Page 1

ANATOMY SKYSCRAPER OF A

VOLUME 1A


“The urge to build tall is not new. It is inherent within us... In one sense there is delight in making technology and materials work as hard as possible simply because we can - something that dates back to socalled ages of pre-civilisation and has been unstoppable ever since. However, at the beginning of the twenty-first century there are far more urgent reasons for building tall: cultural, demographic, environmental, and economic. Two vital factors are global population growth and the increasing rate of urbanization... The major challenge in cities is to accommodate more and more at greater densities than before while seeking to create a higher quality of urban life. While the tall building may not be the only key, with finite resources and with less and less land on which to build it is a vital component of the future city. Energy consumption and atmospheric pollution are also key issues. In the developed world building account for half the energy we consume. The remainder is divided between transport and industry and these factors are linked in a complex chain. By building to greater densities and to higher levels of energy efficiency in urban centers that have established public transport systems we can reduce reliance on the car with all its attendant problems. We can also improve the quality of urban life, bringing down travel times and allowing people to live, work and spend their leisure time in close proximity... That is not to understate the role that aesthetics has to play - tall buildings have a far greater visual impact on our cities than any other structure.� - Norman Foster, from the Foreword for Sky High by Chris Abel


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN SPRING 2018 ARCHITECTURE ELECTIVE ANATOMY OF A SKYSCRAPER 3 CREDIT HOURS INSTRUCTOR LAUREN BROWN COURSE DESCRIPTION A broad survey of an exclusively modern architectural typology, this course aims to understand the skyscraper contextually by evaluating its role and impact in dense urban conditions and its formal evolutions as it became an iconic cultural object. The course also aims to understand the skyscraper pragmatically by tracking its rise due to innovations in building and construction technologies, analyzing its formulaic anatomy and detailing, and considering the way in which it is programmed and inhabited. Course content is delivered primarily through lectures, discussions, and readings, with each student executing an in-depth case study of a built skyscraper using three-dimensional modeling. REQUIRED TEXT The Heights: Anatomy of a Skyscraper by Kate Ascher


VOLUME ONE

This document exhibits the full scope of skyscraper case studies executed by 16 individual students in the Spring 2018 session of this course. Students selected built skyscrapers and analyzed them through the aspects listed below. Analysis was conducted via research, reconstructing that aspect of the tower digitally, diagramming, and graphic and oral presentation. ASPECT 1 CITY + ICON + PARTI ASPECT 2 PROGRAM + EXPERIENCE + VERTICAL CIRCULATION ASPECT 3 STRUCTURE + CORE + AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION ASPECT 4 SKIN ASPECT 5 SYSTEMS + TECHNOLOGY + SUSTAINABILITY ASPECT 6 REFLECTION Original diagrams were generated for each case study via a uniform studio graphic, which allowed for a coherent comparative critique and physical exhibit at the conclusion of the course. The diagram types are listed and described on the adjacent page. Each case study was concluded with a subjective reflection that permitted students to assess the success of the tower relative to the lectures, readings, and discussions that carried the course throughout the semester.


STACKING CHARTS & LIFT COORDINATION DIAGRAMS Stacking charts are a typical drawing type for towers, demonstrating programmatic organization. Different programs are often grouped in ‘zones’ within the tower and are separated by mechanical levels. Below is a legend demonstrating typical tower functions, as diagrammed in the case studies in this volume. LOBBY & AMENITIES OFFICE RESIDENTIAL HOTEL MECHANICAL PARKING Most towers that house office or commercial functions have dozens of lifts. Lift coordination is integral to tower safety, efficiency, and occupant satisfaction and comfort. Lifts are typically coordinated to serve ‘zones’ of a tower, rather than each lift having the ability to access each level of the tower. The diagrams in each case study of this volume schematically demonstrates this coordination. MASSING, STRUCTURE, & AERODYNAMIC DIAGRAMS Structure diagrams demonstrate the basic structural logic of each tower. Structural strategies are highly specific to height and cost and to floor plate optimization. Aerodynamic optimization diagrams demonstrate the behavior of prevailing winds on the tower. Tower massing and form play heavily into aerodynamic optimization. All towers move and sway, so reducing this plays heavily into occupant comfort. All towers are wind tunnel-tested. Each case study was concluded with a subjective reflection that permitted students to assess the success of the tower relative to the lectures, readings, and discussions that carried the course throughout the semester. MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, PLUMBING & FACADE ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS MEP diagrams demonstrate the allocated spaces and continuous vertical shafts for electrical, HVAC, plumbing, bathrooms, telecommunications, fire safety, and other systems within the core at a typical level of each tower. Tower facade assembly diagrams demonstrate the typical component parts of layers that comprise the tower’s ‘skin’, likely dictating performance, experience, and aesthetic.


SHANGHAI TOWER SHANGHAI, CHINA CASE STUDY BY: MAX CANTU-LIMA

LOTTE WORLD TOWER SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA CASE STUDY BY: ALEX PYATT

ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK, USA CASE STUDY BY: SARAH ELSTIEN

TAIPEI 101 TAIPEI, TAIWAN, CHINA CASE STUDY BY: GRACE KENNEDY

432 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK, USA CASE STUDY BY: EMMA RIORDAN

CAPITAL MARKET AUTHORITY ‘CMA’ TOWER RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA CASE STUDY BY: FAISAL ALSHOMRANI

MAHANAKHON TOWER BANGKOK, THAILAND CASE STUDY BY: ROSS NETZEL

THE SHARD LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM CASE STUDY BY: BEN NAUDET

FEET 2,200

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NORTHEAST ASIA TRADE TOWER INCHEON, SOUTH KOREA CASE STUDY BY: CASSANDRA HALL

AQUA TOWER CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, USA CASE STUDY BY: TANNER HYLAND

CCTV HEADQUARTERS BEIJING, CHINA CASE STUDY BY: ANDREW MARQUETTE

MARINA BAY SANDS SINGAPORE CASE STUDY BY: JOSHUA ROSENBLATT

PARNAS TOWER SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA CASE STUDY BY: AUSTIN HOLLIDAY

HEARST TOWER NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK, USA CASE STUDY BY: MARK KAUFMAN

30 ST. MARY AXE LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM CASE STUDY BY: HANNAH RUPPRECHT

SEAGRAM BUILDING NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK, USA CASE STUDY BY: JOE HERDLER

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SHANGHAI TOWER GENSLER


SHANGHAI TOWER GENSLER STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: THORNTON TOMASETTI MEP ENGINEER: COSENTINI ARCHITECT OF RECORD: TONGJI ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (GROUP) CO GENERAL CONTRACTOR: SHANGHAI CONSTRUCTION GROUP (SCG) FIRE PROTECTION: RJA FIRE PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY CONSULTING (RJA) FAÇADE: AURECON INTERIORS: GENSLER LANDSCAPE: SWA GROUP LEED: WSP | PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF LIGHTING: PHA LIGHTING DESIGN; SHANGHAI ACADEMY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ENERGY CONCEPT: KOOPX; VIDARIS, INC. WIND: ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN (RWDI) SHANGHAI, CHINA 2008-2013 MODERN HEIGHT: TO TIP: 2,073’ HEIGHT: ARCHITECTURAL: 2,073’ HEIGHT: OCCUPIED :1,927’ 4,092,100 SQFT HOTEL + OFFICE 258 HOTEL ROOMS 53 FLOORS OF OFFICE SPACE STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: CONCRETE / STEEL [1,2 ]


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REFERENCES INFORMATION >@

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Lotte World Tower Kohn Pedersen Fox


Lotte World Tower ALSO KNOWN BY: Lotte Jamsil Super Tower, Lotte World Premium Tower ARCHITECT(S): Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates ENGINEER: Leslie E. Robertson Associates MEP ENGINEER: SYSKA Group CITY: Seoul COUNTRY: Republic of Korea &216758&7,21'$7( ¿QLVKHG

)81&7,21+RWHO2I¿FH 1,819â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 727232)63,5(¶ P

64)7 260 Hotel Rooms STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: Composite [1,2]


[A]


LOCATION SEOUL, KOREA

[B] Street within Seoul in the early twentieth century when Korea was under Japanese occupation.

Located on the southern bank of the Han River in the city of Seoul, Republic of Korea, stands the Jamsil Lotte World Tower. Ranking as not only the tallest in the country, but one of the tallest in the world, the Lotte World Tower’s awe inspiring stature dwarfs the rest of the city’s skyline. Though not centrally located within the capital city, Lotte World Tower’s presence along the Han River is still easily felt. Built as a monument and icon to the economic and cultural center of South Korea, the tower HPERGLHVDOOWKH¿QHVWTXDOLWLHVDQG characteristics that the city has to offer.

[C] Illuminated at night by its own lights, as well as those of the city, the Lotte World Tower stands tall over Seoul, Korea.

[D] Crowded with shoppers and neon signs, modern Seoul is the beating heart of South Korea’s economy.


[B]

[C]

[D]


[E]

DESIGN INCORPORATING THE CULTURE In designing the Lotte World Tower, KPF turned to the place and culture for the primary inspiration. With Seoul being a cultural center, it RQO\VHHPHGDSSURSULDWHWR¿QGD way to model the tower so that it could stand as a testament to the culture, and thus, the sleek, tapered curvature of the tower was designed to resemble two traditional Korean forms.

7KH¿UVWRIWKHVHIRUPVZDVWKDWRI Korean pottery. Though simplistic, WKHVW\OHLOOXVWUDWHVDÀXLGIRUP that draws the eye ever higher towards the tower’s spire. The other form, being the traditional and sturdy house found in Korea and throughout East Asia, adds to not only the aesthetic appeal, but also LQFRUSRUDWHVWKHWUDGLWLRQRI¿UP structure.


[F]

This image of Korean pottery shows the similarity in design to the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sleek tapering and heavy vertical presence.

Lotte World Tower is extremely sturdy, almost to the point of redundancy, but this isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t without purpose. With the Korean Peninsula stretching out into the East China Sea, the location of Seoul is primed IRUW\SKRRQVDQGHDUWKTXDNHV The tower itself was designed to withstand strong forces, including that of a Richter9 magnitude HDUWKTXDNH,QFRPSDULVRQWRRWKHU

super structures in the world, the foundation of the Lotte World Tower is nearly three times more rigid than that of the Burj Khalifa, the tallest tower in the world. [4,5]


Left: A simple parti displaying the large, sturdy base with soft curves and the tapering of the tower towards its spire.

Right: The location of the Lotte World Tower within the Gangnum-gu district of Seoul. To the Northwest lies the Han River, and across it, the older city center of Seoul.


[AA]

Section


[F]

Elevation


Shuttle At the time of its completion, Lotte World Tower possessed the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tallest and fastest double-decker elevator

Local Lifts

Lift Coordination


Observation Deck

123 Total Floors

115 - 123

Hotel 80 - 110

Hotel Amenity

Residential 52 - 76

Residential Amenity 2á&#x201A;&#x2C6;FH 11 - 48

2á&#x201A;&#x2C6;FH$PHQLW\

Lobby and Retail 1-9

Stacking Chart


[BB]

BASE CONDITION HOTEL LOBBY AND RETAIL

The entrance of the Lotte World Tower welcomes both visitors and residents with a large, towering encircling space. Serving as both a lobby for the KRWHODQGWKHRIÂżFHVDERYH the intricate design and shapes compliment that of the exterior design. Complete with retail spaces, the base introduces visitors of the landmark tower to the vast luxuries and amenities that it offers.

Right: The 8 story atrium lobby of Lotte World Tower. It houses retail space, as well as serving as the main lobby for the hotel.


[G]


OFFICE SPACE WORKING IN THE SKY

Though mostly a residential WRZHURI¿FHVSDFHVVWLOORFFXS\ roughly a third of the building. Designed by Penson, the LQWHULRURI¿FHVSDFHVZHUH meant to incorporate and compliment the design of the rest of the building, as well as bring both Eastern and Western styles together in a way that would create a vibrant and welcoming atmosphere.

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more impressive is that Penson was able to create the GHVLJQIRUWKHVHLQWHULRUÃ&#x20AC;RRUV in just four weeks.

Top Right: A typical lounge or OREE\DUHDIRUDQRá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FHÃ&#x20AC;RRU inside Lotte World Tower.

[6]

%RWWRP5LJKW2á&#x201A;&#x2C6;FHVSDFHLQ DVWDQGDUGRá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FHÃ&#x20AC;RRU


[H]

[I]


SIGNIEL SEOUL LUXURY HOTEL

A super luxurious hotel, the Signiel Seoul boasts an impressive rating. With 235 guest rooms ranging in size from VTPWRVTPWKHUHÂśVD room for every occasion and visitor. The hotel offers complimentary shoe-shining services, as well as access to the Salon de Signiel Lounge that all guests are given.

To top things off, the hotel features the highest ballroom in the city of Seoul, a Parisian EDQTXHWVW\OHPHQXE\D0Lchelin-starred chef, and the largest champagne bar in all of Korea. >@

Top Right: The lounge of the 6LJQLHO6HRXO+RWHOWKHÂżQHVW in all of Korea.

Bottom Right: The luxury of the hotel goes beyond just the lobby and the lounge, but into every inch of the extravagant space.


[J]

[K]


[L]


STRUCTURE BUILT TO LAST

In every high rise tower, the concern for the structural integrity of the building to remain sturdy in changing conditions is paramount. For the Lotte World Tower, being situated in Korea means that in addition to standard concerns for super-tall towers, the structure is within close distance to fault lines and active seismic zones as well as experiencing gale winds from typhoons. Therefore, in constructing the structural elements of the tower, the engineers took care to ensure the tower would be able to withstand all forces it could experience.

The two most prominent vertical supports are the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s core made with 2 meter-thick reinforced concrete DFFRPSDQLHGE\VTXDUH mega-columns made of 3.5 meter-thick reinforced concrete at the base of the tower. In addition to this, outrigger trusses are utilized both from WKHWKWKĂ&#x20AC;RRUVDQGQG WKĂ&#x20AC;RRUV1HDUWKHWRSRIWKH tower, belt trusses are utilized RQWKHQGWKĂ&#x20AC;RRUVDQG WKWKĂ&#x20AC;RRUV [8]


Belt Trusses

Outrigger Trusses

Mega-column

Core


WIND ANALYSIS In addition to its strong vertical structural systems, Lotte World Towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shape and design allows it to perform well against wind loads. The soft curves and sudden break at two corners help wind to easily divert in two directions around the tower. As the tower ascends, the slight taper towards its peak keeps the tower performing well aerodynamically even with increased wind speeds.

With the Korean Peninsula experiencing typhoons on an annual basis, the concern for wind loads was very integral to the design. The Tower is rated strong enough to sustain winds of up to 80m/sec all the way to its peak at 555m above the ground. [4]


[M]


TOWER SKIN CURTAIN WALL DESIGN

The skin of the Lotte World Tower plays an integral role in communicating the image and feeling of the building. Harkening back to the original design concept centered on traditional Korean pottery and calligraphy, the outer skin is characterized by its shining glass and strong vertical movement from the mullions.

Though seemingly uniform and monolithic, the tower utilizes twenty different types of glass covering everything from the base, following the soft tapering of the tower and towards the upper sky deck and diagrid structure at the tower’s peak. For the majority of the glass FRYHULQJWKHWRZHU¶VRI¿FHDQG hotel facilities, a silver insulated coating helps to highlight the building during the day, yet the ZKLWHODFTXHUHGPXOOLRQVKHOS to characterize the Korean DUWLVWU\DQGNHHSWKHUHÀHFWLYLW\ from becoming too intense. [9,10]

Right: In the light of the day, the white mullions are highly expressed, adding a feeling of texture and movement.


[N]


The basic makeup of the curtain wall system includes the incorporation of unitized, insulated glass panels supported and held in place by small mullions on the interior of the wall. From the outside, ODUJHUZKLWHODFTXHUHGPHWDO mullions help in additional support of the curtain wall and give the tower its characteristic vertical brushwork-look.

The glass panels provide a large area for viewers on the interior to look out from while the spandrels cover the edges RIWKHĂ&#x20AC;RRUSODWHV7KLV$% pattern of viewing glass and spandrel follow the vertical movement and tapering of the tower all the way to its crown.


[O] [N]


[P]


>4@


TOWER MECHANICS WHAT KEEPS THE TOWER STANDING

In any building, the mechanical systems and makeup can be a complicated and complex task, especially if the added goal RI/(('FHUWLÂżFDWLRQLQVRPH capacity is desired. For supertall buildings like the Lotte World Tower, the complexity DQGGLIÂżFXOW\RIHIÂżFLHQW effective, and comfortable mechanical systems is daunting.

Left: A worker stands high above Seoul on top of a beam of the Lotte World Tower under construction.

However, though complex as it is, the architects and engineers of the Lotte World Tower were able to achieve an effective PHFKDQLFDOHIÂżFLHQF\WKURXJK innovation. Not only does the tower meet the standard, but exceeds it when compared to similar super-tall structures.


TOWER HEALTH EMERGENCY SYSTEMS

For the Lotte World Tower, the building core serves as the beating heart of the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mechanical systems. In addition to the groupings of elevators for movement throughout, the core houses service shafts for mechanical, electric, and plumbing. In case of emergency, the service and circulation elevators convert to evacuation elevators.

Nineteen total evacuation elevators can transport 15,000 UHVLGHQWVWR¿YHVDIHW\]RQHV RQPHFKDQLFDOÃ&#x20AC;RRUVLQMXVW over an hour. In comparison, a similar evacuation plan for the Burj Khalifa would take nearly half an hour longer.

Fire protection for the tower is exceptional. The tower ERDVWVPRUHWKDQ¿UH VHQVRUVZLWK¿UHVXSSUHVVLRQ V\VWHPVFRPLQJIURP¿YH sources able to provide water FRQWLQXDOO\IRU¿YHKRXUV7KH tower also incorporates a realtime monitoring system with over 600 sensors designed to give insight into the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health in case of weather, HDUWKTXDNHDQGWHUURUDWWDFN [4]


INNOVATION EXCEEDING THE STANDARD

In addition to being a cultural icon, the designers of Lotte World Tower wanted the tower to serve as an icon to innovation and setting the bar higher. With climate change as an ever growing concern, environmentally friendly design is a must. For Lotte World 7RZHUD/(('FHUWLÂżFDWLRQRI gold was awarded. Many of the systems that contributed to this include a displacement air and radiant heating and cooling V\VWHPIRUWKHJURXQGĂ&#x20AC;RRU lobby. With an 8 story atrium at the base level, this system LVPXFKPRUHHIÂżFLHQWWKDQD conventional air conditioning system.

The Tower also incorporates geothermal, photo-voltaic, and wind turbine systems that provide renewable energy for consumption throughout the tower. All outside air units on the tower contain energy recovery wheels that capture exhaust air. Water usage is VLJQLÂżFDQWO\HIÂżFLHQWZLWKD greywater recycling system and ORZĂ&#x20AC;RZÂż[WXUHVWKDWFRQWULEXWH to up to 30% savings on water usage. The glass curtain wall utilizes low insulation glass providing for reduced heat loss in winter, and preventing additional heat in the summer.

Other systems including solar energy panels on the top of the tower, greening of the roof, and collection of waste heat from sewage contribute to the complex web of mechanics in the Lotte World Tower. In total, the tower produces over 51,000 megawatt hours annually, HTXDOLQJDERXWRIHQHUJ\ XVHDQQXDOO\7KLVHTXDWHVWRD reduction of over 23,000 tons of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere each year. [4]


[R]


REFLECTION PUTTING THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE

Standing currently as the ÂżIWKWDOOHVWWRZHULQWKHZRUOG Lotte World Tower stands as a beacon to the economic and social prosperity of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Characterizing the culture and history of South Korea, Lotte World Tower is more than just an economic symbol. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an icon and testament to a rich and vibrant nation within the world community. Beyond its appearances, Lotte World Tower offers a look inside where Korea is and is looking to be for the future. The tower is a wonder of innovation, and considering the amount of

resources that go into conception, creation, and maintaince of such a structure, the tower, and complex it resides in, is a small marvel to behold. Lotte World Tower has a lot to offer to not only Korea, but the future of supertall construction as a whole. $FKLHYLQJD/(('FHUWLÂżFDWLRQ of Gold, the tower is a model to follow for the future, but it is also a benchmark that future architects and developers should aim to exceed. With the concern for the effect of climate change ever growing, the need for sustainable architecture has never been higher. In addition,

with the amount of resources DQGHQHUJ\UHTXLUHGWRHUHFW such a structure as Lotte World Tower, we must work to achieve a building model that allows for WKHJUHDWHUEHQHÂżWIRUQRWRQO\ poeple, but also the planet.


[S]


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1] [2] [3] >@ [5] >@  >@  [8]

>@  [10]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? The Skyscraper Center, www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/lotte-world-tower/88. Lotte World Tower - KPF, www.kpf.com/projects/lotte-world-tower. Yu, Woo-ik, and Chan Lee. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Seoul.â&#x20AC;? EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica, EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica, inc., 3 Jan. 2018, www. britannica.com/place/Seoul#ref24014. Âł/277(:25/'72:(5´(QJLQHHULQJ 7HFKQRORJ\/277(:25/'72:(5ZZZOZWFRNUWRZHUHQWRZHU Story/technology.do. LERA - Leslie E. Robertson Associates, www.lera.com/copy-of-lotte-jamsil-super-tower-. Âł2IÂżFH7RXU/RWWH7RZHU2IÂżFHVÂą6HRXO´2IÂżFH6QDSVKRWV6HSWRIÂżFHVQDSVKRWVFRP  ORWWHWRZHURIÂżFHVVHRXO Âł6LJQLHO6HRXOWRRSHQLQ$SULO´%XVLQHVV7UDYHOOHUÂą7KHOHDGLQJPDJD]LQHIRUIUHTXHQWĂ&#x20AC;\HUV)HEZZZ  EXVLQHVVWUDYHOOHUFRPDFFRPPRGDWLRQVLJQLHOVHRXOWRRSHQLQDSULO Kim, Gyu Dong, and Joo Hoo Lee. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Key Technologies for Super Tall Building Construction: Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Http://Global.ctbuh.org, International Journal of High Rise Buildings, 2016, global.ctbuh.org/resources/pa pers/download/2856-key-technologies-for-super-tall-building-construction-lotte-world-tower.pdf. Âł6HRXOÂśV/RWWH6N\VFUDSHU8WLOL]HV'LIIHUHQW7\SHVRI*ODVV´$UFKSDSHUFRP6HSWDUFKSDSHU   FRPORWWHZRUOGWRZHUJDOOHU\VOLGH â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower, Seoul.â&#x20AC;? Verdict Designbuild, www.designbuild-network.com/projects/lotte-world-tower-seoul/.



 




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*ULIÂżWK7LPÂł/RWWH:RUOG7RZHU´3HUVSHFWLYH6HRXO2FWZZZSHUVSHFWLYHJOREDOFRPDUFKLWHFWXUHORWWH  world-tower-marks-the-tallest-building-in-south-korea/. [B] â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Korea Times.â&#x20AC;? The Korea Times, Seoul, 14 July 2014, www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/   FXOWXUHBKWPO >&@ Âł'DUFDZDUGV´'DUFDZDUGV6HRXO6HSWGDUFDZDUGVFRPDUFKLWHFWXUDOORWWHZRUOGWRZHUPDOOVRXWKNR  rea/. [D] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Best Hotels in South Korea.â&#x20AC;? Online Deal and Buy, Seoul, 1 Dec. 2016, onlinedealandbuy.com/top-30-best-hotelsseoul-korea-50-discount-booking-com/. [E] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower in the Evening.â&#x20AC;? The Skyscraper Center, www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/lotte-worldtower/88 >)@ Âł.RUHDQ3RWWHU\´7KH0HWURSROLWDQ0XVHXPRI$UWZZZPHWPXVHXPRUJWRDKKGFHODKGBFHODKWP [G] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Kohn Pederson Fox, www.kpf.com/projects/lotte-world-tower >+@ Âł/RWWH:RUOG7RZHU2IÂżFH6SDFH´2IÂżFH6QDSVKRWVRIÂżFHVQDSVKRWVFRPORWWHWRZHURIÂżFHVVHRXO >,@ Âł2IÂżFH6SDFHRI/RWWH:RUOG7RZHU´9LHWGHFRUYLHWGHFRUDWLRQFRPKRPHLQGH[SKSWKRQJWLQFDQWKLHWWLQWXFWKLHW    NHQRLWKDWWKDPNKDRQRLWKDWYDQSKRQJORWWHFXDWKXGRVHRXOKDQTXRF >-@ Âł/RXQJHRI6LJQLHO6HRXO´%XVLQHVV7UDYHOOHUZZZEXVLQHVVWUDYHOOHUFRPDFFRPPRGDWLRQVLJQLHO  seoul-to-open-in-april/ [K] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Signiel Hotel, Seoul.â&#x20AC;? What the Hell News, www.whatthehellnews.com/6-eye-catching-asias-luxury-hotels/signielresidences-at-lotte-world-tower/ [L] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Kohn Pederson Fox, www.kpf.com/projects/lotte-world-tower >0@ Âł/RWWH:RUOG7RZHUXQGHU&RQVWUXFWLRQ´$UFK'DLO\ZZZDUFKGDLO\FRPYDQLW\KHLJKWKRZPXFKRID    VN\VFUDSHULVXVDEOHVSDFHIHHHHDEBYDQLW\KHLJKWKRZPXFKRIDVN\VFUDSHULV    XVDEOHVSDFHBBORWWHBZRUOGBWRZHUBBGRNDMSJ [N] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Super Tower 123.â&#x20AC;? CDC , www.cdc-usa.com/portfolio/lotte-super-tower-123 [O] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower from the Base.â&#x20AC;? WatchProSite, www.watchprosite.com/timeout/lotte-world  WRZHU [P] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Diagrid of Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Architizer, architizer.com/projects/lotte-world-tower/ >4@ Âł6RXWK.RUHDQ:RUNHUV$UH6HHQIURPD&UDQH´7RP&ODUN%H\RQGWKH3DOHWRPFODUNEORJEORJVSRWFRP  /joseph-ceravolo-piece-of-glass-stephen.html [R] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Fireworks at the Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Steem KR Beta, steemkr.com/kr/@munhwan/korea-travel-pic-lotte-worldtower-in-seoul >6@ Âł/RWWH:RUOG7RZHULQWKH0RUQLQJ´'HPD[*URXSZZZGHPD[JHEORJVLQJOHSKS"DFW  SRVWBLG  [AA] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lotte World Tower.â&#x20AC;? Kohn Pederson Fox, www.kpf.com/projects/lotte-world-tower >%%@ Âł)ORRU3ODQVRI/RWWH:RUOG7RZHU´3LQWHUHVWZZZSLQWHUHVWFRPSLQYLVXDO   search/?x=33&y=0&w=530&h=530


ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER SOM


ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER ALSO KNOWN AS THE FREEDOM TOWER SOM MANUFACTURING PARTNER: THYSSENKRUPP MEP ENGINEER/ VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION: JAROS BARUM & BOLLER,INC CONSTRUCTION MANAGER: TISHMAN CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS; WSP CANTOR SEINUK GROUP CIVIL & TRANSPORTATION: PHILIP HABIB AND ASSOCIATES ACOUSTICS: CERAMI & ASSOCIATES GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER: MUESER RUTLEDGE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS: MATHEWS NIELSEN LANDSCAPE / ARCHITECTS PETER WALKER LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE NEW YORK, NEW YORK USA 2015 MODERN 1,776â&#x20AC;&#x2122; TO TOP OF SPIRE 3,500,000 SQFT OFFICE CONCRETE CORE WITH A PERIMETER DUCTILE STEEL MOMENT FRAME [1] ,[2]


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CONTEXT LOCATION The Freedom Tower Site is very important being as it is the site of ground zero. It is where the proud Twin Towers once stood and fell. Where thousands of civilians died and hundreds of firefighters followed. It is where the people of New York stood to together against any nation that meant to do us harm and it is where we mourn our loss as humanity. Now the ground zero site works to contain and project all those emotions through its design. The actual site is located in Downtown Manhattan. Near Battery Park. It is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the South, and Church Street to the East.


HISTORY AND DESIGN LIBESKIND’S VISION TO CHILDS COMPLETION The Twin Towers are the obvious predecessor to the Freedom Tower, reflecting American economic strength and power. They were an iconic landmark for New York City and America. The attacks on September 11th gave the Twin Towns an entirely new significance. The attacks manifested into a rallying together of the American people and the and new construction needed to reflect Americas resiliency and strength as a united people. Libeskind Grew up in New York City and moved to Berlin do design his iconic Jewish Museum. The opening day of that museum was September 11, 2001. He thought there because of that a connection was addressed of the darkness and evil in Europe during the Holocaust with the new murderous ideology that led to the attack on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, against the United States. His goal was to embed the site of ground zero with the values of America - freedom, liberty, tolerance, and participatory society. He started designing the Freedom Tower and the master plan by retracing his own, immigrant path, to New York and exploring his connection with the

city. He wanted the site to be a site of memory, left to remember those who perished and celebrate those who aided. This led to devoting most of the site to a memorial and using waterfalls to mask the sounds of the busy streets. The memorial should reach to the bedrock of New York and the rise to the top of the skyline. Daniel Libeskind first proposed a master plan for the World Trade Center at ground Zero in New York and was chosen from 2,000 other proposals. It was a holistic design that addresses the site as more than just a piece of real estate but respects the history and tragedy that go hand in hand with the location. In this proposal the Freedom Tower resembled a ragged crystal that tapered to a sharp, off-center spire. He envisioned a romantic skyscraper as a symbolic “Vertical World Garden” with the buildings height of 1,776 feet to represent the year America gained its independence. The tilted spire was designed to imitate the statue of Liberty from the New York Harbor. Libeskind wrote that the Freedom tower would restore the “spiritual peak to the city.” His early sketches feature energy and connectivity.


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“We will rebuild. We’re going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again.” [5]

Because of a need for more office space, Libeskind’s plans were and the Vertical Garden never came to fruition. David Childs from Skidmore Owings & Merrill (SOM) began work to rethink the Freedom Tower. The new Design retained some of Libeskind’s Ideas. The tower still rises to 1,776 feet and the spire would be off center. A large change would take place in the upper portion of the tower, which would contain a 400 foot high open air shaft that would contain power turbines and windmills caged in my cords reminiscent of the Brooklyn Bridge. Below, the Tower would twist to form a 1,100 foot spiral that Childs believed would aid in channeling the wind upward toward the power generators in the exposed shaft. When this revised edition of the Freedom Tower was presented in 2003 to the public, there were mixed reviews. Some thought that is captured the essence of Libeskind’s Design while others thought that the open air shaft gave the project an unfinished look. The main issue with Childs first revision was the security concerns. Because of these concerns Childs

developed another revision that went back to square one and excluded Libeskind and did little to represent his ideas. Childs wanted this new tower to evoke “Classic New York Skyscrapers in Elegance and Symmetry” and ended up being the Freedom tower as we know it today. His design incorporated a cubic base rather than a parallelogram. The design is geometric transforming from a square base to from a prefect octagon at the spire. Even with these changes the design was aware of the twin towers that came before it, measuring the same as the original twin towers (200 feet by 200 feet). The height did remain the same from Libeskind’s original design at 1,778 feet. Because of the safety and security concerns Libeskind’s master plan was also revised to that the tower would be several feet further from the street. The Freedom Tower opened in November 2014. It is off limits to the general public, except the World Observatory on the 100th floor. [3,4]


FREEDOM TOWER EVOLUTION To the right is a set of diagrams elevations describing the different pivot moments in the evolution of the Freedom Tower by Daniel Libeskind to the One World Trade Center by David Childs.

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DECEMBER 2002

FALL 2003

STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND’S ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

STUDIO DANIEL LIBESKIND’S ADAPTION OF THE PROPOSAL


AUGUST 2003

DECEMBER 2003

JUNE 2005

DAVID CHILDS ADAPTION OF DANIEL LIBESKINDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

LIBESKIND- CHILDS COLLABORATION

RADICALLY CHANGED CHILDS REDESIGN IN RESPONSE TO SECURITY CONCERNS


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FORM AXONOMETRIC In this veiw you can see the unique geometry of this structure. The base is a square shape with slightly shaved corners and the form transforms on each floor, utimately creating a parallelogram. The spire is what makes this tower the goal height of 1,776 feet.


ROOF MECHANICAL ONE WORLD OBSERVATORY UPPER MECHANICAL 90

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OFFICE SPACE

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SKY LOBBY 60

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LOWER MECHANICAL [E]

LOBBY


STACKING CHART 1/2000 The tower is comprised of mostly office space. The lobby is a large double height space. Up until floor 20 is mechanical floors since the exterior walls are thick concrete for security and terror threats. Floors 20 through 90 are all office space only broken up by a sky lobby on floors 65 and 66. There is then an upper mechanical floors from floor 90 to 100. On floor 100 there is the One World Trade Center Observatory which is the only space in the tower open to the public for an entry fee.


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LIFT DIAGRAM 1/2000 There are a total of 45 elevators in the tower. They are split up to 3 banks of 10 for the use of the office floors. There are 3 freight elevators and then 2 dedicated for the One World Trade Center Observatory. Each one of the lift lines in the diagram to the left represent 5 elevators give or take depending on the floor. There are 10 elevators dedicated to floors 20 to 37. 5 elevators for floors 37 to 45. 5 elevators for 42 to 50. 5 elevators for 50 to 65 which. There are 5 express elevators to the express lobby. 5

elevators for floors 65 to 75 that originate on floor 65. 5 elevators for floors 75 to 90 that also originate from the sky lobby. Lastly there are 2 elevators that go to the observation deck and the 3 freight elevators that go to every floor.


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INTERACTION WITH BASE 1/1000

9/11 MEMORIAL


RFORMING ARTS CENTER

TOWER 2

WTC HUB

VISITOR ORIENTATION + EDUCATION CENTER

TOWER 3

TOWER 4


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PLANS

Each plan of the One World Trade Center is unique. Because of the continuously tapering form, the floor plan changes from a perfect square on the first floor to an octagonal shape where the north and south sides gradually get shorter while the east and west sides gradually get larger ultimately forming a perfect square once again on the top mechanical floor and roof. The ground floor plan in dimension is 200 ft x 200 ft in order to pay homage to the fallen Twin Towers.

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There are entry points on all 4 sides with a dedicated access to tourists on the west side. There is an open lobby surrounding the core on the north, east, and south sides.


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[E] - Left image / South Elevation [E] - Right image / South-East Elevation

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STRUCTURE The Freedom Tower utilizes a hybrid structure that includes a concrete sheer wall core that is shown above with the red box. A Steel frame around the perimeter of the building where you see the grid of it in the diagram above. These added members add rigidity to the building and are actually structurally redundant.


AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION Because the tower tis Tapered, there are smaller surface areas and therefore reduces the wind load on the structure.


BASE FACADE The Freedom Tower facade is broken up into 2 sections. The first is at the base, which includes the first 20 stories. This base act as a bunker with thick, windowless, fortified concrete for safety. The gal was to disguise these thick uninviting, bunker light elements as light, reflective and welcoming. The original plan was to use prismatic glass that would be highly reflective. However the panels that were designed were difficult to make and shattered easily. New new design for the base facade includes glass fins that are approxi-

mately 13 feet by 2 feet positioned at varying angles and are held together by a steel frame that would pebble rather than shatter. The pattern at the base accommodates ventilation for mechanical levels and refracts light to create a dynamic shimmering surface to mask the heavy concrete walls within. [6]


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CURTAIN WALL The second section of the facade is made up of 3 foot by 5 foot modular platforms. These we assembled using mega frames of trapezoidal shape which each incorporate a custom mecho-shape track guide into the back of the mullions and tapers off at 3.72 degrees. Because of the need for maximum security, the anchorage was designed for blast resistance by using a system of high strength anchors and reinforces glass. Considering wind loads, the curtain wall contains a variety of thicknesses ranging from 1-⅜” to

1 - 27/32”. There are 3 mechanical plenum’s which are faced with fully louvered walls. There are also window washing components on every vertical mullion to allow a swing stage to be redirected when covering the slopes of the building. [7] ,[8]


The Skin system is extremely sustainable, helping to awad the tower a LEED Gold certification. The towers has a seamless skin design that incorperates an insulated spandrel - this allows natural light to penetrate the facade and reach 90 percent of office space which greatly diminishes the electricity needed to light the building during buissiness hours.

In adition to letting natural light into the tower, the skin also works to minimize unessisary heat gain from infared, ultra-violet, and excess visual light with low E-glass coating technology. This sustainable design with the skin conserves the energy needed to cool the building. [10] [G]


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MECHANICAL There are 2 primary HVAC systems in the One World Trade Center. The first is for all the tenant spaces and the second is for all the shared and public spaces. Each tenant floor is conditioned using 2 water cooled DX units. These units function by receiving cool water from a plant located underneath the 9/11 memorial. The common areas including the lobby, circulation, and retail spaces are cooled using Air Handling Units located in the basement. In order to achieve high safety

standards, natural gas powered fuel cells are used to generate electricity and heat for the tower. There is also a high level air filtration and pressurized emergent exit stairwells. The tower also utilized rain harvesting to use in watering the plantings in and around the site.

building management system to optimize indoor air quality based on data collected by sensors throughout the building. There is a gray water harvesting system that collects 100 percent of rain water that works to water the surrounding vegetation. [9], [10]

The tower utilized sustainable equipment which aided in the LEED Gold certification including variable-speed fans and pumps that adapt to varying levels of occupancy to maximize efficiency. There is a high-tech


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REFLECTION Originally, I was drawn to the One World Trade center because it was one of the first building I followed the news about. Since I grew up in New Jersey, 40 minutes from New York City, I remember the events of September 11th. I remember originally hearing about the tower, that it was going to be a new and taller tower than the twin towers, and my first thought was “that is stupid”. I thought when I was younger that it was unwise to test fate. That as a country, we should cut our losses and move on. I learned over time that my original notions of the tower were wrong. The One World Trade center is the manifestation of a romantic notion – America is resilient and strong despite the horrible attacks of 9/11. The 9/11 museum stands to remember the tragedy of that day. The Memorial cuts into the foundation to remember those who were lost and celebrate their lives. The Tower symbolizes us, as a nation, moving forward.

Looking at the design process of the Tower from the Freedom Tower by Daniel Libeskind to the One World Trade Center by David Childs, I am frustrated by the lack of a middle ground in between the Design that Libeskind and Childs were working on together to the Tower we now recognize as the One World Trade Center. Its feels disingenuous to the design process because there is a clear progression of the design up until this point. I went into this analysis thinking that Libeskind had an integral role in the design of the Tower. After this research I now see that even though Libeskind won the competition and was commissioned for this project it was David Childs and SOM who were in control of the final outcome of the project. Despite my misgivings with the design process. The design is very successful with a simple modern form while being innovative and iconic which is a very hard balance to find. Because of the Twin Towers history, security was a very important aspect to the design process of the One World Trade Center. However, I found that a lot of the security features, such as the 10ft thick concrete walls around the core, were specific to the 9/11 attack and preventing the exact same attack.

Because of this I found many of the security features more as tribute rather than productive to the building design or function and therefore a waste of money. Same holds true of the almost 2x redundant structure. The security measures also make sure that employees are the only ones who enter the lobby. Yes, tourists are allowed in to go to the One World Observatory for an entry fee. Because of these particular security features, the tower lack permeability at the ground level and does a poor job of providing amenities to the people who work in the tower. The façade I found very interesting. At the lower levels the glass had to be designed to be shatterproof and the fins of glass that were ultimately used I think reflects the light and surrounding in an interesting and new way. The rest of the tower is covered in a very reflective glass which works well and adds to the sleek look of the tower and how it reflects the sky that surrounds it. Overall, I think the One World Trade Center is a simple and strong design that does a lot to contribute to the New York Skyline and culture. For many people, including myself it is an icon of the American reliant nature and strength as an untied nation.


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1] [2]

“One World Trade Center / SOM.” ArchDaily, 14 Sept. 2016, www.archdaily.com/795277/one-world-trade-center som. Rahimian, Ahmad, and Yoram Eilon. “One World Trade Center.” STRUCTURE magazine, www.structuremag org/?p=1885

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Vinnitskaya, Irina. “Ground Zero Master Plan / Studio Daniel Libeskind.” ArchDaily, 23 Sept. 2012, www.archdaily com/272280/ground-zero-master-plan-studio-daniel-libeskind.

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Craven, Jackie. “The Evolving Design of 1WTC - Freedom Tower.” ThoughtCo, 8 Mar. 2017, www.thoughtco.com one-world-trade-design-4065225. “Let Us Never Forget 9-11: One World Trade Center Building Almost Complete.” Gould Design, Inc.’s Blog, 10 Sept. 2013, goulddesigninc.wordpress.com/2013/09/10/let-us-never-forget-9-11-one-world-trade-center-building almost-coplete/. Agovino, T. (2011, November 04). 1 World Trade gets its glass pedestal. Retrieved April 06, 2018, from http://www crainsnewyork.com/article/20111104/REAL_ESTATE/111109949/1-world-trade-gets-its-glass-pedestal Cladding an Icon. (n.d.). Retrieved April 06, 2018, from https://glassmagazine.com/article/commercial/clading-icon-1311598 (n.d.). Retrieved April 06, 2018, from http://www.bensonglobal.com/projects/one-world-trade-center.html “HVAC Information - One WTC A2.” Google Sites, sites.google.com/site/onewtca2/hvac-information. “One World Trade Center Becomes Tallest LEED Building in the Western Hemisphere.” SOM, www.som.com/news one_world_trade_center_becomes_tallest_leed_building_in_the_western_hemisphere.

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IMAGES [A] [B] [C]

“One World Observatory.” National Elevator Cab & Door Corp, necd.com/one-world-observatory/. Mitchell, John N. “Mitchell: Economic inequity didn’t fall with the Twin Towers.” The Philadelphia Tribune, 12 Sept. 2017, www.phillytrib.com/commentary/mitchell-economic-inequity-didn-t-fall-with-the-twin-towers/art cle_5b1fd510-980b-5e1f-aa4c-d60cea35cb67.html. Craven, Jackie. “The Evolving Design of 1WTC - Freedom Tower.” ThoughtCo, 8 Mar. 2017, www.thoughtco.com one-world-trade-design-4065225.

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“Let Us Never Forget 9-11: One World Trade Center Building Almost Complete.” Gould Design, Inc.’s Blog, 10 Sept. 2013, goulddesigninc.wordpress.com/2013/09/10/let-us-never-forget-9-11-one-world-trade-center-building almost-complete/.

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“One World Trade Center / SOM.” ArchDaily, 14 Sept. 2016, www.archdaily.com/795277/one-world-trade-center som. “Editorial and Creative Photos.” AP Images, www.apimages.com/. “One World Trade Center.” SOM, www.som.com/projects/one_world_trade_center. O Primeiro Observatório Do Mundo (Nova York).” BLOG RCI TRAVEL, 20 Sept. 2017, blog.rcitravel.com.br/o-pr meiro-observatorio-do-mundo/. POHL ventilated curtain walls. (n.d.). Retrieved April 06, 2018, from https://www.pohl-facades.com/en/facade-sy tems/ventilated-curtain-walls/

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TAIPEI 101 C.Y Lee & Partners


Taipei 101 ALSO KNOWN AS Taipei World Financial Center ARCHITECT(S): C.Y Lee & Partners ENGINEER TYPE: Evergreen Consulting Engineering; Thorton Tomasetti CONSULTANT TYPE: Continental Engineering Consultants, Inc. CITY: Taipei COUNTRY: Republic of China(Taiwan) CONSTRUCTION DATE [1999-2004] STYLE: Post Modern 1,667â&#x20AC;&#x2122; TO TOP OF SPIRE 3,850,455 SQFT 101 STORIES 1,600 APARTMENTS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL core: steel columns: concrete filled steel floor spanning: steel


Climate

Population Growth

Taipei 101 stands in the Xinyi District of Taipei â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the capital of Taiwan. Taipei has a sub-tropical climate which means hot, humid summers and mild winters. Rainfall throughout the year is consistent and averages about 48 inches a year.

1950 = 503,000 people 1975 = 2,023,000 people 2000 = 2,630,000 people 2018 = 2,691,000 people

Demographics Sustainability Taipei has four primary ethnic groups that include the aborigines, Hoklos, Mainlanders, and Hakkas.

In 2011, Taipei 101 received a LEED Platinum certification for Operations and Maintenance.

Culture and Symbolism Height

Taipei 101 dissappearing into the clouds.

The number eight is correlated with luck, abundance and prosperity in Chinese-speaking cultures. This is why Taipei 101 has eight modules with eight floors in each module. The number 101 represents January 1st, the first day of the New Year. This is the reason Taipei 101 traditionally has been an icon for the New Year in Taiwan. There is no 44th floor in Taipei 101 because the number four is considered unlucky in Chinese speaking cultures.

8th tallest tower in the world 5th tallest in Asia Tallest in Taiwan Tallest in Taipei


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TYPICAL PLAN 1-26 [A] some plans vary within

The number four is considered unlucky in the Chinese culture, and because of this, there is no 44th floor in Taipei 101. Rather, floor 43 is labeled 42A, and floor 44 is labled 43. There is an observatory that spans over four floors - 87th to 91st. Floor 101 is home to a VIP club named Summit 101. Hollywood movie stars, important foreign relations and some Taiwanese doctors are the few that have been invited to this exclusive VIP club.

As said earlier, number eight is considered lucky in the Chinese culture, so there are eight modules in Taipei 101 with eight floors in each. At the top of each module, there are mechanical floors with garbage systems, ventilation equipment, MEP services and water storage. Every new year, fireworks are launched from Taipei 101 from multiple stories. The actual opening day of the building took place on New Yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Eve 2004.


TYPICAL PLAN 27-91 [A] some plans vary within


[D] Entrance to Taipei 101


[E] Shopping Mall


PROGRAM DIAGRAM TAIPEI 101


OFFICE COMMERCIAL PARKING MECHANICAL OBSERVATION

Floor 91 (outdoor observatory) Floor 89 (indoor observatory)


TOWER LIFT DIAGRAM TAIPEI 101


Floors 59 & 60

Floors 34 & 35


[C] N 1” = 270’


[F] Observatory Deck

There is an indoor observatory on the 89th floor of Taipei 101. The indoor observatory provides a 360 view of the city of Taipei. There is an outdoor observatory deck on the 91st floor where visitors can see the city. Sometime, concerts are held on this terrace area. Taipei 101â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exterior skin is different shades of blue and green. The exterior skin actually changes colors seven different times - a different color for every day of the week.

Taipei 101 housed the two fastest elevators in the world (at the time it was built) traveling at 55.2 feet per second. This meant that it would take about 44 seconds to reach the 89th floor.


[G] View from Observatory Deck


Materials - 60ksi Steel -10,000 psi Concrete Structural System -braced core with belt trusses -belt truses at every 8 floors -steel frame -H-shaped steel beams -concrete slabs and metal decks Lateral Load Resisitance -braced moment frames in buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s core -perimeter moment frames -shear walls -basement first 8 floors

Foundation Information -foundation slab -10 feet = thinnest part -16 feet = thickest part -380 piles that are almost 5 feet diameter CHALLENGES -Taipei is a coastal city that experiences a lot of ground movement -weak soil conditions typhhon winds -earthquakes


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MASS TUNED DAMPER Counterweight Taipei 101 was ranked the world’s toughest building by Popular Mechanics in 2015. Not only is this massive skyscraper located in the typhoon-prone city of Taipei, it is also only a few hundred feet from a major fault line. There is a 730 ton counter-weight (mass damper) on top of the structure that counteracts the movement of the earth.ThorntonTomasetti Engineering designed this mass damper. It is an 18 foot diameter sphere made up of circular steel plates. The mass damper is held within the core of the building.

The core of Taipei 101 consists of sixteen columns in a square - four on each side. These steel columns are filled with concrete for added strength. The combination of steel and concrete make the columns extremely heavy, sturdy and flexible. The concrete filled portion of the columns only occur until the 62nd floor, where the weight would be too much to bare. Between floors 1 and 26, the four individual building faces have multiple rows of columns that are labeled ‘super columns’, ‘subsuper columns’ and corner columns.


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The structural system of Taipei 101 is extremely impressive for its size. The skin of the building - double paned blue-green curtain walls block external heat by 50 percent. At the top of each eight modules, there is a one-story tall truss system. The truss system paired with the megacolumns allows for the building to withstand up to 95 millimeters of seismic lateral displacements. 95 millimeters is equivalent to roughly 3.75 inches. Some call Taipei 101 “earthquake proof”. There have been reports of tourists in Taipei 101 taking

pictures with their phones while an earthquake was occurring. The massive counterweight offset the violent horizontal displacement of the earth. The occupants of Taipei 101 were “unfazed” by the 6.3 magnitude earthquake.


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LATERAL LOAD STUDIES

The diagram above represents the power sprectral densities of the accelerations at the basement of the tower. As you can see, when the earth moves, the tower moves a lot at first but then levels out becasue of the mass damper. [5]


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STICK SYSTEM


Green/Blue Skin Counterweight Material Supplier

HVAC - Carrier, York

Cladding - Permasteelisa Group

Sealants - Dow CorningCorporation

Construction Hoists - Alimak Hek

Steel - China Steel Corporation; Nippon Steel & Sumitono Metal Corporation

Facade Maintenance - CoxGomyl Fire Proofing - Grace Construction Products Flooring - CS Group Construction Specialities Company


The facade consists of highly reflective double-paned glass curtain walls which block solar heat gain by 50 percent. There are many other sustainable features within Taipei 101 such as custom lighting controls, energy efficient luminaries and a smart Energy Management and Control System.


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Plan (Level 37) 1/32’ = 1’


MEP Diagram 1/32’ = 1’


LEED CERTIFICATIONS US Green Building Council LEED v4 (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Version 4) - highest level of Platinum in the category of Operation and Maintenance of Exisiting Buildings According to TAIPEI 101 Green Building, Taipei 101 is the “first supertall building outside of the U.S. to have achieved this feat, and the only building in Taiwan to be recognized.” Taipei 101 received this award in 2011, and has continued to challenge this sustainability title every year since. The Chief Operating Officer of the U.S. Green Building Council, Mahest Ramanujam, presented the LEED v4 Platinum Plaque to one of the Chairmen of Taipei 101 in 2011.

According to the energy efficient company, Siemens, EMCS is “an energy management system which employs computer technology to monitor and control equipment scattered throughout a facility”. There are sensors and control devices that are placed throughout the building. These sensors and control panels connect to the central computer that then analyzes the information and begins control actions. The EMCS provides reports for the human operator, who can override the system manually. -Almost 3,000 t reduction in annual CO2 emissions -Annual reduction of water consumption by 28,000 tons -Annual reduction of waste by 1,261 tons -Annual reduction of electrical power by 4.8 million kWh -Annual savings of $700,000 due to reduced power consumption [3]


EMERGENCY SYSTEMS Taipei 101 If thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a power failure, the building automatically turns on the emergency generators. These generators provide about 70 percent of the overall power. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an uninterruptible power supply, also known as a UPS, that makes sure the crucial systems like control and security are running before the emergency generators turn on. HVAC Systems -Centrifugal chillers -Glycol chiller -Ice storage tank -40-52 Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes on each floor

There are lightening rods placed at the top of the tower and at each mechanical floor to avoid lightening strikes. Fire Protection System - Taipei 101 is divided into separate fire zones with firewalls, shutters and wall fillings - air conditioning will automatically shut off where smoke is detected - non-flammable materials for the building base - there are two fireproof refuge floors on each mechanical floor -the refuge rooms are connected to a refuge balcony


REFERENCES [PAGES 152-161] INFORMATION [1] Taipei 101 The Skyscraper Center: The Global Tall Building Database of the CTBUH December 2017 < http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/taipei-101/117> [2] Taipei 101 - A Case Study Archinomy Bridging the Gap July 2016 < http://www.archinomy.com/case-stud ies/671/taipei-101-a-case-study> [3] Day, Morgan. Taipei 101. The Journal of the American Institute of Architects July 25, 2016 [4] Evans, Jonathan. Popular Mechanics The World’s 10 Toughest Buildings. October 20, 2015 < https://www. popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/g2237/worlds-10-toughest-buildings/> [5] Pickles, Kate and Chan, Olivia. SkySHAKER: Taiwanese Skyscraper During Earthquake; April 22, 2015 < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3050770/SkySHAKER-Watch-astonishing-video-tour ists-wobbling-1-677ft-Taiwanese-skyscraper-earthquake-unfazed-carry-taking-pictures.html> [6] Khajuria, Abheek. Seminar Report on Taipei 101: A Building with a Difference ‘Taipei 101’ March 30, 2015 < https://www.slideshare.net/abheekkhajuria/a-building-with-a-difference-taipei-101>

IMAGES [A] Taipei 101 High Resolution Wallpaper World Travel Wallpapers August, 2015 < http://travelhdwallpapers. com/taipei-101-high-resolution/> [B] Jhawar, Krishna. SlideShare: Taipei 101 August 18, 2012 < https://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaJhawar/tai pei-101-14004855> [C] Taipei 101; SkyscraperPage.com < https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18>


REFERENCES [PAGES 162-173] INFORMATION [1] Taipei 101 The Skyscraper Center: The Global Tall Building Database of the CTBUH December 2017 < http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/taipei-101/117> [2] Taipei 101 - A Case Study Archinomy Bridging the Gap July 2016 < http://www.archinomy.com/case-stud ies/671/taipei-101-a-case-study> [3] Day, Morgan. Taipei 101. The Journal of the American Institute of Architects July 25, 2016 [4] Evans, Jonathan. Popular Mechanics The World’s 10 Toughest Buildings. October 20, 2015 < https://www. popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/g2237/worlds-10-toughest-buildings/> [5] Pickles, Kate and Chan, Olivia. SkySHAKER: Taiwanese Skyscraper During Earthquake; April 22, 2015 < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3050770/SkySHAKER-Watch-astonishing-video-tour ists-wobbling-1-677ft-Taiwanese-skyscraper-earthquake-unfazed-carry-taking-pictures.html> [6] Khajuria, Abheek. Seminar Report on Taipei 101: A Building with a Difference ‘Taipei 101’ March 30, 2015 < https://www.slideshare.net/abheekkhajuria/a-building-with-a-difference-taipei-101>

IMAGES [A] Taipei 101 High Resolution Wallpaper World Travel Wallpapers August, 2015 < http://travelhdwallpapers. com/taipei-101-high-resolution/> [B] Jhawar, Krishna. SlideShare: Taipei 101 August 18, 2012 < https://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaJhawar/tai pei-101-14004855> [C] Taipei 101; SkyscraperPage.com < https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18> [D] Entrance to Taipei 101, December 23, 2016 AskIdeas < https://www.askideas.com/25-most-beautiful-tai pei-101-tower-pictures-and-images/> [E] Taipei 101 Shopping mall, Hotels.com Taiwan < http://www.taiwan-hotels.net/taipei/taipei-101-shopping-mall. htm> [F] Taipei 101, July 13, 2015 Walking Through Wonderland < http://walkingthroughwonderland.com/tai pei-101/> [G] Brockett, Charles Cities, Mounts, Ice Ships Pinterest < https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/574983077401281422/>


REFERENCES [PAGES 174-183] INFORMATION [1] Taipei 101 The Skyscraper Center: The Global Tall Building Database of the CTBUH December 2017 < http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/taipei-101/117> [2] Taipei 101 - A Case Study Archinomy Bridging the Gap July 2016 < http://www.archinomy.com/case-stud ies/671/taipei-101-a-case-study> [3] Day, Morgan. Taipei 101. The Journal of the American Institute of Architects July 25, 2016 [4] Evans, Jonathan. Popular Mechanics The World’s 10 Toughest Buildings. October 20, 2015 < https://www. popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/g2237/worlds-10-toughest-buildings/> [5] Pickles, Kate and Chan, Olivia. SkySHAKER: Taiwanese Skyscraper During Earthquake; April 22, 2015 < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3050770/SkySHAKER-Watch-astonishing-video-tour ists-wobbling-1-677ft-Taiwanese-skyscraper-earthquake-unfazed-carry-taking-pictures.html> [6] Khajuria, Abheek. Seminar Report on Taipei 101: A Building with a Difference ‘Taipei 101’ March 30, 2015 < https://www.slideshare.net/abheekkhajuria/a-building-with-a-difference-taipei-101> [7] Q.s. Li, M.ASCE; Lun-Hai Zhi; Alex Y. Tuan; Chin-Sheng Kao; Sheng-Chung Su; Chien-Fu Wu; January 2011: Dynamic Behavior of Taipei 101 Tower: Field Measurement and Numerical Analysis Journal of Structural Engineering < http://www.hnutest.com/uploadfile/2015/1012/20151012123150968.pdf>


IMAGES [A] Taipei 101 High Resolution Wallpaper World Travel Wallpapers August, 2015 < http://travelhdwallpapers. com/taipei-101-high-resolution/> [B] Jhawar, Krishna. SlideShare: Taipei 101 August 18, 2012 < https://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaJhawar/tai pei-101-14004855> [C] Taipei 101; SkyscraperPage.com < https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18> [D] Patel, Deep, LEED GA, August 2014 Project Taipei 101 Slideshare < https://www.slideshare.net/Deep patel181/project-taipae-101> [E} https://jetsettimes.com/2012/09/25/interview-taipei-101/ [F] Hung, Wendy; September 25, 2012 Interview With Taipei 101: Newsweek’s “One of the Seven New Wond ers of the World” Jetset Times < https://jetsettimes.com/201w2/09/25/interview-taipei-101/> [G] riNux, September 4, 2008 flickr < https://www.flickr.com/photos/rinux/2885419140> [H] Amusing Planet < http://www.amusingplanet.com/2014/08/the-728-ton-tuned-mass-damper-of-taipei.html> [I] The High-Speed Elevator Taipei 101 < https://www.taipei-101.com.tw/en/observatory-damper.aspx>


REFERENCES [PAGES 184-193] INFORMATION [1] Taipei 101 The Skyscraper Center: The Global Tall Building Database of the CTBUH December 2017 < http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/taipei-101/117> [2] Taipei 101 - A Case Study Archinomy Bridging the Gap July 2016 < http://www.archinomy.com/case-stud ies/671/taipei-101-a-case-study> [3] Day, Morgan. Taipei 101. The Journal of the American Institute of Architects July 25, 2016 [4] Evans, Jonathan. Popular Mechanics The World’s 10 Toughest Buildings. October 20, 2015 < https://www. popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/g2237/worlds-10-toughest-buildings/> [5] Pickles, Kate and Chan, Olivia. SkySHAKER: Taiwanese Skyscraper During Earthquake; April 22, 2015 < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3050770/SkySHAKER-Watch-astonishing-video-tour ists-wobbling-1-677ft-Taiwanese-skyscraper-earthquake-unfazed-carry-taking-pictures.html> [6] Khajuria, Abheek. Seminar Report on Taipei 101: A Building with a Difference ‘Taipei 101’ March 30, 2015 < https://www.slideshare.net/abheekkhajuria/a-building-with-a-difference-taipei-101> [7] Cox Gomyl < http://www.coxgomyl.com/products/>

IMAGES [A] Taipei 101 High Resolution Wallpaper World Travel Wallpapers August, 2015 < http://travelhdwallpapers. com/taipei-101-high-resolution/> [B] Jhawar, Krishna. SlideShare: Taipei 101 August 18, 2012 < https://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaJhawar/tai pei-101-14004855> [C] Taipei 101; SkyscraperPage.com < https://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18> [D] Malcolm Lu, 2012 The Awesome Taipei 101 Tower, Deviant Art < https://galen82.deviantart.com/art/TheAwesome-Taipei-101-Tower-312064381> [E] Taipei, Taiwan 23 June 2015 Taipei 101 to Replace External Lighting With LEDs CTBUH Global News < http://www.ctbuh.org/News/GlobalTallNews/tabid/4810/language/en-US/Default.aspx> [F] Taipei 101 The SkyScraper Center < http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/taipei-101/117>


REFERENCES [PAGES 194-199] INFORMATION [1] Cheng, Sidney, July 07, 2017: TAIPEI 101 Receives LEED v4 Certification From U.S. Green Building Counc il as All-Time Top Scorer TAIPEI 101 Green Building, Market Wired <http://www.marketwired.com/press-rel ease/taipei-101-receives-leed-v4-certification-from-us-green-building-council-as-all-time-2140431.htm> [2] https://books.google.com/books?id=95S5o2Xn3NkC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=what+type+of+h vac+system+does+taipei+101+have&source=bl&ots=0RY4a9q2Qu&sig=UcHUmpcYo6nfzjwLYdLz KluYRUo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwifhpzzyr_aAhVwplkKHYb0BXQQ6AEImQEwDw#v=onepage&q=what%20 type%20of%20hvac%20system%20does%20taipei%20101%20have&f=false [3] Building Information “Taipei 101, 2014 < https://www.taipei-101.com.tw/en/building.aspx> [4] LEED O+M: Existing Building v3 - LEED 2009 < https://www.usgbc.org/projects/taipei-101-tower-0>

IMAGES [A] W, Szukaj The Executive Centre LEVEL 37 TAIPEI 101 TOWER < https://www.google.com/search?bi w=955&bih=612&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=mQjVWpLtHKeq_QaQ0rTADg&q=taipei+101+plan+&oq=tapei+101+plan+&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i30k1j0i8i30k1.10096724.10099802.0.10100010.16.15.0.0.0.0.309.1976.0j9j2j1.12.0... .0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..4.12.1974...0j0i67k1j0i24k1.0.VooHH4lJUEE#imgrc=HtEEn0X5MNJuZM:> [B] https://www.google.com/search?q=leed+v4+platinum+taipei+101+award+presentation&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjb2ca8gcDaAhVJ2oMKHU-vCugQ_AUICigB&biw=955&bih=612#imgdii=8Sx5OQvfOQO7yM:&imgrc=qJROrys3TuWC6M: [C] The Taipei 101 Illuminated at Night; December 23, 2016 “Ask Ideas” < https://www.askideas.com/the-taipei-101-illuminated-at-night/> [D] Building Info “Taipei 101” <https://www.taipei-101.com.tw/m/building.aspx?lang=en>


432 PARK AVENUE

RAFAEL VIÃ&#x2018;OLY


432 PARK AVENUE RAFAEL VIÑOLY AND SLCE ARCHITECTS STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: WSP CANTOR SEINUK MEP ENGINEER: WSP FLACK + KURTZ BUILDING MONITORING: VIDARIS, INC. DAMPING: ITT ENIDINE ENERGY CONCEPT: VIDARIS, INC. FAÇADE: ENCLOS CORP.; VIDARIS, INC. INTERIORS: DEBORAH BERKE PARTNERS LANDSCAPE: ZION BREEN & RICHARDSON ASSOCIATES LEED: VIDARIS, INC. LIGHTING: HDLC ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING DESIGN MARKETING: DIALOG BOX DIGITAL ROOFING: VIDARIS, INC. WIND: RWDI NEW YORK CITY UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2011-2015 MODERN HEIGHT: TO TIP: 1,396’ HEIGHT: ARCHITECTURAL: 1,396’ HEIGHT: OCCUPIED :1,287’ 1,200,000 SQFT RESIDENTIAL 104 APARTMENTS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: CONCRETE [1]


[A]


HISTORY AND CONTEXT Site Plan Situated between East 56th and 57th Streets, just west of Park Avenue sits 432 Park Avenue. Taking up a portion of the site once occupied by the former Drake Hotel. Harry Macklowe, a private developer, acquired the hotel and its land in 2006 and proceeded with its demolition in 2007 in order to make way for new development. The site of 432 Park Avenue is sandwiched between other structures in New York’s dense grid of buildings, but despite its cramped conditions it is actually one of the world’s most valuable pieces of land. Macklowe paid $440M for the deed and as such wanted to go tall in order to maximize his investment. Though many look up at the tower in awe of its achievements in height and design, the tower has not escaped scrutiny. Because of tits impressive stature many feel as if the building casts a shadow on Cetera Park, and that the great tower only caters to the mega-rich, representing a greater wealth divide from those found within and those found of the tower, forcing lower and middle income workers to commute in.

432 Park Avenue is one of the latest in a long heritage of towers to be built in the city and it won’t be the last. Following in its predecessors footsteps 432 has contributed to this city’s skyline, ad helped start a new chapter for the future sky scrapers to come. [2,3] [B] 432 Park Av. Site plan.


[B] [A]


[C]


THE DRAKE HOTEL WHERE ONE HOTEL GOES, A HIGH-RISE FOLLOWS. The Drake hotel constructed in the 1920s, New York’s “Golden Age”, was 21 stories tall and contained a once unimaginable 495 rooms. Continuing its grounder in the 1960s it had one of the city’s most popular disco halls, Shepheard’s at the Drake. By the 80s it had been rebranded the Swissotel The Drake. Once located at 440 Park Avenue, the hotel existed as a luxury hotel for its entire existence. Having been renovated several times, most recently in 1999, the hotel retailed its Art Deco Appeal. Over the last decades it became more business friendly, adapting to the Modern Age the suites were equipped with everything from a fax machine to black out shades, to a boardroom. But yet like many of the buildings erected in his age the historic walls came down. [4] [C] Historic Drake Hotel


INSPIRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Rafael Viñoly when conceiving of his design for the tower drew from an unlikely source for his inspiration. A Josef Hoffmann-designed wastebasket released in 1905. Viñoly stated that “If you look at it very carefully you see a rhythm, you see a pattern, you see what we call push-pull between negative and positive.” The basket though not of the same proportion to the super slim tower has the square rectangular pattern the tower has been recognized for. Placing that structural lattice of on the exterior of the buildings shell, like the basket allowed it to go up and create one of the world’s more extreme width to height ratio at 1:15. Demonstrating just how much floor space can be acquired on such a small site. The Tower has done as much as it can with its small plot of land, taking advantage of New York’s desire for premium Manhattan real estate the prices for apartments have been astronomical, with reports that the penthouse suite being sold for $95M. [3] [D] Josef Hoffmann Wastebasket


[D]


[A]

MASSING Now completed 432 Park Avenue soars above its neighbors, and is one of the tallest residential towers in the world. Its apartmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s range from a 355 square foot studio to penthouses between the 91st and 96th floors. Residents also benefit from such amenities as a golf training facility, a private dining restaurant, and cinema screening rooms. Aside from its address, one thing is clear, what these rooms truly offer is an unparalleled view. [2]

[A] View from Penthouse Appartment [E] Massing isometric


[E]


[A]


Mechanical - Mass Dampers

PROGRAM 432 Park Avenue is an exclusively Residential Tower, with extensive amenities within the tower to attract residents. The Building has over 30,000 square feet of amenities, including a restaurant overseen by a Michelin starred chef, Fitness Center designed and serviced by The Wright Fit, 75 foot lap pool, sauna, steam and massage therapy rooms, screening room, billiards room and library.

Mechanical

Residential

Offices Amenities - Pool, Spa Amenities - Gym Amenities - Restaurant Lounge Commercial Loby, Lounge [F]

The floor plate of the building is approximately 9050 sf, with apartments ranging from a studio to a 8255 sf Penthouse. Most apartments however occupy half a floor plate. Mechanical floors are place periodically though the building to service the floors above and bellow. [5] [F] Staking Chart diagram 1:160


Service Elevator

2 Residential Elevators

ELEVATORS The Tower has 10 elevators on its premise. The first of these elevators is actually for cars. To the west of the main tower a platform there is a platform where a Valet brings down the cars for the resident. To accompany that there is a separate elevator for the people to rise from below the tower. The Commercial area though not associated with the Tower, does have a couple of elevators to service itself. The main bulk of the towers elevators however are found in the central core. There is a main Crevice elevator that services all floors. Apart from the maintenance elevator, there are 4 elevators to serve the residents, two of which serve up to the penthouse apartments, while the other two fall just short of that. [5]

2 Residential Elevators

2 Commercial Elevator [G]

Car Elevator 2 Elevators for Garage

[G] Tower Lift Diagram 1:160


Residential floor 77-88 1:15 [H] 2 Appartment Floor Plan


Amenities Floor - Gymnasium 1:15 [I] Amenity Floor plan


[A]

[A]

[A]


[A]

[A]

[A]


[J] South Elevation 1:160

[K] West Elevation 1:160


[L] West Section 1:160

[M] South Section 1:160


[N] Site Plan 1:15


[N] Structural Isometric Core 1:160 [O] Structural Isometric Frame 1:160


[P]

STRUCTURE Inspired by the modernist waste basket, 432 Park Avenue uses the exterior form as a structural element. In order to prevent the necessity of shear walls, the engineers located the core at the center of the plan and reallocated the reinforced concrete structure to the buildings perimeter. This allows for the most amount of flexibility for each floor. The buildings reinforced concrete structure was built in-situ using

a climber rig that was then later dissembled. The building as well as an extensive reinforced concrete structure has deep foundations to Manhattans bedrock. [2] [P] 432 Under Construction


[Q]

AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamic Isometric 1:160 One would expect a tower of these dimensions to suffer under tremendous wind loads. To reduce this two out of every 12 floors were left open to allow wind currents to pass though. In order to allow for a more comfortable experience the tower has several opposed pendulum tuned mass dampers. On both the

West and East side of the building. The tower has two large ones on the top of the building both weighing 660 tons. However smaller ones can be found on some of the maintenance floors. [2,6] [Q] Tuned Mass Damper [R] Aerodynamic Sketch [R]


[S]


[T]

SKIN 432 Park Av. Skin is predominately uniform throughout the building. Viñoli decided to leave the structural concrete visible. He used control joins at all the intersections to further reinforce his squared pastern. Window units were then placed inside the openings. Though they largely look similar there are differences between the different window units.

windows to the rest of the building. Most of the building has the skin expressed in the model, however there are a few exceptions. At the entrance the window condition is obliviously different as there are operable doors. But other than that they do not have the same exterior expression of ventilation. However they do express the slightly inset mullion and flush windows. The bottom also has a more opaque

The building, as previously mentioned has floors open at set intervals to allow air to pass though, however at the first of these intervals they don’t need tot his and instead inset the windows in order to express a “hidden” effect. The top of the building despite being open at the very top still uses glass


[A]

[U]

[A]

windows for continuity. [T] Exploded Skin Isometric [A] Top of Building Window Condition [U] Inset Window Condition [A] Standard Window Condition [U] Bottom of Building Window Condition

[U]


[A]


[A]

SUSTAINABILITY & TECHNOLOGY 432 Park Avenue is not designed or constructed to follow any USGBC (United States Green Building Council) sustainability guidelines, however, many modern sustainable features were implemented during its construction. One area where they payed special attention was the windows. The

building is covered in dual glazed windows, but more importantly the engineers implemented differing filter capabilities to account for the sun at different heights and seasons to minimize for heat loss or ingress. During construction the team were required to comply with city and state regulations regarding sustainable

practices. The building is also retrofitted with energy efficiency appliances. Low-flow fixtures and individually controllable spaces are also being incorporated. [5] [A] High efficiency appliances


[V]

SYSTEMS As previously shown the building has reoccurring mechanical floors every 12 stories. This allows the building to have a high level of flexibility for their plan of mechanical and MEP shafts. The floor illustrated above Is the gymnasium and pool floor and as such has different needs than one of the residential floors that have a

completely different systems layout. [V] Systems Isometric


REFLECTION The first time I saw this building was during my trip to New York with a group of friends. We were walking in the street and happened upon the building and were simply amazed at its proportions. I believe we stood there for twenty minutes or so asking ourselves how it was that the building could even stand. How was it that it was so tall and so skinny? To this day I still find it difficult to comprehend and that is why i chose this building.

criticism as it does stand out around its neighboring buildings. Though i do believe that the building would be just as beautiful if it were shorter it is the height that makes it stand out. Though I doubt I will ever be able to occupy the building i hope one day i might be given the opportunity. This buildings view is like no there in the world and despite its enormous price tag i can actually imagine why. [A] A room with a View

I personally love this building. Not because of its record breaking proportions, but for the proportion of its walls and windows. I am personally a sucker for grid and the grid that Vinoli developed is especially beautiful. From the detailing of the concrete relief pastern, to the 10â&#x20AC;&#x2122;x10â&#x20AC;&#x2122; window openings flush to the wall and how it manages to make the vents of a building which I generally dislike fall int the background.

[A]

I do however believe that it does deserve its fair share of criticism. The main thing that it gets criticism for is its height and its proximity to central park. I can understand this


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

“432 Park Avenue.” The Skyscraper Center, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Mills, Fred. “Room With a View: 432 Park Avenue.” The B1M, 14 Sept. 2016. Pham, Diane. “A Trashcan Inspired the Design of Rafael Viñoly’s 432 Park Avenue.” 6sqft, 31 May 2015. Gunderman, Dan. “A Look at the Drake Hotel and Its Sky-High Replacement.” NY Daily News, NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, 24 Sept. 2016. “432 Park Avenue Condominiums.” 432 PARK AVENUE, www.432parkavenue.com/. Trevor Haskett, and Andy Smith. “Feeling at Home in the Clouds.” STRUCTURE Magazine, Dec. 2017.


IMAGES [A] [C] [D] [N] [P] [Q] [R] [U]

Bannister, Matthew, and Keith Bomely. 432pa South View at Dusk. N.d. 432pa, Cim Group & Macklowe Properties, New York City. Web. Gunderman, Dan. “A Look at the Drake Hotel and Its Sky-High Replacement.” NY Daily News, NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, 24 Sept. 2016. Josef Hoffman Waste-Paper Basket. 1905. © DOB. “432 Park Avenue Floor Plan © DOB.” Www.worldofarchi.com. Karmin, Craig. “Park Avenue Condo Tower Approaches $1 Billion in Sales.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, New York, 8 Oct. 2013. “432 Mass Damper.” STRUCTURE Magazine. Viñoly, Rafael. “432 Park Ave: Sketch with Wind, 2011.” 432 Park Ave: Sketch with Wind - Rafael Viñoly, Paddle 8, 7 Apr. 2015, NYC. “432 24 October 2016.” Field Condition, 24 Oct. 2016.


CMA TOWER HOK


CAPITAL MARKET AUTHORITY TOWER “CMA” LOCATION: RIYADH, SA ARCHITECTURE : HOK / OMRANIA - JOINT VENTURE INTERIORS : OMRANIA / GOETTSCH PARTNERS / DAVID WRENN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING : HYDER CONSULTING / OMRANIA MEP ENGINEERING : WSP ENGINEERING / OMRANIA SITE SUPERVISION : OMRANIA PROJECT MANAGEMENT : SWEETT GROUP CONTRACTOR : SAUDI BINLADIN GROUP (ABCD) BUILDING FUNCTION: OFFICE STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: COMPOSITE ENERGY LABEL: LEED GOLD PROPOSED: 2009 START OF CONSTRUCTION: 2010 COMPLETION: 2018 HEIGHT: ARCHITECTURAL: 385.0 METER / 1263 FEET HEIGHT: TO TIP: 385.0 METER / 1263 FEET FLOORS ABOVE GROUND: 76 FLOORS BELOW GROUND: 4 # OF ELEVATORS: 40 TOP ELEVATOR SPEED: 7 M/S TOWER GFA: 213,300 M² / 2,295,942 SQFT AWARDS: LEED CERTIFICATION LEED GOLD ANTICIPATED INTERNATIONAL PROPERETY AWARDS – BEST COMMERCIAL HIGH-RISE, ARCHITECTURE [1] [2] [3]


[A]


RIYADH

THE CAPTIAL OF SAUDI ARABIA

Riyadh is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the centre of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau and home to more than six million people. The city is divided into 15 municipal districts, managed by the Municipality of Riyadh headed by the mayor of Riyadh, and the Development Authority of Riyadh which is chaired by the governor of the Province, Faisal bin Bandar Al Saud. The current mayor is Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Sultan. Riyadh has been designated a global city. 5L\DGK6DXGL$UDELDÂśVFDSLWDODQGPDLQÂżQDQFLDO hub, is on a desert plateau in the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center. Business district landmarks include the 302m-high Kingdom Centre, with a sky bridge connecting 2 towers, and 267m-high Al Faisaliah Centre, with a glass-globe summit. In the historical Deira district, Masmak Fort marks the site of the 1902 raid that gave the Al Sauds control of Riyadh. Area: 694 mi² (OHYDWLRQĆ? Local time: +3 GMT Population: 6 million (2015)

[4]


[B] [A]


RIYADH

CLIMATE & DEMOGRAPHICS

&ODVVL¿HGDVKDYLQJDKRWGHVHUWFOLmate, temperatures during the summer months are extremely hot. The average high temperature in August is 43.6 °C (110 f). Winters are warm with cool, windy nights. The overall climate is arid, and the city experiences very little rainfall, especially in summer, but receives a fair amount of rain in March and April. It is also known to have dust storms during which the dust can be so thick that visibility is under 10 m (33 ft). [5]

The city had a population of 40,000 inhabitants in 1935 and 83,000 in 1949. Then, the city has experienced very high rates of population growth, from 150,000 inhabitants in the 1960s to over 6 million, according to the most recent sources. According to 2015 census, the population of Riyadh was composed of 65% Saudi families while non-Saudi families accounted for 35% of the population. [6]


[C]

[D]

[E] [F]

[G] [H]

[I] [J]

[A]


CAPITAL MARKET AUTHORITY RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA

[K]


The Capital Market Authority of Saudi Arabia (CMA) is the Saudi governPHQWV ÂżQDQFLDO UHJXODWRU\ DXWKRULW\ responsible for capital markets in Saudi Arabia. The CMA is a government organization applying full ÂżQDQFLDO OHJDO DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLYH independence, and has direct links with the Prime Minister. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responsibilities include setting and policing ÂżQDQFLDO UXOHV DQG UHJXODWLRQV DQG developing the capital markets, this includes regulating the Tadawul, Saudi Arabiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stock exchange. [7]

CMA is part of The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD), which is a new development under construction near King Fahad Road in the Al Aqeeq area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. consisting of 59 towers in an area of 1.6 million square meters. It will provide more than 3 million square meters of space for various uses, 62,000 parking spaces and accommodation for 12,000 residents. In 2011, it was the largest project in the world seeking green building accreditation. [8]


CONTEXT LOCATION

Soaring 385 meters (1263 f) above the surrounding cityscape, the CMA TowHULVWKHFHQWHUSLHFH RIWKH¿QDQFLDO plaza of the King Abdullah Financial District. The iconic 80-story crystalOLQHRI¿FHWRZHUZKLFKZDVWKHUHVXOW of a successful joint venture between Omrania & Associates and HOK , is currently the tallest building in Riyadh. It symbolizes the beginning of D QHZ HUD RI JOREDO ¿QDQFLDO OHDGership within the Saudi capital. [9]


[L]


[M]


THE DESIGN Representing timeless architecture, the WRZHU¶V WUDQVSDUHQF\ UHÀHFWV WKH FXOWXUDO VLJQL¿FDQFH RI WKH FU\VWDOV IRXQG DORQJ the valleys of Saudi Arabia. This transparency creates openness and provides valuDEOH QDWXUDO OLJKWLQJ IRU WKH RI¿FH VSDFHV The design solution is a subtle blend of conventional and well understood techniques combined with international best practice and cutting edge technologies, merged with local expertise of construction techniques and methods for dealing with the harsh natural environment. The high-performance envelope design and integrated facade-access system of the CMA tower represents a unique and integral solution to the challenges associated with facade design for super-tall structures in Riyadh and elsewhere in the region. [10]


[N1]


CONCEPTUAL SKETCHES


[O]


STACKING CHART OFFICE

LOBBY & AMENITY

MECHANICAL


[P1] [P]


LIFT DIAGRAM


[P2]


GROUND FLOOR [P3]


[P4]


FLOOR PLANS


[P5]


FLOOR PLANS


[Q]


CUT DOWN DIAGRAM


[R3]

[R4]

[R5]

[R2]


[R1]


[S2]

[S3]

[S4]


ATRIUM/LOBBY

[S1]


STRUCTURE The design concept of the main tower is that all WKHJUDYLW\ORDGVVKDOOEHFDUULHGE\Ã&#x20AC;RRUIUDPLQJ V\VWHPDQGWUDQVIHUWRFRUHZDOO FRQFUHWH¿OOHG Steel Tubular Columns (CFT). The lateral loads (wind + seismic) are transfer to central core wall system through Transfer Tie beams, Out-Riggers DQGGLDSKUDJPDFWLRQRIFRPSRVLWHÃ&#x20AC;RRULQJ The buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main structural skeleton comprises a central core, perimeter columns, composite Ã&#x20AC;RRUVURRIFURZQDQGDFRQWLQXRXVUDIWIRXQGDtion. The core is made of cast in-site reinforced concrete walls interlinked in a hexagonal-shaped pattern by coupling shear beams. The form tapers inward and outward as it rises, providing Ã&#x20AC;RRUSODWHVWKDWUHDFKVTXDUHIHHWRI JURVVDUHD&OHDUVSDQÃ&#x20AC;RRUSODQVPDLQWDLQWKHLU Ã&#x20AC;H[LELOLW\DQGDGDSWDELOLW\DFURVVHYHU\OHYHORI WKHVWUXFWXUHSURGXFLQJDQHI¿FLHQWLQWHULRUHQYLronment. Combining public circulation and private amenity space, the podium structure at the base of the tower includes an auditorium, cafeteria, and two-story atrium. [11]


HYBRID STRUCTURE The system utilized a composite blend of reinforced concrete and structural steel. In the structural system, a central Y-shaped concrete core works with a composite perimeter braced frame. No columns are vertical, as they sweep in and out with the faceted curtain wall. To maxiPL]HXVDEOHĂ&#x20AC;RRUDUHDDQGPLQLPL]HWKHFRVWDQG quantity of structural materials, they integrated the sloping braces and columns with the facade systems. [12]

[T2]


RIGID FRAME STRUCTURE Dotted around the core wall are six columns separate to the main structure, built from the bottom of the foundations up to ground level. These concrete columns will stop at ground level and be the platform for further columns rising from them. Three of the six emerging columns will split into WZRDWDÃ&#x203A;DQJOHXSWKH¿UVWIRXUOHYHOV7KHVH steel columns will all feed into the all-important ¿IWKÃ&#x20AC;RRUZKLFKLVDKRUL]RQWDOPDWUL[RIVWHHOEDUV WRKROGWKHZHLJKWRIHYHU\Ã&#x20AC;RRUDERYHLW>@

[T1]


STRUCTURE The heart of the tower’s structural support is in the horizontal web of steel. The colossal structure core serves as the bearing element for a gigantic steel construction to ZKLFKWKHH[WHULRUIDFDGHDQGÀRRUVODEV are to be attached. [14]

[U]


[T3]


AERODYNAMICS Most of the winds are northern, and they get scattered by the sharp edges of the building

[V]


[R4]

[R3]

[R5]

[R2]


BUILDING SKIN DOUBLE-SKIN FACADE

The tower is a slender, faceted glass volume emerging from a compact site. The cross-section undulates to create a faceted surface and to reduce impact of wind loading at higher altitudes. A series of concrete super columns offers vertical support at the perimeter and, in conjunction with diagonal framing members, creates a rigid VWUXFWXUDOFDJHZKLOHSURYLGLQJIRUPDOGH¿QLWLRQ The building envelope extends 30 meters beyond WKHWRSÀRRUWRKRXVHDODUJHSKRWRYROWDLFDUUD\ $V\VWHPRIRSHUDEOHGLDJRQDO¿QVLVXVHGWR shade the building under a variety of exposure conditions.

The building form and its high-performance enclosure provide an integrated design solution that addresses the region’s climatic and environmental challenges. The tower’s crystalline facade references the crystals found in wadis—dry ravines located in the Saudi Arabian desert. This transparency creates an open grid and provides access to QDWXUDOOLJKWZLWKLQWKHRI¿FHWRZHU>@


FAĂ&#x2021;ADE DETAILS 7KHÂżUVWVLJQDWXUHEXLOGLQJDW.LQJ$EGXOODK Financial District, the CMA tower will offer innovative facade lighting and access systems. The buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s geometry will contribute to a highly functional, original structure in Riyadhâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s skyline. The skyscraperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crystalline facade will resemble the crystals found in wadis in the Saudi Arabian desert. Its diamond shape will also allow natural light into the building. High-performance, triple-glazed glass will cover the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exterior, which is further shaded by a shroud. The integrated solar control system moderates the intense Saudi light and heat. This high-performance solution reinforces the overall building design as well as its geometry and identity. An external layer provides shade, amplifying WKHWKHUPDOHIÂżFLHQF\RIWKHWULSOHSDQHXQLWL]HG glazing system. The system includes a horizonWDOJDQWU\RQHDFKĂ&#x20AC;RRUZLWKDQDUUD\RIDQJOHG JODVVÂżQVIHDWXULQJDQRIIVHWIULWSDWWHUQ2SWLmized to reduce solar heat gain, the system still allows natural light to enter the building. [16]


ENERGY PERFORMANCE

EXTERIOR GLAZING

CATWALK

FIN SHADING DEVICES


[W]

[X]


[V]

[N2]


MECHANICAL The HVAC system in the CMA Tower serves DOOWKHVSDFHVLQVLGHWKHEXLOGLQJ(DFKĂ&#x20AC;RRULV conditioned by the typical outlet vent that directly connected to central ventiletion duct which goes all the way to the HVAC units in the mechanical Ă&#x20AC;RRUV7KHEXLOGLQJIRUPDQGLWVKLJKSHUIRUmance enclosure provide an integrated design solution that addresses the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s climatic and environmental challenges. High-performance, triple-glazed glass will cover the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exterior, which is further shaded by a shroud. The integrated solar control system moderates the LQWHQVHOLJKWDQGKHDW7KHÂżQVKDGLQJHOHPHQWV are used to reduce the amount of heat reached to the building in order to minimize the electricity consumption. [17] A high-performance enclosure incorporates solar shading, photovoltaic solar collection, facade lighting and an innovative facade access system. This integrated solution reinforces the overall building design and geometry while minimizing solar gain and internal cooling loads and reducing HVAC requirements. Energy is reclaimed through a photovoltaic array installation on the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roof. All of these factors played a major UROHLQZLQQLQJWKH/(('*ROGFHUWLÂżFDWLRQ>@


REFLECTION

[Y]

From the beginning of the current decade, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been going through a remarkable development in several parts. Despite the fact that the most critical development has been the infrastructure, the environment built won the largest segment, and greater attention was given by the government to that. As a result, nowadays we may observe various outstanding buildings over there, mainly in Riyadh which is the capital of Saudi Arabia.

Several challenges were faced while designing the tower. Some of them related to the harsh climate in the area. Besides that, taking advanWDJHRIWKHPDJQLÂżFHQWVXQOLJKW and avoiding the sun heat was a substantial aspect for the designer. Furthermore, in terms of the applied technologies, generating electricLW\RXWRIWKDWWREXLOGVRHIÂżFLHQW building would be extremely desired. Thus, the tower could be a unique combination of phenomenal architectural elements.

With no doubts, The Capital Market Authority Tower â&#x20AC;&#x153;CMAâ&#x20AC;? is considered one of the notable projects regarding the impressive design that was done by HOK, the high technologies applied in the tower, and fundamentally the essential location of the tower which comes as a part of King Abdullah Financial District in the heart of the city. Moreover, the design of the tower represents historical diamonds were found in the ravines in the cenWUDODUHDRI6DXGL$UDELDDQGUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWV the cultural trait and the diversity of the Saudi society.

I personally chose to study this building due to several facts. One of them is that the CMA Tower has gained multiple leading awards. For H[DPSOHWKH/(('*ROG&HUWLÂżFDWH That means, in my perspective, the function of building is well achieved. Also, The CMA Tower is part of The King Abdullah Financial District, which is one of the noticeable projects in Saudi Arabia that has various spectacular buildings were designed by famous architects and architecWXUDOÂżUPV6XFKDV=DKD+DGLG Norman Foster, Gensler, and SOM.

Therefore, being in such a competitive architectural environment and getting the greatest attention leads to the fact that the CMA Tower is one of most successful projects in Riyadh and could be the real spark for a series of distinctive projects in Saudi Arabia in the next few years.


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1] [2] [3]

Hok. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority Tower.â&#x20AC;? HOK, www.hok.com/design/service/architecture/capital-market-authority-tow er/. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority Tower.â&#x20AC;? The Skyscraper Center, www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/capital-market-au thority-tower/8774.

[4]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority (CMA) Headquarters.â&#x20AC;? Omrania, omrania.com/project/capital-market-authority-headquar ters/. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2016, from http://www.arriyadh.com/eng/

[5]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority // .â&#x20AC;? CMA, cma.org.sa/en/AboutCMA/Pages/AboutCMA.aspx.

[6]

(n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2016, from https://web.archive.org/web/20140702070214/http://www.riyadh.gov.sa/en/ pages/riyadhcity.aspx â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority // .â&#x20AC;? CMA, cma.org.sa/en/AboutCMA/Pages/AboutCMA.aspx.

[7] [8]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bombardier wins Saudi deal.â&#x20AC;? Thestar.com, 31 May 2010, www.thestar.com/business/2010/05/31/bombardier_ wins_saudi_deal.html.

[9]

22, 2017 Posted on June. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Turning constraints into design opportunities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CMA Tower, Riyadh.â&#x20AC;? Omrania, 17 July 2017, omrania.com/insights/turning-constraints-design-opportunities-cma-tower-riyadh/.

[10]

17, 2017 Posted on April. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Adaptation and Innovation - CMA Tower, Riyadh.â&#x20AC;? Omrania, 17 Apr. 2017, omrania.com/ insights/adaptation-innovation-cma-tower-riyadh/.

>@

Âł5,<$'+_&DSLWDO0DUNHW$XWKRULW\+HDGTXDUWHUV_P_IW_Ă&#x20AC;_&RP3DJH6N\VFUDSHU&LW\´6N\ scraperCity RSS, www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1010447&page=39.

[12]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority // .â&#x20AC;? CMA, cma.org.sa/en/AboutCMA/Pages/AboutCMA.aspx.

[13]

(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.interiorsandsources.com/article-details/articleid/19685/title/capital-market-authori ty-tower

[14]

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.eversendai.com/web/expertise/structural-steel-design-engineering/

[15]

(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/capital-market-authority-tower-riyadh/

[16]

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=118319141

[17]

H. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hok.com/design/type/commercial/capital-market-authority-tower/

[18]

Roberts, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.constructionweekonline.com/article-13305-site-visit-cma-tower-ri yadh/2/




IMAGES [A]

Capital Market Authority (CMA) Headquarters. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2016, from https://omrania.com/project/ capital-market-authority-headquarters/

[B]

Rougeux, N. (n.d.). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia wall poster. Retrieved April 16, 2016, from https://routelines.com/poster. php?id=193

[C]

22, 2017 Posted on June. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Turning constraints into design opportunities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CMA Tower, Riyadh.â&#x20AC;? Omrania, 17 July 2017, omrania.com/insights/turning-constraints-design-opportunities-cma-tower-riyadh/.

[D]

17, 2017 Posted on April. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Adaptation and Innovation - CMA Tower, Riyadh.â&#x20AC;? Omrania, 17 Apr. 2017, omrania.com /insights/adaptation-innovation-cma-tower-riyadh/.

[E]

Ctbuh. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority Tower Facts | CTBUH Skyscraper Center.â&#x20AC;? Skyscrappercenter, legacy.skyscraper center.com/riyadh/capital-market-authority-tower/8774/.

[F]

Hok. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Capital Market Authority Tower.â&#x20AC;? HOK, www.hok.com/design/service/sustainability-consulting/capital-mar ket-authority-tower/.

[G]

Arch Bridge stock photo. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2018, from https://www.istockphoto.com/photos/low-an gle-big-city-street-view?excludenudity=true&sort=mostpopular&mediatype=photography&phrase=low angle big city street view

[H]

(n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2016, from https://hiveminer.com/Tags/landscape,riyadh/Timeline

[I]

Capital Market Authority (CMA) Headquarters. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2018, from https://omrania.com/project/ capital-market-authority-headquarters/

[J]

Rougeux, N. (n.d.). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia wall poster. Retrieved April 16, 2016, from https://routelines.com/poster. php?id=193

[K]

Gulf Construction Online - Capital attraction, www.gulfconstructiononline.com/news/1620056_Capital-attraction. html.

[L]

Chesters, C. (n.d.). May 2015 sees 40.4% boost in hotel construction. Retrieved April 16, 2018, from http://www. hoteliermiddleeast.com/24106-may-2015-sees-404-boost-in-hotel-construction/[

[M]

User, S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://edgerope.com/index.php/18-slider/148-industrial-rope-access

[N1-2] Capital Market Authority (CMA) Headquarters - Sustainable Design. (2017, April 26). Retrieved from https://www.  \RXWXEHFRPZDWFK"Y [I*=U6OV1$ >2@

5,<$'+_&DSLWDO0DUNHW$XWKRULW\+HDGTXDUWHUV_P_IW_Ă&#x20AC;_&RP3DJH6N\VFUDSHU&LW\ QG  Retrieved from http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1010447&page=39




IMAGES [P1-5] 22, 2. P. (2017, July 17). Turning constraints into design opportunities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CMA Tower, Riyadh. Retrieved from https:// omrania.com/insights/turning-constraints-design-opportunities-cma-tower-riyadh/ [Q]

Gulf Construction Online - Capital attraction, www.gulfconstructiononline.com/news/1620056_Capital-attraction. html.

[R1-5] CMA Tower, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/proj ect/2015/26051/wan-editorial/cma-tower-in-riyadh.html [S1-4] Capital Market Authority Tower. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.interiorsandsources.com/article-details/arti cleid/19685/title/capital-market-authority-tower [T1-3] The GCC's 20 tallest towers under construction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.arabianbusiness.com/photos/thegcc-s-20-tallest-towers-under-construction-507386.html [U]

DNEC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CMA Tower, Riyadh, KSA. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://dnec.com/?portfolio=cma-towerS

[V]

(n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2016, from https://www.interiorsandsources.com/article-details/articleid/19685/title/ capital-market-authority-tower

[W]

22, 2. P. (2017, July 17). Retrieved July 17, 2017, from http://www.highcliff.org/insights/turning-constraints-de sign-opportunities-cma-tower-riyadh/index.html

[X]

(n.d.). Retrieved April 17, 2017, from https://archinect.com/people/project/51139317/cma-tower/51368137

[Y]

H. (n.d.). Retrieved August 05, 2016, from http://www.hok.com/design/type/tall-buildings/capital-market-authori ty-tower/


MAHANAKHON OLE SCHEEREN


MAHANAKHON OLE SCHEEREN OF OFFICE FOR METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE (OMA) STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: BOUYGUES THAI LTD MEP ENGINEER: P & T GROUP BUILDING MONITORING: TURNER INTERNATIONAL LLC ENERGY CONCEPT: CIVILPARK INTERNATIONAL FAÇADE: FACADE ASSOCIATES INTERIORS: DAVID COLLINS STUDIO; IAN SCHRAGER COMPANY LANDSCAPE: LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS 49, LIMTED LIGHTING: OLE SCHEEREN MARKETING: PACE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION PLC. WIND: AURECON; CIVILPARK INTERNATIONAL BANGKOK THAILAND 2011-2016 MODERN HEIGHT: TO TIP: 1,030’ HEIGHT: ARCHITECTURAL: 1,030’ HEIGHT: OCCUPIED :1,287’ 1,600,000 SQFT MIXED USE 200 APARTMENTS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: CONCRETE [1] [2] [3] [4]


[A]

[A]


[A]

[A]


CONTEXT LOCATION The Mahanakhon is a 77-story high-rise complex that is located in Bangkokâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Central Business District, with a direct link to the Chongnosi BTS Skytrain station. During the development of this building, more than 150,000 square meters will be composed of a landscaped public plaza; a multilevel retail center with restaurants, cafes, and 24 hour market place. This building is developed for the people of Bangkok and houses 200 serviced apartments, 150 hotel rooms. Heavy traffic develops around the building on two main roads knwon as Sathorn road and Silom road as well as have access to the Chao Phraya River only a few blocks away from the building.


[A]

[B]


CONTEXT CULTURE AND CLIMATE The culture of Bangkok is influenced by the modern day but still retains the links to its tradition and Buddhist spirituality. Overall, the city is quite busy and loud which in respect to the life, is a good thing to have. Architect Ole Sheeren stated, “The intensity of the trapic, the noise, the spaces of the colors, it’s important to capture the river…it’s also the smaller scale alleys, the small grain of the city”. It is important to realize that you are still a person living in the city and not living above everyone else. Sheeren also said, “By revealing that people are in the tower, you are suddenly connected back to the urban life go the city, the public realm… the public inhabitance is a very strong theme in a way”. Bangkok is mainly a tropical climate which means there are three seasons that will typically occur. March through June is the hot season, July through October is the rainy season and November through February is the cool season. Bangkok holds the claim as being the hottest city in the world and can expect to be around 86 degrees Fahrenheit to 104 degrees Fahrenheit for a majority of the year. [7]


[C]

[A] Image title and comment. Anchored to lower margin. Left justified. Body text.


INSPIRATION & DESIGN OLE SCHEERENS MIND The true design of the Mahanakhon goes against what other building forms that are continuously being used around the city. It dismantles the typical tower and podium style and integrates itself within the city by gradually dissolving as it pixelates downward toward the ground. The meaning behind the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pixelâ&#x20AC;? idea was to reveal the inner life of the building and was constructed to generate unobstructed panoramas and offers rare birds-eye views of the city and Chaophraya River. The pixels have specific features including projecting glass skyboxes with sweeping views and generous indoor/outdoor spaces to be coherent with the tropical climate of Bangkok. [5] [6]


[F]


[E] As seen above there have been many kinds of designs with the intent to pixelate a building. Many of the buildings above share the same idea or representation of showing life through a building. By having opacity on a majority of the exterior of the buildings they are able to accomplsih this.Through many revisions and case studies, Ole Scheeren was successful with designing the Mahanakhon Tower.


[D]


STACKING CHART MAHANAKHON LAYOUT This 77 story structure houses many residences and amenities throughout the building. The Edition Hotel houses 159 rooms, The Ritz-Carlton Residences houses 207 units with larger sky residences taking higher level floors. A full single floor of facilities for residents only is on the 7th floor as well as the Ritz-Carlton Club. On the 54th floor there is a lounge specifically for residences to relax and take a break from daily life. Mechanical rooms can be located on floors 21-22 and then again of floor 55 between typical residences and the sky residences.

[A]


DETAIL LAYOUT MAHANAKHON LAYOUT

the retail center, also known as the cube features many flashy and expensive restaurants and stores such as morimoto, vogue lounge, and other leading local operators. the skytrain is also located adjacent to the building which makes traveling much easier than traveling through the highly conjested city.

The edition hotel is postition as a high end boutique hotel that consists of 159 rooms occupying floors 1, 5-6 and 8-21. These rooms offers spectacular panoramic views of bangkok. The interior of the hotel have vivid detailing with an elegance of design using a contemporary-classic design.


Residences range in area from 125 to 850 square meters although some high end rooms have 1,500 square meters of space. Designed to be similar to a new york style apartment the residences have a hefty price tag in the millions of dollars. The ceiling heights of these rooms range from 3.1 - 3.4 Meters tall in single floor homes and more than 7 meters in duplexes.

The observation deck, (which will open this year) includes outstanding 360 degree views of downtown bangkok and includes 2 bars which are employed by the ritz-carlton staff. The elevator that is only used for the observation deck is all glass and a circular style which allows the viewers to take in all of the rich culture from the highest structure in bangkok.


LIFT DIAGRAM VERTICAL CIRCULATION

These residences are known as the citys most prestigues freehold apartment style living. Many of the homes are one of a kind that offer large outdoor spaces connected to the rooms with the â&#x20AC;&#x153;picalationâ&#x20AC;? aspect. Bedrooms are decorated with high end grain-laid oak flooring and stone offered in 2 colors. A double glazed curtain wall facade ensures that each resident recieves a view to the city while also controling the internal temperature and noise levels.

The oversized living room features custom furniture and decorative elements such as custom curtains for the large curtain wall. Next to the living room is the skybox which offers a 270 degree view of bangkok and also provides a formal dining room. Public residential areas include 7 high-speed elevators and 2.5 Meter wide corridors featuring custom designed travertine stone and carpet with silk wall coverings.


BUILDING STRUCTURE STARTING FROM TH E GROUND UP MahaNakhon tower has a total gravitational load of 3,000 MN, which is the combination of the superstructure self-weight of 1,600 MN, the superimposed dead load of 460 MN, the live load of 350 MN, and the mat foundation self-weight of 590 MN. The whole tower is supported by an 8.75-meter- thick mat foundation, with 129 barrette piles measuring 1.2 x 3.0 m with the pile tip reaching 65 m below grade, founded in Bangkok’s second sand layer.

The design of the pile-raft took into account the soil-structure interaction by estimating the most appropriate set of stiffness of the barrettes with PLAXIS. Each individual barrette pile behaves like a spring to support the mat foundation. Spring stiffness varies from pile to pile due to the “group-effect” involved by the stress interference from the surrounding piles.

The total concrete quantity is approximately 22,000 m3. Due to the fact that the project is located at the heart of business district in downtown Bangkok, the maximum delivery rate of concrete was limited to 4,000 m3 per day. The combined constraints of heat control and concrete availability led the sequential pouring of 12 horizontal layers. Each layer was about 1 m thick, with adequate shear transfer rebar. Twelve (12) continuous working hours were required for each pour.


FOUNDATION AND CORE STARTING FROM THE GROUND UP The casting for the foundation had taken longer than expected because of the building is in the central business district and took 2 months to complete.The center of the core has 6 different layers of concrete due to the thickness. Overall the casting process was done in 12 pours total. It has a 8.75m thick concrete foundation that contains 22,000 m^3 of concrete and 3,200 Tons of rebar to ensure the support of the structure. Not only is the foundation important but the columns that actually make the structure complete was also a complicated task. Because the pixalation causes opening in the building 30 % of the building has cantilevers making it more difficult to construct. Overall, there are a total of 12 mega-columns surronding the core walls with a concrete strength of 60 MPa.

These can be respresented with the images to the right. The first main set of core walls are 22m x 22m that span from B1 to level 20, the next set of core walls are 22m x 17m that span from level 21 to level 52 and the last core walls are 22m x 14m that span from level 52 to level 73.There are a total of 7 levels of columns that make up the structural design that decrease in size as it moves upwards. From the Basement to level 7, Level 8 to level 19, level 20 to level 29, level 30 to level 39, level 40 to level 50, Level 51 to level 59 and then level 60 to Roof level 73. The image on the right hand side of the page is accompanied by a table that shows the color of the coulmn that matches with the diagram. The table shows the location of the coulns with the size of the column.

In a tall building with a high slenderness ratio, human comfort must be carefully addressed. The presence of 3 levels of outriggers on levels 19â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20, 35â&#x20AC;&#x201C;36, and 51â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 52 was necessary to improve the stiffness of the tower by linking the center core walls with the surrounding megacolumns to create a pushpull mechanism with tension and compression forces in the outer columns,applying a couple to the core that acts against the cantilever bending under wind loads. The belt truss surrounding the building brings all external columns into action. This mechanism minimizes the fundamental period of the tower, the dynamic part of the wind loads, the lateral drifts and accelerations, lowering the risk of human discomfort.


WIND ANALYSIS STARTING FROM THE GROUND UP

A wind tunnel test was completed by Dr. Virote Boonyapinyo of Thammasat University (March, 2009). During this time period he completed 36 directions of wind loads that could possibly the affect of the structures construction.

Lateral Performance

Wind Design Speed

Acceleration: 15 mg under the 10 year wind event

V = 25.00 m/s @ 10m/50 years return period V = 20.25 m/s @ 10m/10 years return period

Overall Maximum Deflection: H/500 ( H = building height) under the 10 year wind Interstory drift: h/200 ( H = Story height) Under the 10 year wind


SKIN DESIGN EXTERIOR The Mahanakhon wall system is a unitized curtain wall that are comprised of larrge units of glass and mullions as well as certain hooks that can lock the units together. These unitized systems can as large as a couple stories tall by 5 to 6 feet wide. They chose to use unitezed systems on the exterior because of the specific low e double glazed glass panels that fit into place between each mullion.

Hence, the remaining allowable relative vertical movement between facade panels was only 19mm. both short-term and long-term relative slab deflections should be compatible with this acceptable movement of 19mm, otherwise the two adjacent panels may clash and cause damage to each other.

Hence, the remaining allowable relative vertical movement between facade panels was only 19mm. both short-term and long-term relative slab deflections should be compatible with this acceptable movement of 19mm, otherwise the two adjacent panels may clash and cause damage to each other.


RHINO MODEL EXPLODED

Mahanakhons floor plates very from floor to floor throughout the tower, therefore providing a limited number of typical floors. Hence, all floors were analyzed to represent the vertical and rotational deflections from a floor plate to adjacent floor plates. The pixelation as seen on the image above describes how the curtain walls exist to show the inner life of the building from outside but as well as the life outside the glass walls.


BUILDING PERFORMANCE AND MEP SUSTAINABILITY Each level of the Mahanakhon is equiped with a low-e double-glazed curtain wall that allows minimal heat transfer inside the residences and hotel. All of the retail units have their own independent controls for power, air, and water which ensures the greatest amount of comfort for the guests. The lighting throughout the tower consists of modern LED lighting in addition to other conservation strategies such as energy management, traffic management, mechanical parking systems, smart home automation and much more. Overal the design of the building provides significant innovation through service routing to maintenance floors thus reducing the impact on residences for servicing HVAC equipment.


REFLECTION MAHANAKHON TOWER

The Mahanakhon Tower in Bangcok, Thailand is an inspiration to all architecture around the globe. This building desribes in detail how it effects the city and its environment in a positive and profficent manner. The pixelation of the building reveals the life of the inside of the the tower and thus becoming one with the life of the world around it. This aspect of the building which is one of the main ones speaks to me the most and is a deep and interesting concept to think about. As i was reading about this specific tower i thought of a quote that was told to me during one of my studios, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Architecture sucks the life out of you, thats why we give life to out buildings.â&#x20AC;? To me this is one of the most important things an architect can do to an idea. Other aspects of the building that i enjoyed researching were the construction and structure because of the shear size of the building within such as small work area and site. Thousands of tons of concrete had to be poured and set within a specific time frame to ensure proper curing and settling. Overall this tower is a stunning piece of architecture that has set a standard for future buildings with a pixelated facade.


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1] Etherington, Rose. “MahaNakhon by OMA.” Dezeen, Dezeen, 26 Feb. 2016, www.dezeen.com/2009/07/23/mahanakhon-by-oma/. [2] “Arup.” Structural Engineering of The MahaNakhon Tower - Arup, www.arup.com/projects/mahanakhon. [3] “FAQs.” MahaNakhon, www.mahanakhon.com/faq.php. [4] “MahaNakhon.” The Skyscraper Center, www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/mahanakhon/8725. [5] http://buro-os.com/mahanakhon/ [6] “Is This the World’s Craziest New Skyscraper?” CNN, Cable News Network, 18 Dec. 2016, edition.cnn.com/style/article/ ole-scheeren-bangkok-skyscraper/index.html. [7] www.bangkok.com/weather.htm. [8] http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/presentations/the-structural-design-and-construction-of-mahanakhon-tower.pdf “MahaNakhon, Bangkok.” Verdict Designbuild, www.designbuild-network.com/projects/mahanakhon-bangkok/. http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/2403-the-structural-design-and-construction-of-the-mahanakhon-tower. “MahaNakhon.” Arcadis, www.arcadis.com/en/belgium/wat-we-doen/projecten/asia/thailand/mahanakhon/. http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/2399-mahanakhon-a-pixelated-punctuation-mark-on-the-bangkok-sky-


IMAGES [A] “BANGKOK - City, Skyline, and Streetscape.” SkyscraperCity RSS, www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread. php?t=256109&page=6. [B] http://www.bangkokvideoproductions.com/Profile/news/bangkokbuildingsmahanakhonbuilding [C] “Ole Scheeren: Mahanahkhon.” Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine, 1 Sept. 2016, www.designboom.com/ architecture/ole-scheeren-mahanahkhon/. [D] Building Residences, www.mahanakhon.com/residences.php. [E] https://archidialog.com/ [F] www.designboom.com/architecture/ole-scheeren-mahanahkhon/. [G] http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/presentations/the-structural-design-and-construction-of-mahanakhon-tower.pdf ARUP, www.arup.com/projects/mahanakhon. “ MahaNakhon/ ...” IDAAF, 8 Sept. 2016, idaaf.com/ka/mahanak-


THE SHARD RENZO PIANO


THE SHARD RENZO PIANO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: WSP GLOBAL MEP ENGINEER: ARUP BUILDING MONITORING: VIDARIS, INC. DEVELOPER: SELLAR PROPERTY GROUP OWNER: STATE OF QATAR LONDON UNITED KINGDOM 2009-2012 MODERN HEIGHT: TO TIP: 1,017’ HEIGHT: ARCHITECTURAL: 802’ 1,200,000 SQFT MIXED-USE STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: STEEL & CONCRETE [1]


[A]


HISTORICAL CONTEXT 32 LONDON BRIDGE ST, SOUTHWARK LONDON Southwark London has been an important junction of infrastructure ever since the Romans constructed a bridge there across the Thames. Also traditionally known as The Borough, Southwark is the region directly South of the Thames River. Historically there have been many bridges connecting Southwark to the city of London. As early as the 10th century, Southwark became a prevalent region of England. Because of its location South of the London Bridge and the city of London, Southwark inherently became a node for defense for the bridge and main city. Southwark truly began to develop during the 13th century when important markets occupied the are due to its location and ease of access. On 0D\WKDJUHDWÂżUHEURNHRXW destroying most of Southwark and the City of London. This resulted in redevelopment that would later become what Southwark is today. Throughout the 1800s London began developing its railway system with Southwark being at the heart of it. This set a tone for what Southwark is today.

In 1998, London-based entrepreneur Irvine Sellar chose to redevelop the Southwark Towers in response to the UK government encouraging development of tall buildings at major transport hubs. Sellar took a trip to Berlin to meet with architect Renzo Piano in hopes of commissioning him to design the skyscraper. Before the meal was over, Piano had already drawn a spire like tower emerging from the historic London Bridge cityscape. In 2007 preparations to destroy the Southwark Towers began, DPLGVWRIDÂżQDQFLDOFULVLVWKDWSXWWKH building of the Shard in jeopardy. The demolition of the Southwark Towers was completed in early 2009, and preparation for the Shard began immediately on the site. The area is generally mixed development, with council estates, major RIÂżFH GHYHORSPHQWV VRFLDO KRXVLQJ and high value residential gated communities side by side with each other. The Shard itself sets nearly on top of the railway lines that run through Southwark. This existing element had D VWURQJ LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFH LQ 5HQ]R 3LDQRÂśV design. [1, 2]


[B]

[A]

[C]

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[F]


[G]

DESIGN CONCEPT RAILROADS, SPIRES, & SAILS 7KHUH ZHUH WKUHH VSHFL¿F WKLQJV LQ London that inspired Renzo Pianos design for the Shard. The railway lines next to the site, the London spires painted by 18th century Venetian painter, Canaletto, and the masts of sailing ships. Because the Shard was to be built on a very historic site in London, there was a lot of controversy towards its very sharp and shard like shape. Piano explained that his design would be far less intruding to the historically rich London landscape than what his opponents of the project alleged.

He said, the entire building facade design revolves around connecting the building to the sky rather than using the sky as a space. Because the entire building facade is angled JODVV SDQHV WKLV VHDVRQDO UHÀHFWLRQ is very apparent from all over the city. Although it seems as if the Shard would take on a lot of heat gain, Arup engineered a ventilated inner cavity housing a solar-control system. The unique site the Shard is built on gives way to its overall shape and size. [1, 2, 4]

[G] Venetian painter, Canaletto. Painting of a tall spire, much like the shape of the Shard. [H] Renzo Piano sketch. Cutting a section through the Shard and its surrounding buildings. [I] Renzo Piano sketch. Very early conceptual drawing of the Shard, SHUKDSVWKH¿UVWGUDZLQJ3LDQRGLG


[I]

[H]


[J]

SITE & SKYLINE ATTENTION TO LARGE AND SMALL SCALE One of the strongest characteristics of the Shard is its attention to street level and pedestrian interaction. Piano was able to achieve while keeping his strong poetic concept. He wanted to secure the future of the London Bridge Quarter district with the design of the Shard. Another important aspect of the design is the way it prioritizes public transportation over the automobile. Its not very often that you see a skyscraper that has thoughtful consideration towards its historic context and the future.

The Shard is also to be seen as an energizer for South London as it has been in the shadow of the central city for the past few years. There are no buildings in London that come close to the height of the Shard which immediately makes it a landmark on London’s skyline. The only other true skyscrapers in London are located in the central city across the Thames from the Shard. This distance provides the Shard with some breathing room that in turn makes its height even more spectacular. [4, 5, 6]

[J] The Shard site plan. This shows the tower’s location in relation to London Bridge station and its surrounding context. [K] The Shard in London’s Skyline. Shows little competition for the Shard’s height. [L] The Shard in London’s Skyline. When stepping back even further you can see the other skyscrapers in the center of the city.


[K]

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[M]


AXON PARTI THE SHARDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S FORM The angled glazing of the Shard creates its trademark shape and form. In this model you can see how its facades dissipate into sharp points at the top of the building.


[N]


PROGRAM VERTICAL CITY The Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s program has a wide variety to provide a central structure for London and its growing populaWLRQ7KLVLQFOXGHVRI¿FHVSDFHKRWHO & spa, restaurants, retail, apartments, and a 15â&#x20AC;&#x2122; viewing platform. The Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s amenities and living spaces are certainly luxurious and KLJKGROODUÃ&#x20AC;RRUVRIWKHEXLOGLQJ are habitable while the spire consists of 15 levels that are not accessible. 7KHUHDUHOLIWVDQGÃ&#x20AC;LJKWVRI stairs throughout the entire building.


OBSERVATORY (68-72) - 15,000 SQFT

APARTMENTS (53-65) - 60,000 SQFT

HOTEL (34-52) - 190,000 SQFT

RESTUARANTS (31-33) - 30,000 SQFT

OFFICE (2-28) - 590,000 SQFT

PUBLIC LOBBY (0-1) 20,000 SQFT

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PARKING

STACKING DIAGRAM


LOCAL LIFTS SHUTTLES

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LIFT DIAGRAM


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TYPICAL HOTEL (FLOOR 39) 1.'ƵĞƐƚZŽŽŵ 2.'ƵĞƐƚ^ƵŝƚĞ

TYPICAL APARTMENT (FLOOR 60) 0

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OBSERVATION 800â&#x20AC;&#x2122; ABOVE GROUND 2QÃ&#x20AC;RRURIWKH6KDUGLVZKHUH \RXZLOO¿QGWKH¿UVWOHYHORIWKH REVHUYDWLRQSODWIRUP7RWDOÃ&#x20AC;RRUWR ceiling heights in the space reach 15â&#x20AC;&#x2122; in some places, and in others being completely open to the sky above. Looking straight up you can see multiple inaccessible mechanical levels. On these levels is where the mechanical arm for cleaning the glass facade is housed. There is a designated shuttle that runs from ground level up to the observation deck in seconds.

[T] Mechanical levels above observation decks. These levels are closed off from the public. Equipment for maintaining the glass facade is housed here. [U] 7KH REVHUYDWLRQ GHFN RQ Ã&#x20AC;RRU 68 of the Shard. Here one can see how the observation deck is exposed to the sky above. [V]  7KH REVHUYDWLRQ GHFN RQ Ã&#x20AC;RRU 68 of the Shard. This portion of the REVHUYDWLRQ GHFN LV DFWXDOO\ ¿WWHG with fake grass which creates a roof garden feeling.


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20’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 15’ 10’ 15’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 10’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 12’ 15’

NORTH SECTION

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AERODYNAMICS + STRUCTURE The structural engineer for the Shard was WSP Group. The Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure is constructed of steel and concrete. The unique combination of top down construction and typical ground-up construction allowed the contractors to build the the concrete FRUHDQG¿UVWÃ&#x20AC;RRUVRIWKH6KDUG before excavation the below grade parking garage. It consists of conFUHWHFRUHVFRPSRVLWHÃ&#x20AC;RRUVDQG steel structure members.


[X]

WIND EFFECT AERODYNAMIC The Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unique form isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just IRUORRNVDVLWLVYHU\HI¿FLHQWZKHQLW comes to wind loads. Because there are no 90 degree corners on the 6KDUGWKHZLQGFDQHDVLO\GHÃ&#x20AC;HFW and pass around the facade with little interruption. The tapered form allows the Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center of gravity to be lower than a typical rectilinear tower creating maximum stability against wind loads.

[X] Scale model of the shard being tested in a wind tunnel. Allows for detailed analysis of wind effect on the building before actually building it.


WIND DIAGRAM

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STRUCTURE STEEL AND CONCRETE The core of the Shard is comprised of concrete and tapers off as the elevation increases creating the pointed form. The Shard has about 54,000 cubic metric tons of concrete and the steel system has a weight of about 11,000 tons. The steel columns are aligned with the slope of the tower, and the size, weight, and spacing of the columns get smaller as the ÀRRUVJRXS7KHRI¿FHOHYHOVRIWKH Shard are designed with steel while the hotel and apartment levels are precast concrete.

[Y] Steel structure at the top of the Shard. Here one can see how the concrete core turns into steel trusses for a lighter structural system. [Z] The concrete core of the Shard during construction. The core was made by slip forming, and was constructed at a rate of 3 meters per day. [AA] 7KHREVHUYDWLRQGHFNRQÀRRU 68 of the Shard. This portion of the REVHUYDWLRQ GHFN LV DFWXDOO\ ¿WWHG with fake grass which creates a roof garden feeling.


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Step one: The secant pile wall is installed around the perimeter along with the plunge piles and columns.

Step two: 7KHJURXQGĂ&#x20AC;RRUVODERIWKHEXLOGLQJ is cast and excavation begins down to level two of the basement.


Step three: 7KHÀRRUVODEDWEDVHPHQWOHYHOWZR is cast and the slipform for core construction erected to “jump start” the core. As the core goes up excavation below basement level two continues.

Step four: As the core construction continues, the raft foundation is cast as basement level three (the lower red level in the picture) before the concrete walls between the base of the core and the raft are installed.


CHEVRON BRACING

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

CHEVRON BRACING

CORE DIAGRAM

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STEEL

CONCRETE

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STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM


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SKIN TRIPLE GLAZING

(DFKÀRRURIWKH6KDUGLVFRPSULVHG of 114 triple glazed panels each approximately 5’ wide and 10’ high. There are a total of 112,000 panels throughout the entire facade. This triple glazed system provides a very HQHUJ\HI¿FLHQWWRZHUXVLQJPRtorized rollers the Shard has great control over its solar gain.


[CC]

111,200 PANELS EXPENSIVE EFFICIENCY Although the Shard is extremely HQHUJ\HIÂżFLHQWDOORIWKHVHKLJK quality clear blue glass panels werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cheap. The total 55,000 SQ M curtainw all package apparently cost around $75,000,000. To put this in perspective, the original budget for the entire tower was $375,000,000.

[CC] Modular test unit built before construction of the Shard. This is VKRZLQJ D Ă&#x20AC;RRU WR Ă&#x20AC;RRU LQVWDQFH with the triple glazed curtain wall and motorized roller system. [DD] Placement of each curtain wall panel module. Each panel coming in at around 5â&#x20AC;&#x2122; wide and 10â&#x20AC;&#x2122; tall. [EE] Corner instance where exterior single pane of glass extends interior walls to create an exterior sharp edge.


[DD]

[EE]


DGU INNER PANE/ WEATHER LINE FLOOR MOUNTED MULLION ROLLER BLIND HOUSE

ROLLER BLIND ON TENSION RODS ALUMINUM CONNECTOR ALUMINUM MULLION SINGLE PANE EXTERIOR

SKIN DETAIL

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PERIMETER COLUMN 6” RAISED FLOOR CONCRETE DECK 20” MAXIMUM BEAM DEPTH


[FF]

SKIN FROM THE INSIDE ALL WHITE Throughout the entire tower the curWDLQZDOOKDVDYHU\FRQVLVWHQ¿QLVK Painted white aluminum that nearly vanishes into the sky as one looks out the window. Something that does change throughout the building is WKH¿QLVKRQWKHSHULPHWHUVWUXFWXUDO columns. Sometimes there will be DUHFLWOLQHDU¿QLVKFLUFXODU¿QLVKRU exposed structure.

[FF]  9LHZ IURP Ã&#x20AC;RRU  LQVLGH D UHVWDXUDQW1RWHZLGWKDQG¿QLVKRI perimeter column in comparison to the light aluminum mullions holding up the curtain wall. [GG] 9LHZ IURP Ã&#x20AC;RRU  LQVLGH an apartment. Corner instance in ZKLFKFHLOLQJVHHPVWREHÃ&#x20AC;RDWLQJ Perimeter columns become much lighter. [EE]9LHZIURPÃ&#x20AC;RRULQVLGHDKRWHO bedroom. Note how they choose to hide the perimeter columns in the hotel, as they become part of the walls that seperate each room.


[GG]

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WINDOW WASHERS MECHANICAL ARMS Because of the unique tapering of the Shard, the mechanical arm housed in the spire can not cater to the entire tower. There are multiple secondary arms housed in the various mechanical levels throughout the tower. This allows for direct access to cleaning the middle and lower levels of the tower.

[II] Mechanical arm reaching out from a mechanical level midway up the tower. Holding a carriage with two workers inside.

[JJ] Window cleaning day at the Shard. This photo shows muliple mechanical arms through the mid levels of the tower and at the very top. Here you can see workers using harnesses to clean the windows.


[JJ]


[KK]


MECHANICAL SYSTEMS GLASS MACHINE

The Shard is very expensive, but sustainable tower. The unique sharp tapering form is what gives way to many of the Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mechanical characteristics, including ventilation, solar control, and conditioning. In order to maintain the original design intent many innovations were made.


[LL]

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SYSTEMS NATURAL AND MECHANICAL The Shard consists of a balance between mechanical and natural ways in which the building is maintained. The most notable is the triple glazing system that allows for maximum control over solar gain. Ventilation is also achieved through the cavity within the panels and corner condiWLRQVRQHDFKÀRRUOHYHO$OOPHchanical systems are housed in the “backpack” allowing for the Shard’s form to be center stage.

[LL] Intelligent blind control system is used to track the position and intensity of the sun to deploy the blinds only when required.

[NN] 18 story extrusion on the south side of the Shard known as the “backpack”. On the roof of the backpack is where all systems that require outside air are housed. [OO] Diagram showing the use of the unique corner conditions of the Shard as a ventilation system. This allows for maintaining the seamless glass facade from ground level to spire.


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FRACTURES

BACKPACK

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CORE + MEP

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TYPICAL HOTEL FLOOR (LEVEL 39) 1. CENTRAL HVAC SHAFT 2. HVAC DUCT 3. ELECTRICAL SHAFT 4. PLUMBING CAVITY 5. INTERIOR WALL


[N]


REFLECTION THE SHARD Before this assignment I had never really understood how a skyscraper functions, whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mechanically, structurally, environmentally, or even socially. Studying the Shard was great opSRUWXQLW\WRGLYHLQWRDOOWKHVHÂżHOGVDVWKLVWRZHUWDNHVRQWKHYHUWLFDOFLW\SHUVRQD7RDFKLHYH this status, the tower must maintain a sustainable living environment for its occupants. In other words, the people living or visiting the Shard should have the choice of whether they want to leave the property while still maintaining a high level of comfortability. To achieve this high level of comfortability, the Shard introduces a wide variety of sustainable and technological features that ensure the pleasure of its occupants. I chose to study the Shard because Renzo Piano is my favorite architect, and he was the lead GHVLJQHUIRUWKLVWRZHU,DPPHVPHUL]HGE\KLVDWWHQWLRQWRGHWDLOVSHFLÂżFDOO\LQWKHVNLQRU façade of his projects. The Shard is a prime example of a skin driven Piano design, as the glass façade is one of its most prominent features. This ridiculous feat of engineering didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t come at a cheap price, which is one of my only critiques of this building. It is very ecofriendly, but this came at a cost far above the original projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s budget. I think this error was great for me to further understand towers from a logistical or constructional stand point. Overall, I have learned to be both critical and imaginative when it comes to tower design. I have developed a diagrammatic understanding for representing how a tower functions and have further developed my architectural vocabulary. My favorite part of this assignment was modeling and diagramming my tower, as I learned how to take something that seems like a daunting task, and turn it into a streamlined presentation that is very readable.


REFERENCES INFORMATION [1]

Parker, John. “Articles - Building the Shard.” Ingenia magazine - Royal Academy of Engineering, Sept. 2012, www. ingenia.org.uk/Ingenia/Articles/790.

[2]

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Southwark.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 10 Apr. 2014, www.britannica.com/place/Southwark-London.

[3]

Koller-Alonso, Paula. “The History Of The Shard In 1 Minute.” Culture Trip, 25 Mar. 2016, theculturetrip.com/europe/ united-kingdom/england/london/articles/the-history-of-the-shard-in-1-minute/.

[4]

“Renzo Piano: the Shard in London Opens to Public.” Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine, 17 July 2014, www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-the-shard-in-london-now-complete/.

[5]

Association, Press. “23 Facts about the Shard.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 5 July 2012, www. theguardian.com/uk/2012/jul/05/23-facts-about-the-shard.

[6]

“About.” The Shard, www.the-shard.com/shard/.

[7]

Ctbuh. “The Shard, London.” Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/Featured TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildingArchive2013/TheShardLondon/tabid/6020/language/en-US/Default.aspx.


IMAGES [A]

James, Holloway. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bleeding edge: anatomy of a 21st century skyscraper.â&#x20AC;? Ars Technica, 4 Dec. 2011, arstechnica.com/gadgets/2011/12/the-shards-bleeding-edge-anatomy-of-a-21st-century-skyscraper/.

[B]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Family Ties.â&#x20AC;? Pinterest, 30 Mar. 2016, www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/393642823661684997/.

[C]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Southwark Towers.â&#x20AC;? Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Feb. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southwark_Towers.

[D]

Old London Photos from Southwark Library, www.lyons-family.co.uk/Lyons/london-old-photos/southwark-libraryprints-mar2008.htm.

[E]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pub attached to the hotel - Picture of Premier Inn London Southwark (Bankside) Hotel, London.â&#x20AC;? TripAdvisor, www. tripadvisor.co.uk/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g186338-d276502-i99370243-Premier_Inn_London_Southwark_ Bankside_Hotel-London_England.html.

[F]

Google Earth

[G]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Canaletto (1697 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1768).â&#x20AC;? Pinterest, www.pinterest.dk/sergiomundi/canaletto-1697-1768/?lp=true.

[H]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Renzo piano: the shard in london opens to public.â&#x20AC;? Designboom | architecture & design magazine, 17 July 2014, www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-the-shard-in-london-now-complete/.

[I]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;[Exhibition] â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Piano Methodâ&#x20AC;? Renzo Piano Building Workshop.â&#x20AC;? BMIAA, www.bmiaa.com/events/exhibi tion-the-piano-method-renzo-piano-building-workshop/.

[J]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Shard London Bridge - Data, Photos & Plans.â&#x20AC;? WikiArquitectura, en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/shard-londonbridge/.

[K]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;South London Skyline, UK, The Shard and London Bridge Station; Time Lapse Stock Video Footage - VideoB locks.â&#x20AC;? Stock Video Footage - VideoBlocks, www.videoblocks.com/video/south-london-skyline-uk-the-shard-and-lon don-bridge-station-time-lapse-brfj9nygliv2xetjq.

[L]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;London Quarterâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shardâ&#x20AC;? Glass Architecture skycity â&#x20AC;&#x153;London skylineâ&#x20AC;? on thoughtsfromtheblonde side.â&#x20AC;? Thoughtsfromtheblondeside, thoughtsfromtheblondeside.wordpress.com/tag/london-shard-london-quar ter-the-shard-glass-architecture-skycity-london-skyline/.

[M]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shard Day and Night Tickets.â&#x20AC;? A Guide To The Shard, 1 Mar. 2017, www.shardldn.com/shard-day-night-tick ets/.

>1@

5HDOODÂł7KH6KDUG3DUWWK)ORRU2IÂżFHIRUUHQW´5HDOODFRUHDOODFRPWKHVKDUGSDUWWKĂ&#x20AC;RRUORQGRQ  bridge-street.

[O]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hotel Review: The Shangri-La at The Shard, London.â&#x20AC;? Luxury Travel Beat, 9 Aug. 2016, luxurytravelbeat. com/2014/11/17/hotel-review-the-shangri-la-at-the-shard-london/.


IMAGES [P]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shard.â&#x20AC;? The Workplace Company, www.theworkplacecompany.co.uk/TheShard.html.

[Q]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shard.â&#x20AC;? The Workplace Company, www.theworkplacecompany.co.uk/TheShard.html.

[R]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Your Shangri-La Story.â&#x20AC;? About Shangri-La Hotel London | Quality Five Star Hotel, www.shangri-la.com/london/ shangrila/about/.

[S] 

Lewis, Jamie. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Shard: First Images of ÂŁ50m Penthouse Mansion Flat 735ft above Ground Level.â&#x20AC;? International %XVLQHVV7LPHV8.0D\ZZZLEWLPHVFRXNVKDUGÂżUVWLPDJHVPLOOLRQĂ&#x20AC;DWIWDERYH

[T]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The View from the Shard in the snow, London â&#x20AC;&#x201C; On the Luce travel blog.â&#x20AC;? On the Luce travel blog, 18 Feb. 2016, www.ontheluce.com/the-view-from-the-shard-in-the-snow/.

[U]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bar for champagne and coffee - Picture of The View from The Shard, London.â&#x20AC;? TripAdvisor, www.tripadvisor.ie/ LocationPhotoDirectLink-g186338-d3539289-i183863421-The_View_from_The_Shard-London_England.html.

[V]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Viewing platform - Picture of The View from The Shard, London.â&#x20AC;? TripAdvisor, www.tripadvisor.co.uk/LocationPho toDirectLink-g186338-d3539289-i112798687-The_View_from_The_Shard-London_England.html.


OVERALL BOOKLET REFERENCES IMAGES [FRONT COVER] PETKO STOEVSKI, http://www.evolo.us/competition/the-new-tower-of-babel/ [TABLE OF CONTENTS ELEVATIONS] http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/ [TABLE OF CONTENTS ELEVATION - PARNAS TOWER] https://www.archdaily.com/874819/parnas-tower-chang-jo-architects/59563213b22e3853680000fd-parnas-tower-chang-jo-architects-elevation [TABLE OF CONTENTS ELEVATION - SEAGRAM BUILDING] Perez, Adelyn. AD Classics: Seagram Building. ArchDaily, 10 May, 2010.


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