocs with research at SDSU and Sanford Burnham Prebys Research Institute on the presence of de novo genes in a native plant and the effect of chemo drugs on colorectal cancer cells, I hope to apply my knowledge and experience in conducting scientific research for the environment. I have taken college oceanography classes, worked in a paid position teaching marine biology to younger children, and acted as a lead in my school's National Ocean Sciences Bowl team. These are a few reasons why I have decided to pursue a major in environmental sciences while continuing to further Penpals for Patients.

Aderonke A. in Mantua, NJ Grade: 11

To start, I would like to combat ignorance. A lot of hatred stems from ignorance and perpetuates a culture in which discrimination is acceptable and legal change does not happen. I want to create a digital start-up that will connect people of different backgrounds, so they have a better understanding of each other and the world outside of where they live. I hope to combat ignorance and stop hatred from spreading with a website that will be a safe space for healthy interaction for people with different experiences and opinions. From there, I want to continue to use STEM for social change.

STEM Magazine

Winter 2020




As the demand for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) graduates is growing, there are a number of scholarships that are geared towards studying in these fields. Organizations and colleges are doing their part to entice high school and undergraduate students to consider a degree in STEM.


Below is the list of a few STEM scholarships. For each scholarship, refer to the website or link to get details on eligibility, amount, deadlines, field of study, and where to apply. --> Society of Women Engineers

--> Peggy Dixon Society of Physics

--> Dell computer corporation

Microsoft tuition scholarships are

(SWE) scholarship

Students (SPS) scholarship


awarded each year to encourage

The SWE Scholarship Program provides

The purpose of the Society of

Dell Scholars was designed to

students to pursue studies in

financial assistance to women admitted

Physics Students scholarship

provide a support system for the

Computer Science and related STEM

to accredited baccalaureate or graduate

program is to encourage the study

challenges many students face

disciplines. The tuition scholarship is

programs, in preparation for careers in

of physics and the pursuit of high

while pursuing a degree. Nationally,

available to students enrolled full

engineering, engineering technology

education. The scholarship is

500 Dell Scholars are selected each

time in a bachelor’s degree program

and computer science. Scholarships are

named in memory of Dr. Peggy A.

year to receive a scholarship plus

at a four-year college or university in

typically awarded in May (sophomore,

Dixon, SPS and Sigma Pi Sigma

lots of non-monetary support.

junior, senior and graduate students)

Historian. Application due date is

Amount: A $20,000 scholarship and

Also, the scholarship will be awarded

and July (freshmen and reentry

March 15th. If this date falls on a

a laptop with a 4-year warranty

in recognition of recipients’

students) for use during the following

weekend, the application is due

Level/Field of Study: Participate

demonstrated passion for

academic year. Recipients are

the following Monday.

in a program-approved college

technology, academic excellence,

announced in September.

Amount: The award consists of a

readiness program in grades 11 and

and leadership while working to

Amount: Scholarships range from

$2,000 scholarship.

12. Be on track to graduate from an

push the software industry forward.

$1,000 to $16,000 each and some are

Level/Field of Study: Applicants

accredited high school in the

Amount: Full year tuition


must be undergraduate members

current academic year. Be eligible

Level/Field of Study: Full-time

Level/Field of Study: All applicants must

of the SPS national organization.

to receive a federal Pell Grant in first

students in Computer Science,

be planning to attend a school with

They must have completed at least

year of college. Plan to enroll full

ABET-accredited programs.

one semester or quarter of the

time at an accredited higher

STEM disciplines (Science,

Undergraduate and community college

introductory physics sequence.

education institution in the pursuit

Technology, Engineering, and

applicants must be planning to study an

Applicants must be transitioning

of a bachelor's degree in the fall

Mathematics) disciplines.

ABET-accredited program in

from a two-year college into a

directly following high school

Application contact/link: Visit the

engineering, technology, or computing

physics bachelor's degree program

graduation. Earn a minimum of a

link below for Microsoft Tuition

in the upcoming academic year.

Application contact/link:

2.4 GPA. Applications open October


Application contact/link: Details can be

Applicants must complete

1 with a December 1 deadline .


found on the SWE Scholarships page.

application online

Application contact/link:

For more information, contact them

General questions regarding


scholarships can be sent here.


--> Microsoft tuition scholarship

the United States, Canada or Mexico.

Computer Engineering, or related



STEM Magazine

Winter 2020





Please select the advertiser/ college you would like to receive more information from and email us at:

Erskine College

Page 14

Scholarship Owl

Page 29

Gannon University

Page C4

SUNY Oswego

Page 15

Hofstra University

Page C2

SUNY Canton

Page 8


Page 15

Texas A&M Kingsville

Page 23


Page 7

The Ocean Corporation

Page 23

Next Step STEM Scholarship

Page 29

Touro College

Page 3

Next Step Universe

Page 2

Utica College

Page 9

Pennsylvania College of Technology

Page 1

Virginia Tech-Corps of Cadets

Page 9





STEM Magazine

Winter 2020