Page 1


1

This study was written and prepared by Yusra Uzair of Nexos Comunitarios with preliminary research and analysis conducted by students from Arthur Kroeger College of Public Affairs from Carleton University, Canada. Nexos Comunitarios 2016 Urubamba – Cusco. Electronic Version. Peru.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


2 Table of Contents Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................. 2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................ 3 List of Figures ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................... 5 Nexos Comunitarios .............................................................................................................................. 6 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Context ................................................................................................................................................ 13 Peru and Human Rights .................................................................................................................... 13 Transitional Justice .......................................................................................................................... 14 Cuncani ........................................................................................................................................... 16 Other Institutional Efforts in the region ........................................................................................... 18 Amnesty International ................................................................................................................. 18 Centro Bartolomé de las Casas (CBC) .......................................................................................... 20 La Defensoría del Pueblo ............................................................................................................. 21 Findings and Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 24 Health ............................................................................................................................................. 24 Education ........................................................................................................................................ 26 Economic Empowerment ................................................................................................................ 28 Human Rights and Interculturality ................................................................................................... 30 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................................... 34 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 37 Annexes .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Annex 1: Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) ................................................................................... 40 I. PPI Results for Cuncani ............................................................................................................. 40 II. PPI Questionnaire (PPI) ........................................................................................................... 41 Annex 2: Survey Questions .............................................................................................................. 42 Annex 3: Interview Questions .......................................................................................................... 45

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


3

Abbreviations CBC

Centro BartolomĂŠ de las Casas

MPI

Multidimensional Poverty Index

NC

Nexos Comunitarios

NGO

Non-profit governmental organization

OPHI

Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative

PPI

Progress out of Poverty Index

TRC

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


4

List of Figures Figure 1: NC's Development Model Figure 2: Demographics of Cuncani Figure 3: Nutrition in Cuncani Figure 4: Education in Cuncani Figure 5: Employment in Cuncani Figure 6: Safety Concerns

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


5

Acknowledgements This explorative study could not have been possible without the support and hospitality of the citizens of Cuncani. We thank them for their time and willingness to participate in the research; their survey responses and testimonies enable us to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of discrimination faced by microcosms in the Andes. It is our hope that through collaborative efforts, we will be able to achieve an intercultural society where respect of cultural differences is valued and celebrated. The work and contribution of the student group of Amalia Lentini, Chloe Halpenny, Roberto ChĂĄvez, Sharon Schuppe, Kenji Misawa and Ailan Holbrook from the Arthur Kroeger College of Public Affairs from Carleton University was instrumental in the actualization of this report. We cannot thank the students enough for their contribution; conducting fieldwork in Cuncani, researching and preparing all preliminary findings, and attending meetings with local organizations to learn more about the realities of Andean communities in an open and sensitive manner.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


6

Nexos Comunitarios Nexos Comunitarios (NC) is a Peruvian non-profit organization that was created to continue the work initiated by Nexos Voluntarios in Urubamba (2008-2014). NC works closely with rural small communities in the Andes, with the goal of facilitating Responsible Human Development. NC works alongside communities to help build Human (health and education) and Social Capital (institutions, relationships and more) in an effort to support long term, sustainable development solutions. NC’s development model is the basis of all its programs. The model establishes a linear prioritization of factors: the necessity for sound health strengthening human capital, resulting in expanded educational capacity and ability, which increases economic opportunities of a community. These three facets of development are intrinsic to NC’s mission of supporting Responsible Human Development.

Figure 1: NC's Development Model As illustrated in Figure 1, interculturality and human rights are integral to NC’s vision for sustainable development; however, these factors are only advantageous to a community after the acquisition of the basic necessities for life. At each phase of development, appropriate intellectual exchanges occur with communities, building trust and partnership. In order to initiate dialogue concerning

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


7 interculturality and human rights, respect and compassion1 are needed. These are the principles that motivate NC’s approach. Cultural awareness of the different customs and norms practised and valued by the Andean microcosm realizes NC’s efforts of promoting sustainable development.

1

NC understands compassion as: " Within languages that do not form the word ‘compassion’ from the root of the affliction, but the substantive sense, these words are used approximately in the same way, however it is impossible to confirm what is a secondary bad feeling. The secret power of its etymology illuminates the word with another light and gives a broader meaning: to have compassion means knowing not only to be able to live with other's misfortune but also to feel with him any emotion: joy, anxiety, happiness, pain" explained by Milan Kundera.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


8

Introduction Peru has experienced positive economic development and growth in the last few decades illustrated by a 6.5 percent increase in GDP over the last 10 years alone.2 Tourism has largely contributed to the economic growth with the World Bank reporting 3.16 million international visitors to Peru in 2013 compared to 2.3 million visitors in 2010.3 The promotion of cultural, geographical, and biological diversity helps endorse Peru as a must-visit destination for world travellers. However, these same features have caused fractures in the progression of human rights and sustainable development. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states the fundamental rights and freedoms outlined in the declaration are applicable to: “Everyone […] without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or

other

opinion,

national

or

social

origin,

4

property, birth or other status.” While the cultural heritage of Peru is promoted, the existing indigenous communities that practice many of these traditions are neglected through social and economic exclusion of the State as they are socially and economically excluded and politically marginalized5. The Peruvian Constitution stipulates that all its citizens have the same rights regardless of race, sex, religion, language, and origin6 yet isolated and traditional groups continue to face discrimination, social alienation, and infringement of their legal human rights. The dichotomy of the advertised tourist destination and the reality lived by the indigenous population raises concern for responsible, inclusive development nationally. As an important tenet of NC’s development model, NC strongly asserts that a society cannot fully enjoy its rights unless it recognizes the importance of interculturality. The Peruvian Ministry of Culture defines interculturality as: “[…] a practice of respect and appreciation of our differences. The intercultural citizen is able to dialogue with citizens from different cultures, who talk distinct languages or have different religious beliefs. The

2

Chiesa, Thea, Roberto Crotti, and Klaus Lengefeld. The Peru Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013. Rep. Peru: World Economic Forum, 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2015. 3 "International Tourism, Number of Arrivals." The World Bank- Data. The World Bank. Web. 24 Sept. 2015. 4 UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III). Web. 24 Sept. 2015 5 "Discrimination and Inequality." Peru Support Group. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 6 Peru. Congress of the Republic. The Political Constitution of Peru. 1993. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


9 intercultural

citizen

considers

his

perspective

about the world as valuable as the perspectives of other citizens. It is important to mention that it is not necessary to know in depth the culture of the other, not even share his view. The fundamental and necessary

is

to

engage

in

dialogue

on

an

equal

condition.”7 Responsible Human Development required the successful functioning of an intercultural and inclusive society, thus promoting sustainable and ethical development. An intercultural society recognizes the diverse composition of its people and enables open, respectful, and safe dialogue while observing equal rights of its citizens; an individual’s rights are not obstructed or treated as a hindrance for the prosperity of a society. It is with this aim that NC conducted a study in the community of Cuncani; to promote the interrelation between basic human rights and the essential component of interculturality to ensure Responsible Human Development that is sustainable and inclusive. As this is NC’s first Exploration Initiative8, the organization is committed to better understanding the realities faced by Andean microcosms by learning about the culture, daily practices, and future aspirations of the members. The report begins with a brief explanation of the research methodology and exploration undertaken for this study. This is followed by a historical contextualization that provides insight into the evolution of Human Rights in Peru. Next, the report presents the principal characteristics of the community of Cuncani and explores the efforts by organizations in the country to address human rights violations while promoting initiatives to cultivate interculturality. Furthermore, the document analyzes the findings from the surveys and interviews administered in Cuncani, focusing on development sectors of health, education, economic empowerment, human rights, and interculturality. The report concludes with a few observations and potential measures that can be promoted in order to address the complexities and challenges of development in the Andes of Peru.

7

Agüero, José Carlos, and Pablo Sandoval. Enfoque Intercultural. Aportes Para La Gestión Pública. Rep. Lima: Ministerio De Cultura, 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 8 See ‘Methodology’ section for more information.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


10

Methodology Promoting Responsible Human Development requires the implementation of well-informed projects. NC is committed to sustainable processes and emphasizes the importance of research in developing well-planned and context-specific projects in communities. As the organization was founded in 2014, current resources are limited for conducting extensive and in-depth research. Nevertheless, NC has developed an offshoot internal initiative to complement our projects referred to as Exploration Initiative. This study is the first product of the Exploration Initiative that not only enlightens the work NC does, but also hones the research capacity of the organization. This study follows the methodology as further explained. The data collected for the purpose of this study was predominately through interviews and surveys conducted with the citizens of Cuncani and discussions with private and public institutions that agreed to meet with NC. The survey consisted of short questions pertaining to health, education, and standard of living in order to gain quantitative data of the community. The interviews required 20-30 minutes per participant to explore perceptions of the community on issues ranging from health, education, interculturality and discrimination in order to contextualize Cuncani through qualitative analysis. The survey questions were highly structured, whereas interviews were more flexible, allowing the conversation to focus where the respondent felt the most comfortable within a given set of topics. The surveys and interviews were formulated and conducted by the student group from the Arthur Kroeger College of Public Affairs at Carleton University. The students prepared for the fieldwork by participating in a rigorous orientation and numerous information sessions. NC facilitated discussions on issues of cultural sensitivity, examine socio-economic trends of micro-spaces in the Andes, and the norms and customs of the communities. Furthermore, the students were assigned academic readings on Peruvian history, social issues of the Andes region, and cases of discrimination as experienced by the indigenous population. The student group also attended cultural workshops led by Media Luna about Andean cultural activities. The exposure to Peruvian culture and history was an essential part of the students’ training to acquire the tools necessary for successful field research. In order to ensure our research was done in a sensitive, responsible, and respectable manner, NC and our student group liaised with Centro BartolomÊ de las Casas (CBC) to collaborate on the structure for the interviews and their approach; respecting cultural norms of Cuncani. CBC has extensive experience in facilitating dialogue with indigenous groups and their knowledge was pertinent for the success of the

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


11 study. Interviews were conducted with three directors at CBC’s Colegio Andino: Ligia Alencastre, Vilma Tumpe, and Rafael Mercado. CBC identified what they refer to as “intercultural dialogue” as a key component in their facilitation. CBC asserted that in order to have successful dialogue the respondent must feel equal to the surveyor in order to avoid patronization. In order to build a relationship with the respondents, it was important to state the purpose and cause for the interview. The CBC further advised it beneficial to speak with the communal president and inform them of the organization and the interview plan for the community. During the interview process and in greeting the participants, all three directors mentioned the importance of beginning conversations with a personal antidote to ease the participants. Alencastre added, “The interview should feel informal, comfortable and engaging for the respondent”. The interviews and surveys were conducted in Cuncani between Monday, June 15th and Thursday, June 18th, 2015. In total, 32 surveys and 29 interviews were completed. The six students spent three days and one night in Cuncani, living alongside community members where they spent time with the local students at the multi-grade school9. The interview questions were formulated by the Carleton student group with the feedback and research being carried out by NC. A translator from Cuncani was hired to aid in the interview process as many participants only speak Quechua.10 The responses were reflective at the household level, where parents spoke on the behalf of their children and dependents. While appropriate measures were observed in the administration of the surveys and interviews, there were certain limitations within the methodology that necessitate further consideration. The initial surveys and interviews were too long in length for respondents which meant that surveyors had to alter the questions being asked, or simply eliminate complete lines of inquiry. Furthermore, presentation and approach of the surveyors had an impact on the quality of the interview responses as surveyors often forgot to introduce their ties to NC and/or their purpose for the interviews. Surveyors observed that responses from community members tended to be more detailed and eager when participants were informed about NC and the purpose for the visit. As a result, there was inconsistency in approach and negligence in providing complete information to respondents. 9

Multi-grade schools/classrooms are most prevalent in small, rural communities worldwide where a teacher is responsible for pupils from varying grades, learning capacities and ages, teaching standardized learning material. In rural communities, multigrade systems are often adopted due to limited human capital and financial resources. 10 Quechua is an indigenous language spoken primarily in the Andes region in South America, with strong association to the Inca Empire, although the language predates the civilization.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


12 To fully comprehend the results of the field research, it is crucial to account the setting and circumstances around which interviews and surveys were being conducted. Cuncani is a rural community where work largely consists of agricultural duties. These duties impacted time and completeness of interviews. On one occasion, the participant left halfway through the interview as it was essential that she return to her work. In other cases, answers were rushed, or it was difficult to reach participants altogether as they were occupied elsewhere during the day. Thus, some individuals answered only the survey or the interview questions. Nexos Voluntarios and NC have conducted three surveys in Cuncani since organization presence in the community and have visited the community on a weekly basis over the last three years. The results expressed in this report must be considered with reservation; the data collected is the analytical basis for this report however the unseen and collective experiences of visiting and informally speaking with the community over the years paints a different reality of Cuncani. The circumstances of conducting the surveys and an underlying complexity are unavoidable and should be accounted in reflection about the quality, accuracy, and depth of responses from participants.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


13

Context Peru and Human Rights Human rights form the basis of law governing societies across the globe. Nations, international organization and governance bodies have committed to upholding and promoting international human rights law, which defines the sovereignty and intrinsic rights guaranteed to all human beings particularly through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. However, accountability, transparency, and the actual fulfillment of these duties have been neglected in many countries around the world. Peru has a history of violations and impediments in the progression of human rights of all citizens. A nation whose history spans across several civilizations including pre-Incan, Incan, Spanish colonization, and the post-colonization periods, struggle and oppression has been experienced in every era.11 Initiating and continuing discourse on human rights and discrimination is an integral subject when engaging in dialogue and development work in Peru. There is a critical need to address the inequality and deprivation experienced by the marginalized, indigenous communities. Inequality and deprivation hinders the sustainable development of the Andean region by directly impacting the well-being of the Andean people through lack of health necessities, unreliable and partial educational infrastructure, and higher rates of unlawful prosecution.12 These factors continue to isolate and impede on individual’s abilities to obtain basic necessities, thus violating human rights. The life standard is further compromised by complex discrimination.13 Therefore, it is crucial to talk and also actively promote and demand accountability for fair and just treatment of all citizens. NC is diligent in consciously creating and implementing programs that are a response to the specific needs of the community and opening space for acknowledging and addressing the various ways in which violation of human rights and discrimination impacts the communities. While NC’s areas of work are in health, education, and economic empowerment, the organization incorporates tenets of human right activism and addresses discrimination experienced by the communities by promoting interculturality to gain a holistic understanding of the realities of Andean microcosms. NC’s conviction is that the effective protection of human rights needs to be the foundation for sustainable and equitable development processes. Consequently, to do so, there needs to be a comprehension of history, culture, and context. 11

Peru: From Prosperity to Purpose. Rep. Hauser Institute for Civil Society, Harvard University, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. "Peru Society and Conflict: Discrimination and Inequality." Peru Support Group. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 13 Ibid. 12

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


14 As equal human rights are not enjoyed by the whole population of Peru, it is a state requiring extensive work; thus, the following components pertaining to human rights need to be accounted for.

Transitional Justice Between the years of 1980 and 2000, Peru experienced the most violent, and gruesome internal social conflict in its history. One of the terrorist group of Peru, widely known as Shining Path, was credited for inciting an armed struggle against the Peruvian state, which resulted in mass human and economic devastation; it is reported that over 69, 280 people died during the conflict. This twenty-year period has cast a shadow over the development and progress of human rights and discrimination in Peru. In 2001, following the end of the conflict, the transitional government under the power of Valentín Paniagua appointed a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The objective of the TRC was as following: to analyse the political, social, and cultural circumstances and longstanding societal patterns which enabled the terrorist uprising; to outline the crimes and human rights violations committed by the Shining Path and the agents of the State; to propose reparations essential for the healing process of victims; to recommend institutional and legal reform to ensure such events never happen again; and establish mechanisms for effectively implementing the recommendations specified in the Commission’s report.14 The two major conclusions of the TRC report were that those involved in the violations of human rights and acts of violence and terror - both the Shining Path and the State - be held accountable through prosecution, and that the individuals and communities affected by the conflict be compensated for their suffering. The report was received with mixed reviews, dependent on the actors and which side of the conflict they were on. The far right political parties, the local elite, and the military strongly challenged the conclusions of the TRC report accusing the Commission of bias, as well as criticising human rights NGOs for defending the interests of “terrorists” and “persecuting” the armed forces. However, the TRC asserted that the campesinos15 people; primarily those living in the Andes and the Amazon were principle victims of suffering and violence, where 79 percent lived in rural areas with 56 percent engaged in farming activities. This information diverges from the data collected by the 1993 census and establishes that only 16 percent of the population of Peru lived in rural areas and 28 percent were actively working in the farming sector. The disparity in figures exemplifies the gap in understanding and

14 15

What Lessons Have Been Learnt? Rep. Peru Support Group, Feb. 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. A term commonly used to refer to rural, low-class, agricultural workers.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


15 sparse efforts in promoting the participation of peasant population as a whole of the nation. The TRC report stated that it “has been able to discern that the process of violence, combined with socioeconomic gaps, highlighted the seriousness of ethno-cultural inequalities that still prevail in the country.” 16 The head of the Peruvian Jesuit Church, Father Miguel Cruzado has stated that, “The TRC not only helped us understand the political violence of the 1980s… It was like a Copernican revolution on the way we looked at Peru and its fundamental problems”.17 The Report analyzes Peruvian society and the underlying issues it must address. Moreover, the Report’s significant contribution is the official recognition of the ethnic conflict within Peru, making it difficult for society to deny the reality of the country’s violent history; Peru’s “most painful social wound is this racism, this despising of other people”.18 Following the publishing of the TRC report, there have been changes initiated in accordance with the recommendations. Community reparations are the most popular and arguably most progressed reparation, yet with limited success. In 2006, popularity of community reparations peaked, largely due to increased support by politicians motivated to build support and lure votes.19 Even though the reparations are managed by the High Level Multi-sectorial Commission (CMAN), the institution lacks the capacity to implement and monitor coordination resulting in failed projects where communities did not have sufficient resources or knowledge to manage logistics.20 Institutional reforms and symbolic reparations have been largely curbed to the wayside; however this does not retract from the significance of the whole TRC report in itself. The undertaking of analyzing the past and looking to the future forms a large cornerstone in transitional justice for the country’s history. Transitional justice aims to ensure that the past does not repeat itself through educating and devoting resources and attention the injustices in order for the next generation of individuals’ to prepare for future peace, equality, and sustainability. By combatting discrimination, promoting human rights for all, and discussing the consequences of the past, a Society may achieve Responsible Human Development where there is acknowledgement for all citizens to be treated and valued equally. This is 16

La Comisión De La Verdad Y Reconciliación. A Comisión De La Verdad Y Reconciliación, 28 Aug. 2003. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. Martinez, Marta. "Peru's Painful Mirror." The International Centre for Transitional Justice. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid. 20 Ibid. 17

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


16 accomplished by designing social programs conscious of the under-laying intricacies of ethnic, racial, cultural divides felt by the indigenous population. It is pertinent that programs are reflective of traditional practises and customs of the communities they operate in. Sustainable change may be incremental, but it will be most impactful when the multi-dimensional realities of the people are accounted for.

Cuncani Cuncani is a community located in the province of Urubamba. Cuncani is approximately thirty minutes away (via car) from the district of Lares, which in 2013 ranked as the poorest district in the whole country21, calculated using a wealth indicator. The reality of Cuncani is much more similar to that of Lares, than it is to the town of Urubamba. The Progress out of Poverty Index (see Annex) results collected through surveys established that 94% of the houses are made of rock, 88% of the community burns wood for energy as there is no electricity.22 29% of the community indicated liking nature best about their community, which illustrates the rural livelihoods and culture specific to Andean region.23 Extreme weather conditions and limited economic choices were voiced by the citizens as factors they did not enjoy about their community further illustrating the lack of sufficient developmental infrastructure in place to support sustainable progress.24

Figure 2: Demographics of Cuncani 21

During the publishing of this report, the new Poverty Map was released by the National Institute of Statistics and Information, ranking Lares as 794 out of 1,943 districts in level of poverty. 22 See Annex 1 for more information regarding the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI), and the results gathered. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


17 In the province of Urubamba, national social programs have been implemented to address health and educational welfare such as Cuna Más, Juntos, Foncodes, Pensión 65 and Q’ali Warma.25 Q’ali Warma is a national health program aimed to increase nutritional intake of elementary school children.26 The program provides breakfast food to school; in the case of Cuncani, it is one delivery per semester of white bread, sugar, canned milk, oats, and caramel for three breakfasts per week.27 As Q’ali Warma is a centrally designed but regionally managed program, the food products received by different communities are based on wealth indicators that rank each district’s level of need. For example, because Cuncani is counted as part of the Urubamba province, despite its proximity to Lares, it ranks 1248 out of 1836 districts, which means the true reality of the community is misrepresented.28 Furthermore, the realities of Andean microcosms are not captured by national studies and remain inaccurate statistical representations of the population in the communities. For example, in the 2007 national census, 51% of Peruvians living in the province of Urubamba self-identified as speaking Quechua as their first language, as opposed to 47% speaking Castellano.29 84% of the persons identified as being capable of reading and writing and 38% had attended some sort of post-secondary education (a college, technical institute, or university).30 This information, if applied to the entire province of Urubamba, serves to deflate the statistics for Cuncani. The survey results indicate that only 42% of the participants disclosed an ability to read and write Spanish. Of 59 responses, only five individuals in Cuncani identified as having attended secondary school.31 In terms of development, such disparities underline the need to manage development and human rights work in communities such as Cuncani on a micro level. Provincial statistics gloss over local realities, missing the situation on the ground entirely. The community of Cuncani is geographically isolated with high altitudes and extreme weather conditions. As such, it is crucial that any development work in Cuncani be designed and implemented with consideration given to the local context. 25

Peru. Ministerio de Desarollo e Inclusion Social. INFOMIDIS. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. "Quiénes Somos." Qali Warma. Ministerio De Desarollo Y Inclusion Social, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 27 Tremblay-Levesque, Laurent-Charles and Valdivieso, Maricarmen. Community-Based Responsible Human Development Model: How Improving Health Is the First Step in Promoting Human Development. Pegasus Conference, Toronto. 2014. 28 Ibid. 29 "Presentación." Censo De Población Y Vivienda 2007. Instituto Nacional De Estadística E Informática (INEI).Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid. 26

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


18 Demonstrating the disparity in information available on microcosms such as Cuncani further supports and informs NC’s assertion that a lack of basic necessities creates an ecosystem where human rights are regularly and consistently violated and remain unfulfilled. A community that does not have access to the basic necessities to maintain an adequate standard of living does not have full exercise of their intrinsic human rights.

Other Institutional Efforts in the region While the severity of discrimination and violation of human rights is an ongoing issue, organizations (local, non-profit, and government institutions) working with marginalized groups continue in their efforts. In order for NC to develop programs in line with the best intentions and purposes for the communities, NC investigated and researched the efforts of locally based organizations dedicated to combating discrimination and promoting interculturality. The following descriptions of regional organizational initiative are the outcomes of interviews, on line research and secondary resources such as books and academic writings.

Amnesty International Since the founding of Amnesty International Peru twenty years ago, the organization has expanded to nine different branches across the country. In the Cusco region, the branch is referred to as “Group 54”. Rosario Salazar, Director of Amnesty International for Cusco region, explained that Group 54 consists solely of volunteers. As the office is run on a volunteer basis, the number of members that make up the group regularly fluctuates. Group 54 currently focuses on sexual and reproductive rights, human trafficking, and the protection of human rights of vulnerable people from mining extractions sites.32 The Cusco branch is also engaged in a campaign called “Déjala Decidir”, which translates to “Let her Choose”, seeking to legalize abortion. Furthermore, to promote human rights in the Cusco region, different actions have been adopted; Group 54 focuses on spreading awareness of what the government is doing or has done (actions causing issues or violations), as well as informing the public of their rights, specifically women’s rights. In addition, through disseminating the awareness of specific problems, the organization advocates policy makers to make policy changes. By holding information campaigns, collecting signatures, and using the radio as a communication tool (broadcasting in Quechua) they spread information to the outskirts of the Cusco region. 32

Salazar, Rosario. "Amnestia Internacional Group 54." Personal interview. 1 June 2015.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


19 Their main programs include: Amhauta – Moviendo de Promoción por los DD.HH. de las Mujeres and Centro Andino de Educación y Promoción José Maria Arguedas [CADEP]. Amhauta focuses primarily on the development of living conditions and protects basic rights for girls, boys, women and indigenous people in the different regions in Peru, especially in Cusco region. Amhauta’s seven objectives are as following: 1) Sexual and reproductive rights 2) HIV: AIDS 3) Regional dialogue to combat violence 4) Collective effort against sexual abuse and trafficking (CASIT) 5) Regional dialogue against sexual exploitation and trafficking 6) Regional Council for Women in Cusco 7) Regional Directive Committee for Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour in its worst forms.33 Salazar stated that the discrimination towards women is the most problematic issue in Peru.34 In 2013, there were reported 151 murders attempts against women. There were 13 registered cases in the region of Cusco.35 Amhauta program promoting human rights, particularly for women, has three principles: communication, promotion and training, and involvement in politics.36 For their second program, Amnesty International collaborates with CADEP, a non-profit organization that aims to create critical capacity and promote participation and innovation in the sphere of sustainable development.37 The training program titled “Human Rights and Development” is part of the project, “Empowering Communities to Demand Justice and Dignity”. It aims to give communities the will and power to demand justice for violations as well as for dignity.38 The goal of the training program,

33

Pamphlet of Amhauta “Amhauta: Mov. De Promoción por los DD.HH. de las Mujeres.” Salazar, Rosario. "Amnestia Internacional Group 54." Personal interview. 1 June 2015. 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid. 37 "About Us." Centro Andino De Educación Y Promoción José María Arguedas. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 38 "Nuevo Proyecto Con Amnistía Internacional." Centro Andino De Educación Y Promoción José María Arguedas. July 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 34

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


20 which consists of five, 24-hour workshops, is to strengthen the capacity of development agents to work towards a more just and equitable society that respects human rights in the entire community.39 In addition to the workshops, the project provides monitoring devices such as diagnostics, communication and broadcasted information on advocating strategies for local and regional levels.40 Amnesty International also contributes to aiding in the relocation of indigenous populations from the area where mining extraction has had negative effects on their livelihoods, due to contaminated natural resources.41

Centro Bartolomé de las Casas (CBC) Established in 1974, Centro Bartolomé de las Cases (CBC) is a non-governmental organization operating out of the Department of Cusco. Their mission statement expresses a commitment to Peru’s marginalized people and describes the organization as a “nexus of encounters between cultures, disciplines, and worlds.” With the goal of creating an open-minded and intercultural society, the CBC focuses on research and education with an ultimate objective of promoting the Andean culture and their self-determination on a regional, national, and international scale. The organization focuses on four initiatives: 1) Project of Intercultural Formation of AboriginalQuechuan Leaders (Amauta-Oullana), 2) Collective Rights Development Project, 3) Intercultural Conflict Project, and 4) Social Management of Hydric Resources. With respect to addressing discrimination and human rights, NC discussed the Project of Intercultural Formation of AboriginalQuechuan Leaders with representatives from the organization as this program was most relevant for the purpose of this study. This initiative aims to provide the opportunity for Andean indigenous persons to pursue their own discourse through the development of their own argumentative position. The project simultaneously focuses on creating a dialogue between the Occidental and Andean culture. For one week per month for a period of eight months, the CBC facilitates meetings among indigenous leaders throughout Cusco, occurring as “pedagogical experiences” between the leaders of these communities. By giving Andean people the opportunity to teach and learn from one another, the leadership program effectively equips them with the tools required to empower themselves, and its promotion. 39

Ibid. Ibid. 41 Salazar, Rosario. "Amnestia Internacional Group 54." Personal interview. 1 June 2015 40

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


21 For instance, in 2007, this initiative aided the communal leaders to shape their critical perspective on the future of their community. One participant stated, “Meanwhile we leave our children open doors in the path of integration, we now understand that their generation’s mission is to overcome the stigmas of servitude”. Furthermore, this program helps to create an atmosphere in which the current relationships between the high Andean-indigenous lifestyle and the lifestyle of Peruvian modern society can be explored and understood. As an organization, the CBC boasts over forty years of experience working in remote Andean communities. This experience, combined with an extensive knowledge of the Quechua language and cultural traditions, makes the CBC a valuable partner in the NGO network concerned with interculturality, human rights, and other concerns.

La Defensoría del Pueblo

The Peruvian Ombudsman, La Defensoria del Pueblo, was established during the presidency of Fujimori in 1996. The creation of the Ombudsman was a product of the domestic and international pressures of the time; the economic collapse seen by the Garcia administration (1985- 1990), the social conflict instigated by the group known as Shining Path, and international pressures for accountability.42 The Ombudsman is an institutionalized method of protecting human rights in Peruvian cities and has 28 “oficinas defensoriales” in total, one in each of the country’s 24 regions with five in the capital region of Lima.43 The position of the Defensor is elected by a two-third majority for a five-year term, with possibility for one re-election, and enjoys the same immunity as a member of Congress.44 The role of the Ombudsman is to address all complaints, inquiries and orders of the citizens who have experienced violation of their rights.45 The Ombudsman is not a judge or prosecutor but has unrestricted authority to initiate investigations, respond to admitted complaints, petitions or consultations.46 Furthermore, this role extends to the management of the state administration and public services, and affects a natural extension of the mandate to issuing non-binding reports, recommendations or exhortations to the authorities on behalf of the citizens that asks for compliance in technical, ethical, and legal arguments.47 The autonomy of the Ombudsman is a key contributor to the State on behalf of the

42

Pegram, Tom. "Accountability in Hostile Times: The Case of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman 1996-2001." Journal of Latin American Studies, 40.1 (2008): 51-82. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 43 "Oficinas Defensoriales." La Defensoría Del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 44 Pegram, Tom. "Weak Institutions, Rights Claims and Pathways to Compliance: The Transformative Role of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman." Oxford Development Studies 39.2 (2011): 229-50. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 45 "Donde estamos." La Defensoría Del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 46 Pegram, Tom. "Accountability in Hostile Times: The Case of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman 1996-2001." Journal of Latin American Studies, 40.1 (2008): 51-82. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 47 "Donde estamos." La Defensoría Del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


22 “common good” and “defense of the rights of citizenships”.48 Regardless of its governmental roots, the Ombudsman has established itself as a respected, revered, and trusted institution that promotes and protects the human rights of Peruvian citizens. The Ombudsman works in the following capacities to combat human rights violations and work towards accountability and transparency within the social institutional construct of the State: 1) La Defensoría más cerca de la gente49 is a service that promotes the office’s capabilities to protect the fundamental rights of its citizens, and provides educational training on informing and exercising ones rights.50 This information is distributed through informative fairs, workshops and an effective communication campaign.51 2) Quejas is arguably the most impactful and extensive service provided by the Ombudsman. Care cases are complaints filed against public institutions that have committed human rights violations.52 There are three types of cases that can be submitted. A complaint is submitted in the case where the Ombudsman’s intervention is required to respond to a threat or violation of a fundamental right by a public institution or company.53 A petition is an intervention to resolve a helpless situation affecting violation of one’s rights.54 A query is a request for information and advice on legal and institutional matters pertaining to social or psychological support where the Ombudsman’s refers individuals to the appropriate resources.55 Individuals and large groups can request for the Ombudsman to investigate and process their claims on their behalf.56 An example of a care case is the “Case of Citizen Luis Velit Ramírez: detention without authorization” where Isabel Ramirez presented a complaint to the Ombudsman regarding the detainment of her son, Luis Velit Ramírez by the Anti-drug division of Callao (DIVANDRO) without authorization.57 The Ombudsman responded by commencing an investigation

48

Ibid. In English this translates to, Ombudsman Closer to the People. 50 “Qué hacemos: Difusión y Promoción de Derechos,” Defensoría del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 51 Ibid. 52 “Qué hacemos: Atención de Casos,” La Defensoría del Pueblo, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Ibid. 56 Ibid. 57 Pegram, Tom. "Accountability in Hostile Times: The Case of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman 1996-2001." Journal of Latin American Studies, 40.1 (2008): 51-82. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 49

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


23 and submitting a report to the Sixth Public Prosecutors Office of Callao. The result was formal charges against the named members of the DIVANDRO before the First Penal Court of Callao.58 3) Acciones Itinerantes59 are mobile services that the Ombudsman provide that aim to make the organization’s services accessible to rural communities via mobile information tents.60 Representatives of the Ombudsman travel to rural communities and discuss with the citizens in ways their rights may have been violated and respond by orienting the individuals of what options are available to them in presenting their complaints.61 Overall, the Ombudsman office manages client issues ranging from property complaints and domestic violence to judicial processes and educational systems.62 Education and health were particularly pressing, with Angela Holgado stating that from January to April, the most frequent complaints were typically with regards to education and issues of graduation.63 Holgado identified the state— particularly, the lack of state intervention—as a crucial cause of education issues, a factor which continues to persist when discussing limitations of la Defensoría’s impact and power.64

58

Ibid. In English, it translates to Itinerant Actions 60 “Acciones itinerantes,” La Defensoría del Pueblo, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 61 Holgado, Angela Paucarmayta. "La Defensoría Del Pueblo." Personal interview. 20 May 2015. 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid. 64 Ibid. 59

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


24

Findings and Analysis NC’s development model is based on principles of health, education, and economic empowerment to achieve Responsible Human Development while focusing on interculturality and human rights. The outcomes of the interview and survey responses have been analyzed by subcategories of health, education and economic empowerment due to their interrelation with human rights. As stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate

for

the

health

and

well-being

of

himself…

including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood,

old

age

or

other

lack

of

livelihood

in

circumstances beyond his control.”65 Emphasizing the correlation and multidimensionality of development, health, education, and economic well-being are directly linked to the fulfillment of rights assured to every human being. Sustainable and ethical development can only be achieved if individuals have their basic necessities. Therefore, the results from the interviews are analyzed and discussed by subgenres pertaining to the aforementioned factors of development. Moreover, understanding the challenges faced by the citizens in the following categories helps to create a substantive reality of how many issues pertaining to the community are interrelated.

Health Cuncani’s geographic location has a tremendous impact on health services and the nutritional development of its citizens. Lacking access to health facilities is a major concern for the participants and often a detrimental factor for receiving treatment and medical attention in a timely manner. Furthermore, citizens of Cuncani are limited in both their access and ability to obtain nutritious goods complemented by a lack of education on the critical importance of a balanced diet for healthy development. Parents notice the physical appearance66 of their children but largely believe them to healthy; this observation is misleading from factual evidence that indicates malnourished children between the ages of 0-2 experience cognitive and health impediments including anemia, stunted growth, and the ability to communicate and think analytically.67 Citizens recognize the importance of

65

UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III). Web. 24 Sept. 2015 Parents have indicated noticing the small stature of their children, very thin, or the state of their teeth. 67 "Why Invest in ECD: Evidence." The World Bank Group., 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. 66

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


25 health and nutrition to the benefit of their community and the future of their children; positive outcomes such as NC’s lunch program are well received.

Figure 3: Nutrition in Cuncani As Cuncani does not have a local health centre, community members have to travel to the nearby town of Lares to seek medical care. While there is a dirt road to Lares, 69% of those interviewed noted that their only method of transportation is walking which can take between four to six hours round-trip. As noted by one resident “If someone is seriously ill, they cannot travel that far.” 25 % of community members have expressed a desire for Cuncani to have a health centre in the next twenty years. A crucial aspect of health is nutrition. While almost all respondents reported eating at least three meals daily68, 100% of respondents reported wanting better access to both fruits and vegetables and 96.9% to dairies and meats. Scarcity of these food groups is evidenced by the frequencies with which respondents consumed these foods: only 56% of families ate fruits, 59% vegetables, 35% meats, and 22% dairy products on a daily basis.69 In accordance with general consensus, each of these four food groups must be consumed in order to have a balanced, healthy diet.70 The scarcity of certain foods can 68

As noted in the Methodology, the survey and interview results do not explicitly illustrate the true reality of the community. While the data states that majority of the community consumes at least three meals a day, students have largely expressed only consuming one meal a day, which tends to be the Lunch provided at the School by NC. 69 One individual respondent said that their family never consumed dairy products. 70 For example, the American Health Association recommends, on a daily basis, 4-5 servings each of vegetables and fruits, 2-3 servings of dairy products, and approximately 6 ounces of meat. For adults, the Canada Food Guide recommends 8-10 servings of vegetables and fruits, 2 servings of milk and alternatives, and 3 servings of meat and alternatives on a daily basis for an adult male, with slightly lesser values for an adult female.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


26 be compounded to limited access or high cost of purchasing these products or simply the inability to grow these products in their farms. One interviewer indicated a desire for “better irrigation for my greenhouse” and another individual “wanted chickens” in efforts to improve current nutritional intake of their families. As illustrated in Figure 3, 60% of parents believe their children are well-nourished which reflects similar perceptions to the 2013 data collected by Nexos Voluntarios where 50% of parents believed their children were well nourished with no reservations. Similarly, while 28% of respondents in 2013 claimed that their children were not well nourished, this value declined significantly in 2015 to 7 %. It was observed by a resident that the Lunch Program may have had an impact on children’s health, stating “since the lunch program, the children learn better and have better attention.” Parents have benefited from the lunch program as well where 32% indicated making the lunch program recipes at home as well. However, the residents still hope for more involvement from the government; one participant stated, “regional government should contribute more to food and health. Living conditions are hard and they should do more.”

Education Education trends in the community of Cuncani are changing incrementally. Parents changing perceptions to the importance of education impacts future generations. While males complete of more education than their female counterparts, parents are starting to recognize the essential need to educate their daughters too; women who lost those opportunities for themselves want a brighter future for their children, with more opportunities. A perpetuating cycle still exists in regards to social construct of the community and breaking traditional gender roles where women are expected to be housewives. Moreover, quality of education has improved with more consistent teachers and classes for attendance. These small changes are progressions and will inevitably impact the next generation’s role in Cuncani’s development.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


27

Figure 4: Education in Cuncani As the multi-grade school is the only source of primary education in the community, responses show that at least 72% of the respondents have primary school education with 16% having secondary school education. As illustrated in Figure 4, more females (58%) than males (42%) attain primary school education, but more males go on to pursue secondary education (76%) than females (24%). The gender gap in education and literacy is evident in the community especially as 80% of females in comparison to only 20% of males do not have any level of education. This is alarming as girls are expected to fill their roles as wives and caregivers, further limiting their opportunities. Moreover, only one third of females stated they could read and write in Quechua, in comparison to the 72% of males. These statistics are consistent with the opinion of one woman interviewed: “Everyone should be equal but they do not feel that way. There is discrimination within the community too. Men feel they have more rights than women...in meetings it is really hard to women to talk because men want

to

listen

to

men...the

president

of

Peru

and

everyone who works in the municipalities are all men.� This demonstrates the largely male dominant influence and mindset in rural Andean communities. However, there seems to be a shift in thinking for the new generation; when parents were given the choice between choosing their son or daughter, 75% chose both, rather than valuing one gender over the other.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


28 In regards to childhood education, 12% of respondents claim teachers have improved education as “teachers are more responsible and stay here constantly, while before they used to come only for a day or two” and 19% credit better food/lunch/nutrition to be the factors resulting in advancements in education. Even with these improvements, residents still believe more educational resources would be beneficial for Cuncani, “I want to see the education keep improving so my children can ‘be somebody’ [have more opportunities]”. In order to support further education, residents voiced the need for more resources like teachers for children to continue studying. Some respondents want a school bus to take kids to Lares and back for secondary school. Overall, residents have seen a positive change in the education system in Cuncani and they hope that the situation continues to improve, opening up future possibilities for their children. All the improvement and changes voiced by the community require collaboration by government, NGOs, and community leaders such as projects to improve infrastructure.

Economic Empowerment Employment opportunities for the citizens of Cuncani are very limited outside of agriculture, tourism and housework. The employment patterns are reflective of cultural norms and traditional gender roles where women are caregivers for the children and animals, whereas men are the main breadwinners. Women from the community have expressed their desire for equal treatment; “In meetings it is really hard for women to talk because men want to listen to men. She sees the president of Peru and the municipalities are all men” indicating the need for women to mobilize and share their views which would directly impact the economy of Cuncani and economically empower women in the community. The development of basic infrastructure has been essential in improving economic activity in Cuncani. Since the construction of a road, residents have claimed “larger availability of products from the highway” and growth in tourism has also helped to slightly diversify Cuncani’s economy. While some respondents’ have mentioned “tourism [as] enable[ing] the women to work,” none of the women stated in the survey having a career in tourism, whereas 24% of men are in the industry. There are several possible explanations for this contradiction. Firstly, the claim that tourism has a positive impact on women may be overemphasized to exaggerate the state of the community. Another possibility is that the impact on women is indirect, with their husbands at the forefront on leading tours, while the women participate by selling artisanal items.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


29 Tourism is the only remunerated job in the community and every male works in the agriculture sector. The results also demonstrated that the majority of women (93.5%) work in the house, with 6.5% working in agriculture. As such, a variety of respondents considered the community to be “selfsufficient”—that is, those in Cuncani survive mainly via creating their own goods and through trade. While this may be able to sustain their current way of life, it is not indicative of economic empowerment, a state of development that is further hindered by the community’s overall lack of health and education, professional skills, and isolation from other communities.

Figure 5: Employment in Cuncani As illustrated in Figure 5, agriculture is the largest industry in Cuncani; however, majority of participants in agriculture are working on family farms. This differentiation is important as the crops and produce grown is not for commercial use, therefore agriculture cannot be relied upon for a steady income for the community.

One resident’s hope for the future is to, “increase knowledge people have about the government so people can organize collectively and improve the economy. Education will improve and they can get more alpacas and training about the alpacas from the government in order to increase their exports/productivity” demonstrating the desire for involvement and partnership with the government to improve current economic conditions.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


30

Human Rights & Interculturality The topic of human rights is proposed for discussion in a respective and sensitive manner considering the violent insurgencies of the late 20th century. NC has been working towards building a relationship with Cuncani for over two years, helping to make its residents feel more comfortable, and possibly increasing the quality of responses. Residents of Cuncani recognize the importance of building relations based on similarities, and strengthening solidarity among all citizens for a brighter, more equal future. Individuals have experienced discrimination, especially when visiting Lares and in public institutions of the State such as the health centre in Lares. These experiences have significantly shaped their perceptions of their ability to truly be viewed as equals to the rest of Peru. The parents focus on teaching their children to be more confident and out-spoken, to stand up for themselves when met with injustice. One Cuncani resident shared, “everyone has the same rights, the right to be equal” acknowledging the ever-present violation of human rights, and the need to work towards a just and equal society. The residents noted that respect towards others and difference in opinion, culture, and language need to be valued in order for responsible and sustainable cohesion with other communities. When asked about discrimination, most respondents eluded to discrimination between people from the Andes versus those from larger cities, namely, the discrimination of Quechua-speakers by the Spanishspeakers. Cuncani residents recognized that inequalities exist between the high Andean communities and larger cities. One woman shares the different ways in which she has experienced discrimination, including “language and clothing” from people in the big cities “who are better educated”. The majority of citizens do not go to the authorities when they experience discrimination. One possible reason for such hesitation is the belief that the authorities will not help; one respondent explained, “the problem with the authorities is that [Cuncani and Lares] are in different [provinces]. Lares is in Calca and Cuncani is in Urubamba, so when they complain they are told it isn't their jurisdiction.” Discrimination is not just between the citizens of the community, but from the government as well, in being entrenched in bureaucracy and inappropriate responses to such concerns. When asked about discrimination, only one woman acknowledged the existence of gender discrimination in Cuncani. According to the survey results, women have significantly lower literacy rates (32% of women v. 68% of men) and a lower percentage of women have secondary education (24% of women v. 76% of men). While it is impossible to know why this information was withheld in interviews

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


31 with other community members, one can speculate that others could have been afraid to comment, or that they do not see this as gender inequality. However, as previously stated, the statistics for education and literacy prove that this disparity does indeed exist. The respondents were asked about the best method of teaching the next generation about their rights and how to avoid discrimination. 47% of respondents considered education to be the best way to teach their children about equality suggesting that, “if [the] children can read and write they can defend themselves; those are the tools [needed to combat discrimination.]” Other participants relayed that talking with their children, teaching them to respect themselves and others, and to encourage their children to accept who they are “are the ways to combat discriminatory practises and promote equality. The value of education is acknowledged by parents as going further than the classroom; the purpose is to teach their children confidence and ultimately provide them with the tools to be equal and respected citizens of society. While parental advice suggests an understanding of the tools needed to promote equality, survey responses to discrimination differ from the suggestions. In one instance, a mother suggested that the best way to teach children how to deal with discrimination was to lead by example and not let the children see her accepting discrimination. However, the same mother previously responded that she does nothing when she is discriminated against. These discrepancies demonstrate the continued challenge that people of Cuncani face in exercising their human rights but it also contextualizes the difficulties at an individual level of dealing and managing the trauma caused by discrimination. As previously stated, interculturality is the celebration, respect, and understanding of the value of all cultures and perspectives; no matter how much they may vary from one’s own.71 The perception of interculturality is still met with hesitance from the community. Personal experiences of discrimination during travel to other parts of the Cusco region have perpetuated feeling of uneasiness, distrust, and insecurity, which may limit the openness to intercultural acceptance with the rest of the Cusco region. There is a clear divide between rural and urban centres for Cuncani residents where levels of comfort are threatened by “big-city” problems such as crime and drug-use.

71

"Interculturidad." Ministerio De Cultura., 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


32 The questions about interculturality are formulated to learning more about the relations among the population in Cuncani, between them and people outside the community, the perception of authority within the community, and how safe the Cuncani inhabitants feel when they are outside the community. NC wanted to know about topics related to interculturality such as discrimination. However, even though the word was mentioned in the survey, and due to the fact that this is NC's first major work of research, we decided to focus more about the perceptions of different factors related to interculturality. The responses obtained provoke specific questions that will allow us to explore the issue of interculturality more in depth. Of all the respondents, 75 % felt safe within their own community. Cuncani has a close-knit community where the majority of people know one another. In contrast, only 25% of respondents reported feeling safe outside of Cuncani. As illustrated in Figure 6, at least 40% of respondents feel uncomfortable or worried when outside of Cuncani. The majority of people said they feared robbers, thieves and discrimination in the city. Also, one respondent mentioned “in the city there are a lot of bad things and is not safe due to drugs or corruption� signifying the attitudes towards larger city centres such as Cusco. There is a belief that their own communities are the safest places with a high level of distrust for other parts of Peru. This, in part, contributes to attitudes of wanting to remain isolated and un-involved with the rest of the surrounding areas.

Figure 6: Safety Concerns of Cuncani Residents

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


33 The vast majority of larger cities throughout Peru consist of primarily Spanish speakers. The Spanish language is often considered to be superior to Quechua - by extension, metropolitan Peruvians are seen as superior to Andean Peruvians. Even in schools, Quechua-speaking children are taught Spanish but Spanish-speaking children are not taught Quechua. This lack of cultural appreciation leads citizens in Cuncani to feel less safe when traveling outside their communities. As one respondent asked the interviewers, “How would you feel if you went to a big city, you did not speak the language, you had no education and you had no job?” It is a powerful question. And it highlights the feelings of despair many indigenous persons feel in regards to losing connection to their culture and language when advancing into unfamiliar territory.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


34

Conclusions NC’s development model illustrates the linear progression NC considers necessary to achieve Responsible Human Development, which is fundamentally supported by the tenets of human rights and interculturality. Human rights are a guaranteed set of provisions for every human being on earth, supported by national and international organizations and governance bodies in order to ensure that all lives have a healthy and sound standard of living. While these rights have been stipulated, the upholding of fair and just treatment lacks basis- governments need to be held accountable for negligence of marginalized and vulnerable groups who often are pushed to the wayside, as an afterthought. Therefore, it is imperative to use a sustainable process of development that is cognizant of promoting equality through understanding and respecting the differences among people in order to create open and inclusive dialogue. The results gathered through interviews and surveys conducted in Cuncani create an image of the complex realities of an Andean microcosm. Geographically and politically isolated communities, such as Cuncani, have experienced limited development impacting the standard of living of their citizens. Lack of health, education and economic resources have hindered the ability of this community to prosper. The setbacks in these sectors are reflective of the infringements on their human rights and are disregarded by all levels of government in supporting their participation and involvement with larger ecosystems, in line with upholding the principles of interculturality. Although parents believe their children are well-nourished, children still lack the proper nutrition necessary for proper early-childhood development.72 The students’ health impacts their ability to learn, to communicate, to think analytically, and to communicate effectively.73 Many respondents mentioned that students were able to concentrate better in school once having proper meals. If a child does not have a sufficient amount to eat, that is a violation of his human right to sound health.74 The community of Cuncani recognizes that better education will create more opportunities for their children, ones that were not available to the current generation. Linked to this is understanding one’s self-worth; parents want their children to be equipped to be able to stand up for themselves and demand equal and fair treatment. This involves promoting human rights at the primary level of development- obtaining the necessities for safety, good health, education, and economic empowerment.

72

"Why Invest in ECD: Evidence." The World Bank Group., 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. Ibid. 74 UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III). Web. 24 Sept. 2015 73

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


35 The divides within Peruvian society are vast and evident. In reflection of recent Peruvian History, NC stresses that social conflicts exploit the most marginalized due to a lack of protective measures in place for impoverished communities. The government, companies working in close quarters and other actors fail to provide to uphold the communities’ cultural values. The promotion of a culture of peace and respect are the fundamental grounds on which collaboration is essential for avoiding future conflicts and guaranteeing accountability and reconciliation. In order for communities such as Cuncani to achieve sustainable development, it is imperative for all levels of government, external stakeholders, and other organizations to work together with the community while respecting the differences and integrating these communities. While the steps in this process are incremental, sustainable development requires a solid foundation and collaboration from all fronts to support the growth of the future. It is the next generations that will really test the boundaries, as they may be equipped with the resources to demand justice and equality. NC conducted this study as their first Exploration Initiative with the aim that surveys and interviews would help to understand the importance of human rights and interculturality in the development processes, especially in communities such as Cuncani, which are marginalized in a very profound sense of the word. Although, this report has helped NC to improve its work, the deeply complex situation and dynamics of Andean communities is not exhaustively illustrated in it. The data collected and analysed is based on the good hope that all answers are accurate and consistent with the opinions and beliefs of the participants. It should be noted that misconstrued and incorrect information could have been provided or collected as a result of the issues listed in the methodology. NC is committed to Responsible Human Development that “implements programs for the people, by the people, with the people”75 and in order to do so, the organization is constantly challenged with cultural and community partnership barriers. Moving forward, NC has begun to include a different perspective, incorporating interculturality and human rights as part of all efforts in promoting responsible human development. The first initiative in doing so is the PhotoVoice Project. PhotoVoice comprises of the participation of the students at the multi-grade school in Cuncani. Photo-Voice is a participatory photography based storytelling method 75

Alkire, Sabina. Human Development: Definitions, Critiques, and Related Concepts. Working paper. Cambridge: Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, 2010. Print.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


36 that aims to illustrate firsthand representation and perceptions of the community. The project was launched in September 2015 and the report of the results will be released during the first quarter of 2016. In the second quarter of 2016, NC is planning to launch the second PhotoVoice project in Cuncani, but this time working with mothers of the children, in association with the Lunch Program. NC’s work for a sustainable and equitable future belongs in the hand of the children and therefore it is crucial that the next generation be equipped with critical consciousness and self-awareness in order to implement the changes that will have lasting impact on their community. NC’s belief is that with projects like Photo-Voice, WILL HELP To work alongside communities, learn about their experiences, and facilitate dialogue about human rights and interculturality. The path to Responsible Human Development does not have short cuts; it is long but yields the best results.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


37

Bibliography "About Us." Centro Andino De Educación Y Promoción José María Arguedas. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cadep.org.pe/en/about-us.html>. “Acciones itinerantes,” La Defensoría del Pueblo, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/itinerantes.php>. Agüero, José Carlos, and Pablo Sandoval. Enfoque Intercultural. Aportes Para La Gestión Pública. Rep. Lima: Ministerio De Cultura, 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cultura.gob.pe/concursobpi/sites/default/files/docs/concursobpi.pdf>. Alkire, Sabina. Human Development: Definitions, Critiques, and Related Concepts. Working paper. Cambridge: Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, 2010. Print. Chiesa, Thea, Roberto Crotti, and Klaus Lengefeld. The Peru Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013. Rep. Peru: World Economic Forum, 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2015. <http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TT_Peru_CompetitivenessReport_2013.pdf>. "Discrimination and Inequality." Peru Support Group. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.perusupportgroup.org.uk/peru-society-and-conflict.html>. "Donde estamos." La Defensoría Del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/oficinas.php>. Holgado, Angela Paucarmayta. "La Defensoría Del Pueblo." Personal interview. 20 May 2015. "Interculturidad." Ministerio De Cultura., 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cultura.gob.pe/interculturalidad>. "International Tourism, Number of Arrivals." The World Bank- Data. The World Bank. Web. 24 Sept. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL>. Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. New York: Harper & Row, 1984. Print. La Comisión De La Verdad Y Reconciliación. A Comisión De La Verdad Y Reconciliación, 28 Aug. 2003. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cverdad.org.pe/ingles/ifinal/conclusiones.php>. Martinez, Marta. "Peru's Painful Mirror." The International Centre for Transitional Justice. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <https://www.ictj.org/perus-painful-mirror/>.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


38 "Nuevo Proyecto Con Amnistía Internacional." Centro Andino De Educación Y Promoción José María Arguedas. July 2014. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cadep.org.pe/es/eventos-y-noticias/102-nuevoproyecto-con-amnist%C3%ADa-internacional.html>. "Oficinas Defensoriales." La Defensoría Del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/oficinas.php>. Pegram, Tom. "Accountability in Hostile Times: The Case of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman 1996-2001." Journal of Latin American Studies, 40.1 (2008): 51-82. Social Science Research Network. 6 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2465586>. Pegram, Tom. "Weak Institutions, Rights Claims and Pathways to Compliance: The Transformative Role of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman." Oxford Development Studies 39. 2 (2011): 229-50. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www3.qeh.ox.ac.uk/pdf/crisewps/workingpaper78.pdf>. Peru. Congress of the Republic. The Political Constitution of Peru. 1993. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.congreso.gob.pe/Docs/files/CONSTITUTION_27_11_2012_ENG.pdf>. Peru: From Prosperity to Purpose. Rep. UBS Philanthropy Advisory; Hauser Institute for Civil Society, Harvard University, 2015. Web. 24 Nov.2015. <http://cpl.hks.harvard.edu/files/cpl/files/hauser__ubs_peru.pdf>. Peru. Ministerio de Desarollo e Inclusion Social. INFOMIDIS. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.midis.gob.pe/mapas/infomidis/>. "Peru Society and Conflict: Discrimination and Inequality." Peru Support Group.. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.perusupportgroup.org.uk/peru-society-and-conflict.html>. "Presentación." Censo De Población Y Vivienda 2007. Instituto Nacional De Estadística E Informática (INEI), n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://censos.inei.gob.pe/Censos2007/redatam/>. “Qué hacemos: Atención de Casos,” La Defensoría del Pueblo, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/casos.php>. “Qué hacemos: Difusión y Promoción de Derechos,” La Defensoría del Pueblo. 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/difusion-promocion.php>. "Quiénes Somos." Qali Warma. Ministerio De Desarollo Y Inclusion Social, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.qaliwarma.gob.pe/>.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


39 Salazar, Rosario. "Amnestia Internacional Group 54." Personal interview. 1 June 2015. Tremblay-Levesque, Laurent-Charles and Valdivieso, Maricarmen. Community-Based Responsible Human Development Model: How Improving Health Is the First Step in Promoting Human Development. Pegasus Conference, Toronto. 2014. UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III). Web. 24 Sept. 2015. <http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html>. What Lessons Have Been Learnt? Rep. Peru Support Group, Feb. 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.perusupportgroup.org.uk/files/fckUserFiles/file/Resourses/Update%20Extras/Update%20 Extra%20%20Truth%20&%20Reconciliation%20Commission%20Five%20Year%20Anniversary.pdf>. "Why Invest in ECD: Evidence." The World Bank Group, 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://go.worldbank.org/MOERAQM310>.

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


40

Annexes Annex 1: Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) NC believes that poverty is experienced in a multi-dimensional capacity and therefore it should be monitored and accounted for in similar respects. For the purpose of this study, we have chosen to use the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) to measure the level of poverty for Cuncani, which is a tool used to measure the poverty level of a household. Consisting of ten questions related to the household’s characteristics, including asset ownership, the PPI converts each response into a numerical score where the sum is between 0 to 100, indicating where one falls around the poverty line (100 being least likely), therefore presenting a statistically significant description of poverty for a particular household. Although the PPI is a well-structured measurement tool and its use carries a variety of indicators, there are limitations accompanying the process. It is a rough measurement of poverty, thus unsuitable for measuring incremental changes in living conditions. More importantly, PPI is not adequate to identify causation. Regardless of its shortcomings PPI is an effective measure for the intermediate purpose of determination.

I. PPI Results for Cuncani The PPI for Cuncani was calculated using the data obtained from interviews conducted with 32 households in the community. The calculated average PPI score for the community is 23.45. According to the chart “La Línea Nacional de Pobreza76”, this score indicates a 76% likelihood that the population is living below the National Poverty Line of Peru. The lowest score obtained by a household was 11, whereas the highest score of a household was 39. Moreover, the standard deviation of the PPI scores obtained was 7.032, with the most frequently occurring score (evidenced within six households) was 21. Although the gap between highest and lowest score is quite significant, close to 70% of households had a score between 17 to 28, suggesting that the overall score is clustered around the mean. This demonstrates that the majority of families in Cuncani have similar living conditions, most likely below the poverty line.

76

In English, it translates to The National Poverty Line.

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


41

II. PPI Questionnaire (PPI) PPI How many members does the household have?

How many children ages 7 to 15 attend school?

What is the primary construction material of the outer wall of the dwelling unit occupied by the household?

What type of fuel does the household mainly use for cooking?

What toilet facility does the household have?

How many bicycles and motorcycles does household own?

Does the household own a bed set?

Does the household own a wardrobe or cabinet?

Does the household own a water pump?

Does the household own a television?

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


42

Annex 2: Survey Questions FAMILY Number of people in the household.

EDUCATION

Primary

(

)

Secondary ( )

What is your spouse’s educational level?

University

or

Institute ( ) Primary

(

)

Secondary ( ) Level of education of person interviewed I would ask this on the University survey and interview.

or

Institute ( ) Yes ( )

Are you bilingual?

No ( ) Quechua: Read: Yes ( ) No ( ) Write: Yes ( ) No ( )

Can you read and write in Spanish/Quechua?

Spanish: Read: Yes ( ) No ( ) Write: Yes ( ) No ( ) Quechua: Read: Yes ( ) No ( ) Write: Yes ( ) No ( )

Can your spouse?

Spanish: Read: Yes ( ) No ( ) Write: Yes ( ) No ( )

How many of your children have gone to secondary school?

How many of them have finished primary school?

Yes ( )

Have they gone to the university or institute?

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016

No ( )


43 If you had to choose between your son’s or daughter’s ability to Son ( ) go to school, which one would you choose?

Daughter ( ) Yes ( )

Does your child go to school in Cuncani? (if yes…)

No ( ) Yes ( )

Is the education at the school in Cuncani better these days?

No ( )

What has improved?

What it still a problem?

NUTRITION

Yes ( )

Type of Food

No ( )

Fruits

Vegetables

Meats

Dairy

How many meals do you usually eat a day?

1 ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) Yes ( )

Do you think that your children are well nourished?

No ( )

Have you ever made any recipes at home from the School Lunch Yes ( ) Program?

No ( )

If so, which ones?

HEALTH

Yes ( )

Do you go to a Health Center

No ( ) Never

Frequency

(

)

Weekly

(

)

Monthly

(

)

Yearly ( )

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


44 Lares Where do you go to the Health Center?

(

)

Urubamba ( ) Cuzco ( ) Yes ( )

Do you have health insurance?

No ( )

If yes, how many family members?

Yes ( )

Is there any pregnant woman in the house?

No ( ) Never

How often does she visit the health center?

(

Weekly

(

)

)

Monthly ( ) Yes ( )

Is there any baby in the house?

No ( )

How old?

How often does she/he visits the health center?

Never

(

)

Weekly

(

)

Monthly ( ) INCOME/TYPE OF WORK

Agriculture

(

)

Business in the market Lares ( )

What type of work do you do?

Tourism

(

Artesanías

(

)

)

At home ( ) Agriculture

(

)

Business in the market Lares ( )

What type of work does your spouse realize?

Tourism Artesanías

(

)

(

)

At home ( )

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


45 OBSERVATIONS

Floor material

Adobe ( ) Rocks

Wall material

(

)

Cement ( ) Others ( ) Yes ( )

Do you use gas?

No ( ) Yes ( )

Do you use electronics?

No ( )

What electronics do you own?

Public Transportation

How do you get around besides walking?

( ) Moto ( ) Car ( )

In Quechua â&#x20AC;&#x201C; can I use your bathroom?

Annex 3: Interview Questions SOCIETY IN CUNCANI What do you like about your community?

How has the environment changed?

Is there more presence from the government?

How has the economy changed?

How has education changed?

How would you like to see Cuncani change in 20 years?

FAMILY

Tell us about your family

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


46 EDUCATION Are there any topics that you would have liked to learn in school? Topics that would be useful as an adult

What do you think is the most important subject your child learns in school?

Yes ( )

Does your child feel comfortable at school?

No ( ) Yes ( )

Does he/she like to go to school?

No ( )

How regularly do they attend?

Are you satisfied by the level of education received by your Yes ( ) children in Cuncani?

No ( )

NUTRITION Is nutrition better than it was 3 years ago?

How would you like to improve your child's nutrition?

Do you have safe drinking water at home, why or why not?

How many glasses of water do you drink a day?

AGRICULTURE

What foods do you grow?

Do your crops last until the next crop season or are they insufficient?

How many animals do you have?

Do you have a greenhouse?

Yes ( ) No ( )

Do you have an irrigation system? Does it work?

Yes ( ) No ( )

What would you like to change about your family's farming/garden/agriculture?

HEALTH Yes ( )

Do you like the health services?

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016


47 No ( ) How do you feel about the quality of health care you receive?

Do you feel comfortable talking to your healthcare provider about you and your family’s health?

What other type of medicine do you use (the interviewer can start talking about medicinal plants. Mention that you visited in Urubamba, a farm in Media Luna where Ysabel taught us how to use:

Rara, Muña) INCOME/TYPE OF WORK Tell us about your job

Is your money enough for food, education, clothes?

Do you feel your economy is better? Why?

If you had more income how would you spend it?

What aspects of your work do you enjoy the most? The least?

INTERCULTURALITY & HUMAN RIGHTS Do you feel protected and safe in Cuncani?

Do you feel protected and safe when not in Cuncani?

Have you ever been discriminated against? In Cuncani? Outside Cuncani?

If yes…

What did you do?

Which authority did you go to?

Did you feel safe with them? Why?

What could the president of the community do in order to make you feel safer? What could you do to make you and your family

feel safer? In your family, what do you think would be the best way to teach your children about their basic rights (i.e. food, water, education)?

What do you think would work well in the community?

Nexos Comunitarios © 2016


48

Nexos Comunitarios Š 2016

THE FUTURE OF CUNCANI. The importance of Human Rights & Interculturality (Urubamba, Cusco, Peru)  

As part of Nexos Comunitarios Exploration Initiative, this document is the result of a study carried by NC with the support of six students...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you