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2019 26

literatura umberto eko

robert skotis cxovreba da sikvdili

buneba

saqarTvelo moaxloebuli omis `droeba~

veluri dasavleTis ukanaskneli dReebi

aRmoCenebi

bednierebis ekonomikuri Teoriis arsi

amerika

ekonomika

samezoblo yaraCai-balyarelebi

istoria

ideologiebi ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

trapizonis imperiis daarseba

gisosebs miRma

26 2019


niWis mqone adamianze). 71. RvTaebis an wmindanis mxatvruli gamosaxuleba. 72. memkvidreobiTi an miRebuli sapatio wodeba. 74. qalaqi saqarTveloSi, afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis teritoriaze. 75. xmeleTis or masivs Soris arsebuli wylis sivrce, romelic akavSirebs wylis auzebs. 76. jgufi adamianebisa an manqanebisa, romlebic erTmaneTis ukan dganan an moZraoben. 77. sapatio saCuqari visime damsaxurebis, Rvawlis aRsaniSnavad. 80. brazilieli fexburTeli, miCneulia yvela drois saukeTeso fexburTelad.

TinaTin evdoSvili

giorgi badriZe zurab batiaSvili mixeil barnovi aleqsandre kvaxaZe nino talikaZe arCil qiqoZe sulxan salaZe levan berZeniSvili levan buTxuzi

1. saerTo-saxalxo gamokiTxva kenWisyriT, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani saxelmwifoebrivi sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad. 6. risame moqmedeba, gavlena, Sedegi. 9. didi warmateba, brwyinvale gamarjveba. 12. oTxwliani periodi olimpiur TamaSebs Soris. 14. TviTmmarTveloba; romelime qveynis, mxaris, olqis ufleba – hqondes sakuTari marTva-gamgeoba. 15. visame werilobiTi an zepiri gankarguleba, romelic Cveulebriv qonebas exeba da unda Sesruldes mflobelis sikvdilis Semdeg. 18. mwvervali saqarTveloSi, svaneTSi, md. enguris saTaveebTan. 20. Taosnoba raime saqmeSi. 21. zomis zusti nimuSi, romliTac mowmdeba xmarebaSi arsebuli sazomi xelsawyo-iaraRebi. 22. mdinare italiaSi, moedineba romSi. 25. sagani, romelic adamianis xeliTaa damzadebuli. 27. imperatoris tituli Zvel romSi, pirvelad ewoda oqtavianes. 29. fuladi an nivTieri daxmareba, romelsac uwevs saxelmwifo adgilobriv organoebs, firmebs, calkeul pirebs an sxva saxelmwifoebs. 30. calkeuli SemTxveva, momxdari ambavi. 32. movlenebis ganviTarebis logikuroba, bunebaSi arsebuli wesrigis Sesabamisoba. 33. niWi, aRafrTovano da gaiyolo xalxi. 36. ganyenebuli cneba, gamocdilebis Teoriuli ganzogadeba. 38. saxeldaxelod agebuli xergili, xelovnuri winaRoba, mowinaaRmdegis Setevisgan dasacavad gzis Casaketad. 39. wodebuleba, romelic eniWeba sportul asparezobaSi gamarjvebul pirs an gunds. 42. raime moqmedebisaTvis xalisis aRmZvreli mizezi; biZgi. 43. xelovnebis romelime dargis (musikis, kinos, Teatris) miRwevaTa Cveneba, daTvaliereba. 44. sxeulis Tviseba SeinarCunos Tavisi uZraobis an Tanabari sworxazovani moZraobis mdgomareoba, sanam gareSe Zala ar gamoiyvans am mdgomareobidan. 45. samSoblos, istoriuli movlenis, gmirebis madidebeli poetur-musikaluri, sadResaswaulo nawarmoebi. saxelmwifos erT-erTi simbolo. 49. saukeTeso, umaRlesi Sedegi. 51. fasiani qaRaldi, romelic adasturebs misi mflobelis monawileobas saaqcio sazogadoebis kapitalSi da aZlevs mas dividendis (mogebis wilis) uflebas. 52. mTavrobis, saxelmwifos meTauris an sxva maRali Tanamdebobis piris adgilsamyofeli. 53. zogi sportuli Sejibrebis Sedegi, rodesac gamarjvebuli ver vlindeba. 60. cnobili argentineli fexburTeli, „barselonasa“ da argentinis nakrebis Tavdamsxmeli. 62. erT-erTi qristianuli protestantuli sarwmunoeba, romelic aRmocenda germaniaSi XVI saukuneSi, reformaciis dros. 63. regularuli Semosavali, romelsac iZleva kapitali, qoneba an miwa ise, rom maT mflobels ar sWirdeba mewarmeobrivi saqmianoba. 64. upiratesobis ufleba, SeRavaTi. 66. wodebuleba, romelic eniWebaT umaRlesi kvalifikaciis moWadrakeebs. 67. arqiteqtura. 68. qoneba, simdidre, siuxve. 73. meqanizmi, romlis meSveobiTac saxelmwifos saxeliT miiReba koleqtiuri (Cveulebriv, sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo) gadawyvetilebebi. 74. istoriuli saxelmwifo Zveli romis aRmosavleTiT. 75. saxalxo meurneobis nawili, romelsac garkveuli ekonomikuri da socialuri niSnebi axasiaTebs. 76. Zvel ruseTSi samxedro saSualo saswavleblis moswavle. 78. organizmis funqciebis saerTo mZime moSliloba, rasac iwvevs Zlieri fizikuri dazianeba an fsiqikuri Seteva. 79. beWedi, Stempeli Tanamdebobis piris xelmoweriT. 81. mtkicebulebis safuZvlad vargisi logikuri mosazreba; damamtkicebeli sabuTi. 82. suverenuli saxelmwifo baltiispireTSi. 83. sabrZolo razmi, romelic sagangebodaa momzadebuli mtris teritoriaze Sesagzavnad. 84. raime ambavi, SemTxveva, romelic Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens sazogadoebaze.

wina nomerSi gamoqveynebuli krosvordis pasuxebi

garekanze: fotokolaJi statiisTvis `veluri dasavleTis ukanaskneli dReebi~

1. struqtura 2. disciplina 3. eqshumacia 4. eskorti 6. aqti 7. rotacia 8. euTo 9. improvizacia 10. dasi 11. maraToni 13. konteqsti 15. rituali 18. bakalavri 19. demagogia 24. makedonia 26. dramaturgia 28. guvernanti 30. inteligencia 31. azia 32. oficeri 33. verdiqti 38. bombi 39. epopea 42. eiforia 44. sinqronizmi 46. koordinacia 50. glova 51. fxeniani 53. marSali 54. radari 55. suvereniteti 60. observatoria 61. xirosima 62. akreditacia 63. nikofsia 67. dialeqti 68. esTetika 69. embargo 73. romani 74. azarti 75. etapi 81. riski 82. veto

5. batarea 8. eqstradicia 9. ipodromi 12. qaosi 13. komisia 14. proteqtorati 16. erudicia 17. rupori 20. tirania 21. speqtri 22. ufliscixe 23. ieriSi 25. stili 27. segregacia 29. scenari 32. ordeni 34. ornamenti 35. tendencia 36. ideali 37. olqi 40. Coxa 41. turne 43. kaleidoskopi 45. imperia 47. dialogi 48. poloniumi 49. qoreografi 52. leqcia 55. skandali 56. aqcia 57. katini 58. wvrTna 59. roli 64. eqspansia 65. sanatoriumi 66. konvencia 70. urani 71. statusi 72. druidizmi 76. raundi 77. tyve 78. erozia 79. aorta 80. stagnacia 83. sociologia 84. ataSe 85. balistika 86. ruka

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ideologiebi

giorgi badriZe ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

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istoria

zurab batiaSvili trapizonis imperiis daarseba amerika mixeil barnovi veluri dasavleTis ukanaskneli dReebi

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samezoblo

aleqsandre kvaxaZe yaraCai-balyarelebi ekonomika nino talikaZe bednierebis ekonomikuri Teoriis arsi aRmoCenebi arCil qiqoZe robert skotis cxovreba da sikvdili

32

40

48

saqarTvelo sulxan salaZe moaxloebuli omis `droeba~

58

literatura levan berZeniSvili umberto eko

64

buneba

levan buTxuzi gisosebs miRma

72

82

3


ideologiebi

ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi ra amoZravebs avtoritarul mmarTvelobas da agresiul sagareo politikas? giorgi badriZe Tavisi istoriis manZilze ruseTis politikur sistemaSi ramdenime revoluciuri cvlileba moxda. es cvlilebebi imdenad Rrma da yovlismomcveli iyo, rom saxelmwifo yovel jerze icvlida ara mxolod mmarTvelobis sistemas da saxelmwifo ideologias, aramed sazRvrebs da saxelsac ki. dRevandeli ruseTis federacia sabWoTa kavSiris memkvidrea, ssrk – ruseTis imperiis, romelic, Tavis mxriv, moskovis didi samTavros pirmSo iyo. magram ruseTSi damkvidrebul yvela axal politikur formacias ramdenime ucvleli maxasiaTebeli akavSirebs. aqedan yvelaze TvalSisacemia – Sida mmarTvelobis ukiduresi avtoritarizmi da sagareo politikis agresiuloba. imisTvis, rom ukeT gaverkveT saqarTveloSi rusuli okupaciis mizezebSi, Tu ratom miitaca yirimi da kvlavac ratom awarmoebs ukanono oms ukrainis aRmosavleTSi, saWiroa gaverkveT im ideologiebSi, romlebic mTeli am drois manZilze safuZvels umagrebda ruseTis mmarTvelebs da ayalibebda mis sagareo politikas.

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ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

vasili III (1479-1533)

„moskovi – mesame romi“, xati, 2011

ruseTis metamorfozebi moskovi – mesame romi: religiuri idea politikuri interesebis samsaxurSi ruseTis (ufro zustad, moskoviis, anu moskovis didi samTavros) pirveli saxelmwifo ideologia „mesame romis“ koncefcias efuZneboda. gadmocemis Tanaxmad, XVI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi vasili III-s misi axali religiuri misiis – aRmosavleT saqristianos liderobis Sesaxeb fskovelma berma filoTeusma auwya: „ori romi daeca, mesame dgas, xolo meoTxe aRar iqneba“. pirveli Tavad romi iyo, meoreSi konstantinopoli igulisxmeboda, xolo mesame ki, ra Tqma unda, moskovi unda gamxdariyo. bunebrivia, vasili III-s da mis memkvidreebs es idea Zalian mimzidvelad moeCvenaT. pirvel rigSi, es moskovis mmarTvelebis statuss exeboda – amieridan vasili ara ubralod „didi mTavari“, aramed keisari xdeboda (rusuli Царь nawarmoebia sityvidan Цезарь – Caesar). titulTan erTad man bizantiis gerbi – orTaviani arwivic – sakuTari heraldikis centralur simbolod aqcia. Sesabamisad, moskovis samTavro samefod da Semdeg imperiad gardasaxvis gzas daadga da kidev ufro didi ambicia – aRmosavleT saqristianos gaerTianeba daisaxa miznad. am droidan moskovis mier nebismieri axali miwis dapyroba „RvTis nebiT“ iyo gamarTlebuli.

5


ideologiebi ivane IV-m moskovis mmarTveloba Sors ganavrco da, rac mTavaria, safuZveli Cauyara rusul TviTmpyrobelobas – Zalauflebis srul monopolizacias. man cecxliTa da maxviliT mospo ara mxolod yvela, vinc mas ZalauflebaSi SeiZleboda Sescileboda, aramed sayovelTao teroris meSveobiT moskovis da mis kontrols daqvemdebarebuli sxva miwebis macxovreblebi faqtobrivad monebad aqcia. samarTlianobisTvis unda aRiniSnos, rom batonymoba manamdec arsebobda da teqnikurad misi saboloo forma boris godunovis dros Camoyalibda, magram ivane SegviZlia miviCnioT gansakuTrebuli rusuli „carizmis“ mTavar Semoqmedad.

imperiis mTavrobis erT-erT qvedanayofad aqcia, romelsac „oberprokurori“ uwevda meTvalyureobas. moskovis didi samTavros ruseTis imperiad transformacia swored petrem daasrula, Tumca, didi albaTobiT, misTvis mesame romis koncefcia bevrad naklebs niSnavda, vidre Rrmad religiuri ivane mrisxanisTvis. petrem energiulad gardaqmna mmarTvelobis sistema, magram ise, rom mTavroba kvlav tiranuli, xolo mosaxleobis umrav-

boris fiodoroviC godunovi (1551-1605) – ruseTis mefe 1598-1605 wlebSi

Tuki vasili III-m xalisiT aitaca „mesame romis“ SemoTavazebuli idea sakuTari Zalauflebis da statusis amaRlebis legitimaciisTvis, „mrisxaned“ wodebuli misi memkvidre misi Zalauflebis absolutur xarisxSi ayvanas da moskovisTvis imperiuli statusis uzrunvelyofas Tavis sakralur valdebulebad miiCnevda. 1589 wels WeSmaritad imperiuli statusisken mimaval gzaze moskovma axali mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga, rodesac dauZlurebuli msoflio sapatriarqosagan sakuTari eklesiis damoukideblobis aRiarebas miaRwia da mitropoliti iobi patriarqad gamoacxada. aman moskovis geopolitikur ambiciebs mxolod axali Zala Semata. XVII saukuneSi saeklesio da saero xelisuflebam bizantiuri principiT TanamSromloba – „simfonia“ scada, rac mmarTvelobaSi Tanaziarebas gulisxmobda. magram jer patriarq nikonis saeklesio reformebma, xolo Semdeg petre I-is mier saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis srulma gardaqmnam eklesia axladSeqmnili rusuli

ilia repinis naxati `ivane mrisxane da misi Svili 1581 wlis 16 noembers~

6

ivane IV vasilis Ze, cnobili saxeliT ivane mrisxane (1530-1584) – moskovis didi mTavari 1533-dan, gaerTianebuli ruseTis pirveli rusi mefe (1547-1584)


ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

lesoba – ymebi – realur monobaSi datova. misi mmarTvelobis periodSi ruseTis teritoria Tavbrudamxvevi siswrafiT agrZelebda gafarToebas. erTaderTi, rac Seicvala, iyo is, rom ruseTSi manamde damkvidrebuli aziuri da bizantiuri wes-Cveulebebis nazavi dasavleT-evropulma stilma Caanacvla. XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi realurad daiwyes zrunva oficialuri saxelmwifo ideologiis Seqmnaze, romelic mesame romis koncefcias axal saWiroebebs moargebda. is 1833 wels nikoloz I-is ganaTlebis ministrma sergei uvarovma sam sityvad Camoayaliba: „Православие, Самодержавие, Народность“ (marTlmadidebloba, TviTmpyrobeloba, erovnuloba). iseve, rogorc ruseTis maSindeli armiis lozungi – „За Веру, Царя и Отечество“, uvarovis es formulac erTgvar pasuxs warmoadgenda franguli revoluciis lozungze – „Liberté, égalité, fraternité“ (Tavisufleba, Tanasworoba, Zmoba).

`oberprokurori~ – 1722 wlidan 1917 wlamde imperatoris mier daniSnuli sajaro moxele, romelic mas sinodSi warmoadgenda. oberprokurori emorCileboda general-prokurors, romelic iusticiis ministris Tanamdebobas Seesabameboda. oberprokuroris gavlena sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva iyo, magram am Tanamdebobis SemoReba imperatoris mier eklesiaze sruli kontrolis damyarebis gamoxatuleba iyo.

patriarqi nikoni (1605-1681)

petre I (1672-1725)

1453 wels osmalebma aiRes ra bizantiis Zveli dedaqalaqi konstantinopoli, misi, rogorc aRmosavleTis saqristianos centris roli Seirya, magram mTlianad ar gauqmebula. konstantinopolSi mdebare msoflio sapatriarqo, marTlmadideblur samyaroSi yvelaze gavleniani instituti, dasustda, Tumca SeinarCuna Tavisi roli, romliTac avtokefaliis miniWeba SeeZlo sxva marTlmadidebeli eklesiebisTvis, romlebic, moskovis eklesiis msgavsad, sakuTari statusis amaRlebas cdilobdnen. XV saukuneSi msoflio sapatriarqos dakninebis Sedegad, misi mxardaWeris miReba ufro advili gaxda moskovis msgavsi mzardi Zalis samefoebisTvis, romlebsac Tavisi eklesiis avtokefalia sakuTari eqspansiis gasamarTleblad sWirdebodaT.

1650-ian wlebSi moskovis patriarqma nikonma Caatara saeklesio reforma, romelsac mxars uWerda mefe aleqsei romanovi. reformebiT garkveuli cvlilebebi Sevida saeklesio teqstebSi da aseve ritualebSi, romlebsac patriarqi da mefe moZvelebulad an Seusabamod (zedmetad berZnulad) miiCnevdnen. reformam tradicionalistebis winaaRmdegoba da, Sedegad, ganxeTqileba gamoiwvia. 1658 wlisa da 1666-1667 wlebis saeklesio krebebze reformis mowinaaRmdegeebi anaTemas gadasces da eklesiidan gankveTes. maT `ZvelaRmsareblebi“ (rus. старообрядцы) ewodaT.

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ideologiebi samxedro jvari warweriT: За Веру, Царя и Отечество

safrangeTis respublikis gerbi warweriT: Liberté, égalité, fraternité

uvarovi kidev imiTaa sayuradRebo figura, rom misma korumpirebulobam imdenad legendarul masStabebs miaRwia, rom puSkinma is Tavis leqsSic ki moixsenia. Tumca, rogorc Cans, korufcia avtoritarizmTan da eqspansionizmTan erTad rusuli saxelmwifos yvela formaciisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. pirveli msoflio omis dros „mesame romis“ idea kinaRam realobad iqca, rodesac saiqs-piko-sazonovis saidumlo SeTanxmebiT antanta ruseTis mier konstantinopolis da sruteebis dakavebas daTanxmda. Tumca ruseTisTvis yvelaferi sruliad sapirispiro scenariT ganviTarda – Zveli bizantiis gulSi SeWris da xmelTaSua zRvaze sanukvari gasasvlelis mopovebis nacvlad, imperia CamoiSala da mravali teritoria dakarga (zogi – sabolood, zogic – droebiT). komunizmi, bolSevizmi, stalinizmi, marqsizm-leninizmi – politikuri ideologiidan axal religiamde internacionalizmis komunisturi lozungebiT mosulma bolSevikebma sul male warmatebiT Caanacvles mesame romis doqtrina kidev ufro ambiciuri da eqspansionisturi ideologiiT. misi arsi msoflio revoluciis gziT komunizmis sayovelTao gavrceleba iyo. lozungi – „marTlmadidebloba, TviTmpyrobeloba, erovnuloba“ – Seicvala axliT – „proletarebo yvela qveynisa, SeerTdiT!“ msoflio komunizmis centri, rasakvirvelia, moskovi unda yofiliyo. marTalia, msoflio revoluciis ideebis gverdze gadadeba jer kidev stalins mouwia, magram aTwleulebis manZilze komunizmi sabWoTa kavSiris erTaderT ideologiad rCeboda, ramac is sruliad totalitarul saxelmwifod aqcia da aseve didwilad gansazRvra misi sagareo politika, romlis erT-erT mTavar mizans komunisturi mmarTvelobis maqsimalurad gavrceleba da mxardaWera warmoadgenda.

saiqs-pikos saidumlo SeTanxmeba – pirveli msoflio omis dros didi britaneTis, safrangeTis da ruseTis warmomadgenlebma daiwyes saidumlo molaparakebebi omis Semdeg maSindeli osmaleTis imperiis teritoriis gayofis Sesaxeb. molaparakebebs xelmZRvanelobdnen britaneli polkovniki saiqsi, frangi diplomati piko da ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri sazonovi. 1917 wels bolSevikuri gadatrialebis Sedegad, ruseTi oms da am SeTanxmebasac gamoeTiSa da is mxolod britanul-frangul molaparakebad darCa. Sedegad, britaneTma da safrangeTma erTmaneTSi gaiyves osmaleTis arabuli teritoriebi.

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ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

avRaneTis omi – 1979 wels sabWoTa kavSiris jarebma moaxdines avRaneTis okupacia. daxoces qveynis mmarTvelebi da Seecadnen iq komunisturi mmarTvelobis damyarebas, rogorc es aRmosavleT evropaSi gaakeTes meore msoflio omis Semdeg. magram okupacias avRanelebis gaafTrebuli winaaRmdegoba da aTwliani sisxlismRvreli omi mohyva, romelic 1989 wels sabWoTa jaris ukan gamosvliTa da ssrk-is dasustebiT dasrulda, ramac daaCqara kidec ssrk-is daSla.

sabWoTa jariskacebi avRaneTSi

unda aRiniSnos, rom gamocxadebuli internacionalizmis lozungebs sabWoTa ruseTisTvis sulac ar SeuSlia xeli Cveuli imperialisturi sagareo politikis gatarebaSi. rogorc ki bolSevikebma sisxlismRvrel samoqalaqo omSi gaimarjves, wiTelma armiam ruseTis imperiis dakarguli teritoriebis „dabrunebaze“ daiwyo zrunva. 1921 wels swored am politikas Seewira axalgazrda qarTuli respublikis Tavisufleba, xolo 1939 wels sabWoTa kavSirma nacistur germaniasTan mTeli aRmosavleT evropa gaiyo, rasac Sedegad mohyva axali msoflio omi, xolo mis Semdeg ki – kidev ufro farTomasStabiani sabWoTa eqspansia, rodesac rusuli jari evropis gulSi TiTqmis 50 wliT dabanakda. dekoraciebis cvlilebis miuxedavad, rodesac eklesia da religia kompartiam da misma ideologiam Caanacvla, sabWoTa periodSi SenarCunda kremlis sruli monopolia Zalauflebaze, mosaxleobis (maT Soris, eTnikurad rusebis) uufleboba, romelic koleqtivizaciis periodSi metad waagavda batonymobas da agresiuli eqspansionizmi, romelic amjerad axali ideologiiT iyo gamarTlebuli. 1940-ian wlebSi sabWoTa xelisuflebam centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi sabWoTa kavSirs daqvemdebarebuli komunisturi mmarTveloba daamkvidra da TandaTanobiT sxva qveynebSic daiwyo komunisturi moZraobebis waxaliseba. Semdeg is samxedro ZaliT axSobda Tavisi damyarebuli reJimebis winaaRmdeg saxalxo protestebs (ungreTsa da CexoslovakiaSi), xolo 1979 wels avRaneTis okupacias sabWoTa propaganda „internacionalisturi valis moxdas“ uwodebda. sabWoTa imperia sabolood imas Seewira, rom ideologiiT totalurad reglamentirebuli iyo ara mxolod Zalauflebis struqtura da sagareo politika, aramed ekonomikac. Sedegad, sabWoTa imperia – Zlevamosili supersaxelmwifo – ubralod gakotrda da ruseTis imperiis bedi gaiziara.

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ideologiebi rusuli samyaro da evraziuloba – religiisa da politikuri ideologiis axali koqteili sabWoTa kavSiris CamoSliT, rac, ekonomikasTan erTad, swored misi ideologiis gakotrebas mohyva, ruseTs Sansi mieca, rom modernizaciisa da progresuli politikuri sistemis mSeneblobisken gadaedga nabiji. mas hqonda amis garkveuli mcdeloba, magram 1990-iani wlebis eqsperimenti savalalod dasrulda, rodesac TiTqos demokratma prezidentma elcinma memkvidreobad datova ara mxolod korufciiT gapartaxebuli ekonomika da moryeuli saxelmwifoebrioba, aramed axal mmarTvelad – sabWoTa kagebes oficeri vladimir putini. ase, TiTqos arsaidan, mogvevlina kremlis mbrZaneblis kabinetSi, erTi SexedviT, usaxuri „aparatCiki“. realurad ki putini da misi gundi amisaTvis mTeli 90-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi emzadebodnen. maT maqsimalurad gamoiyenes Zveli unar-Cvevebi da kavSirebi, ris Sedegadac politikosebis, Zalovani struqturebis da organizebuli danaSaulis warmomadgenlebis unikaluri sindikati Seqmnes. is, rac maT yvelaze metad akldaT, swored ideologia iyo, romelic amjerad maT mier Zalauflebis monopolizebas gaamarTlebda. sabWoTa kavSiris CamoSlis Semdeg marTlmadideblobis reabilitacia ukve momxdari iyo, magram putins da mis jgufs esmo-

10

da, rom is ver Caanacvlebda kompartias da ver daipyrobda aTeisturad gazrdili masebis gonebas: kagebe eklesias da mis mesveurebs brwyinvaled icnobda da maT mimarT iluziebi ver eqneboda. eklesiis sakuTar samsaxurSi Cayenebis paralelurad aucilebeli iyo mebrZoli totalitaruli ideologiis Seqmna, romelic unda gamxdariyo axali xelisuflebis da misi politikis legitimaciis wyaro. putinma da misma garemocvam iolad ukuagdes fsevdointernacionalizmis sabWouri faseulobebi da rusi xalxis konsolidaciis mizniT yvelaze iol da iaffasian recepts – nacionalizmis aRorZinebas – mimarTes. araerTi rusi Tu ucxoeli mkvlevari axali rusuli saxelmwifo ideologiis Camoyalibebas putinis mier yirimis mitacebas da aRmosavleT ukrainaSi dawyebul oms ukavSirebs. Tumca, yirimic da mis Semdeg kremlis kidev ufro gamokveTili Sida Tu sagareopolitikuri qceva manamde sakmaod mkafiod Camoyalibebuli ideebis sistemas efuZneba. es ideebi putins manamde arafriT cnobilma filosofosma aleqsandr duginma ideologiad Seukowiwa da mas pirobiTad evraziulobis an rusuli samyaros doqtrina uwoda.


ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

istorikosebi am doqtrinaSi erTi SexedviTac amoicnoben XX saukunis dasawyisis rusi avtorebis ideebs. maTgan piradad me ors gamovarCevdi – nokolai trubeckoisa da ivan ilins. trubeckois Sromebi gansazRvravs ruseTs, rogorc antievropul fenomens da kategoriulad amtkicebs, rom ruseTis namdvili fesvebi da gansakuTrebuloba oqros urdos memkvidreobidan modis da ara – kievis ruseTidan, romelsac is zedmetad evropulad ganixilavs. Tu waikiTxavT 1925 wels gamoqveynebul trubeckois naSroms „kavkasiis xalxebis Sesaxeb“, ar gamogeparebaT im meTodebis gasaocari msgavseba, romlebsac ruseTis dRevandeli xelisufleba saqarTvelos mimarT iyenebs. avtori erTgvar anderZad utovebs memkvidreebs, rom qarTvelebze (da amiT kavkasiaze) kontrolis SesanarCuneblad aucilebelia qarTvelebSi yovelgvari saSualebiT CaaxSon „iqaur nacionalizmSi bolo dros aRmocenebuli evropuloba“ da xeli Seuwyon eTnikur „erTgvar evraziul nacionalizms“. swored trubeckois mier SemuSavebuli ideebis xorcSesxmas warmoadgens duginis CoxaSi gamowyobili qarTveli Segirdebis gaaqtiureba saqarTveloSi. magram evraziulobis ideologiis lomis wili duginma da misma kolegebma ivan ilinisgan isesxes. ra aris gansakuTrebuli evraziulobis mTavari winaswarmetyvelis pirovnebaSi an ideebSi da saidan viciT, rom swored mas eTayvanebian kremlis mmarTvelebi? amis sruliad utyuari faqtebi arse-

aleqsanrd dugini, „evraziulobis“ oficialuri ideologi 2008 wlis omis dros („samxreT oseTis“ sabrZolo javSan-manqanis fonze)

bobs: 2005 wels putinis mTavrobam ivan ilinis neSti Sveicariidan moskovSi gadmoasvena da donis monastris sasaflaoze didi pativiT dakrZala (es rusi sazogado moRvaweebis erTgvari panTeonia), gamoaqveyna misi Sromebis 25 tomi, aSS-dan gamoisyida da ruseTSi Camoitana ilinis arqivi, Tavad putins, misi mTavrobis uklebliv yvela wevrs, moskovis patriarqs da sxva maRalCinosnebs regularulad mohyavT ilinis citatebi.

11


ideologiebi ivan ilini (1883-1954) – rusi filosofosi, mwerali da publicisti, TeTri moZraobis momxre, komunisturi ideologiis mowinaRmdege. gavlena hqonda konservatiuli mimarTulebis rus inteleqtualebze. rogorc `vikipediaSic~ ki aris aRniSnuli, ilini aris v. putinis sayvareli filosofosi. iyo faSizmis mxurvale mxardamWeri. ilinis fenomensa da mis gavlenaze putinis axal ideologiaze yvelaze sayuradRebod cnobili amerikeli istorikosi timoTi snaideri wers, romlis wignsac mravlismTqmeli saTauri aqvs: „ivan ilini, rusuli faSizmis putinis filosofosi“.

nikolai trubeckoi (1890-1939) – gamoCenili rusi lingvisti, filosofosi, publicisti, eTnografi da istorikosi. gansakuTrebiT gaiTqva saxeli fonologiis dargSi, avtoria fundamenturi naSromisa `fonologiis safuZvlebi~ (1939). iyo struqturalizmis gamorCeuli Teoretikosi, safuZveli Cauyara lingvistikaSi morfonologias. trubeckoi `evraziulobis~ ideis erTerTi avtoria, aseve SemuSavebuli aqvs ruseTis mier kavkasiis xalxebis ukeT damorCilebis rekomendaciebi.

aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom ilins bolo wlebSi sul ufro xSirad moixsenieben faSistad. filosofosi ivan ilini 1922 wels gaaZeves ruseTidan, rogorc bolSevikebisTvis arasasurveli elementi. is germaniaSi dasaxlda da male TavisTvis saTayvanebeli gmiri – benito musolini aRmoaCina, romlis Seqmnili faSisturi mmarTveloba evropisTvis saukeTeso politikur sistemad gamoacxada.

marTalia, didi omis moaxloebasTan erTad nacistebis keTilganwyobac gaqra, magram milionobiT adamianisgan gansxvavebiT, is represiebis msxverpli ar gamxdara – 1938 wels SveicariaSi gadasaxlda. gasaocaria, magram ilinis Sexedulebebi nacisturi germaniis katastrofulma marcxmac ver Secvala da germaniis warumateblobas piradad hitleris SecdomebiT xsnida.

hitleris gamoCenam da nacistebis xelisuflebaSi mosvlam is kidev ufro gaamxneva, sakuTar Tavs Riad moixseniebda faSistad. faSizmisadmi enTuziazmi ilins maleve daufasda – „ruseTis instituti“, romelSic igi muSaobda, propagandis saministros daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida da maSin, roca praqtikulad yvela sxva imigranti gamoyares, ilini, rogorc sando, datoves. ase aRmoCnda ilini iozef gebelsis TanamSromeli.

ai, aseTi mama hyavs dRevandel rusul saxelmwifo ideologias. paradoqsi isaa, rom rogorc Tavisi warmoSobiT, ise SinaarsiT didwilad faSisturi am reJimisTvis „faSizmi“ yvelaze sayvareli salanZRavi sityvaa. rodesac ruseTis xelisuflebas vinme ar moswons, is aucileblad „faSistia“. am sityvas yvelaze xSirad bolo wlebis manZilze ukrainis mimarT iyeneben. mere ra, rom „faSistur“ da Tanac „nacistur“ ukrainas

12


ruseTis imperiuli ideologiebi

dRes prezidentic da premier-ministric ebraeli hyavs – paraleluri realobis Seqmna xom totalitaruli reJimebisTvis, gansakuTrebiT faSizmisTvis, Cveulebrivi ambavia! putinis propagandistTa gankargulebaSi dRes dasavleTSi Seqmnili uaxlesi teqnologiuri miRwevebia – mTel msoflioSi mauwyebeli rusuli telearxebidan dawyebuli, socialuri qselebiT damTavrebuli. miuxedavad imisa, Tu ramdenad seriozulad aRiqvams putini Tavisive SeTavazebul axal ideologias, ueWvelia, rom dRes ukve SeiZleba saubari putinis ruseTis modelze, romelic imperiis da sabWoTa epoqis Semdeg axal formaciad Camoyalibda. axali ruseTi Tavis sazogadoebas sTavazobs erTgvar socialur kontraqts: 1. samoqalaqo uflebebze uaris Tqmis sanacvlod rusebi miiReben siamayis SegrZnebas ruseTis Zlevamosilebis aRdgenis gamo (aq saubari araa keTildReobaze). 2. ruseTi mtrebiT garSemortymuli cixesimagrea da miuxedavad imisa, rom putinis da misi gundis korumpirebuloba yvelasTvis TvalsaCinoa, ruseTs mis garda veravin daicavs. 3. radgan mosaxleobis keTildReobis amaRleba bevrad ufro rTulia, vidre mcire omebiT didebis moxveWa, putinis sagareo politika gegmazomierad agresiuli da eqspansionisturia.

*** arsebobs erTi, savaraudod, civi omis droindeli andaza – „rusi rasac ar unda akeTebdes, bolos mainc „kalaSnikovi“ gamosdis“. es gamoTqma ara mxolod politikurad arakoreqtulad JRers, aramed bevri TvalsazrisiT mcdaria – rusma xalxma uamravi faseuli ram Seqmna da didi wvlili Seitana msoflio kulturasa da mecnierebaSi, xolo rac Tavad „kalaSnikovs“ Seexeba, legendaruli avtomatis SeqmnaSi mixeil kalaSnikovis Rvawli garkveul eWvebs iwvevs. da mainc, am andazas aqvs arsebobis ufleba, gansakuTrebiT, roca saqme rusul ideologiebs da maTze dafuZnebul mmarTvelobis sistemebs exeba. miuxedavad epoqebisa da politikuri wyobis cvlilebebisa, imperiul, sabWoTa Tu dRevandel ruseTs ramdenime saerTo maxasiaTebeli aqvs – rusuli saxelmwifo gamoricxavs adamianis Tavisuflebas da kanonis uzenaesobas, is Rrmad korumpirebulia, misi mmarTveloba yvela formaciaSi totalitarizmisken midrekili avtoritarizmiT xasiaTdeba, xolo sagareo politika – agresiiT da eqspansionizmiT.

13


istoria

trapizonis imperiis daarseba zurab batiaSvili saqarTvelo arasodes yofila Caketili qveyana – igi yovelTvis aqtiurad iyo CarTuli saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi, rac gansakuTrebiT gamoCnda Cveni qveynis Zlierebis periodSi . ideis dabadeba `oqros xana~ saqarTveloSi XI saukunis bolodan daiwyo, rodesac daviT aRmaSenebelma warmatebiT moigeria Turq-selCukebis Semosevebi da daasrula saqarTvelos gaerTianebis procesi. daviTi aqtiurad iRvwoda saqarTvelos sazRvrebis gafarToebisa da saerTaSoriso arenaze gavlenis gasazrdelad. arsebobs cnobebi, rom man am mizniT trapizonis mxareSic ilaSqra, Tumca, uSedegod. daviT aRmaSeneblis Semdeg mis mier Seqmnilma Zlierma saxelmwifo manqanam mTeli ZaliT ganagrZo muSaoba. im periodis saqarTvelos samefo kari mudam yuradRebiT akvirdeboda anatoliaSi, samxreT SavizRvispireTsa da, gansakuTrebiT, trapizonis mxareSi mimdinare procesebs. miT umetes, rom iq uxsovari droidan cxovrobdnen monaTesave Wan-lazebi da xaldebi, romlebic ar eguebodnen bizantiur mmarTvelobas. XI saukunis II naxevridan mZime droeba daudga manamde Zlevamosil bizantiis imperias, romelsac sul ufro uWirda Turq-selCukebis Semosevebis Sekaveba. situaciis Semobrunebas Seecada komnenosebis dinastia, romelic bizantias 1081-1185 wlebSi marTavda. komnenosTa warma-

14


trapizonis imperiis daarseba

yivCaReTi

trapizonis imperia

ala nia dur Zuke Ti

Savi zRva

tra piz oni s

saqarTvelo imp eri a

kaspiis zRva

i eT nZ xu le ke Ti

darubandi

karnu-qalaqi

erzijani rumis sasulTno

azerbaijani somxeTi

teba droebiTi iyo. qveyanaSi dawyebuli areulobebis fonze am dinastiis bolo imperatori andronike I da misi vaJi manueli 1185 wlis Semodgomaze konstantinopolSi wamebiT daxoces, xolo manuelis mcirewlovani Svilebi, aleqsi da daviTi, monaTesave bagrationebTan gaapares da ase gadaarCines gardauval daRupvas. komnenosebi saqarTvelos samefo karze qarTuli adaT-wesebiTa da tradiciiT gaizardnen, ganaTlebac qarTulad miiRes. Samqorisa (1195) da basianis (1203) brZolebSi gamarjvebis Semdeg saqarTvelos xelfexi gaexsna samezobloSi mimdinare procesebSi aqtiurad CasarTavad. saqarTvelos gauCnda regionSi pirvelobis safuZvliani ambicia da saqarTvelos samefo karma maleve miiRo gadawyvetileba, rom SavizRvispireTis mimarTulebiT samxedro-politikuri operacia daewyo. didia imis albaToba, rom XIII saukunis dasawyisSi qarTvelTa mier SavizRvispireTSi warmoebul gabedul samxedro-politikur qmedebebs Tavisi `programa minimumi~ da `programa maqsimumi~ hqonda.

andronikaSvilebis sagvareulo gerbi

xaldebi – Zveli dasavlur-qarTuli tomi. `xaldis~ Sesatyvisad berZen avtorebs moxseniebuli aqvT `xalibi~. es xalxi cxovrobda Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosavleT sanapiroze. aq mdebareobda provincia `xaldia~.

arsebul faqtobriv masalaze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom qarTvelTa programa maqsimumi iyo bizantiis saimperatoro taxtze mokavSire da monaTesave komnenosTa dinastiis aRdgena da saerTaSoriso arenaze saerTo poziciiT wardgena. am mosazrebas amyarebs rogorc Zmebis mier `didi komnenosis~ gvaris miReba, ise qarTuli samxedro nawilebis gadaadgilebis mimarTuleba. programa minimumi ki, albaT, unda yofiliyo iseTi buferuli tipis saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba, romelic saqarTvelos gavlenis qveS iqneboda da romelsac samxreTidan da dasavleTidan wamosuli safrTxis mogerieba mouwevda. saerTaSoriso arenaze Seqmnili mZime situaciis fonze ki aseTi safrTxe sakmaod realuri iyo. 1204 wlis samxedro operacia Tamar mefem sababad gamoiyena bizantiis maSindeli imperatoris – aleqsi III angelosis mier bizantiaSi moRvawe qarTveli sasuliero pirebis gaZarcva da sapasuxod, 1204 wels bizantiisaken laSqroba moawyo. dasavleT saqarTvelodan daZrulma jarma, romelsac Tan axldnen Zmebi komnenosebi, didi teritoriebi daikava. bizantiam qarTvelTa winsvlas xeli ver SeuSala, radgan swored im dros imperias dasavleTidan laTinebi (jvarosnebi) utevdnen da aRmosavleTis saqmeebisTvis mas ar ecala. qarTuli jari or nawilad gaiyo – erTi nawili Savi zRvis sanapiros gauyva, meore nawili ki gemebze avida da zRvidan amagrebda xmeleTze moZrav laSqars.

andronike komnenosi iyo daviT aRmaSeneblis qaliSvilis, kataჲs, vaJi. igi 1170 wels saqarTvelos samefo karsac estumra, sadac didi qoneba uboZes da qiziySic daasaxles. andronike iyo trapizonSi gamefebuli komnenosebis papa. gadmocemiT, misi STamomavlebi arian Tavadi andronikaSvilebi, romelTa gvaric misi saxelidan momdinareobs. andronikaSvilebi rom sakuTar Tavs bizantiis imperatorTa STamomavlebad miiCnevdnen, maTi sagvareulo gerbidanac kargad Cans, romelzec bizantiis imperiis simbolo – orTaviani arwivia gamosaxuli.

15


istoria saqarTvelos jarma laziis aRebis Semdeg, 1204 wlis aprilSi, qalaqi trapizoni daikava. bizantiidan daniSnulma mmarTvelma, nikiforem, kargad icoda, rom konstantinopolidan daxmarebas ver miiRebda. amitom cixe-simagris gasaRebi gamoitana da qalaqi ubrZolvelad Caabara qarTvelebs. qarTuli jari Zalian swrafad miiwevda win – laziisa da trapizonis Semdeg daikava kerasunti (dRevandeli giresuni), kotiora (dRevandeli ordu), samsuni, sinopi, paflagoniis regioni (maT Soris, komnenosebis sagvareulo cixesimagre kastamonu) da heraklea pontika (Savi zRvis heraklea). 1205 wlis Semodgomaze qarTuli razmebi SavizRvispireTsac gascdnen da istoriul biTiniaSi, marmarilos zRvis sanapiroze mdebare q. nikomediasTan (dRevandeli q. izmiTi/qojaeli), gamoCndnen. es qalaqi konstantinopolidan sul raRac 110 km.-iT iyo daSorebuli. axlad dakavebuli teritoriebis aRmosavleT nawils aleqsi komnenosi, dasavleT nawils ki misi Zma, daviTi, ganagebda.

imperator andronike I komnenosis mkvleloba konstantinopolSi komnenosebis dinastia – bizantiis imperatorTa dinastia X-XI saukuneebSi. isini mcireaziuli warmoSobisa iyvnen. komnenosebis mmarTvelobisas imperiaSi sabolood Camoyalibda da gaformda feodaluri institutebi, gatarda reformebi administraciul da samxedro sferoebSi, eklesia imperatoris xelisuflebas daemorCila. aqtiuri sagareo politikis wyalobiT komnenosebma SeaCeres selCukTa eqspansia da daibrunes mcire aziis provinciebis nawili, aseve droebiT daimorCiles serbeTi da ungreTi. paralelurad, isini laTinebs dauaxlovdnen. Tumca amas bizantiaSi didi winaaRmdegoba mohyva, rac, saboloo jamSi, komnenosebis taxtidan CamoSorebiT dasrulda.

nikomediasTan misul qarTul jars zurgidan moulodnelad bizantielebi daesxnen, romlebic nikeaSi iyvnen gamagrebuli mas Semdeg, rac jvarosnebma konstantinopoli aiRes. Sedegad, daviTma ukan daixia da gamagrda herakleasa da amastridSi. igi iZulebuli gaxda ukidures dasavleT sazRvrad md. sangarisi (dRevandeli md. saqaria) daedgina. komnenosebis xelisuflebas aseve daeqvemdebara yirimSi arsebuli Zveli bizantiuri teritoriebi – xersoni, qerCi da Sida areali, romelic perateias (zRvisiqiTa miwebi) saxeliT iyo cnobili. saerTo jamSi, qarTuli jari weliwadze cota met xans mounda Savi zRvis TiTqmis mTeli samxreT sanapiros dakavebas – 1300 kilometriani sazRvao zolisa da misi mimdebare teritoriebis – istoriuli WaneTis, pontos, paflagoniisa da biTiniisa. es ki TiTqmis srulad emTxveva dRevandeli TurqeTis SavizRvispireTis regionis sazRvrebs, romlis teritoria moicavs 143,5 aTas kv. kilometrs. SedarebisTvis, dRevandeli saqarTvelos farTobi 69,7 aTasi kvadratuli km.-ia, anu 1204-1205 ww.-is samxedro operaciis Sedegad, qarTulma jarma daikava dRevandel saqarTveloze orjer ufro didi teritoria. es iyo saqarTvelos istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze kargad dagegmili da Sesrulebuli samxedro operacia.

Samqorisa (1195) da basianis (1203) brZolebi – saqarTvelos samefo karis mier XII-XIII saukuneebis mijnaze gadaxdili ori didi brZola mezoblebis (iranis azerbaijanis saaTabago da rumis sasulTno) winaaRmdeg, ramac qveyanas amosunTqvisa da mSvidobiani ganviTarebis saSualeba misca. Samqorsa da basianSi gamarjvebis Semdeg saqarTvelo mezobel qveynebs Soris uZlieres saxelmwifod iqca, saerTaSoriso arenaze mkveTrad gaizarda saqarTvelos saxelmwifos prestiJi da igi angariSgasawevi Zala gaxda mTel regionSi. Tamar mefis freska varZiidan, XII saukune

16


trapizonis imperiis daarseba

samxedro-politikuri Sedegebi

poloneTi

bohemia ruseTi dasavleT romis imperia

ungreTi

xorvatia

s sa ici me l f ii o s

bulgareTi

bi ne Ti la ia nt za i b

trapizonis imperia

sa qa rT ve lo

rumi

berZnebis Zalebi laTinebi siciliis samefo bulgareTis samefo

nikeaSi gamagrebulma bizantielebma komnenosebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad selCukebTan Seqmnes koalicia. qarTvelebma ki, maTgan Tavdacvis mizniT, 1206 wlisTvis samxedro-politikuri kavSiri Sekres konstantinopolSi gamagrebul jvarosnebTan. qarTvelebs Cveni istoriis manZilze xSirad gvqonia samokavSireo urTierToba dasavleTTan 1206 wlamdec (gavixsenoT Tundac `frangebis~ monawileoba didgoris omSi) da 1206 wlis Semdegac, magram es pirveli da erTaderTi SemTxveva iyo, rodesac fizikuradac davumezobldiT dasavlur samyaros. saqarTvelom, trapizonis imperiis daarsebiT, mniSvnelovani fanjara gaWra evropaSi, romelic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi warmatebiT asrulebda Tavis funqcias – iyo bunebrivi buferis zona selCukebTan da amasTan – evropasTan damakavSirebeli xidic.

trapizonis imperia Turqebi saqarTvelo

aleqsi da daviT komnenosebis beWdebi

jvarosnebTan dadebuli xelSekruleba maleve amoqmedda – qarTvelebi da laTinebi erTad SeebrZolnen bizantiur-selCukur alianss. magram 1212 wlis 13 dekembers moulodnelad gardaicvala axlad dakavebuli teritoriebis dasavleT nawilis axalgazrda mmarTveli daviT komnenosi da nikeaSi gamagrebulma bizantielebma, selCukebTan winaswari SeTanxmebiT, axali SemarTebiT Seuties qarTvelTa poziciebs. miuxedavad aleqsi komnenosis saxelmwifoebrivi da samxedro niWisa, erTi adamianisaTvis metad Zneli aRmoCnda did teritoriaze gadaWimuli samflobelos warmatebiT marTva da dacva.

1214 wlis Semodgomaze selCukebi moulodnelad daesxnen Tavs sinopis siaxloves sanadirod gasul aleqsis da daatyveves. misi gaTavisuflebis sanacvlod ki, mogvianebiT, sinopis cixe-simagre miiRes. selCukebi gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT gauswordnen aleqsis mokavSire 30 laTins – isini cocxlad gaatyaves. rogorc Cans, maT Zalian aRizianebdaT laTinur-trapizonuli (qarTuli) aliansi. selCukebis sinopze Tavdasxmis paralelurad bizantielebma Seuties da aiRes ufro dasavleTiT mdebare heraklea da amastridi. amgvarad, selCukebma da nikeelebma gadainawiles trapizonis imperiis dasavleTi nawili, rac, saerTo jamSi, qveynis teritoriis daaxloebiT naxevari iyo. nikeelebma komnenosebis saxiT moiSores Zlieri konkurentebi, romlebic paflagoniisa da biTiniis nawilis flobiT, erTi mxriv, mudmiv SiSSi amyofebdnen nikeas, xolo, meore mxriv, xelsayrel momentSi konstantinopolisken gaWris saSiSroebas qmnidnen.

17


istoria saxelmwifos Seneba warmatebiT ganxorcielebuli samxedro operaciis Semdeg, pirvel rigSi, saWiro gaxdeboda dakavebuli teritoriebis saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobis sakiTxis gadawyveta. am teritoriebis didi nawili arasodes Sedioda saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi. Sesabamisad, gaZneldeboda miwebis pirdapiri mierTebis legitimacia. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom imdroindeli komunikaciebis pirobebSi metad Zneli iqneboda axlad dakavebuli teritoriebis dasavleT nawilis Tbilisidan marTva. Tanac, im periodSi, nebismier dros, mosalodneli iyo axlo myofi selCukebis Semoseva da maTTan gasamklaveblad sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani iqneboda drouli gadawyvetilebebis adgilze miReba.

selCukTa mier laTini tyveebis dasja

samxedro operaciis Sedegad dakavebul teritoriaze Seiqmna axali saxelmwifo. am qmedebaSi erTmaneTs daemTxva saqarTvelosa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis interesebi, romlebic arasodes eguebodnen am regionSi bizantiur mmarTvelobas da Tan moZlierebuli selCukebisganac surdaT sakuTari Tavis dacva.

lo dasavleTiT Tu adre imperiis sazRvari md. sangarisze gadioda, axla man aRmosavleTiT, SedarebiT advilad dasacav md. irissa (dRevandeli md. ieSil-irmaqi) da md. Termodonze (dRevandeli md. Terme) gadmoinacvla, rac trapizonidan daaxloebiT 300 km.iTaa daSorebuli.

teritoriul danakargebs erTi dadebiTi Sedegi hqonda axalgazrda saxelmwifosTvis – trapizonis imperia uSualod aRar emezobleboda moqiSpe nikeas, Tanac geografiulad SedarebiT izolirebul da, Sesabamisad, ufro usafrTxo sivrceSi moeqca. samxreTiT mas bunebrivad icavda maRali mTebis sistemebi, CrdiloeTiT – Savi zRva, aRmosavleTiT – mokavSire saqarTvelo, xo-

imperiis Seqmnis pirvel wlebSi saWiro iqneboda didi energiis daxarjva saxelmwifo teritoriuli mowyobis, samTavrobo struqturebis, centraluri administraciis, savaWro, sabaJo da sagadasaxado sistemebis, aseve eklesiis mosawyobad. amave dros, komnenosebsa da qarTvelebs dasWirdebodaT rogorc adgilobrivi jaris, ise flotis Camoyalibebac.

sinopis cixe

18


trapizonis imperiis daarseba

azovis zRva

ungreTis samefo

bosnia

bizantiis imperia trapizonis imperia

didi vlaxeTi

serbeTis samefo

trapizonis imperia

aT en i aqaia

naqsosis samTavro

bulgareTis samefo vlaxeTi

a ri pe im

Ti ne ba al

biza nt ii s Tesalia

saberZneTis epiris despotati

Savi zRva

bulgareTi

kreta

azovis zRva

monRolTa da TurqselCukTa teritoriebi fo me sa ri u x om s s ii ik l ki

kviprosis samefo

is, rom axali saxelmwifos dedaqalaqad trapizoni gamocxadda, sulac ar iyo SemTxveviTi: es qalaqi mTavar mokavSiresa da mfarvelTan, saqarTvelosTan, teritoriulad axlos mdebareobda, saidanac nebismier dros iyo SesaZlebeli samxedro da sxva saxis daxmarebis miReba. amasTan, trapizoni sakmaod moSorebuli iyo dasavleT anatolias, sadac im droisTvis yvelaze arastabiluri da arsebobisaTvis metad saxifaTo garemo Seiqmna. amave dros, trapizoni Zalian Zveli qalaqi iyo (daarsda Zv.w. 756 w., SedarebisTvis, romi daarsda Zv.w. 753 w.) da igi SavizRvispireTis yvelaze ukeT gamagrebul cixe-simagres warmoadgenda, romlis aRebac Zalze gauWirdeboda nebismier mters. komnenosebma gaamagres qalaqis kedlebi da aages ulamazesi sasaxle, eklesiebi da Senoba-nagebobebi axladCamoyalibebuli sxvadasxva institutisaTvis. qalaqis kedlebis sidiade dResac STambeWdavia. aRsaniSnavia, rom am ked-

trapizonis siaxloves mdebare lazia ki qarTultrapizonuli kondominumi (saerTo daqvemdebareba) iyo. amis gamo lazebi ibrZodnen rogorc saqarTvelos, ise trapizonis imperiis jarSi, rac am ori qveynis axlo mokavSireobis kidev erTi magaliTia.

mamluqTa teritoriebi

serbeTis samefo veneciis sakuTreba monRolTa da TurqselCukTa teritoriebi mamluqTa teritoriebi

lebma SemdgomSi mravaljer gadaarCina komnenosebi da imperia ganadgurebas. albaT, arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom imperiis arsebobis manZilze mowinaaRmdegem verasodes moaxerxa cixe-simagris brZoliT aReba. axal saxelmwifoSi erT-erTi upirvelesi RonisZieba iqneboda aleqsis imperatorad kurTxeva, romelic istoriaSi Sevida aleqsi I didi komnenosis saxeliT. es ceremonia trapizonSi unda Catarebuliyo. am ritualisTvis ki yvelaze mosaxerxebeli qalaqis centrSi mdebare RvTismSoblis (`panagia xrisokefalosis~) taZari unda yofiliyo, sadac, tradiciulad, momdevno saukuneebSic akurTxebdnen imperatorebad trapizonel komnenosebs.

III-IV saukuneebSi Zv. romaul samlocveloze agebuli am taZris gumbaTi, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, mTlianad oqrosi iyo da aqedan momdinareobs saxeli `xrisokefalos~, rac `oqrosTavas~ niSnavs. aqve iyo komnenosTa istoriuli saZvale.

19


istoria did komnenosTa tituli da simbolika maSindel postbizantiur sivrceSi, realuri ZalauflebisTvis brZolis paralelurad, aranaklebi daZabulobiT mimdinareobda qiSpoba saimperatoro simboloebisa da avtoritetisTvis, radgan bizantia Tavisi arsebobis manZilze xSir SemTxvevaSi Zalian warmatebulad iyenebda xolme e.w. `rbil Zalas~. cnobilia, rom komnenosebma 1212 wlamde sakuTar gvars win daumates epiTeti `megas~ (`didi~), riTac kidev erTxel gausves xazi TavianT imperatorul warmomavlobas. Seicvala komnenosTa titulic. trapizonis imperiis daarsebisas maTi tituli iyo `romaelTa imperatori da TviTmpyrobeli~, riTac gacxadebuli iyo maTi bizantiuri saimperatoro pretenziebi. komnenosebi am wodebas aTwleulebis manZilze atarebdnen da mxolod mas Semdeg amoiRes titulaturidan, rac sabolood

Tqves uari konstantinopolSi Zalauflebis aRebaze. es moxda XIII-XIV saukuneebis mijnaze, rodesac trapizonis imperiam ufro lokaluri saxe miiRo. am periodidan maT ewodebodaT `imperatori da TviTmpyrobeli sruliad aRmosavleTisa, iberielTa da zRvisiqiTa miwebisa~. Tumca, bizantielebi am titulsac ar aRiarebdnen. tituls rom Tavi davaneboT, Sesabamisi tanisamosis tarebazec ki Riziandebodnen. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom rodesac trapizonis imperatori ioane II 1282 wels konstantinopols ewvia, mas, faqtobrivad, ZaliT gaxades wiTeli waRebi da Savebi Caacves, radgan, tradiciulad, wiTeli waRebis tareba mxolod imperatoris prerogativa iyo da bizantielebis azriT, dedamiwaze ar SeiZleba erTze meti imperatori yofiliyo. komnenosTa titulSi `aRmosavleTi~ moicavda yvela im teritorias, romelsac isini flobdnen an romelzec SeiZleba hqonodaT pretenzia aRmosavleTSi, xolo `zRvisiqiTa miwebSi~ igulisxmeboda yirimSi mdebare trapizonuli samflobeloebi.

sumelas monasteri

bizantielebi sakuTar Tavs `romaelebs~ uwodebdnen. termini `bizantia~ mogvianebiT gaCnda da damkvidrda evropul samecniero literaturaSi im mizniT, rom erTmaneTisgan ganesxvavebinaT dasavleT da aRmosavleT romis imperiebi. Zvel qarTul teqstebSic `bizantia~ moxseniebulia rogorc `hromi~, xolo `bizantielebi~ – `hromaelni~.

20


trapizonis imperiis daarseba

axal titulSi yvelaze saintereso ki isaa, rom komnenosebi `iberielTa (anu qarTvelTa) imperatorebad~ moixseniebian, rac iq mravalricxovani qarTveluri (Wan-lazebi da xalibebi) mosaxleobis arsebobam ganapiroba. komnenosebi simboloebisTvisac ibrZodnen da am brZolis Sedegia, rom XIII saukuneSi maT konstantinopolis aia-sofiis sapirwoned aages trapizonis ulamazesi aiasofia, XIV saukuneSi ki ganaaxles mTebSi nakveTi sumelas monasteri. am da komnenosebis mier agebul sxva taZrebze cxadad igrZnoba qarTuli arqiteqturis gavlena. maT dResac gancvifrebaSi mohyavT mnaxvelebi. dabolos, unda iTqvas, rom 1204 wlis laSqroba da axali saxelmwifos daarseba `oqros xanis~ saqarTvelos Zlierebaze metyvelebs – im dros qarTvelebs, samxedro ZalasTan erTad, Zlieri politikuri nebac hqondaT. mTeli XIII saukunis ganmavlobaSi arasodes damdgara trapizonis imperiis orientaciis sakiTxi – igi, faqtobrivad, saqarTve-

los proteqtorati iyo. mxolod konstantinopolidan jvarosnebis gaZevebis, bizantiis SedarebiTi moZlierebisa da, amis paralelurad, saqarTvelos daSla-dasustebis Semdeg, XIV saukuneSi, daiwyo brZola proqarTul da probizantiur dasebs Soris. qarTuli samTavroebi (dasavleTi saqarTvelo, samcxe-saaTabago) damoukidebladac ki SebrZolebian trapizonSi bizantiur gavlenas. saqarTvelos iniciativiT Camoyalibebuli imperiis erT-erTi umTavresi funqcia iyo bunebrivi xidis rolis Sesruleba saqarTvelosa da dasavleTs Soris, aseve, buferisa – kavkasiasa da anatolias Soris. igi xSirad iyo erTaderTi realuri damakavSirebeli gza saqarTvelosa da evropas Soris. amasTan, faqtobrivad, misma arsebobam srulad gaauvnebelyo bizantiisa da selCukebisgan saqarTvelosken momdinare safrTxe. trapizonis imperiam, bizantiasTan SedarebiT, ufro didxans gauwia winaaRmdegoba osmaleTis imperiasac. bizantiam 1453 wels Sewyvita arseboba, trapizonis imperiam ki 1461 wlamde (sul 257 weli) iarseba.

trapizonis aia-sofia

trapizonis imperiaSi Semavalma, miuval mTebSi mdebare qaldeis Temma trapizonis aRebis Semdeg kidev 18 weli SeZlo gaewia winaaRmdegoba. misi aReba osmalebma didi ZalisxmeviT SeZles 1479 wels. qaldea im periodis osmalur wyaroebSi `gurjistanad~ (`saqarTvelo”), xolo misi mosaxleoba `gurjebad~ (`qarTvelebad~) moixsenieboda.

21


amerika

veluri dasavleTis ukanaskneli dReebi mixeil barnovi CrdiloeT amerikis kontinentis gulSi mdebare did dablobebs XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi amerikelebi velur dasavleTs uwodebdnen. erTi SexedviT, usasrulo, balaxiT dafaruli dablobebi TiTqmis milioni kvadratuli kilometris farTobs moicavs da gadaWimulia CrdiloeTidan samxreTisken, kanadis saskaCevanisa da albertas provinciebidan, aSS-is gavliT, mdinare rio-grandemde, teqsasamde da niu-meqsikomde. didi dablobebi aRmosavleTiT mdinare misisipis, xolo dasavleTiT rokis mTianeTs Sorisaa moqceuli. XIX saukunis damdegamde veluri dasavleTis ukidegano sivrce amerikelebisTvis miuwvdomeli iyo da qveynis aRmosavleT StatebSi mcxovrebi adamianebisTvis `tera inkognitas“ (laT. terra incognita – ucnobi, gamoukvlevi miwa) warmoadgenda. swored am Soreul miwaze, civilizaciisgan mocilebiT, cxovrobdnen kontinentis ukanaskneli Tavisufali `veluri“ indielebi. bizonebze monadire amayi indielebi, didi dablobebis WeSmariti mbrZaneblebi, yovelTvis mzad iyvnen brZolisTvis, Tuki vinme maTi interesis sawinaaRmdegod moqmedebda. veluri dasavleTi mdinare misuridan iwyeboda. misuris dasavleT napirs gaRma gadaSlil dablobebs xSirad indielTa teritoriebsac uwodebdnen. sxvadasxva tomiT dasaxlebuli samxreT-dasavleTis udabnoebi da mTebi, didi vakeebi da rokis mTianeTi amerikelebis mier jer kidev auTvisebeli da naklebad Seswavlili iyo. amerikelTa axalmosaxleebis mier ganaSenianebuli teritoriebis ukiduresi sazRvari, romlis dasavleTiT iyo veluri buneba da indielTa teritoriebi (e.w. `frontieri~), ar gascdenia md. misuris, miuyveboda md. misisipis momijnave Statebis dasavleT sazRvrebs da SeWrili iyo kanzasisa da nebraskis Statebis siRrmeSi. monapire axalSenebis zols miRma jer kidev saxlobda TviTmyofadi kulturis mqone indielTa sxvadasxva tomi, maT Soris: komanCebi, kaiovebi, apaCebi, navaho, SoSonebi, paunebi, su, arapaho, krou, blekfutebi, iutebi, paiutebi, modokebi, nez perse, Saienebi da sxva.

22


veluri dasavleTi

ar gasula 30 welic da indielTa teritoriebi gaqra, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba rezervaciebSi gadaasaxles. mTeli es mxare Statebad daiyo. koloradosa da nevadis mTian regionebSi maRaroelebis dabebi gaCnda, axalmosaxleebma dakotas, kanzasisa da nebraskis teritoriebze daiwyes dasaxleba, fermerebma dabares dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris mdebare miwebi, sadac odesRac indielebi momTabareobdnen. indielebi sakuTari miwebisa da winaparTa cxovrebis wesis dasacavad didxans medgrad ebrZodnen amerikel kolonizatorebs. amerikis samTavrobo armiasTan SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis epoqa veluri dasavleTis istoriaSi indielebTan omebis saxeliTaa cnobili. dasavleTis kolonizacias gansakuTrebuli winaaRmdegoba gauwies vrcel vakeze mosaxle indielTa tomebma: sum, Saienebma da komanCebma. aRsaniSnavia aseve samxreT-dasavleTSi, arizona–niu-meqsikos teritoriaze mcxovrebi apaCebis xangrZlivi da Seupovari omi samTavrobo armiasTan. XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi velur dasavleTSi did dablobebze indielTa daaxloebiT 30mde tomi cxovrobda. maTgan Camoyalibda sami gansakuTrebulad Zlieri gaerTianeba: didi dablobebis CrdiloeT nawilSi – blekfutebis konfederacia; regionis centralur nawilSi yvelaze Zlieri tomebi – su, arapaho da Saienebi; xolo samxreT dablobebze yvelas SiSis zars scemdnen komanCebi da maTi mokavSireebi – kaiovebi, kaiova apaCebi da samxreTeli Saienebi. komanCebi

didi dablobebis momTabareebi dablobis indielebis TviTmyofadi kultura cxenosnobasa da bizonebze nadirobaze iyo dafuZnebuli. sus indielebi bizons (ingl. Bu alo, `bafalo“) `tatankas“ eZaxdnen. veluri dasavleTis vrceli vakeebisa da maTi adgilobrivi macxovreblebis istoria ganuyrerezervacia – zogierT qveyanaSi (magaliTad, CrdiloeT amerikaSi, samxreT afrikasa da avstraliaSi) sxva teritoriul-administraciuli erTeulebidan gancalkevebuli sacxovrebeli raioni, romelic gamoyofilia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis iZulebiT dasaxlebisTvis.

23


amerika ladaa dakavSirebuli bizonebTan. didi vakeebis indielebis yofa-cxovreba mTlianad bizonebze iyo damokidebuli. maT xorcs indielebi sakvebad iyenebdnen, danarCeni nawilebisgan ki yoveldRiuri moxmarebis nivTebs amzadebdnen – fialebs, kovzebs, CanTebs, zamTris Tbil tanisamoss, sabnebs, perangebs, mokasinebs, Tasmebs, qamrebs, didi karvis tipis sacxovreblis gadasaxurav tyavs. adre velur dasavleTSi milionobiT bizoni balaxobda. bizonebis uzarmazari, Tvaluwvdeneli jogebi iseTi gruxuniT gadaadgildeboda, rom maT `dablobis Weqaquxili“ Searqves. dasavleTis aTvisebasTan erTad amerikelebma, sxvadasxva mizniT, bizonebis masobrivi xocva daiwyes. 1860-ian wlebSi amerikis dasavleTSi rkinigza gahyavdaT da bizonis xorci mSeneblebis sakvebad yvelaze iolad mosapovebel saWmels warmoadgenda. sarkinigzo kompaniebTan xorcis miwodebaze gaformebuli xelSekrulebebis Sedegad, amerikeli monadireebi didi raodenobiT bizons xocavdnen. maT saqme gauadavila SaSxanis axali tipis saxeobam da bizonebis mokvla ukve gacilebiT ufro Sori manZilidanac gaxda SesaZlebeli. velur dasavleTSi bizonebze yvelaze saxelganTqmuli monadire iyo uiliam qoudi, igive `bafalo bili“ (1846-1917). dablo-

apaCebi

blekfutebis nadiroba bizonebze, alfred jakom mileris naxati

bebze monadired muSaobis dawyebamde is kovboi da skauti iyo. bafalo bili Cubini msroleli iyo, mas bizonis mokvla lamis pirvelive gasroliT SeeZlo. rogorc amboben, weliwadnaxevarSi man rekorduli raodenobis bizoni daxoca – daaxloebiT 5000 suli. mkvidri amerikelebisTvis bizonebis daxocva namdvil tragediad iqca, es maTi TviTmyofadi Tavisufali cxovrebis dasasrulis dasawyiss moaswavebda. rogorc aRvniSneT, bizoni indielebisTvis wmidaTawmida cxoveli iyo da maTi yofisTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba hqonda. indielebi cdilobdnen SeeCerebinaT amerikelebis mier bizonebis umowyalo xocva, magram maTi winaaRmdegoba, saboloo jamSi, uSedego aRmoCnda. momTabare indielebs ar SeswevdaT Zala ebrZolaT maT teritoriebze dasax-lebuli aTasobiT emigrantis winaaRmdeg. 1870-ian wlebSi rkinigzis xazebis mSenebloba, axali qalaqebi, amerikeli fermerebi da samTavrobo jarebi sul ufro metad aviwroebdnen indielebs.

transkontinenturi rkinigzis mSenebloba

24


veluri dasavleTi

bizonis nawilebisgan gakeTebuli sayofacxovrebo nivTebi

bizonebze nadiroba male sportadac ki iqca. egzotikuri garTobis msurveli monadireebi mTeli SeerTebuli Statebidan da evropis qveynebidanac ki Cadiodnen velur dasavleTSi. imavdroulad mTavrobam mizanmimarTulad daiwyo bizonebis ganadgureba, rom masTan mebrZoli indieli meomrebisTvis saarsebo resursi gamoecala da maTi winaaRmdegobac daeZlia. miuxedavad imisa, rom dablobebis mkvidri tomebi cdilobdnen daecvaT TavianTi uZvelesi sanadiro adgilebi da ar daeSvaT iq rkinigzis gayvana Tu amerikelebis dasaxleba, 1860-iani wlebidan dawyebuli dablobebze yoveldRiurad aseulobiT cxoveli kvdeboda. 1880 wlisTvis ki gaqra veluri dasavleTis bizonebis didi jogebi. mSieri da saarsebo wyaros gareSe darCenili yvelaze brZolisunariani tomebic ki iZulebuli gaxdnen danebebuliyvnen. maT veRar SeZles tradiciuli momTabare cxovrebis gagrZeleba da mTavrobis mier maTTvis sagangebod Seqmnil rezervaciebSi dasaxldnen. sus, Saienebis, komanCebisa da dablobis sxva tomebis cxenosnobaze dafuZnebuli unikaluri kultura 1880 wlisTvis warsuls Cabarda. houmstedis kanoni da `rkinis cxenebi“ 1850 wlisTvis, meqsikasTan omis Semdeg, SeerTebuli Statebis teritoria atlantis okeanidan wynar okeanemde gadaiWima. miuxedavad amisa, kontinentis siRrmeSi, veluri dasavleTis teritoriebze, jer kidev cota axalmosaxle iyo. did dablobebze amerikeli pionerebis (axali miwis aRmomCeni, pirvelmosaxle) mcire raodenoba cxovrobda. dasavleTis ukidegano sivrceebis kolonizaciis Seuqcevadi procesi amerikis samoqalaqo omis dasrulebis Semdeg (1865) daiwyo. qveynis zrdasa da xeluxlebeli miwebis ganaSenianebas Tavisi Sedegic hqonda: kolonizaciis process aTasobiT ad-

bafalo bili (1846-1917)

25


amerika gilobrivi indieli Seewira, gadarCenilebs ki TavianTi miwebis daTmoba da rezervaciebSi gadasaxleba mouwiaT. samoqalaqo omis dasrulebis Semdeg bevri amerikeli, rogorc CrdiloeTidan, ise samxreTidan, maT Soris axladgaTavisuflebuli monebi, cxovrebis axlidan dawyebas dasavleTSi gegmavda. omis dros mTavrobam gamosca kanoni – e.w. `houmstedis kanoni~, romelic xels uwyobda veluri dasavleTis aTvisebas da iq pionerebis gamgzavrebas. houmstedis kanoni nebismier adamians aZlevda saSualebas wasuliyo dasavleTSi, didi dablobebis regionSi, da 160 akri miwa moeTxova. houmstedis mimRebs evaleboda miwis damuSaveba, saxlis aSeneba da iq xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi cxovreba. am pirobebis dakmayofilebis mere is miwis mesakuTre xdeboda. SemoTavazeba imdenad mimzidveli aRmoCnda, rom aRmosavleT Statebidan velur dasavleTSi aseulobiT adamiani wavida miwis nakveTis misaRebad da sameurneo saqmianobis dasawyebad. did dablobebze evropelma emigrantebmac daiwyes Casvla (skandinavielebma, Cexebma, germanelebma da sxva). houmstederebs mZime Sroma uwevdaT, vakeebze wylis mwiri resursi iyo da arc xetyis masala hqondaT saxlebis asaSeneblad. miwis moxvnisa da marcvleulis daTesvis Semdeg mosavali SeiZleba gaenadgurebina gvalvas, qars, xanZars an kalias. zogierT regionSi ki, gansakuTrebiT kanzasSi, amerikelebis fermebs mezoblad mcxovrebi indielebi esxmodnen Tavs.

houmstedis sertifikati

1869 wels rkinigzis ori xazis – `iunion pesifikisa“ da `central pesifikis“ SeerTebis Sedegad veluri dasavleTis aTvisebis istoriaSi axali etapi daiwyo. rkinigza velur dasavleTSi gadaadgilebis mTavar, yvelaze mosaxerxebel, usafrTxo, komfortul da swraf saSualebad iqca. msoflioSi pirveli transkontinenturi rkinigza velur dasavleTSi gaiyvanes. man erTmaneTTan daakavSira amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis atlantisa da wynari okeanis sanapiroebi, riTac qveynis ganviTarebis axal epoqas daudo safuZveli. rogorc ityvian, es iyo rkinigza, romelmac Secvala amerika. kaliforniisa da nebraskis monapire axalSenebs Soris mdebare veluri dasavleTis ukidegano sivrce xelmisawvdomi gaxda, daimsxvra miTi indielTa teritoriebis miudgomlobis Sesaxeb. SoSoni indieli

navahos indielebis ojaxi

26


veluri dasavleTi

ba Zlier qarbuqSi an qarSi moyoliliyo. aseve avazakebs SeeZloT aeyaraT liandagebi an morebiT CaexergaT gza, Semdeg ki mgzavrebi gaeZarcvaT da tvirTic gaetacebinaT. velur dasavleTSi matareblebs (indielebi maT `rkinis cxenebs“ uwodebdnen) xSirad Zarcvavdnen amerikeli yaCaRebi, rkinigzaze indielebis Tavdasxma ki iSviaTad xdeboda.

ojaxi dasavleTis didi migraciis dros

aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisken mimavali `iunion pesifikis“ xazi, ZiriTadad, nebraskisa da vaiomingis samxreT dablobebs miuyveboda da adgilobrivi indielebis mSobliur samomTabareo-sanadiro miwebs kveTda. rkinigzam velur dasavleTSi aseulobiT aTasi emigranti miizida. erT dros dausaxlebeli dablobebi da indielTa mSobliuri samosaxlo teritoriebi didma Tu patara qalaqebma, dasaxlebulma punqtebma da telegrafebma dafara. veluri dasavleTis ukidegano da auTvisebeli sivrce 10 weliwadSi Tvalsa da xels Sua gailia da 1890 wels monapire axalSenebis zolic gaqra. matarebliT mgzavroba ufro swrafi da komfortuli iyo, vidre diliJansiT Tu furgoniT, magram ufro saxifaToc. matarebeli xSirad CamorCeboda ganrigs, radgan SeiZle-

paunebi

mTavrobam dasavleTSi miwa rkinigzis kompaniebs im pirobiT gadasca, rom iq rkinigza gaeyvanaT. kompaniebma Semdgom, Tavis mxriv, miwis axalmosaxleebisTvis miyidva daiwyes, raTa am rkinigziT sul ufro met adamians esargebla. rkinigzis gayvanam xeli Seuwyo velur dasavleTSi adgilobrivi indielebis Seviwroebas, maT teritoriaze mesaqonleebi da fermerebi dasaxldnen. 1870-1890 wlebSi mxolod kanzasma da nebraskam erT milionamde axalmosaxle miizida, magram mosaxleobis aseTi bumi seriozul problemebs uqmnida dablobis indielebs. maT ar moswondaT sakuTar samomTabareo-sanadiro miwebze ucxo adamianebis dasaxleba da saqmianoba. indielebis Tavdasxmisgan moqalaqeebis dasacavad mTavrobam dasavleTSi armia gagzavna da aaSena samxedro fortebi pionerTa dasaxlebebisa da maTi gzebis siaxloves. mTavrobis mizani iyo, rogorme Seekavebina indielebi konkretul sivrceSi, sadac maT axalmosaxleebTan Sexeba ar eqnebodaT.

arapahos tomis indielebis saritualo cekva

27


amerika furgoni transkontinenturi rkinigzis xazis gaxsnamde (1869) velur dasavleTSi emigrantebis gadaadgilebis erTaderTi saSualeba iyo. amerikelebma maT meorenairad `preriis Sxunebi“ Searqves (Sxuna (ingl. schooner) – ialqniani gemi, upiratesad or- an samanZiani). furgonis Cardaxis qsovili qarze uswormasworod irxeoda da Soridan preriis Sxunebis kolona balaxis okeaneSi mcurav flotilias emsgavseboda. preriis Sxunis dizaini, misi konstruqcia, SesaniSnavad iyo misadagebuli pionerebisa da maTi sayofacxovrebo nivTebis Sor manZilze transportirebisTvis. velur dasavleTSi furgoniT xuTTviani mgzavrobis ganmavlobaSi amerikelebi daaxloebiT 2000 milis (3218.6 km.) sigrZis gzas gadiodnen.

mjdomare xari 1870-iani wlebis dasawyisisTvis amerikis dasavleTSi CrdiloeT dablobebze sus tomis indielebi jer kidev inarCunebdnen Zveli cxovrebis wess. Tumca, miwis im mcired nawilsac ki, romelsac indielebi flobdnen, xSirad emuqreboda safrTxe. mTavrobas araerTxel daurRvevia tomebisTvis micemuli piroba da maTi miwa miutacebia. Tu erTi SexedviT uvargis miwaze sasargeblo wiaRiseuli aRmoCndeboda, mTavroba arRvevda xelSekrulebebs da indielebs maTi miwidan devnida. dakotas teritoriaze susa da Saienis tomis indielebs SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobam piroba misca, rom maT sacxovriss bleq hilsis mTis midamoebSi aravin Seexeboda. bleq hilsi indielTaTvis wminda adgili iyo da sus didi rezervaciis gulSi mdebareobda. 1874 wels amerikelebma bleq hilsSi oqro aRmoaCines. indielTa miwebs aseulobiT oqrosmaZiebeli miawyda. indielebisTvis micemuli piroba dairRva. indielebma mTavrobas sTxoves ar daeSvaT oqrosmaZiebelTa Sesvla sus rezervaciaSi, ris sanacvlodac amerikelebma indielebisgan miwis Sesyidva scades. im droisTvis sus xalxis sulieri da politikuri lideri iyo beladi siTing buli (`mjdomare xari“). igi wlebis ganmavlobaSi ebrZoda amerikelebs, romlebic indielebisTvis micemul pirobebs ar asrulebdnen. indielebi ar daTanxmdnen bleq hilsis gayidvas. mTavrobam teritoria rezervaciidan gamoacalkeva da iqidan indielebs ayra daupira. 1876 wels dakotaSi patrulirebisTvis samTavrobo jarebis sami didi kolona Cavida, maT sus xalxi bleq hilsidan da sanadiro adgilebidan unda gaeZevebinaT. armiis

`iunion pesifikisa“ da `central pesifikis“ SeerTebis ceremonia

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veluri dasavleTi

mjdomare xari da Smagi cxeni

me-7 sakavalerio polks samoqalaqo omis cnobili generali jorj kasteri meTaurobda. siTing bulma da sus tomis beladma qreizi horsma (`Smagi cxeni“) 2 000-dan 2 500-mde meomari Sekribes. kasteri fiqrobda, rom indielebs advilad daamarcxebda. 1876 wlis 25 ivniss kasteri mdinare litlbig-hornTan gaCerebul susa da Saienebis banaks daesxa Tavs. meomrebma alyaSi moaqcies amerikeli samxedroebi da TiTqmis yvela daxoces, maT Soris – kasteric. es iyo indielebis udidesi da ukanaskneli gamarjveba velur dasavleTSi. saboloo jamSi, sus tomma mainc dakarga didi teritoriebi da isini iZulebuli gaxdnen danebebuliyvnen. mTavrobam tomi samxreT dakotaSi, rezervaciaSi daasaxla.

jeronimo da omi apaCebTan sus tomTan omi ar yofila velur dasavleTSi indielebTan momxdari ukanaskneli konfliqti. samxreT-dasavleTSi (arizona, niu-meqsiko) dausruleblad grZeldeboda omi apaCebTan. 1870-1980-ian wlebSi apaCi meomrebis patara jgufebi axerxebdnen armiis winaaRmdeg brZolas, Tumca 1886 wels isinic damarcxdnen. maTi ukanaskneli lideri, jeronimo, ki daatyveves da floridaSi gagzavnes. „veluri dasavleTis“ yvelaze saxelmoxveWili indieli meomari apaCebis samxedro lideri jeronimoa (1829-1909). igi arizonaSi daibada da amerikis mier samxreT-dasavleTis teritoriebis SeerTebis Semdeg mravali weli ebrZoda Tavganwirulad TeTrebs. jeronimo da misi meomrebi mSobliuri miwebisa da tradiciuli cxovrebis wesis SenarCunebas cdilobdnen. 1870-ian wlebSi, samxreT-dasavleTis kolonizaciis mizniT, xelisuflebam apaCebi mSobliuri teritoriebidan arizonis gvalvian da xriok rezervaciaSi gadaasaxla. jeronimo da bevri apaCi ver Seegua mZime yofas.1870-1880-ian wlebSi isini ramdenjerme gaiqcnen rezervaciidan. indielebi meqsikis mTebs afarebdnen Tavs. jeronimo da misi meomrebi Tavs esxmodnen apaCebis miwaze momravlebul amerikel axalmosaxleebs da SiSis zars scemd-

Smagi cxenis qandakeba bleq hilsze

mjdomare xari (1831-1890)

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amerika

iutas tomis indielebi sus tomis indieli

nen. jeronimo saqonlis gatacebiTa da axalmosaxleTa patara dasaxlebebze TavdasxmiT irCenda Tavs. xelisuflebam mis Sesapyrobad samxedro Zalebis uprecedentod didi mobilizeba moaxdina. partizanul brZolaSi daxelovnebuli apaCebi didxans ebrZodnen TeTrkanianebs, magram bolos gatydnen da danebdnen. jeronimos gansakuTrebul zebunebriv Zalas miawerdnen da Tavisi xalxi did pativs scemda. mravali wlis Semdeg apaCebi ixsenebdnen, rom amerikel samxedroebs brZolisas jeronimo advilad urevda gza-kvals. zogi imasac yveboda, rom jeronimo elaparakeboda ciur sxeulebs, mTvaris da mzis amosvlis SeCerebac ki SeeZlo. ritualebiT SeeZlo gauCinarebuliyo an indielebs adevnebuli amerikeli kavaleristebi gaeqro, kurnavda avadmyofebs da winaswarmetyvelebda, SeeZlo wvimisa da qariSxlis gamowvevac, xolo masTan mebrZol jariskacebs Soris gavrcelebuli iyo azri, rom jeronimos tyviiT mokvla SeuZlebeli iyo. imasac ambobdnen, rom mas Tavisi mowinaaRmdegeebis skalpebisgan (Tavis kani Tmebianad, romelsac aZrobdnen damarcxebul mters da mihqondaT nadavlis saxiT) Sekerili sabani hqonda.

jorj kasteri (1839-1876 )

litl-big-hornis brZola

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veluri dasavleTi

paiutebi Saienebis gadasaxleba rezervaciaSi

amerikis armiasTan xangrZlivi dapirispirebis Semdeg jeronimo1886 wels danebda. is velur dasavleTSi TeTrkanianTa mmarTvelobasTan mebrZoli ukanaskneli Tavisufali indieli iyo. jeronimos danebebiT velur dasavleTSi mTavrdeba indielebTan omebis epoqa. apaCebis sxva samxedro liderTa Soris aRsaniSnavia: beladi mangas koloradasi, koCizi, viqtorio da nana. amerikelebs indielTa miwebis aTvisebisas yvelaze medgari winaaRmdegoba gauwies viqtoriom, nanam da jeronimom. `Saienebis Semodgoma“

jeronimo

samxreT dablobebze bizonebze monadire amerikelebis SesaCereblad komanCebis, kaiovebisa da Saienebis tomebis ukanasknel winaaRmdegobas komanCebis saxelovani beladi qvana parkeri (1848-1911) meTaurobda, Tumca armiasTan gaWianurebuli omiT daRlili indielebi mixvdnen, rom winaaRmdegobas azri aRar hqonda. 1875 wels danebdnen Saienebic da komanCebic. samxreT dablobebis odesRac yvelaze Zlevamosili momTabare indielebis kultura gaqra. igive bedi ewia CrdiloeT dablobebze mosaxle Saienebs, romlebic mTel velur dasavleTSi yvelaze Seupovari meomrebi iyvnen. 1877-1887 wlebSi armiam sabolood daamarcxa Tavisuflad myofi Saienebi. am omis ukanasknel epizods `Saienebis Semodgoma“ daerqva. Saienebis patara jgufma miatova indielTa teritoriaze (oklahoma) arsebuli TavianTi rezervacia da vaiomingSi mSobliuri miwebis dabruneba scada. indielebs gzad dasavleT kanzasis teritoriebi unda gadaekveTaT. es iyo monapire axalSenebis regionSi mcxovrebi amerikelebis ukanaskneli kontaqti Tavisuflad myof `velur“ indielebTan. indielebs amerikeli samxedroebi daedevnen. sabolood armiam SeZlo Saienebis damarcxeba da maTi rezervaciaSi dabruneba.

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samezoblo

yaraCai-balyarelebi

aleqsandre kvaxaZe

`vaxtang mefe RmerTs uyvarda, cidan Camoesma reka, ialbuzze fexi Sedga, didma mTebma iwyes dreka~ – am xalxur leqsSi naxsenebi ialbuzi, kavkasionis qedis umaRlesi mwvervali, svaneTisa da raWis mezoblad, kavkasionis qedis gadaRma mdebareobs da iq kavkasiis erT-erTi gamorCeuli xalxi – yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi saxloben. Tavad yaraCai-balyarelebi am mTas `mingi Taus~ uwodeben da mis mimarT didi mowiwebac aqvT. yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi ruseTis federaciaSi Semaval yabardo-balyareTisa da yaraCai-CerqezeTis respublikebSi cxovroben. yabardo-balyareTSi isini umciresobas warmoadgenen, xolo yaraCai-CerqezeTSi – mosaxleobis umravlesobas. kavkasiaSi maTi saerTo raodenoba 350 aTass aRemateba. garda kavkasiisa, yaraCai-balyarelebi cxovroben Sua aziasa da TurqeTSi, Tumca iq maTi raodenoba mcirea. albaT ucnaurad JRers, roca yaraCaelebsa da balyarelebs erT erad movixseniebT. sinamdvileSi, yaraCaelebic da balyarelebic sakuTar Tavs uwodeben `Taulus~ da erT enaze laparakoben. yaraCai-balyaruli ena Sedis Turqul enaTa ojaxSi. arsebobs mosazreba, rom termini Taulu ukavSirdeba istoriul dvalebs, Tumca am azrs yvela mkvlevari ar iziarebs. yaraCaelTa da balyarelTa or xalxad gayofa moxda sabWoTa wyobilebis dros da erovnebaTa grafaSi isini cal-calke Caweres. miuxedavad amisa, yaraCaelebic da balyarelebic Tavs erT erad miiCneven da maTi eTnikuri erToba eWvs ar iwvevs. yaraCaelebic da balyarelebic suniti muslimebi arian.

32


yaraCai-balyarelebi

magasi

Crd.oseTi

istoriuli mimoxilva yaraCai-balyarelebis winaprebi yivCaRuri tomebi iyvnen, romlebic mdinare volgasa da dons Soris arsebul stepebSi saxlobdnen. rodis damkvidrdnen yivCaRuri tomebi kavkasiaSi, ucnobia. sxvadasxva wyaroSi maT kavkasiis bulgarelebad moixseniebdnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanamedrove bulgareTisa da balyarelTa TviTsaxelwodebas (yar-baly. malyar) erTi Ziri aqvs. yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi aqtiurad ibrZodnen Temur-lengis winaaRmdeg. am xalxTa samosaxlo cnobilma italielma mogzaurma arqanjelo lambertimac moinaxula da maT yaraCerqezebad ixseniebs. XV saukunis qarTul wyaroebSi yaraCaelebsa da balyarelebs basianelebad moixsenieben. savaraudod, am periodSi unda momxdariyo yaraCaelTa da balyarelTa islamizacia. islamis miRebamde isini misdevdnen Zvel Turqul rwmena-warmodgenebs.

mahaCyala

rebi, romelTac miwaze mcire ufleba hqondaT, da yarauaSebi, anu SavTavianebi – absoluturad uuflebo kasta, romelic monebTan iyo gaTanabrebuli. feodaluri ierarqia sakmaod mkacrad iyo daculi. balyareTsa da yaraCaiSi ruseTi XIX saukunis dasawyisidan mkvidrdeba. ruseTis batonobis am regionebSi ganmtkiceba mravalmxrivi da rTuli procesi iyo. balyarelebi ruseTs 1827 wels SeuerTdnen, rodesac balyareTis yvela Temis warmomadgeneli stav-

yaraCaeli qali bavSviT

yaraCaelebsa da balyarelebSi istoriulad gavrcelebuli iyo feodaluri wyoba. feodaluri piramidis saTaveSi idgnen Taubiebi, anu mTis Tavadebi; Semdeg modiodnen uzdenebi, anu SedarebiT naklebi Zalauflebis mqone Tavad-aznaurebi; Semdeg – yaraqiSiebi, anu Savi adamianebi, romlebic uzdenebs emorCilebodnen; Semdeg – azati glexebi, romelnic ar eqvemdebarebodnen feodalebs da miwis damuSavebis uflebac ki hqondaT. yvelaze dabal safexurze iyvnen CaRa-

33


samezoblo ropolSi Seikriba da daTanxmda ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlas im pirobiT, rom Tavad-aznaurebs SeunarCundebodaT statusi da ar moiSleboda islamuri SariaTis samarTalwarmoeba. gansxvavebuli iyo yaraCais Sesvla ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom yaraCaelebma ruseT-kavkasiis omis gamocxadebisas neitraliteti daikaves da ar miemxrnen imam Samils, 1828 wels ruseTis jarebma yaraCais teritoria daikaves. jarebis Seyvanis formalur mizezad yaraCaelTa mier rusul-kazakuri dasaxlebebis sistematuri Zarcva da darbeva saxeldeboda, Tumca sinamdvileSi, ruseTs CrdilodasavleT kavkasiis strategiuli xeobebis dakaveba sasicocxlod sWirdeboda. yaraCaelTa winaaRmdegobas saTaveSi edga islam yrimSamhalovi, romelic imperiul Zalebs medgar winaaRmdegobas uwevda. 1828 wlis 20 oqtombers rusebsa da yaraCaelebs Soris hasaukis brZola gaimarTa, sadac rusTa Zalebi yaraCaelebisas samjer aRemateboda. garda amisa, ruseTis jarma gamoiyena artileria. didi brZolis Sedegad, ruseTma yrimSamhalovi aiZula ukan daexia. sabolood, general giorgi emanuelis meTaurobiT, ruseTma SeZlo yaraCais damorCileba da es kuTxe 1834 wels ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida. yaraCaelTa nawilma samSoblo datova da osmaleTis imperiaSi gadasaxlda. ruseTis imperiuli uReli iseve daawva yaraCaelebsa da balyarelebs, rogorc kavkasiis sxva danarCen xalxebs. ruseTis 1917 wlis oqtombris revoluciam da kavkasiaze kontrolis droebiTma dakargvam yaraCaelebsa da balyarelebs mcire Sveba misca. yaraCaisa da balyareTis miwebi CrdiloeT kavkasiis mTielTa respublikis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida, Tumca 1919 wels, sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg, yaraCai-balyarelebi kvlav ruseTis gavlenis qveS moeqcnen. ruseTma am xalxis mimarT mravalgzis nacadi `dayavi da ibatone~ politika gamoiyena da eri, romlis arc eTnikuri da arc erovnuli erToba kiTxvis niSnis qveS ar idga, or damoukidebel erad – yaraCaelebad da balyarelebad Cawera. uamravi adamiani Seewira yaraCaisa da balyareTSi mimdinare koleqtivizaciis process, rodesac warmatebul glexebs maTi saqoneli da saxnav-saTesi teritoriebi waarTves da kerZo sakuTreba gauuqmes. 1926 wels Seiqmna yaraCais sabWoTa socialisturi avtonomiuri olqi, romelmac 1943 wlamde iarseba. rac Seexeba balyare-

34

islam yrimSamhalovi – XIX saukuneSi yaraCael meamboxeTa lideri, romelic winaaRmdegobas uwevda ruseTis imperias, Tumca hasaukis brZolis Semdeg iZulebuli gaxda xeli moewera yaraCais ruseTTan SeerTebisTvis. hasaukis brZola – gadamwyveti brZola ruseTis imperiasa da yaraCaelebs Soris, romelic ruseTis gamarjvebiTa da yaraCais ruseTTan SeerTebiT dasrulda.

lebs, 1922 wels Seiqmna yabardo-balyareTis avtonomiuri olqi, romelmac 1936 wels avtonomiuri respublikis statusi SeiZina. ssrk-Si administraciul-teritoriuli dayofis ramdenime done arsebobda, sadac umaRlesi iyo sabWoTa socialisturi respublika, Semdegi – avtonomiuri respublika, xolo yvelaze dabali – avtonomiuri olqi. amrigad, sabWoTa kavSiris dros es xalxi ara mxolod oficialurad, aramed geografiuladac gahyves. Tumca, yaraCai-balyarelebs mTavari gansacdeli win hqondaT – meore msoflio omis dros, CeCnebisa da inguSebis msgavsad, stalinis reJimma maTi Sua aziaSi deportacia ganaxorciela. 1943 wlis 2 noembers gaa-

giorgi emanueli (1775-1873) – rusi samxedro maRalCinosani, aqtiurad monawileobda ruseT-kavkasiis omSi.


yaraCai-balyarelebi

yaraCaelebis da balyarelebis dResaswauli

saxles yaraCaelebi, 1944 wlis 8 marts – balyarelebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom balyarelTa gasaxleba sagangebod daamTxvies qalTa saerTaSoriso dRes, raTa regionSi enkavedes jarebis Seyvana ufro martivad momxdariyo. es dRe airCies, rom gasaxleba moulodneli yofiliyo da xalxi mTaSi ar gaxiznuliyo. yaraCai-balyarelebis gasaxleba satvirTo matareblis vagonebiT xdeboda da uamravi adamianis sicocxlec Seiwira. Sua aziaSi gadasaxlebisas uamravi adamiani ver Seegua iqaur klimats da sxvadasxva daavadebam imsxverpla. balyarelTa deportaciis Sedegad, Tanamedrove yabardo-balyareTis mTiani teritoriis nawili saqarTvelos ssr-s SeuerTda. saqarTvelos ssr-s SeuerTda yofili yaraCais avtonomiuri olqis mTiani nawili da Seiqmna qluxoris raioni. es teritoria 1957 wels kvlav istoriul patronebs daubrunda. amave wels moxda yaraCai-balyarelTa reabilitacia da maT samSobloSi dabrunebis ufleba misces. amave wels Seiqmna yaraCai-CerqezeTis avtonomiuri olqi, romelic rusebiT dasaxlebul stavropolis mxares miuerTes. aRsaniSnavia, rom deportaciidan dabrunebuli yaraCaelebi da balyarelebis nawili Zvel sacxovrisze ki ar daasaxles, aramed barSi, CerqezebTan axlos, ramac saTave daudo am or xalxs Soris davas saZovrebTan dakavSirebiT. balyareli qalebi

35


samezoblo sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi cdilobdnen calke respublikis Seqmnas. amis karg magaliTad maT inguSeTis SemTxveva esaxebodaT. Tumca, yoveli cda amao gamodga. xSiri da sistematuri saxe mieca erTa Soris dapirispirebasac, amis magaliTia qendelenSi balyarelebsa da Cerqezebs Soris momxdari dapirispirebac. yaraCaelTa da balyarelTa kultura yaraCaelebisa da balyarelebis kulturas gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia kavkasiaSi. aRsaniSnavia yaraCaisa da balyareTSi arsebuli xuroTmoZRvrebis Zeglebi. balyareTis sofel xurzuqSi SemorCenilia xis Zveli saxlebi, romlebic ulursmnodaa agebuli. soflis SesasvlelTan Sua saukuneebis goSaiaxis koSki dgas. koSkebi xSirad gvxvdeba yaraCaisa da balyareTSi.

2018 wlis seqtemberSi balyarul sofel qendelenSi balyarelebsa da Cerqezebs Soris dapirispireba moxda. dapirispirebis mizezi Cerqez cxenosanTa kolona iyo, romelic yanJalis mTisken miermarTeboda, sadac yanJalis brZolis 310 wlisTavi unda aReniSnaT. sofel qendelenSi Sesvlisas moxda provokacia, ramac balyarelebsa da Cerqezebs Soris xelCarTuli Cxubi gamoiwvia. viTarebas is faqtic amZafrebda, rom yanJalis mTis maxloblad Cerqzebsa da balyarelebs Soris sadavo saZovrebi iyo. qendelenis movlenebi kargad gamoiyena ruseTis xelisuflebam, rom gaeRrmavebina SuRli Cerqezebsa da balyarelebs Soris.

zurna da yil yobuzi

yaraCai-balyarelebis xalxuri simRerebi gansakuTrebuli melodiurobiTa da daxvewilobiT gamoirCeva. erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili simReraa `mingi-Tau~, romelic ialbuzs eZRvneba. yaraCai-balyarelTa musikalur sakravebs Soris gamoirCeva: yil yobuzi – orsimiani xemiani instrumenti, sibizRi – Casaberi sakravi, zurna – agreTve Casaberi sakravi, yol yobuzi – akordeoni. yaraCai-balyareli momRerlebidan da kompozitorebidan gamoirCevian ismail semenovi

goSaiaxis koSki

da ismail urusbievi. yaraCai-balyarelebSi aseve ganviTarebulia qoreografia. xalxuri cekvebi suzulufi, aTifi, iilefi da sxv. mezobeli kavkasieli xalxebis cekvebTan uamrav paralels amJRavnebs. mdidari da mravalferovania yaraCai-balyarelebis folklori. mezobeli kavkasiis xalxebis msgavsad, maTSic gavrcelebulia narTebis eposi. yaraCai-balyarelebs adaT-wesebis sakmaod rTuli sistema aqvT, romelsac ezden adaTi ewodeba. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba stumarmaspinZlobas. yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi stu-

36


yaraCai-balyarelebi

mars didi mowiwebiT eqcevian, Tundac is sruliad ucxo adamiani iyos. ezden adaTis mixedviT, SesaZlebeli iyo ucxo adamianis TemSi miReba. amisaTvis, maspinZlebi aRmarTavdnen joxebs da TemSi Sesvlis msurveli am joxebis qveS unda gasuliyo. aseTi saxis kavSirs yaraCaelebi da balyarelebi `joxiT naTesaobas~ uwodeben. yaraCai-balyarelebs aseve gansakuTrebuli mowiweba aqvT ojaxis kerisa da qvabis Camosakidebeli jaWvis mimarT. am jaWvze ificebdnen kidec. yaraCaul da balyarul ojaxebs es jaWvi saxlis gareT arasdros gahqondaT, gayidvaze xom laparakic zedmeti iyo.

qazim meCievi daibada 1859 wels sofel SiqiSi. man islamuri sasuliero ganaTleba miiRo rogorc Crdilo kavkasiaSi, aseve egvipteSi. misi pirveli poemebic swored religiur sakiTxebs ukavSirdeboda. misi Semoqmedebis meore etapi filosofiuri lirika iyo. qazim meCievis Semoqmedebis mesame etapi ki stalinur represiebsa da deportacias exeboda. Tavad meCievic deportirebul iqna yazaxeTSi. misi ocneba mSobliur miwaze sikvdili iyo, Tumca igi yazaxeTSi gardaicvala. mravali wlis Semdeg misi anderZis Tanaxmad, qazim meCievi balyareTSi gadaasvenes. misi yvelaze cnobili da emociuri leqsebia: `anderZi~, `Cemi sabralo xalxi~ da `dRes Cven imedi gvaqvs~, romelic deportaciaSi daiwera.

yaraCai-balyarelebs mdidari kulinaria aqvT. yvelaze gamorCeulia sasmeli airani, rZisgan damzadebuli momJavo siTxe (Zalian hgavs Cvenebur dos – mawvnis SedRvebisa da karaqis miRebis Sedegad miRebul momJavo siTxes), romelsac dRes msoflio Turqul sasmelad icnobs, Tumca yaraCaisa da balyareTSi erovnul sasmelad miiCneven da yovel wels airanis dResac awyoben. XIX saukunidan iwyeba yaraCauli da balyaruli literatura. Tavdapirvelad yaraCaulbalyaruli damwerlobisTvis arabul anbans iyenebdnen, Semdeg ki kirilicaTi Secvales. balyaruli literaturis mamamTavaria poeti da filosofosi qazim meCievi, yaraCaulisa ki – ismail semenovi. sxva yaraCai-balyareli mwerlebidan aRsaniSnavia basiat Saxanovi, islam TeberdiCi da umar alievi.

ismail semenovi (1891-1981) – yaraCaeli poeti, daibada 1891 wels sofel uCqulanSi. skolis damTavrebis Semdeg miiRo sasuliero ganaTleba. mis poemebs Sorisaa ialbuzis Sesaxeb `mingi Tau~. poetis Semoqmedebaze didi gavlena moaxdina yaraCai-balyarelTa deportaciam.

ismail urusbievi (1829-1888)

37


samezoblo

umar alievi (1895-1937)

basiat Saxanovi (1879-1919)

qarTvelebisa da yaraCai-balyarelebis urTierToba rogorc zemoT vaxseneT, yaraCaelebi emezoblebodnen zemo svaneTs, xolo balyarelebi – zemo raWas. saqarTvelos am kuTxeebsa da yaraCai-balyarelebs Soris istoriulad Zalian mWidro urTierTobebi iyo. yaraCaelebi svanebs `ebzes~ uwodeben, rac zogi mkvlevris mosazrebiT SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes abazgebs, anu afxazeTis uZveles mkvidr toms. yaraCaiSi gavrcelebul gvars ebzeevsac svanuri warmomavloba unda hqondes, vinaidan sityva ebze svans aRniSnavs. yaraCai-balyarelebs mezobel qarTvelebTan intensiuri savaWro urTierTobebi hqondaT. am xalxTa Soris mWidro kavSiris dasturia erTmaneTTan bavSvebis gaZiZeba – qarTvelebisa yaraCai-balyarul ojaxebSi da piriqiT. qarTul-yaraCai-balyarul urTierTobebSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani etapi iyo deportaciis periodi. gasaxlebuli balyare-

yaraCaelebis ojaxi

38

islam TeberdiCi (1864-1911)

balyareli glexi


yaraCai-balyarelebi

lebis adgilas stalinis reJimma raWvelebi Caasaxla, xolo yaraCaelebis nacvlad – svanebi. svanebi axlad Seqmnili qluxoris raionis umravlesobas Seadgendnen, Tumca rodesac yaraCai-balyarelebi samSobloSi dabrundnen, raWvelebmac da svanebmac ulaparakod dauTmes maTi saxlebi. qarTvelTa mcire nawili darCa yaraCaisa da balyareTSi da asimilacia ganicada. balyarelTa da yaraCaelTa Soris xSirad gvxvdeba qarTuli gvarebi – lobJaniZe, nakani, togoniZe. aRsaniSnavia, rom yaraCai-balyarelebs arasdros miuRiaT monawileoba saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg omebSi – arc afxazeTSi da arc 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omSi. calke unda aRiniSnos yaraCais koSkebis msgavseba svanur koSkebTan. isic unda iTqvas, rom anTropologiurad da genetikurad yaraCaelebi ufro axlos dganan mkvidr dasavleT kavkasielebTan, vidre Tavis uaxloes, enobrivad monaTesave noRaelebTan, yazaxebTan, TaTrebTan da uzbekebTan. zogi mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom yaraCaelebi im svanebis STamomavlebi arian, vinc kavkasiis qeds gadaRma dasaxlda, dakarga ena da asimilirda. daskvna yaraCai-balyarelebs kavkasiis sxva xalxebTan SedarebiT mediasa Tu literaturaSi naklebi yuradReba eTmobaT. samwuxarod, maT Sesaxeb saqarTveloSic cotam Tu icis, miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTvelebisTvis isini erT-erTi yvelaze axlobeli xalxia. vfiqrob, es xalxi Cvengan met yuradRebas imsaxurebs da maTi keTilganwyoba da siyvaruli aucileblad dasafasebeli da gamosayenebelia.

yaraCaeli gogonebi

39


ekonomika

bednierebis ekonomikuri Teoriis arsi

nino talikaZe

icodiT Tu ara, rom 20 marti bednierebis saerTaSoriso dRea? 2012 wlis ivlisSi gaeros generalurma asambleam miiRo gadawyvetileba, rom 20 marti bednierebis saerTaSoriso dRed eRiarebina. 20 martidan 21 martamde dRe Rames utoldeba, swored amitom airCies es TariRi bednierebis dRed. am dros dRisa da Ramis xangrZlivoba msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi Tanabaria. gaeros eqspertTa TqmiT, es dRe, SesaZloa, planetis mcxovrebTa Tanasworobis simbolod iqces. albaT, ar arsebobs adamiani, visac erTxel mainc ar ufiqria imaze, Tu ra aris bedniereba, rodis arian adamianebi bednierebi? romel qveyanaSi cxovroben yvelaze bednieri adamianebi? cnobilia, rom adamianebi iltvian bednierebisaken, radgan bednieri adamiani Tavs kargad grZnobs. mecnieruli kvlevebi adasturebs, rom bedniereba mxolod es ar aris. bednieri adamiani ufro kontaqturia, ukeTesi moqalaqea, qveynisa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi ufro aqtiuri da uangaroa, ufro janmrTelia, ufro qvelmoqmedia, ukeTesi lideria.

40


bednierebis indeqsi

arsebobs bednierebis sxvadasxva gansazRvreba. mecnieruli ganmartebiT, bedniereba aris fsiqikuri mdgomareoba, romelic xasiaTdeba dadebiTi emociebiT da intensiuri sixarulis gancdas iwvevs. es sakiTxi didi aqtualurobiT ganixileba ekonomistebs Soris. kerZod, ekonomistebi cdiloben Seiswavlon bednierebaze moqmedi ekonomikuri faqtorebi. bednierebis ekonomikuri Teoriis Sesaxeb bednierebis ekonomikur Teorias safuZveli Caeyara mcire saxelmwifoSi – butanSi. butani agraruli qveyanaa, mosaxleobis 80%-is Semosavlis ZiriTadi wyaro miwaTmoqmedeba da satyeo meurneobaa. qveynis liderebi ekonomikis ganviTarebas bunebrivi garemosa da tradiciuli kulturis SenarCunebaSi xedaven. butanis mTliani Siga produqti erT sul mosaxleze, 2018 wlis maCveneblis mixedviT, 1,3-jer CamorCeba saqarTvelos analogiur maCvenebels. saqme isaa, rom butanis xelisufleba mTliani Siga produqtis zrdas ar aRiqvams, rogorc mosaxleobis keTildReobis sazoms. isini keTildReobis sazomad iyeneben mTliani erovnuli bednierebis indeqss. bedniereba am SemTxvevaSi ganixileba, rogorc sicocxliT kmayofileba, rac gamowveulia bunebasTan, adamianebTan, kulturul memkvidreobasTan harmoniiT, maSin, roca ekonomikuri mdgomareoba qveyanaSi arasaxarbieloa.

butanis droSa

CineTi

Timfu

butani

indoeTi

mTliani erovnuli bednierebis indeqsi moicavs 9 ZiriTad punqts:

1 2 3 4

fsiqologiuri keTildReoba drois gamoyeneba sazogadoebis sicocxlisunarianoba kulturuli mravalferovneba

5 6 7 8 9

ekologiuri mdgradoba cxovrebis done janmrTeloba ganaTleba mTavroba 41


ekonomika ekonomikuri zrda da misi SenarCuneba, inflaciisa da umuSevrobis dabali done, ganaTlebis maRali done, maRali akademiuri miRwevebi, xarisxiani jandacva da jansaRi garemos Seqmna – es yvelaferi uzrunvelyofs erTiani erovnuli bednierebis formirebas. aseTi koncefcia warmoadgina butanis samefom. koncefciis Tanaxmad, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis upirvelesi mizani aris sazogadoebis bedniereba. gamomdinare aqedan, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom bedniereba da ekonomika urTierTdamokidebuli cnebebia.

umuSevrad iTvleba 15 wlisa da ufrosi asakis piri, romelic ar muSaobda (erT saaTsac ki) gamokiTxvamde 7 dRis ganmavlobaSi, eZebda samuSaos bolo 4 kvira da mzad iyo muSaobis dasawyebad momavali 2 kviris manZilze. umuSevrobis done – umuSevarTa procentuli wili ekonomikurad aqtiur mosaxleobaSi.

sxvadasxva mecnier-ekonomistis kvlevaSi bednierebis Tema gansxvavebulad aris warmodgenili. magaliTad, erT-erTi kvlevis mixedviT, Semosavali bednierebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria, Sesabamisad, dadgenilia, rom mdidari adamianebi ufro bednierebi arian, vidre SedarebiT dabalSemosavliani fena. mecnierebi imasac aRniSnaven, rom ufro naklebad ganviTarebul qveynebSi damokidebuleba saSualo Semosavalsa da bednierebis saSualo dones Soris ar aris naTeli, radgan sxva mravali faqtoris gaTvaliswinebaa saWiro. sxva kvlevaSi aRniSnulia, rom sazogadoebriv bednierebaze, SemosavalTan erTad, gavlenas axdens iseTi faqtorebi, rogorebicaa inflacia da umuSevroba, ganaTleba da janmrTeloba. naTelia, rom umuSevroba da inflacia bednierebaze uaryofiTad moqmedebs. amasTan, umuSevrobis efeqti ufro Zlieria, vidre inflaciisa. aseve, kvlevebiT dadgenilia, rom:

asakis 1 wliT mateba iwvevs bednierebis 0.2%-iT zrdas

bavSvebis raodenobis zrda bednierebis maCvenebels 0.24%-iT amcirebs

janmrTeli adamianebi arian

20%-iT ufro bednierebi, vidre susti janmrTelobis mqoneni

qorwineba dadebiTad moqmedebs bednierebaze

42


bednierebis indeqsi

bednieri qveynebis saerTaSoriso reitingebi romeli qveynebi miiCneva yvelaze bednierad da ra kriteriumebiT xdeba maTi Sefaseba? msoflio bednierebis angariSSi (World Happiness Report) bedniereba fasdeba Semdegi eqvsi faqtoris gamoyenebiT:

1

2

4

5

mTliani Siga produqti erT sul mosaxleze

korufciis procentuli maCvenebeli

sicocxlis xangrZlivoba

Tavisuflebis xarisxi gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros

3

socialuri mxardaWera

6

sikeTe (izomeba qvelmoqmedebiT)

2019 wels gamoqveynebuli angariSis Tanaxmad, adgilebi Semdegnairad gadanawilda:

pirveli aTeuli

bolo aTeuli

unda aRiniSnos, rom pirveli aTi qveyana ganviTarebul qveynebs miekuTvneba, bednierebis qveda doneze ki naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebi arian warmodgenili. bednierebis donis dabali maCvenebliT gamoirCeva afrikis qveynebic. es gamowveulia sxvadasxva faqtoriT, kerZod: umuSevrobis maRali doniT, jandacvisa da ganaTlebis dabali maCvenebliT, infrastruqturis ganviTarebis dabali doniT, sakvebisa da wylis SezRuduli maragebiT, danaSaulis maRali maCvenebliT da a.S. bednieri qveynebis reitings aseve bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqsiT (Happy Planet Index (HPI)) gansazRvraven. igi gviCvenebs msoflios sxvadasxva wertilSi rogor axerxeben qveynebi bednierebis miRwevas ise, rom planetis bednierebac SeinarCunon. indeqsi 2006 wels SeimuSava ekonomikis axalma fondma.

43


ekonomika

hPI gamoiTvleba 4 ZiriTadi maCveneblis gamoyenebiT: x

x

HPI = sadac: moqalaqeebis subieqturi kmayofilebis grZnoba

uTanasworobis done

sicocxlis xangrZlivoba

Sedegebis uTanasworoba – uTanasworoba qveynis SigniT xalxs Soris, Tu ramden xans cxovroben da ramdenad bednierebi arian isini, gamoiTvleba qveyanaSi sicocxlis xangrZlivobisa da keTildReobis monacemebze dayrdnobiT. gamoixateba procentulad.

ekologiuri kvali (individebis zemoqmedeba garemoze)

bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqsis 2016 wlis monacemebiT

12.8 Cadi

13.2 togo

luqsemburgi13.2

13.4 benini

monRoleTi 14.3

14.4

15.3 siera-leone

kot-diuari

15.5 svazilendi

TurqmeneTi 14.6

15.6

37.0 ekvadori

bolo aTeuli

burundi

37.3

38.4 bangladeSi

tailandi

38.7

40.3 vietnami

nikaragua

40.6 vanuatu

39.5

40.7 kolumbia

panama

40.7 meqsika

kosta-rika

44.7

pirveli aTeuli

rogorc monacemebi gviCvenebs, bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqsis mixedviT, mowinave adgilebi daikaves SedarebiT naklebad ganviTarebulma qveynebma, ganviTarebuli qveynebi ki ufro bolo adgilebs inawileben. mkvlevrebi amas imiT xsnian, rom miuxedavad ekonomikuri siduxWirisa, mosaxleoba xasiaTdeba meti mxiarulebiT, pozitiviT da isini maRali maCvenebliT afaseben TavianT keTildReobas. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori, romelic aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT, aris informaciis floba. informaciis nakleboba zrdis bednierebas, rac naklebi icis adamianma gare samyaroze, miT ufro naklebad fiqrobs problemebze, Sesabamisad, cxovrebiT kmayofilebis donec ufro maRalia da, piriqiT, rac ufro meti informacia aqvT adamianebs gare samyarosTan dakavSirebiT, miT met rameze zrunva da fiqri uwevT maT, rac saboloo jamSi amcirebs bednierebas.

44


bednierebis indeqsi

imas, rom planetis yvelaze bednieri adamianebi laTinuri amerikis da karibis zRvis auzis qveynebSi cxovroben, amtkicebs organizacia jetpakic (Jetpac), romelic cnobilia socialuri qselebis analitikiT. organizaciam msoflios yvelaze bednieri qveynebis sia bolo periodSi instagramze (Instagram) gamoqveynebuli 150 milioni fotos gaanalizebis Sedegad Seqmna. bednierebis kriteriumad analitikosebma fotoebze gamosaxuli adamianebis Rimili da fotoebis „laiqebis” raodenoba aiRes. kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom msoflioSi yvelaze xSirad braziliis (60,8) moqalaqeebi iRimian, am kriteriumiT meore adgilzea nikaragua (59,4), romelsac kolumbia (49,8), bolivia (48,1) da kosta-rika (47,4) mosdevs. instagramis fotoebze aRbeWdil brazilielebs bednierebis safuZveli aqvT – maTi ekonomika msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze swrafad mzardia da moqalaqeebis keTildReobac izrdeba. brazilielebs bednierebis gancdas matebs yovelwliuri karnavalebi, romlebic TebervalSi imarTeba. rogorc vxedavT, bednierebis msoflio reitingSi warmodgenili monacemebi da bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqsis mixedviT Sedgenili reitingi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva. mizezi gansxvavebuli ekonomikuri cvladebia, romelTa gamoyenebiTac xdeba am indeqsebis gaangariSeba.

saqarTvelo

2016 weli

4.3

(10dan)

2018 weli

2019 weli

whr 4.34

wHr 4.519

adgili 128 adgili 119

HPI 31.1

74.6

adgili 40

20%

1.58

kosta-rika

bolivia

49.8 48.1 47.4

kolumbia

nikaragua

brazilia

60.8 59.4

bednierebis done saqarTveloSi zogierTi mecnieri amtkicebs, rom 50% adamianis bednierebisa ganpirobebulia misi genetikiT, 40% – yoveldRiuri fiqriTa da qmedebebiT, 10% – cxovrebiseuli garemoebebiT, e.i. uSualod Cvenze damokidebulia mxolod 40%. amdenad, maqsimalurad unda SevecadoT Cvenze damokidebuli 40%-is srulyofilad gamoyenebas. 2019 wlis msoflios bednierebis indeqsis mixedviT, saqarTvelo 119-e adgilzea 4,519 quliT da bevrad CamorCeba evrokavSi-

ris postkomunisturi qveynebis Sesabamis maCvenebels. 2018 wlis msoflios bednierebis indeqsis mixedviT, saqarTvelo 4,34 quliT 128-e adgils ikavebda. amdenad, man 9 adgiliT zemoT gadainacvla. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo mxolod iseT qveynebs uswrebs, rogorebicaa: kongo, mali, sudani, gana, ukraina, madagaskari. SedarebiT qveda doneze arsebuli qveynebi xasiaTdebian erT sul mosaxleze mTliani Siga produqtis dabali maCvenebliT, SedarebiT maRali korufciis doniT, dabali socialuri mxardaWeriT da a.S. rac Seexeba bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqss, 2016 wlis angariSSi saqarTvelos me-40 adgili ukavia 31,1 quliT, xolo indeqsis CaSlas Semdegi saxe aqvs: individebis mier sakuTari keTildReobis Sefaseba – 4,3 (10-dan), saSualod sicocxlis xangrZlivoba – 74,6 weli, uTanasworobis done – 20%, ekologiuri kvali – 1,58. rogorc vxedavT, Zalian dabali maCvenebeli aqvs individebis mier sakuTari keTildReobis aRqmas. bednierebis saerTaSoriso indeqsis mixedviT, saqarTvelo bevrad uswrebs evrokavSiris postkomunistur qveynebs da luqsemburgsac ki, romelsac yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli aqvs erT sul mosaxleze mTliani Siga produqtis mixedviT.

45


ekonomika gamokiTxvis Sedegebi bednierebis donis dasadgenad sxvadasxva asakobriv jgufSi SerCeviTi principiT gamokiTxva CavatareT. kiTxvebi Sedgenili iyo oqsfordis universitetSi bednierebis donis dadgenisaTvis Seqmnili kiTxvaris safuZvelze. jamurad gamoikiTxa 462 adamiani. maTgan sruliad bednieri (10-baliani sistemiT 10-dan 10) aRmoCnda gamokiTxulTa 10,4%, met-naklebad bednieri (10dan 7) – 18,8%.

18.8%

10.4%

(10/10) sruliad bednieri

462

(10/7)

metnaklebad bednieri

bednierebisTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani kriteriumebi jamurad ojaxi, janmrTeloba, siyvaruli da sulieri simSvide aRmoCnda. mxolod Semdeg modis warmatebuli kariera, megobrebi da sxv. yvelaze dabali raodenoba stabilurma samsaxurma, qveynis ganviTarebis donem, ekologiurad sufTa garemom miiRo. rogorc vxedavT, gamokiTxvam daadastura mosazreba, rom naklebad ganviTarebul qveynebSi damokidebuleba saSualo Semosavalsa da bednierebis saSualo dones Soris naTeli ar aris, radgan sxva mravali faqtoris gaTvaliswinebaa saWiro.

gamokiTxvis analizis Sedegebma aseve aCvena, rom mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebi ufro bednierebi arian, vidre mamrobiTi sqesisa. aseve dadginda, rom asakis matebasTan erTad izrdeba bednierebis done, iseve, rogorc Semosavlebis zrdisas. aRsaniSnavia, rom dausaqmebeli adamianebi aRmoCndnen ufro bednierebi, vidre dasaqmebulebi.

46


bednierebis indeqsi

ganaTlebis safexuris mixedviT doqtorantebi da doqtoris xarisxis mqone adamianebi ufro bednierebi aRmoCndnen, vidre bakalavriatis da magistraturis studentebi, bakalavrebi da magistrebi. yvelaze bednierebi profesiuli ganaTlebis mqone adamianebi arian, Semdeg ki – saSualo ganaTlebis mqoneni. amdenad, kvlevam daadgina, rom bednierebis SegrZneba yvelaze metad im adamianebs aqvT, romlebisTvisac bednierebis ganmsazRvrelia ojaxi, janmrTeloba da siyvaruli. da TqvenTvis ra aris bedniereba? romeli faqtorebi gansazRvravs Tqvens bednierebas? albert ainStainis bednierebis recepti ki aseTia

as

reb v o x c l ebu

, s v q a o reba m dmiv

l

rZa k o m a d vid

mS

e vnas da mu i n d e b e meti Tan. tebis d Relvas,

s

v a l x a s ac ama

ma

ar vidre w

r

47


aRmoCenebi

arCil qiqoZe rodesac ramis kiTxvas iwyeb da winaswar ici dasasruli, sakiTxavi mosawyeni xdeba. polaruli mogzauris – robert skotis dRiurs rom vkiTxulobdi, yvelaferi piriqiT iyo, vicodi riTi damTavrdeboda – gardauvali sikvdiliT da es winaswari codna kidev ufro dramatuls xdida sakiTxavs. inglisuri polaruli eqspediciis kapitani ukanasknel amosunTqvamde werda dRiurs, romlis gverdebze mxolod aqa-iq gakrTeboda SiSi imisa, rom is da misi eqspediciis wevrebi ukan veRar dabrundebodnen, danarCeni ki mSrali aRwera iyo maTi brZolisa da mxolod ukanasknel gverdze Cawera: „mgoni, es dasasrulia“…. rodesac sikvdilidan ramdenime Tvis Semdeg skotis karavi ipoves, kapitani sanaxevrod iyo amomZvrali saZile tomridan. misi ori Tanamgzavri tomrebSi gaxveuli gayinuliyvnen, skots ki maTi dRiurebi moegrovebina da Tavisi rveulis gverdiT daewyo. yvelafridan Canda, rom kapitani ukanaskneli Seegeba sakuTar sikvdilsa da ukvdavebas. axla ki Soridan daviwyeb da mogiyvebiT imaze, vin iyo Cemi statiis gmiri da ra Zalam miiyvana yinulis samefoSi, sadac sikvdili ipova.

48


robert skoti

robert skoti 1868 wlis 6 ivniss daibada inglisis samxreT-dasavleT nawilSi, devonSiris sagrafoSi, ojaxSi, romlis mamakacebi, rogorc wesi, mezRvaurebi xdebodnen. skotis bavSvoba da axalgazrdoba daemTxva didi britaneTis istoriis periods, romelsac maSindeli mmarTveli dedoflis – viqtorias pativsacemad „viqtorianuli“ Searqves. britaneTi swraf ekonomikur aRmavlobas ganicdida, imperia, faqtobrivad, naxevar msoflios moicavda da danarCen msoflios karnaxobda dRis wesrigs. inglisis istoria da misi macxovreblebis xasiaTi ukeT rom gavigoT, mudam unda gvaxsovdes, rom es kunZulovani qveyanaa. ingliselebi tradiciulad kargi zRvaosnebi iyvnen. XVI saukunis meore naxevarSi, sxva didi dedoflis – elisabed pirvelis mmarTvelobis xanaSi, maT sabolood daCagres sxva zRvaosani xalxebi – portugalielebi, espanelebi, holandielebi da zRvebsa da okeaneebze upirobo pirveloba moipoves. es pirveloba britaneTs saukuneebis manZilze ar dauTmia da im droisTvis, rodesac robert skoti moevlina qveyanas, ingliselisTvis mezRvauroba erT-erTi yvelaze sapatio profesia iyo.

dedofali viqtoria (1819-1901)

robert skoti 13 wlis asakSi

13 wlis robert skoti misaRebi gamocdebiT Cairicxa samxedro-sazRvao saswavlebelSi, romelic Zvel afrian gem „britaniaze“ mdebaroebda. aseTi mcuravi saswavleblebi, sadac Teoria da praqtika erTdroulad iswavleboda, araerTi iyo imdroindel inglisSi. patara biWebi gemis gembansa da anZebze euflebodnen zRvaosnobis ana-banas da vinc mkacr gamocdas gauZlebda, umcrosi oficris CiniT amTavrebda saswavlebels. skotma yvela gamocdas gauZlo da male iqca axalgazrda, imedismomcem oficrad da mainc, cxovreba da samxedro-sazRvao kariera arafriT iqneboda gansxvavebuli sxva ingliseli oficrebis biografiebisagan, rom ara ramdenime Sexvedra kliment markemTan, inglisel mecnierTan, romelic antarqtikaze eqspediciis mowyobaze ocnebobda. rodesac axalgazrda samxedro da xnieri mecnieri londonis quCaSi mesamed Sexvdnen erTmaneTs, markemma skots auwya, rom is-is iyo airCies britaneTis geografiuli sazogadoebis prezidentad, raindobac mianiWes da rom samxreT polusze eqspediciis mowyobis miseuli gegma realuri gaxda. geografiuli sazogadoeba eqspediciis xelmZRvanelad sando adamians eZebda. ojaxis valebSi Caflulma skotma ifiqra, rom eqspediciis xelmZRvaneloba mas finansuri problemebisgan Tavis daRwevaSi daexmareboda, bevri ar ufiqria, ramdenime dRis Semdeg britaneTis geografiul sazogadoebaSi gamocxadda da eqspediciis xelmZRvanelad sakuTari kandidatura waradgina.

49


aRmoCenebi

elisabed I (1533-1603)

im dros, XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze, msoflio rukaze mxolod CrdiloeTi da samxreTi polusebi iyo adgilebi, sadac adamians fexi jer ar daedga, magram Tuki CrdiloeT polusze ukve araerTi warumatebeli eqspedicia iyo mowyobili, samxreT polusis da antarqtikis Sesaxeb Zalze mcire ram iyo cnobili. britanelebmac swored evropidan ufro Sors, samyaros meore boloSi mdebare samxreT polusi amoiRes mizanSi da eqspediciisTvis mzadebas Seudgnen. robert skotis garda, kidev bevri iyo xelmZRvanelobis msurveli, magram geografiuli sazogadoebis prezidentis misadmi keTilganwyobam yvelaferi gadawona da sasurveli Tanamdeboba man miiRo. aqve unda iTqvas, rom momavali eqspediciis SemadgenlobaSi umetesoba samxedro mezRvaurebi iyvnen. erTi SexedviT, saocaria, rom gundi, romlis wevrebs aTas kilometrze meti unda gaevloT msoflios yvelaze civ kontinentze, sadac temperatura TiTqmis arasodes adis nuls zeviT da uamravi dabrkoleba fexiT unda gadaelaxaT, mezRvaurebisgan dakompleqtda, magram isev nu dagvaviwydeba, rom es britaneTia – kunZulovani qveyana, sadac tradiciulad samxedro mezRvauri yvelaze mamac da gamobrZmedil adamianad iTvleboda. Tanac antarqtidamdec gemiT unda mieRwiaT – afrosani xomaldiT, romelsac „disqaveri“, anu aRmoCena, erqva. am statiaSi me ar movyvebi skotis pirveli eqspediciis aRweras, vityvi imas, rom igi daaxloebiT sami wlis ganmavlobaSi (1901 wlidan 1904 wlamde) mimdinareobda da marTalia, mogzaurebma ver miaRwies poluss, ufro metic, 800 kilometrze metad ver miuxlovdnen, magram is mainc warmatebuli iyo da mis ganmavlobaSi ucnob kontinentze Zalian bevri aRmoCena gakeTda, xolo yofili mezRvaurebi gamobrZmedil polarul mkvlevrebad dabrundnen Sin da maSinve axali eqspediciisTvis samzadiss Seudgnen. eqspediciis mowyoba 1910 wlamde ar moxerxda. amasobaSi robert skoti daojaxda da qaliSvilic SeeZina. igi bevrs mogzaurobda leqciebiT da evropis sxvadasxva qalaqSi sakuTari mogzaurobis Sedegebs acnobda farTo sazogadoebas. aqve unda iTqvas, rom yvela epoqa sakuTar gmirebs aCens. warmoidgineT evropa, romelsac sul male pirveli msoflio omis qar-cecxli daatydeba Tavs. is omi ukve sxva gmirebs gaaCens. manamde ki mSvidobaa da mTeli msoflio elodeba axal ambebs polusebidan, romlebic jer kidev dasapyrobia. orive polusma ukve Seiwira araerTi mkvlevris sicocxle

samxedro-sazRvao saswavlebeli Zvel afrian gem „britaniaze“

50


robert skoti

XIX saukunis msoflio ruka

(maT Soris, skotis pirveli eqspediciis erT-erTi wevris), yvelas ainteresebs, vin iqneba pirveli, romeli qveynis Svilebi aRmarTaven sakuTar droSas samyaros yvelaze CrdiloeT da yvelaze samxreT wertilebSi. SedarebisTvis vityvi, rom dRevandeli safexburTo msoflio Cempionatis finali araferia im molodinTan SedarebiT, rac polusebTan dakavSirebiT maSindel msoflioSi arsebobda. es interesi erTdroulad iyo sportulic, mecnierulic da politikuric. im drois yvelaze avtoritetuli polaruli mkvlevari norvegieli fritiof nanseni iyo. skoti masac Sexvda, radgan nanseni cnobili iyo imiT, rom sakuTar gamocdilebas yvelas Tanabrad uziarebda da rCeva aravisTvis enaneboda. or mkvlevars erTmaneTi moewona, mogvianebiT norvegieli ase axasiaTebda skots: „is Cem winaSe idga – dakunTuli da Ronieri, vxedavdi mis lamaz saxes, daJinebul mzeras, magrad mokumul tuCebs,

robert skoti meuRlesTan da kliment markemTan erTad

romlebic mis saxes mkacr iers aZlevda, magram es xels ar uSlida xSirad gaeRima. mTel mis garegnobaSi Canda rbili da keTilSobili xasiaTi, amave dros seriozulobac da kargi iumoric“. bedma ise ineba, rom robert skotis cxovrebaSi gadamwyveti roli swored norvegielma iTamaSa. mas rual amundseni erqva, isic ukve gamobrZmedili mogzauri gaxldaT da inglisel kolegaze aranakleb ambiciuri. amundsenis ocneba CrdiloeT polusamde miRweva iyo, amisaTvis man eqspedicia Sekriba, Tanxebic moiZia, nansenisgan misi cnobili gemi „framic“ iTxova, magram rodesac yvelaferi mzad iyo gasamgzavreblad,

xomaldi `disqaveri~

51


aRmoCenebi movida cnoba, rom meSvide cdis Semdeg CrdiloeTi polusi amerikelma robert pirim daipyro. amundsenma swrafad Secvala gegma da `framiT~ samxreT polusisken daiZra, xolo konkurentad qceul skots amis Sesaxeb bolo wams acnoba, mas mere, rac orive eqspediciam „civilizebuli samyaro“ datova. amundsenis depeSam skots axal zelandiaSi miuswro, sadac es ukanaskneli sakuTar gems, „tera novas“, sanovagiT tvirTavda. ingliseli mogzaurisTvis yvelaferi Seicvala. misi eqspediciis mizani, „pirvelebs mieRwiaT samxreT polusisTvis, raTa am didi miRwevis pativi britaneTis imperias rgeboda“, didi kiTxvis niSnis qveS dadga. amasTanave ambiciuri, magram mainc samecniero eqspedicia uceb iqca sasikvdilo Sejibrad. fritiof nanseni (1861-1930) skots afrTxobdnen norvegielebi, romlebic gamocdili mogzaurebi iyvnen, amave dros norvegia sul axlad Seqmnili Crdilouri saxelmwifo iyo, didi britaneTi ki – msoflio wesrigis ganmkargveli imperia, romelic damarcxebas verafriT Seegueboda. skotma antarqtikis napirs noembris TveSi (1910) miaRwia, amundsenma ki – ianvarSi (1911) da ingliselebisgan daaxloebiT samas kilometrSi moiwyo banaki. orive eqspediciam TiTqmis erTdroulad miaRwia antarqtikas da gamosazamTreblad samzadisi daiwyo. samxreT naxevarsferoSi zamTari Cvenebur zafxuls emTxveva. ingliselebsac da norvegielebsac erTnairi sazrunavi hqondaT – unda CaetarebinaT dazverviTi da mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi naxevarwliani polaruli Ramis dadgomamde, rac SeiZleba Sors unda SeeRwiaT kontinentis siRrmeSi da gamoecadaT sakuTari Tavi da aRWurviloba, unda SeeswavlaT axali kontinentis flora da fauna, mere ki zamTris umoqmedobas miscemodnen, momavali laSqrobisTvis Zalebi moekribaT. ingliselebi namyofi iyvnen antarqtikaSi da icodnen, ra gziT daiZrebodnen polusisken, norvegielebma ki gamosazamTrebeli adgili da polusisken misasvleli gza alalbedze airCies, magram gaumarTlaT. saerTod, amundseni dajildoebuli iyo Tandayolili intuiciiT, rual amundseni (1872-1928) romlis wyalobiT mis mier sabazo banakad SerCeuli, kontinentis siRrmeSi SeWrili „veSapis yure“ orasi kilometriT axlos iyo mizanTan, vidre is adgili, sadac skoti gadmovida gemidan da banaki moawyo. amundsenis SerCeuli marSruti sabolood naklebad mTiani aRmoCnda, vidre skotisa, magram norvegielebs hqondaT kidev erTi upiratesoba, romelic codnaze iyo damyarebuli da ara – intuiciaze. skotma polusamde misaRwevad motoriani marxilebi da cxenebi – yinvagamZle manjuriuli ponebi – arCia, amundsenma ki Tan Camoiyvana grenlandiaSi eskimosebisgan SeZenili as ocamde marxilis ZaRli, xolo norvegielTa msubuqi marxilebi aseve eskimosTa transportis darad iyo Seqmnili. es upiratesoba gadamwyveti aRmoCnda polusisken rbolaSi. norvegielebi ubralod ukeT momzadebulebi aRmoCndnen, xolo ingliselebi – ufro jiutebi da ampartavnebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, ver SeZlebdnen imas, xomaldi `frami~ rac gaakeTes.

52


robert skoti

1911 wels robert skotis eqspediciis sami jgufi kontinentis siRrmisken daiZra. amaTgan mxolod erTi – skoti da mis mier SturmisTvis SerCeuli oTxi adamiani (eduard uilsoni, henri bauersi, lourens otsi da eduard evansi) gaagrZelebda polusisken gzas, danarCen or jgufs maqsimalurad Sors unda SeeRwia da skotisTvis sakvebis sawyobebi moewyo. aravin icoda, ramden xans gastanda polusze laSqroba da yvela xvdeboda, rom sakvebi, romelic jgufs Tan mihqonda da romelic, ZiriTadad, mSrali xorcisa da orcxobilisgan Sedgeboda, ukana gzisTvis sakmarisi ar aRmoCndeboda. sawyobebSi tovebdnen navTsac, radgan eqspediciis wevrebi swored navTqurebiT Tbebodnen karvebSi da imave quraze aduRebdnen Caisac – cxeli sasmeli yovlad aucilebeli piroba iyo gasaTbobad da, Sesabamisad, gadasarCenad. antarqtidaze eqspediciebi dResac ewyoba, magram erTi saukunis manZilze, sxva yvelaferTan erTad, ganviTarebulia aRWurviloba, tansacmeli, mogzaurebi satelituri telefonebiT arian SeiaraRebuli da maT pirvelive zarze maSveli vertmfreni mzad aris mofrindes. SedarebisTvis vityvi, rom skotis dros jer „elva-Sesakravic~ ki ar iyo gamogonili. mogzaurebis mZime bewvis tanisamosi RilebiT ikvreboda, karvebi brezentisgan iyo damzadebuli da am karvebSi ingliselebs unda gaetarebinaT qarbuqiani Rameebi, roca gareT temperatura minus ormoc gradusze dabali iyo. isini midiodnen TeTri kontinentis siRrmeSi, sadac ar WaWanebda arc erTi cocxali arseba da sadac mxolod sakuTar Tavs iyvnen mindobili. maTTan ganSorebas eqspediciis erT-erTi wevri ase ixsenebda: „Cven xSirad vbrundebodiT maTTvis Tvalis Sesavlebad, sanam kapi-

xomaldi `tera nova~

robert piri (1856-1920)

ZaRlebi rual amundsenis polarul eqspediciaSi

ponebi `tera novas~ eqspediciaSi

53


aRmoCenebi veSapis yure

gaamarTla. manjuriulma ponebma antarqtikas ver gauZles da gzaSi daixocnen, cigebi ki, romlebic ingliselebma safrangeTis alpebSi da norvegiis zegnebze gamoscades, pirvelive dReebSi gafuWda. skotis xuTeuli Tavad iyo mZime marxilebSi Sebmuli da napralebiT daRarul myinvarze polusisken miikvlevda gzas. 1912 wlis 17 ianvars jgufma samxreT poluss miaRwia, magram rogori iyo ingliselebis imedgacrueba, rodesac jer kidev Soridan, WogritSi dainaxes TovlSi CarWobil Wokze aRmarTuli norvegiis droSa – konkurentebma miaswres. polusze skots amundsenis werilic eloda. ukeT momzadebulma norvegielebma dajabnes didi britaneTi... miuxedavad gadatanili Sokisa, axla skotis mTavari sazrunavi ukan mSvidobiT dabruneba iyo...

tani skoti da misi oTxi Tanamgzavri horizontze Sav wertilad ar iqcnen. maSin verc ki vifiqrebdiT, rom ukanasknelebi viyaviT, vinc maT cocxals xedavda, rom im pirquS zeganze Cven mier samjer daZaxebuli „vaSa!“, ukanaskneli salami iqneboda, romelsac isini gaigonebdnen“. or damxmare jgufTan ganSoreba sabazo banakis datovebidan erTi Tvisa da sami dRis mere, 3 ianvars, moxda. am droisTvis skots ukve aRarc cxenebi hyavda da aRarc motoriani cigebi. misma arCeulma strategiam ar

ingliselebs bevr rameSi ar gaumarTlaT da pirvel rigSi – amindSi. wlis am dros aseT dabal temperaturas poluszec ki aravin eloda. RamRamobiT temperatura xSirad ecemoda minus ormocdaaT gradusze qvemoT. siaruli Wirda, rodesac zurgis qari qroda, mogzaurebi marxilebze afrebs amagrebdnen, rom moZraoba gaadvilebodaT. ramdenjerme iseTi grigali daatydaT Tavs, rom karvidan gamosvla da gzis gagrZeleba ver SeZles. yvela es ubedureba dawvrilebiT aqvs skots aRwerili Tavis dRiurSi, romlis werac bolo wamamde ar Seuwyvetia.

robert skotis espediciis ukanaskneli foto

robert skoti

?

54


robert skoti

skotma sakvebis racioni minimumamde Seamcira. winsvla sul ufro da ufro Wirda. amas daemata kidev erTi ubedureba – rodesac Zalagamoclili mogzaurebi sakvebis morig sawyobamde misvlas axerxebdnen, iq datovebuli navTi arasodes iyo gasaTbobad sakmarisi. es kidev erTi sabediswero Secdoma iyo, romlis arss skoti ver mixvda – dabali temperaturis pirobebSi sawvavis qilebis tyavis sacobebi Seviwrovda, WurWelma hermetuloba dakarga da navTis didi nawili aorTqlda. yoveli axali dRis dawyeba mogzaurebs sul ufro mSivrebs, Zalagamoclilebs da gaToSilebs uwevdaT. Zalebis aRdgena verafriT xerxdeboda. pirveli, edgar evansi, 17 Tebervals gardaicvala. ori kviriT adre is da skoti yinulis napralSi Cacvivdnen. kapitans gaumarTla da mxolod daibeJa, evansma ki magrad daartya Tavi da etyoba, Zlieri tvinis Seryeva miiRo. mas mere garegnulad yvelaze Ronieri evansi dRiTi dRe sustdeboda, misi marxilis Treva sxvebs uwevdaT, misi saqcieli nel-nela araadekvaturi gaxda da eqspediciis wevrebs aferxebda. bolos waiqca da ramdenimesaaTiani agoniis Semdeg gonze mousvlelad gardaicvala karavSi.

edgar evansi (1876-1912)

robert skotis eqspediciis wevrebi

evansis sikvdilis Semdeg skotma eqspediciis afTiaqidan Tanamgzavrebs 30-30 abi opiumi dauriga im SemTxvevisTvis, Tuki iseT mdgomareobaSi moxvdebodnen, saidanac saukeTeso gamosavali TviTmkvleloba iqneboda. Semdegi mwyobridan lourens otsi gamovida. mas fexebis Zlieri moyinva hqonda da siaruli uWirda. 15 marts megobrebs sTxova, myinvarze daetovebinaT, raTa maTTvis zedmeti tvirTi ar yofiliyo. ra Tqma unda, mas yuri ar aTxoves da rogorRac karvamde miaTries. gamTeniisken, roca misi dabadebis

lourens otsi (1880-1912)

55


aRmoCenebi

robert skoti wers dRiurs, 1911

pingvinebTan `tera novas~ eqspediciaSi

dRe Tendeboda, otsma Cailaparaka: gaval gaviseirneb, haers Cavylapav... da fexSiSveli gavida gareT, qarbuqSi. skoti da misi ori darCenili Tanamgzavri xvdebodnen, rom otsi sasikvdilod, maTTvis gzis Sesamsubuqeblad midioda da Seecadnen SeeCerebinaT, magram gulis siRrmeSi xvdebodnen, rom maTi TanamebrZoli iqceoda, rogorc „keTilSobili adamiani da ingliseli jentlmeni“.

lieresi qarbuqis gamo gaCereba mouwiaT. qarbuqi arafriT Cadga, mogzaurebi sustdebodnen. 30 marts isini jer kidev cocxlebi iyvnen. am dRiT TariRdeba skotis ukanaskneli Canaweri, sadac is aRiarebs, rom „es ukve dasasrulia“.

lourens otsis daRupvis adgili ucnobia. mogzaurebma 21 martamde iares, sawvavi gauTavdaT, sakvebi TiTqmis gamoeliaT da Semdegi sawyobidan erTi dRis savalze uZ-

mkvlevarTa nawilis azriT, skots da mis megobrebs Semdeg sawyobamde miRweva romc moexerxebinaT, sabazo banakamde mainc daixocebodnen, radgan maTi organizmi absoluturad gamofituli iyo, rac maT gaakeTes, isedac aRemateboda adamianis Zalas. „RvTis saxeliT, ar miatovoT Cveni axloblebi“, – es iyo skotis dRiurSi Cawerili ukanaskneli winadadeba. magram manamde mogzaurma araerTi werili dawera. maTi adresatebi iyvnen britaneTis geografiuli sazogadoebis prezidenti da sxva gavleniani adamianebi. am werilebSi mogzauri aRwerda sakuTar gamocdilebas, iZleoda rCevebs momavali eqspediciebisTvis da aucileblad sTxovda gavlenian adamianebs da mTel britaneTs, siRatakisTvis ar gaewiraT daRupulTa qvriv-oblebi. es sulisSemZvreli werilebia. skoti adasturebs, rom is da misi Tanamgzavrebi samSoblos winaSe pirnaTeli midian am qveynidan, maT sanatreli sikvdilis mosaaxloeblad Tavis mokvlazec ki Tqves uari, rom vali bolomde moexadaT. ukve Zalagamoclilebic ki ar Selevian Zvirfas tvirTs, antarqtidis sxvadasxva adgilas mopovebul geologiur masalebs, sxvanairad rom giTx-

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robert skoti

robert skotis eqspediciebsadmi miZRvnili vitraJi, wm.petres taZari, bintoni, inglisi

raT, qvebs da kldis namtvrevebs, radgan isini mecnierebs unda gamodgomodaT... hoda, am yvelafris mere mogzaurebma daimsaxures, rom iseTma SeZlebulma qveyanam, rogoric britaneTia, upatronos marCenlebis gareSe darCenil maT ojaxebs...

robert skotis ukanaskneli Canaweri

aqve vityvi, rom skotis mudara Seismines. misma dRiurma da werilebma, mogzaurTa gmiruli sikvdilis ambavma mTeli msoflio SeZra. mTel britaneTSi mogrovda uzarmazari Tanxa da daRupulTa ojaxebs arasodes ugrZvniaT materialuri gaWirveba. sami mogzauris cxedari da maTi karavi ingliselebma Semdeg zafxuls aRmoaCines. isini iqve damarxes, TovlSi, da Tovlisave piramida daadges, zed ki qvis jvari daamagres. aTwleulebis manZilze qarbuqebma Tovlis piramida yinulis gorad aqcia, mogzaurTa saflavi myinvarze mdebareobs, xolo myinvari moZravia. antarqtidaSi myinvarebi okeanisken moZraobs, momavalSi skoti da misi sami Tanamgzavri Tavis yinulis samaresTan erTad aucileblad miaRweven wyals, myinvars mowydebian da yinulis uzarmazar lodSi, aisbergSi, gamoketilebi okeaneze ganagrZoben mogzaurobas.

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saqarTvelo

moaxloebuli omis sulxan salaZe 1875 wlis gazafxulze hercegovinasa da bosniaSi osmaleTis winaaRmdeg ajanyebam ifeTqa. aman evropis didi qveynebi aiZula sakiTxis mogvarebaze efiqraT, Tumca diplomatebis mondomebam Sedegi ver gamoiRo da aRmosavleTis krizisi daiwyo. TandaTan naTeli gaxda, rom krizisis fonze omis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi, misi ZiriTadi mxareebi iqnebodnen ruseTi da osmaleTi. amasTanave, arsebobda safrTxe, rom Tu ruseTi oms gamoucxadebda osmaleTs, SesaZloa, es omi evropis qveynebis koaliciasTan omSi gadazrdiliyo. Sesabamisad, diplomatebs jer kidev hqondaT Sansi, evropa axali omisgan exsnaT. 1875 wlis bolos iniciativis xelSi aReba avstria-ungreTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma diula andraSma scada da imave wlis 18 dekembers osmaleTis sulTans, prusiis, avstria-ungreTis da ruseTis saxeliT, balkaneTis qristiani xalxisTvis gasatarebeli reformebis proeqti gadasca. avstria-ungreTis sagareo saqmeTa ministris mier osmaleTis sulTnisTvis gadacemuli proeqtis Tanaxmad, saWiro iyo osmaleTs: hercegovinis da bosniis qristiani mosaxleobisTvis aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba daedasturebina; gaeuqmebina zogierTi gadasaxadi; hercegovinasa da bosniaSi gadasaxadebisgan miRebuli Semosavlebi adgilze daetovebina.

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moaxloebuli omis `droeba~

„droeba“ (1866-1885) – qarTuli politikuri da literaturuli gazeTi progresul-demokratiuli mimarTulebisa. pirveli evropuli tipis gazeTi, romelic gamovida 1866 wlis 4 marts giorgi wereTlis redaqtorobiT. Tavdapirvelad, 1866-1874 wlebSi, gazeTi gamodioda yovelkvireulad; 1875-1876 wlebSi – kviraSi samjer; 1877-1885 wlebSi – yoveldRiurad.

serbebis ajanyeba osmalebis winaaRmdeg, 1876

diula andraSi (1823-1890)

sabolood, ise gamovida, rom pirobebi arc osmaleTisTvis aRmoCnda misaRebi da arc balkanelebisTvis. bosnielebi da hercegovinelebi osmaleTis mxridan garantiebis ararsebobas iwunebdnen, Tavad osmaleTs ki gadasaxadebisgan miRebuli Semosavlebis adgilze datoveba ar surda. diula andraSis mier wardgenili warumatebeli reformebis proeqts 1876 wels berlinis memorandumi mohyva. memorandumis xelmomwerebi amjeradac iyvnen avstriaungreTi, prusia da ruseTi. memorandumi didwilad 1875 wlis 18 dekembris proeqts imeorebda, rasac osmaleTis mxridan garantiebis aReba emateboda. mTavari ki is iyo, rom Tu osmaleTi da ajanyebulebi ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi ver miaRwevdnen SeTanxmebas, maSin memorandumis xelmomwer mxareebs Zalis gamoyenebis ufleba eZleodaT. Tumca, iyo kidev erTi saintereso detali – berlinis memorandums italia da safrangeTi mxars uWerda, inglisi – ara . inglisis roli da adgili ki ganuzomlad didi iyo, rogorc maSindel evropaSi, ise mTel msoflioSi. 1876 wlis ivnisSi osmaleTs serbeTi da Cernogoria aujanyda. imave wlis zafxulSi ruseTma osmaleTTan omisTvis mzadeba da-

iwyo da oqtomberSi stambolSi myofma ruseTis elCma osmaleTs ultimatumi wauyena, romlis mixedviTac, 48 saaTis ganmavlobaSi serbeTTan da CernogoriasTan zavis dadeba moiTxova. uaris SemTxvevaSi, ruseTi diplomatiuri urTierTobis gawyvetiT imuqreboda. 1876 wlis miwuruls konstantinopolSi saerTaSoriso konferenciam daiwyo muSaoba. praqtikulad swored am konferenciis Zalisxmevasa da Sedegze iyo damokidebuli, aicilebda Tu ara evropa axal oms. konferenciam osmaleTs xuTpunqtiani programa warudgina, kerZod: osmaleTis damoukideblobis da teritoriuli mTlianobis xelSeuxebloba; arc erT saxelmwifos ar hqonda ufleba sxvebze win Tavisi Tavi daeyenebina da raime mniSvnelovani upiratesoba moepovebina; serbeTsa da CernogoriaSi status-kvos SenarCuneba; bosniasa da hercegovinaSi administraciuli reformis gatareba (bosnia da hercegovina erT avtonomiur olqad erTiandeboda); administraciuli reformis gatareba bulgareTSi (qveyana or nawilad unda gayofiliyo – dasavleT da aRmosavleT bulgareTad).

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saqarTvelo sabolood moxda is, rom osmaleTis sulTanma reformebze uari ganacxada, ramac viTareba kidev ufro daZaba da krizisi gaaRrmava. evropa 1877 wlis dadgomas srul gaurkvevlobaSi xvdeboda. moaxloebuli omis suni trialebda yvelgan. evropul presaSi werdnen da msjelobdnen omze, romelic jer kidev ar iyo dawyebuli, Tumca yvelaferi iqiTken midioda, rom omi aucileblad iqneboda. maSindeli evropuli presa savse iyo am Temaze momzadebuli statiebiT da SetyobinebebiT. erTmaneTis miyolebiT modioda cnobebi: stambolidan, londonidan, peterburgidan, venidan, berlinidan, parizidan da evropis sxva mniSvnelovani qalaqebidan. mowinave da popularul evropul presas arc qarTuli CamorCeboda. CvenSi, saqarTveloSi, am sakiTxisadmi gamorCeuli da sayuradRebo Canawerebi gazeT „droebaSi“ ibeWdeboda. sailustraciod „droebis“ 1877 wlis pirveli nomris Canaweris moxmoba SeiZleba:

sergei mesxi (1845-1883) – qarTveli publicisti, Jurnalisti, mwerali da sazogado moRvawe. gazeT „droebis“ redaqtori 1869-1873, 18741880, 1880-1881 (ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad) da 1882 wlebSi.

es mcire nawilia statiidan, romelsac „omis saqme“ ewodeboda. maSin yvela xvdeboda, rom omi kars iyo momdgari da omis dawyeba dReebis, maqsimum ori-sami Tvis saqme iyo. moaxloebuli omis Sesaxeb Txroba droebis momdevno nomrebSic gagrZelda. imave wlis meore nomerSi, romelic 1877 wlis 5 ianvars daibeWda, „droebis“ redaqtori sergei mesxi werda:

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sergei mesxs namdvilad hqonda pesimizmis safuZveli. jer erTi, imitom, rom osmaleTi jiutobda da meore – stambolis konferencia bolosken midioda ukve, mxareebs Soris morigebis gareSe ki omi gardauvali iqneboda. „droebis“ redaqtoris es statia sagulisxmo saTauriT gamoqveynda. gazeTis pirvel gverdze statiis saTaurad ewera: „saqarTvelo – omianobis molodini“. cxadi iyo, rom Tu ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris omi daiwyeboda, saqarTvelo da misi istoriuli teritoriebi am omis frontis nawili gaxdeboda. marTalia, davis didi nawili balkaneTze modioda, Tumca isic yvelam kargad icoda, rom ruseTs didi xania baTumze eWira Tvali da baTumis mimarT arc evropuli qveynebi iyvnen gulgrili. rogorc ar unda yofiliyo, ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris omis SemTxvevaSi, dRis wesrigSi kvlav dadgeboda saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriebis gadanawilebis sakiTxi.


moaxloebuli omis `droeba~

moaxloebuli omis fonze, „droebam“ Tadarigi adridanve daiWra da 1877 wlis 9 ianvars mkiTxvels auwya, rom evropaSi arsebuli daZabuli mdgomareobis gamo redaqcia „xalxTa-Soris telegrafis agentebis“ Tbilisel agents mourigda da amieridan mkiTxvels yovel nomerSi ori-sami uaxlesi depeSis xilva SeeZlo. garda amisa, redaqcia yovel Rones xmarobda saimisod, rom xelmomwerebs gazeTi fostis saSualebiT swrafad mieRoT. oRond yvelaferi redaqciaze ar iyo damokidebuli, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom kaxeTsa da ozurgeTSi fosta kviraSi mxolod orjer midioda, xolo zugdidSi – kviraSi erTxel, Tavs zemoT Zala ar iyo da fostis ganrigs unda mihyolodnen. samagierod, quTaisSi da foTi-Tbilisis matareblis yvela gaCerebaze gazeTi gamocemis dResve gaigzavneboda. gazeTis momdevno nomrebSi damaimedebeli araferi dabeWdila. 1877 wlis 12 ianvars gazeTi ityobineboda, rom konstantinopolis konferenciidan araferi gamovida, rom konferencia daiSala da yvelaferi ori dapirispirebuli qveynis – ruseTis da osmaleTis xelSi iyo. Tumca, realobis nawili iyo isic, rom konstantinopolis konferenciis dasrulebis Semdeg avstria-ungreTis, ruseTis da prusiis diplomatebi erTi xanoba stambolSi darCnen da cdilobdnen, osmaleTis sulTani rogorme daeTanxmebinaT balkaneTSi reformebis gatarebaze. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom inglisis mxardaWeriT gadidgulebulma sulTanma reformebze uari Tqva, krizisi morig fazaSi gadavida. omamde mcire xniT adre, 1877 wlis 19 marts, didma evropulma saxelmwifoebma londonis protokols moaweres xeli, rasac Tan ruseTis deklaracia daerTo. dokumentSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom im SemTxvevaSi, stambolis konferenciis monawile qveynebis – Tu osmaleTi balkaneTSi oms Sewyvetda da inglisis, avstria-ungreTis, ruseTis, safrangereformebis gatarebas daiwyebda, ruseTi Tis, italiis da prusiis – warmomadgenlebi. osmaleTTan molaparakebebis process ganaaxlebda, romlis mizanic osmaleTis samxedro Zalis da ajanyebulTa samxedro armiis ganiaraReba iqneboda. osmaleTma londonis protokoliT gaTvaliswinebuli SeTavazeba maleve uaryo. sulTanma, sanacvlod, armiaSi 120,000 rezervisti gaiwvia. amas isic daemata, rom osmaleTma samxedro eskadra marmarilos zRvidan bosforis sruteSi Seiyvana. omi ukve erTi xelis gawvdenaze iyo. baTumis panoramuli xedi, gamoqveynebulia 1877 wlis maisSi msoflios uZveles ilustrirebul JurnalSi The Illustrated London News

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saqarTvelo osmaleTis mier londonis oqmis uaryofas maleve gamoexmaura „droeba“. amjerad – niko nikolaZis statiiT „saqarTvelo – omi Tu iqna...“ cxadia, ZiriTadi interesi omis SemTxvevaSi frontis aRmosavleT, anu kavkasiis nawils, exeboda da msjeloba omis SesaZlo ganviTarebis yvela scenars moicavda. maT Soris, omis swrafad dasrulebas, gaWianurebasa Tu dazavebas. garda amisa, didi sja-baasi iyo, Tu ruseT-osmaleTis omSi didi evropuli saxelmwifoebi, inglisi, prusia, avstria-ungreTi, safrangeTi da italia, vis mxares daiWerdnen. naTeli iyo, rom omis SemTxvevaSi, gansxvavebiT balkaneTisgan, aRmosavleTSi is uSualod gaivlida saqarTveloze, yvelaze adre ki – mis samxreT-dasavleT nawilze. omis oficialurad dawyebamde ori dRiT adre „droebaSi“ saintereso feletoni gamoqveynda, saxelwodebiT, „qarTvelebi osmaleTSi“. werili baTumSi iyo dawerili da 30 martiT TariRdeboda, magram gazeTSi 10 aprils gamoqveynda da mkiTxvels osmaleTis mmarTvelobis qveS myofi qarTvelebis Sesaxeb mouTxrobda. feletoni ramdenime nawilisgan Sedgeboda, saidanac pirveli nawili iqauri qarTvelebis mexsierebasa da istoriul samSoblosTan kavSirebze uambobda mkiTxvels; Semdegi nawili sarwmunoebis sakiTxze msjelobas eTmoboda; kidev erTi nawili – Cacmulobas da adgilobrivi qarTvelebis adaT-wesebs. calke iyo gamoyofili enasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxi, aseve – stumarTmoyvareobasTan dakavSirebuli Taviseburebebi. msjelobdnen qalis rolsa da sisxlis aRebis tradiciaze. Tumca, mTavari ambavi mainc sxva iyo. feletonis boloSi avtori pavle mWedliSvili baTumidan „droebis“ redaqcias swerda:

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niko nikolaZe (1843-1928 ww.) – qarTveli publicisti, kritikosi, politikuri da sazogado moRvawe, samocianelTa Taobis gamorCeuli warmomadgeneli. ilia WavWavaZis erT-erTi uaxloesi TanamebrZoli.

„droebis“ baTumeli korespondentis, pavle mWedliSvilis SiSi imaze adre gamarTlda, vidre misi werili gazeTSi daibeWdeboda. 1877 wlis 8 aprils Tbilisis fostam „droebis“ is nomrebi ar miiRo, romlebic foTidan gemis saSualebiT baTumSi unda CaetanaT. mizezi martivi iyo – moaxloebuli omis win foTsa da baTums Soris gemebi aRar dacuravdnen. 1877 wlis 13 aprils, oTxSabaTs, „droebis“ morigi nomeri gamovida. gazeTis pirvelive gverdze, marcxena zeda kuTxeSi, muqi msxvili SriftiT omis oficialurad dawyebis Sesaxeb cnoba gamoqveynda. teqsti gazeT „kavkazis“ mier wina dRiT, saRamos 6 saaTze, xelmomwerebisaTvis darigebul telegramas imeorebda da Semdegi Sinaarsisa iyo:


moaxloebuli omis `droeba~

imave dRes Tbilisis sionis taZarSi omis gamocxadebasTan dakavSirebiT paraklisi gadaixades da taZarSi Sekrebil sazogadoebas omis dawyebis Sesaxeb auwyes. 12 aprilsve gamoica kavkasiis mefisnacvlis da kavkasiis korpusis mTavarsardlis mixeil romanovis brZaneba. 1877 wlis 13 aprilis „droebis“ nomerSi vrceli statia daibeWda, saTauriT, „ucxo qveynebi – omis molodinis ambavi“. mimoxilva eTmoboda gamwvavebul mdgomareobas da omis dawyebis winapirobas. im omis, romlis acilebac arafris didebiT ar moxerxda. gazeT „droebis“ momdevno nomeri ori dRis Semdeg gamovida. mkiTxveli iolad SeamCnevda siaxles – gazeTSi gamoCnda axali rubrika „telegramebi – brZolis velidam“. redaqcia ki iuwyeboda:

1877 wlis 15 aprili iyo, Tbiliselebi da ara marto isini „droebis“ furclebze ecnobodnen depeSebs stambolidan, parizidan da peterburgidan. kiTxulobdnen vrcel statias avstriis Sesaxeb da gazeTis redaqtoris, sergei mesxis, sagulisxmo mosazrebas omis gamocxadebasTan dakavSirebiT. omi sul axali dawyebuli iyo da, cxadia, omis dasrulebaze jer aravin laparakobda. samagierod, „droebis“ redaqcia kviraSi samjer – oTxSabaTs, paraskevs da kviras, erT Saurad hpirdeboda axal ambebs yvelas, visac „brZolis velidam“ – omi da omis Tanmdevi ambebi ainteresebda.

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literatura

umberto eko levan berZeniSvili umberto eko iyo Cveni drois erT-erTi yvelaze didi evropeli, italieli inteleqtuali, mecnieri, filosofosi, semiotikisa da Sua saukuneebis esTetikis specialisti, kulturis Teoretikosi, literaturuli kritikosi, mwerali, telemimomxilveli da publicisti. aseTi gasaocari mravalmxrivobis gamo mas xSirad leonardo da vinCisac ki adarebdnen, rasac Tavad mwerali gasaocrad daxvewili TviTironiiT pasuxobda xolme. umberto eko turinis maxloblad, piemontis patara qalaq alesandriaSi daibada 1932 wlis 5 ianvars. mamamisi, julio eko, mravalSviliani ojaxis wevri iyo, Tormeti dedmamiSvili hyavda. jer buRaltrad muSaobda, Semdeg ki sam omSi mouxda monawileobis miReba. meore msoflio omis dros umbertom da dedamisma (qaliSvilobis gvari – bizio) Tavi piemontis mTebSi, patara sofels Seafares. ekos babua napovara, migdebuli bavSvi iyo, romelsac maSin italiaSi damkvidrebuli praqtikis Tanaxmad, mieniWa gvari-abreviatura ECO – Ex Caelis Oblatus – „zecidan motanili“, „zecis naCuqari“. umbertos SemTxvevaSi misi gvari namdvili metafora gaxda – zecas iSviaTad gaucia aseTi guluxvi saCuqari. ekos mSoblebi ubralo xalxi iyo. isini, albaT, verasodes warmoidgendnen, rom umbertos saxiT msoflio mniSvnelobis adamiani ezrdebodaT. ojaxi ukiduresad Raribi iyo, bavSvs ki wignebi Zalian izidavda. amitom patara umbertos xSirad xedavdnen wignis maRaziebSi, sadac igi saaTobiT kiTxulobda wignebs. mepatroneebi agdebdnen xolme da isic sxva maRaziaSi gadainacvlebda.

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umberto eko

bavSvobaSi ekom e.w. salesiuri ganaTleba miiRo. salesiuri ordeni, an salesiuri sazogadoeba, romlebic Raribi biWebis ganaTlebaze zrunavda, iyo italieli mRvdelmTavris, ioane boskos mier XIX saukunis bolos daarsebuli kaTolikuri, religiuri institucia. es organizacia da misi damfuZnebeli SemdgomSi ekos araerTxel mouxseniebia Tavis naSromebSi. organizacias saxeli mieniWa Jenevis episkoposis – fransis de salesis pativsacemad. aTi wlis umbertom moswavleTa olimpiadaSi gaimarjva naSromiT `ratom unda gavwiroT Tavi musolinis da italiis maradiuli didebisaTvis~. SemdgomSi mTeli cxovreba ar asvenebda amis mogoneba, xSirad ubrundeboda mas, awuxebda es.

ze, romelic Toma akvinelis esTetikas exeboda. wigni agrZelebda ekos sabakalavro naSroms da man gza gauxsna axalgazrda mecniers pedagogiuri saqmianobisken – igi leqciebs kiTxulobda Tavis alma materSi – turinis universitetSi 1956-1964 wlebSi. 1962 wels eko daojaxda, man colad moiyvana xelovnebis germaneli maswavlebeli renate ramge, romelTanac qal-vaJi SeeZina. am dros cxovrobda xan milanis saxlSi, xan urbinos agarakze. saxlSi ocdaaTaTasiani biblioTeka hqonda da agarakze – ociaTa-

ekos mamas, julios, namdvili italiuri ocneba hqonda: undoda, Svili iuristi gamosuliyo, magram am ocnebas axdena ar ewera – umberto turinis universitetSi Sevida, rom Sua saukuneebis filosofia da literatura Seeswavla. es universiteti umberto ekom 1954 wels filosofiis bakalavris xarisxiT daamTavra. ukve studentobisas ekom Tavi aTeistad gamoacxada da datova kaTolikuri eklesia. amis Semdeg man italiis saxelmwifo televiziis (RAI) kulturul redaqtorad daiwyo muSaoba. televiziaSi Camoyalibebulma „jgufma 63“, romelSic Sediodnen avangardulad ganwyobili msaxiobebi, mxatvrebi, musikosebi da mwerlebi, mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina ekoze, rac aisaxa 1956 wels gamocemul mis pirvel wign-

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literatura umberto eko jgufi 63-is wevrebTan erTad

jgufi 63 (ital. Gruppo 63) – 1960-iani wlebis neoavangarduli italiuri literaturuli moZraoba. Camoayalibes italielma inteleqtualebma, romlebsac saerTo survili amoZravebdaT – radikaluri gardatexa SeetanaT tradiciuli italiuri sazogadoebis konformizmSi.

უმბერტო ეკო

შუა საუკუნეების ესთეტიკის ევოლუცია

siani. ramdenjerme iyo miwveuli profesori kolumbiis universitetSi 1980-1990-ian wlebSi. igi TanamSromlobda msoflios wamyvan universitetebTan, maT Soris, harvardis, ielis, indianis, san-diegos universitetebTan; iyo mravali universitetis sapatio doqtori (maT Soris, parizi III-is, aTenis, tartus, belgradis, moskovis, ierusalimis da a.S.). 1971 wels samecniero vizitiT ewvia saqarTvelosac. italiis universitetebsa da sxvadasxva dawesebulebaSi Catarebuli seminarebisa da leqciebis garda umberto eko gamosula avstriaSi, belgiaSi, bulgareTSi, germaniaSi, did britaneTSi, portugaliaSi, ruseTSi, safrangeTSi, ungreTSi, SvedeTSi, SveicariaSi, CexoslovakiaSi, holandiaSi, SeerTebul StatebSi, argentinaSi, braziliaSi, venesuelaSi, tunisSi, iaponiaSi, avstraliaSi; kongresis biblioTekaSi, ssrk mweralTa kavSirSi, safrangeTis akademiaSi. yvelgan sasurveli stumari iyo, yvelgan aRfrTovanebiT xvdebodnen, yvelas aocebda misi usazRvro erudicia, cocxali urTierToba, gansakuTrebuli iumori da dauokebeli fantazia. mas gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba hqonda safrangeTTan. frangebic imave siyvaruliT pasuxobdnen: iyo safrangeTis sapatio legionis ordenis kavaleri (2003). didi xnis ganmavlobaSi swavlobda eko Sua saukuneebis filosofiaSi gaJRerebul „mSvenieris ideas“. Tavisi azrebi am sakiTxze warmoadgina 1959 wels gamocemul naSromSi „Sua saukuneebis esTetikis evolucia“. sami wlis Semdeg gamovida axali naSromi – „Ria nawarmoebi“. masSi eko gviyveba, rom zogierTi nawarmoebi avtorebma ganzrax ar daasrules da, Sesabamisad, axla mkiTxvels maTi

umberto eko da renate ramge

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umberto eko

უმბერტო ეკო

რდის სახელი

sxvadasxvagvarad interpretacia SeuZlia. eko aseve dainteresebuli iyo kulturiT. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi swavlobda sxvadasxva formas, „maRali“ kulturidan dawyebuli da masobrivi kulturiT damTavrebuli.

davyavarT. ambavi, kacma rom Tqvas, swored antikurobaSi daiwyo da daiwyo igi antikurobis yvelaze „didma Tavma“ (ase moixseniebda mas karl marqsi) – aristotelem. Tavis droze erTiani berZnuli codna, romelSic erTad iyo mocemuli poezia da mecniereba, aristotelem, analizis fuZemdebelma, dayo dargebad: poeziad, istoriad, maTematikad, fizikad, qimiad. mokled, is iyo antikurobis mecnierebaTa akademia, romelic erT mecniers, aristoteles, moicavda. bevri ram dawera, magram am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania, rom man dawera fuZemdebluri filologiuri naSromi „poetika“. poetikaSi ori ZiriTadi nawili iyo, poeziis seriozuli nawili mecnierma tragediis analiziT aRwera, xolo araseriozuli nawili komediis. am meore nawilma Cvenamde ver moaRwia. esaa simarTle yvelasTvis. yvelasTvis, visac „vardis saxeli“ ar waukiTxavs. saqme isaa, rom „vardis saxels“, rogorc bevr karg romans, rogorc musikalur nawarmoebs, saidumlo gasaRebi aqvs; aris violinos gasaRebi, aris banis gasaRebi da aris am romanis gasaRebi. esaa komedia, ufro sworad, aristoteles „poetikis“ meore, dakarguli, komediuri nawili.

romanebis mwerali umberto eko sakmaod gvian gaxda, 42 wlisa iyo maSin. pirvel romans „vardis saxeli“ uwoda. am filosofiur-deteqtiurma romanma misi cxovreba amoayirava – mwerali mTelma msofliom gaicno. romanis mTeli moqmedeba Sua saukuneebis monasterSi xdeba. Cven, qarTvelebs, Zalian gagvimarTla, iseve, rogorc gaumarTla Tavad umberto ekosac – mas ubrwyinvalesi qarTveli mTargmneli hyavs xaTuna cxadaZis saxiT. amitom Cvenc Zalian kargad vicnobT am romans. esaa monumenturi wigni, romelic eyrdnoba did erudicias, aseTive sididis fantazias, romelic aris erTdroulad filosofiuri romani, sasiyvarulo romani, garTulebuli deteqtivi, istoriuli romani, ironiuli romani saintereso siuJetiT, gasaocari personaJebiT, postmodernistuli ileTebiT, gamWvirvale da gaumWvirvale aluziebiT, faruli da Ria miniSnebebiT. wignSi moqmedeba Sua saukuneebSi xdeba, magram mas kidev ufro Soreul droSi – antikurobaSi ga-

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literatura Tu umberto ekos davujerebT, aristoteles „poetika“ gadarCenila srulad, anu misi meore nawilic ar danTqmula istoriis okeaneSi, gadarCenila, magram viRacebs daudgeniaT, rom igi saidumlod unda iqnes Senaxuli. ratom? Sua saukuneebma aristotele mTlianad miiTvises, qristianobam es antikuri geniosi gaiTavisa. maT moeCvenaT, Tu igi komediaze ilaparakebda, es imis niSani iqneboda, rom qristes xumroba SeeZlo. es ki, saidumlo berebis azriT, sruliad dauSvebelia. macxovari da xumroba erTad warmoudgeneli iyo maTTvis. amitom, vinc ki am saguldagulod gadamalul wignsa da am saidumlos miuaxlovdeboda, yvela mokvdeboda.

Dulce

et Utile

umberto eko, rogorc avtori, SeqspiriviT guluxvi aRmoCnda da erTi msxverpliT ar dakmahoraciusi yofilda. rogorc vTqviT, „vardis saxeli“, yvela(Zv.w 65-8) ferTan erTad, deteqtivicaa da mas Tavisi gonebamaxvili gamomZiebelic hyavs. aq ekos gonebamaxvilobasa da ironias sazRvari ar aqvs. gamomZiebeli, ra Tqma unda, ingliselia da mas uiliami hqvia. yvela iluzia rom gaifantos, isic vTqvaT, rom am uiliams gvaric an zedwodebac aqvs da misi sruli saxelia uiliam baskervileli. Sua saukuneebSi, rodesac wakiTxuli ar hqondaT artur konan doilis Sedevris, ukvdav Serlok holmsze Seqmnili sagis erT-erTi mTavari nawarmoebi, „baskervilebis ZaRli“, aravis gaakvirvebda ingliseli monazoni uiliam baskervilelis saxeliT; samagierod, XX da XXI saukunis mkiTxveli xvdeba, rogor Sua saukuneebTan aqvs saqme, rodesac umberto ekos wigns kiTxulobs. kaTolikuri eklesiis ordenebis istoria, berobis istoria, Sua saukuneebis italiuri cxovrebis silamaze, Tanamedrove azrovneba, yvelaferi es erTad qmnis uzarmazar codnas, romelic saCuqrad miaqvs mkiTxvels. umberto ekos erT-erT winapars, did romael poets, horaciuss aqvs formula dulce et utile – „tkbili da sasargeblo“, rac mxatvrul nawarmoebSi saxalisosa da SemecnebiTis sinTezs gulisxmobs. swored am formulis idealuri ganxorcielebaa umberto ekos es wigni. sxvaTa Soris, „vardis saxelSi“

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umberto eko

fukos qanqara umberto eko

naxsenebia Tbilisi da TbilisSi 1934 wels gamocemuli saWadrako Teoriisadmi miZRvnili wigni, oRond es wigni ar unda eZeboT, radgan igi ar arsebobs da mTlianad ekos fantaziis nayofia. Tavisi siyvaruli Cveni dedaqalaqisadmi ekom am bavSvuri oiniT gagvimJRavna. sami wlis Semdeg umbertom gamosca mcire wigni – „SeniSvnebi `vardis saxelis~ arSiebze“. es pirveli romanis Taviseburi „kulisebia“. am nawarmoebSi avtori bevrs msjelobs mkiTxvelis, avtorisa da Tavad wignis urTierTobebze. xuTi weli dasWirda umberto ekos, rom kidev erTi romani daewera – „fukos qanqara“. mkiTxveli am wigns 1988 wels gaecno. bevrma es wigni fantastikis Janris wignad aRiqva, Tumca amas mwerali ar daeTanxma da Tqva: „bevrs hgonia, rom me fantastikuri romani davwere, magram isini Rrmad cdebian, romani absoluturad realisturia“. es yvelanairad didi da Tanamedrove wignia rogorc moculobis, ise mniSvnelobis mixedviT. „fukos qanqara“ erT-erTi bestseleria mTel msoflioSi, maT Soris, saqarTveloSic. am wignSi moqmedebis kvanZi ikvreba samocdaaTian wlebSi, rodesac italiaSi axalgazrdoba gamoRviZebulia da monawileobs mRelvare revoluciur procesSi. aris italieli ymawvili kaci, vinme kazoboni, romelic sxvebTan erTad CaerTo am revoluciaSi, Tumca arc mTlad revoluciuri mecnierebis – filologiis – warmomadgeneli da

Sua saukuneebis specialistia. igi ikvlevs erT metad saintereso sakiTxs – tamplierebis ambebs, rac CvenTvisac, qarTvelebisTvisac, ar aris ucxo, Tu didgoris omSi jvarosnebis savaraudo monawileobas gaviTvaliswinebT. tamplierebi meomari monazvnebis ordeni iyo, romlis warmomadgenlebsac anafora ecvaT, xelSi xmali eWiraT da gmirulad ibrZodnen qristes saxeliT misi saflavis dasabruneblad da ierusalimis „uwmindurTagan“ gasaTavisufleblad. tamplierebis ordeni imdenad gaZlierda, rom safrangeTis mefe filipe lamazi iZulebuli gaxda, maT winaaRmdeg ebrZola romis papTan erTad. Seiqmna legenda, rom gadarCenilma tamplierebma maTi ordenis ganadgurebisa da tamplierTa meTaurisTvis, didi magistrosis, Jak de molisTvis, Tavis mokveTis gamo fici dades, rom erT mSvenier dRes Surs iZiebdnen. tamplieri raindi

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literatura 1994 wels umberto ekom gamosca kidev erTi romani, romelSic aRwerilia movlenebi, rac aRZravs mkiTxvelis TanagrZnobas, siamayes da sxva Rrma grZnobebs. „kunZuli wina dRes“ mogviTxrobs axalgazrda kacze, romelic daxetialobs safrangeTsa da italiaSi da mogzaurobs samxreTis zRvebze. moqmedeba XVII saukuneSi xdeba. wignSi erTmaneTs gadaeWdo adamianis xvedri, istoria da filosofia. amave gasaRebiTaa dawerili saTavgadasavlo romani „baudolinoc“, romelic wignis maRaziebSi 2000 wels gamoCnda. masSi fridrix barbarosas naSvilevis mogzaurobebia aRwerili. gasaocaria umberto ekos romani „dedofal loanas saidumlo ali“. misma gmirma ubeduri SemTxvevis Sedegad mexsiereba dakarga. oRond es ucnauri dakargvaa: personaJs ar axsovs megobrebi, axloblebi da naTesavebi, magram axsovs wakiTxuli wignebi. es romani, faqtobrivad, ekos, rogorc mkiTxvelis, biografiaa. umberto eko Seucnoblis Secnobas cdilobda, amitom Tavis SromebSi xSirad eZebda pasuxs kiTxvaze, Tu ra aris silamaze. yoveli epoqa, ekos azriT, poulobda am amocanis axal da axal amoxsnas. sainteresoa, rom drois erTsa da imave monakveTSi Tanaarsebobda urTierTsawinaaRmdego koncefciebi. xandaxan poziciebs Soris konfliqtic xdeboda. Tavis azrebs am rTul sakiTxze ekom Tavi mouyara 2004 wels gamocemul wignSi „silamazis istoria“. eko ar SeCerda cxovrebis mxolod mSvenier mxareze. filosofosma mimarTa mis usiamo, maxinj mxaresac. mwerali Seipyro axali wignis ideam, romelsac man „simaxinjis istoria“ uwoda. ekom aRiara, rom silamazeze weren da masze msjeloben bevrs da xSirad, xolo simaxinjeze – ara, amitom kvlevis dros mweralma uamravi saintereso da saxaliso aRmoCena gaakeTa. arsebiTi aq is gaxlavT, rom umberto ekos silamaze da simaxinje erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego cnebebad, antipodebad ar miaCnda. eko acxadebda, rom es momijnave cnebebia, romelTa arsis gageba SeuZlebelia erTmaneTis gareSe. mecnierma daadgina, rom postmodernizmSi sazRvari silamazesa da simaxinjes Soris arsebiTad waSlilia. eko aqtiurad aviTarebda am Temas. mwerlisa da mecnieris Seswavlis arealSi moxvda komiqsebi, multfilmebi, simRerebi, Tanamedrove kinofil-

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mebi, Tqven warmoidgineT, jeims bondze dawerili romanebi da kinofilmebic ki. ekos erT-erTi bolo didi romani iyo „praRis sasaflao“. am romanSi humanisti mwerali Seexo kacobriobis istoriis erTerT yvelaze rTul da skandalur sakiTxs, e.w. „mTavar sakiTxs“ – „ebrauli SeTqmulebis“ sakiTxs, romlisgan faSizmi da holokosti daibada. didxans Cndeboda idea imis Sesaxeb, rom samyaros ar marTaven Cveulebrivi adamianebi. ase daibada yalbi wigni „ierusalimel brZenTa oqmebi“, romelSic TiTqosda ebraelebi „gulwrfelad“ yvebian, rogor marTaven isini msoflios. calkeul adamianebSi arsebobs rwmena, rom es namdvili wignia, romelic ruseTis agenturas xelSi Cauvarda. bevrs sjera misi istoriuli realobisa. Tavis droze SveicariaSi sasamarTlom daadgina, rom es wigni yalbia. dRes es yvelam icis. ai, am ambavs Caujda umberto eko. yvelaferi namdvilia ekos am romanSi, erTi kacis garda, es aris mTxrobeli – simone simonini. umberto ekos undoda Seeqmna msoflio literaturaSi yvelaze sazizRari personaJi. am sazizRrobis erT-erTi mTavari niSania, rom SemdgomSi milionobiT ebraelis bedis gadamwyveti profesiuli gamyalbebeli simone simonini antisemitic, ebraelebis moZulec ki ar yofila. diax, ekos romanSi ebraelebis amoxocvis mTavar ideologs ebraelebi ar sZulda, is, ubralod,


umberto eko

პრაღის სასაფლაო

უმბერტო

ეკო

profesiulad asrulebda Tavis amocanas. umberto ekom amxila istoriis gamyalbeblebi da igi gamoesarCla umowyalod gawirul milionebs. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom „praRis sasaflao“ Cveni saukunis humanizmis mTavari wignia. ekos uyvarda saqarTvelo da misi kultura. igi xSirad axsenebda Tbiliss. erTxel, rodesac amerikelebis sayvarel terminebs daunTaunsa da apTauns ganmartavda, rac centrsa da gareubans aRniSnavs, Tumca sityva-sityviT qveda da zeda qalaqs niSnavs, ekom Tqva evropelebi Tbilisis msgavs aRmarT-daRmarTian qalaqs warmoidgenen, Tumca amerikelebs mTagoriani qalaqebi ar aqvTo. ra Tqma unda, ekos SeeZlo romelime italiuri qalaqi moeyvana mTagoriani qalaqis magaliTad, Tundac neapoli an bazeli, magram man Tbilisi daasaxela. umberto ekos, rogorc Sua saukuneebis saukeTeso specialists, gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba hqonda rusTavelis mimarT. did inteleqtuals guli swydeboda – evropaSi erTi procentic ar icnobs rusTavels da imaSic ver erkvevian, vefxvis tyaviT iyo Semosili tarieli Tu leopardiso. rodesac umberto eko 2016 wlis 19 Tebervals milanSi, sakuTar saxlSi, gardaicvala, igi daaklda ara mxolod mSobliur italias, aramed mTel msoflios. misi wasvla gansakuTrebiT mZime iyo saqarTvelosTvisac.

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buneba

gisosebs miRma

levan buTxuzi

patara gorila mSvidad Camoxta dedis kisridan da iqve goliaTiviT wamowolil mamas gavaze Seacocda. mamam yurTan mouRitina da Zili ganagrZo. me da Cemi megobrebi sulganabuli vucqerT am sanaxaobas. ambavi ugandaSi, erT-erTi erovnuli parkis junglebSi xdeba. sul ramdenime metrSi vdgavarT gorilebis sakmaod mozrdili ojaxisgan da Tvalebs ar vujerebT. sanam CavidodiT, samedicino cnobebi vagroveT. erovnuli parkis administracia unda darwmunebuliyo, rom arc gripi gvqonda, arc tuberkulozi da arc sxva daavadeba, romelic haerwveTovani gziT gadadis. xumroba saqme xom araa, sul TiTze CamosaTvleli gorila darCa bunebas da isRa akldaT, rom Cvennair momxdurebs rame virusi an baqteria mietanaT. is ki ara, gorilebis am populacias, arc meti, arc naklebi, „kalaSnikovebiT“ SeiaraRebuli reinjerebi icaven. marto baqteria araa maTi mteri – junglebis gakafva da brakonierebi damatebiT safrTxes qmnian da maT sruli gaqrobiT emuqrebian. gancda marTlac dauviwyari iyo. es sruliad gasaocari cxovelebi Cven Tvalwin, ramdenime metrSi iyvnen da arc ki gvaqcevdnen yuradRebas. mkvlevris samoTxe! – gavifiqre da iqve gamaxsenda is saxeobebi, romlebsac ase ar gaumarTlaT – an sruliad gadaSendnen, an velur garemoSi veRar arian. XX saukunis Sua xanebSi didi panda ganwirul saxeobad gamocxadda. veRarafriT xerxdeboda maTi bunebaSi dacva da kacobrioba faqtobrivad daemSvidoba am saocar cxovelebs. da ai, swored aq imarjves zooparkebma. maT rom veluri bunebis konservaciis programa ar hqonodaT, es saxeoba ubralod aRar iarsebebda. da es xatovani gamoTqma ar aris – marTla aRar iarsebebda! CineTidan gamoTxovilma bolo individebma jer CineTis gareT, zooparkebSi, Seqmnes sicocx-

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gisosebs miRma

lisunariani populacia da Semdeg ukve CineTis zooparkebmac daiwyes maTi gamravleba. paralelurad, CineTis mTavrobam TiTqmis amoZirkva brakonieroba (ramac cxoveli am ukidures mdgomareobamde miiyvana) pandas bunebriv adgilsamyofelSi da sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciis daxmarebiT msoflio saganmanaTleblo da aRdgeniTi RonisZiebebi danerga. axla pandebs ukve aRar emuqrebaT gadaSenebis safrTxe, Tumca dRemde mainc erT-erT uiSviaTes saxeobas ganekuTvnebian. mTavaria, rom saxeoba didi panda gadarCa! yvelam icis, ramdeni fuli da Zalisxmeva ixarjeba iSviaTi saxeobebis dacvasa da aRdgenaze msoflios masStabiT. samwuxarod, arsebobs saxeobebi, romlebic sul TiTze CamosaTvleli darCa bunebriv garemoSi da bunebaSi maTi dacviTi RonisZiebebi ukve aRaraa efeqturi. XX saukunis SuaSi ukve yvelam gaacnobiera, rom bevri saxeoba ganwirulia da maT veRaraferi gadaarCens. swored aq gamoCnda gamarTuli zooparkebis umniSvnelovanesi roli. zooparkebis msoflio qseli aRmoCnda erTaderTi struqtura, romelmac am saxeobebis genofondi Seinaxa, rogorc sakuWnaoSi. swored XX saukunis Sua periodidan iwyeba zooparkebis, rogorc gasarTobi centrebis funqciis meore planze gadaweva da win modis maTi umTavresi funqcia – konservacia, anu valdebuleba gadaarCinon planetis uiSviaTesi saxeobebi. sxva uamrav iSviaT da mniSvnelovan saxeobaze, iqneba es Tevzebis, amfibiebis, qvewarmavlebisa Tu frinvelebis, ar gavamaxvileb yuradRebas. arc ZuZumwovari saxeobebis tragikuli bediT SegawyenT Tavs. mxolod ramdenimes davasaxeleb, romlebic dRes iseTive saSinel dReSi arian, rogorSic odesRac panda iyo da maTi gadarCena praqtikulad mxolod zooparkebs SeuZliaT; esenia: amuruli (Soreuli aRmosavleTis) leopardi, sumatruli spilo, iavuri martorqa, usuriis vefxvi, farTecxvira lemuri, sumatruli orangutangi Tu Savi martorqa. siis gagrZeleba SeiZleba, magram es is ZuZumwovrebia, romelTa individebi bunebaSi ukve „TiTze CamosaTvleli~ darCnen da, faqtobrivad, ganwiruli arian. maTi bedi didwilad zooparkebis xelSia!

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buneba kiTxva, unda iarsebos Tu ara zooparkma, yovelTvis daismoda. sazogadoeba am SemTxvevaSi sam nawiladaa gayofili: zooparkis arsebobis momxreebi, mowinaaRmdegeebi da isini, visac Camoyalibebuli pozicia ar aqvT. Tumca, sakiTxi imdenad specifikuria, rom Znelia gamarTuli mosazreba gqondes. bunebrivia, ar unda iarsebos samxecem, romelic Tavis Tavs zooparks uwodebs. aseTebi, samwuxarod, ufro ganviTarebad qveynebSi gvxvdeba. SevTanxmdeT, rom CvenTvis zooparki da samxece, sadac cxoveli gausaZlis pirobebSia, sxvadasxva ramaa da axla Cven samxeceebs ar mimovixilavT. samxeceebi ar unda arsebobdes da morCa! aseve mwams, rom ar unda iarsebos cirkma, sadac cxovelebi hyavT. maTi Senaxvis da wvrTnis pirobebi Tamamad SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc sadizmi. zooparks vuwodeb im dawesebulebas, romelsac aqvs gamarTuli infrastruqtura, romelic akmayofilebs civilizebuli samyaros mier dadgenil Zalian konkretul wesebs: zooparks unda hqondes jansaRi sakvebis normebi TiToeuli saxeobisTvis, zooparks unda hqondes sakvebis miwodebis gamarTuli sistema, zooparks unda hqondes TiToeuli saxeobisTvis da individTa raodenobisTvis saWiro specifikuri volierebi, romelTa farTobi swored am saxeobis sumatruli spilo

amuruli leopardi

cxovelzea morgebuli da misi niris Sesabamisadaa gamdidrebuli sxvadasxva sagniT (anu axloa bunebriv pirobebTan), rom cxovelma ar moiwyinos, ar daavaddes da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, normalurad gamravldes. cnobisaTvis, saqmeSi Cauxedav mkiTxvels SesaZloa moeCvenos, rom, magaliTad, loms sWirdeba uzarmazari volieri, xolo mgels, zomiT gacilebiT mcires – ufro mcire. es ar aris marTali da aq sworedac rom saxeobis cxovrebis niria gasaTvaliswinebeli. lomi bunebaSi dRe-Ramis did nawils ZilSi atarebs da sakmaod „zantia~, rodesac mgeli praqtikulad sul moZraobs. amitom lomi SedarebiT momcro volierSic „kmayofilia~, xolo mgels, piriqiT, didi sivrce sWirdeba. kvebisas ki saWiroa yvela mtacebelma sakvebi moiZios (nadirobis imitacia). amisTvis zooparkma unda uzrunvelyos xorcis (Tu mtaceblebzea saubari) damalviT an sxva dabrkolebebiT miwodeba. iaguarebsa da leopardebs, magaliTad, xorcs iavuri martorqa

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gisosebs miRma

usuriis vefxvi

Werze ukideben xolme. ase vTqvaT, saqmes urTuleben, rom cxovelma „iwvalos~, ixtunos, „Tavs daesxas” xorcis naWers da bunebrivi moTxovna daikmayofilos. maimunebs sakvebs umalaven da iaraRebs aZleven, rom sakvebis mopoveba maqsimalurad iyos daaxloebuli bunebriv pirobebTan. Zalian mniSvnelovania TamaSi (zrdasrulTaTvisac ki). amisTvis gamoiyeneba bevri usafrTxo sagani, saburavebi da morebi – katisebrTaTvis (saTrevad da samalavad), erTmaneTze „TavdasxmisTvis~, rac nadirobis imitaciaa. katebs aseTi TamaSi Zalian uyvarT. maimunebisTvis, cxadia, gabmuli Tokebia mniSvnelovani, daTvebisTvis – kunZebi Tu auzebi da ase Semdeg. da mainc, udavod arsebobs Zlieri argumenti imisa, Tu ratom ar unda iarsebos zooparkebma. es mosazreba humanur sawyisebs efuZneba. am mosazrebis mxardamWeri adamianebi fiqroben, rom arabunebriv, „tyve“ garemoSi nebismieri cxovelis yola gaumarTlebelia. argumenti savsebiT gasagebia. tyveoba cudia da amas arc erTi cxoveli ar imsaxurebs! Savi martorqa

sumatruli orangutangi

amas emateba ekonomikuri argumentic – msoflioSi ar arsebobs srulfasovani didi zooparki, romelic momgebiani iqneba an Tundac Tavis Tavs Seinaxavs. maS, ratom unda xarjos saxelmwifom Tu qalaqma gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa jibidan regularulad amoRebuli uzarmazari Tanxebi zooparkis aSenebasa da Senaxvaze? iSviaTi saxeobebis Senaxva Zalian Zviri siamovnebaa. verc erTi gamarTuli zooparki ver aris momgebiani da tradiciulad, qalaqebis biujetebs awevs. zooparki unda ecados, rom rogorme dotaciuri xarjebi Seamciros, radgan Tu usaSvelod Zviri dajda, mas bolos da bolos daxuraven. amitom zooparkSi hyavT e.w. „komerciuli varskvlavebi~, romlebic xSirad konservacias ar saWiroeben, magram isini xalxs izidaven. rigiT damTvalierebels ar ainteresebs mxolod gadaSenebis piras myofi saxeobebi (gansakuTrebiT, „usaxuri“ qvewarmavlebi, amfibiebi an frinvelebi) da es gasaTvaliswinebelia. marTalia, gadaSenebis piras myofi usuriis vefxvis an didi pandis sanaxavad vizitori siamovnebiT mova da farTecxvira lemuri

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buneba

fuls gadaixdis, magram es sakmarisi araa Cveni xarbi Tvalis saameblad. amitom zooparkebi iZulebuli arian iyolion es „komerciuli varskvlavebic“ – lomi, xalebiani afTari, hipopotami, induri spilo... samwuxarod, damTvaliereblisTvis lomi ufro mimzidvelia, vidre kavkasiuri salamandra an romelime iSviaTi saxeobis „Seuxedavi~ bayayi. „komerciuli varskvlavebis~ wyalobiT Semosuli Tanxebi ara marto amcirebs qalaqis xarjs, aramed tradiciulad xmardeba swored iSviaTi saxeobebis genofondis SenarCunebas~, – erT-erT adreul interviuSi ambobda Tbilisis zooparkis direqtori zurab gurieliZe. martivad rom vTqvaT, Cveni afrikeli lomebi ise exmarebodnen Cvens kavkasiur iSviaT irmebs, rom arc ki icodnen amis Sesaxeb. Tbilisis zooparks rac Seexeba, Cveni zooparki SeZlebisdagvarad CarTulia msoflio procesebSi da metic, qalaqis xarjis SemcirebisTvis aq 2007 wlis bolosken axali „komerciuli varskvlavebic~ Semoiyvanes. im dros Tbilisis zooparkis wliur SemosavalSi vizitorebisgan Semosuli Tanxa 280 000 lars ar aRemateboda. 2012 wels ki mxolod vizitorebisgan Semosulma Tanxam 820 000 lars miaRwia. cxadia, aseT zrdas swored `varskvlavuri~ saxeobebi ganapirobeben. aman zooparks misca saSualeba msofliosTvis daculi uiSviaTesi saxeobebi Semoenaxa: TeTri martorqa (sabednierod, ga-

pingvinebi edinburgis zooparkSi

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daurCa 2015 wlis stiqias – wyaldidobas), induri spilo (gadaurCa stiqias), afTrisebri ZaRlebi (samwuxarod, daiRupnen stiqiis dros), winaaziuri leopardebi (gadaurCnen stiqias), afrikuli pingvinebi (nawili daiRupa) da abisiniuri rqacxvira (daiRupa stiqiis dros). SeiZleba zogs moeCvenos, rom Tbilisis zooparki yvela zemoCamoTvlils ar akeTebda. cxadia, xarvezebi yvelganaa, magram arsebuli Seuferebeli sivrcisa da dRevandelobisTvis miuRebeli wina saukunis 20-iani wlebis sivrculi dagegmarebis farglebSi, zooparki mainc maqsimalurs aRwevda samive mimarTulebiT. albaT isic gsmeniaT, rom didi xania Tbilisis zooparkis administracia axali teritoriisTvis ibrZvis. wlebis ganmavlobaSi kamaTi usasrulo wreze midi-

safaris parki san-diegos zooparkSi

polaruli daTvi venis zooparkSi


gisosebs miRma

oda – moTxovna: „axali teritoria gvWirdeba!“ pasuxi: „orSabaTs gamoiareT“. bolos da bolos axali teritoria gamoiyo da nel-nela, Tu Tbilisis zooparks mxardaWera eqneba, SeZlebs srulfasovnad Seasrulos Tavisi konservaciuli funqcia.

„rodesac damTvaliereblebi naxulobdnen afTars, arc ki ijereben, rom es namdvilad afTaria (`is arc ise saSineli yofila, Tbilicaa da saocrad mosiyvarule cxovelia~.) da adamianis damokidebulebac icvleba~, – ambobs zurab gurieliZe.

zooparkebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi misia axali Taobis ganaTlebacaa. bavSvSi moqalaqe unda gaizardos, moqalaqe, romelic zrdasrul asakSi arc brakonierobas daiwyebs da arc bunebas gaanadgurebs. amasTan, ganaTleba zrdasrulebsac sWirdebaT. am TvalsazrisiT, zooparkebi e. w. problemuri saxeobebis (mgeli, afTari, yvela mtacebeli...) „imijzec~ zrunaven. rTulia, rodesac adamians elaparakebi raRac abstraqtul arsebaze, romelic TvaliT ar unaxavs, magram sul sxvaa, roca am arsebas aCveneb.

mTavar kiTxvaze – unda iarsebos Tu ara zooparkebma? – pasuxi isev sazogadoebam unda gasces, xalxma, romelic fuls ixdis. Cven virCevT mTavrobebs da amiT rwmunebas vaZlevT Cveni saxeliT gankargon Cveni fuli. Tu Cveni umravlesoba fiqrobs, rom zooparki ar unda arsebobdes, mTavroba zooparks gaauqmebs. xolo Tu umravlesobas unda da mis mniSvnelobas xedavs, mTavroba ecdeba Cveni moTxovna (iseve, rogorc sxva moTxovnebi) daakmayofilos. bolos da bolos, yvela mTavrobas unda, rom xelmeored avirCioT. me ki sul is bednieri patara gorila maxsendeba ugandaSi. albaT, ukve „did da karg gogod~ gazardes dedam, mamam da jgufis ZiZebma. albaT, arc junglebis gakafvam da arc brakonieris dagebulma xafangma ar imsxverpla misi mSoblebi da ar gaxda saWiro misi zooparkSi gadayvana. Tundac im zooparkSi, sadac udrtvinvelad, magram mainc gisosebs miRma icxovrebda. imedi maqvs, rom ukve damoukideblad cxovrobs da axlomaxlo gamvleli „mzeWabuki~ gorilebi Tvalsac upaWuneben, rom veluri bunebis SenarCunebaSi Tavisi dedobiT uzarmazari wvlili Seitanos. Tbilisis zooparkis binadrebi 2015 wlis 13 ivnisis stiqiis Semdeg

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Sveulad 2. msxvili memamule, ymebis mflobeli, batoni. 3. odnav SesamCnevi gansxvaveba; elferi. 4. ori an meti asos kombinaciiT Seqmnili aRniSvna (naxati). 5. xelovnuri nageboba, gadaWimuli wyalze an nebismier sxva fizikur dabrkolebaze. 6. dedamiwis umaRlesi mwvervali (jomolungmis meore saxelwodeba). 7. sportuli Sejibreba, romelSic yvela monawile erTmaneTs TiTojer xvdeba. 8. titani, romelmac olimpodan cecxli moitaca da xalxs misi gamoyeneba aswavla. 10. raime rwmeniT ukiduresi gataceba. 11. keTilganwyoba, TanagrZnoba. 13. saxelmwifo samxreT amerikis dasavleT nawilSi, mweral mario vargas liosas samSoblo. 16. manqana, romliTac isrodnen lodebs, sawvaviT savse kasrebs da a.S.; iyenebdnen Zv. berZnebi da romaelebi cixesimagreTa alyis dros. 17. metoqeoba upiratesobis mosapoveblad. 19. iranis dedaqalaqi. 20. saqmeebi, romlebic ama Tu im dawesebulebis warmoebas eqvemdebareba. 23. bedis gamomcnobi, mkiTxavi, gulTmisani. 24. gansakuTrebuli niWis mqone bavSvi. 26. Zveli ruseTisa da zogi sxva qveynis armiaSi generlis umaRlesi Cini; am Cinis mqone piri. 28. bedis winaswar gansazRvruloba, garduvaloba. 31. karTagenis mxedarTmTavari da saxelmwifo moRvawe, karTagenis ukanaskneli didi lideri. 34. raime nakeTobis sanimuSo egzemplari an Semcirebuli nimuSi/sqema. 35. mimzidveloba, silamaze. 37. antikur xanaSi da Sua saukuneebSi gavrcelebuli arqiteqturuli stili, ugumbaTo nageboba. 38. aurzauri, sensacia. 40. zRude, dabrkoleba, raime moqmedebis Semaferxebeli garemoeba. 41. Sejibreba sportis romelime saxeobaSi or an ramdenime subieqts Soris. 46. risame bolo, dasasruli. 47. piri, romelsac eniWeba premia mecnierebisa da kulturis sferoSi gamorCeuli damsaxurebisTvis. 48. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis 34-e prezidenti. 50. adgilobrivi an gansazRvruli socialuri jgufis kilo, kilokavi. 54. dasavleT evropis erT-erTi udidesi mdinare. 55. ama Tu im pirovnebis saubari JurnalistTan, korespondentTan masobrivi informaciis saSualebebiT gasavrceleblad. 56. codnis, unar-Cvevebis, Sexedulebebis, rwmenis, SemecnebiTi Zalebis da praqtikuli momzadebis donis erToblioba. 57. raime moqmedebis ganzrax gamowveva, waqezeba, mzakvruli saqcieli. 58. ukeTes mdgomareobaSi yofna (vinmesTan, ramesTan SedarebiT). 59. mmarTvelobis forma, sadac Zalaufleba gadanawilebulia oTx pirs Soris. 61. taZari, samlocvelo. 65. qalaqi CrdiloeT italiaSi. 69. risame maragi, wyaro. 70. iSviaTi, uCveulo, gansakuTrebuli movlena (ityvian araCveulebrivi

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