IS YOUR BRAIN WIRED FOR STEM?
4 WAYS TO BUILD STEM SKILLS
10 UNEXPECTED STEM CAREERS
24 EXPLORING CAREERS IN CYBER SECURITY
10 HOT CAREERS IN HEALTH CARE
STEM SCHOLARSHIP RESOURCES
DEPARTMENTS 06 27 28 30
Publisher's Note Inspiring Letters from STEM Majors STEM Scholarships Ad Index
SPECIAL FEATURES 10 Is Your Brain Wired For STEM?
There is increasing evidence we really aren't wired that specifically at birth... By Jim Paterson
12 4 Ways to Build STEM Skills
Carol S. Dweck,, Ph.D. Psychology "In a growth mindset, challenges are exciting rather than threatening. So rather than thinking, oh, I am going to reveal my weaknesses, you say, wow, here's a chance to grow. "
And set yourself up for career success By University Tutor
20 10 Unexpected STEM Careers
STEM is wide-reaching and can cut across many fields By Jim Paterson
26 10 Hot Careers In Health Care
IS YOUR BRAIN WIRED FOR STEM? We Are Not Wired That Specifically At Birth...
Interested in health care? Here are some popular careers to consider By NextStepU
STEM EDUCATION 16 Strategies HAS ONLINETo Improve Your Grade In Math LEARNING You need to GONE master math in order to progress up the MAINSTREAM ? academic ladder By Amelia Mezrahi
18 STEM Summer Enrichment Program Update A list of summer and Pre-College STEM programs for high school Students By NextStepU
4 WAYS TO BUILD STEM SKILLS Regardless Of Your Degree Or Career, There Are Vital Benefits To Improving Your STEM Skills
10 UNEXPECTED STEM CAREERS Students Might Not Consider These Fields Which Could Turn Out To Be A Surprisingly Good Fit For Them.
20 STEM CAREER AND LIFE 24 Exploring Careers In Cyber Security
Today, with the advent of technology and rapid developments in AI, cyber security has become a prominent field. By Jori Hamilton
28 STEM Scholarship Resources
EXPLORING CAREERS IN CYBER SECURITY This Field Is Poised To Be A Lucrative Career Option In The Years To Come.
As the demand for STEM graduates is growing, there are a number of scholarships for those majoring in them By Amelia Mezrahi
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE YOUR GRADE IN MATH Most People Have Had That Moment Of Embarrassment When Their Math Skills Failed Them...
STEM SCHOLARSHIP RESOURCES Here Are a Few Scholarships to Consider If You Are Majoring In STEM
28 STEM Magazine
PUBLISHER'S NOTE We are excited to bring to you this year's NextStepU STEM Magazine. It has been four years since we first embarked on the
idea of publishing a magazine focused only on topics in STEM and the three pillars of
Amelia Mezrahi | Amelia@NextStepU.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chief Revenue Officer:
education, career and life. Our goal was and remains to promote an education and a career in STEM to those studying in middle
Rob Aronson | Sales@NextStepU.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
school, high school and college. In my past letters, I have mostly focused on the promise of STEM and the exciting news of advancements we have seen that year. While this year has
David Mammano | David@NextStepU.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------
also seen continued progress in science across fields such as genetics, medicine and astronomy, we also have had to pause and think about the
Kate Alexander | Editor@NextStepU.com
major events that have taken a heavy toll on our communities. From the
impact of brush fire disasters in Australia to the spread of the coronavirus to the impact of the internet, social media and AI on our privacy, science and technology trends are driving the headlines. Growing concerns for our future,
Silvio Del Monaco | Info@BrainBleachMedia.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
especially due to the dire threat of global warming, have prompted our youth
to organize a global climate strike and create a movement to demand action
Rob Aronson | Sales@NextStepU.com
to combat climate change. We also became aware how a small germ like the
Editorial and Contributions:
coronavirus can quickly spread and force communities to completely alter their daily lives.
Valarie Akerson, Carol S.. Dweck, Jacquelynne Eccles, Ed
While all of this can be slightly discouraging, we also hope these challenges will inspire a future generation of scientists, doctors, engineers and technologists to work together to solve the ever more complex set of issues facing the world today. This is where you come in. Through your hope, hard
Grocholski, Jori Hamilton, Amelia Mezrahi, Patricia Morrell, James Paterson, Robert Schmerling, University Tutor ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
work, ingenuity, and will to change the world, you can have a great impact in so many areas. I believe in you and I know you can use your skills to create out of the box solutions that address many of the most pressing issues of our times. This is why STEM skills are now more important than ever before. In this issue, first we explore what it takes to succeed in STEM. The article "Is
Photos of Carol S. Dweck ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
For questions, comments or advertising information, please contact us at Info@NextStepU.com or through NextStepU.com
Your Brain Wired for STEM?" challenges the notion that people are born scientists or engineers. Success is not based on innate talent. Rather success stems from a growth mindset, a state of mind, which is outlined in Carol
Next Step Universe is a proud member of the National Association for College Admissions Counseling.
Dweck’s book "The Mindset". The article "4 Ways to Build STEM Skills" looks at how to leverage degrees and coursework in school as well as develop a
For advertising information email us at Sales@NextStepU.com.
passion by joining clubs and other science organizations to develop your
Some inside photos from iStock.com and Envato.com @Copyright
readiness. There is also an article with tips to improve your math proficiency.
2020 by Next Step Universe. All rights reserved. Material in this
Second, we examine careers opportunities you should consider. The article "10 unexpected STEM Careers" explores many occupations that might not have occurred to you. For example, we have dug deeper into a career in Cyber Security as internet breaches have dominated headlines for much of the last few years. From data hacking to securing elections, cyber security is in hot demand. At the same time, healthcare is about one fifth of the economy and only growing each year. We look at "10 Hot Careers in Healthcare" for you, discussing the educational requirements, expected salary and working environments for each of them. Your support and readership of our magazines are always appreciated. We are inspired by the letters you write to us and would love it if you keep them coming. We wish you a great semester and year.
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Is your BRAIN wired for STEM? By Jim Paterson
It is often assumed some students are “good at math” or “just aren’t artistic”, but there is increasing evidence we really aren’t wired that specifically at birth, and that students should not be discouraged from STEM or other careers because of such assumptions.
And if you did the same for 1,000
the attention of STEM advocates
mathematicians and artists, it’s unlikely
because it indicated that the number of
that any clear pattern of difference in
high school students expecting to enter
brain structure would emerge.”
careers in STEM fields had declined from
Those false assumptions, however,
36% in 2017 to 24% now. Ed Grocholski,
leads some parents and educators and
senior vice president at JA, also believes
the eventually students themselves to
those choices are often based on
believe they are destined to use their
preconceived ideas about a student’s
researcher Robert Schmerling say that
brain a certain way – and perhaps are
tendencies and suitability for STEM
even the idea that we are “right brained”
not well equipped to succeed in fields
or “left brained” probably doesn’t hold
such as science or math.
In fact, increasingly experts like Harvard
water https://bit.ly/32F71fC. Those
“Along with students having those
theories suggest that some people are
initial ideas about their abilities, they
born with a brain that makes them more
have preconceived notions about STEM
intuitive and creative and prone to
fields,” says Jacquelynne Eccles, an
thinking in broader more descriptive ways, while others are more analytical and logical and care about details. He says that research https://bit.ly/32GSMa5 has repeatedly shown that there is no proof that different types of thinking happens in certain specific parts of the brain or that certain people have brains that lead them to be “good at” certain subjects. “In fact,” he writes, “if you performed
education professor at the University of California Irvine who has studied the issue. “They just don’t know enough about certain careers to know if they might find one of those fields that would match their preferences and abilities.” She says girls in particular may make such mistaken assumptions. A recent survey ttps://bit.ly/2VwSfWO by Junior Achievement (JA) got the
“Our research indicates that teens are often attracted to careers they believe they would be good at. A lack of confidence in being able to manage STEM subjects could be a factor in this decline,” he says. Famed Sanford University education researcher Carol Dweck has for three decades been trying to convince people that a “growth mindset” is important to develop in young people, and that a “fixed mindset” can keep them trapped in thinking that they can’t succeed in some fields. Increasingly educators are adopting this thinking about learning and in some cases worry about the way in which students limit their choices.
a CT scan, MRI scan, or even an autopsy on the brain of a mathematician and compared it to the brain of an artist, it’s unlikely you’d find much difference.
From left to right: Robert Schmerling, Harvard; Jacquelynne Eccles, U. of California, Irvine; Ed Grocholski, Sr. VP Junior Achievement
Carol S. Dweck Ph.D. Psychology and book author
So, what can educators and parents do to encourage students to explore STEM careers and avoid predetermined ideas about them? Open minds. Experts say students should consider their abilities, background and interests, but shouldn’t make assumptions based on the false notion that they aren’t “good at” a subject in the STEM field. Young people and the adults with whom they interact should keep an open mind about the student’s abilities. Inventory skepticism. Career interest inventories can be helpful, but they also can reinforce preconceived ideas students have about themselves. So, students who I can learn anything I want to. When I am frustrated I persevere. I want to challenge myself. When I fail, I learn. Tell me I try hard. If you succeed, I am inspired. My attitude and effort determine everything
I am either good at it or I am not. When I am frustrated I give up. I don't like to be challenged. When I fail, I am no good. Tell me I am smart. If you succeed, I feel threatened. My abilities determine everything.
believe they aren’t good at math aren’t likely to respond favorably to a question about how much they’d enjoy doing something analytical or related to math or science. They are a useful tool, but not the final word. Make it mindset. Dweck wants educators to encourage students to believe they can learn – and experts think they should believe they can have careers in any field too. “This growth mindset is based on the belief that your basic qualities are things you can cultivate through your efforts,” she writes in her most recent book https://amzn.to/2TeIivF.” Explore deeper. Eccles is convinced students often steer away from STEM careers because they have inaccurate views about what the work involves based on limited exposure. More and varied experience with STEM might change their mind. Record relief. Even if a student hasn’t followed a path toward a STEM major or career in
Source: Carol S. Dweck, mindset, the new psychology of success
high school or college, they should be encouraged to explore how they can still pursue one moving forward.
4 WAYS TO
Build STEM Skills AND Set Yourself Up for Career Success
By University Tutor
Â As a high school or college student soon set to enter the workforce, STEM skills can benefit you in a multitude of ways. Regardless of your degree field, there are vital benefits that a background in STEM studies can provide when you begin your first post-college job. You can gain STEM skills in college that will support your career goals by enrolling in a STEM-focused elective, considering a STEM minor, or engaging in a STEM-related hobby. Â
" STEM skills have a positive benefit to students entering the workforce, no matter your college major. "
Here are four ways to build STEM skills that can set you up for success after college
Consider a minor in STEM studies It is typically beneficial for you to select a minor that relates to your major area of study, as well as one that will foster additional skills that will be beneficial when entering the workforce. Regardless of your major, a minor in STEM studies can give you the extra boost you’re looking for. Most schools offer minor options in areas like computer science, engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. Some schools also offer STEM studies minors—or a specific minor covering all aspects of STEM. Research what options are available to you at your school, as well as talk with your advisor to establish a plan that works best for you.
Enroll in STEM-focused elective courses If a minor in a STEM field is more of a time commitment than you’re looking to make —or, if you already have another minor area of study in mind—consider incorporating STEM-focused electives into your schedule. If you’re a communications major for example, a course in web design or graphics creation could teach you skills valuable when searching for a job. Additionally, if you’re a business major, IT-related courses
may give you knowledge you can carry into your first job after graduation. Note also that depending on your major, some general education courses—like science and math—will also provide vital STEM skills you can take with you after college. Set aside time to read through your college’s list of courses to see what unique electives could enhance your STEM knowledge and support your career aspirations.
Engage in a STEM hobby Both your school and community likely offer a variety of STEM-geared organizations you can join to further your skills. Many colleges have a selection of science and math-based clubs, as well as organizations that cater to specific interests, like robotics. If you’re enrolled in any STEM-related classes, ask your classmates or instructor if they know of any relevant organizations you could be a part of. Groups like these can instill a multitude of skills applicable to your intended career path.
Consider incorporating STEM-focused reading into your free time Your campus library likely offers a plethora of online resources and reading material you can take advantage of to expand your knowledge in these subject areas.
From our perspective, who you become is as important as what you learn. At Erskine College, weâ€™re committed to thoughtful liberal arts scholarship and individual attention. Our Christian academic community provides an educational experience as distinctive as the students and faculty that create it. Get to know Erskine. And get to know the big advantages of a small college.
EDUCATION By Amelia Mezrahi
Strategies to Improve Your Grade in Math
Most people have had that moment of
combine what you learned in the first two.
to do a lot of them. Math is a field where
embarrassment when their math skills
Students only become more lost as time
repetition is often a key to mastery.
failed them. Perhaps they were trying to
goes on and soon forget to where they
When you finish studying a unit, make
calculate the tip or divide a check with
should go back and restart.
sure you are able to quickly and
friends while going out. Perhaps their mind froze up on them at that precise second a
consistently solve problems. Practice Instead, it is more important to focus
reduces errors and increases your speed,
teacher called out to them in class. Many
completely on each exercise at hand. It
both of which boost your confidence
people find math a challenging field in
may take time to understand each lesson
and reduce anxiety for tests
school. But math is a core subject. As a
thoroughly and internalize what you
student you need to master each level of it
have learned. But your comprehension will
as you progress up the academic ladder. For
steadily improve as you keep working
(hopefully with the solutions at the back
those students that occasionally find
at it. When you have the basics down pat
of the book) so you can run through a
themselves struggling in this area, here are
and you are completely comfortable, the
series of problems and quickly check
four tips to help you succeed in your math
future lessons will be easier to follow.
your answers. You can also utilize online
Start with any review materials
tools to help you practice-- you can What to do if you face a roadblock? If
useÂ calculators, worksheets and many
after several reviews it is still not making
helpful math websites such as Kahn
sense, it is time to seek help. Perhaps a
Academy. The internet is usually full of
materials, for example in Algebra, you
teacher, parent, friend or guide can simplify
might not quite fully grasp part of the
the problem or approach it from a different
material. This might prompt you to plow
direction. But again once you have
forward, skip to the next page and focus on
mastered that material, you will be much
problems even if you think that they are
the next lesson instead. Unfortunately, that
more successful in all the future lessons
too easy for your math level. Solving
will only make things worse. Most of math is
that build off of it.
these problems will give you the
It's Accumulative Sometimes when you start studying new
confidence boost you need while
accumulative - your knowledge base grows gradually as each piece is built directly on
Then start with a few simpler
preparing you for the harder ones. Often
Math is all about finding solutions to the
the harder questions will just be similar
second class is based on the first one. The
problems presented to you. The easiest way
problems where they have added some
third class might require you to carefully
to get better at solving math problems is
extra digits or
what you learned in prior lessons. The
" You need to master math in order to progress up the academic ladder.
perhaps an additional step to solve. Once
points on math exams are simple errors
Be strategic in the order of your studies.
you’ve now practiced and mastered the
caused by a student’s haste on problems
You also want to make sure you
more straightforward questions, move on
that they have seen before and normally
don’t study math (https://bit.ly/2OJjFog)
to the tougher ones. When you have seen
can solve easily.It is very frustrating when
when it's midnight. The end of the night
and solved many practice problems, the
you lose points on the problems you have
when you just want to sleep is not the
actual exam will feel like a piece of cake.
correctly answered a hundred times before.
time your mind is ready to focus on your
most challenging coursework. But
Jot Them Down
Study Somewhere Quiet
many people put off their worst subject
With some problems, especially word
Math is very demanding in terms of
until last. If possible, study first thing
problems (https://bit.ly/3buW3x8), you may
concentration and focus, so you should
in the morning or whatever time of day
be tempted to solve them in your head
study someplace where it's quiet and
is your peak productivity.
rather than writing them down. Do
peaceful. Some people tend to study with
not depend on mental math, especially for
music playing or have the TV in the
Some students have an almost instant
exams, as it is just too easy to make a minor
background. This is often a mistake for any
attachment to and passion for math,
mistake. Instead, make sure you write down
subject, but especially risky in math, which
which makes them eager students. For
all the parts of the problem carefully and
requires your complete concentration.
most people, math is one of their harder
clearly on a piece of paper. Look at and
subjects. What students should
double check all the numbers and the
If you're one of those people that might
remember is that no matter their
equations you need to solve this problem
read a problem 4-5 times before you feel
aptitude, there are lots of simple
before start working on it. By doing this, you
you understand it, distractions increase
strategies that can improve their
are allowing your mind to break down the
the time needed to solve problems while
performance. Hopefully these quick tips
problem logically into simple steps. You are
also dramatically increasing the risk
can help put you on that path to
not only less apt to make a simple
of simple errors.
greater confidence and higher grades.
calculation error, but also avoid missing or misinterpreting the instructions. This is particularly common issue with word problems where phrasing might be tricky. One of the most frequent ways students lose
SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS There are many different options for summer and pre-college programs for high school students. Search online resources to search by location and interests, such as www.nextstepu.com and https://www.collegexpress.com/lists/list/top-summer-pre-college-programs/1761
SUMMER STEM PROGRAMS
STEM CAREER AND LIFE
10 UNEXPECTED STEM CAREERS BY JAMES PATERSON
For high school students, one or two
"The STEM field is constantly
them about how those in STEM fields think and solve problems.
images often come to mind when they
changing, so careers that are on the
think about careers in STEM fields –a
horizon are ones that haven’t even been
“Students of all ages are fascinated
scientist in a white lab coat peering into
thought about yet,” says Patricia Morrell,
about their world, and science helps
a professor emeritus at the University of
them conceptualize it, and understand
Portland School of Education and past
how knowledge about the world is
president of the Association for Science
developed by scientists. It engages
Teacher Education. “STEM is wide-
students as it captures their interest and
reaching and cutting across many
helps them build literacy about the
fields,” she said. She quickly rattles off
a microscope or perhaps a mathematician facing a white board jammed with obscure calculations. And too often, their limited view of the work in STEM fields creates a strong perception that they won’t enjoy – or won’t succeed in – those careers. But experts say that if young people are exposed to a variety of STEM careers, they are likely to find several fields that may interest them and be surprised at some of the jobs they did not expect. They also may find that the training is not as difficult, long or tedious as they believe.
several areas where “exciting new work is being done that can help people, feed them or provide them with the latest technology – and greatly increase sustainability, for instance”. Valarie Akerson, a professor of science education at Indiana University, agrees and says beyond introducing students to careers, educators need to excite
Here are 10 careers that students might not consider when discussing STEM fields which could turn out to be a surprisingly good fit for them. Valarie Akerson, Professor of science education at Indiana University
STEM CAREER AND LIFE
10L ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
A range of jobs related to care for animals https://bit.ly/2IekotL are available – from positions working as veterinary or zoo technicians to wildlife preservation experts –sometimes involving very specific work with very specific breeds. Ornothologist spend their lives studying birds and Ichthyologiara study fish, for instance. There are a rapidly growing number of careers related to sustainability and the environment https://on.natgeo.com/2VA4ZMm. Practitioners in this field examine the environmental impact of human action or find ways to lessen it. There is also a need for planners and sociologists who understand environmental science to handle the scientific results, formulate strategies to protect local communities and gain public support. And a wide variety of new technologies are emerging in the field which are creating new jobs for technicians.
Increasingly everything uses data.
There is a growing need for people trained in sports
10 GOOD SPORTS
medicine or who can help athletes train, improve and avoid injury. At the same time, sports analytics is a fast-growing field for students who might love the numbers and data at
The careful analysis and
the center of sports. It reaches beyond the athlete
interpretation of data and then the
https://bit.ly/38kZvrs to everything from assessing which
thoughtful communication of the
players teams should recruit to using data to determine
results is a career that has been
what plays and strategies have the highest likely payoffs for
included in one list of the sexiest
jobs in the 21st century https://bit.ly/2PIRhmx. It requires a logical mind and creativity in understanding the data, but not as many math skills as some might think. And it’s showing up in fields ranging from sports to beer
There are a growing number of careers in meteorology
https://bit.ly/39mHlqE because of our increasing interest in knowing exactly how the weekend weather will be and more importantly our increasing concern about dramatic weather events given climate change.
STEM CAREER AND LIFE Even elementary and middle school educators have figured
ROBOTICS, OF COURSE
out that one way to get students interested in STEM is through robotics, but high school students might find that there is more to the field than cars built from LEGOs. NASA, for instance, lists https://go.nasa.gov/2IhEza4 a number of
10L COOKING IT UP
space-related positions – from rover driver to the experts who area planning a return to the moon – and the robotics lab biomimetics.mit.edu at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology can show students what is possible at the cutting edge of the field.
Law enforcement and detective
The American Chemical Society will
work often interests students and
be quick to tell you that cooking is a
increasingly STEM fields are coming
chemical process https://bit.ly/32IdPsS
into play in the investigation of crimes –
– and great restaurants are often
from all sorts of forensics and DNA
recognizing that fact and hiring people who understand how food
analytics to the use of electronic
with various characteristics blends,
surveillance. Cybersecurity is an
smells, tastes and reacts. Restaurants
especially booming field where there
https://bit.ly/32I7uh0 offer a variety of
are not nearly enough trained
career paths and the field of molecular
technicians, and there are many
gastronomy (yes, it’s a science!) is one
potential career options
of the hottest in the restaurant
https://bit.ly/2ThUuLX in the field.
THE WRITTEN WORD
A student who has a knack for and interest in writing may dream of writing the next great American novel, but to pay the bills they might also get a minor in a STEM field and
10 ON THE FARM OR IN THE GREENHOUSE
Those who work with soil and plants increasingly rely on
find a way to write about it. There are
scientists who possess a sophisticated understanding of
an endless number of journals,
the earth and plants and the interaction of the two.
companies and publishers that need
Careers https://www.agcareers.com/career-profiles/ can
good writers who can translate
range from advising farmers on how to optimize crop
complex STEM-type concepts
yields on their land, to managing greenhouses.
into readable, easily accessible prose.
Managing the health and wellbeing of animals using
The two fields aren’t as far apart as
sustainable methods is a significant concern for those in
some think https://edut.to/2vy8dFw.
STEM CAREER AND LIFE
EXPLORING CAREERS IN CYBERSECURITY BY JORI HAMILTON
Today, with the advent of technology and
technology https://bit.ly/2TBmUzL are
rapid developments in the IT field, cyber
especially well suited to further pursue this
security has become a prominent field.
From small businesses to multinationals and even governments moving their processes
Depending on the particular career, you
online, securing information and data has
may need to get a master’s in cyber security
never been of more importance. While
to further supplement your undergraduate
businesses and other entities might have
education. However, there are many cyber
the knowledge to detect hackers, they don't
security careers that are open to those even
often have the talent to defend themselves
with a bachelor’s degree.
from them — and that’s why cyber security professionals are so much in demand today. In fact, earning an advanced degree in Cyber Security often leads to an increased skill set such as expertise in forensics. These new skills in turn lead to better pay and
Cyber Security Specialist A cyber security specialist is a great entry level position for those looking to pursue cyber security. A security specialist works with their employer to build secure
more opportunities for advancement in the
computer systems. While specific duties
field. Even though the benefits of a career in
may differ depending upon one’s place of
cybersecurity do go beyond a paycheck, it’s
employment, a security specialist will
nice to know what salary professionals in
commonly be required to monitor security
this field can anticipate. Cyber security
administrations, ensure accurate security
professionals report an average salary of
tools are functioning properly, implement
$116,000 a year, or $55.77
basic cyber security training to colleagues
https://bit.ly/2PGXD5X an hour — nearly
and develop system-specific security
three times the national median income for
requirements. In this way, starting out as a
full-time salary or wage workers.
security specialist gives you a good overview of various cyber security niches.
Thus, cyber security is poised to be a
Depending upon your employer and the
lucrative career option in the years to come.
nature of your job as a specialist, earning
The ability to balance the hard sciences
potential will vary. For instance,
within larger spectrums such as economic
specialists who have more managerial
policies, business management, ethics of
duties such as a security officer or manager
privacy, politics, and others is valued in the
tend to earn more, while those in relatively
cyber security field. Those with a knack for
technical roles such as a security engineer
mathematics, science, and information
or web security analyst earn slightly less.
STEM CAREER AND LIFE can't hack. Conversely, cryptographers
business acumen. It should go without saying
also use their knowledge to decode
that at all levels, business leaders need to pay
Another of the many cyber security paths
sensitive information that might
attention to cyber security
https://bit.ly/2TsijzG you can choose is
otherwise remain hidden.
https://bit.ly/2uSSznW, but it is the CISO who
penetration tester. Pen testers are also
ensures that all security standards are met
known as ethical hackers. Usually, penetration testers look for weaknesses in the security of IT systems, networks and applications of a company. They are given permission by their employers to try and infiltrate the security of the system. Penetration testers do so using the same methods black hat hackers would use, to eventually determine whether systems are protected against
All industries, from the banking sector and financial services to telecommunications and health care utilize encryption technology developed by cryptographers. Cryptographers also have the potential to work for the government within the military or at large universities. A cryptographer’s duties may change
across various functions of the business and are in line with company decisions.
Cybersecurity Education outlines the general duties of a CISO https://bit.ly/2Iqzixn. Some of these duties include:
● Overseeing company-wide security policies and procedures for your company. ‘
depending on the employer.
● Staying current with the latest
trends and technologies in cybersecurity
Having a strong penchant for
cyber threats. If they are successful in
mathematics and logic is useful on the
infiltrating a company’s system, then
● Staying up to date with
journey to becoming a cryptographer.
developments in new cybersecurity software
major security upgrades are an absolute
According to experts at Cyber Security
Education https://bit.ly/3comF3r you will
also need to possess skills in number
effectively prevent a security breach
theory, programming languages,
Pen testers have a variety of responsibilities https://bit.ly/3ak6kej. Some of these include:
● Examining and assessing how
cybercriminals are behaving, so as to
The CISO differs from the CIO (Chief
algorithms, and data structures to succeed as a cryptographer. Depending
Information Officer) in that the CIO mainly
on the type of entity you aim
works with general technical issues that a
● Documenting and discussing
to work for, you may need additional skills
company might face. On the other hand, a
findings with management
outside of cybersecurity to become a
CISO is more concerned with the security of
● Designing and implementing new
cryptographer. For instance, a
the corporation's computer systems and
penetration tools and tests.
cryptographer who works for the military might need to be fluent in a foreign
● Uncovering security holes and pinpointing methods attackers could use
For this sort of career, it is integral to keep up to date with changing hacking
language so as to accurately intercept
To become a CISO, you will have to
foreign communication signals.
supplement your knowledge of cyber security with additional training and courses.
patterns and behavior. To become a
A career as a cryptologist demands
penetration tester, you will need to
strong dedication and a willingness to
master specialized ethical hacking skills
take on new challenges. Since the field of
with requisite training and certifications.
cryptography is continuously changing,
You might start off as a security specialist
you must be willing to independently
Sometimes, depending on the nature of the
prepare you for management. While all this requires effort, reaching a top position like
Cryptographers, or cryptologists, employ codes to protect information https://bit.ly/2PF4L2w from unauthorized viewing. Essentially, they are tasked with writing code hackers JORI HAMILTON IS A WRITER AND JOURNALIST FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST WHO COVERS SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUES, HEALTHCARE, AND POLITICS. YOU CAN FOLLOW HER WORK ON TWITTER @HAMILTONJORI.
get an MBA with an IT/security focus, so as to properly hone your leadership skills and
and then move up to this role within your study so as to stay ahead of the curve.
company you work, you might even have to
CISO is definitely worth it.
Chief Information Security Officer
These are just a handful of the careers you
A Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)
can look into when you study cyber security.
might well be the pinnacle of the cyber
With continuous developments in technology,
security profession. The path to get here is not always an easy one, but hard work and a willingness to continually learn will get you there. The CISO is in charge of many functions and needs to not only have an excellent cyber security knowledge but to also possess a sharp
the cyber security field is one that is everchanging, and thus sure to stay exciting. If you gravitate towards dynamic work environments with interesting challenges, be sure to take some cybersecurity classes next semester - you might just find your calling!
STEM CAREER AND LIFE
10 HOT IN S R E E CAR H CARE T L A E H
PHYSICAL & OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST
Physical and occupational therapists work with patients to recover body function, usually after an injury. Occupational therapists (OT) focus on helping a patient including their functions for daily living while physical therapists (PT) focus on improving the range of motion or pain reduction, especially after major illness. OT and PT often involves working with patients with gym and other equipment to improve patient function. While OT can happen at home, PT is usually at hospital, recovery facility or office. Both normally require at least a master’s degree, with many PT therapists taking an additional year to earn a doctorate. Median salary is about $88,000 (PT), $84,000 (OT) https://bit.ly/2PIaYL9
Speech language pathologists diagnose and treat speech and language disorders, including voice and swallowing issues. They may work in healthcare facilities or their own practices and treat everyone from young children working on developing language skills to stroke victims improving the ability to swallow. The job is very rewarding, but requires excellent listening and communication skills. Speech pathology usually requires a 2 year program post college. Median salary: $78,000 https://bit.ly/2IasyU9
Physician assistants (PAs) are health care practitioners that are responsible for the care of patients while working under the supervision of a physician. Their work closely resembles that of doctors and they may spend their days on everything from diagnosing the common cold to suturing or treating injuries like sprained ankles. The key difference between PA and ordinary doctors is that PAs always work in conjunction with doctors (sometimes remotely) while physicians operate on their own. PAs must complete a 2 year specialized masters program after receiving their college degrees. Median salary: $109,000 https://bit.ly/2Tw2U1o
With the explosion of services like 23andme, the public is increasingly focused on its genetic heritage. Geneticists work with patients to understand inherited conditions and suggest potential treatments. They also research family risk factors for disease, for example working with future parents to understand the chance they will pass on a particular genetic mutation. Cutting edge research looks to develop custom gene therapies based on our genomes, for example determining which heat medication is a patient is most likely to respond to given their DNA profile. They also interact with both laboratories that collect data and physicians making medical recommendations to patients. Genetic counseling is a 2 year masters degrees program taken after receiving a bachelor’s degree. Median salary: $80,000 https://bit.ly/3akzVUW
RADIOLOGY AND MRI TECHNOLOGISTS
Radiology and MRI technologists are experts in using imaging technology to aid in the diagnosis of patients. Radiology focuses on using X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans, while Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI) machines are able to take highly detailed scans of the human body. Mammography is a subfield of radiology. Imagery machines require careful maintenance and calibration and technologists are trained to operate these technologies. Technologists are also patient facing and it is a good career for people looking for social interaction. As the price of the equipment falls demand for MRI technologists will only grow. Some MRI/Radiology programs are 2 year associate programs while other programs are part of 4 year degrees. Median salary: $60,000 for Radiology and $71,000 for MRI https://bit.ly/2wqVlBi https://bit.ly/32IEUwd
REGISTERED NURSE (RN)
Registered nurses must pass formal examinations and get a diploma in nursing. They have a significant degree of responsibility, working on everything from managing teams of nurses and care providers to recording patients’ medical histories, administering medicine or running diagnostic tests. RNs work in clinics, hospitals, or other health facilities. RNs typically have a 4-year bachelor’s degree. Median salary: $72,000 https://bit.ly/2PFkAX4
Nurse practitioners serve on the front lines of medical care and as with Physician assistants perform roles of direct patient care (under the supervision of doctors). Nurse practitioner training tends to be more specialized than Physician’s assistants and work can range from everything from surgical specializations to psychiatric medicine to neonatal nursing. Coming out of the nursing profession, nurse practitioners take pride in focusing on the patient holistically. Nurse practitioner programs last 2-4 years after college. Median salary: $108,000 https://bit.ly/2TgEMAG
ORTHOTIST AND PROSTHETIST
Registered dietitians/nutritionists work on everything from advising patients on their diet to overseeing the menus of commercial kitchens. With the rise of food allergies and obesity, diet is being used as part of wholistic treatments from cancer to heart disease. Dietitians have a bachelor’s degree and must complete an accredited practice program. Nutritionists complete a certification program and do not need a degree. Both may take on individual clients or work at institutions like schools or hospitals. These jobs are often attractive for their predictable hours and are growing rapidly. Median salary: $60,000 https://bit.ly/2Txmwlx
Orthotics and prostheses may be required as a result of loss of limb due to diabetes or cardiovascular disease. They are also necessary to combat injuries, birth defects or other accidents. Orthotics use devices to enhance a person’s limb while prosthetics is limb replacement. There is a growing need for medical supportive devices such as artificial limbs (hands, arms, legs, etc.), braces, or other medical devices to assist patients in leading more productive lives. This requires a master’s degree including a “hands-on” clinical experience as part of the program. Median salary: $69,000 https://bit.ly/32Ilojg
MEDICAL & HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATORS
Health care is the fastest growing sector of the economy. As the size and complexity of hospitals and medical practices increases, the need for professional managers has grown massively. The job is challenging and require understanding budgets as well as working with employees. The job can be equal parts stressful and exciting as you are empowered to effect change in organizations and make a difference for both patients and the bottom line. Some managers have a degree in health care administration or business while others have master’s degrees in public health, business administration or public administration. Median salary: $100,000 https://bit.ly/2SHxDYD
INSPIRE, LEARN, CREATE: INSPIRING LETTERS FROM STEM STUDENTS
Ben H. in Sonoma, CA Grade: 12
Katherine S. in Clarksville, MD Grade: 10
INTENDED MAJOR: ASTROPHYISICS/ASTRONOMY My passion for astronomy and astrophysics sometimes seems too complex to describe as I’ve been fascinated with the universe for most of my life. My uncle, an astronomer by hobby, showed me the night skies through his telescopes, letting me see the rings of Saturn. I was also fascinated by spacerelated TV shows that exposed me to cosmology and astrophysics. Over the years, I have pursued these interests by watching science videos, visiting science museums, and reading books, such as The Edge of Physics by Anil Ananthaswami, about physics and the history of science. In the summer of my junior year, I visited UC Berkeley, where a family member who worked at the university showed me the physics laboratories. The highlight was a close look at the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), which has two main purposes: to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe and to create a map of the universe. Such a map would be a significant accomplishment. In addition to helping us better understand the universe, astronomers might discover other Earth-like
planets, which could potentially hold life. After reflecting a bit more, I know why I am so drawn to the cosmos. It is
Bay Ecosystems Research to conduct field investigations and to analyze
my belief that life has no inherent meaning. Everyone makes his or her own
real world data. Working along with top scientists and professionals, we
meaning and I choose to believe in discovery. I plan on pursuing a career
learned to develop possible solutions to determine the affects of physical,
path in which I may work on DESI-like projects.
chemical, and biological influences on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In the past three years at high school, I took several STEM AP/GT courses such as Computer Science Principles, Java, Biology, Chemistry, Physics,
Sharvya S. in San Diego, CA Grade: 12
and Environmental Sciences. I truly fell in love with STEM and happily found that the computer programming skills I acquired could be
INTENDED MAJOR: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
used to solve real-world programs via object oriented designs, classes,
After volunteering for 100+ hours at a nearby hospital and providing
objects, data types, and control statements.
necessities to patient rooms, there was one patient interaction in particular that inspired me. While helping a lady in the room who was recovering from a major surgery and chatting with her, I realized how much patients like to interact with other people while in a hospital and how a little kindness can go a long way. Through this realization, I decided to establish an organization named Penpals for Patients, which creates and sends homemade cards/letters to nursing homes and hospitals. My organization created more than 300 handmade cards filled with uplifting messages and stickers, and we sent them to local charities/hospitals.
INTENDED MAJOR: COMPUTER SCIENCE I want to help people by utilizing technology. With tech, you can create anything you can imagine and I want to leverage it to create a more equitable world. I hope to use tech for social and political change. I especially want to help historically disadvantaged people like ethnic minorities, women, and LGBTQ+ people.
I also developed an interest in doing research after spending many hours interning and assisting postdocs with research at SDSU and Sanford Burnham Prebys Research Institute on the presence of de novo genes in a native plant and the effect of chemo drugs on colorectal cancer cells, I hope to apply my knowledge and experience in conducting scientific research for the environment. I have taken college oceanography classes, worked in a paid position teaching marine biology to younger children, and acted as a lead in my school's National Ocean Sciences Bowl team. These are a few reasons why I have decided to pursue a major in environmental sciences while continuing to further Penpals for Patients.
Aderonke A. in Mantua, NJ Grade: 11
To start, I would like to combat ignorance. A lot of hatred stems from ignorance and perpetuates a culture in which discrimination is acceptable and legal change does not happen. I want to create a digital start-up that will connect people of different backgrounds, so they have a better understanding of each other and the world outside of where they live. I hope to combat ignorance and stop hatred from spreading with a website that will be a safe space for healthy interaction for people with different experiences and opinions. From there, I want to continue to use STEM for social change.
As the demand for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) graduates is growing, there are a number of scholarships that are geared towards studying in these fields. Organizations and colleges are doing their part to entice high school and undergraduate students to consider a degree in STEM.
STEM SCHOLARSHIP RESOURCES
Below is the list of a few STEM scholarships. For each scholarship, refer to the website or link to get details on eligibility, amount, deadlines, field of study, and where to apply. --> Society of Women Engineers
--> Peggy Dixon Society of Physics
--> Dell computer corporation
Microsoft tuition scholarships are
Students (SPS) scholarship
awarded each year to encourage
The SWE Scholarship Program provides
The purpose of the Society of
Dell Scholars was designed to
students to pursue studies in
financial assistance to women admitted
Physics Students scholarship
provide a support system for the
Computer Science and related STEM
to accredited baccalaureate or graduate
program is to encourage the study
challenges many students face
disciplines. The tuition scholarship is
programs, in preparation for careers in
of physics and the pursuit of high
while pursuing a degree. Nationally,
available to students enrolled full
engineering, engineering technology
education. The scholarship is
500 Dell Scholars are selected each
time in a bachelor’s degree program
and computer science. Scholarships are
named in memory of Dr. Peggy A.
year to receive a scholarship plus
at a four-year college or university in
typically awarded in May (sophomore,
Dixon, SPS and Sigma Pi Sigma
lots of non-monetary support.
junior, senior and graduate students)
Historian. Application due date is
Amount: A $20,000 scholarship and
Also, the scholarship will be awarded
and July (freshmen and reentry
March 15th. If this date falls on a
a laptop with a 4-year warranty
in recognition of recipients’
students) for use during the following
weekend, the application is due
Level/Field of Study: Participate
demonstrated passion for
academic year. Recipients are
the following Monday.
in a program-approved college
technology, academic excellence,
announced in September.
Amount: The award consists of a
readiness program in grades 11 and
and leadership while working to
Amount: Scholarships range from
12. Be on track to graduate from an
push the software industry forward.
$1,000 to $16,000 each and some are
Level/Field of Study: Applicants
accredited high school in the
Amount: Full year tuition
must be undergraduate members
current academic year. Be eligible
Level/Field of Study: Full-time
Level/Field of Study: All applicants must
of the SPS national organization.
to receive a federal Pell Grant in first
students in Computer Science,
be planning to attend a school with
They must have completed at least
year of college. Plan to enroll full
one semester or quarter of the
time at an accredited higher
STEM disciplines (Science,
Undergraduate and community college
introductory physics sequence.
education institution in the pursuit
Technology, Engineering, and
applicants must be planning to study an
Applicants must be transitioning
of a bachelor's degree in the fall
ABET-accredited program in
from a two-year college into a
directly following high school
Application contact/link: Visit the
engineering, technology, or computing
physics bachelor's degree program
graduation. Earn a minimum of a
link below for Microsoft Tuition
in the upcoming academic year.
2.4 GPA. Applications open October
Application contact/link: Details can be
Applicants must complete
1 with a December 1 deadline .
found on the SWE Scholarships page.
For more information, contact them
General questions regarding
scholarships can be sent here.
--> Microsoft tuition scholarship
the United States, Canada or Mexico.
Computer Engineering, or related
SPECIAL THANKS TO OUR
Please select the advertiser/ college you would like to receive more information from and email us at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Texas A&M Kingsville
The Ocean Corporation
Next Step STEM Scholarship
Next Step Universe
Pennsylvania College of Technology
Virginia Tech-Corps of Cadets
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Magazine for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) for middle school, high school and college students as well as those i...
Published on Feb 21, 2020
Magazine for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) for middle school, high school and college students as well as those i...