Maryland Music Educator, Summer 2020-Vol. 66, No. 4

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Vol. 66, No. 4

Summer 2020


Official Journal of the Maryland Music Educators Association

In this issue: • • • • • • •

MMEA 2020 Awards for Excellence Recipients Trauma-Informed Coping Strategies for Interns Advocacy in the Time of COVID Letters from Retirement The PSSAM-MMEA Agreement: Reflections After 40 Years Music Teaching, Mending Walls, and Dismantling Barriers Incorporating a Rock Guitar Player into Your Jazz Band

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Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

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Maryland Music Educator Official Journal of the Maryland Music Educators Association

Summer 2020 Volume 66, Number 4


10 20 21 24 25

MMEA 2020 Awards for Excellence Recipients by Ashley Ashman, MMEA Past Member at Large, Montgomery County; and Nominators Letters from Retirement by Richard A. Disharoon, Baltimore County (retired); Past President of MMEA, MCEA, Eastern Division of NAfME; MMEA Hall of Fame Member The PSSAM-MMEA Agreement: Reflections After 40 Years and (page 23) President’s Message from Maryland Music Educator, Fall 1978 by Dr. David J. Marchand, MMEA Past President, MMEA Hall of Fame Member, Towson University (retired) Music Teaching, Mending Walls, and Dismantling Barriers by Colleen Sears, The College of New Jersey How to Incorporate a Rock Guitar Player into Your Jazz Band by Doug Maher, University of Connecticut

Advertisers Index Frostburg State Univ. Dept. of Music......3 James Madison Univ. School of Music ....2 Menchey Music Service ..........................4 Univ. of Maryland Baltimore Co. ............6 Yamaha Corporation................................5

Contents… 08 MMEA Executive Board Directory, Presidents, Article & Ad Information 09 MMEA Giving and Sponsorship, MMEA Hall of Fame, Award Recipients, Executive Directors, Editors 16 The President’s Page 17 College Music Educators President’s Page 19 Advocacy Chair’s Page 19 Volunteering for MMEA 22 Sponsors of MMEA Virtual Conference

NAfME Resources 18 NFHS, NAMM, NAfME Instrument Cleaning Guide 18 Fall 2020 Updated Guidance for Music Education 28 (Cover 4) Collegiate Membership

Find us on the web at:

On the Cover: An evening view of endless sky over the Youghiogheny River Reservoir Valley as seen from the Maryland Welcome Center along I-68 East in Garrett County, Maryland. The Upper Youghiogheny (Yough) is known as the “Dream Stream” - the section of the Youghiogheny River that is Maryland’s only Class IV-V whitewater rafting. Photo by Felicia Burger Johnston. The Maryland Music Educator is published for the members of the Maryland Music Educators Association, Inc., a federated state unit of the National Association for Music Education (NAfME), and music teachers in Maryland four times annually in the months of September/October, January/February, March/April, and May/June/July. Articles for publication must be submitted to the editor by August 2, October 1, January 4, and March 15, respectively. Publication dates, advertising rates, and closing dates may be found on the MMEA web page,, under “Resources/Publications”. Maryland Music Educator will be emailed to all MMEA members, educators who participate in MMEA events, district arts supervisors, college music education students, libraries, MEA editors in other states, and advertisers. It will also be posted on the Editor: Felicia Burger Johnston 304-613-2871 MMEA website, publicly available at no cost to readers, at Maryland Music Educators Association (MMEA) is the professional association for the school music teachers of Maryland. MMEA is a 501 (c)(3) not-for-profit association incorporated in the State of Maryland. MMEA’s mission is to provide professional development for music teachers, opportunities for over 26,000 people to engage in state-wide music activities, events involving students, teachers, and volunteers, and to serve as an advocate for and to advance music education in Maryland schools.

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MMEA Executive Board Directory 2020-2021 The MMEA Executive Board and staff listing is updated at Elected Officers

All State Chair Robert Mattera St. Mary’s County

President Brian Schneckenburger Baltimore County

Collegiate Representative Ebonie Pierce University of Maryland Baltimore County

President-Elect Jennifer Kauffman Anne Arundel County

Conference Exhibits Chair Shefali Shah Anne Arundel County

Immediate Past President Angela Adams Anne Arundel County

Membership Chair Janet Gross Calvert County

Member at Large Thomas Pierre Prince George’s County

State Dept. of Education Representative Alysia Lee Maryland State Department of Education State Large Ensemble Festivals Chair Scott Engel Baltimore County Technology Chair Krystal Williams Baltimore City Tri-M Chair Erick Von Sas Anne Arundel County

Component Association Presidents

Music Industry Representative Scott Schimpf Music & Arts

Band Directors (MBDA) Matt Heist Anne Arundel County

Music Supervisors Representative Karl Stewart Carroll County

Choral Directors (MCEA) Katherine Meloro Howard County

Private Schools Representative Joseph Shortall Private School

Orchestra Directors (MODA) Dan Sitomer Anne Arundel County

Public Relations Chair Deborah Turner Anne Arundel County

General Music Teachers (MGMTA) Christie Cook Calvert County

Research Chair Cathleen Russell Baltimore County

College Music Educators (MSMTE) Louise Anderson Salisbury University

Sight Reading Committee Chair Todd Burroughs St. Mary’s County

Event & Membership Assistants (Part-time) Kayde Deardorff Andie Sante

Special Learners Chair Paul Tooker University of Maryland Eastern Shore

*Journal Editor Felicia Burger Johnston Upshur County, WV (retired)

Appointed Officers Advocacy Chair Ronald P. Frezzo Montgomery County (retired)

Young Composers Project Michelle Roberts Montgomery County Staff Members * Board Member *Executive Director JJ Norman PMB#472 6710 F Ritchie Highway Glen Burnie, MD 21061

MMEA Presidents 1941-43 – Robert S. Bolles 1943-45 – C. James Velie 1945-47 – Frances Jackman Civis 1947-49 – Miriam Hoffman 1949-51 – Mary M. Hunter 1951-53 – Mary de Vermond 1953-55 – Thomas R. Lawrence 1955-57 – Blanche F. Bowlsbey 1957-59 – Mildred B. Trevvett 1959-61 – Emil H. Serposs 1961-63 – Chester J. Petranek 1963-64 – Ward K. Cole 1964-65 – Chester J. Petranek 1965-67 – Donald Regier 1967-69 – Nicholas Geriak 1969-71 – Alice S. Beer 1971-73 – Joseph Chalker 1973-75 – Bert L. Damron 1975-77 – Robert E. Kersey 1977-79 – David Marchand 1979-81 – Thomas E. Silliman 1981-83 – Thomas W. Fugate 1983-85 – Clarence T. Rogers 1985-87 – John E. Wakefield 1987-89 – R. Bruce Horner 1989-91 – Patricia W. Teske 1991-93 – Phyllis R. Kaplan 1993-95 – Roger J. Folstrom 1995-97 – Barbara F. King 1997-99 – Richard A. Disharoon 1999-01 – Michael L. Mark 2001-03 – Michael L. Mark 2003-05 – Ann Vaughn 2005-07 – Amy Cohn 2007-09 – Chrystie Adams 2009-11 – Carol Howell 2011-13 – Ginny Flynn 2013-15 – Stephen W. Miles 2015-17 – Katherine A. Murphy 2017-19 – Angela Adams June-Dec. 2019 – Paul Dembowski 2019-20 – Interim Pres. Angela Adams June 2020 – Brian Schneckenburger

Updates, news, and more at: Find MMEA on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter

Maryland Music Educator Official Journal of the Maryland Music Educators Association Issue

Article Submission Deadline


October 1, 2020

Winter 2020-2021

October 1, 2020

Spring 2021

January 4, 2021

Spring 2021

January 4, 2021

Summer 2021

March 15, 2021

Summer 2021

March 15, 2021

Fall 2021

August 2, 2021

Fall 2021

August 2, 2021

Please submit articles to: Please address questions to Felicia Burger Johnston, Editor, at 8

Ad Contract Submission Deadline

Winter 2020-2021

Advertising information & contract submission for Maryland Music Educator and the MMEA In-Service conference programs:

Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

MMEA is supported in part by a grant from the Maryland State Arts Council (, an agency funded by the State of Maryland and the National Endowment for the Arts. MSAC on Facebook™: MSAC on Twitter™: @mdartscouncil

MMEA Awards for Excellence Recipients Rosemary & James Walters Service Award 2002 – Thomas W. Fugate 2003 – Chrystie L. Adams 2004 – Richard A. Disharoon 2010 – Mabel Leonore Sawhill 2011 – Howard L. Miskimon 2011 – Sabra C. Steward 2012 – Deborah Turner 2013 – Jan Strevig 2014 – James L. Turk 2015 – Sally Wagner 2017 – Ginny Flynn 2020 – Janet Gross Corwin Taylor Music Education Leadership Award 1994 – Karen Douglas 1995 – Rosa Fletcher Crocker 1996 – Mary Ann Mears 1997 – James L. Tucker, Jr. 1998 – Roger J. Folstrom 1998 – Phyllis T. Kaplan 1999 – Barbara F. King 2002 – Mary Ellen Cohn 2004 – Chris Tuel 2005 – Linda Patton 2006 – Gary Beauchamp 2009 – Joan Orcutt 2010 – Katherine A. Rodeffer 2011 – Richard J. Deasy 2012 – C. Nelson Fritts 2013 – Nancy S. Grasmick 2017 – Anita Lambert 2018 – Michael L. Mark 2019 – Scott Herman 2020 – Todd J. Burroughs

Maryland Music Educators Association: Giving and Sponsorship MMEA provides in-service networking and professional learning for music teachers, opportunities for thousands of music students and teachers, and serves as an advocate for music education. MMEA provides student and teacher enrichment by sponsoring professional learning conferences, annual Awards for Excellence, and eight music groups for student All State music events. MMEA and five component associations, with over 300 volunteers, host district and state Solo and Ensemble events. During the spring, orchestras, bands, and choruses perform in festivals with nearly 10,000 students participating. Give Today! Become an MMEA Sponsor!

Executive Directors Maryland Music Educators Association 1998-Dec. 2018 – Mary Ellen Cohn Editors, Maryland Music Educator 1954-57 – Homer Ulrich 1957-61 – Corwin H. Taylor 1961-65 – James L. Fisher 1965-67 – Robert E. Kersey 1967-73 – W. Warren Sprouse

Nov. 2018-Feb. 2020 – Mariama Boney May 2020– JJ Norman 1973-84 – James H. Avampato 1984-86 – W. Warren Sprouse 1987-96 – Thomas W. Fugate 1996-01 – Ray H. Zeigler 2001-08 – Thomas W. Fugate 2008-09 – Dawn Farmer 2008-09 – Felicia Burger Johnston

MMEA Hall of Fame 1988 – Margaret Black 1988 – Robert S. Bolles 1988 – David Burchuck 1988 – Frances Jackman Civis 1988 – John Cole 1988 – Mary G. Cross 1988 – John Denues 1988 – Nicholas Geriak 1988 – Thomas L. Gibson 1988 – Rose Marie Grentzer 1988 – S. Fenton Harris 1988 – Miriam Hoffman 1988 – Mary M. Hunter 1988 – John Itzel 1988 – Henrietta Baker Low 1988 – Otto Ortmann 1988 – Philip S. Royer 1988 – Osmar Steinwald 1988 – Charles C. T. Stull 1988 – Eugene W. Troth 1988 – Homer Ulrich 1988 – C. James Velie 1988 – Levi Wilder 1988 – Dorothy Willison

1988 – William Llewelyn Wilson 1989 – Alice S. Beer 1989 – Thomas R. Lawrence 1989 – Corwin H. Taylor 1990 – Robert E. Kersey 1990 – Dorothy S. Pickard 1991 – John Fignar, Jr. 1992 – Blanche F. Bowlsbey 1992 – Joseph F. Chalker 1992 – James L. Fisher 1993 – Thomas W. Fugate 1993 – C. William Johnson 1993 – Michael Pastelak 1994 – Mildred R. Reiner 1994 – Shirley J. Shelley 1994 – Donald Regier 1995 – David Marchand 1995 – W. Warren Sprouse 1996 – James H. Avampato 1996 – Carmelo J. Palazzo 1997 – Clarence T. Rogers 1998 – Maurice R. Feldman 1999 – Sr. Mary Theresine Staub S.S.N.D. 1999 – Nancy M. Cook

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2000 – Mildred B. Trevvett 2003 – Leroy Battle 2003 – Glenn Patterson 2004 – Roger J. Folstrom 2004 – Phyllis R. Kaplan 2005 – Barbara F. King 2005 – Michael L. Mark 2006 – Mary Ellen Cohn 2006 – John Wakefield 2007 – Olivia W. Gutoff 2008 – Richard A. Disharoon 2008 – James L. Tucker, Jr. 2009 – Leone Y. Woodall 2010 – Bruce D. Wilson 2011 – Lee Stevens 2012 – C. Scott Sharnetzka 2012 – Cherie Stellaccio 2013 – Ray Danner 2014 – Dana Rothlisberger 2018 – Gilbert A. Brungardt (Posthumous) 2019 – Chris Vadala (Posthumous) 2020 – Charles Haslup (Posthumous)


Maryland Music Educators Association 2020 Awards for Excellence Hall of Fame Charles Haslup, (Posthumous) Towson University

Corwin Taylor Music Education Leadership Award Todd J. Burroughs Fine Arts Supervisor of Instruction, St. Mary's County

School Administrator Award John Taylor Cabin John Middle School, Montgomery County

Outstanding Music Teacher Awards Andrea Cameron Robert Frost Middle School, Montgomery County Carol Cox Bodkin Elementary School, Anne Arundel County Jana Davis Hobbs Wicomico High School, Wicomico County Allen Kessell Franklin High School, Baltimore County

Exemplary Music Program Award Rachel Zephir Eleanor Roosevelt High School, Prince George's County

Rosemary and James Walters Service Award Janet Gross Sunderland Elementary School and Mt. Harmony Elementary School, Calvert County The Executive Board of MMEA congratulates this year’s award recipients for their outstanding achievements as music educators, administrators, and music supporters. These extraordinary persons devote(d) their professional lives to educating the whole child, ensuring that students whom they teach, supervise, or support have a strong and complete music education.


Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

MMEA Past Member at Large (2018-2020)

Ashley Ashman


MMEA 2020 Awards for Excellence Recipients by Ashley Ashman, MMEA Past Member at Large (2018-2020) and Nominators of Recipients, as noted within article. MMEA Hall of Fame Charles Haslup, (Posthumous) Towson University Charles A. Haslup was the central figure in the establishment of the music education major at Towson University from 19571967. Through his leadership, the department grew in stature to become a leading undergraduate teacher training program in the state. Mr. Haslup was a 1938 graduate of the State Teachers College at Towson University. He began his career as a music teacher in the public schools of Anne Arundel County. Work on a master’s degree in Education at the University of Maryland, College Park, was interrupted by enlistment in the Army in 1942. He returned to finish his degree at Maryland in 1946 and pursued additional graduate work at Teachers College, Columbia University. In 1957, Mr. Haslup returned to Towson as a member of the music faculty, with primary responsibility for teaching Music for the Elementary School Teacher. President Earle T. Hawkins had long wanted a Men’s Glee Club on campus and charged Charles with responsibility for starting the Men’s Chorus that is still a vital part of the Towson choral offerings. Charles was also an advisor in the Junior College program that was part of the offerings at Towson. During the mid-1950s the college began offering areas of concentration in various subjects, including music. Mr. Haslup was my advisor during my undergraduate years, 1958-1962, and all the students he advised benefitted from his work developing the Area of Concentration in Music. He recommended expanding course offerings and hiring additional faculty, one of whom was Clifford Alper, who joined the faculty in 1961 as a specialist in elementary music education. While the Area of Concentration in Music was being expanded, Mr. Haslup was also leading the development of a proposal for a fouryear music education major which had been submitted to the State Board Department of Education in early 1962. Mr. Haslup was appointed Chair of the Music Department in 1962 and received a letter from the State Department of Education in September 1962, approving the four-year music education major. Mr. Haslup moved immediately to hire additional faculty: Gilbert Brungardt*, Director of Choral Activities; David Roberts, Director of Bands and Instrumental methods; and Theldon Myers, theory and composition.

Mr. Haslup continued as department chair until 1967, when Dr Hawkins appointed him Assistant to the President of the University, a position in which he remained, serving two additional presidents and directing a choral ensemble, until retiring in 1985. Mr. Haslup hired Gilbert Brungardt, who had gone to Colgate University from Towson in 1965, to succeed him as chair. Mr. Haslup was not widely known outside the Towson campus and the Towson community because he never sought the spotlight. He was widely admired and respected among the faculty and student body. I have met many students who were thankful for the help he provided them in his position as Assistant to the President. Dr. Brungardt once told me that Charles helped more faculty than anyone would ever know. Felicity Knowles, Towson University Archivist, said Mr. Haslup is often featured in displays of school alumni, not only because of his long service on the faculty, but also because of his World War II service as a chemical weapons officer in Italy. He was well known for finding a piano and teaching songs to the Italian children. James M. Anthony, Associate Professor Emeritus at Towson University, wrote, “It was his vision that helped to move the study of music at Towson to a full-fledged professional program in Music Education and to become one of the leaders in Music Education in the State of Maryland. I think he is richly deserving of this honor.” *Dr. Brungardt was inducted into the MMEA Hall of Fame in 2018, posthumously. submitted by Dr. Richard A. Disharoon Corwin Taylor Award for Leadership in Music Education Todd J. Burroughs, Fine Arts Supervisor of Instruction, St. Mary's County Mr. Burroughs is a home-grown educator from St. Mary's County, Maryland. Following his post-baccalaureate education, he returned home, first as an elementary music educator and later as the director of bands at Chopticon High School, his Alma Mater. At Chopticon, he elevated the music program to new heights and set a new standard for excellence in music education in our county, receiving Superior ratings at Festivals and continued on next page

“A teacher affects eternity: he can never tell where his influence stops.” ~The Education of Henry Adams(1907), Henry Brooks Adams, 1838-1918

Maryland Music Educator


continued from previous page

bringing the Marching Band program to a new competitive level. The Chopticon marching band, also known as "The Showband of Southern Maryland," won 7 consecutive USBands™ Maryland State Championships from 2009 to 2015 and their 8th in 2018. Under the direction of Todd Burroughs, the Chopticon Marching Band also won the USBands™ 2A National Championships in 2012. The band was also chosen to perform at the Pearl Harbor Parade in 2012 representing the State of Maryland. During this time, he was also the instructor for "Teaching Instrumental Music to Children and Adolescents" through the St. Mary's College of Maryland Master of Arts in Teaching Program, helping to train our future music colleagues. He left Chopticon HS to take a position as Fine Arts Supervisor of Instruction for St. Mary’s County Public Schools (SMCPS) to positively impact students and teachers across the county and to increase the visibility of our arts programs and their benefit to our children and our community. Since he has been our supervisor, he has developed meaningful professional development for our teachers, encouraged leadership and collaboration amongst his staff, expanded programming and Fine Arts opportunities for our students and staff, and fostered the relationship between SMCPS and other counties through organizations like MMEA. He currently serves as the Sight Reading Committee Chair for MMEA and is a Past President of the Maryland Band Directors Association. Mr. Burroughs was a co-founder of the SMCPS Honor Jazz Program which spans Elementary through High School and gives meaningful opportunities to our students to explore improvisation and the genre. The program at the high school level is in a workshop format that gives students the opportunity to explore their instruments, stretching their limits as young musicians. He has also fostered a SMCPS Staff Jazz Band which meets during the school year to give his staff the opportunity to explore their "inner musician." Along that line, he has arranged for educator/musicians such as Andre Pidkivka from the Maryland Center for Creative Classrooms to visit our county, providing unique instruction to our staff in Eastern European Music and improvisation. Mr. Burroughs has been critical in the development and alignment of new curricula and assessments based on the new Maryland State Music Standards and collaborating cross-county in meeting new standards for instruction aligned with the Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR). He has led initiatives across the state focused on the needs of smaller and more rural counties to brainstorm creative ways to better support our communities. He recently led a presentation at the Maryland State Department of Education Fine Arts Briefing focused on this topic. Mr. Burroughs supports his staff in meaningful ways, giving constructive feedback and support, promoting their involvement in professional activities outside of their classroom, highlighting their achievements on social media, and helping to acquire the materials of instruction needed to support our programs properly. He continues to act as a clinician and adjudicator for USBands™, the Maryland Marching Band Association, MMEA, and during Festival Assessments across the State of Maryland. Mr. Burroughs is the embodiment of professionalism and a shining example of our profession. submitted by Christina Ann Baker


School Administrator Award John Taylor, Cabin John Middle School, Montgomery County Having worked thirty-one years in this incredible school, always under such dedicated and supportive administrators, I can think of no one more deserving of this fine honor than Mr. John Taylor. In fact, I have been contemplating his nomination since his first year but did the prudent thing by waiting well beyond the “honeymoon” phase. There is no question now, in year five, that Mr. Taylor is the ideal candidate to receive this prestigious award. After Mr. Taylor’s hiring, there was immediate excitement as he began to engage with the students, staff, and community. He first scheduled meetings with every staff member and department to solicit our suggestions for growth. During our individual and department meetings, we listed several areas of need, most importantly staffing and space. Second was to expand our course offerings to better manage how we worked with growing enrollment and diverse levels. It wasn't until the end of his first year that we began to see some of the greatest impact of his work. He announced an increase in staffing, so we had the flexibility to split the 6th grade band into various levels and groupings, depending on the needs of the class. Chorus received a fourth section to better support the growing program. It was clear that our meeting the prior summer had been genuinely well-received. Additionally, prior to his arrival, only two of the three music rooms built during the 2011 renovation were allocated to music, so Mr. Taylor re-instated the third room to our department to expand the choral and instrumental music program. The next year he added additional staffing so we could continue team-teaching the band, which was clearly beneficial in grade 6. This year, we added a third orchestra so we could offer a more comprehensive string program and thus better meet all levels of string players. Now, all performing groups are scheduled by skill level, regardless of grade. With the exception of a child or two, rarely does a student have a schedule conflict with music. Considerable effort is exerted to make sure the students get their arts classes. Mr. Taylor has added funds to augment our after-school program so we could offer a low brass club and a show choir. He has endorsed and supported our two-year-old summer band program, which filled last summer after only a few days of registration. From my instrumental perspective, I believe that these staffing, scheduling, and course initiatives have greatly enhanced our program and subsequently helped our school’s representation in district and state groups peak to unprecedented numbers. The band was also chosen to perform at last year’s NAfME All-Eastern Conference; this group was the first to benefit from the team-teaching model. From a choral perspective, the choral numbers and quality of performances have continued to grow, and we are now offering four choirs at a time when many schools have faced cuts and elimination of choral music. Furthermore, Mr. Taylor recently spoke to us about considering the addition of a show choir course to the schedule. Financially, Mr. Taylor has provided the music department with all the necessary funding for instructional supplies like music, furniture, and supplies. We have not experienced any budgetary constraints. As an arts supporter, he cheerfully attends every school performance and is always the

Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

last person to leave. There is always a tweet posted to social media with clips and a congratulatory photo collage from our programs. He has come to support the CJMS musicians at the district honors concerts and he continues to support our annual music department overnight trips to NYC and the Music in the Parks competitions in Williamsburg. For the overall school climate, Mr. Taylor has done a terrific job building school and community engagement. First, he is very visible, always greeting staff and students every morning in the halls and in the bus loop. In fact, within his first year, I met some parents who chose to buy a house in our community after visiting Cabin John and several other schools. It was our school atmosphere and his visibility that were the deciding factors. Mr. Taylor introduced school-wide community circles each month, so the staff and students have a way to express current events and other important issues on their minds. He initiated a “No Place for Hate” movement and committee to ensure that all subjects, races, genders, and socio-economic levels are represented in school discussions. Additionally, he routinely visits our department and team for feedback on school matters. I feel truly blessed to have experienced his fine leadership. At several points prior to his joining CJMS, I had considered finishing my career in elementary school. More recently I have contemplated retirement. I'm so glad I stayed to experience all that he has brought to our school. It's been a joy to see how much the students and community have responded to his vision and passion for education. Cabin John is truly a phenomenal place to teach and learn. submitted by Scott Herman Outstanding Music Teacher Award Andrea Cameron, Robert Frost Middle School, Montgomery County Mrs. Cameron has taught instrumental music for Montgomery County Public Schools since 1989. She has extensive experience teaching at both the elementary and middle school levels as she has taught in eight elementary schools and four middle schools. She is currently teaching band and orchestra at Robert Frost Middle School in Rockville, Maryland, where all of her ensembles consistently earn superior ratings at both the county and state levels. She is in demand as a woodwind sectional coach for Montgomery County Public School Honor Ensembles and Potomac Valley Youth Orchestras as well as an adjudicator for various festival and events. Along with coaching, Mrs. Cameron has conducting experience with elementary honors bands, flute ensembles, and the Olney Community Band. Mrs. Cameron conducted the Montgomery Junior Honors Band multiple times. The Robert Frost Middle School Band was selected as the only Middle School Band to perform at the 2020 Maryland Music Educators Spring Conference. Mrs. Cameron co-wrote and implemented the training for the first Montgomery County Public Schools elementary instrumental music curriculum in 2007, and has since been a writer for middle school band and orchestra curricula. She has also enjoyed assisting new teachers as a facilitator at the New Educator Orientation program. She has served as Instrumental Music Representative on the Montgomery County Educators Association Music Collaboration Committee, as

the Maryland Music Educators Association Member at Large, and currently serves as the Middle School Representative for Maryland Band Directors Association. Frost Middle School is well-represented by Mrs. Cameron's students in Maryland All State Bands and Orchestras, the Montgomery Honor Ensembles, the County and State Solo and Ensemble Festivals, and her students are active in the community, sharing their music outside the school environment. submitted by Susan Eckerle Outstanding Music Teacher Award Carol Cox, Bodkin Elementary School, Anne Arundel County All children learn because of what Carol Cox does in and outside of her classroom. She consistently demonstrates passion for teaching and learning to perfect her craft to better fit the needs of her students. Carol goes above and beyond the norm to make sure her students have the necessary resources to achieve success in learning and performing music. She does this by developing positive relationships with her students and their families; I’ve witnessed countless e-mails and phone calls to parents, making sure students bring their instruments or are practicing enough. She also does this by researching alternative ways to fund the music program such as DonorsChoose™, and by developing positive relationships with her colleagues to create rotating schedules that fit the needs of her classes and those of classroom teachers. In addition to this, Carol establishes great relationships with her administration, gaining their consistent support to keep music programs thriving in their school. In the classroom, you can expect to see children engaged in meaningful learning experiences. Carol differentiates instruction to meet the needs of her students through content, process, and product, and gets the students excited about learning! Her implementation of “concert karate” really encourages students to take ownership of their own learning, and inspires them to be life-long lovers and performers of music. Her classroom management skills are excellent, and she has helped newer music teachers in Anne Arundel County improve their own management skills. Carol's concerts are consistently successful because of her constant commitment to building a positive music community in which students feel comfortable taking risks and because of her ability to showcase individual talents of the students. Carol is always looking for additional performance opportunities so her students can build confidence in their playing to become more successful musicians. Along with her enthusiasm for teaching her own classes, Carol is very active in other music communities as well. She works with elementary-age to college-age students throughout Anne Arundel County and beyond, in county festivals, band camps, marching bands, and much more. She has shown amazing leadership capabilities with her recent role as Band Camp manager for Anne Arundel County Summer Music Camps and has helped interns achieve their goals to be future music educators. Above all, Carol is an inspiration to those around her because she truly believes that music improves quality of life. She offers musical experiences that transcend all cultural and ecocontinued on next page nomic boundaries, build confidence

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in children, and show students how special it is to be part of a music community - one in which it doesn’t matter who your friends are or what kinds of clothes you wear. A child in Carol’s class feels completely safe and free to express themselves through music, and learns skills that will help them in music, other academic areas, and in life. Carol is by far one of the most outstanding educators I have had the pleasure of working with, and I know she will inspire and motivate children to learn and grow throughout the rest of her career. submitted by Sarah Mignon Outstanding Music Teacher Award Jana Davis Hobbs, Wicomico High School, Wicomico County Innovative, inspirational, and a compassionate educator: words to describe Jana Hobbs. This deserving educator who committed her life to serving her students, her family and friends, her school system, her community, and her church. Currently, Ms. Hobbs is assigned to Wicomico High School where she teaches General Music, Musical Theatre, and Theatre Arts. She taught Band and Band Front at Wicomico Middle School for 15 years prior to her current assignment. She started her employment in Wicomico County as a substitute teacher and then as an Instructional Assistant in the elementary schools. She has been able to connect and interact with many students and adults during her more than 21 years in Wicomico County. It has been my pleasure to review the many letters of support from those individuals whose lives Ms. Hobbs has touched. Those letters describe how Jana Hobbs uniquely shaped the author as a person, as a musician, or as a professional. As a former student wrote, “Now, as a middle school music educator myself, I aspire to be a ‘Mrs. Hobbs’ to my students - someone who pushes their students to levels of musical excellency that they wouldn’t think possible, [who] is a shoulder to cry on when necessary, and [who] simply does their best to be a genuinely good person who always has their students’ best interests at heart.” Ms. Hobbs has officially mentored five student teachers from local universities and informally advises the more novice fine arts teachers in her building. Because of her collegial support, the music program at Wicomico High School has continued to be vibrant and quite successful. Ms. Hobbs creates engaging instructional plans that incorporate the state and national artistic process standards of creating, presenting, responding, and connecting, using traditional and innovative musical techniques. She transcends racial, ethnic, socio-economic, gender, and disability barriers and is able to connect with students of all ability levels through her positive relationships, musicality, precise expectations, and sense of humor. She encourages her music and theatre students to participate in the performance and backstage opportunities at Wicomico High School and reinforces her suggestions by coordinating the costumes for theatre performances and coaching instrumentalists and band front members. As the band director at Wicomico Middle School, she increased the number of students participating in District V Solo and Ensemble Festival from 1 to 44 by using some innovative strategies to help students become comfortable performing in front of an adult. 14

At the district level, Jana Hobbs has helped to re-write the Musical Theatre and Theatre Arts curriculum documents. She is serving on the team to develop the General Music curriculum that reflects updated standards and relevant materials. She has taken on leadership roles at her schools by leading the Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) and founding the Student Behavior Committee at Wicomico Middle School. Ms. Hobbs has been on the Executive Board of the Eastern Shore Band Directors Association and also held the position of Solo and Ensemble Chair. As a result of her work in her schools, Ms. Hobbs earned the distinction of being a Semi-Finalist for the 2010 Wicomico County Teacher of the Year award. Ms. Hobbs has demonstrated her dedication to the community in which she lives by volunteering in local organizations and in her church. She is a member of the Chancel Choir at her church and often accompanies the choir on flute. She plays regularly with the Salisbury Community Band and in pit orchestras for theatrical productions. She served as president of the Community Players of Salisbury and helped develop summer theatre workshops for children. Ms. Hobbs has taken her middle school band to play at American Legion Post 64’s Memorial Day programs and at a Salisbury Third Friday event. She coordinated providing blankets for Coastal Hospice and, through an organization called Santa’s Angels, helped to provide Christmas gifts and meals annually to over 150 under-privileged families in the city. Because of her empathy for others, she has organized food deliveries to friends, co-workers, and church members who have suffered loss or who were recovering from surgery. submitted by Jeffrey Baer Outstanding Music Teacher Award Allen Kessell, Franklin High School, Baltimore County Allen Kessell built the music program at Franklin High School. He successfully developed a choir program while teaching all Symphonic Winds, Jazz Ensemble, Orchestra, and Percussion. Due to his love of music and ability to engage students in rigorous musical education, the program took off and Franklin hired a full-time choral teacher last year. His ideas relating to collaborative Musical Education inspired all of our Music and Dance program staff members to create a multi-discipline showcase performance during the school day, which all students attend with excitement. Allen also collaborates with our Theatre program, directing the pit band - enriching both the fall play and the spring musical. When given the opportunity, Allen happily created a drum line which performed at our boys basketball games’ half-time. The successful creation of the drum line led to the resurrection of a muchneeded marching band. Allen built the program by hosting a summer marching band boot camp, recruiting at Franklin High School and Franklin Middle School. The Performing Arts Boosters group, involving parents, teachers, and alumni, is at an all-time high, due to Allen’s dedication to recognizing multiple-year musical education students with varsity letters at an off-campus dinner. Allen encourages students to seek opportunities to perform music outside of the classroom. Leading by example, Allen Is a current member of the Baltimore Ravens Marching Band.

Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

When preparing material for county and state assessments, Allen devotes all his free time to students after school, before school, and during his planning periods. His expertise in multiple musical disciplines allows his students to emerge from the program mastering various instruments and musical genres. Allen Kessell’s unwavering dedication to Music Education has laid the groundwork for a flourishing Music Education program at Franklin High School. submitted by Ashley Molfino Exemplary Music Program Award Rachel Zephir, Eleanor Roosevelt High School, Prince George's County Over her brief tenure, Rachel Zephir has transformed the Eleanor Roosevelt Band program into a nationally recognized innovative music program as termed by the Midwest Clinic Board of Directors. Her recent presentation at this International Band and Orchestra Conference spanned music from Beethoven to John Mackey featuring her large ensemble in well-crafted chamber settings. Her program meets the needs of a diverse population where all students gain unique performance opportunities that rival smaller colleges. submitted by Dr. William L. Lake, Jr. #18082348 Used with licensed permission. Licensee: Felicia B. Johnston.

Rosemary and James Walters Service Award Janet Gross, Sunderland and Mt. Harmony Elementary Schools, Calvert County Mrs. Janet Gross currently teaches Band and Strings classes at two elementary schools in Calvert County: Sunderland Elementary and Mt. Harmony Elementary. Her instruction and love of teaching children has made her programs flourish. She has a no-nonsense attitude with her students they attend before-school rehearsals as well as during school to accommodate classroom teacher schedules. The instrumental lessons are on a rotation, so students don't miss the same classes every week. In addition to teaching instrumentally, Janet also works closely with her colleagues in her schools and within the county. When it is concert season, she not only directs her own school performances, but also helps fellow instrumental teachers with their programs - EVERY season! Janet is often the counselor to our new teachers and general music teachers, always willing to help work out logistics with programs, venues, administrators, and parents. She has her own private studio for music lessons that she teaches out of her home. These students use Janet for years as a mentor and role model, accompanist, and therapist as needed. What's extraordinary about Janet is her ability to spread music into other areas of her community. Being a church musician, Janet is always willing to do whatever is needed: singing and playing piano (organ), hand bells, clarinet, and oboe. Janet doesn't just offer her musicianship: she is there to help transcribe music for others at a moment’s notice. Being in touch with our beginning instrumentalists gives Janet a special view into challenges faced by musically illiterate adult musicians, so she can adapt any part to any music reading level. She's truly amazing when it comes to helping others share their gifts of music. She is also a wonderful performer. One of my favorites of Janet’s qualities is her humbleness, never acting in a superior way to others, and always making people feel relaxed, enabling others to be their best without being afraid of making mistakes. I'm only saddened to know that Janet has never received an award before now. submitted by Mary Flora

As young educators, we all set out to change the world. For music teachers, our tool for changing the world is music. For administrators, our greatest tool is an outstanding music teacher. ~ Terry Eberhardt, Music Coordinator, Howard County Public Schools, from his introduction of a 2019 MMEA Outstanding Music Teacher Award recipient.

Maryland Music Educator


The President’s Page

Brian Schneckenburger


Moving MMEA Forward


ello! I hope that you are enjoying your summer. I am honored to serve as MMEA President and want to personally thank each of you for courage during this time: you have truly made a difference in the lives of your students. As you are all too aware, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused major changes to the ways that we all do business in schools, and MMEA was certainly affected through this past spring’s cancellation of many of our All State events and that of our Annual In-Service Conference. We are thrilled to welcome JJ Norman, our new Executive Director, who has brought a wealth of energy and ideas with him from the National Association for Music Education. JJ’s impact has been immediate with his implementation of our first-ever Virtual Conference on July 16 and 17. Nonetheless, spring and summer have been very busy. In addition to the pandemic, the country has seen a sea change brought about by the public murder of George Floyd. This tragedy, in addition to countless others, has created an urgent need to examine policies and practices that have historically served to create inequities within MMEA for teachers, students, and ensembles of color. MMEA has taken several initial steps. First was the creation of our Black Lives Matter Statement (go to, scroll down to “To read MMEA’s Black Lives Matter Statement, please click here”). Additionally, and in the interest of hearing from music educators, we launched a series of listening sessions. The first was for teachers of various specialty areas (general music, chorus, band, and orchestra) as well as Music Teacher Educators. The second series centered on equity, and included sessions for BIPOC (Black Indigenous People of Color) educators, female band directors, transgender singers, men who teach

elementary music, and LGBTQIA+ teachers in non-supportive areas. Of course, any statements or listening sessions are patronizing if they do not lead to productive action. In addition to this, we have worked to diversify the Executive Board of MMEA with respect to racial and geographic composition within Maryland. I also proposed the creation and appointment of co-chairs of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Initiatives, which are Board-level positions, to enact some of the wonderful ideas and feedback that we have received. Our recent virtual conference also featured equity-related topics, including Classroom Cleanliness, Decolonizing the Music Room, and Differentiated Instruction. We are excited for these first steps toward making MMEA an organization that serves ALL of Maryland’s music teachers. One other major area of challenge in the past year has been the All State process. MMEA Executive Team members and staff have already consulted with NAfME officers on the effective use of Submittable as a viable platform for audition submission, payments, and registration. It is my hope that secondary teachers will see a much more efficient and streamlined process this fall. As we look to the coming school year and the return of virtual environments, we will also embark on a strategic planning process for MMEA. Please look for opportunities to become involved to plot our way forward. Finally, as we look further into the future, we need YOU. Please remember to renew your NAfME/MMEA membership if you have not recently done so ( Please also consider becoming involved with the large selection of activities that MMEA sponsors. NOW is the time to get involved!

Three Maryland Music Teachers Selected as 2021 GRAMMY Music Educator Award Quarterfinalists Congratulations to these Maryland Music Teachers: Angela Adams, Anne Arundel County David Matchim, Howard County Vashti Burgess, Prince George’s County 16

Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

Maryland Society for Music Teacher Education

Louise L. Anderson, President


Trauma-Informed Coping Strategies for Music Education Interns Part One of a Two-Part Series n a Thursday after school, an intern texted me, “My school has passion fatigue is not a sign of weakness or incompetence; rather, it said that all teachers are to pack up what they need because is the cost of caring.”3 Pre-service teachers already share some insetomorrow is the last day of school for a couple of weeks.” That curity about their abilities as they go into field experience. If this insewas the middle of March, 2020, and indeed it ended up being the last curity is compounded by residual effects from their own traumatic day of school for the rest of the academic year. Information was chang- experience or being continuously exposed to the experiences of othing by the day - sometimes twice a day. The pandemic affected all of us ers, there is greater potential for teacher candidates to believe that a teaching career is out of reach for them. and for many it has been experienced as traumatic. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network identifies the early sympThe American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines trauma as exposure to or witnessing an actual or threatened event. Learning that toms of compassion fatigue as “increased irritability or impatience with someone close has experienced a traumatic event or having repeated students; difficulty planning classroom activities and lessons; decreased exposure to details about a traumatic event may also affect one’s concentration; denying that traumatic events impact students or feeling numb or detached; intense feelings and intrusive thoughts that don’t “mental, physical, social, emotional or spiritual well-being.”1 Along with their own possible traumatic experiences, teachers, and lessen over time about a student’s trauma; and dreams about students’ therefore interns, are in a position to experience compassion fatigue, traumas.”4 (See The American Counseling Association’s Traumatology also referred to as secondary traumatic stress or vicarious trauma. Network (ACATN) comprehensive fact sheet listing symptoms.5) The Compassion fatigue is defined as “the emotional duress that results resulting effect of these symptoms is becoming “physically, mentally, or when an individual hears about the firsthand trauma experiences of emotionally worn out, or feeling overwhelmed by students’ traumas.”6 another. Its symptoms mimic those of post-traumatic stress disorder An intern may not be aware that they are presenting symptoms of com(PTSD).”2 Compassion fatigue can manifest when a tragedy happens passion fatigue. Mentors and supervisors may be in the best position to to someone in the school community, or when teachers are working notice changes in an intern’s behavior. with children who are constantly navigating very serious personal Steps and Suggestions issues or issues related to home. For either primary or secondary trauma, the APA recommends the For many children and their caregivers, the loss of a routine school schedule also meant the loss of much-needed meals, social connec- following steps for recovering one's sense of well-being7 and suggestions to peers, and, for some children, the only place where they felt tions are provided for what this may mean for pre-service teachers: • Give yourself time to adjust. Supervisors and mentors may need safe. Job loss, food insecurity, COVID 19, an overloading of news…so to provide some extra time for interns to become adjusted to whatevmany reasons why a person may feel traumatized. er mandates teachers are working with. Pre-Service Teachers and Trauma • Ask for support from people who care about you and who will lisOur pre-service teachers are not exempt from these experiences. They ten and empathize with your situation. Internship seminars could may have had their own difficulties in switching to online classwork and allow time for open discussion about interns’ experiences and emothe loss of field experience when schools closed. When the new aca- tions. Methods courses could also include discussion time specificaldemic year begins this fall (whether in person or virtually), interns and ly for addressing symptoms of trauma or compassion fatigue. • Communicate your experience. Expressing one’s feelings is very those placed in field experiences will need strategies for managing their own self-care and preventing compassion fatigue when faced with the important for mitigating the effects of primary or secondary trauma. experiences of their PK-12 students and mentors. Survivor guilt is also Expression can be discussion, but it can also be in the form of an artistic endeavor: art, dance, music. a possibility for those who did not have a negative experience. • Find a local support group led by appropriately trained and expeUsing a trauma-informed approach to teaching pre-service teachers, we can lessen the effects of exposure to and the retelling of traumat- rienced professionals. Group discussion can help interns realize that ic events. Part 2 of this series will provide information on a trauma- they are not alone in their reactions and emotions. For our pre-servinformed supervision model to guide interns through a self-reflective ice teachers, this would be their peers and instructors. Campus counself-care process that will provide them with long-term benefits for seling centers are a source for professional care. • Engage in healthful behaviors to enhance your ability to cope with the rest of their teaching career. excessive stress. This is difficult even in “normal” times, but it We must help our pre-service teachers to understand that “com-


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Maryland Music Educator


Trauma-Informed Coping Strategies for Music Education Interns, continued from previous page

becomes even more important when faced with the stress of trauma: Eat well-balanced meals, get plenty of rest, incorporate relaxation techniques. Avoid alcohol and drugs, because they can be a numbing diversion that could detract from as well as delay active coping and moving forward from the disaster. • Establish or reestablish routines. The pandemic has wreaked havoc on routines. Part of the trauma of the pandemic has been the lack of predictability as well. The fall semester may mean another shift in routines. Our interns could use some guidance on establishing routines and time to adjust to a new routine. • Avoid making major life decisions. Feeling of inadequacy or that teaching is not the right career should be discussed to help the intern explore whether the decision to exit the program is truly warranted or a result of experiencing trauma or compassion fatigue. As musicians, we have the potential to help ourselves and others to release and balance emotions through the therapeutic effects of music-making. Music therapists experience less burnout and compassion fatigue than other types of therapists.8 One reason is that music therapists continue to make music for themselves. Our interns are also musicians. They should be encouraged to take time to continue making music beyond the pressure of juries and recitals. Conclusion Teacher mentors, instructors, and supervisors are in a position to be aware and look for signs of trauma and compassion fatigue in our pre-

Compassion fatigue can manifest when a tragedy happens to someone in the school community, or when teachers are working with children who are constantly navigating very serious personal issues or issues related to home.

service teachers, especially due to the current unusual circumstances. We can all benefit from the strategies listed here to help ourselves. Helping our pre-service teachers identify the signs of serious stress and strategies for coping provides them with life-long skills. In Part 2 of this series, we will explore a trauma-informed supervisory model. This model provides techniques for supervisors to guide pre-service teachers through a series of questions aimed at helping them separate feelings of inadequacy from symptoms of stress. Endnotes

1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Ed) (Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2013), 271. 2. Secondary Traumatic Stress: A Fact Sheet for Child-Serving Professionals (Los Angeles, CA, and Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress., 2011). 3. Secondary Traumatic Stress. 4. C. R. Figley, Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those Who Treat the Traumatized (New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc, 1995), 1-20. 5. Fact Sheet #9: Vicarious Trauma (American Counseling Association, 2011). 6. Fact Sheet #9. 7. Kevin Rowell and Rebecca Thomley, “Recovering Emotionally from Disaster,” last modified August, 2013, 8. Gro Trondalen, “Self-Care in Music Therapy: The Art of Balancing,” in The Oxford Handbook of Music Therapy, ed. Jane Edwards (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2016) 936-956.

Updated Fall 2020 Guidance for Music Education from NFHS and NAfME COVID-19 Instrument Cleaning Guidelines: 18

Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

MMEA Advocacy Chair

Ronald P. Frezzo


Advocacy in the Time of COVID Advocacy in the COVID-19 Era: Using NAfME Resources to Engage as an Active Music Education Advocate By Matt Barusch, NAfME State Advocacy Engagement Manager; Ronald P. Frezzo, MMEA Advocacy Chair; Brian Schneckenburger, MMEA President; and JJ Norman, MMEA Executive Director


he COVID-19 pandemic has changed much about our society and how we educate our students. One aspect that has not changed is the importance of advocacy and the responsibility music educators have to ensure music education is accessible to every student. Music educators are innovative by nature. What steps can you take to protect music education during these uncertain times, and to ensure students continue to have access to music education throughout the duration of virtual learning? Fortunately, the National Association for Music Education (NAfME) has several resources available to help as you advocate. Many tenets of advocacy that are important during “normal” times can be applied today, albeit in a different manner. Educating yourself on developments in education policy in Maryland, as well as how the pandemic has affected education policy nationwide, is critical to your ability to advocate. The NAfME Public Policy staff has developed resources to help keep Maryland Music Educators Association (MMEA)/NAfME members informed. The Civic Action Field Guide is designed to help music educators and stakeholders better understand the processes behind how public education is governed and funded. This resource will be particularly useful this year, as it provides an overview of how to participate in the electoral process and teaches how to ascertain candidates’ position on education and other issues. In addition to the Field Guide, the Local Advocacy Action Plan is intended to aid music educators and supporters as they seek to improve the overall condition of a music program. This resource contains a roadmap for pursuing new resources and opportunities, which can improve a music educator’s ability to provide a high-quality music education experience for all students. Both of these resources contain useful information and can be invaluable to a music educator wanting to become involved in protecting music education. Our national association also provides Quarterly Advocacy Webinars. Presented by NAfME Public Policy staff, a team of dedicated experts provide music education advocates with the latest in politics, education public policy, resources, and other need-to-know information surrounding

music education advocacy. The webinars in 2020 have largely been focused on music education policy during COVID-19 as well as exploring the connection between music education and social emotional learning. Through the Advocacy Leadership Force (ALF), NAfME regularly disseminates education news to state MEA advocacy officials. The ALF Weekly News Roundup is a newsletter containing NAfME news, state and national news in education, and research and analysis in the field. NAfME also holds monthly calls with state ALF representatives to provide an overview of recent trends, developments, and accomplishments in education policy and music education advocacy. The Maryland ALF representative, Ron Frezzo, is an avid consumer of education news and participates in these calls regularly. He finds many MEAs are being rather assertive in the way they advocate for continued and augmented support for arts education, speaking to legislators and administrators responsible for funding and curriculum. If you are interested in receiving the ALF News Roundup, email Matt Barusch (NAfME State Advocacy Engagement Manager) at In addition to staying informed, communicating with your elected officials is paramount to advocacy, and perhaps now more important than ever before. States are facing unprecedented revenue shortfalls that, in some states, are resulting in cuts to education budgets. Additionally, due to the virtual nature of education, students without access to reliable internet are in danger of being left behind in their educational growth. Referred to as the ‘Homework Gap’, this issue and the issue of state education funding can both be solved by Congress. Your elected officials in Washington, DC, should be urged to act by their constituents. Through the NAfME Grassroots Action Center, it is incredibly easy to engage your representatives in Congress on these issues. In addition to the resources NAfME provides, the Maryland Music Educators Association will be facilitating a Fall 2020 letter-writing campaign asking teachers to contact Federal and Maryland State officials to encourage maintenance of funding for education and the arts.

MMEA Opportunities to Volunteer Interested in volunteering with MMEA? See

Maryland Music Educator


Letters From Retirement by Richard A. Disharoon, Baltimore County (retired); Past President of MMEA, MCEA, Eastern Division of NAfME; MMEA Hall of Fame Member


etired members are invited to contribute to this column. This column includes acceptance of my invitation to Dr. David Marchand, MMEA Past President, to write a remembrance of the negotiations resulting in the historic agreement between the MMEA and the Public School Superintendents Association of Maryland (PSSAM), on the next three pages.

A Letter of Regret During my tenures as President of the Maryland Choral Educators Association (1991-93) and the Maryland Music Educators Association (1997-99), a frequently occurring discussion concerned the rising cost of All State expenses. The terms of the agreement as we understood them at that time was that the PSSAM set a fee, paid by each of Maryland’s twenty-four school systems, to reimburse MMEA for each student who participated in an All State ensemble. Discussions centered on requesting an increase in the fee from PSSAM to more adequately cover the rising cost of All State expenses. In 1997-1998, as we prepared for the 1998 All State ensembles, this was especially crucial. The Annual Conference was returning to Baltimore with increased costs of room and board for All State participants and performance space. In addition, other costs were taking a toll on the association budget: the need to increase conductor fees to compete with sister states to provide the best experience for our students, along with the increased cost of music and transportation. A little financial help did come during the 90’s when school systems agreed to increase support for All State chaperones. In spite of some very strong support from Executive Board members, I was strongly advised by past and then-current MMEA leaders not to propose an increase in the fee to PSSAM. The thinking went like this: current school system superintendents were not aware of the yearly assessment, because the bill was paid through the music supervisors in each school system. Making current superintendents aware of the agreement might result in ending the agreement. I would be at a disadvantage entering into a conversation without ever having seen the agreement. Seventeen years after leaving office, while researching the article cel-

ebrating MMEA’s seventy-fifth anniversary, I felt it was time to find the agreement that, in 2016, had been a dominant force in association finances for one-half of its lifetime. During a researcher’s “lightbulb moment” I decided to contact Tom Fugate who, in addition to being a Past President of MMEA from 1981-1983 and Editor of this journal from 1987-1996 and 2001-2008, has institutional knowledge of the association for years preceding the agreement. Within days, Tom invaded the journal archives and sent me a copy of the article in which Dr. David Marchand, President of MMEA, 1977-79, and negotiator of the agreement with the superintendents, reported the negotiations, including the seven-point agreement, to the membership. As you will note in the accompanying reprint of Dr. Marchand’s 1978 column, the agreement provides for “periodic meetings” for MMEA leaders to request “increased funding because of increased costs and/or additional events.” As Dr Marchand explains, the intent of the agreement was to offset the expense of student activities and events so that member dues would be directed to services for teachers. During my thirty year association with the MMEA Executive Board (1989-2019) as an elected officer or an appointed chair, and excluding my terms of elected office, I do not recall any meetings with the PSSAM to request increased funding. Moreover, I have no knowledge of any meetings for that purpose between 1979 and 1989. As I began work on this column, my regret for not making finding the agreement a goal of my MMEA presidency was heightened through several revelations: • First, I should have asked Tom Fugate, who assisted me on several matters during my administration, about the agreement in 1997. • Second, I knew Dr. Marchand and would have solicited his help in working with the Executive Council to develop a proposal for meeting with the PSSAM. • Third, although Dr. Roberty, the Superintendent of the Harford County Public Schools who participated in the negotiations, had retired, he was still living and might have been helpful. In addition, his daughter was a colleague, a music teacher in Harford County. The lack of periodic meetings with the PSSAM to request increased fundcontinued on next page

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Maryland Music Educator

Summer 2020

The PSSAM-MMEA Agreement: Reflections After 40 Years by Dr. David J. Marchand, MMEA Past President, MMEA Hall of Fame Member, Towson University (retired)


n March 11, 1977, the Executive Board of the Maryland Music Educators Association (MMEA), under the leadership of president Robert Kersey, approved the following resolution: All teachers, in order to have students participate in All State performing groups and state-wide festivals held under the auspices of MMEA and the associate organizations, must be members of MMEA. In other words, if a teacher was not a dues-paying member of MMEA, the children in his or her school could not participate in statewide MMEA activities. That sounds harsh, but for years, MMEA members had been paying, by way of their yearly dues, the festival expenses of all children regardless of their teachers’ membership status. It did not seem fair or reasonable that nonmembers would have the same benefits and privileges while the expenses were paid by someone else. Clearly, this subsidizing had to end. In fact, within a few short months, MMEA-MENC [Music Educators National Conference (MENC), renamed NAfME, 2011] experienced the largest increase in enrollment compared to all other states. Then, in September, I received a letter from Kent County Superintendent Richard Holler representing the Public Schools Superintendents Association of Maryland (PSSAM) threatening to suspend MMEA’s services in every county school system if MMEA did not rescind the (above) resolution. Students would not be allowed to participate in any MMEA-sponsored event. Apparently, what spooked

the PSSAM was the notion that MMEA had become a “closed shop”, which by definition is a place of work where membership in a union is a condition for being hired and for continued employment. I thought its concern was unwarranted and a real stretch, but realized the seriousness of the situation. In early October, I was sitting in front of 24 hostile men, members of PSSAM. What seemed clear-cut to the MMEA Board was anathema to this group. I first read a prepared statement of MMEA goals and activities listing all the wonderful events scheduled by MMEA that benefited their students. My presentation fell on deaf ears. Apparently, anything that smacked as being a “teachers union” was to be bound, gagged and quickly put to death. However, the meeting became cordial and we freely exchanged views. Although nothing was decided, I felt that the PSSAM had shown good faith and that it was willing to negotiate further with MMEA. This optimism was misplaced, as the PSSAM, at its next scheduled meeting in November, took a very hard line and resolved to “terminate all participation by students…in all MMEA-sponsored events for as long as such restrictions are in effect.” It was a shock to me as MMEA was only trying to survive financially to continue to serve their students. continued on next page

Letters from Retirement, continued from previous page

ing for increased costs and additional events has defeated the two-fold purpose of the agreement - to help defray the cost to student participants and to allow member dues to provide more services for members. The stunning consequence of this inaction is that the amount of each student’s reimbursement for All State has remained at $55 for 40 years. In reflecting on the increasing costs of All State and additional events provided for students by member dues through the associa-

tion budget, imagine the additional services that might have been provided for members since the advent of the agreement. As I consider how the increasing value of $55 from 1979 to 2020 would have created a far better financial situation for students, teachers and MMEA, my regret for inaction in 1997-99 has grown deeper. I look forward to an MMEA when the oversights of the past will become a vision for the future.

About the Author: Richard A. Disharoon, MMEA Hall of Fame member and Past President of MMEA, MCEA, and the Eastern Division of NAfME, has been a choral music educator and voice teacher for over fifty years. He earned his B.S. degree in Elementary Education from State Teachers College at Towson (now Towson University); his M.A. degree in Music Education from Teachers College, Columbia University; and his Ph.D. in Secondary Music Education at the University of Maryland, College Park. For forty years he was the Chair of Visual and Performing Arts and Choral Director at Pikesville High School, Baltimore County Public Schools; and he was Director of Music at Arnolia United Methodist church for twenty years. From 1985-1990, he was Director of Choral Activities at the Essex Campus of the Community College of Baltimore County where he founded the Greater Baltimore Youth Chorale. He was Director of the Parkville Summer Choral Workshop from1988-1999. Dr. Disharoon has guest conducted several Maryland high school and middle school honors choruses. He is active as an adjudicator for Solo and Ensemble and large ensemble festivals. Dr. Disharoon was an Adjunct Professor of Choral Music Education at Loyola University of Maryland, the Peabody Conservatory of Music, and Towson University. His many articles on Choral Music Education based on teaching these graduate courses were published in Maryland Music Educator. Dr. Disharoon maintained a private voice studio for several years and at the Maryland Conservatory of Music from 2005-2009. He specialized in working with male developing voices.

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I thought that a phone call to the incoming-president of PSSAM, A. A. Roberty, Superintendent of Harford County Schools, would be helpful. He not only confirmed PSSAM’s position but did it, I thought, rather acrimoniously. He did agree, however, to circulate a letter to PSSAM members which asked them to withhold any action until the MMEA Executive Board could reevaluate its mandatory-membership resolution at its next meeting in February 1998. Soon after, I left for Germany believing that there would be cessation of action on the part of the PSSAM members. I never saw what Superintendent Roberty circulated among the PSSAM, but some school districts continued to refuse to allow MMEA to carry out its traditional activities. In early January, in my absence, vice-president Kersey called the MMEA Executive Board into special session and the following resolution was passed: Be it resolved that the Maryland Music Educators Association withdraw the mandatory membership requirement until…in conjunction with the (PSSAM) arrive at a mutually acceptable alternative. At that point, interference with MMEA stopped. Secondly, it was agreed that there would be direct negotiations between the two parties. Our negotiating team was comprised of Kathy Schneider, Mike Pastelak, Jim Avampato (all deceased) as well as Bert Damron, John Wakefield and me. (I would be remiss without making special mention of Bob Kersey, deceased, who played an enormous role, much of it behind the scenes.) On June 2, 1978, the PSSAM brought the first draft of an agreement

to the Executive Board meeting. This draft was studied, discussed in great detail, and a revision shared with the PSSAM on August 14 at which time it was approved by both parties. The bottom line: PSSAM members would financially support all activities and events in which they had student participation. For the first and initial year, this was figured at $23,500 and would increase as circumstances warranted. Members’ dues could now be directed toward services and activities which directly benefited them rather than paying to service student events. Additionally, PSSAM agreed to pay the Festival Coordinator’s honorarium (now morphed into the Executive Director position*) as well as all clerical and logistical expenses associated with student events. After forty years, this agreement still seems historic. I was told that national MENC officers were carefully watching these negotiations, believing that the agreement could be a template for other states. It’s also a reminder that two parties, even those as antagonistic as these two were at the beginning, can come together for the benefit of everyone as long as there is a modicum of civility and a desire to reach common ground. *Funding for the Executive Director position was created by combining the following staff positions: Festival Coordinator, Treasurer, and Executive Secretary. The Executive Director assumed all responsibilities assigned to each position.

About the Author: Dr. David Marchand retired in 2001 from Towson University in Maryland after serving thirty years in the music department: thirteen as Head of Music Education, seventeen as department chairperson. During that period, he was active as an adjudicator and guest conductor in the Mid-Atlantic region. In 1977, he was elected as President of the Maryland Music Educators Association (MMEA) and, two years later, was a candidate for President of the Eastern Division of the Music Educators National Conference [MENC, previous name of NAfME]. In 1995, Dr. Marchand was selected to the MMEA Hall of Fame. Dr. Marchand earned his Ph.D. degree ffgvfrom the University of Wisconsin in the spring of 1970, having studied with Robert Petzold. His research is centered on the improvement of teaching methods and strategies. He has published articles in the Council for Research in Music Education as well as in the Journal of Research in Music Education. Prior to his doctoral studies, Dr. Marchand spent four years (1962-1966) teaching music to the children enrolled in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) in Mannheim and Heidelberg, Germany. In Heidelberg, he designed a unique Humanities program, the core of which is still part of the entire DoDDS curriculum. Dr. Marchand taught for several years in the public schools of Minnesota following his graduation with a bachelor's degree in 1957 from Bemidji State University in Minnesota and a master's degree from the University of Illinois in 1960. Comments and questions are welcome and may be sent to Editor Felicia B. Johnston at, who will forward them to the Author.

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Music Teaching, Mending Walls, and Dismantling Barriers by Colleen Sears, The College of New Jersey Republished with permission from Tempo, The Official Magazine of the New Jersey Music Educators Association, January 2020.


n the summer of 2019, Disney released a new version of the 1941 film, Dumbo1. As much as I love the visual candy that is the cinematic world of Tim Burton, there was no way I was going to see that film. You see, it was the original Dumbo that broke my heart when I was a young girl, and in doing so, it taught me the meaning of empathy. I don’t know if I’ll ever fully recover from the “Baby Mine” scene in Dumbo. I remember nothing else from the film, but the image of Dumbo’s jailed mother reaching her trunk from the bars of her “mad elephant” cell to rock her baby tore my child heart to shreds. It didn’t matter that I was watching a fictional, animated movie. The very notion of separation from family, connection, and that deepest kind of love was absolutely terrifying. I find myself thinking of that scene often, especially now. Not because of this film’s remake, but rather because that heart-wrenching scene, in a fictional, animated film, has become a horrifying reality for many children living in the United States. Many children entering our classrooms are children who are living with the fear and/or traumatic reality of separation and profound loss. When we consider fear and trauma of this scale, the idea of teaching quarter notes, preparing for festivals and competitions, or logging practice minutes seems utterly absurd. How, then, can we reconcile what and how we teach with the trauma-filled world that we and our students move through each day? What power do we have as music educators in the midst of such bleak times? In the “Baby Mine” scene, Dumbo’s mother is walled away from the world and caged in a “mad elephant” cell. Though the physical barrier of the cell remained, the lullaby became the vehicle for tenderness and love; a temporary softening of the cruel wall that kept a mother from her baby. The thing about barriers and walls is that they can be dismantled. The thing about music and art is they can help dismantle barriers and walls. Sounds cliché? There are countless examples of the barrier-dismantling power of music and art. Check out the video of John Luther Adam’s Inuksuit, performed on both sides of the United States and Mexican border ( Despite a towering physical barrier, musicians in the United States and Mexico connected with each other through sound and transcended the wall with music, performing as one ensemble. In another examples, artists used the border wall as a fulcrum, installing seesaws that enable children on both sides to play together. In another recent instance, Yo-Yo Ma performed Bach’s Unaccompanied Cello Suites at the border, highlighting the power of music to unite and connect despite physical barriers ( After his performance, Yo-Yo Ma stated, “It’s never art for art’s sake.” It’s never just art for art’s sake. What might this mean for our music

classrooms? How might we ground our content and our pedagogy in the stark reality of the world around us? How could adopting a “it’s never just art for art’s sake” philosophy help us honor student identities and dismantle barriers by situating what we perform in contemporary cultural context? What could this look like? “It’s never art for art’s sake” looks like having the courage to engage with the messiness of truth in our teaching. We might still play “A Movement for Rosa” or sing a carefully vetted African American spiritual with our choirs, but we owe it to our students and ourselves to approach those pieces with honesty and humility. In these cases, the art must serve as a vehicle for discussion about what we play, why we play it, and what it means to play it today. We can include questions like: What happened to people like Rosa Parks before they were celebrated as heroes? Who today is like Rosa Parks? What does it mean to sing an African American spiritual now? What does it mean to perform a spiritual as a white person or as a person of color? How do we approach these works given the current racial climate in the United States? When our pedagogy is situated in contemporary context, we honor the identities of our students and show that we can appropriately engage with the complexity of our individual histories. With this approach, we dismantle walls of fake optimism that prevent us from delving into the most complicated and painful parts of our collective history. (Look no further than the descriptions of civil rights-inspired music online and you’ll find no shortage of happy, optimistic, and triumphant endings.) When walls of fake emotion fall, we all become more humble, more human, and we open an important pathway for connection and understanding in our classrooms. Connection. Understanding. Like Dumbo and his mother in the “Baby Mine” scene, we have the power to use our art and our pedagogy to soften many types of barriers that exist in schools. Some barriers are easier to soften or remove than others, especially the ones we sometimes create ourselves: expensive field trips and/or pay-to-play fees that don’t account for students with socioeconomic challenges, or limited music opportunities for students with special needs. Some barriers I created early in my career: “It doesn’t matter that you can learn by ear. You can’t read music well enough to join the band.” “Your grade just dropped because your parent didn’t sign off on your practice report.” Then there are the insidious, toxic barriers that can’t be seen. “Go back to your country,” whispered to Latinx students; “Terrorist,” whispered to Muslim students; fears of shootings, deportations, separations, and harassment. These are walls of fear and trauma that have catastrophic effects. Devastatingly, these are the walls that are most difficult to dismantle because they require legal action and sustained public resistance. Perhaps the best we can do as music educators is to use our art to reach through walls of fear. Can we reach, just a little bit, and focus on continued on next page


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Summer 2020

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How to Incorporate a Rock Guitar Player into Your Jazz Band by Doug Maher, Adjunct Instructor of Guitar and Jazz Combo, University of Connecticut


any years ago, an esteemed and respected band director asked that I provide private lessons for his student guitarist. He was considering admitting this student into his jazz band, which would be a first in his 25-year teaching career. He wanted to make sure that having a guitarist would not “ruin” his jazz band. I was not sure if his comment was serious. But could this happen? The answer is yes, through no intended fault of the student or band director. There are several reasons for this possibility, but the main ones are a lack of information about the electric guitar and its technique, sound and function in the jazz band rhythm section. This article will provide information to help guitar players make a positive contribution - to the jazz band and to the sanity and happiness of the band director. Few if any other musical instruments have as long and varied a history as the guitar. Plucked string instruments of a variety of shapes precede it, dating back to 3000 B.C. The plucked string instrument of various numbers of strings first called the guitar appeared in Spain around 1400. The modern guitar with 6 gut (now nylon) strings, as played by maestro Andres Segovia in the 20th century through modern day classical guitarists, was created in the 1800s. By the early 1900s the steel string acoustic guitar had crossed stylistic and social boundaries, as found in the country blues of Robert Johnson and the early bluegrass music of Maybelle Carter. The 20th century explosion of interest in the electric guitar, invented by Adolph Rickenbacher and advanced by Les Paul and Leo Fender, is found in virtually all styles of popular music, from the jazz guitar of Charlie Christian, electric blues of B.B. King, Rock and Roll of Chuck Berry, to all their guitar descendants of today. This rich and diverse history of guitar styles and techniques presents a variety of challenges and choices for today’s guitar student. A lack of informed decisions by the student and band director can in fact have a negative impact on the school jazz band. I offer my commentary and recommendations to

ah e Douglas Mahe Dou gl as M Instructor off Guitar University off C Connect onnect Instructor o Guitar and and Jazz Jazz Combo Combo at at tthe he U niversity o (Jazz Berklee College off M Music, M.M. .M. ( (Jazz Guitar Guitar Performance) Performance) from from Be rklee C o lle ge o usic, M The off M Miami, Music Education Certification rom C The University University o iami, and a nd M usic Ed ucation C ertification ffrom State University. has over 40 off e experience as sah high ig h State U niversity. Doug Dou g h as o v er 4 0 yyears ears o xperience a jazz band clinician and performing guitarist. uitarist. jazz b and cl inician a nd p erforming g

improve the performance of the electric guitar student.

Music Literacy ! The contemporary guitarist performing blues, jazz, country, rock and all of their subgenres does not need to be able to read music to be proficient and successful. There, I said it. This flies in the face of the goal of music literacy in music education (which I whole-heartedly support). Yet how can we deny the success and impact of Jimi Hendrix, Sir Paul McCartney (who to this day cannot read music), or Taylor Swift? Most guitar players who are first drawn to the “folk art” styles of music learn by ear, playing along with recordings or with other musicians. These young musicians, are in my opinion, usually more aurally advanced than their concert band peers. Often during my career as a band director, I observed students who were “the rock guitar players looking through the window” at a concert band rehearsal, assuming there was no opportunity for them to participate. Some band directors have integrated guitar and keyboard into the concert band (i.e. “New Band” repertoire), but that’s another discussion. How can we coax “the rock guitar player” into the conventional concert band to experience all the musical benefits of reading notation, intonation, melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, and timbre, and also learn about the commitment, responsibility, and teamwork that band provides? With no disrespect to the art of the percussionist, I suggest recruiting that rock guitarist to play the bass drum or cymbals. If he or she is particularly motivated, offer a wind instrument (two of my guitar players eventually became quite skilled trombonists). Yes, this is extra work, but was beneficial for both students and the band program. I’ve heard the band director joke “How do you get a guitar player to turn the volume down? Put music in front of them”. Yet in my opinion, most teachers don’t acknowledge the difficulty of reading music on guitar combined with the lack of ensemble participation experience. Several of continued on next page

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creating gentle, empathetic, peaceful classrooms? Can we be acutely aware of the walls of fear that surround and oppress so many of our students on a daily basis and enact more compassionate pedagogy in response? Can we recognize that sometimes the most heroic action a student makes in a day is simply walking into the entrance of the school? The opening line of Robert Frost’s poem, “The Mending Wall”2, is “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.” In our teaching and in our music making, let’s find as many somethings as we can that don’t love a wall. Those “somethings” must be grounded in teaching beyond music just for music’s sake. Whether it’s having a discussion about current race issues as you are rehearsing a spiritual with a choir, or making a conscious effort to model empathy and foster human con

nection in your teaching, we can use the power and the time that we have in classrooms to be something or someone who doesn’t love a wall. We might not have the power to dismantle all of the barriers that break our hearts, but teaching music gives us agency to reach our students and their fragile hearts. Endnotes 1. Dumbo, directed by Ben Sharpsteen (1941, Burbank, California: Walt Disney Studio Productions), film. 2. Frost, Robert, “The Mending Wall,” in North of Boston (London: David Nutt, 1914).

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my most successful guitar students also played other instruments in the concert band. The growing popularity of Suzuki guitar is a positive advancement for guitar music literacy, but that’s like comparing apples to oranges for an electric guitar player. The usual secondary school performance opportunity for the guitarist is the jazz band. The secondary school jazz band is (or should be) a musical experience that requires music literacy. The reality is that if the resources are available, the band director needs to connect the young rock guitarist with a qualified private jazz guitar instructor who will stress music literacy. The following are guitar pedagogy suggestions.

pickups on a piece of wood and perfected the solid body electric guitar. This enabled guitar players to be heard in a large ensemble and explore a plethora of new sounds. Since the dawn of the rock era in 1955, jazz band repertoire has reflected the influence of popular music. The role of the electric guitar in the jazz band changed from the supporting rhythm sound of Freddy Green to a featured melody and improvisation voice, as, for example, in the music of Pat Metheny arranged by Bob Curnow or in Stevie Wonder songs arranged by Mike Tomarro. The solid body electric guitar is required for this repertoire.

Method Books

3. Use of one guitar for a variety of styles calls for a compromise. The semi-hollow style electric guitar, which is a solid body with acoustic chambers, provides a sonic versatility which can cover repertoire from traditional big band swing to modern rock and funk.

1. The Hal Leonard Guitar Method, Complete Edition by Will Schmid and Greg Koch This method provides an introduction to notation and melody reading, which utilizes the open strings of the guitar in the 1st position. This sound IS NOT ACCEPTABLE for reading melodies in a jazz band, but it’s a start. It also provides the 15 basic open chords (“the cowboy chords”) which are also NOT ACCEPTABLE for jazz band rhythm guitar, but again, it’s a start.

2. A Modern Method For Guitar, Vol. 1 by William Leavitt (Hal Leonard Publisher) This is the original textbook of the Berklee College guitar program. It provides reading skills through the 4th position, based on learning the fingerboard through application of movable scale fingering patterns. It also provides a resource of movable chord forms. These techniques are the foundation of reading advanced melodies and playing advanced chord forms found in the guitar parts in a jazz band. It is not uncommon that jazz band arrangements do not have guitar parts. In the 1950s, the guitar in the professional jazz band became an economic luxury, and some jazz band arrangers just preferred not to write for it, possibly because the sound was so closely associated with the Count Basie Orchestra (ex: Duke Ellington after 1940). When there is no guitar part, consider copying the bass part if it has chord symbols. The piano part with chord voicings written on the Grand Staff can be a reading nightmare for the student guitarist. Of course, the influence of rock repertoire in the 1970s made the guitar an indispensable part of the modern jazz band. Equipment Guitars: How many guitars does a guitar player need? Just one more! There is a lot of truth to that statement. The professional guitar player needs different types of guitars depending on the style of music being played. Here are recommendations for guitars to use in jazz band music that are moderately priced for the school or student budget: 1. Big Band Swing - this style of jazz band music made famous in the 1930s by the Count Basie Orchestra and his rhythm guitarist Freddy Green is (or should be) the foundation of repertoire for the secondary school jazz band. It calls for a steel string acoustic arch-top jazz guitar. Freddy Green actually never played an electric guitar, but the option of a pickup is useful. A true acoustic jazz guitar is very limited in any other style.

Recommended: Epiphone “Joe Pass”, The Ibanez Artcore AS75 2. Rock/Funk/Fusion contemporary jazz band - The world of guitar turned upside down when Les Paul and Leo Fender mounted electric

Recommended: Epiphone “Les Paul”, or the Fender Standard Telecaster or Stratocaster.

Recommended: Epiphone 335 “Dot”. Since the 1960s most students have been attracted to the guitar through exposure to rock music (in my case, the Beatles). Therefore, the instrument they have will almost always be the solid body guitar. When the choice of pickup and the tone control setting of a solid body guitar combines with techniques used to play rock music, the resulting timbre and volume level can “ruin” a jazz band. I’ve heard this happen when adjudicating a jazz band festival. However, it is possible to get a passable jazz sound from a rock guitar. Here’s how:

1. Have the student select the “neck” pickup (located closest to the fingerboard). Never let the student use the “bridge” pickup (closest to the bridge) for jazz style music. 2. Set the “tone” setting no higher than #5 for a warmer, darker sound. Guitar Picks: Electric guitar in the jazz band is played “plectrum style” (with a pick). Don’t allow students to strum chords with the thumb. The choice of guitar pick material and its thickness affects the sound of the guitar. This is comparable to the effect of different reeds and mouthpieces for wind instruments.

Recommended: Fender 351 Celluloid or Dunlop Tortex standard sized, at least a medium thickness (1.00mm) Guitar Strings: Rock guitar players prefer extra light gauge (thickness) of strings, for easier string bending techniques used in rock/blues/country electric guitar styles. String gauges that are heavier provide a warmer, darker sound and better intonation.

Recommended: D’Addario EXL 110 Nickel Wound, gauges 10 – 46 Guitar patch cable: Insist the guitar student provide his or her own cable. Teach them to roll up the cable properly to prevent the embarrassing squeal or intermittent sound cutout caused by a worn cable connection. A cable made of quality materials and maximum length of 12’ has a positive effect on the guitar sound.

Recommended: Mogami or Monster cables Guitar Amps: The best thing that has happened to guitar amps in the last decade continued on next page


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is the realization that “bigger isn’t better”. A cabinet with one 12inch or 10-inch speaker is sufficient. The important element is wattage. A minimum of 20 watts to a maximum of 60 watts will provide the “headroom” necessary for a clean sound without distortion. An underpowered small practice amp will not be heard in the jazz band, yet there is no need for a huge and powerful amp to “turn up to 11” (as seen in the movie This is Spinal Tap!).

Recommended: Fender Deluxe Reverb or Fender Blues Deluxe (tube amp), or Roland Blues Cube Stage 60 (solid state amp) Most jazz guitarists prefer tube amps over solid state amps for a warmer sound. However, solid state amps can be more durable in the school band room setting. The electric guitar player must learn that the guitar amp is as equally important to optimum sound production as are other factors. Special Effects Pedals Electric guitar players have been enamored with pedals since Jimi Hendrix used the Fuzz Box and Wah-Wah pedal in the 1960s. Many jazz bands in the 1970s arrangements of rock repertoire began to require guitarists to use pedals, some to excess (the influence of the Shaft movie soundtrack led to abuse of the Wah-Wah pedal). The student guitarist should have a distortion or overdrive pedal for rock guitar solos. However, there is no use for pedals when playing jazz repertoire.

Recommended: Ibanex “Tube Screamer” overdrive pedal Electric Guitar Tuner: This is in my opinion the most important technological advancement since the magnetic pickup. There is no excuse for the guitar played out of tune.

In more modern repertoire, the guitar is free to “comp” the chords in a syncopated style. The primary strumming pattern is the “Charleston” rhythm of a quarter note on beat one and 8th note on the “and” of two. Reference the jazz guitar recordings of Wes Montgomery. Many band directors are wary of allowing the guitar and keyboard to “comp” together. I believe that they can, but they must use chord voicings that are harmonically compatible, and they must “leave space” to not clutter the sound. This is a difficult skill which requires musical maturity. I always advise guitar players “when in doubt, lay out”, and leave space for the keyboard. Time keeping and “locking into the groove” are essential. Stress the practice of rhythm guitar parts with a metronome. When playing a melody and improvising, a guitar player must have two distinct musical personalities depending on the musical style. It is desirable to bend strings for a more vocal effect and use a fast vibrato when playing blues and rock music. However, string bending and vibrato are rarely used in jazz guitar styles. This is a difficult habit to break for the young rock guitar player who has limited jazz listening experience. Stage Setup for The Guitar Bad stage setup is one of the most common problems I observe when adjudicating secondary school jazz bands. The guitar player should be seated in the front row at the end of the saxophone section nearest to the rhythm section, but not directly in front of the drummer. NEVER locate the electric guitar player (or bass player) behind the amplifier. Locate the amp behind the player, so that it can be heard, and also to use the body as a buffer between the amp and guitar pickups to prevent feedback. Do not block the bass drum or bass amp with the guitar amp.

Recommended: Snark Portable Guitar Tuner The guitar requires attention to maintenance for the best possible tone and intonation. Worn, dirty strings or a warped neck will cause the guitar to play out of tune. Technique Since the days of Chuck Berry’s duck walk and Elvis Pressley’s hips, the guitar has functioned as both a musical instrument and stage prop, often played standing with the guitar almost to the kneecaps. Insist that the student guitarist use a guitar strap, set tight enough so the instrument remains in the same ergonomic position whether sitting or standing. This encourages proper left hand fingering and right hand picking technique. Encourage students to develop alternate picking technique, for clean and precise melody articulation. The general rule is “down beats are played with down strokes”. As stated above, never allow the use of open chord voicings found in country music or “power chords” found in rock music for a Freddie Green-style rhythm guitar part in a jazz band. At least use movable “barre” chords. In fact, specialized voicings known as “Freddie Green” chords use 3 notes consisting of the root, 3rd, and 7th of the chord, found on the 6th, 4th, and 3rd strings, are best. Keep the amp volume level set at no more than 3. The guitar should be “felt” more than heard, as it can also be thought of as a member of the percussion family. Play quarter note strums on the beat with down strokes. This links with the “walking” bassist and the drummer “feathering” quarter notes on the bass drum to create to quintessential “Kansas City” style rhythm section found in Big Band swing music.

Suggested Recordings The Count Basie Orchestra - with Freddie Green, guitar · “Lil’ Darlin’” and “One O’Clock Jump” Bob Curnow’ L.A. Big Band · “Minuano (Six Eight)” - composed by Pat Metheny Gordon Goodwin’s Big Phat Band · “Jazz Police” New York’s Most Dangerous Big Band · “I Wish” - Comp. Stevie Wonder / arr. Mike Tomarro Two of the most famous jazz guitar small group recordings: · The Wynton Kelly Trio with Wes Montgomery Smokin’ At The Half Note · Pat Metheny - Bright Size Life I hope this article assists band directors to gain a better understand the function of the guitar in the jazz band, so they can open the band room door to those eager young guitar players, make great music, and have fun without the worry of “ruining” the jazz band. Just kidding! About the Author: Douglas Maher is the Adjunct Instructor of Guitar and Jazz Combo at the University of Connecticut. He earned a B.M. (Jazz Guitar Performance) from Berklee College of Music, M.M. (Jazz Pedagogy) from The University of Miami, and Music Education Certification from Central Connecticut State University. Doug has over 40 years of experience as a high school band director, jazz band clinician and performing guitarist.

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MARYLAND MUSIC EDUCATOR Vol. 66, No. 4 Summer 2020 Official Journal of the Maryland Music Educators Association Maryland Music Educators Association, PMB#472, 6710 Ritchie Highway, Glen Burnie, MD 21061 This issue of Maryland Music Educator will be posted at

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