Page 1

FALL 2008

URBAN RETAIL Northeastern University School of Architecture ARCH G691 Graduate Degree Project Studio


FALL 2008

URBAN RETAIL Northeastern University School of Architecture ARCH G691 Graduate Degree Project Studio

ERIC ARMY

MATTHEW NATHANSON

MIKE BARRETT

HUY NGUYEN

LOREN GOODKNIGHT

JESSICA TWIGGS

CHANSAN HUN

ELIZABETH UTZ


Bibliography Bow-Wow, Atelier. Pet Architecture Guide Book Vol 2. Japan: World Photo Press, 2002. Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Ave Boston, Massachusetts 02115

Copyright © 2008 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved

Chung, Chuihua Judy, Jeffrey Inaba, Rem Koolhaas, Sze Tsung Leong, and Tae-wook Cha. Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. New YorkL Taschen, 2001. Raford, Noah. “Movement Economics in Fractured Urban Systems: The Case of Boston, MA.” London: University College London, 2004. Study conducted by Helwig Associates, Inc. for The Downtown Crossing Association, 2004; Boston Redevelopment Authority

First printing December 2008

Studio Research Team Eric Army

- Store typology and signage

Mike Barrett

- Urban mapping and shopping district typology

Loren Goodknight

- Kiosk typology and writer

Chansan Hun

- Mid box typology and branding

Matthew Nathanson

- Urban mapping and shopping district typology

Huy Nguyen

- Mid box typology and branding

No part of this publication may be used, reproduced,

Jessica Twiggs

- Kiosk typology and axonometric illustrations

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any

Elizabeth Utz

- Kiosk typology and book design

form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as

Studio Lead Tim Love

permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 - Associate Professor

United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission from the authors.

Unless specifically stated otherwise all content is Special thanks to

property of the authors. Every reasonable attempt

Andrew Grace and Kristin Phelan of the Boston Redevelopment Authority

has been made to identify owners of copyright,

Rosemarie Sansone of the Downtown Crossing Partnership

photographs, diagrams and images. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.


This publication has been prepared as part of a five week graduate thesis studio assignment in the Northeastern University School of Architecture for the Fall 2008 Architecture G691 course. Other publications in this series include hotel, office and parking garage typologies, all produced by other graduate students in the Northeastern University architecture program.


Contents 9

11

Introduction

13

Defining The Types

55

59

Store Front

67

69

Interior Program

77


Contents

91 79

Circulation

89

Urbanism

123

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Newbury Street


Introduction

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Introduction to Urban Retail Quincy Market Retail Returns to the Urban Center “After languishing in the shadow of suburban malls for years, Main Street is developing a new luster for America’s largest retailers. While mall development lags, companies such as Gap, Saks Fifth Avenue, Barnes and Noble, Sears and CVS are discovering new opportunities for growth by catering to shoppers who hanker for the ambience and convenience of a shopping experience that resembles that of a small

Downtown Crossing

town or old-fashioned city neighborhood� (Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping). In the not so distant past, the rise of the shopping mall captured retail and pulled it into the suburbs where rent was lower and automobiles were prevalent. This made the shopping mall the de facto standard for retail. In more recent years, retail has returned to the city center making the urban experience dependent on the retail experience. The city provides the individual store more opportunities to make a sale; there is more money per square foot due to the density and also more pedestrian traffic, aka window shopping.

Boston, MA Outlined are the three districts where urban retail was thoroughly mapped to support our research.


Kiosk Retail

Micro Retail

Store Retail

Mid Box Retail


Introduction

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The Building Blocks of the City Center

hotels, historical sites, tourist destinations, etc. is a

chosen since it is this grain of smaller scale retail that

While the individual store is certainly important

major factor in the success of the shopping district.

distinguishes urban retail from suburban retail types.

to urban retail, even more critical is the role that

Retail has been tasked with creating the qualities of

In addition, small retail creates a greater diversity

urban retail plays in the larger agenda of creating

urbanity: pedestrian traffic, noise, excitement, and

of consumer options and a richer urban realm. The

walkable urban neighborhoods, whether as part of

activity. One charge of the urban retail center is the

kiosk is defined in this study as a temporary structure

an urban revitalization strategy or in a new transit-

staggering of activity during the day. A successful

operating as an island of retail around which both

oriented development. While most urban planning

urban retail area offers the same buzz at all times of

seller and buyer can circulate. Examples of micro

includes street-level retail as part of a larger tool kit

the day. From tourists to locals to business people

retail are stores that have colonized undersized

for creating an active public realm, the precise recipe

getting lunch to the evening dinner rush and the late

and “left-over� space within a shopping district.

for the retail mix and the specific characteristics of

night festivities, urban retail caters to all.

Because of their small size, every available surface

the individual shops have not been accommodated

is used for product displays and signs, often with an

within a rigorously defined design framework. This

The Critical Elements of Retail Establishments

overwhelming exuberance that is in contrast to the

study attempts to create both a finer-grain typological

In all scales of urban retail, certain features are of

carefully controlled environments of larger national-

framework and a methodology for understanding the

critical importance to the success of the store. The

brand stores. Small stores are the typical building

interrelationship between retail types as an urban

pedestrian nature of the city calls for significant

block of historical shopping streets. Like micro-

design strategy.

attention to be given to signage, exterior display and

retail, their small size necessitates efficiency, while

the ways that retail design can pull customers from

allowing for a range of layouts and enough space to

As such, this study hopes to take some of the economic

the public realm into the interior space of the store.

include displays on the floor. The mid box sized shop

planning strategies advanced by market analysts and

By mapping interior circulation patterns, a more fine-

operates much in the same way as the store except

convert them to a set of tactics that focus specifically

grained understanding of the zones within a store is

that it has more generous spaces for merchandise

on the physical and sociological characteristics of

possible: from the door to the boundary that separated

and is often multi storied. A vital shopping district has

the contemporary city. Our study is based on the

public access from the back-of-house service areas

a healthy mix of these various.

understanding that a specific combination of retail

of a shop. Well-designed product display and interior

types is both aligned with the demographic of the

design can keep the shopper engaged and in the

shopper and the overall nature of the urban space. A

mood for purchasing.

careful calibration of these issues can have an impact on the success of the district. This success is also

Scales of Retail

contingent on the placement of the market/shopping

The urban retail explored in this volume, ranges from

district within the greater city fabric. Proximity to

temporary kiosks up to mid box stores. This range was


Defining the Types •

Kiosk: a free-standing (often mobile or temporary) structure, which allows vendor and buyer to circulate freely around it.

Micro-retail: enclosed retail with under 13 linear feet of street frontage and minimal footprint. The required elements of retail (signage, product display, transaction counter) are at their minimal size.

Small Stores: retail with 13 to 30 linear feet of store frontage and limited to one story of display space. Enough room is present to accommodate a variety of display layouts. This is the most common type of urban retail, and in agglomeration, is the best at building a streetscape.

Mid-box: larger than the historic urban storefront and a mostly a contemporary retail type, its large floor plate (at least 3 times a small store) is planned on two or more levels. Many national chains utilize this size store for their urban flagship locations.

15

25

Defining The Types

Kiosk

Micro

Four Discovered Typologies Through an exploration of the various shopping

types, and the conventional small store are also

districts in Boston, it was discovered that a mix of

included in the taxonomy. Although big box retail has

four distinct typologies of urban retail distinguish

made inroads into urban shopping districts, big box

the urban shopping experience and the character

retail was not included in this study because it is felt

of the environment from suburban retailing models,

that the smaller scale retail is what sets the urban

whether the shopping center or the mall. The types

retail experience apart from the suburban retail.

have been identified on a sliding scale, from mobile

The

typologies

are

best

defined

31

Store

by

kiosks up to mid-box stores that are also common

understanding the relationship between the customer,

in more suburban retail environments. Micro-retail,

the vendor/salesperson, the goods/products for sale,

embedded within the same street wall as larger retail

and the public sidewalk.

45

Mid Box

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Kiosk \ ’kē-äsk\ noun - a free-standing (often mobile or temporary) structure, which allows vendor and buyer to circulate freely around it

0 - 39 square feet

highly mobile, seasonal, or temporary

circulation around structure

located outside near high traffic areas

adds richness to a streetscape with colors, noise, and movement

Kiosk

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Out of the three types of kiosk retail, the first one has the vendor completely enclosed while serving the customer on the outside. In the second option, there is a continuous counter in which the vendor and the customer share the space around it. The third option has an additional cart that can alter the configuration of the counter space.


Kiosk

The streetscape would be a very different place without street vendors selling food, beverages, and Customer

goods from kiosks. The physical and social impact of the kiosk reaches far beyond its footprint, since vendors often use vocal advertisement and the vendor and the buyer usually both inhabit the space beyond the footprint. In New York City, some food vendors garner such a large fan base that the line for the kiosk

Vendor

can be more than a half a block long. Kiosks also play an important role in capitalist societies. Because of their low start-up and operating costs, kiosks provide entrepreneurial opportunities for new immigrants and other lower income groups.

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Kiosk

T MOS E IL B O M

Mobility, whether literal or potential, distinguishes kiosks from types of urban retail. The temporary status of kiosks can also have advantages from a regulatory standpoint since the code requirements for temporary structures are generally less stringent than permanent in-line stores. Many kiosks can follow their clientele to maximize sales. Rent of the kiosks (or the land on which they sit) is lower than that of the permanent structures around them. This allows lower start up costs and means the kiosk is often an entrepreneurial gateway to more permanent types of businesses. Despite these positive attributes, retail that is not a permanent fixture in the urban environment also has specific challenges. Kiosks expose customers and vendor to the elements, a virtue on warm sunny days, can result poor sales during inclement weather, even during peak season.

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T


Kiosk

Downtown Crossing Kiosk Schedule

day

The Downtown Crossing shopping district becomes a night

very different place when the sun starts to go down. The bustle from the workday starts to recede and a new chaos ensues. The kiosks start their evening ritual of disappearing without a trace. The vendors pull tarps or cloths over their goods and push, pull, drag, or fold up their carts. Following a kiosk on the move results in the discovery of a world unknown to most Bostonians. Where do the carts go? Many of them are hidden in the open-air vestibules of service doorways or locked behind roll down security gates. Others are stored in the open circulation areas of nearby store interiors. Both are efficient strategies for reusing existing space off-hours. In addition to renting space in nearby stores for off-hours storage, kiosk owners often lease space to store their stock a well. The vendor can then restock the kiosk every morning or night when the cart is in storage location. Many kiosks in Downtown Crossing are dedicated to making sales year round. Rain or shine, cold or hot, Downtown Crossing’s vendors are a committed bunch.

Diagrammed are the daily routine of kiosks in Downtown Crossing and their variety of options for nighttime storage.

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et

rth

No

ee t Str

Clinton Stre

FANEUIL HALL

reet Chatham St

rth

No

ee t Str

Clinton Stre

et

FANEUIL HALL

reet Chatham St ton Street

rth

No

ee t Str

Clin

FANEUIL HALL

reet Chatham St


Kiosk

day

Quincy Market Kiosk Schedule Quincy Market kiosks have been designed for a

night

different kind of mobility from the kiosks in Downtown Crossing. The carts found at Quincy Market remain

winter

in place day and night from April through October. They have lockable metal panels that are pull down for off-hours security. Unlike the Downtown Crossing kiosks, the Quincy Market carts are restocked in situ. The kiosks at Quincy Market hibernate during the winter. They are towed away from the marketplace and stored in parking garage off site.

Diagrammed are the ever-changing movement patterns of kiosks in Quincy Market at different times of day and the seasonal closing of its outdoor kiosks from the end of October to the beginning of April. (Left) Photo of one method of security at the end of the day at Quincy Market. (Below)

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Micro Retail \mī-krō rē-tāl\ noun - enclosed retail with under 13ft of street frontage and minimal footprint. The required elements of retail (signage, product display, transaction counter) are strategically organized to take maximum advantage for the small space.

40 - 499 square feet

highly efficient use of space

display and storage are often limited

provide very limited layout options and circulation paths

exist often as anomalies in a shopping district cropping up in leftover spaces

Micro

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Out of the three types of micro retail the first option has wrap-around shelving where the customer and vendor share a common space. The second option has a counter towards the middle of the shop that divides the space into zones for servers and those served. In the third option, the customer is restricted from entering the building while the vendor utilizes all the sheltered space for their needs.


Micro

Micro Retail often colonizes small vacant lots and blank building edges of vital shopping districts. As a Customer

result of the small size of the stores, there are very few options for layouts. Most micro retail establishments are not chains; in fact they play a vital role on the urban scene because of their variety and individual personality. Micro-retail is often owned by the vendor and has been in the same location with owned by

Vendor

the same family for many years. Some micro-retail shops are so compact, that they no longer comply with building and accessibility codes, they persist only because they remain unchanged and are therefore grandfathered from many new regulations. They often employ quirky solutions to the problem of limited space.

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Micro

T MOS NT E I C I F EF

Micro retail is worthy of study because it serves as a model for the efficient use of space. A diversity of products are displayed in a very small amount of space, often resulting in a chaotic exuberance of goods. The variety of colors and type faces of product labels and the small size of the goods on display, creates a rich mosaic of visual experience. Many of the products for sale are high-volume convenience items. As a result, efficiency of display is often coupled with efficiency of service. In micro-retail, there is no roaming space within and sometimes is limited to a service window only. Micro retail is often crammed into the leftover space between buildings and is sometimes tacked onto existing buildings.

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Store \stor\ noun - retail with thirteen to thirty linear feet of store frontage and limited to one story of display space. Enough room is present to accommodate a variety of display layouts. This is the most common type of urban retail, and in agglomeration, is the best at building a streetscape.

500 - 2,999 square feet

multiple vendors often required

located on the lower level of larger buildings

freedom with display layouts

Store

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The first of the three types of store retail has a L-shaped counter within the store. The second has a wrap-around U-shaped counter within the store. In both of these examples, the zones for the servers and those served are separate. The third type is more open-ended in which the customers and vendors share the space in some parts and are kept separate in others.


Store

The store is overall the most common urban retail type. It is found in abundance in all three Boston Customer

urban retail study areas. Unlike micro retail, the store offers a variety of layout options and vendor/ customer relationships. Circulation through a store is more complex than of that through micro retail (where there is sometimes no circulation at all for the customer). The store is the arguably the best street

Vendor

maker of the urban retail typologies in this study. The stores on Newbury Street will often spill into the public zone (side walks) to claim the space outside for advertisement and enticement.

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Store

BEST T E STREER K MA

Newbury Street, while largely composed of store sized retail, contains an intricate agglomeration of ‘sidewalk’ zones. As this once residential street began to be adapted to a retail use, the private property, where the residential front garden once occupied, began to find alternate uses. Each user of these public/private zones has a particular way of ‘lending’ its private exterior space to the public, and bringing them into relationship with the display window. It is the agglomeration of these individual events that begin to give Newbury Street’s pedestrian experience its texture.

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pull ponder

+,%&' $*&*&!' ()"*#' -.*/)' -.*/)' $*&*&!' Open

passage

Serial Shopping

!"#$%&' +,%&' +,%&'

An analysis of Newbury Street has shown the three

It should also be noted that each of these three types

main street interface types begin to emerge. The three

‘stratifies’ the public zone into three types of space:

we shall examine are “Garden”, “Stair” and “Open”.

Passage, Ponder and Pull. Passage zones are used

“Garden” is the original residential interface type,

for travel, and are the highest speed. Ponder zones

“Stair” is an adaptation of the split-level residence

permit slower walking, and are the prime viewing area

into dual-level retail, and “Open” represents a retail-

for the store displays. Pull zones represent exterior

intended development with an uncluttered sidewalk.

‘public’ areas which if pedestrians step, they are very likely to be ‘pulled’ into the store.


Store

private public

()"*#' ()"*#' Stair

!"#$%&' !"#$%&'

Garden

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Garden The original street interface, it should be noted that this interface keeps the pedestrian furthest from the storefront. Because of this there is no slow ‘ponder’ zone in front of the store; pedestrians must make a quick decision to enter the store’s well-landscaped front walk, or continue to pass on by. Only 40% of the pedestrian’s field of view is occupied by the Garden interface storefront, as seen from the center of the pedestrian passage-way. It is an attempt to capitalize on ‘unbranded’ space that we will see the following adaptations occur.

ponder

pull

passage


Store

retail field of view 10LF of 25LF = 40%

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Stairs As Newbury Street began to be a shopping destination, many of the residential brownstone buildings began to be converted for ground-floor retail. These residences employed a half-sunken ground floor, which lent itself to be readapted as dual level retail. While change in grade is typically avoided in retail design, here we see it employed successfully. (It should be noted, however, that critical mass of pedestrian traffic plays a significant role in this success. Store interface is the compliment to this critical factor.) The stair-case and sunken plaza act in tandem to create a large, sectional other, a pull zone for retail. The dimensional requirements conveniently set them back from the main passage zone, giving the pedestrian added time to view the storefront, and consider entering the ‘pull’ zone. The sectional consequences here are significant. This is our first example of a street interface adaptation ponder

pull

that not only increases the retail display area, but also gives the median pedestrian improved visibility to it. It should be noted that, at prime pondering distance, 100% of the pedestrian’s field of view is occupied by the store’s display.

passage


Store

retail ďƒželd of view 17LF of 17LF = 100%

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Open The third typical condition is the most intentional, if not the most successful. As Newbury Street began to be known as a retail destination, many lots were redeveloped with more standard street-level retail. This created the “Open” condition, where the storefront rests 22 feet from the edge of the public zone. This distance is mitigated by the extension of the sidewalk well into the ‘private’ zone. When leisurely pedestrians occupy this ‘ponder’ zone, they like the “Stair” condition, have 100% of their field of view occupied by the display window. While it is further to travel to achieve this condition, there is the mitigating factor that there is no level change to negotiate. pull

ponder

passage


Store

retail ďƒželd of view 10LF of 10LF = 100%

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Mid Box \mid bäks\ noun - larger than the historic urban storefront and a mostly a contemporary retail type, its large floor plate (at least 3 times a small store) is planned on two or more levels. Many national chains utilize this size store for their urban flagship locations.

3,000 - 20,000 square feet

larger scale version of the store

variety of layout options

often larger chains

sometimes multiple levels

Mid Box

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The one and only type of mid-box retail is often an open floor plan with a series of zones defined by either wrap-around or continuous counters.


Mid Box

Mid box sized urban retail often houses a variety of merchandise but generally of the same “family� of Customer

goods. Luxury stores often have fewer displays and more circulation within the space. Mid box retail is typically part of a larger chain so the branding of the space and merchandise becomes a critical aspect of the store design. One common branding strategy is to make the architecture of stores consistent with other

Vendor

stores in the chain, indifferent to the location of the individual stores. Mid-box stores are the largest scale of retail establishment considered as part of this study because it is the largest store type that contributes to the overall vitality of an urban location.

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Mid Box

T MOS ED D N A BR

When branding is discussed, it often starts with the logo that gives identity to the merchandise sold. However, branding is more than just the trademark of the company. It is a business strategy that focuses on visual identity and the use of technology to enhance shopping experiences. The goal of a strong brand is to convey and maintain a perceived set of values associated with a family of products as well as create customer loyalty.

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Mid Box

Branding Branding is also known as a collection of visual

minimalist display, clean white surfaces, and freedom

images that symbolize the company, the products

from cables running across the display convey the

and the service. Visual identity is created through

sleek, innovative, and wireless technology of Apple

thoughtful design of the logo, choice of a slogan, and

computer themselves. In attempting to express

the design of the exterior and interior environment

the mobility of the Apple computers, all stores also

of the store. For example, the brand of the Apple

employ the use of the handheld EasyPay system,

Store is carefully designed with the larger than life

which allows customers to purchase Apple products

and glowing white apple logo. The glass facade and

without the conventional line to a cash register

the glass spiral staircase inside the store convey the

counter.

idea of innovative and high technology. The overall

Exterior and Interior photos of Apple Store in Boston, Massachusetts

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Branding Image and Identity

Apple Store Sydney, Australia

The image of a company communicates a certain

Abercrombie & Fitch, and Crate & Barrell employ the

concept with the customers. The consumer, based

consistency in image, Prada stores each have a one-

on previous experience or word of mouth on the

of-a-kind contemporary image to brand their clothing

individual brand, has a preconceived notion of the

line.

quality or style of the product. The concept of branding

The Apple Store maintains consistency by using

is to have a uniform but strongly individual identity

common architectural style and technology such as

so that it will be viewed and read the same way by

the glass facades and minimal structural connections.

the customers but be memorably differentiated from

In this case the facades speak about the products by

competitors. While stores such as Apple Computer,

allowing the Apple logos and the products to be as

Apple Store Fifth Avenue, New York

Interior showing the Genius Bar

Prada store, Los Angeles

Prada store, Tokyo

Prada store, New York


Mid Box

Abercrombie & Fitch, Los Angeles

visible as possible from the outside. The architectural design of the Prada stores employs an opposite approach. The architecture and technology are different from store to store. They maintain a luxurious contemporary in each store, but articulate this through unique ways.

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SALE ITEMS AND SEATING AREA

DESTINATION ZONE FITTING ROOMS, LOUNGE, SALE ITEMS

TRANSITIONAL ZONE THROUGH OUT THE STORE CASHIER, ACCESSORIES

4

FITTING ROOMS

CASHIERS

3

MOST WORTHY ZONE FOR DISPLAY OF NEW PRODUCTS

ACCESSORIES

NEW ITEMS

NEW ITEMS, ACCESSIBILITY OF ITEMS

ENTRANCE MINIMAL DISPLAY

2 1

NEW ITEMS

WINDOW DISPLAYS

Axon views and plan showing typical interior zones and programs

WINDOW DISPLAYS


Mid Box

Brand Zone Retail establishments can be broken down into four

grouped together with the accessory items. The first

zones of customer experience. The first zone is where

is these items are small making them a prime target

the customer transitions from a pedestrian to engaged

for shoplifting. The second reason is that the shopper

consumer. Because of the time this transition takes to

is forced to peruse these items while waiting in the

make, many retail establishments use this entrance

checkout line making them likely items for impulse

zone to display only a few new items since they can

buys. Zone four is usually designed as a destination

be largely ignored. Zone two is the most important

zone where sale items and fitting rooms are located.

section of the shop; it is here that new items are

The reasoning behind this layout configuration is that

displayed. Zone three usually contains the cashier

many shoppers impulse buy on the sale racks either

and accessories, as it is a bridge between zone two

before or after their trip to the fitting room. (Harvard

to zone four. There are two reasons why the cashier is

Design School Guide to Shopping) FITTING ROOMS

CASHIER

ACCESSORIES

Typical section

Interior photos of typical clothing stores

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Brand Experience The customer experience is one of the most important factors for gaining a loyal customer following. The personality of a retail establishment is often conveyed by the window display and becomes part of the shopper’s experience as soon as they enter the space. For value-added shopping experience, designers can introduce multiple ways of perceiving the store and its merchandise. While visual experience is always there, a brand can also introduce a sound, smell and/ or texture to the overall experience. Popular brand like Abercrombie & Fitch makes use of all these senses to enhance their customers’ experience. Upon

Section drawing of double-height space

entering the store, shoppers encounter large posters of images that the brand wants to be associated with. Immediately, one can smell the heavy perfume that permeates the store. Apart from browsing and touching the merchandise, customers can hear the loud music being blasted from the overhead speakers. Accompanying with the dark interior environment, the careful branding suggests that the merchandise is sexy, cool, and a party scene for teenagers.

Photos of the application of double-height spaces at the entrance and at the vertical circulation zone


Mid Box

BRANDING

VISUAL IMAGE & IDENTITY HEARING BRAND ZONE SMELL BRAND EXPERIENCE TOUCH

Branding diagram

Photos of low lit environment of Abercrombie & Fitch Mid Box

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Store Front As scale increase, percentage ‘unused’ space increases. In many instances, signage sf stays consistent while size of store increases. Each scale of store undertakes unique ways to increase the store’s ‘claimed

Store Front

61

Kiosk

space’. These range from vendor’s direct interaction with the public, to various space claiming techniques, to architectural façade design.

63

65

67

Micro

Store

Mid Box

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4’-6”

10’-0”

optional shelf

SIGNAGE SIGNAGE SIGNAGE

creative wheel opportunity

8’-0”

5% 50%

SIGNAGE vendor as marketing agent

3’-0”

3’-0”

4’-0”

SIGNAGE

1’-6”

1’-0”

signage location, if any

signage

SIGNAGE SIGNAGE SIGNAGE

6’-0”

50%

2’-0”

signage

display

45%

20% 30%

necessary wheels

display


Kiosk

12’-0”

5’-0”

audible space

actual space

-

Exterior study - Kiosks Kiosks have two normative conditions- both of which

the typical food-cart, which is adorned with over 50%

are designed around intense usage of available On one extreme is the souvenir

signage, and minimal product display. Food-cart ‘signage’ also includes the often-gregarious vendor,

stand, which relies on display of goods, which cover

who through voice and customer interaction is able

an average of 50% of available surface area, with

to extend their cart’s implied space up to twelve feet

minimal signage. The other end of the spectrum is

beyond the kiosk footprint.

surface area.

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3’-0”

3’-0”

SIGNAGE

neon optional recessed full-lite door

SIGNAGE 5’-0”

sliding access window

10’-0”

3’-6”

SIGNAGE

2’-0”

3’-6”

SIGNAGE

7’-0”

10’-0”

35%

30% signage

30%

signage

50%

display

35%

display

20%


Micro

3’-0” claimed

3’-0” given

Exterior study - Micro Retail Micro retail, despite differences in façade articulation,

on roll-up doors, blades and awnings. These awnings

maintains a 3:4:3 ratio of signage:display:wall.

also serve as a way for the store to ‘claim’ public

Signage is often overstated, at times covering the

space; this is augmented by recessed, and invariably

entire display window, or employing neon for effect. It

full-lit, door which becomes public space ‘owned’ by

is found on a variety of exterior sign types, including

the storefront.

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URBAN RETAIL 63


understated signage

optional signage or product display

SIGNAGE

SIGNAGE

9’-0”

SIGNAGE

13’-6”

SIGNAGE

4’-6”

SIGNAGE

optional exterior stairs

4’-0”

display on raised platform 25’-0”

shared doors to 1st fl retail and upper floors 10’-0”

5% 35%

signage

10%

10’-0”

signage

60%

85%

display

60% display

30%

15%


Store

12’-0” public

22’-0”

12’-0” ‘reclaimed’

‘open’ private

Exterior study - Store Standard size stores have similar signage:display:wall

of the overall façade. While not providing more

ratios, and at this scale we first see ‘understated

display square footage (less actually), they are able

signage’. Views of product and store interior serve

to provide a higher percentage of display in the area

to be the primary conduit for communicating with the

of the façade they occupy.

pedestrian. Though two different facade conditions

Another aspect of dual-level retail is the use of the

must be highlighted. Street-level, dedicated access

necessary, and often undesirable, grade change as

stores spread their communicative elements across

a way to claim public space as being in the store’s

the 25ft +/- store front. Stores whose access is through

domain. Should pedestrians make an exterior grade-

a shared door, or part of dual-level retail concentrate

change decision, it is more likely they will become an

their branding and display efforts to a specific portion

interior shopper.

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upper floor glazing may provide display for distant pedestrians

2 to 3 stories

s s SIGNAGE

SIGNAGE

25’-0” to 60’-0”

5% 15% 10% 70%

25’-0” to 60’-0”

signage display

5% 30%

signage

distant display

20% 45%

display

distant display


Mid Box

Exterior study - Mid Box Mid Box retail, despite its greatly increased surface

suited to their second-story display space. The

area, surprisingly has the same low-signage ratio

second can be seen in stores such as Apple, which

of standard stores. A high percentage of store

through new construction create a façade that is in

surface area goes ‘unclaimed’, regardless of façade

contrast enough to its surroundings to function as

materiality- a condition Mid Box stores have more

an urban marker, a subtle take on branding. While

control over, as this is the only type considered that

not a sectional condition, it is analogous to the other

takes on considerable architectural construction. Two

sectional analysis, as this architectural contrast

strategies are implemented to attempt to capitalize

serves as a subtle but effective measure to extend

on this opportunity. The first is employed successfully

their store’s influence further into the public realm.

by Urban Outfitters, who creates product displays

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Interior Program

Interior Program

71

73

75

77

Kiosk

Micro

Store

Mid Box

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Kiosk

The spatial relationship between customer and vendor in kiosks is the inverse of other types of retail storage

explored in this volume. Typically in larger retail, the consumer inhabits the interior and merchandise line

display

the walls facing in towards the shopper. The kiosk display faces outward and the shoppers and vendors

left over volume

circulate around in the space beyond the footprint of the cart. Kiosks have a unique relationship with their “back of house” space. In a traditional retail space, the storage is likely located to the back of the store accessed from behind the checkout counter. Kiosks typically store additional goods or necessities inside the kiosk itself or off site within another retail venues’ back of house space. More so than other types of retail, the kiosk checkout counter is display (often other stores display some goods on the counter like accessories, but the kiosks only display is often the check out counter). The kiosk has the ability to expand as needed to accommodate new program or an increase in customer demand. The food cart is the main type to take advantage of the expandability of the kiosk. It is common to see a food cart with an extra cooler sitting beside it or behind it.

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TERN

WES

N

UNIO

DR CIG INKS ARE T TE S

WES

TERN

THE C I G A R E T T E S

P H O N E C A R D S

UNIO

LOT T N ERY L O T T E R Y

The Lottery Boston, MA

CAFE

MEN

U

ESPR

ESSO

CAP

PUC CINO

Cafe Boston, MA


Micro I

Micro Retail, like the kiosk, has to be inventive with storage space. Often, these establishments are too storage

small to sacrifice an entire back room to the storage of stock. Additional merchandise in micro retail is

display

typically crammed, piled and stuffed into the display space, creating visually chaotic interiors. Any surplus

left over volume

or larger items are stored above the display on larger shelves or in an attic like space within the volume of the store interior. Storage can also be found on the floor below the display shelves. In this way storage in micro retail is best diagrammed in section while a plan diagram can locate storage in most other retail types.

Interior Program

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Kenneth Cole 597 Broadway, NYC

Fresh 121 Newbury Street, Boston MA


Store

The store employs either a second floor or a backroom for storage. Additionally, storage is hidden in cabinets in the display area of the store, often as a storage

base to store display and under transaction counters. The volume of storage space is often greater than

display left over volume

the volume of the displayed goods. This is especially true of higher luxury stores, which may consist only of very sparsely populated display racks. The display layout is highly contingent on the type and size of the product being displayed.

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Crate & Barrel 777 Boylston Street, Boston, MA

Apple, INC. 815 Boylston Street, Boston MA


Mid Box

The mid box interior program, like that of the store, depends on the type of product sold and the brand strategy of the retailer. Taking the Apple store in storage

Boston and comparing to the Crate & Barrel just a few doors down will highlight the range of strategies for approaching the interior layout.

display left over volume

Apple’s display is luxurious and sleek since the product itself is small and crisp. The minimalism of the brand’s product is reflected in the design of the display. The space is wireless and “no strings attached.” The Apple store’s large open circulation space maximizes the number of shoppers that can browse the store. The goal behind this display tactic is not to sell quantity but rather to sell a single larger expensive item. The apple store has high levels of transparency in the façade. This makes the store enticing and allows the product to speak for itself, in lieu of large amounts of signage. The materiality of the Apple store suggests the technology of the goods found inside. It uses an innovative spiral glass stair and a façade with glass structure support. Crate & Barrel on the other hand is dense with wide range of goods. The almost claustrophobic display of goods limits the number of shoppers that can inhabit the space. The towers of display are placed intentionally to allow for cozy aisles lined with goods and create a meandering path for the shopper. The goal of Crate & Barrel, as deduced from their display style, is to sell a large quantity of goods. Crate & Barrel has a rather opaque façade. This helps to disguise or hide the clutter of the interior. Crate & Barrel employs more old fashioned, cozy materials in its display and architecture, symbolic of the home. This is in keeping with Crate & Barrel’s focus on house wares.

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Circulation

Circulation

81

83

85

87

Kiosk

Micro

Store

Mid Box

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Add-On

Add-On Kiosk


Kiosk

Customer

The circulation path for a kiosk is very different from heavy traffic

that of the typical retail experience. For starters, a

medium traffic

kiosk has no door through which a shopper enters.

light traffic

In a way, looking at a kiosk is enough to have the same relationship with the merchandise as you get from entering other stores. Both the vendor and the shopper inhabit the same space - the space around the kiosk. A kiosk is generally situated within the flow

Vendor heavy traffic medium traffic light traffic

of pedestrian traffic in a shopping district. This forces the passerby to see the goods offered and potentially make an impulse purchase. A buyer, not just a window shopper, almost exclusively takes the circulation path closest to the kiosk. The customer can easily determine what a kiosk sells from a distance and the decision to purchase is made often before one approaches the kiosk.

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The Lottery Boston, MA

Cafe Boston, MA


Micro

Customer

Shopper and vendor circulation paths often do not heavy traffic

cross in micro retail, unlike kiosks where they share

medium traffic

the same space. Micro retail is sometimes set up with

light traffic

the vendor inhabiting the space inside the store with just a window for interaction between them and the customer. Other micro retail allows the customer to inhabit the space in front of the counter inside the establishment. This arrangement does not allow for

Vendor heavy traffic medium traffic light traffic

much variety of movement of the customer; sometimes there is only enough room for one or two people to stand comfortably in the space. Micro retail has a very direct path between the point of entry and the point of transaction. Time is rarely spent meandering through the store and often the merchandise in micro retail is kept behind the counter.

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Circulation

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Fresh 121 Newbury Street, Boston MA

Kenneth Cole 597 Broadway, NYC


Store

Customer

The Store has a more complex, varied and heavy traffic

orchestrated circulation path than the two smaller

medium traffic

scales of retail. Displays can be set up to form a

light traffic

distinct path through the space. With a little knowledge of human behavior, the vendor can guide shoppers to certain items and force the discovery of these items on them. This helps the vendor make more frequent sales of impulse goods along the path. A store display

Vendor heavy traffic medium traffic light traffic

must work to engage the consumer. There are two possible behavior patterns that can arise based on the display. The first and desirable reaction is that the customer finds the products and atmosphere appealing and continues browsing into the depths of the store. Attractive and popular products are more likely to be displayed against the wall as opposed to a floor display. The second undesirable reaction is that the customer makes a small circuit through only the front of the store before turning around and leaving. It is because of the potential of the second situation that a store must put its best foot forward to garner the continued interest of the customer.

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DN

Crate & Barrel 777 Boylston Street, Boston, MA

Apple, INC. 815 Boylston Street, Boston MA


Mid Box

Customer

The mid box allows for the most variety of movement heavy traffic

through. Apple Store is considered to be an

medium traffic

environment with controlled circulation. This is base

light traffic

on the fact that it has a very rigid display pattern that almost acts like a grid. Products are display from front of the store to back of the store base on their popularity on the market. This is to pull all possible customers through the whole depth of the store to

Vendor heavy traffic medium traffic light traffic

increase higher possibilities of sale. In addition to display pattern, the innovative environment by Apple also contributed to the marketing effort, which in turn causes customers to navigate through the store by their curiosity. The Apple store’s open display lets the shoppers be easily observed by one another. The Crate & Barrel’s approach to circulation is very different. Crate & Barrel’s small corridors and tight spaces embrace the shopper as they move through. The display racks reflect the stores goals of maximizing the number of products displayed per square foot. They are often five to six feet tall and spaced densely. The Crate & Barrel’s more intimate atmosphere forces a more rigid path and closer contact with other shoppers when one does happen upon them. This also causes the customer to navigate through the store looking for what he or she wants and therefore the circulation path is random

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types Downtown Crossing consists of mainly store retail with a healthy amount of mid box retail.

and meandering.

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Urbanism

Urbanism

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93

Three Urban Districts

99

Downtown Crossing

109

Quincy Market

117

Newbury Street

123

Type Distribution Analysis


Newbury Street


Three Urban Districts

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Three Urban Districts

Quincy Market

To

better

understand

the

characteristics

and

interrelationship between retail types, Downtown Crossing, Quincy Market and Newbury Street were selected as study areas. Each district was identified as catering to different demographics and operating in different ways, yet each is a successful urban shopping area. Downtown Crossing has the widest range of retail scales and types (from kiosk to mid box) as well as a diverse range of shoppers. The

Downtown Crossing

retail at Quincy Market is more narrowly targeted to tourists during the day and college-age people in the evening. The Newbury/Boylston Street shopping district caters to more upscale tastes. Diverse districts were selected to understand the interaction between store types and specific categories of consumers.

Boston, MA Outlined are the three districts where urban retail was thoroughly mapped to support our research.


North End

North End

Quincy Market

Quincy Market

Downtown Crossing

Downtown Crossing

North End

Quincy Market

Downtown Crossing

Chinatown Chinatown

Chinatown

Local Resident Movement Map

Business Worker Movement Map

Tourist Movement Map

This contour map shows the density of local residents

Business workers traverse through Quincy Market

Tourists have far less draw to go to the Downtown

moving through out the districts. The highest density

en route to the North End. In the Downtown

Crossing district and therefore the pedestrian tourist

of local traffic occurs along the western edge of

Crossing district, the highest densities are found

is significantly sparser in this area. The majority of

Quincy Market and the Chinatown area of Downtown

along Washington Street and to the East towards

tourist density is found in Quincy Market.

Crossing.

Chinatown.


Three Urban Districts

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Contour Movement Maps Combining the different users into one map reveals the densest pedestrian activity takes place along the Chinatown side of Downtown Crossing. There is also significant movement laterally through Quincy Market to reach the New England Aquarium and the Aquarium T stop. North End

How this can be applied:

Understanding the movement patterns of different demographic groups within the city allows for better

Quincy Market

planning of urban retail.

Potential sites of new urban retail districts can be identified through movement patterns.

New England Aquarium

New retail typologies can be implemented that address the retail needs of targetd demographic groups.

Correlation contour movement maps for Boston, MA. Raford, Noah. “Movement Economics in Fractured Urban Systems: The Case of Boston, MA.” London: University College London, 2004.

Downtown Crossing

• Chinatown

Correlation Contour Movement Map for All Groups

• • • •

Pedestrian counts done on 08/04/2004 and 08/07/2004, Wednesday and Saturday. 8am to 8pm, weather data unavailable Stationary gate method Counts every 5 minutes for 82 observation points (gates) Three demographic groups were recorded, logging the movements of business workers, residents and tourists at each observation point.


Downtown Crossing

block dimensions block dimensions

pedestrian movement pedestrian movement

380’

400’

Quincy Market

365’

Newbury Street

720’

260’

560’

alley accessalley access


Three Urban Districts

Newbury Street

Quincy Market

Downtown Crossing

context

context

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Block Analysis City blocks in a variety of sizes, shapes and

weave that forms the complex pattern of a city. The

configurations make up the smallest and basic unit

operation of the streets within the three established

of the city’s urban fabric. Stitched together with

districts varies from location to location. The relation

an often intricate pattern of streets and alleys, city

of display front to the service access is an important

blocks form a fabric of districts. If formed over a long

one in urban retail. The urban sites are often compact

period of time the district will take on an irregular

making the dance between service and display a well

shape as seen in the historic Downtown Crossing

choreographed one. The pedestrian promenade is

district. When designed as a destination point such

often fully removed from the service. This is not a

as Quincy Market, a district may ignore the pattern

front experienced by the consumer. The relationships

created by the weave of the urban fabric and stand

discovered during the exploration of Boston shopping

as a unique district on its own. The more rigid and

districts hold true with this division. The success of

planned grid of the Newbury Street district provides

a district is contingent on the operation of the blocks

its own complex and organized blend of retail

within. A successful shopping district contains a wide

and residential to the urban fabric of the district.

variety of products sold, scales of individual stores,

When brought together the different patterns and

clientele attracted and hours of operation.

organizations of these districts create a unique


Downtown Crossing

kiosk

32

micro

36

store

315

mid box

73

total

456

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Type Distribution in Downtown Crossing The Downtown Crossing shopping district in Boston,

The nineteenth century saw the area grow into the

Massachusetts is sandwiched between the Financial

department store hub in Boston with the Filene’s

District

Downtown

Basement flagship store occupying a central spot in

It is called home by 27,000 residents

the district. The fabric of the area is enriched by the

and sees 240,000 people flood into the streets daily

variety of retail scales. A revamping of the district is

for work. In addition to these consistent numbers,

currently underway as a result of the neighborhood

about 100,000 people visit Downtown Crossing for

that many felt was losing its luster and retail tenants.

entertainment, medical care, education, shopping

The goal of the revitalized Downtown Crossing district

or sightseeing. It consists of small streets winding

is to create a 24-hour city; it is to be equally active

through the retail district, some of which are closed to

after dark as it is during the bustling work hours.

and

Crossing.

the

Boston

Common.

vehicular traffic giving the area an old world charm.

Downtown Crossing Retail (District) November 2008

Type Jewelry Stores

7.0%

7.9%

16.0%

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types. Downtown Crossing consists of mainly store retail with a healthy amount of mid box retail.

Percent of Total

194

42.5%

Eating & Drinking Places

93

20.4%

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

58

12.7%

Apparel & Accessory Stores

38

8.3%

Health & Personal Care Stores

22

4.8%

Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

20

4.4%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

16

3.5%

Food & Beverage Stores

9

2.0%

*General Merchandise

6

1.3%

Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores

0

0.0%

456

100.0%

Total

69.1%

Number

*General Merchandise Stores include: Macy’s; Filene’s; Filene’s Basement; TJ Maxx; Marshall’s; and H&M


1502

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3519

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2342

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Franklin Street

2747

Su

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m

1136

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2795

as

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804

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1256


Downtown Crossing

I

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I URBAN RETAIL 101

Downtown Crossing Pedestrian Traffic Average hourly pedestrian traffic for Downtown

Financial District, Chinatown and South Station.

Crossing can be seen as heavily focused on

The more heavily travelled

specific paths. As indicated by the thicker orange

Street/Summer Street

lines, and corresponding higher pedestrians per

Both of these roads are primary retail streets and

hour value, pedestrians move across distinct routes

direct routes from public transportation points

through the district. This correlates to movement

to other points of interest in downtown Boston.

routes include Winter

and Washington Street.

between the Boston Common and areas in the

How this can be applied:

• • •

Understanding pedestrian foot traffic within a district provides insight into potential missed urban retail blocks. Knowing where pedestrian movement activity becomes isolated within a district helps to plan future urban retail blocks. Visualizing the overlay of both pedestrian foot traffic and movement patterns provides insight into the daily operation of the urban district.

This technical report was conducted as part of the Boston Downtown Crossing identity and branding strategy (Intelligent Space Partnership, Ltd.).

Graphically represents the density of foot traffic in Downtown Crossing; the thicker the line, the more density. The values are average pedestrians per hour (pph) on that street.

• • • • • • •

Pedestrian counts done on 11/15/2006, Wednesday 7am to 7pm, cloudy and dry, temps in the 50s Stationary gate method Counts every 5 minutes for 68 observation points (gates) Generated flow count in pedestrians per hour (pph) Peak times at 8-9AM, 12-2PM and 5-6PM Influenced by location of public transportation and retail destinations


T

Government Center

Quincy Market

Beacon Hill

T T

T

T T

T

T T

Boston Common

T T

T

T

Financial District

T Chinatown


Downtown Crossing

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URBAN RETAIL 103

Downtown Crossing Pedestrian Density Pedestrian activity in the Downtown Crossing district

movement pattern as indicated by the darker orange

can be seen to be both directional and consolidated.

region in the lower right corner of the Downtown

Overlaying

movement

Crossing district map. This correlates to movement

map for all groups (orange shaded areas) - tourist,

between the Boston Common and areas in the

business worker and local resident - with pedestrian

Financial District, Chinatown and South Station.

traffic densities (black lines) a movement pattern

The point loaded nature of the correlation contour

becomes clear. As indicated by the thicker black

movement map indicates, once in the destination are,

paths, pedestrians move across distinct routes from

there is a high probability that pedestrian activity will

public transportation points toward the high density

remain isolated to that zone.

the

correlation

contour

How this can be applied:

• • Graphically represents the density of foot traffic in Downtown Crossing, the thicker the line the more density, with movement patterns of all demographic typs.

•

Understanding pedestrian foot traffic within a district provides insight into potential missed urban retail blocks. Knowing where pedestrian movement activity becomes isolated within a district helps to plan future urban retail blocks. Visualizing the overlay of both pedestrian foot traffic and movement patterns provides insight into the daily operation of the urban district.


mf ield

hin

Str ee t

et

on St re

gt

Bro

W as

Pro vin ce

Str ee

t

tre et

Tre mo nt S

Scho ol St reet


Downtown Crossing

kiosk

2

micro

7

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Downtown Crossing Block Analysis - Day A more in-depth exploration of an individual block in Downtown Crossing was undertaken to understand the finer grain of retail typologies. The Downtown

store

60

Crossing study block is lined with continuous shops and has an interior web of service alleys. This block,

mid box

8

like the rest of Downtown Crossing, consists of primarily store-scaled retail establishments. There are a number of eateries to serve the business people

total

77

who populate the area during daytime hours. The one thing lacking in this district are dumpsters. There

dumpster location

are far fewer dumpsters than there are stores in the

• •

district. There are also few service access doors,

Understanding the distribution of different retail typologies, geographically and by percentage, in an urban retail district can help to plan new retail blocks. Service access becomes a critical factor in block design with lack of planning becoming an inconvenience to the vendor and the consumer.

raising the question of how these retail buildings deal

alley access

efficiently with loading and waste removal service.

food & beverage

Downtown Crossing Retail (Block) November 2008

Number

Percent of Total

Jewelry Stores

12

15.6%

Eating & Drinking Places

16

20.8%

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

20

26.0%

Apparel & Accessory Stores

7

9.1%

Health & Personal Care Stores

4

5.2%

Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

3

3.9%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

5

6.5%

Food & Beverage Stores

5

6.5%

*General Merchandise

2

2.6%

Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores

3

3.9%

77

100.0%

Type

bar 2.6% 9.1% 10.4%

77.9%

How this can be applied:

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types in this representative block of Downtown Crossing.

Total

*General Merchandise Stores include: Marshall’s; and H&M


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mf

W as h

t

re e

St

Pro vin ce

Str e

et

tre et

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Scho ol St reet


Downtown Crossing

kiosk

micro

Downtown Crossing Block Analysis - Night Nighttime at Downtown Crossing sees a very different place. At 9:00 in the evening, most of the stores close down leaving very quiet, abandoned streets. Kiosks

store

begin to pack up and go to their evening storage spots when the sun goes down. Evenings in Downtown

mid box

dumpster location

alley access

food & beverage

bar

Crossing focus on a few select bars instead of the wide variety of options open during the day.

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Quincy Market

kiosk

80

micro

49

store

85

mid box

15

total

I

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Type Distribution in Quincy Market The Quincy Market District includes, Quincy Market

mall. Its success made it a model for similar types

proper, Faneuil Hall, and neighboring streets. Quincy

of “festival marketplace� retail development in the

Market was established in 1826 near the waterfront

United States. Quincy Market is one of the top tourist

as a marketplace in Boston and includes three

destinations in the nation because of its vibrant, up

long granite buildings. Since the 1970s, the Quincy

beat atmosphere.

Marketplace has operated as an indoor/outdoor

229

Quincy Market Retail (District) November 2008

Type Jewelry Stores

6.6%

34.9%

7

3.1%

65

28.4%

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

63

27.5%

Apparel & Accessory Stores

49

21.4%

Health & Personal Care Stores

9

3.9%

Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

1

0.4%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

5

2.2%

15

6.6%

0

0.0%

*General Merchandise Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores

21.4%

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types. Quincy Market consists of an equal distribution of kiosks, micro retail and store retail.

Percent of Total

Eating & Drinking Places

Food & Beverage Stores

37.1%

Number

Total *General Merchandise Stores include: N/A

15

6.6%

229

100.0%


North End

T

T

Government Center

T

T

New England Aquarium

Downtown Crossing


Quincy Market

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URBAN RETAIL 111

Quincy Market Pedestrian Density

Graphically represents the density of foot traffic in the Quincy Market district, the thicker the line the more density, with movement patterns of all demographic typs.

Pedestrian activity in the Quincy Market district is

shopping center. Market research indicates that 20

heavily influenced by tourist activity and tourism

million people annually pass through the Quincy

related

superimposed

Market shopping center. The correlation contour

correlation contour map with the pedestrian traffic

map shows a high probability that pedestrian activity

density illustrates the pedestrian activity of this

will remain between Quincy Market, the Aquarium

unique urban retail district. Pedestrian traffic for

and points South along the waterfront. Pedestrian

the Quincy Market district is oriented between

movement toward the North End is influenced by

Government Center, the New England Aquarium on

business worker movements as illustrated in previous

the waterfront, and Boston’s North End district. The

correlation contour movement diagrams. The large

most direct route from public transportation points

number of tourists in this district morphs the overall

between Government Center and the Aquarium is

correlation contour movement map and minimizes

through the heavily trafficked Quincy Market festive

the impact of the daily workers commute.

points

of

interest.

The


et Clinton Stre

No

rth

eet Str

treet Chatham S

t Stree State

Jo hn Fit z

ge

ral d

Ex pr es sw ay


Quincy Market

kiosk

53

micro

44

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Quincy Market Block Analysis - Day The Quincy Market shopping district is a tourist hot spot. The Freedom Trail, a historic walking path through Boston, passes through the market bringing

store

40

in large volumes of foot traffic. The nearby New England Aquarium and Marriott Hotel add to the large

mid box

10

number of tourists in the area. The Quincy Market District is also close to several subway lines and it is easily accessible from the Financial District, making

total

147

it a viable option for a lunch during the workday.

dumpster location

alley access

Quincy Market Retail (Block) November 2008

food & beverage

Type Jewelry Stores

bar 6.8%

36.1%

27.2%

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types in this representative block of Quincy Market.

Percent of Total

7

4.8%

Eating & Drinking Places

50

34.0%

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

50

34.0%

Apparel & Accessory Stores

24

16.3%

Health & Personal Care Stores

3

2.0%

Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

1

0.7%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

1

0.7%

Food & Beverage Stores

4

2.7%

*General Merchandise

0

0.0%

Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores

7

4.8%

147

100.0%

Total

29.9%

Number

*General Merchandise Stores include: N/A


et Clinton Stre

No

rth

eet Str

treet Chatham S

t Stree State

Jo hn Fit zg e

ral d

Ex pr es sw ay


Quincy Market

kiosk

micro

Quincy Market Block Analysis - Night Quincy Market is intended to have a festive marketplace atmosphere. Because of this desire, the hours of the market’s operation are not limited

store

to daytime hours. The retail establishments do close in the evenings but the lively atmosphere remains

mid box

late into the evening because of the large numbers of restaurants and bars that cater to tourists and

dumpster location

alley access

food & beverage

bar

college-aged visitors.

I

Urbanism

I

URBAN RETAIL 115


Newbury Street

kiosk

3

micro

0

store

310

mid box

total

35

I

Urbanism

I

URBAN RETAIL 117

Type Distribution on Newbury Street Located in the Back Bay neighborhood in Boston, the

merchandise gradually increases as one walks from

Newbury/Boylston St. runs from the Boston Common

the Massachusetts Avenue to the Boston Common

to

century

along Newbury Street. Boylston Street is defined by

brownstones lining Newbury Street are filled with

buildings of a more recent vintage, the stores tend

hundreds of retail establishments. The primary scale

to be primarily mid box scale and national brand

of retail in this district is the store. The price point of

franchises.

Massachusetts

Avenue.

The

19th

348

Newbury Street Retail (District) November 2008

Type

14

4.0%

Eating & Drinking Places

48

13.8%

13

3.7%

122

35.1%

51

14.7%

7

2.0%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

12

3.4%

Food & Beverage Stores

32

9.2%

Apparel & Accessory Stores Health & Personal Care Stores Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

10.1%

*General Merchandise Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores Total

89.1% Percentage breakdown of the different retail types. Newbury Street consists of mainly store retail.

Percent of Total

Jewelry Stores

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

0.9%

Number

4

1.1%

45

12.9%

348

100.0%

*General Merchandise Stores include: Filene’s Basement; Marshall’s; Lord & Taylor; and H&M


Clar

t

end

tree

yS bur

on S

New

t

tree  



 

 











 















 















 















 





 









 









 























 



 





























 

 







 

 





 



t

e Stre

l Boy

 

uth tmo

Dar reet

St ston


Newbury Street

kiosk

0

micro

0

I

Urbanism

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URBAN RETAIL 119

Newbury Street Block Analysis - Day Newbury Street is known for drawing locals and tourists alike. The retail in this district caters to upscale tastes. The old brownstones limit the options

store

55

of retail size in this area, which makes the store sized retail very prevalent. The split-level entries allow for

mid box

5

two stores to share the same faรงade with both getting street frontage. Boylston Street sees a marked difference in scale. The stores along this street are

total

60

mostly larger mid box scale.

dumpster location

alley access

Newbury Street Retail (Block) November 2008

food & beverage

Type

bar

2

3.3%

Eating & Drinking Places

6

10.0%

2

3.3%

24

40.0%

Health & Personal Care Stores

9

15.0%

Sporting Goods, Books, Music Stores

0

0.0%

Electronics & Appliance Stores

2

3.3%

Food & Beverage Stores

4

6.7%

*General Merchandise

0

0.0%

Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores

11

18.3%

Total

60

100.0%

Apparel & Accessory Stores

91.7%

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types in this representative block of Newbury Street.

Percent of Total

Jewelry Stores

Miscellaneous Store Retailers

8.3%

Number

*General Merchandise Stores include: N/A


New

t

tree

Dar

u tmo

reet l

St ston

t tree th S

Boy

on S end Clar

reet b

St ury


Newbury Street

Newbury Street Block Analysis - Night

kiosk

Newbury Street, though it has a number of restaurants

micro

open into the evening, it is not known for its nightlife. Boylston Street, however, is a destination area for

store

later in the evening because of a higher percentage of mid-priced restaurants. The Newbury/Boylston Street shopping district mitigates the change between the

mid box

city and the residential neighborhood of Back Bay. During the evening, the amount of pedestrian traffic

dumpster location

drops off dramatically from the Prudential Center and Boylston Street to Marlborough Street, moving

alley access

perpendicular to Newbury Street.

food & beverage

bar

  



 

 







 







































 

   











 













 





 









 





  





























 























 



 

  





 

 





 

I

Urbanism

I

URBAN RETAIL 121


Downtown Crossing

456 Retail Shops

Quincy Market

Newbury Street

229 Retail Shops

348 Retail Shops


Type Distribution Analysis

kiosk

micro

store

mid box

I

Urbanism

I

URBAN RETAIL 123

Type Distribution Analysis - Cross Analyzing By cross analyzing the three districts we are able to

leftover parcels have been colonized by micro-retail

understand what makes the retail mix work for each

while new development has introduced mid-box retail

district.

to the historic fabric of storefront retail.

Downtown Crossing consists of a balanced mix of

Newbury Street consists of 85% “store� retail. The

all four typologies that we have analyzed. There are

consumer base is less diverse and therefore the retail

several factors that resulted in the retail mix to occur.

is limited to higher end products. While the street is

The first is the diversity of consumers and products

economically successful it does not possess goods

for sale. Downtown Crossing is considered the hub

and services for all classes of consumers.

of Boston, with 240,000 people walking its streets

Quincy market is rich in historical character,

each day. A micro retail store that sells only lottery

contributing to its success as a destination. The area

tickets and cigarettes is dependent on visibility and

is more popular for tourists than locals because of

a large volume of consumers to exist. Downtown

the kinds of retail there and the associated tourist-

Crossing offers this type of exposure and allows this

focused programming and amenities. Kiosks make

type of retail to thrive right next door to larger scale

up 34% of the retail in Quincy market while Micro-

retail. This density of people is driven by easy transit

Retail makes up for 28% of the total retail. This high

access, the impact of tourism, and the proximity

percentage of smaller retail like ice cream stands and

of Downtown Crossing to workers in the Financial

gift stands are able to thrive because of the markets

District. The diversity of building types and parcel

attraction to tourists.

sizes, the result of the long history of the area, also contributes to the diversity of store types. Smaller

Kiosk Urban Retail District

Percentage breakdown of the different retail types for all three districts. Photos capturing the atmosphere of each districts street life.

Number

Micro

Percent

Number

Store

Percent

Number

Mid box

Percent

Number

Percent

TOTAL

Downtown Crossing

32

7.0%

36

7.9%

315

69.1%

73

16.0%

456

Quincy Market

80

34.9%

49

21.4%

85

37.1%

15

6.6%

229

Newbury Street

3

0.9%

0

0.0%

310

89.1%

35

10.1%

348

115

11.1%

85

8.2%

710

68.7%

123

11.9%

1033

TOTAL


The Retail Team eric ARMY

chansan HUN

huy NGUYEN

Completed his undergraduate education at Northeastern University. When not taking biased meeting minutes, Eric spends his time measuring crowded sidewalks. His expertise lies with small stores in an urban environment, enticing the passerby with the window display and signage and catchphrases.

Completed her undergraduate education at Northeastern University. She enjoys roaming the mean streets of Boston over turning every stone documenting kiosks. When not dedicating herself to these efforts, one can find Jessica honing her incredible 3D computer modeling skills by building kiosks, micro retail, clothes hangers, garbage cans and a variety of other items.

Completed his undergraduate education at Massachusetts College of Art and Design. San enjoys apples... both eating them, and studying the technology of the stores that sell them. His area of expertise covers mid box retail, the zoning of interior program and branding.

Completed his undergraduate education at Northeastern University. Huy enjoys walking in well choreographed paths around various scales of urban retail. He does not enjoy whale watching. Mid box retail, interior programming and branding are Huy’s areas of expertise.

jessica TWIGGS

Life coach and urban retail extraordinaire. Received the dry eraser marker award for his valuable guidance. When he is not lecturing at Northeastern University, he serves as principal of Utile, Inc. which he founded in ‘02, located in the heart of Boston’s retail district.

Completed her undergraduate education at Northeastern University. She enjoys an ever changing color palette and last minute computer failures. Elizabeth’s expertise is on graphics, file management and kiosks.

lorenGOODKNIGHT

matthew NATHANSON

prof.timothy LOVE

elizabeth UTZ

Completed her undergraduate education at Northeastern University. Loren enjoys researching (aka working at) kiosks and/or stalking street vendors as they pack up their wares for the evening. When not secretly snapping pictures of unknowing vendors, she fills her time with writing.

Completed his undergraduate education at Temple University. Mike enjoys long walks in dark alleys and piña coladas with umbrellas. His expertise lies in a study of the urban fabric of retail market places and micro retail.

Completed his undergraduate education at the University of Michigan. Matthew likes pierogi. He is an expert in urban mapping, unsuccessful locations for banks, and micro retail. Matt is very tactful for dealing with regulatory committees. Hes got it “covered.”

mike BARRETT


URBAN RETAIL ARCH G691 GRADUATE DEGREE PROJECT STUDIO FALL 2008 This publication has been prepared as part of a five week graduate thesis studio assignment in the Northeastern University School of Architecture for the Fall 2008 Architecture G691 course. Other publications in this series include self storage, office, and parking garage typologies, all produced by graduate students in the Northeastern University architecture program.

Urban Retail  

Urban Retail: A Pattern Book

Urban Retail  

Urban Retail: A Pattern Book

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