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Re-defining the Civic Civic Presence: Space + Form

A study within Montrose High Street Design Research Project Mark White - 120010261

AR50007


23.04.18

Tutor Helen O’Connor

Collaborator Fergus Purdie Ian Gilzean Husam Al Waer

Background Information Statutory Planning: Preserve and/or Enhance (2017) Montrose Town Centre Charrette (2016) A+DS Place Challenge Report (2015)


Abstract

The Design Research Project interrogates ideas relating to civic space and form with the aim of re-strengthening the relationship between space and social interaction, while revitalising activity within the historic core of Montrose. It will explore civic space and form within urban areas, asking a series of interrelated questions: What constitutes civic presence? How to return once civic space back into civic use? What is civic use and how do you facilitate it within a 21st Century Scottish town? The study is situated within the Historic core of Montrose; a coastal town and former royal burgh on the east coast of Scotland. Montrose lacks any significant civic space within the town; the former market square being used as a car park. The town’s main civic building, the Town House, has lost its civic function, and presence, within the High Street. It is now used to house a number of Council offices and a small Enquires Centre, the once bustling portico entrance now collects rubbish. The theme of civic presence is explored through a design proposal for the south end of Montrose High Street. Three key elements collectively make up the proposal: The High Street, The Town House and The Castle Site. The High Street is reinforced as the heart of the town, with an identifiable civic space; while the Town House is reinstated as an important public building within the High Street. The proposal for the Castle Site has a strong civic form, and acts as a pull from the north to the south of the High Street.


Contents

Page

1. Introduction

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1.1. Defining the Problem + Area of Study

1.2. Historic Development

2. Principals + Design Precedent

2.1. Civic Space

2.2. Civic Form

3. Area + Site Appraisal

3.1. Townscape

3.2. Site

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4. The Design

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5. References

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6. List of Figures

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4.1. Brief + Site Strategy

4.2. The Proposal

7. Bibliography


1. Introduction An introduction to the Project

1.1 Defining the Problem + Area of Study 1.2 Historic Development


1.1 Introduction | Defining the Problem + Area of Study

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Montrose [Fig. 1] has been subject to the same issues as many towns in Scotland: suburban expansion, vehiclecentric planning, online shopping and out-of-town retail outlets. Combined. These issues draw the life out of town centres; leaving them to deteriorate. Montrose is one such place where the town’s historic core is now in a state of deterioration, scattered with vacant units and the once important civic space is obsolete. Montrose recently went through a charrette process, which highlighted a number of key issues relating to the historic core. The work of this unit built off the charrette, to form a regeneration strategy that established a series of responsive urban strategies. Following this, individual research topics have been taken forward, each responding to a different site.

Defining the Problem “The city square has for centuries been a place for social interaction, trade and commerce, information exchange, religious and political address, festivities and sporting events; an urban hub that can embody a multiplicity of function and adapt over time through changing socio-economic needs. The effects of industrial capitalism and secularism, however, have not only seen the fall of public man but the slow disintegration of the public realm.” (Pomeroy, 2007) As Pomeroy explains, our town centres and specifically the High Street have long been the heart of community life, historically providing the primary place for people to acquire food and other resources while also providing a common area for meeting and social interaction; they

have been the civic hub of the town. However, this civic hub has considerably changed in nature through the late 19th and the 20th centuries to its current state today with the emergence of large department stores, national chains, shopping centres and latterly online shopping. Montrose is an example of a town where the historic core, dating back to the 12th century, is now in a state of decline. The town does have an active community, representing a wide range of interests. There are many community-led events and festivals held in the town that are well attended by both its local, and wider, community. However, the provision of space for these events and festivals is far from ideal. There is a lack of any defined civic space to really promote the strong sense of community the town could, and should, have. “Civic spaces are an extension of the community” (PPS, 2009), it acts as a platform for public lives and a stage for social exchange. When cities, towns and neighbourhoods have a defined civic space the residents have a strong sense of community; unfortunately the opposite can be said when these civic spaces are inadequate. The community does not engage with one another, events are under-attended or simply do not take place and the townscape begins to deteriorate; there is no community spirit (PPS, 2009). The civic heart of a town should encourage its residents to become involved, to interact both with each other and the local governance in order to harness a sense of pride and identity throughout the community.


Fig 1 | Montrose High Street


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Area of Study The Design Research Project is situated within the Historic Core of Montrose [Fig. 2]; the project will explore civic presence within the urban context of Montrose. The theme of civic presence is explored through a design proposal for the South end of Montrose High Street. Three key elements collectively make up the proposal: •

The High Street

The Town House

The Castle Site


1.2 Introduction | Historic Development

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The Scottish High Street originated in the 12th century when the first Royal Burghs were established, these Royal Burghs were decreed by the Monarch and were given many commercial privileges by way of trading and markets. Key symbols, alongside a vibrant High Street, of the Royal Burghs were the ‘Mercat Cross’ and the ‘Tolbooth’. The Mercat Cross was the commercial heart of the burgh: where markets were held and also where important civic announcements were made. The town of Montrose has historically developed on a narrow peninsula, between the North Sea to the east and a unique tidal basin to the west. The Montrose Basin, to the west of the town, is the largest inland saltwater basin in Great Britain and is considered a nature reserve of international importance. The location on this peninsula has resulted in the linear north-south pattern of development that is still apparent today. The town has an attractive townscape and a number of distinctive character areas including its wide High Street, the Mid Links, Tidal Basin and Harbour area, extensive seafront and open links. The Royal Burgh of Montrose has a medieval origin and was a prosperous and productive trading centre. The name derives from the Gaelic Moine Rois, meaning ‘The Mossy Point’ (Atkinson, 1997). Montrose has a linear form like many Scottish medieval burghs. The marketplace, the ‘engine room’ of the town, is placed to the south end of the High Street (Munro, 2009). Montrose High Street was, and still is, the widest High Street within Scotland. This arose from the clearance of the ‘Rotten Raw’ of substandard houses which ran along the centre of the street before the town became a Royal Burgh. As typical with a medieval street pattern, the land either side of the High Street was divided into long narrow burghal plots for cultivation, workshops and simple housing. The High Street, to an extent, remains

characterised by its dense medieval burghal plots [Fig. 3], where the narrow frontages create a distinctive rhythm to the overall streetscape. From the 12th century Royal Burghs had to standardise weights and measurements, this was to collect the correct taxation on goods, and also to stop dishonest merchants from short-changing citizens. Trons, large weighing beams, were set up in marketplaces throughout the Royal Burghs. The word tron is derived from the Old French tronel or troneau, meaning ‘balance’. A tolbooth was the main municipal building of the Scottish burgh, from medieval times until the 18th century. The tolbooth usually provided room for a council meeting chamber, a court-house and a jail. The tolbooth was one of the four essential features in a Scottish burgh, along with the tron, mercat cross and the kirk. Throughout the 18th century there was a push in many Royal Burghs towards improvements to the public realm; including water supply, town planning and public health. As part of this larger process many of the poor quality tollbooths were demolished and replaced with more elegant town houses. Generally these combined a town hall and town council offices and chambers. Overleaf a study of various surviving town houses within Scotland has been undertaken. The aim is to highlight their form and presence within their respective town centres. These examples, which are typical of the Scottish town house, highlight common themes; the main room - and piano nobile - is on the upper levels, access to this level is via a grand staircase, either externally or internally and the building presents a formal façade on to a civic space where markets and events are held.


Mercat Cross Tron

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Fig 3 | Historic rig pattern of Montrose as depicted in 12th century map


Montrose, Angus Constructed: 1763 (Extended: 1821) The town house is entered under the vaulted portico shelter. The upper floors house a committee and assembly room. The town house was extended in 1821, with a third floor added and an extension to the rear. Fig 4 | Montrose town house

Linlithgow, West Lothian Constructed: 1668 (Restored: 1848) In 1650 the old town house was demolished. The town house contained the jail, sheriff court-house and townhall. The building was restored after a fire in 1848. Fig 4 | Linlithgow town house 16

Haddington, East Lothian

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Tolbooth Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Constructed: 1748 (Extended: 1788 + 1830) By 1732 the Tolbooth was in a state of disrepair, the new building had accommodation for the sheriff court and Town Council while the ground floor held prisoners. The tower and spire was added in 1830. N

Tolbooth Study

Fig 6 | Haddington town house

Scale 1:1000 @ A2

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Tolbooth Study

Kelso, Scottish Borders

Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Constructed: 1816 (Remodelled: 1904) The town house is set in a dominating position, projecting into the Square from the north-east. The present building stands on the site of the tolbooth, which was described as ‘old and ruinous’ in the late 18th century.

Tolbooth Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Fig 7 | Kelso town house


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The Town House of Montrose was constructed in the 1760’s. The main façade faces on to the marketplace, with the public rooms constructed on pillars to create a portico for merchants and residents to meet and conduct business in unpleasant weather. “The Town House was intended to be an ornament and an asset to the town of Montrose” (Angus council, unknown). An extension to the rear and further storey was added 60 years later, in the late 1820’s. The new top floor became an elegant assembly room. In the early 19th century, increasing separation of functions led to purpose-built courthouses and prisons, and the replacement of town houses with modern town halls, serving as a council chamber and events venue. While Montrose Town House [Fig. 8] is still in public ownership it has undergone a series of changes over the last 50 years; the Council Chambers and Assembly Rooms now house the Angus Council Access office and so the Town House is virtually never used for public events. The steeple of Montrose Parish Church, built in 1834, is the tallest building within Angus; at the time it was one of Scotland’s most distinctive expressions of civic pride (Munro, 2009). “Where better could a town be placed than here? Peninsular Montrose has everything With water on three sides, while, beyond Rick farmlands, the hills upswing. It has the right size too - not a huge Sprawling mass, but compact at heart Life-supplier to a whole diversified area Yet with the economy a work of art...” MacDairmid, 1961

As seen, MacDairmid in the 1960’s comments how splendid Montrose as a settlement is. However, as with the typical Scottish town, the physical fabric of Montrose has changed significantly, this can be characterised by Price’s diagram of ‘The City as an Egg’. He compares the medieval town to a boiled egg where there is a clear centre with a contained boundary; the town during the industrial revolution is comparable to a fried egg, where there is still a defined centre but the boundaries have grown and become poorly defined; and finally he compares the present day town to a scrambled egg where the clear centre has been lost and the town is growing haphazardly. This analogy, in relation to Montrose, can clearly be seen in terms of its beginnings as a Royal Burgh with a very clearly defined centre, its growth during the industrial revolution during the mid 18th century and the late 19th century, to its current state as a coastal town with a declining town centre. Jacobs (1961) comments that when a town centre stagnates or disintegrates, a place as a social neighbourhood as a whole begins to suffer.


Second Floor Plan

First Floor Plan

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Ground Floor Plan

Fig 8 | Current plan of Montrose Town House


2. Principals + Design Precedent Contextual Theory

2.1. Civic Space 2.2. Civic Form


2.1 Design Precedent + Principals | Civic Space

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Poorly maintained, underused and taken over by cars, our civic space and squares have been stripped of their rightful purpose: to sustain the economic and social vitality of cities. Madden (2002) comments that they are no longer places where people can have the regular, random encounters that foster the kind of social contact Jacobs (1961) called “the small change from which a city’s wealth of public life [will] grow.” Hall (1998) explains that the “origins of the civic idea are generally accepted as being in the Greek city-states”. The Agora can be described as the first civic meeting place; it was a central public space in ancient Greece. Ring (1996) explains that the literal meaning of the word is ‘gathering place’ or ‘assembly’. The Agora, and its counterpart in Rome - the Forum, was a single place where education, politics, religion, philosophy, art and athletics thrived. As such, it functioned as an integrative centre for those activities that were crucial to the Greek way of life, and its democracy. The Agora also served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods. These are the two main function of the Agora; as a political and commercial space. As the Catholic Church ascended during the early Middle Ages agoras were reduced to a singular role; continuing to function as marketplaces and hold other similar activities, often in the squares in front of the churches. Then, with the arrival of the Renaissance in the early 19th century, Europe saw the ascent of specific professions such as architects, sculptors, painters; as these became recognised and respected and were no longer simply trades these professionals did not use the spaces to market their work. This meant these spaces became less important than before (Light, 2010).

In the latter part of the 19th century and continuing into the 20th, manufacturing and industry came to dominate European culture; as people moved to the cities to work in factories, marketplaces in the smaller towns declined. Those in the larger cities survived. Eventually, they shrank further because many of the consumer goods offered for sale were machine made, which led to the rise of retail stores and mass production. After World War II, with the rise of supermarkets and home refrigerators and freezers, marketplaces declined even further (Light, 2010). Within the United Kingdom, and Scotland, the street could have historically been described as a meeting house and a community room. The meeting house was the first public building built in villages as a place for public assembly and of worship. Public spaces such as town square developed from this (Kahn, 1973). Since the rise of the car streets have lost there room-like quality; Khan (1973) believes that we can start to rectify this by reinstating the High Street as a place where people can live, learn, socialise, shop and work. “Civic space is viewed by the inhabitants of the town as the place where their collective right to performance and speech are entrenched – as opposed to that of the town hall, where the right to perform is strictly controlled by those with authority over the space” (Goheen, 1994, p.433). The rewards of transforming a civic space into a great public place go beyond just the space, although the place in itself enriches the lives of its users and enhances its surrounding buildings and neighbourhood. “Great public places contribute to community health – whether socially, economically, culturally or environmentally. They add enhancement to the civic realm – not only visually, but also in providing a sense of character and a forum for public activities; acting as focal points for definition and foundations for healthy growth” (PPS, 2009).


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Stortorget Square - Kalmar Architect: Caruso St. John Area: 8450 sqm

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Vartov Square - Copenhagen Architect: Hall McKnight Area: 7950 sqm

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Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

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Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

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Plaza del Cardenal Belluga - Murcia N

Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Architect: Rafael Monero Area: 6510 sqm Fig 9 | Civic Space Study


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Gehl (2007) believes that the key to healthy, safe, lively and sustainable cities is strengthening the social function of spaces, favouring their role as meeting place. Gehl categorised activity into three types: •

Necessary Activities are those that are more or less compulsory (e.g. going to school or to work, shopping, waiting for the bus, etc.).

Optional Activities are pursuits that are participated in if there is a will to do so and if time and place makes it possible (e.g. activities such as taking a walk, standing and enjoying life, or sitting and sunbathing, etc.).

Social Activities are all the activities that depend on the presence of others in public spaces (e.g. children playing, conversations, communal activities of various kinds and also passive contacts, that is, simply seeing and hearing other people).

Whenever outdoor areas are of high quality, necessary activities take place with approximately the same frequency, although they tend to take a longer time, because the physical conditions are better. In addition, however, a wide range of optional activities will occur because the place and situation now invite people to stop, sit, eat, play, and so on. Gehl (2007, p. 11) notes that “in streets and city spaces of poor quality, only the bare minimum of activity takes place. People hurry home. In a good environment, a completely different, broad spectrum of human activities is possible”. It is therefore key to redefine the street as places for walking, gathering and shopping; this is most direct example of how placemaking can benefit a city or town economically (PPS, 2009). Through a series of case studies of civic space, the aim is to interrogate the appearance and function of civic space in the 21st Century.


Life

Space

Buildings Fig 10 | Life, Spaces and Buildings - the priorities of civic space


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Stortorget Square Architect: Caruso St. John Location: Kalmar, Sweden “The conception of public space is impregnated with a longing for a place and time in history when these values were real. Like some ancient mythological entity, public space is woven into the fabric of dreams and ideals.” Gabrielsson, 2008 The square, although it has a strong civic and historical significance, had become neglected. In recent times it has mainly been used as a car park. Having once served as a representation of absolute power Gabrielsson (2008), explains that “over centuries the gradual withdraw of its original uses – military parades, church assemblies and markets – has left its sole remaining use of parking.” The issue for Caruso St. John was how the identity of Stortorget could be strengthened, rather than restored. The aim, rather than fixing its fundamental issue, was to revitalise the square. The commercial centre has moved the focus of activity; the aim is not to move it back, but to give the space a strengthened identity. This was achieved by treating it as a large, continuous surface; providing the means for different uses but allowing the domination of none (Gabrielsson, 2008). Treated from the outset as a defined space both architecturally and historically, the proposal referenced the history of the square through its architecture. Gabrielsson (2008) notes that Stortorget lingers between past and present and that it “presents a case where issues of place, space, power and identity are multiplied and blurred.”

Public space, according to Caruso St. John (Gabrielsson, 2008), is “something that stores and transmits information of some kind and that enables communication, a screen on which society projects its lights and shadows, its hollows and planes, its powers and weaknesses”. The traditional square has been pointed out by critics to be a mere representation of power, signifying ideological closure and a false display of harmony and coherence in society. Street signs, traffic signage and kerbs were removed in favour of one continuous, evolving surface which favours the pedestrian, truly making the space to a public square. Treated as one large continuous surface, using the primitive granite stones that were first used in the square, pedestrian routes and sites for public events were accommodated within smoother surfaces of precast concrete slabs and cut granite sets. The square establishes subtle non-hierarchal relationship between spatial conditions through simple spatial delineation and materiality play; where no space is given dominance (Bordas, 2004). Artistic interventions of lighting masts and wells emphasise the presence of the sea and the space above the square. Subterranean waterways deliver the sound of running water to the square above, these are barely audible at busy times in the square but a comforting companion when empty. Bordas (2004) believes the intervention applies a contemporary constructive solution that completes the paving of the square by restoring it to flatness and continuity. In this way, Stortorget both recovers its lost dignity and acquires a new one.


Fig 11 | Stortorget Square


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Ares of activity The main areas of activity happen to the west of the square, where the main street of commerce terminates at the square. A weekly farmers market is held in the south of the square.

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Pedestrian Routes Key routes of movement within the square are paved in a smooth textured material to encourage movement. Routes across the square, around the periphery and to the cathedral are given priority.


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Civic Building The building to the east of the south edge of the square was, historically, the main municipal building for the city. This building still serves a civic function; the building’s significance is highlighted by a defined space in front.

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Key Spaces Three main spaces are high lighted within the square. Space 1 signifies the termination of the main shopping street, space 2 sits in front of the municipal building, and space 3 defines a space adjacent to the cathedral entrance.


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Vartov Square Architect: Hall McKnight Location: Copenhagen, Denmark The project sits within a wider view of the history of Copenhagen; the design relates to the historic narratives of the city. The square has been built with robust materials and detailing; that will all age with dignity. These materials have already conferred a sense of age and weight to the space that it previously lacked so that the age of the project is already ambiguous, and has been absorbed into the city (Hall & McKnight, 2015). The strategy was to articulate a sequence of new public spaces adjacent to the City Hall, the site previously has been dominated by car-parking. Within this “sea of vehicles the Lure Players, a locally famous statue, felt somewhat stranded and devalued” (Hall & McKnight, 2015). The city centre site was adjacent to a major vehicular route, this presented many logistical problems and needed to be carefully co-ordinated within the programme. The site is divided into two distinct spaces separated by a new woodland of 120 cherry trees out of which the Lure Players statue sits, re-presented to the city. At one end of the cherry wood a new public space is created - Vartov Square (or Alms House Square ) which is overlooked by the oldest of the neighbouring buildings - the AlmsHouse itself. The subtle pattern of the square’s surface is generated from the windows of this building. Thereby, the most modest, yet most historic, building at the head of the site casts an impression of its elevation across the whole length of the project.


Fig 12 | Vartov Square


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Ares of activity The main hub of activity is to the north-east of the space, this is where outside seating is located for the cafĂŠs, bars and restaurants which line that edge of the space. 32

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Vehicular Routes Where vehicular routes pass through the space this takes the form of a shared surface; therefore not giving priority to the car.


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Civic Building The ground-scape of the square takes cue from the elevation of the civic building which fronts on the space; the fenestration forming the pattern for the ground materials.

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Vegetation An area of cherry trees divides the space and creates an urban park within the city. This space is used by people eating picnics and for sitting.


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Plaza del Cardenal Belluga Architect: Rafael Monero Location: Murcia, Spain The Plaza del Cardenal Belluga is now one of the most prominent urban spaces in Murcia. Located in the old part of the city, it is a pedestrian square and a tourist centre. Moneo cleared the space of its vehicular traffic lanes and its decorative central island and fountain; instead using travertine paving to articulate a new, unified surface. The space is accessible to service vehicles but primarily given over to pedestrian use. A row of trees have been planted in front of the of non-institutional buildings. There is a hierarchy within the space; the cathedral taking prominence. The new town hall directly faces the cathedral. The paving centres on a spot intermediately on axis to the centre of the cathedral; this the site of the old market cross. The paths become a street within the open space to direct the flow of foot traffic throughout the square; this design consideration directs movement within the space and helps give direction in a busy space. The paths connect to the different entrances of the surrounding buildings and meets at a point in the centre of the square, this point becomes a stage where groups meet. Eardley (2016) explains that “with these simple means, two paving materials, shaped drainage gratings and a few judiciously placed trees, Moneo has made an extraordinarily vibrant Plaza.�


Fig 13 | Plaza del Cardenal Belluga


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Ares of activity The plaza is divided into two areas, a strip of breakout space for bars, cafĂŠs and restaurants is located to the north edge of the plaza. The rest of the square is given over to a multi-purpose area for events, festivals and markets. 36

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Pedestrian Routes Key pedestrian routes direct people around the edges of the square, the centre of the space becomes a place for meeting and performing.


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Civic Buildings The plaza has three significant civic buildings facing the space. The cathedral and town hall sit opposite each other. Paving material directs visitors towards the entrances to these buildings.

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Vegetation A row of trees along the elevation of the commercial buildings creates a barrier to the main ‘civic space’ within the plaza.


2.2 Design Precedent + Principals | Civic Form

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Civic buildings can be used to create a place, they should define the ‘town square’ where ideas can be discussed and where the community can gather for a multitude of reasons (PPS, 2009), however small towns struggle to create or find an identity to spark pride and involvement within the community. Montrose does not struggle in identifying its past notable contributions to the area as an important trading centre, during its time as a Royal Burgh the town has a number of significant buildings. However, Montrose does lack any true civic presence within the historic core of the town, the market square is used for parking and the town house no longer holds community events or has a political significance. Civic buildings should create places that both nurture and convey the understanding that people matter (Fentress, 2002). Civic means that people are connected to each other through sharing a place (Hall, 1998). Ground floor uses, such as cafĂŠs, book and gift shops, resource centres, etc. that would attract passers-by, serve the community and support the context and street life in the areas proximate to it. Architecture rooted in its context can transform civic buildings into key anchors of their communities. Placemaking around community anchors is an important way to reinvigorate city centres and towns. Civic institutions and public spaces can once again become vibrant destinations as well as catalysts for revitalising the neighbourhoods around them. Through a series of case studies of civic buildings, the aim is to interrogate the form and function of a civic building in the 21st Century.


Town House - Murcia Architect: Rafael Monero Dimensions: 14.5 x 21 m

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Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Town Hall - Utrecht Architect: Enric Miralles Dimensions: 15 x 17 m

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Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Dundee House - Dundee Architect: Page + Park Dimensions: 20 x 26.5 m

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Civic Space Study Scale 1:1000 @ A2

Fig 14 | Elevation Study


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Murcia Town Hall Architect: Rafael Monero Location: Murcia, Spain “A typological, historical contextual and climatological understanding informs Moneo’s work. It is inventive but not for the sake of invention, nor is it slavishly historical, contextual or environmental. Rafael Moneo’s architecture is urbanistically considered and considerate” Moneo, 2002, p.9 Moneo’s work adds to, but does not dominate, its context. The work has a morphological and material sensitivity to the urban context in which his buildings sit. “They have a solidity, rhythm and finitude - without being predictable or boring” (Moneo, 2002, p.9). Murcia Town Hall has a weight and permanence to it; the main elevation portraying a strong sense of civic monumentality [Fig. 15]. It fills the void to the end of the Cardinal Belluga Plaza. The new building floats without establishing any orthogonal relationship with the context, deferring only to the Cathedral. The new building is a spectator, not wanting to take the leading role which is held by the Cathedral and the Palace. “It is not, however, a common place spectator. Civil power is embodied in this new building on the plaza” (Moneo, 2002, p.16). Montrose, and Murcia before the new city hall, faced the same conflict; the town/city hall does not have a presence within the most important urban space of the settlement. The building represents the authority of the citizens, resolving the conflict of power within the city square. The government is now able to take part in the life of the plaza; it participates in public activities.

The façade facing the plaza could, nor would, ever want to compete with this classical order of its context. The façade resists symmetries and offers as its key element the balcony of the gallery: the balcony is placed at the same height of the piano nobile of Cardinal Belluga Palace. The elevation is turned to face the cathedral; this opens up the end of the civic space and establishes visual relationships. The building is located on the plaza but respects the pre-eminence of those buildings that have occupied it for so long; Moneo (2002) comments that for this reason the entrance door was placed on the side elevation. The building has a distinct civic presence in the core of the city. Together with the city plaza, they accommodate a variety of public and private events indoors and outdoors. An examination of Rafael Moneo’s own buildings reveals numerous elements already ‘tested’ in the long history of architecture. Gonzalez de Canales & Ray (2015, p.197) explain Moneo appropriates them unashamedly and that “the validity of his solution depends on his critical discrimination in choosing an appropriate precedent, and the erudite way in which he deploys it”. The classical proportions, language and material found in the Murcia Town Hall are derived from the existing buildings surrounding the square. Critical to Moneo’s understanding of the role of the site is his “conviction that architecture belongs to the site, that architecture should appropriate to the site, should recognise in some way the site’s attributes. The architect’s first move when starting to think about a building should be to decipher these attributes, to hear how they manifest themselves” (Gonzalez de Canales & Ray, 2015, p.243).


Fig 15 | Murcia Town Hall


Principal room + Entrance 42

The principal room and the ‘piano noble’ are located on the second level, the ground floor is given over to the public. The main entrance is not on the main elevation, the entrance is to the north, off of a side street.

Façade + Boundary The main façade is pulled back from the historic building edge, which is defined by a low curving wall. The façade now sits directly opposite the cathedral across the space; this also allows clearer routes into the space.


Classical Form Although Moneo staggers the structure of the main façade the form is still inherently classical with a defined ‘bottom’, ‘middle’ and ‘top’.

Relation to context Key floor levels are directly related to the context of the Palace adjacent to the Town Hall. The building does not try to dominate the space, yet still conveys a strong civic presence.


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Utrecht City Hall Architect: Enric Miralles Location: Utrecht, Netherlands “A run-down miscellaneous collection of old buildings has been given new vigour and dignity in a series of daring moves of great sensitivity.” Jones, 2002, p. 46 The site of the town hall lies at the heart of Utrecht on a bend in the Oudegracht, the main canal formed from a branch of the Rhine. The town hall formed organically and somewhat unplanned from 8 town houses on the canal side in the 14th century; with the market held in front of these. Over time the local government extended the original building and constructed new wings. Miralles’s main idea was to relieve the pressure on the Stadhuisbrug, a bridge over the Oudegracht in the city​​ centre of Utrecht, which suffered from congestion. This was achieved by turning the buildings main entrance around and opening it up to a new square behind (Jones, 2002). This created a new focal point in the city centre; with space for bars, restaurants to spill out onto the pavement. The building recovered its role as a public provider, with a large foyer space and public reception. The historic façades were retained where possible around the building, the previous rear of the building reworked to become the main entrance for the public. The paving in-front of the building, within the new public space, has an important role in defining different spaces and levels. Changes of materials mark positions of former walls, a revelation of architectural history. Jones (2002) notes there is much to ponder over, with built-in seating providing rest and space for contemplation.

Due to the functional complexity involved, a redistribution of the activities was decided on and the ground floor became a weave of public spaces. The main entrance gallery has become a homage to influential and important local people; the walls lined with their portraits. The council chamber remains at first floor level, however the ceiling has been removed to form a large double height space; giving better lighting and acoustic conditions. Miralles has given the building back its dignity in a new form, and created a new civic square at the heart of the city. Key lessons from this building relate to the programming of the public ground floor and debating chamber, but also the alterations are an attempt to create a coherent ‘civic identity’ within the city where there was not an identity previously.


Fig 16 | Utrecht City Hall


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Dundee House Architect: Reiach and Hall Location: Dundee, Scotland The building is the primary location where the citizens will meet their council officers. The functional requirements, when considered with the civic nature of the proposal informed the external expression; the new offices placed to the west signalling the Council to the city. The building has an administrative function rather than a ceremonial one. The building however, still has a strong civic quality; a portico is formed at the entrance and the three towers have presence within the city. The portico entrance was proposed to face onto a new public square within the city; however the development of the square never happened, primarily because of the 2008 economic recession Glendinning (2008) explains that the building “poses a special challenge for national and civic government complexes, a type of building bound up with the traditional and stately”. Generations of modern architects have struggled to arrive at an approach that is both flexible and socially embedded, yet still conveys an element of monumental symbolism. The building uses a limited palette of enduring materials: brick, stone and concrete. Lewis (2010) believes that it is difficult in the 21st Century for local governments to evoke a sense of civic presence. However Dundee House through its platonic massing, restrained formal façade, simple materials and deep geometric façade instils a sense of the civic.


Fig 17 | Dundee House


Relation to context The entrance to the building was proposed to open onto a large public plaza; the entrance takes the form of a portico running the length of the elevation. The three office blocks act as beacons within the city. 48

Classical Form The rigid structure of the main façade defines a classical form with a defined ‘bottom’, ‘middle’ and ‘top’.


Faรงade + Boundary The faรงade is pulled back from the structural columns, this creates depth and interest within the elevation of the main office blocks.


3. Area + Site Appraisal Analysing the context

3.1 Townscape 3.2 Site


3.1 Area + Site Appraisal | Townscape

Fig 18 | North High Street

Fig 19 | Poor Development

52

Fig 20 | Market Square

Fig 22 | South High Street

Fig 21 | Town House

Fig 23 | Castle-stead


Fig 24 | Aerial image of Montrose High Street


3.1 Area + Site Appraisal | Site

54

Three key elements collectively make up the site: 1. The High Street 2. The Town House 3. The Castle Site


Fig 25 | Aerial image highlighting site area


Fig 26 | View to Churchyard Walk

56

Fig 27 | Churchyard Walk

Fig 28 | North High Street


Fig 29 | North elevation of town House

Fig 30 | Castle Site

Fig 31 | South High Street


Closes There are a number of closes giving access to, and accessed via, the High Street. These closes are an important part of the townscape of Montrose and should be celebrated and made accessible.


Active Edges At ground floor level there are commercial units along the length of the High Street. Approximately 20% of these currently sit empty. These frontages should activate and entice people into the space.


Current Vehicular Traffic Vehicles movement is the current priority within the High Street with 2 lanes of traffic in each direction the length of the High Street.


Current Parking Provision Parking features heavily within the High Street; with parking on both street edges, and car parks in front of the town house and parish church. There are also a number of large car parks within the back-lands of the historic rigs.


4. The Design Objectives realised through design

4.1. Brief + Site Strategy 4.2. Proposal


4.1 The Design | Brief + Site Strategy

64

High Street A civic space that serves as a stage for community demonstrations, performances, events and as a general gathering space for the community. Such a space will bring the community into the historic core and revitalise activities in the area. The frontages on the high streets should be activated; encouraging a vibrant and bustling space.

Town House There is a need for various community and assembly spaces, these house various events and community organisation functions. This is a place for organisations such as Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts and Youth clubs. The town house also contains a number of offices and co-working spaces for community-led start-ups.

Castle Site Public accessibility is key within this building, the ground floors should be given over to the public. Display and exhibition spaces should highlight important work and individuals within the community. Planning boards, Department of Public Works, and Taxation offices will be included along with other administrative offices. The Council Chamber will be the main space for the people to interact and partake in the town governance. This is where the governing and the governed come together to debate and discuss town issues. It is in this room that democracy is emulated and encouraged.


Brief / Programme Town House Space

Description / Requirements

Flexible co-working space

Open plan/ flexible work spaces (Spaces must be secured from general public). Access to private communal spaces and kitchen. Incorporate associated storage.

Conference / Community Rooms Space Flexible co-working space Exhibition Space Space Auxiliary / B.o.H Conference / Community Rooms Flexible co-working space Exhibition Space Space Conference Community Rooms Reception / /Café Auxiliary / B.o.H Drop-in Service Exhibition Space Exhibition Space Space Auxiliary B.o.H Debating /Chamber Reception / Café Conference / Meeting Room Drop-in Service Auxiliary / B.o.H Space Exhibition Space Housing / Café Reception Debating Chamber Drop-in Service Conference / Meeting Room Space Auxiliary /Space B.o.H Exhibition Market Square Housing Chamber Debating Church Entrance Church Yard/Walk Pocket Conference Meeting Room Castle Site Pocket Auxiliary / B.o.H Space Seating Housing Market Lighting Square Bin Storage Church Entrance Church Yard Walk Pocket Castle Site Pocket Space Seating Market Square LightingEntrance Church Bin Storage Church Yard Walk Pocket Castle Site Pocket

Brief / Programme

Meeting rooms forTown use byHouse co-workers, as well as the community groups, etc. Rooms should vary in size and allow for flexibility. Link to toilets as well as kitchens for Description / Requirements catering. Should be be accessible without going through co-working space. Exhibition space for work/art. Small reception. visualfrom link to the High Street Open plan/ flexible spaces (Spaces must Direct be secured general public). Brief /work Programme with large areas of glazing spaces to display inside (Careful off too muchstorage. direct Access to private communal andwork kitchen. Incorporate associated sunlight, especially towards any art work). Can potentially incorporate pop up/ Town House temporary exhibits externally. Meeting rooms for use by co-workers, as well as theNo community Rooms Plant room, /stores, toilets and other support spaces. need forgroups, naturaletc. light. Ideally Description Requirements should vary in size and allow for flexibility. Link to toilets as well as kitchens for locate within a central core. catering. Should be be accessible without going through co-working space. Open plan/ flexible work spaces (Spaces must be secured from general public). Exhibition space for work/art. Smalland reception. visual associated link to the High Street Access to private communal spaces kitchen. Direct Incorporate storage. Castle Site with large areas of glazing to display work inside (Careful off too much direct Description / Requirements sunlight, especially towards any art work). Can potentially incorporate pop up/ Meeting rooms for use by co-workers, as well as the community groups, etc. Rooms temporary exhibits externally. and seating. Main lift and stairs should be located Reception desk, information should vary in size and allowpoint for flexibility. Link to toilets as well as kitchens for Plant room, stores, toilets and other support spaces. No need for natural light. Ideally easily from here.be Activity should bewithout clear from outside. catering. Should be accessible going through co-working space. locate within a central core. Teller desks, self-service computer units and consultations rooms Exhibition space for work/art. Small reception. Direct visual link (Adjacent to the HightoStreet reception). Consultation areas need privacy and teller desks should link todirect b.o.h. with large areas of glazing to display work inside (Careful off too much Castle Site sunlight, anythe artachievements work). Can potentially incorporate up/ Exhibitionespecially space fortowards displaying of locals. Direct visual pop link to the temporary externally. Description /with Requirements High Streetexhibits large areas of glazing to display work inside. Plant room, stores,room toiletsuse and other support spaces. No need for natural light. Ideally Large conference by local councillors and members of the public Reception desk, information point and seating. Main lift and stairs should beatlocated locate within a central core.etc. council/planning meetings, easily from here. Activity should be clear from outside. Meeting rooms used by staff. Rooms should in size and allow for flexibility. Teller desks, self-service computer units and vary consultations rooms (Adjacent to Castle Site reception). Consultation areas need privacy and teller desks should link to b.o.h. Plant room, stores, toilets and other support spaces. No need for natural light. Ideally Description / aRequirements locate within central core. Exhibition space for displaying the achievements of locals. Direct visual link to the A number of council flats/town Some potentially shortstairs termshould leasesbe forlocated visiting High Streetdesk, with information large areaspoint ofhouses. glazing to display inside. Reception and seating. Mainwork lift and councillors, etc. easily here. Activity should be clear from outside. Large from conference room use by local councillors and members of the public at council/planning meetings, etc. Teller desks, self-service computer units and consultations rooms (Adjacent to High Street Meeting rooms used by areas staff. Rooms should vary in sizedesks and allow reception). Consultation need privacy and teller shouldfor linkflexibility. to b.o.h. Description /stores, Requirements Plant room,space and other support spaces. No need for natural light. Ideally Exhibition fortoilets displaying the achievements of locals. Direct visual link to the locate within a central core. High Street with large areas of glazing to display work inside. A clearly defined market square free from car parking. Located to the north of the A number of at council houses. Some potentially shortof term Large conference useold byMarket local councillors and members theleases public for at visiting Town House siteroom offlats/town the Cross. councillors, etc. meetings, council/planning A defined space in front ofetc. the parish church. Define route to used church andshould mid-links Meeting rooms byyard staff.walk Rooms varybeyond. in size and allow for flexibility. Define entrance toHigh the council building at the castle site. Street Plant room, stores, toilets and other support spaces. No need for natural light. Ideally Providewithin seatingcentral within core. an attractive setting to provide opportunity for interaction and locate Description / aRequirements conversation. Small amounts of houses. shadingSome provided by vegetation. A number of council flats/town potentially short term leases for visiting A clearly defined market square free from car parking. Located to the north of the councillors, etc. Use lighting to define use/key space. Town House at site of the old Market Cross. Provide places storage combat bins cluttering the street. A defined spaceforin bin front of the to parish church. Highyard Street Define route to church walk and mid-links beyond. Define entrance to the council building at the castle site. Description / Requirements Provide seating within an attractive setting to provide opportunity for interaction and A clearly defined market square free from car parking. Located to the north of the conversation. Small amounts of shading provided by vegetation. Town House at site of the old Market Cross. Use lightingspace to define use/key A defined in front of the space. parish church. Provideroute places bin yard storage to and combat bins cluttering Define to for church walk mid-links beyond. the street. Define entrance to the council building at the castle site.

Seating

Provide seating within an attractive setting to provide opportunity for interaction and conversation. Small amounts of shading provided by vegetation.

Lighting Bin Storage

Use lighting to define use/key space. Provide places for bin storage to combat bins cluttering the street.


Montrose Calendar of Events - 2018

rch

et

ent

April

May

June

July

September

Octob

Montrose Calendar of Events 1

January 1

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Monday

1

Tuesday

2

Wednesday

3

Thursday

4

Friday

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1 Easter Egg Hunt Saturday 2

Sunday

3 Monday Tuesday 4 5 6

Friday

12

7 Farmers Market Saturday

3 Farmers Market

3

7

4

8

5

l

6

1

11

4

2

1 Easter Egg Hunt

5

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3

2

6

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1 4Farmers Market

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3 Farmers Market

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June

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2 5 Farmers Market

3 8

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5 6

5

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9 Culture Week 10

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7 Farmers MarketMarket 7 Farmers

2 7 Farmers Market

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4

10

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6 Farmers Marke

ll3

3

12

l1

11

8

9 10 11 12

l l 8 12Doors Open Day

ll9 13 Culture Week

9 13Doors Open Day

Culture Week ll10 14

8

Sunday

14

13

11

11 10 Culture Week

ll

8

8

9

Monday

15

14

12

12 11 Culture Week

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9

9

1014

11 15 Culture Week

Tuesday

16

10

15

12 Culture Week

Wednesday

17

16

13 Culture Week

Thursday

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17

14 Culture Week

10 11

13

15

13

16

ll

10

13 Culture Week

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14 Culture Week

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12

12 Culture Week

14

14

15

15

11

11 12 Spring Fair

16

12

ll

17

Friday

19

ll

17

13 Spring Fair Saturday

20

ll

18 School Fete

Film-Fest l 15 Culture 17 Montrrose Art-Fest 17 St. Patricks Eventll 13 lMontrose 14 Spring Fair l Week

lll1419

14 Spring SundayFair

21

ll

19 School Fete

18 Montrrose Art-Fest 18 l Week l 16 Culture

15 Spring Fair 14 Montrose Film-Fest

lll1520Sculpture Week

l 17 20

Monday 15 Spring Fair

22

ll

20

19

16 Spring Fair 15 Montrose Film-Fest

lll1621Sculpture Week

l 18 21

12 Spring Fair

l

13

2 3

5 Farmers Market2 Montrose Ceilidh l 2 Farmers 2 l Market

9

11

May

1

4

8

10

April

3

7

Thursday

March

2

6 llMarket 6 Farmers

Wednesday

February

Tuesday

23

Wednesday

24

Thursday

25

16 Spring Fair 17 Spring Fair 18 Spring Fair

Friday

26

ll ll ll

23

19 Spring Fair Saturday

24 27 Burnsll Night Dance

20 Spring SundayFair

28

Monday 21 Spring Fair

29

Tuesday

30

Wednesday

31

ll

19

22

20

23

l

24 25

26 Mo-Fest

26 27

ll ll

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19 20

16

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17

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13 Spring Fair

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18 School Fete

ll1722Sculpture Week

18 Spring Fair

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23

19 Spring Fair

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24

20 Spring Fair

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18 Sculpture Week 19 Sculpture Week 25 Mo-Fest

21

22 23

l 22 24

ll

lll 23 25

Mo-Fest Week llll2127Sculpture

lll 24 26 October-Fest

23

26

23 Fair 21 Summer

27

24

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2228Sculpture Week

26

30

27

31

28

ll

25

ll

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26 Summer 29 Fair

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30 Fair 27 Summer

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28 Summer Fair

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29 Summer Fair

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30

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27

26 Sunday

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28

25

29

26

30

27

31

29 School Leavers Day 30

22 Summer Fair

28

l

l 25 27

29

25 Summer 28 Fair

24

26

Tuesday

20

llll2026Sculpture Mo-Fest Week

30

28

l

19

22 Spring 20 Summer Fair Fair

29

27 Monday

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19 Summer Fair Fair 21 Spring

25 Saturday

Friday

16 19 Culture Week

25

24 Summer Fair

24

Thursday

l

24

24

28

15 Culture Week

22

23

28

18

l

21

ll

27 Mo-Fest

School Fete

17 Spring Fair

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23

ll

16

23 Summer Fair

22 Spring Fair

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18

21

25 Mo-Fest

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17

20

21 22

ll

16 Montrose Art-Fest

13

October-Fest

28 October-Fest 29 30

29 School Leavers Day

30 31 Halloween Nig

31

M

A calendar of events has been catalogued to highlight the variety and number of events within Montrose. The aim is to integrate these events within key spaces of Montrose, particularly the Mid-Links and High Street. This links to Jan Gehls [Fig. 10] belief that before you can design spaces and buildings you must first bring life to the area through activities and events; only then will the spaces and buildings be successful.


trose Calendar of Events - 2018 June

July

September

Montrose Calendar of Events - 2018

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May

l

October

November

June

July

2

September

October

3

1

1

4

12

1 2

5

23

2 3Farmers Market

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1 Farmers Market

3 4

1 1

4 5 Farmers Market

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l

l

6 Farmers Market

2

7

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34 Farmers Market

November

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45

l

1 1 Farmers Market

December

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22

41

92

67

44

6 7

4 4

52

103

78

5 5 Bonfire Night

7 8

5 5

63

114

89

66

8 9

6 6

74

125

10 9

7 7 Christmas Market

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9 10 Culture Week

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7 7Farmers Market

8 5 Doors Open Day

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11 10

8 8 Christmas Market

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6

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8 8

ll l

147

12 11

9 9 Christmas Market

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7 Christmas Market

l11 12 Culture Week 13 12 Culture Week

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9 6 Doors Open Day

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9

9 Culture Week

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3 3 Farmers Market

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81 Farmers Market

3 3

10 11 Culture Week

FarmersNight Market 56 Bonfire

ll

3

6

ll5

2 2 Farmers Market

December

1

1 Farmers Market 2

l

3 4

8 Doors Open Day 15

ll

13 12

10 10

ll118

9 Doors Open Day 16

ll

14 13

11 11

9 Christmas Market

Farmers Market

8 Christmas Market

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10 Culture Week 10

14 13 Culture Week

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11 Culture Week 11

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10 17

15 14

12 12

10

15 14 Culture Week

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12 Culture Week 12

ll1310

11 18

16 15

13 13

11

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13 Culture Week 13 Montrose Film-Fest

ll1411 l ll 12 l 15 Sculpture Week ll 13 Montrose Film-Fest l 16 Sculpture Week Montrose Film-Fest ll1714Sculpture Week

12 19

17 16

14 14 Christmas Market

18 17 19 18 20 19 21 20 22 21 23 22 24 23 25 24 26 25 27 26 28 27 29 28 30 29 31 30

15 15 Christmas Market 16 16 Christmas Market 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 Christmas Market 22 22 Christmas Market 23 Christmas Lights Night 23 Christmas Market 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 St. Andrews Event 30

16 15 Culture Week

l ll 17 l 16 Culture Week ll17 18 School Fete ll18

19 School Fete

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19 20 21

ll 23 ll 22 ll 24 ll 23 ll 25 ll 24 ll 26 25

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26 27 28

Mo-Fest Mo-Fest

27 Mo-Fest 28 29

30 29 School Leavers Day 31 30

14 Culture Week ll 14 Montrose Film-Fest Culture Week l 1515Montrose Film-Fest 16 Culture Week l 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 Summer Fair 20 20 Summer Fair 21 21 Summer Fair ll 22 22 Summer Fair ll 23 23 Summer Fair ll 24 24 Summer Fair 25 25 Summer Fair 26 26 Summer Fair 27 l 27 Summer Fair 28 28 Summer Fair 29 School Leavers Day 29 Summer Fair 30 30

31

ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll l ll

15 Montrose Film-Fest 18 Sculpture Week 16 19 Sculpture Week 17 20 Sculpture Week 18 21 Sculpture Week 19 Summer Fair 22 Sculpture Week 20 Summer Fair 23 21 Summer Fair 24 22 Summer Fair 25 23 Summer Fair 26 24 Summer Fair 27 25 Summer Fair 28 26 Summer Fair 29 27 Summer Fair 30 28 Summer Fair 29 Summer Fair

13 l 20 l 14 l 21 l 15 Sculpture Week l 22 l 16 Sculpture Week l 23 17 Sculpture Week l 24 18 Sculpture Week l 25 19 Sculpture Week l 26 October-Fest ll 20 Sculpture Week l 27 October-Fest ll 21 Sculpture Week 28 October-Fest ll 22 Sculpture Week 29 ll 23 30 ll 24 31 Halloween Night ll 25

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Christmas Lights Night

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October-Fest

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Halloween Night St. Andrews Event

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31 Hogmany Event

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12 13 14 Christmas Market 15 Christmas Market 16 Christmas Market 17 18

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19 20 21 Christmas Market 22 Christmas Market 23 Christmas Market 24 25 26 27

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28 29 30 31 Hogmany Event

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Main Location:

High Street

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Mid Links Main Location: l

High Street

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Mid Links

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68

Key Moves •

Prioritise pedestrians within High Street around the Town House, Parish Church and Castle Site through pedestrianisation of the High Street in this area.

Realignment of current road layout to allow pedestrianisation and provide ‘shared surface’ were necessary.

Enhance street-scape and reinvigorate and enrich the existing public realm and built environment within the High Street.

Re-establish routes to improve wayfinding and legibility between the High Street and Mid-Links.

Incentivise maintenance of buildings + activate shop fronts and fully utilise the Town Hall.


Fig 32 | Site Strategy


Key Pedestrian Routes The key route from the north of the High Street turning east along churchyard walk, towards the mid links, is clearly defined; along with secondary and tertiary routes through the space.


Vehicular Movement Vehicles movement is reduced within the area; key routes around the south end of the High Street and from Hume Street on to the north of the High Street.


Historic Rig Pattern + Street Edge The historic Rig pattern is used to break up and define a key space within the high street. The historic street edge is used to drive the form of the proposed civic building.


3 Spaces + Routes The proposal creates three defined external spaces along the High Street and defines routes for pedestrian movement. The Town House and Castle Site are defined as key buildings within the High Street.


74

Space Development Using the historic rig pattern and street edges a number of options were developed. Key to all of these options was to develop three distinct spaces while highlighting key movement routes.


N N N N

Fig 33 | Space Development


76

Materials The choice of material for the civic space is derived from the historic surface material used within Montrose. Granite was historically used throughout the town as a paving material. The proposal uses this material in three variations to define spaces within the High Street.


Fig 34 | Ground Textures


78

Design Intention - Covered Market Project: Market Shelter Architect: Krusec Location: Celje, Slovenia Ever since it was formed, in the middle of the previous century, the market has represented the centre of urban activity in the city. The new development is designed as an extrovert urban area, a kind of covered city square which is inextricably linked to the surrounding urban space. The design proposal instates a market shelter within the High Street of Montrose. This will be used throughout the year for a variety of different events, primarily it will be used for the farmers market held within the town. The form of the roof structure is derived from the pattern of the historic rigs within the south end of Montrose High Street.


Fig 35 | Market Shelter


80

Form Development Through a series of form studies a number of options were appraised. Key stages of this form development were re-defining the urban block along the historic street edge and creating a focal point at the south end of the high street. Montrose town-house has a distinct readable identity as an urban artefact within Montrose. It was important when defining the form of the civic building on the Castle site to draw from this and help integrate the proposal into the urban context of Montrose.


Fig 36 | Basic Form

Fig 37 | Roof Option 1

Fig 38 | Roof Option 2


Move 1 The first key move was to define the street edge and relate the mass of the proposal to the buildings connecting into the proposal. This helps root the proposal into the urban context.


Move 2 An important aspect of the proposal was to create to focal-point which can act as a pull from the north of the High Street. This is achieved by increasing the mass of the north elevation; this also begins to create the civic presence required by the building.


Move 3 The proposal seeks to define a hierarchy of spaces; creating a mass which steps up to a debating chamber within the upper level of the civic building.


Move 4 In order to create a strong presence facing onto the High Street the roof form is lifted to the north. The upper level acting as a beacon along the length of the high street and also a viewing point looking over the civic space.


86

Design Intention - Roof Form + Debating Chamber Project: S채yn채tsalo Town Hall Architect: Alvar Alto Location: S채yn채tsalo, Finland Elements of classicism and the monumental are blended with modernity and intimacy to form a cohesive new centre-point for the community. The civic complex comprises of a council chamber, council offices, a library, staff apartments, and retail space that allow the function of the town hall to expand. The proposal for the Castle Site houses a debating chamber for the local council to debate planning applications and local issues in front of the community. The roof form creates a strong presence facing onto the civic space.


Fig 39 | Säynätsalo Town Hall


88

Elevation + Material Development As explained, Montrose Town House has a distinct identity within Montrose. It was important when developing the elevation of the civic building on the Castle site to draw from this analysis and help integrate the proposal into the urban context of Montrose. The elevation can be characterised by a defined base, middle and top as has been seen in the case studies and historic analysis. The base is given over to the public realm and open to the street, the middle is used for office space and the top is given to a debating chamber.


Fig 40 | Elevation Development

South Elevation

West Elevation

Fig 41 | Montrose Town House Elevations


90

A number of material options were considered. Brick was favoured as a modern interpretation of masonry construction. Key buildings within the High Street are constructed from red sandstone; this along with the material study led to this being the chosen elevation material. The brickwork has a Flemish Bond, helping to give the elevation a depth and mass due to the bond being laid two bricks wide. A stretcher is laid to the rear of the face of another stretcher, and then a header is laid. The selected mortar has hints of dark red to help bring the bricks together and form a cohesive whole; emphasising the solid mass of the civic building.


Red Brick

Buff Brick

Black Brick

Fig 42 | Material Study


92

Design Intent - Turning the Corner + Classical Form Project: King’s College Architect: Hall McKnight Location: London, United Kingdom The building seeks to engage with the history of the site to produce a project that enhances the setting of the existing listed buildings, whilst establishing a strong, distinct character. The new built elements combine to re-establish the order of the classical plan of Somerset House and create a more connected campus. Within the design proposal for the Castle Site lessons are taken from the treatment of the classical proportions of the façade and how they have been re-interpreted for the 21st Century and also the way in which the building turns the corner. The front and side elevation are both visible and important but treated differently within this example and the proposal due to the significance of the main façade.


Fig 43 | King’s College


4.2 The Design | Proposal

94

“It is the quality of the relationship between old and new that is critical, not the architectural language per se. Issues such as scale, form, siting, materials, colour, and detailing are important to consider when assessing the impact of a new development within a historic town or city.� Macdonald, 2011 As Macdonald explains, this is what the proposal seeks to achieve; the treatment of material choice, detailing, scale and form embody a civic presence within the historic core of Montrose. The building presenting itself to the civic space; the debating chamber overlooking Montrose High Street. Material changes on the ground-scape define a series of linked spaces for civic functions and community events.


Fig 44 | Site Plan 1:500 @A1

N


1

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2

3

4


Fig 45 | Aerial Image of Proposal


Fig 46 | Image 1 - Market Structure


Fig 47 | Image 2 - View to churchyard Walk


Fig 48 | Image 3 - Civic Building


Fig 49 | Image 4 - MoFest


5. References


108

Atkinson, N. (1997), The Early History of Montrose, Forfar; Angus Council Cultural Services Bordas, D. (2004), Stortorget Kalmar (Sweden) [online], Available at: http://www.publicspace.org/en/works/c063stortorget/prize:2004 [Accessed 16 Mar. 2018] Eardley, A. (2016), Murcia, Spain [online], Available at: http://eardleydesign.com/halls/murcia/ [Accessed: 22 Dec. 2017] Fentress, C. (2002), Civic Builders, Chichester; Wiley Academy Gabrielsson, C. (2008), Public Space as Medium: The Rough Magic of Stortorget [online], Available at: https://www. oasejournal.nl/en/Issues/77/PublicSpaceAsMediumTheRoughMagicOfStortorget [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018] Gehl, J. (2007), Life between buildings, using public space - 6th ed., Skive; Danish Architectural Press Glendinning, M. (2008), Dundee House, Dundee – by Reiach and Hall [online], Available at: https://www. architectsjournal.co.uk/dundee-house-dundee-by-reiach-and-hall/8617528.article [Accessed 20 Dec. 2017] Goheen, P. (1994), Negotiating access to public space, Amsterdam; Elsevier Hall, A. & McKnight, I. (2015), Vartov Square [online], Available at: http://miesarch.com/work/2784 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2018] Hall, P. (1998), Cities in Civilization, New York; Pantheon Books Jacobs, J. (1961), The death and life of great American cities, New York; Vintage Books Jones, B. (2002), Treat of Utrecht, London; The Architectural Review Kahn, L. (1973), ‘Silence and Light’, A+U January ‘73, Tokyo; A+U Publishing Lewis, P. (2010), A Civic Language [online], Available at: https://www.dropbox.com/s/zzp8edcx548qt1g/Dundee_ Civic.pdf?dl=0# [Accessed 22 Mar. 2018] Light, R. (2010), The Agora from Athens to Atlanta: Public Space as Marketplace, Park and Centre of Urban Life [online], Available at: https://www.planetizen.com/node/43801 [Accessed 15 Jan 2018] Macdonald, S. (2011), Contemporary Architecture in Historic Urban Environments [online], Available at: http://www. getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/26_2/contemporary.html [Accessed 22 Dec. 2017]


Madden, K. (2002), The Return of the Civic Square [online], Available at: https://www.pps.org/article/the-return-ofthe-civic-square [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018] MacDairmid (1961), Montrose, Unknown; Unknown Munro, A. (2009), A comparison of Montrose and Haddington, Dundee; University of Dundee Pomeroy, J. (2007), The sky court - A viable alternative civic space for the 21st century?, Chicago; CTBUH Journal Price, C. (2017), Cedric Price Works 1952-2003: A Forward-Minded Retrospective 2016, London; Architectural Association Publications Project for Public Spaces (2009), Civic Institutions as Community Anchors [online], Available at: https://www.pps.org/ article/initiative-civic-centers [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018] Project for Public Spaces (2009), What is a Great Civic Space? [online], Available at: https://www.pps.org/reference/ benefits_public_spaces/ [Accessed 21 Dec. 2017] Ring, T., Salkin, R., Boda, S. (1996), International Dictionary of Historic Places, London; Routledge. Willis, B. (2018), How Public Space Can Build Community and Rescue Democracy [online], Available at: http:// commonedge.org/how-public-space-can-build-community-and-rescue-democracy/ [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018] Zeballos, C. (2011), Agora [online], Available at: http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/agora [Accessed 15 Jan 2018]


6. List of Figures


112

Fig. 1 - Author Illustration Fig. 2 - Author Illustration - Adapted from Digimaps Fig. 3 - Author Illustration - Traced from 12th century map of Montrose Fig. 4 - Author Illustration Fig. 5 - Author Illustration Fig. 6 - Author Illustration Fig. 7 - Author Illustration Fig. 8 - Author Illustration Fig. 9 - Author Illustration Fig. 10 - https://sites.tufts.edu/uepblog/files/2016/03/JanGehl20120418133151375_0001.jpg Fig. 11 - https://www.carusostjohn.com/projects/stortorget/ Fig. 12 - https://www.hallmcknight.com/projects/3/vartov-square Fig. 13 - https://divisare.com/projects/318244-rafael-moneo-chen-hao-murcia-town-hall-1991-98 Fig. 14 - Author Illustration Fig. 15 - https://divisare.com/projects/318244-rafael-moneo-chen-hao-murcia-town-hall-1991-98 Fig. 16 - http://www.mirallestagliabue.com/project/utrecht-town-hall/ Fig. 17 - https://www.archdaily.com/172594/dundee-house-reiach-and-hall-architects Fig. 18 - Author Illustration Fig. 19 - Author Illustration Fig. 20 - Author Illustration


Fig. 21 - Author Illustration Fig. 22 - Author Illustration Fig. 23 - Author Illustration Fig. 24 - Author Illustration - Adapted from Digimaps Fig. 25 - Author Illustration - Adapted from Digimaps Fig. 26 - Author Illustration Fig. 27 - Author Illustration Fig. 28 - Author Illustration Fig. 29 - Author Illustration Fig. 30 - Author Illustration Fig. 31 - Author Illustration Fig. 32 - Author Illustration Fig. 33 - Author Illustration Fig. 34 - https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/259097784791247805/ Fig. 35 - https://divisare.com/projects/311996-arhitektura-krusec-miran-kambic-new-market-in-celje-slovenia Fig. 36 - Author Illustration Fig. 37 - Author Illustration Fig. 38 - Author Illustration Fig. 39 - https://www.archdaily.com/783392/ad-classics-saynatsalo-town-hall-alvar-aalto Fig. 40 - Author Illustration


114

Fig. 41 - Author Illustration Fig. 42 - Author Illustration Fig. 43 - https://www.hallmcknight.com/projects/4/kings-college Fig. 44 - Author Illustration Fig. 45 - Author Illustration Fig. 46 - Author Illustration Fig. 47 - Author Illustration Fig. 48 - Author Illustration Fig. 49 - Author Illustration


7. Bibliography


118

Angus Council (2016), Angus Local Development Plan, Forfar; Angus Council Architecture and Design Scotland (2012), High Street Exhibition, Edinburgh; Architecture and Design Scotland Copenhagen by Design (2015), Vartov Square [online], Available at: http://copenhagenbydesign.com/vartov-square/ [Accessed 25 Mar. 2018] Editors of the Gazetteer for Scotland (2016), Montrose - A historical perspective [online], Available at: http://www. scottish-places.info/towns/townhistory400.html [Accessed 27 Oct. 2017] Hermansen, C. (2010), Manifestos and Transformations in the Early Modernist City, Farnham; Routledge Lynch, K. (1973), The Image of the City, London; MIT Press Reiach and Hall Architects (2011), ArchDaily [online], Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/172594/dundee-housereiach-and-hall-architects [Accessed 21 Dec. 2017] Scottish Government (2013), Town Centre Action Plan, Edinburgh; Scottish Government Scottish Government (2013), Creating Places, Edinburgh; Scottish Government Scottish Government (2017), 6 qualities of successful places [online], Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/BuiltEnvironment/AandP/InspirationalDesigns/6qualities [Accessed 11 Nov. 2017] Scottish Government (Unknown), Designing Streets, Edinburgh; Scottish Government Strategic Development Planning Authority (2012), TAYplan Strategic Development Plan, Dundee; Strategic Development Planning Authority The Land Trust (2017), The benefits of green space [Online], Available at: http://thelandtrust.org.uk/the-land-trustcharitable-aims/thebenefits/?doing_wp_cron=1508811328.6967310905456542968750 [Accessed 27 Oct. 2017]


Re-defining the Civic  

Civic Presence: Space + Form

Re-defining the Civic  

Civic Presence: Space + Form

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