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Building Blocks: an early learning continuum, is a publication by: NBRS ARCHITECTURE ISSN 2209-7708 ©2018 NBRSARCHITECTURE No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted without the prior written permission of the publisher. ABN: 16 002 247 565 Level 3, 4 Glen Street Milsons Point NSW 2061 AUSTRALIA James Ward architects@nbrsarchitecture.com +61 2 9922 2344 www.nbrsarchitecture.com

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AN EVOLVING PEDAGOGY P6

CHILDREN AS COMMUNITY CITIZENS P8

RE-IMAGINING EARLY LEARNING P11

BREAKING DOWN BARRIERS P14

CREATING COMMON GROUND P20

RESPONSIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS P32

THE OUTDOOR TEACHER P42

FLEXIBLE, PERMEABLE, RESPONSIVE P46

BEYOND THE EARLY LEARNING CONTINUUM P48

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Nation-wide kinder education

1938

Commonwealth Government funds the first early childhood care services, the Lady Gowrie Child Centres

1940’s

Community run rostered pre-schooling in church halls and community centres

1970’s

Commonwealth Government introduces the Child Care Act of 1972, allowing more widespread access to non-for profit child care

1990’s

Day nursery care, separate from formal kinder education

Child Care Act of 1972 is amended to include funding for profit organisations

2000’s

1920’s

1890’s

AN EVOLVING PEDAGOGY

Growth of the for-profit sector


child care is "unification of community centred care and curriculum based learning" Early childhood represents a period of growth both mentally and physically, which lays the ground work for future learning and engagement. Early learning centres provide the building blocks necessary to nurture and teach future leaders through holistic education and care practices, eschewing traditional notions of simple child-minding and embracing an everevolving pedagogy. The ages 0 to 6 represent a period in which the brain is most malleable. By introducing young children to various stimuli in a controlled environment, early learning centres cultivate a wide disposition towards a variety of learning typologies1. Contemporary practices recognise the need for a holistic approach to quality early childhood education and care, centred around the unification of community centred care and curriculum based learning. Educators are recognising children as capable citizens of the community with agency to affect the world around them. This reflects the need to respect the rights and opinions of children1 and account for them as primary users of designed early learning centres.

"CULTIVATING A DISPOSITION TOWARDS LEARNING" "CHILDREN AS CAPABLE CITIZENS OF THE COMMUNITY WITH AGENCY TO AFFECT THE WORLD AROUND THEM" "RESPECT THE RIGHTS AND OPINIONS OF CHILDREN"

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CHILDREN AS COMMUNITY CITIZENS a community pedagogy Early childhood is a period of rapid cognitive development, encompassing to varying degrees the sharpening of physical, emotional and social skills and shaping the course of a child’s future thinking. At 2 years of age, children reach a developmental milestone at which point physical and cognitive growth increase exponentially. The educational curriculum recognises this as an appropriate time to separate age groups. However, a modern pedagogy for holistic care reflects the need for social interactions at both insular and broader levels between age groups and invited community members. Advances in pedagogical understanding have shaped the way that early childhood educators approach cultivating these skills. They work to foster a sense of belonging, being and becoming in young children– the foci in the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia2.

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–– Belonging is the cultivation of the integral community connections that define their place in society. It is the where and with whom a child identifies, and requires the recognition of children as active citizens of the community. –– Being is the recognition of the "nowness" of childhood, a period of wonder and enlightenment in human lives. A curriculum that prepares for the future should also address the current needs and interests of children. –– Becoming is about understanding the key aspects of early cognitive development and the role of maintaining neural connections to foster identities of future adults. As a result, contemporary pedagogy is a curriculum aimed at developing a community identity in children through community integration3.


child agency

3–5 years

2–3 years

0–2 years

"A CURRICULUM AIMED AT COMMUNITY IDENTITY AND INTEGRATION." Early physical development basic cognitive growth Milestone in growth

Rapid growth in physical, emotional and social skills

To see children as citizens of the community is to accept them as agents of their own learning, capable of making decisions and initiating their own investigations according to their own interests. Part of that acceptance is to understand and respect the rights of children, and to design the way they learn in a manner that reflects a child’s perspectives1. This is reflected in the provision of independence in the way that explorations are led, with educators taking a back seat and allowing a child-led learning curriculum. Educators then, must be ready to respond and provide the necessary materials for each subsequent area of investigation and be able to read and pre-empt the needs of children. A design response to this new methodology is to allow for active architecture that adapts to the varying demands of activities. This can be achieved through effective storage solutions

"children as agents of their own learning" that are tailored to each activity and allows children to leave tasks and return to them later. An approach to maintaining that interest and pre-empting needs, while also giving children the freedom to engage their own agency, is one undertaken at Banksia Cottage, Macquarie University. Each year’s curriculum and spatial arrangement is decided by children, being given a blank canvas and told to populate the room with what they would like to utilise and explore over the course of the next few weeks. A key aspect of this approach is the physical act of giving control to the child.

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RE-IMAGINING EARLY LEARNING

Recognition of children as community citizens in early childhood pedagogy must be reflected in the built environments of early learning centres. Future early childhood education programs require a focus on community-oriented practice, integrating aspects of community engagement with opportunities for childled learning to better prepare children as community citizens.

check-in

campfire

The check-in point contains peripheral programs such as staff spaces, storage and laundry. These are secondary to the main child-centric programming of the early learning centre, occupying whatever remaining space there is after distributing play spaces and outdoor environments.

The campfire is the central hub, a location for free play and community engagement. Current early learning typologies neglect the need for community spaces, opting to maximise dedicated play rooms in order to maintain distinctions between age groups.

playroom The playroom is the dedicated child-space. It facilitates play and active learning through access to stimulus materials and activity settings in a more purposeful environment. Playrooms cater to differing skill levels and inspire creative and adventurous investigation.

outdoor The outdoor environment provides children access to the world of wonder and discovery that they can continue to explore beyond the confines of the early learning centre. It is a space for children to build risk management skills, engaging in supervised risky play.

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CHECK-IN

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BREAKING DOWN BARRIERS designed invitation

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functional

engaging

The impermeability of existing child-care centres reflects an ingrained societal ideology that children are fragile and are to be protected from all external influences. This results in spaces with poor interconnectivity and minimal overlap between the outer community and early learning centres.

By increasing the porosity of the facade, the area of overlap can expand to allow for community commons spaces both internally and externally, creating a more holistic care environment that extends beyond just children to encompass all community members.

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point of public interface The ‘soft check-in’ is the first point of contact for users, inviting children, parents and community members into the centre and ensuring the process of lingering is as amenable as possible whilst, maintaining the expected standards of security for a child care provider. This layer of the early learning centre contains the peripheral programming that serves to enrich the learning experience, from reception through to learning and playing services. It expands to accommodate the staff rooms, laundry and storage, and is a core aspect of providing holistic early childhood care.

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MEANINGFUL STAFF SPACES Early childhood education is a high-stress career, with high risk of physical and mental strain4. Staff retention rates are liable to drop without the provision of meaningful ancillary spaces in early learning centres. Staff rooms and high traffic storage areas are often places in whatever space remains, resulting in poor access, limited appeal and poor quality retreat from stress and overstimulation. Aside from dedicated staff rooms, points of contact between carers and guardians that offer a measure of privacy are required. The ‘soft check-in’ ancillary zone caters to this. Successful designs provide spaces for staff meetings, programming, relaxation as well as access to well located storage and laundry areas without compromising current supervision of children under their care.

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ACCESSIBLE ANCILLARY SERVICES A major operational challenge with secondary spaces is the requirement to maintain sufficient supervision when being utilised. Ancillary modules, such as large item storage and laundry, must maintain a degree of accessibility and functionality. Well designed ancillaries address physical risks of musculoskeletal injury through ergonomic design. Placement of shelving and storage considers user friendliness for internal floor space and access. These items

also consider dimensioning in order to create spaces for the wide variety of objects utilised in early childhood education. The proximity of such services and the ability for them to retain a measure of supervision and prospect during operation is key to reducing staff stress and injury. An overall improvement in peripheral services increases educator efficiency and workplace satisfaction.

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CREATING COMMON GROUND designed involvement

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functional

engaging

Linear, classroom-like structuring of existing centres show a decades old "teacher-centric" typology, often dictated by economic measures which reduce the flexibility of spaces and discourage cross-classroom interactions.

By breaking down and redistributing spaces, a central "campfire" commons area is created, allowing for maximum overlap of varying programs and encouraging child-led learning explorations of all kinds. The campfire becomes an extension of all programs.

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THE COMMUNITY CAMPFIRE The community campfire allows for the flexibility of the early learning centre, defining a multi-functioning space for community integration and interaction, and spilling from inside to out. Commonality of different zones allow for use by children of different ages and educators as additional unencumbered internal and external space. Large multi-functional areas also cater to various community activity settings such as community gardens, a communal kitchen, readings and visits. The campfire then facilitates growth and integration of core community services and values, defining a new standard for holistic early childhood education by creating meaningful places for parents, visitors and providers to engage with children.

parents

visitors

providers

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PLACES FOR PARENTS

Educators recognise that early learning centres occupy the transitional space between home life and becoming a fully fledged and active community citizen. It provides the back drop to the cultivation of young minds and disposes them towards learning. In order to integrate children into this new learning landscape, it is key to be able to allow for parental engagement in the classroom and common areas. The traditional point of contact for parents and guardians has often been the foyer area for dropoff and sign in. There is a noted lack of space for engagement beyond this. To allow for further parental involvement it becomes necessary to design to encourage guardians to linger and become actively engaged and inquisitive into the environments in which their children play5. This can occur through the provision of furniture that allows for interactions at varying heights - allowing adults to be seated whilst children climb and explore. Flexible furniture can also cater to both formal and informal discussion with staff as well as providing improved display areas for children’s creations and learning programs.

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PLACES FOR VISITORS A part of a community-focused curriculum is the provision for community members to engage with children in the childcare setting. This can occur through an invited member of the public or a guardian reading books with children, community workshops or after hours/extra curricular interactions such as movie and games nights, toy swap meets and pot luck dinners. These transactions occur in purpose built multi-functioning spaces ­— spaces that are extensions of circulation corridors; break-out spaces that become an impromptu theatre by drawing across a curtain or a stage that becomes a dining hall. Equitable access is required in these areas. By separating these transaction areas from play rooms, disruptions to dedicated learning and play spaces are minimised, with children free to leave and return to investigations should there be visitors.

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PLACES FOR PROVIDERS The creation of a multi-functional community common area provides the potential for expanded centre programming and additional services. These services are child-oriented health allies that provide an additional level of engagement and care. For example elements of integrated health care such as physiotherapy, speech pathology and psychologists have the opportunity to occupy temporary treatment rooms provided in the common areas. Offering a variety of consultation spaces allows for formal and informal conversation in a more comfortable environment. The provision of these services operates on a partnership with staff members to provide specialised care for struggling children and early detection and intervention for cognitive difficulties. The co-location of such services allows for parents to access additional care without disruption to a child’s weekly routine6.

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PLACES FOR CHILDREN

Cognitive growth includes the development of social skills and emotional understanding. A key opportunity to be grasped in the early learning setting is the ability for children to learn from each other, allowing for older children to take on leadership roles and younger children to learn by imitation1.

High levels of acoustic absorption and isolation in certain areas of the campfire are required to reduce the overall ambient noise levels. An increased amount of ambient noise has been linked to higher levels of toxic stress in young children and educators, which can result in aversion to open learning environments8.

The creation of the community campfire allows for this cross-age group transaction to occur while retaining the distinction of separate dedicated play rooms with more skill-appropriate equipment and stimulus7.

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APPLYING THE COMMUNITY CAMPFIRE Whilst the best-case scenario for the application of the community campfire would require a greenfield venture carefully curated to the immediate community, it is possible to apply the model to existing traditional programs. The same opportunities for community engagement and integration can be created by identifying under-utilised spaces and reconfiguring rigid layouts into flexible, free-flowing learning environments.

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Linear Pathway Multiple Checkpoints Limited common spaces Divided spaces Lack of inter-room play

Designed parent’s spaces "Soft" check in Expanded common space Dissolved internal boundaries More organic play

Convoluted layout Single point of entry Poor activation of spaces No enclosed foyer space

Clean layout with clear sight lines Multiple paths between play rooms Expanded foyer utilising dead space Provision of potential allied health space

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CAMPFIRE PRECEDENT Kfar Shemaryahu Kindergarden Sarit Shani Hay, Israel

An expansive corridor adapted into a common play area. Filled with climbable play elements that make reference to the farming industry defined by the locality.

Kfar Shemaryahu Kin Sarit Shani Hay, Israe

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ndergarden el, photographer; Amit Geron

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PLAYROOM

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RESPONSIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS variable learning modes

Beyond the integrated community learning environments, dedicated learning environments facilitate the development of fine motor skills, and provide opportunity for focused group and individual investigations. Playrooms allow children to explore in an environment that is entirely their own and catered towards their particular age, encouraging them to step up as owners and citizens of the space.

to move between common areas, playrooms and the outdoor learning environment. Within dedicated playrooms, there is a need for further delineation of space both implicit and explicit. These help define associations with areas of activity and areas of rest.

The idea of child-ownership and citizenship of playrooms is especially important with children in long day-care for multiple days a week. As a space that they occupy for extended periods, children must be able to familiarise themselves with the environment, and feel invited to engage and explore.

Rooms can be laid out to provide a diverse range of learning spaces, ranging from spaces catering for large group activities to individual learning spaces. These activity settings are designated investigation zones that provide stimulus materials. It is necessary to provide areas where children can retreat from sensory overload. These stimulus shelters can be as simple as hollows in walls and joinery, re-purposed to form cocoons of privacy.

Children are provided with the freedom

Other methods of preventing mental

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strain and over-stimulation include subdued colour palettes for walls and furnishings, and acoustic separation of spaces. While the delineation and separation of areas is necessary to allow for citizenship of spaces, the physical bounds of the spaces should not discourage movement and explorations between rooms. Early learning centres are now blurring boundaries and creating indooroutdoor activity settings, extending the learning environment into a single continuous flow-on space and encouraging children to undertake more adventurous investigations.


the elastic room Children are actively influenced by design cues around them, directing flows of investigations and allowing for transactions to occur between children and the learning curriculum. An architectural model for learning should encourage children to engage in explorations beyond their current task and lead children to define their own learning curriculum while allowing them to stay and progress in the task at hand. Playrooms are then required to be flexible and actively responsive to the needs of children as they explore. A responsive architecture allows for children to exact physical changes according to their relevant investigations. A holistic solution composed of fixed and variable furniture provides a measure of regularity to playroom settings whilst allowing children to continue to engage and explore in a continuously evolving landscape across the year. This allows educators to tailor more challenging stimulus materials according to the growth of children.

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CHILD-SIZED SPACES purpose-built room An example of a purpose-built room for child-led learning will have childsized spaces. The room will be partitioned using dividers with crawl spaces and tunnels built into them. Additionally, access points to common areas and outdoor environments have dedicated child-sized entrances, and areas of the ceiling and floor could be modulated to create compressed and expanded spaces.

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adaptive room Ways to adapt existing rooms to create child-sized learning spaces include the addition of moveable joinery items to partition the room, use of draped cloth and suspended items to reduce heights of spaces and climbable/inhabitable joinery. Combinations of fixed and moveable elements transform existing spaces to create a variety of activity settings and stimulus shelters.

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SPACE MAKING DEVICES Unfixed joinery items provide a creative solution to creating varied, flexible activity settings. Potential joinery items include moveable dividers that allow for children to crawl under and peer over. Suspended acoustic shelves help create child-sized spaces and provide additional storage options. Storage compartments and shelves should double up as seating and areas of play, allowing for an increase in unencumbered play space and varied learning environments.

acoustic shelters

creative dividers

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PURPOSE BUILT JOINERY

Straight base block

A variety of spaces catering to activities in large and small groups, and as individuals. Purpose built joinery options such as the one below allow for children to crawl through, climb over and hide between them. These varied settings allow for multi-modal learning to occur whilst being flexible enough to be applied in almost any space.

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PLAYROOM PRECEDENTS English For Fun Rica Studios, Spain

Climbable storage blocks line the corridors of this school, allowing children to occupy pockets of space that are otherwise unusable as well as creating new interactions between playrooms and the ancillary spaces.

Tromso Kindergartens 70N Arkitektur, Norway

70N Arkitektur creates a world of imagination for children with a mix of cubby spaces above and below ground with integrated foldable furniture elements for children to use.

English For Fun, Rica Studios, ImagenSubliminal (Miguel de Guzman + Rocio Romer

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ro)

Tromso Kindergartens 70N Arkitektur, Norway

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OUTDOOR

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THE OUTDOOR TEACHER blurring boundaries Contemporary pedagogy is pushing towards outdoor learning, facilitating risky play, sustainable learning, and promoting physical activity. The natural environment is a world of wonder, full of opportunities for discovery and investigation. Globally, educators are now actively encouraging children to explore in a new "open-door" policy and the advent of forest schools.

designing a world of wonder To encourage the continuation of investigations in every-day life for children, early learning centres must turn to the outside world, inviting them to explore the natural wonders that continue beyond the boundary fence of the centre. To facilitate these interactions there needs to be a combination of indoor and outdoor activity settings utilising breakout spaces and dedicated outdoor learning zones. These can include informal log seating areas for discussion, bush tucker plantings, outdoor crafts and child-friendly farming practices. By encouraging a culture of outdoor learning and play, children have the opportunity to develop fine motor skills and an appreciation for the natural world, fostering an understanding for the need for sustainable environmental practices.

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RISKY PLAY ENVIRONMENTS The early learning setting provides a unique opportunity for children to learn their capabilities in a controlled environment. Part of this is learning to self-manage risk in a safe and supervised setting. Early learning centres understand the riskbenefit relationship involved in play as learning, with children engaging in calculated risks to help educate them on risk assessment and management.

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PERMEABLE OUTDOOR PLAY Building upon the opportunities presented by the indoor common areas for cross-aged play and interaction, the outdoor learning environment has the potential to offer the same meshing of skill and experience. The sometimes necessary separation of playspaces can be modulated by utilising moveable objects and vegetation barriers to create varied zones of learning. Low barriers allow for staff to introduce bridging elements when interaction between groups is desirable, creating a new and interesting way for children to interact with the environment around them. Interaction between age groups can also occur by creating dedicated outdoor learning zones with inclusive activity settings.

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FLEXIBLE, PERMEABLE, RESPONSIVE. A child-centric architecture embracing the ideas outlined in Building Blocks A generous public reception that blurs the boundaries between inside and out allows for access to either allied health services and providers or the early learning centre. Viewable from the reception is the community campfire area and indoor/outdoor play areas beyond. Operable walls allow for the space to be completely opened whilst maintaining the flexibility to cordon off pockets for retreat and quiet zones. The centre allows for free-flowing and child-led learning.

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Welcoming outdoor public facade with shelter and seats Opportunity for integrated allied health providers Kitchen/cafe servicing indoor and outdoor areas

Flexible community campfire core area Free-flowing indoor to outdoor connections

Central courtyard with potential to separate to ages Flexible spaces according to attending ages

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BEYOND THE EARLY LEARNING CONTINUUM The years of early childhood are few in number, however the impressions left pave the way for all future learning outcomes. With the evolution of early education practices, children have the opportunity to unlock their potential and be set on the path for life-long learning and discovery. With the ages 0 to 6 representing a period of rapid cognitive development, the exposure of young children to various stimuli in a controlled environment can cultivate a wide disposition towards a variety of learning typologies. The modern early learning centre plays a pivotal role in the shaping of these interactions, equipping them as capable citizens of the community and endowing them with the readiness to investigate and explore the world around them. A flexible, permeable architecture can allow children to learn through play both indoors and outdoors, developing cognitive skills and encouraging a non-traditional approach towards education that extends beyond early learning centres. The building blocks of early childhood lay the groundwork for the rest of their schooling years, permeating their every day lives and helping them commit to life-long learning and discovery.

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references Narratives of infants’ encounters with curriculum: The benediction as invitation to participate Cheeseman, Sandra; Sumsion, Jennifer. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, Vol 17, Issue 3, pp. 275 - 288 First Published July 26, 2016 https://doi-org.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/10.1177/1463949116660951

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The common core of a child care center. Moore, Gary Ph.D, Child Care Information Exchange, March 1997, No. 114, 82-86 (invited).

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Designed environments for young children: Empirical findings and implications for planning and design. Moore, Gary, M. Gallop & J. McCormack (Eds.), Children and Young People’s Environments. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago, Children’s Issues Centre, 2002. Chapter 5, pp. 53-63 (invited).

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The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia Produced by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments. © Commonwealth of Australia 2009

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The Physical Environment of Early Childhood Centers: A Case Study in the use of Break-Out Spaces Elizabeth Matthews, Peter C. Lippman, International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2016, City College, City University of New York, USA, EIW Architects, Perth, Australia

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The Art of Integration Wong, Sandie; Press, Frances. The Infants Home Annual Report May 2012, Charles Sturt University

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The health and wellbeing of adults working in early childhood education McGrath, Belinda J. and Huntington, Annette D. (2007) The health and wellbeing of adults working in early childhood education. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32 3: 33-38

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The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress Jack P. Shonkoff, Andrew S. Garner, Benjamin S. Siegel, Mary I. Dobbins, Marian F. Earls, Andrew S. Garner, Laura McGuinn, John Pascoe, David L. Wood, Pediatrics Jan 2012, 129 (1) e232-e246; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2663

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contributors I would like to express my gratitude to the following people, without whom this publication would not be possible. Each person has made a valuable contribution to the discourse of early childhood education and are experts and professionals in their own right, and I would like to thank them for taking the time from their busy schedules to help inform this report. I would also like to pay special thanks to my mentors at NBRS for the duration of the Envision Student Partnership — Andrew Duffin, James Ward, Andrew Tripet, Libby Ure, Luen Samonte and Conor Brown as well as others who provided advice and assistance.

Professor Frances Press, Acting Associate Dean, Charles Sturt University Dr. Marianne Fenech, Senior Lecturer, Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University Dr. Amanda Niland, Lecturer, University of Sydney Dr. Kim Wilson, Lecturer Dept. of Educational Studies, Macquarie University Dr Iain Hay, Director, Prefessional Learning & Engagement Department of Educational Studies, Macquarie University Dr Maria Hatzigianni, Lecturer Dept. of Educational Studies, Macquarie University Mark McCrindle, Principal, McCrindle Research

Integricare, Long Day Care & Preschool Dom Valastro, CEO, Integricare Paul Betts, CFO, Integricare Melissa Dunford, Integricare Anna Windeyer, Integricare Renee Padovan, Integricare

- Ben Chen

Lauren Kelly, Manager of Christ Church St. Ives Preschool Chandima Jayanath, Early Childhood Teacher, Banksia Child Care Centre, Macquarie University Wendy Shepherd, Director, Mia Mia Child and Family Study Centre, Macquarie University Fiona Lawson, Centre Manager, Gumnut and Vacation Care Ben Mirkin, Project Manager, Only About Children Shelley Laycock, Director, Abbotsleigh Early Learning Centre

Andrew Duffin, Director, NBRSARCHITECTURE James Ward, Director, NBRSARCHITECTURE Andrew Tripet, Studio Principal, NBRSARCHITECTURE Libby Ure, Project Architect, NBRSARCHITECTURE Luen Samonte, Architect, NBRSARCHITECTURE Conor Brown, Landscape Architect, NBRSARCHITECTURE Tamiru Kawashima, Architectural Visualiser, NBRSARCHITECTURE Mel Karaca, Architect, NBRSARCHITECTURE

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envision 2018 The NBRS ENVISION Student Partnership Program is an annual partnership with some of the most creative young minds in the design industry. This unique intern program encourages students to investigate collaboratively and provides them with an opportunity to experiment through an interplay of research and design, while immersed in a thriving architectural practice. This exploration promotes team-based problem-solving, forward-thinking concepts and a re-evaluation of our contemporary environments. A studio project is completed over the duration of the internship, providing students with exposure and insight into the architectural design and documentation process, to help form an appreciation for graduate responsibilities within the office environment.

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SYDNEY: ABN: NOMINATED ARCHITECT: WEBSITE: 54

ENVISION STUDENT PARTNERSHIP

+61 2 9922 2344 16002 247 565 Andrew Duffin NSW Reg. 5602 nbrsarchitecture.com

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Building Blocks - An Early Learning Continuum  

The publication re-evaluates the design of early learning environments and considers how architecture can positively influence childhood dev...

Building Blocks - An Early Learning Continuum  

The publication re-evaluates the design of early learning environments and considers how architecture can positively influence childhood dev...

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