THE BLACK PANTHER BLACK COMMUNITY NEWS SERVICE
Special Commemorative Series
It's About Time BPP X Neighbor Program
Long Live The Mighty Panthers
BPP History Month Date Time 10/1-31
BPP Art Exhibit
10am BPP Van Tour
1pm Joyce Gordon Art Talk
7 pm Interview with Charlotte O'Neal &
12pm-3pm Re-opening & Virtual BPP
11am Fallen Comrade Ceremony
Conducted by Charlotte O'Neal
12pm 55th Year Anniversary
11am BPP Photo Exhibit
11am-3pm Dr Huey P Newton Bust Unveiling
3pm-5pm BPP Members Free Admission to the West Oakland Mini Museum
BPP Exhibit & "The Living Legacy of The Black Panther Party"
Location Joyce Gordon 406 14th St, Oakland, CA Oakland/Berkely Joyce Gordon 406 14th St, Oakland, CA Parkway Theater 474 24th St, Oakland, CA All Good Bakery 5622 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Oakland, CA
Bobby Hutton Park 1651 Adeline St, Oakland, CA Bobby Hutton Park 1651 Adeline St, Oakland, CA West Oakland Library Community Room 1801 Adeline St, Oakland, CA 9th and Mandela Parkway West Oakland Mural Project & Mini Museum 831 Center St, Oakland, CA The Brickhouse Art Gallery 2837 36th St, Sacramento, CA
Thank you to our sponsors: Life Is Living, SF Bayview Newspaper Barbara Cox,West Oakland Library, Dale Allender
Elbert “Big Man’ Howard - September 24th, 2010
THE GLOBAL APPEAL OF THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY
The Black Panther Party was founded in October, 1966 in Oakland, California. It was first named The Black Panther Party for Self Defense because, at the time of its inception, neither Black people nor their communities, had any voice or organization to take a stand against the brutal treatment and oppression they suffered on a daily basis. The Black Panther Party was first organized around those issues and the Ten Point Platform and Program was designed to address them. In the beginning, the Party followed the teachings of Malcolm X, which centered at the time on Black Nationalism. However, as the Party grew in size and as the members studied and learned, the Party’s vision and perspective changed, as did Malcolm’s. Malcolm X taught Black people to broaden their view of the world, and showed them how, by doing so, they would see that other socalled nations of people were suffering exploitation and oppression at the hands of the same racist oppressors who murdered and exploited them here in the US of A. Because of their political stand against racism, war, and oppression, the Black Panther Party, quickly became known world-wide, and began receiving invitations to speak. One of the first of these came from an anti-war group to attend a Moratorium on the Vietnam War. This was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1968 and Bobby Seale, Big Man, David Hilliard, and Karen Wald attended. Bobby Seale spoke and he not only expressed The Black Panther Party’s opposition to the war, but also took the opportunity to explain how there was a war of oppression going on against Black and poor people in America. There was a large and diverse group of people present at the Moratorium and they pledged their support of The Black Panther Party, and demanded the complete and unconditional withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnamese soil. In 1969, there were certain organizations in Japan who also opposed the Vietnam War. They knew of the BPP’s stands against the war and America’s racist and oppressive policies, and they invited the BPP to come to Japan to speak at rallies and demonstrations. Big Man and Roberta Alexander were assigned to go to Japan in order to represent the Black Panther Party. The people of Japan got much information and a true picture what the Black Panther Party was all about through the many speaking engagements, press conferences, and meetings organized for Roberta and Big Man. Upon leaving Japan, Big Man was directed to fly to Sweden and work with one of the Solidarity Committees which had been previously established by Bobby Seale and Masai Hewitt on their visits to Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden. These Committees and other organizations in many cities arranged demonstrations in support of the Panthers’ demand that Huey Newton be set free. While still abroad, as International Spokesperson for the Black Panther Party, Big Man was invited to West Germany by the German Students for a Democratic Society. He was supposed to give speeches about the Vietnam War, the racial conflict in America, and the goals of the Black Panther Party. However, American agents had spoken to the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs and they decided to close the country’s borders and seize any Black Panther who attempted to enter, their reason being that this entry would be “a clear and present danger to public security”. So Big Man was not allowed to enter Germany, which then angered some 2,000 anti-Vietnam War demonstrators who had wanted to see him and hear him speak. In Frankfurt, throughout that day and evening, groups of demonstrators wandered through town and threw stones at American businesses. The President of the Federated German Students Unions protested to the Minister of the Interior about the deportation of Big Man.
Meanwhile, due to the increased repression of police in America and the US Justice Department’s desire to return BPP member and Minister of Information Eldridge Cleaver to prison, Eldridge had left the USA and established residence in Cuba. From Cuba, communication was established with the revolutionary government of Algeria. The way was then cleared so that Eldridge and his family had been able to move there, establish residence, and, as a result the first International Chapter of the Black Panther Party was born. This soon resulted in Panthers going to Algiers to attend and participate in the Pan-African Cultural Festival. Spear-headed by Eldridge Cleaver, the BPP was represented by a Black Panther Party Cultural Center, which featured a vast display of African American art produced by BPP Minister of Culture, Emory Douglas. This turned out to be the center of attraction in Algiers. During this event, representatives of the African liberation movements from many countries met and became acquainted with members of America’s Black liberation movements. The Black Panther Party had been heard of, and it was known that the Party supported their struggles against imperialism. The BPP had printed accounts in the Black Panther Party Newspaper of the struggles of freedom fighters in Mozambique, Angola, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Guinea Bissau, and the Congo and it was clear to all that the BPP stood in solidarity with the freedom fighters of Africa. Because of the stance that the Black Panther Party took against American imperialism in the world, delegations of Panthers were invited to visit Korea, China, Vietnam, and Africa, places where no US officials were welcome. The Black Panther Party became a world-wide phenomenon, an international voice against injustice, racism, and oppression. Although the Black Panther Party was founded 44 years ago, and does not exist today as such, its influence is still felt and seen around the world. There are groups in existence today whose members still call themselves Panthers and many groups have adopted Panther programs and policies. There are Panthers in Israel, England, Ireland, New Zealand, India, and the South Pacific Islands. The legacy of the Black Panther Party continues. Amongst many others, keeping this legacy alive is Emory Douglas, with his art, and Billy “X” Jennings, with his historical collection and his world-wide web-site, “It’s About Time”. “Those who make Art and History may die but the Art and History will never die.” The struggle continues. All Power belongs to the People.
A Life of Memories Yesterday's memories are captured on film In books, black and white pictures, and some oral histories. They are filled with love, youth, adventures, romanticism, friendships, revolution and for some of us pain ....................... I for one, thank the gods for it all.
Barbara Easley Cox Black Panther Party for Self Defense All Power To the People Free Mumia & ALL Political Prisoners
Central Headquarters of the Black Panther Party – 1970 to 1973 Written by Billy X By 1970, the Black Panther Party was under full attack from federal, state and local police and their agents of oppression throughout America. Offices were being raided, Panthers killed, arrested, or going underground or into exile. The Central Committee decided to move our offices into the heart of the Black community so that we would not be isolated at night. Many of our offices were storefronts without many houses around. Central Headquarters set the example by moving from Shattuck Ave in N. Oakland into the heart of West Oakland’s Black community in 1970. The new location at 1048 Peralta St. was a two-story Victorian house with 5 bedrooms built in 1895. We were surrounded by other houses in the poor, working class neighborhood which was 90% Black. It was an honor to work at Central HQ, which was the heartbeat of the Party. Most of the Central Committee worked out of Central. The Ministry of Information was on the second floor where the BPP newspaper was laid out every week. There was also a photography department run by Lauryn Williams, the first BPP female photographer. I worked downstairs. We had a small fence around the front yard that looked like all the others on the block. As you approached the front door, you would be greeted by me or whoever was on security and asked whom you wanted to see and the nature of your business. The front door was heavily fortified with steel plates, painted over in black so as not to be noticed. Right by the door was the Day Room where the person on security sat and watched the front of the house. You could look up and down Peralta, as well as 12th St. At night, security watched the front and back and stayed in touch with an intercom system. The next office down the hall was the Officer of the Day’s office. All phone calls from all over the country came through there. Around the corner from the O.D.’s office was a large room with a TV and couch, and a large bathroom. In the back was the kitchen which was the center of many social activities. From the kitchen there was a door to the backyard and a door to our living quarters. In the backyard, we dug a barbeque pit and used it often to cook for rallies. Sometimes on Sundays we would fire up the pit and feed the comrades and local neighborhood people. The surrounding community already supported the Party and would watch out for us. They would call us to tell us what the police were doing. About three blocks from the office was Campbell Village, a public housing project which was a stronghold of Panther support. Many Panthers came from there, as well as other public housing in Oakland. While working at Central, I had many assignments. I was line captain for the boycotts at Bill Boyette’s, Safeway and Mayfair. I helped fortify Central by digging tunnels and filling sandbags. We built another floor underground where we had a target range. I was also assigned to work as an aide for David Hilliard when he was going to court for the April 6th shootout. Later, when Huey got out of jail, I was assigned to go to court with him every day and also to assist his family as needed. Huey always treated us well, ate with us and talked about the Party’s future. He talked about starting new programs and travelling the world spreading the work about the Party. Being a duty driver was a big part of working at Central HQ. The duty driver would transport people to and from the airport and take people to and from their assignments. As there were many branches around the Bay Area, we were kept very busy. We held political education classes at Central every Sunday. All comrades were required to attend. Sometimes over 200 people from around the Bay would be in attendance. Sometimes we also had food giveaways at Central and the West Oakland Community Center down the street. I continued to work under the Central Committee even after leaving Central Headquarters. I was assigned to work at Grove Street College with Big Man Howard and later to organize Bobby Seale’s mayoral campaign in 1972. I later worked at the Oakland Community School.
Free Em All
We want to extend our Panther Condolences to Romain "Chip" Fitzgerlad who transitioned March 29,2021
The Black Panther Party Legacy is in Good Hands By Damien Lamar McDuffie October 2021 marks 55 years since the founding of The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland. Though the Town is known as the fertile ground that gave rise to the internationally known organization, you’d be hard pressed to find many signs or markers preserving the history those young leaders--now elders--created more than 50 years ago.
This mural experience is the latest community-led effort to raise awareness of the history of the Black Panther Party since the top 2021. Littered across Oakland lay a series of current and future monuments--ranging from sprawling murals that document significant moments of Panther history to commemorative art pieces--dotting the landscape from which so much Panther history sprang.
The Black Panther Party’s global impact is undeniable. The organization's strategic vision incorporated the insights of Malcolm X with the mass mobilization techniques of the Civil Rights and early Black Power movements. They held a consistently revolutionary ideological position that combined Black self-determination with the willingness to work in coalition with allied groups representing the interests of oppressed people along race and class lines, nationally and internationally.
As we race toward the BPP 55th Legacy & Alumni Celebration, here are five art and technology projects that are honoring the Black Panther Party Legacy in Oakland:
Despite their achievements, there is a dearth of markers, plaques, and monuments dedicated to upholding the legacy in Oakland that the People have always acknowledged and revered. However, by building monuments to the Party’s reverberating impact on the world, a cadre of artists and culture bearers based in Oakland are leading the way to bring the Black Panther Party legacy forward in new and exciting ways As the founder of Black Terminus, an augmented reality platform for Black art and the Black Cultural archive, I am privileged to lead an organization that is contributing to preserving the Legacy of the party alongside a collection of artists, archivists, culture creators and technologists led by legacy keepers committed to a radical vision for Oakland, our home, and the place we wish to effect the most transformative change. On August 13, 2021, we partnered with muralist Timothy B. and a collective of local artists to create a 70ft by 30ft mural honoring the Black Panther Party co-founders Bobby Seale and Dr. Huey P. Newton in downtown Oakland, and turned it into a giant Augmented Reality experience. By downloading a free app called “Black Terminus AR” (QR codes above), visitors can use their mobile device camera to transform works of physical art into moving Augmented Reality experiences before their eyes.
The AR Museum for the People project uses our accessible augmented reality tech to make open-air museums of historic Black neighborhoods by adding a digital layer to physical Black archives, artworks, and artifacts. The project includes augmented reality extended mural art, a series of community engagement live experiences, and an immersive audio-visual history tours of Black Panther Party sites in Oakland, California. We’re looking to honor the BPP legacy by mounting a series of plaques at points of historical significance and bring their stories alive through a new, cutting edge technology and large-scale mural art. The “Black Terminus AR” app brings historic Black Panther mural art, archival photos, historic newspapers, pamphlets, and posters to life by embedding them with rich media (video, audio, motion design) to reveal history hidden beneath the artifact.
AR Museum for the People Project - By Its About Time, Black Terminus AR, Sunnight Edition Prints & Journalist Pendarvis Harshaw (sites across Oakland)
“Women of the Black Panther Party” by Rachel Wolfe - Goldsmith & West Oakland Mural Project (9th street & Dr. Huey P. Newton Way)
The Women of the Black Panther Party Mural is a 2000sqft public art mural by Rachel WolfeGoldsmith and West Oakland Mural Project, installed on a private home in the heart of West Oakland, Ca. The piece includes an ever-evolving list of women who served the people, body and soul.
“Seize The Time” by Aerosoul Art & Homeless Action Center (2601 San Pablo Avenue)
The mural depicts the historic Black community and community leaders like Carroll Fife, community organizers from Moms 4 Housing, images of rank-and-file Black Panther Party members, and the Founder and Chairman of the Black Panther Party, Bobby Seale.
Black Liberation Mural - Bay Area Mural Program & Black Liberation Walking Tour. (30th Street & San Pablo Avenue)
The walking tour features a sprawling mural by the Bay Area Mural Program that showcases the history of the Hoover-Foster neighborhood and its impact on the Black Panther Party. The walking tour launched with audio stories told by people from the neighborhood, including a stop and reflection on St. Augustine’s Episcopal Church (site of the first free breakfast program, now St. Andrew’s Baptist Church). “Seize The Time” by Aerosoul Art (inspired by Emory Douglas) & Black Joy Parade & Blatant Magazine (15th & Broadway)
Black Joy StoryWindows is a curated, self-guided multimedia art exhibition installed in 30+ storefront businesses located in Downtown Oakland and highlights the artwork of more than 20 local Black artists and Black-led arts and cultural organizations and businesses. Curated By ASHARA EKUNDAYO, the exhibit feature Seize the Time murals depicting Emory Douglas Art, an augmented reality installation from the Panther newspaper, and a portraiture painting of Lil’ Bobby Hutton.
The Huey Memorial Art Installation - Dr. Huey P. Newton Foundation by (Dr. Huey P. Newton Way & Mandela Parkway)
I was privileged to work with the Dr. Huey P. Newton Foundation who began the year by installing a Commemorative Street Name Change of 9th Street between Peralta Street & Mandela Parkway to Dr. Huey P. Newton Way. The Foundation hopes to end the year by installing a Bronze Bust by sculptor Dana King at the head of the newly made street along Mandela Parkway.
The Living Legacy of The Black Panther Party Film
Written by Jordan McGowan & Melissa Charles The legacy of the Black Panther Party lives in memory for most: from images of comrades in leather jackets and berets carrying guns with their rallying cry “off the pigs” to the often less-acknowledged social programs which served the needs of the people. Most of the stories told of the Black Panther Party memorialize it’s legacy as a thing of the past. It is true that the FBI’s COINTELPRO program worked long and hard to destroy the structures and leadership of the movement, but despite their best efforts the legacy and essense of the Panthers lives on. In the words of the great chairman Fred Hampton, “you can kill a revolutionary, but you can never kill the revolution”
West Oakland Mural Project & Mini Museum
Coming October of 2021, Neighbor Program, It’s About Time Legacy and Alumni of the Black Panther Party are proud to present: The Living Legacy of The Black Panther Party. In this storytelling documentary film, Panther Veteran Billy X tours historic BPP landmarks across Ohlone Land (Oakland & Berkeley, California) while interviewing the people who are carrying on in the tradition of the Party. In sharing stories with folks across the Bay Area about his memories as rank and file member of the Party, Billy connects the work of the past with the ongoing work of today. The film features visits with New Afrikan Socialist organization, People’s Programs, the West Oakland “Women of the Black Panther Party” Mural Project, UC-Berkeley’s Fannie Lou Hamer Black Resource Center, and African & Indigenous Socialist organization Neighbor Program on Nisenan Land (Sacramento). By the end of this film, these people and organizations make it clear why studying the legacy of the Panthers is vital: to connect our struggle and fight for liberation to our Ancestors and Elders, while continuing the tradition of service to our people which began long ago. To free the land. And to free the people. We are so excited to bring this film to life and share it with yall at the 55th Year celebration and we hope you will join us for the film’s premiere. All Power to the People. Then & Now.
Visit Us The Mural and Mini Museum are located at the corner of Center St and Dr. Huey P. Newton Way in West Oakland, California
646.306.7175 text only westoaklandmuralproject.org
Polynesian Panther Statement For the brothers and sisters of the BPP Tena koutou katoa, and warm Pacific greetings to you all. Recently the Polynesian Panther Party celebrated our 50th anniversary across three magnificent days of banqueting, music, cultural encounter and symposia. Panther members and their families from all over our tiny Islands assembled in numbers for the first time in 50 years. This was very much a whanau-family time bringing together not just the membership but also their children and children’s children. It was important to us they be there and honoured for the challenges they experienced having hard out activists for parents. The closing night concert was created and performed by these talented children of the revolution. The Black Panther Party inspired us to stand against racism and the injustice it breeds here in Aotearoa New Zealand and was the impetus for the formation of the Polynesian Panther Party on June 16 1971. Throughout our celebration the spirit of the BPP was conspicuously honoured in the artwork for our commemorative clothing and badges as well as in our multi panel symposium discourse. The powerful work of Revolutionary Artist brother Emory Douglas who has visited these shores many times, was proudly displayed for the duration. Without doubt the highlight of the entire celebration was a live zoom conversation with BPP members’ sister Ericka Huggins and brother Emory Douglas. The audience was mesmerized by their presence and mana=spiritual energy, life force. At Q & A time both shared deeply personal and empowering experiences as BPP members, leaving us and especially our young Pacific people with powerful messages and strong memories of this amazing once in a lifetime experience. Arohanui and Best wishes for your 55th. All Power to All the People. Prepared by members of the Panther Claw Melani Anae , Tigilau Ness , Alec Toleafoa , Pauline Smith , Fuimaono Norman Tuiasau
Saturday October 23th Bobby Hutton Park/DeFremery Park 11am-12 noon Healing Circle with Charlotte O'Neal The Healing Circle program will go as follows LIBATIONS: Opening Ritual by Iya NEDRA T. WILLIAMS GONGING IN THE ANCESTORS and LIFTING UP THE NAMES OF OUR FALLEN COMRADES AND ANCESTORS: MAMA C aka Iya Osotunde Fasuyi (representing KC CHAPTER and UAACC in Tanzania) Does the Gong while Iya Nedra continues pouring and the Gathering shouts out names of those we LIFT UP! Remembering Lil’ Bobby Hutton: Poem by Mama C SONG: REMEMBER ME Song by PROSPERITY MOVEMENT Baba Adimu aka WolfHawkJaguar, Iya Osunfemi Wajeri and Mama C Communal Ringshout Honoring Our Ancestors & Maroon History: Community gathered in the park led by Iya Nedra with her Sacred Staff and drumming Circle of Love & Protection: simultaneously Mama C puts the Ring Shout Circle in a Sacred Ring of Love and Protection. (using cornmeal flour) a symbol of abundance and unity. 12 noon Opening of Celebration
Speakers, music, presentations, food Photo Exhibit at the West Oakland library across the street
Community Welcome if you are interested in volunteering please email email@example.com
Black Panther 10 Point Program & Platform
1. WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK COMMUNITY.
WE BELIEVE that Black people will not be free until we are able to determine our destiny.
2. WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.
WE BELIEVE that the federal government is responsible and obligated to give every man employment or a guaranteed income. We believe that if the white American businessmen will not give full employment, then the means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living.
3. WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALIST OF OUR BLACK COMMUNITY.
WE BELIEVE that this racist government has robbed us and now we are demanding the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules. Forty acres and two mules were promised 100 years ago as restitution for slave labor and mass murder of Black people. We will accept the payment in currency, which will be distributed, to our many communities. The Germans are now aiding the Jews in Israel for the genocide of the Jewish people. The Germans murdered six million Jews. The American racist has taken part in the slaughter of over fifty million Black people; therefore, we feel that this is a modest demand that we make.
4. WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS.
WE BELIEVE that if the white landlords will not give decent housing to our black community, then the housing and the land should be made into cooperatives so that our community, with government aid, can build and make decent housing for its people.
5. WE WANT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY. WE WANT EDUCATION THAT TEACHES US OUR TRUE HISTORY AND OUR ROLE IN THE PRESENT-DAY SOCIETY.
WE BELIEVE in an educational system that will give to our people knowledge of self. If a man does not have knowledge of himself and his position in society and the world, then he has little chance to relate to anything else.
6. WE WANT ALL BLACK MEN TO BE EXEMPT FROM MILITARY SERVICE.
WE BELIEVE that Black people should not be forced to fight in the military service to defend a racist government that does not protect us. We will not fight and kill other people of color in the world who, like black people, are being victimized by the white racist government of America. We will protect ourselves from the force and violence of the racist police and the racist military, by whatever means necessary.
7. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE.
WE BELIEVE we can end police brutality in our black community by organizing Black self-defense groups that are dedicated to defending our Black community from racist police oppression and brutality. The Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States gives a right to bear arms. We therefore believe that all Black people should arm themselves for self- defense.
8. WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK MEN HELD IN FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY AND CITY PRISONS AND JAILS.
WE BELIEVE that all Black people should be released from the many jails and prisons because they have not received a fair and impartial trial.
9. WE WANT ALL BLACK PEOPLE WHEN BROUGHT TO TRIAL TO BE TRIED IN COURT BY A JURY OF THEIR PEER GROUP OR PEOPLE FROM THEIR BLACK COMMUNITIES, AS DEFINED BY THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
WE BELIEVE that the courts should follow the United States Constitution so that Black people will receive fair trials. The 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution gives a man a right to be tried by his peer group. A peer is a person from a similar economic, social, religious, geographical, environmental, historical and racial background. To do this the court will be forced to select a jury from the Black community from which the Black defendant came. We have been, and are being tried by all-white juries that have no understanding of the "average reasoning man" of the Black community.
10. WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE AND PEACE. AND AS OUR MAJOR POLITICAL OBJECTIVE, A UNITED NATIONS SUPERVISED PLEBISCITE TO BE HELD THROUGHOUT THE BLACK COLONY IN WHICH ONLY BLACK COLONIAL SUBJECTS WILL BE ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE, FOR THE PURPOSE OF DETERMINING THE WILL OF BLACK PEOPLE AS TO THEIR NATIONAL DESTINY.
WHEN, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
WE HOLD these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. **That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. ** Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. **But, when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. **
Acknowledgements William Cordova, Emory Douglas, Bill Jennings, Gail Shaw, Damien McDuffie, Refa-1, Jordan McGowan