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An Evaluation of Malmö An Assessment and Evaluation of Malmö’s Path Towards a Sustainable Future Sustainability in Contemporary Cities Mark White - 120010261 11.04.18

UP52003


i. Abstract

The report will assess and evaluate, using a conceptual evaluation framework, the effectiveness of the sustainability strategy of Malmö, Sweden. Malmö’s vision of sustainability is to become a ‘Socially Sustainable City’. Within Malmö the gap between those that have the best health and those with the worst has increased significantly in recent decades. The city, while having dealt with environmental issues over the past decade has largely not dealt with the cities social sustainability. The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö aims to deal with this gap in society. A conceptual framework of sustainability has been developed and applied in order to analyse the performance of the strategy for a sustainable Malmö. The framework comprises of a series of objectives taken from the UN Global Sustainability Goals, Freiburg Charter and the Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities. The framework also assess if Malmö’s objectives are S.M.A.R.T. This has allowed an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the strategy. The main issue identified within Malmö’s strategy is the primary focus on social sustainability, lacking consideration of economic and environmental issues, and failure to meet the UN Global Sustainability Goals; the strategy states it aims to cover all three dimensions of sustainability and tackle the UN Global Sustainability Goals.

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ii. List of Tables and Figures

List of Figures Figure

Description

Source

Fig. 1

Sustainable Cities Process Diagram

Author Illustration

Fig. 2

Aerial image of Malmo

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_ Malm%C3%B6.JPG (2006)

Fig. 3

Venn Diagram of Sustainability

Author Illustration

Fig. 4

Three Pillar Model of Sustainability

Author Illustration

Fig. 5

Russian Doll Model of Sustainability

Author Illustration

Fig. 6

United Nations 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ blog/2015/12/sustainable-development-goals-kick-offwith-start-of-new-year/

Fig. 7

Freiburg Charter

https://issuu.com/theaou/docs/aou_freiburg_charter_ final_print

Fig. 8

Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities

http://rfsc.eu/

Fig. 9

Conceptual Framework

Author Illustration

Fig. 10

Conceptual Framework - Inner Circle

Author Illustration

Fig. 11

Map of Malmo

http://kartor.malmo.se/rest/ol/2.1/?config=../configs-2.1/config_op.js

Fig. 12

Front cover of Malmo Sustainability Strategy

https://malmo.se/download/18.1d68919c1431f1e2a96c8e4/1491298331527/malmo%CC%88kommisionen_rapport_engelsk_web.pdf

Fig. 13

Evaluation of Malmö’s Strategy

Author Illustration

Fig. 14

Evaluation of Malmö’s Strategy taking into Author Illustration account the previous objectives

List of Tables

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Table

Description

Table 1

Conceptual Framework Objectives and Aims

Table 2

Evaluation of Malmö’s objectives against S.M.A.R.T Principles

Table 3

Comparison for Conceptual Framework Objectives and Malmö’s Strategy


To become a ‘Socially Sustainable’ City

Identify the Vision of the Strategy

Malmö’s Path Towards a Sustainable Future

Identify the Sustainability Strategy

Malmo, Sweden

Identify a City

Context

‘Russian Doll’ Model

Three Pillars Model

Venn Diagram Model

Sustainability Models

Social

Economic

Environmental

Sustainability Dimensions

Environmental, Economic, Social, Spatial, Governance

References Framework for Sustainable Cities (Dimensions)

City of Neighbourhood, Public Transport + Density and City of Short Distances

Freiburg Charter (Spatial Principals)

Peace, Justice + Strong Institutions

Reduced Inequalities, Quality Education, Good Health + Well-being and Affordable + Clean Energy

No Poverty, Responsible Consumption + Production and Decent Work + Economic Growth

Life on Land, Life below Water and Climate Action

UN 17 Global Sustainability Goals

Time-based

Realistic

Achievable

Measurable

Specific

S.M.A.R.T Principals

Conceptual Framework

Sustainable Cities Assessment Process

Discuss each dimension

Inner circle of Framework Used to evaluate and discuss the objectives of Malmö’s Sustainability plan.

Qualitative Method

Average score calculated for each dimension. Effectiveness of plan calculated as a percentage.

Inner Circle circle of Framework - All objectives of Malmö’s Sustainability Strategy are marked against the objectives of the conceptual framework.

Outer circle of Framework - All objectives of Malmö’s Sustainability Strategy are marked against S.M.A.R.T Principals.

Quantitative Method

Assessment of Strategy

What can be learned?

What can be improved?

Provide Recommendations

Why?

Weaknesses of Malmö’s Strategy

Why?

Strengths of Malmö’s Strategy

Conclusion

iii. Sustainable Cities Assessment Process

Fig 1 | Sustainable Cities Process Diagram

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Contents

i. Abstract

Page 3

ii. List of Tables and Figures

4

iii. Sustainable Cities Assessment Process

5

1. Introduction

8

2. Defining Sustainable Urban Development 2.1. Definitions of Sustainable Development 2.2. Models of Sustainable Development 2.3. Sustainable Cites and Communities

10

3. The Framework 3.1. What is a framework? 3.2. The Proposed Conceptual Framework

14

4. Malmö 4.1. Sustainable Malmö 4.2. Malmö’s Path towards a Sustainable Future

20

5. Evaluation and Analysis 5.1. Evaluation of Framework 5.2. Analysis

24

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

30

7. Appendix I - Malmö’s Sustainability Report

32

8. References

36

9. Bibliography

40


1 | Introduction

“Urban development puts intense pressure on the local environment and resources through resource use, land use, pollution, and loss of habitat through urban sprawl.” Pinderhughes, 2004, p.10 In today’s increasing urbanisation and global market these pressures noted by Pinderhughes extend around the world. The percentage of the world’s population living in cities is constantly increasing, with over half the world’s population currently living in cities and this is predicted to rise to over 60% of people in 2030 and up to 70% by 2050 (World Health Organisation, 2014). Creating cities and communities that work environmentally, economically and socially; and that can be sustained in the long-term is one of the main challenges of this century. Of the 10 million Swedes 86% of them, well above the world average, live in urban areas and this number is set to increase (Swedish Institute, 2010), therefore sustainable urban development within the country is key. Malmö is the third largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg with a population of over 341,000. Malmö has a very young population, with 48% of the population under the age of 35 (World Population Review, 2018), meaning the city is set to expand dramatically; making the cities vision to become a ‘socially sustainable’ city evermore important with this increasing urban population. The report assesses and evaluates the effectiveness of the sustainability strategy of Malmö. A conceptual framework has been composed of selected UN Global Sustainability Goals and elements of the Freiburg Charter; this is used to critically review and evaluate the performance of the sustainability strategy and then assess the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy in-order to propose recommendations to improve the performance of the sustainable development strategy. 8


Fig 2 | Aerial image of Malmรถ


2 | Defining Sustainable Urban Development

2.1. Definitions of Sustainable Development

2.2. Models of Sustainable Development

In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development, introduced the concept of ‘sustainable development’ within the Bruntland Report ‘Our Common Future’. They defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). This definition is the most often quoted and referred to definition within the sustainable development discourse. However, this definition of sustainable development is open to many different interpretations: What is exactly meant by development? What are the legitimate needs of the present? And what are the legitimate needs of future generations and how can these be predicted? (Roberts, 2004). Throughout the evolution of the concept of ‘sustainable development’ there was consensus on the fact that it does not focus solely on environmental issues.

UNESCO (2012) explain that sustainability is “a paradigm for thinking about a future in which environmental, social and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of development and an improved quality of life”. This approach to sustainable development is visualised within the commonly recognised Venn Diagram of Sustainability that puts sustainable development at the intersection of the three interlocking rings of sustainability [Fig. 3].

Altwegg et al. (2004, p.14) believed that sustainable development could be described as a means to ensuring “dignified living conditions with regard to human rights by creating and maintaining the widest possible range of options for freely defining life plans. The principle of fairness among and between present and future generations should be taken into account in the use of environmental, economic and social resources” and that by putting these needs into practice would achieve “comprehensive protection of bio-diversity in terms of ecosystem, species and genetic diversity; all of which are the vital foundations of life”.

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Other models for sustainability include the Three Pillars model [Fig. 4] which takes the three dimensions of environmental protection, economic growth, and social inclusion (WCED, 1987); and labels them as the three requirements for sustainable development. In this model, sustainable development is achieved when all three pillars are working in unison; and by implication the system is seen to be not working if one of the pillars is unbalanced. However this model implies the three pillars are not interconnected. Arguably, more refined model for sustainability is the Concentric Circle of Sustainable Development, sometimes referred to as the ‘Russian Doll Model’ (Scottish Executive, 2009) [Fig. 5]. Within this model the largest circle, environmental preservation, encapsulates the subsystem of economic viability, which in turn encapsulates the subsystem of social equality. This model emphasises that the development of the economy is constrained by the society in which it is found which is constrained by the environmental limitations of energy and other natural resources available to the society. This models clearly address the concerns about the interdependence between the three dimensions of sustainability (Thatcher, 2015).


Society Bea

rab

ble

ita

le Sustainable Development Viable

Environment

u Eq

Economy

Fig 3 | Venn Diagram of Sustainability

Social Inclusion

Economic Growth

Environmental Protection

Sustainable Development

Fig 4 | Three Pillar Model of Sustainability

S oc ital Equity Econ omic Viability

En v

ironm en

tion tal Preser va Fig 5 | Russian Doll Model of Sustainability


The United Nations use the definition of sustainability from the Bruntland Report; however they go on to explain sustainable development requires a collective efforts towards building an inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and planet (United Nations, 2016). For sustainable development to be achieved, it is, as discussed, important to consider the three key elements: environmental preservation, economic viability and social equity. These three elements are interconnected and all are critical when considering the well-being of individuals, communities and societies. Although there is no universally accepted definition of sustainable development (Pearce et al., 1989); there is a plethora of literature addressing the aforementioned environmental, social and economic perspectives. The development that has emerged in the ‘post-Bruntland’ era can be seen as the foundations for which a vision of sustainable urban development and its methodology for its implementation are grounded (Curwell et al., 2005). From this urban sustainability can be described a aiming to: eradicate poverty in all its forms, provide inclusive and equitable economic growth, reduce inequalities, provide a rise in the basic standards of living, foster equitable social development and inclusion, and promote integrated sustainable management of the natural environment. Globally, various governments and the policy-makers have committed themselves to promote sustainable development through numerous tools (Cherp et al., 2004). While governments aim to achieve sustainability, there should be tools for measuring this progress. These should take the form of a number of indicators which can be assessed in-order to track progress in sustainable development.

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2.3. Sustainable Cities and Communities Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces; therefore it is important to understand what a modern sustainable city constitutes. The world’s population is increasing; to accommodate everyone we need to build modern, sustainable cities. The world’s cities occupy just 3 per cent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions (UN, 2018). For all of us to survive and prosper we need new, intelligent urban planning that creates safe, affordable and resilient cities with green and culturally inspiring living conditions. Poverty is often concentrated in urban spaces, and national and city governments struggle to accommodate the rising population in these areas. Making cities safe and sustainable means ensuring access to safe and affordable housing, and upgrading slum settlements. It also involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in a way that is both participatory and inclusive (United Nations Development Programme, 2018). From the previous discussion on urban sustainability a sustainable city could be defined as a city designed with consideration to social, economic, environmental factors, and is a resilient habitat for existing populations, which does not compromise the ability of future generations to experience the same (ICLEI, 2017).


3 | The Framework

3.1. What is a framework? A framework is a qualitative method for evaluating and analysing a set of data. This enables an in-depth exploration of data while simultaneously maintaining an effective and transparent audit trail, enhancing the rigour of the analytical processes (Ritchie and Lewis 2003). Mitchell (2002) explains the need to develop a common language and a framework for evaluating urban sustainability; the aim of this is to be able to evaluate how sustainable a given cities sustainability strategy actually is, and allows for benchmarking and comparison of this strategy with other cities. Stiglitz et al. (2009) states that “at a minimum, in order to measure sustainability, what we need are indicators that inform us about the change in the quantities of the different factors that matter for future well-being”. In order to measure the performance of a cities sustainability strategy through the conceptual framework a number of indicators should be used to allow for an evaluation and analysis (Ham et al., 2004); therefore it is important to develop a conceptual framework to form an indicator based assessment for sustainable urban development.

3.2. The Proposed Conceptual Framework A two-tiered, mixed method, approach has been taken to the conceptual framework. The overall principal of the conceptual framework is to evaluate the effectiveness of a cities sustainability strategy. The framework is then split into an inner and outer circle. The assessment of these two areas will take place both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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First, within the outer circle, all objectives of the Malmö sustainability strategy will be evaluated against S.M.A.R.T. Objectives to establish if they are: •

Specific

Measurable

Achievable

Realistic

Time-based

Secondly, within the inner circle, all aims will be evaluated against a number of sustainable development objectives. These are derived from selected United Nations ‘Global Goals for Sustainable Development’ combined with a number of factors from the ‘Freiburg Charter’ in relation to spatial principals; this is because the UN ‘Global Goals for Sustainable Development’ to not clearly define spatial issues. These sustainable objectives are evaluated through a number of indicators. These are separated into 5 overarching dimensions: environmental, economic, social, spatial and governance.

S.M.A.R.T Principals S.M.A.R.T is an acronym, providing criteria to guide in the setting or analysing of objectives. The letters S and M refer to the objective being specific and measurable. The most common version has the remaining letters referring to achievable, realistic and time-bound. The main advantage of evaluating with S.M.A.R.T is that is provides a clear understanding if the objective set are grounded and will provide the desired outcome (Bogue, 2005).


Fig 6 | Conceptual Framework

Fig 7 | Freiburg Charter

Fig 8 | Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities


UN Goals The United Nations ‘Global Goals for Sustainable Development’ comprise of 17 objectives for achieving sustainable development. These 17 goals combined have 232 different indicators that aim to assess how sustainable development is within a country or city. The UN Goals provide the main base for the conceptual framework; this is because the Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö aims to implementing the UN Global Sustainability Goal at a local level (Malmö Stad, 2013). The UN ‘Global Goals for Sustainable Development’ discounted from the conceptual framework are: •

Sustainable Cities and Communities

Gender Equality

Industry, Innovation + Infrastructure

No Hunger

Clean Water and Sanitation

The objective of Sustainable Cities and Communities is the overall principle of the framework, and therefore is not an individual objective in the framework. Gender Equality is covered within the objective of Reduce Inequalities so does not feature as an independent objective in the framework. Industry, Innovation + Infrastructure, No Hunger, and Clean Water and Sanitation are also not included in the conceptual Framework as these are primarily related to developing countries.

Freiburg Charter The Freiburg Charter is a series of transferable principles of high-quality urban planning; the charter is a tool for a progressive dialogue. The city aims to be a model for sustainable urban development.

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The three principals taken from the Freiburg Charter included are: City of Neighbourhood, Public Transport + Density and City of Short Distances; these are all Spatial Principles and add another dimension to the framework.

Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities The Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities is a European framework that aims to facilitate a common understanding and a dialogue of what is required for integrated sustainable urban development. The framework consists of 5 ‘pillars’ and 30 Objectives; it is these 5 ‘pillars’ (referred to as dimensions in the conceptual framework) that will be used. These are: Environment, Economy, Social, Spatial and Governance.

Conceptual Framework Qualitative information will be, evaluated and analysed against the framework, from this discussion a quantitative score between 1 (No consideration at all) and 5 (Well considered and adherers to S.M.A.R.T Principles) will be derived. This mixed method should provide an overall more balanced and effective analysis. The qualitative information is used to gain an understanding of underlying issues. It provides an insights into the aim and dive deeper into the problem. The Quantitative score is used to quantify the effectiveness of the objective. It will provide a defined base from which to conclude and provide recommendations. See Figures 9 + 10 for a diagrammatic overview of the proposed conceptual framework. See Table 1 for a breakdown of the objectives and aims of the conceptual framework.


Governance

Environment

Spatial

Economy

Social

ble

ura

Tim e

-ba

as Me

sed

Specific

Rea l

istic

e

l vab

ie Ac h

Fig 9 | Conceptual Framework


Objective

Aim

Environmental Life on Land

Restore and preserve ecosystems on land and in freshwater, such as forests, wetlands and mountain ecosystems.

Life Below Water

Reduce pollution and plastics at sea, while restoring and managing ecosystems, remedying the impact of marine acidification and restoring fish stocks.

Climate Action

Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related disasters, integrate climate change measures into policies and planning and build knowledge and capacity to meet climate change.

Economic No Poverty

End poverty in all its forms everywhere and provide equal economic rights, while protecting people in vulnerable situations.

Responsible Consumption + Production

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Aims to use and produce in sustainable ways that will reverse the harm that we have inflicted on the planet and increase people’s knowledge of how sustainable development is achieved.

Decent Work + Economic Growth

Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. Aims to promote job creation with expanded access to banking and financial services, to make sure that everybody gets the benefits of entrepreneurship and innovation.

Social Reduced Inequalities

In order for nations to flourish, equality and prosperity must be available to everyone; regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs or economic status. When every individual is self sufficient, the entire world prospers.

Quality Education

Insure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. It is the key to prosperity and opens a world of opportunities, making it possible for each of us to contribute to a progressive, healthy society.

Good Health + Well-being

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. The aim is for healthy lifestyles, preventive measures and modern, efficient healthcare for everyone.

Affordable + Clean Energy

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Spatial City of Neighbourhood

Decentralised governance is indispensable for cities and should be actively encouraged. The protection of a neighbourhood identity should be a precondition for sustainable urban planning and development.

Public Transport + Density

Public Transport should be given priority over cars. Increased urban density along public transport routes should be prioritised.

City of Short Distances

Existing facilities should be enhanced and new ones introduced in such a way that they are in accordance with the idea of the Compact City.

Governance Peace, Justice + Strong Institutions

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

Partnerships for the Goals

Investments and support is needed to ensure innovative technological development, fair trade and market access. Table 1 | Conceptual Framework Objectives and Aims

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tD

r W ate elo w eB

me

l

s

Lif

Env iro n

4

nce

m

Cli

ion

Act

3

ate

2

Public Transp

Spatial

ort + Density

1

No Poverty

Econo mic

ds

hoo bour

eing We llb

on

om

ic

ties

Quality Education

th +

Ec

uali

Hea

k+

Ineq

Go od

ced

fo Af

rd

Social

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Cl

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ea

+

D G ecen ro t wt W h or

gy

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Resp o Prod nsible c onsu uctio mpti n

on +

eigh

of N

City

5

nta

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hor

oals

fS

Life on

r the G

g on Str ns + itutio ice Inst

ust

yo

Land

hips fo

rs Partne

,J ce

a Pe

Cit

Fig 10 | Conceptual Framework - Inner Circle


4 | Malmö

4.1. Sustainable Malmö “Over the last decade Malmö has made a remarkable journey from an industrial city based on its shipyard and other heavy industries to a modern entity founded on knowledge and [environmental] sustainability.” Reepalu, 2013 The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö (2012), however notes that Malmö suffers from a “strongly segregated society, with large social differences between different group”. This has led to the health and wellbeing of the cities residents being negatively affected. While Malmö may have dealt with environmental sustainability within the last decade economic, and more predominantly, social sustainability has been neglected. As discussed previously, the three dimensions of sustainability are mutually dependent upon each other. No one aspect is more important than any other; and it is incorrect to talk about sustainable environmental development if the economic or social systems are moving towards unsustainable development. Malmö has a growing population; in 2011 there were under 300,000 residents and by the end of 2017 there were over 341,000 people living in Malmö. Migration has played a large part in this recent growth, with about 1/3 of the population born outside Sweden. The city has lower employment rates and higher welfare dependency when compared with the Swedish national average, as well as the highest level of child poverty of the Swedish municipalities (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2017). It is clear that there are strong socio-economic segregations within Malmö.

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The vision for Malmö is to be come a socially sustainable city. ‘Malmö’s Path Towards a Sustainable Future’ focuses on three key aspects of social sustainability: health, welfare and justice (Malmö Stad, 2018). The aim of the report is to reduce social differences and promote not only the social aspect of sustainability, but also entail better conditions for economic and environmental sustainability. The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö (2012) believe that “the development of health comprises an important indicator of the sustainability of all three dimensions of sustainable development”. Stiglitz et al. (2009) note that there is a growing criticism from leading researchers from many different fields that the indicator for several decades used to steer societal development is primarily GDP and that this has led to a one-sided focused on the economic aspect of societal development. In turn, this has led to a lack of understanding of social sustainable development and the requirements for this. It has been suggested by Stiglitz (2012) that, for a long time there was one-sided focus on economy and that environmental sustainability was overlooked; this has been rectified by the debate on global warming and the attempt to stop or slow this. A similar debate currently relates to the social aspect of sustainable development. In this case it is increasing social inequality, globally and within countries and local communities, which is in focus. This inequality threatens social sustainability by increasing difficulties in maintaining the inherent social contract within society, where people have trust in each other and in societal institutions; eventually leading to a breakdown of society as the end-point of this unsustainable social development. In line with the previous reasoning this also leads to an unsustainable development scenario, where the conditions for economic and environmental sustainability will increasingly be undermined (The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö, 2012).


Fig 11 | Map of Malmo


4.2. Malmö’s Path towards a Sustainable Future The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö set out 24 objectives with 72 actions; these objectives are separated into six key dimensions: 1. Everyday conditions adolescence

during

childhood

and

2. Residential environment and urban planning 3. Education 4. Income and work 5. Health care 6. Transformed processes for sustainable development The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö (2012) define sustainable development as “a current situation which can be prolonged over time and, based on existing knowledge, is deemed to guarantee human survival and welfare for the foreseeable future”, they also advocate the principle of proportionate universalism; this explains the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2017) means that the action should be “universal, but adaptable, both in scope and design, to those most in need”. The Marmot Review (2010) into health inequalities explains that focusing solely on the most disadvantaged will not reduce health inequalities sufficiently and that “to reduce the steepness of the social gradient in health, actions must be universal, but with a scale and intensity that is proportionate to the level of disadvantage”. To break a socially non-sustainable development scenario, a shift in perspective is needed, towards a holistic point of view, where environmental, economic and social sustainability are given the same weight. Methods must also be developed to better determine whether efforts, such as those undertaken as part of the social aspect of sustainability, really lead to improvements. In this context the health of the population, health equity in particular, has been presented as a very relevant measure of social 22

sustainability. The structural societal factors that are behind health inequities can be influenced; this involves considering social initiatives and consequences in the same way as environmental and economic ones. (The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö, 2012). ‘Malmö’s path towards a sustainable future’ was one of the first sustainability reports in the world to note the inequalities and inequities in health and welfare and to then identify their consequences not only for individuals and families but also for the environmental, economic, and social well-being (Jessop, 2014). The report is directly addressed to the politicians of Malmö, and citizens and organisations with a stake in sustainable development in Malmö. From an ethical, democratic and socio-economic point of view growing social differences are unsustainable; health is unequally distributed in the population. The lower the social position, the poorer the health and vice versa; there is social gradient within the population of Malmö. The average lifespan can differ as much as eight years between the different districts and there are significant differences across the districts in the prevalence or lack of social factors contributing to health, such as income, work and education (The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö, 2012). Social sustainability has been largely neglected in mainstream sustainability debates. Priority has been given to economic and environmental sustainability in particular in the context of planning; where policy and investment has focused on renewable resources, low carbon communities and encouraging pro-environmental behaviour. As a result, there are few practical resources that directly address the question of how to create places that are socially sustainable (Woodcraft et al., 2011). The Commission sets out to deal with this. See Appendix I for full the Malmö sustainability strategy.


Fig 12 | Front cover of Malmo Sustainability Strategy


5 | Evaluation and Analysis

As discussed previously, a framework for evaluating sustainable development has been conceptualised in this report. Each of the Malmö sustainability objectives have been assessed against S.M.A.R.T Principles [Table 2] before being compared to the sustainability objectives of the inner circle of the conceptual framework [Table 3]. The report views sustainability through a lens concerned about health; this is because they regard health as a human right, noting that in particular children, who are essentially blameless in this regard, have the right to be healthy (Jessop, 2014). The report is strongly influenced by an understanding of the importance of place and a sense of belonging in a place; it aims to highlight the importance of making connections between different sites and scales of social organisation by “designing and coordinating policies to overcome social exclusion and build a social cohesion” (Jessop, 2014). The report aims to tackle the socio-spatial complexities of environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable development within Malmö.

S.M.A.R.T Principals All of the objectives within the strategy can be described as specific. They define a clear area they wish to clearly tackle. One criticism that could be noted is a few of these objectives perhaps overlap and could have been condensed into one objective; this is most notable with the objectives relating to education. Curwell et al. (2005) note the absence of agreed sustainability targets and indicators globally when discussing sustainable urban development. However, such protocols and assessment methods are essential for cities because they provide the means to properly evaluate the sustainability of urban development and provide a more rational basis for decisions affecting the future of towns

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and cities. This issue can clearly be seen within the Malmo strategy; there is a lack of indicators defined from which progress can be measured. Most of the objectives can be describe as most-likely being achievable and realistic; however some of the objectives, as seen in Table 2, have not clearly been set out as to how they will be achieved. A few can also be described as being unrealistic with the available information within the report. In order for objectives to be clearly defined they must be time-based. This allows for a time-line to be developed to meet the objective. Many of the objectives within the Malmö strategy have not been defined with regards to a time-scale, however where they have been defined it is clear how and when the objective should be met.

Conceptual Framework Environmental issues have been largely ignored within the strategy; economic and social dimensions are covered within the strategy. Key economic focuses within the strategy is the need to combat poverty within the city; noted of particular importance is the influx of migrants moving to Malmö, the need to provide work for all residents and to have sustainable economic growth within the city. With the strategy’s focus on social sustainability this dimension is a key feature. The strategy tackles all aspects of the social dimension of the conceptual framework. It deals with the need to reduce inequalities, whether that is gender, race or social status; it focuses on providing quality education to all children and young adults within Malmö; and aims to provide good health and well being for all residents of the city.


Objective

S

M

A

R

T

Strengthen all children's and young people's opportunities for influence and participation.

The unpaid work which contributes to a socially sustainable development of Malmö must be made visible, supported and undergo gender equity integration.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The City of Malmö city in co-operation with Region Skåne prepares an action plan to better achieve more equitable health and health care on equal terms for the entire population of Malmö.

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

Halve child poverty by 2020 and in the long term eliminate it completely. Reduce homelessness, overcrowding, poor housing conditions and poor outdoor environments for children and young people in Malmö. The city should ensure that all Malmö residents have the prerequisites for suitable accommodation and a good residential environment. Urban planning should contribute to reducing residential segregation. Urban planning should contribute to strengthening trust and promoting good and accessible environments and meeting places that invite participation. All children and young people in the city of Malmö should have access to equitable preschools / after-school centres / schools of high quality. All children of preschool age in Malmö should attend a preschool of good quality at least 20 hours a week by 2015. All children in Malmö who complete compulsory school should qualify for continued studies at upper secondary school or vocational programmes. All children of 6 –12 years of age should have access to a place at an after-school centre of good quality. All pupils who have started upper secondary school studies should have completed their studies within a five-year period. Late arrived children in Malmö should be given access to or rapidly be transferred to studies within an ordinary compulsory school or upper secondary school. The composition of pupils in Malmö’s schools should be integrated with reference to socio-economic, ethnic, gender and performance categories. The City of Malmö should actively seek to enable an economically reasonable standard of living for everyone and reduce economic inequities between households. The City of Malmö should actively explore new ways to stimulate the development of the labour market and the emergence of new jobs. The City of Malmö should be a role-model in terms of uniting a high quality of welfare services with good working conditions.

All children in Malmö should have equitable access to healthcare as well as health-promoting and preventative efforts until they leave school. School health care in Malmö should guarantee equity and high quality in both municipal and private schools. The knowledge about the population’s health in Malmö should be improved and the results should be analysed and used in the municipality’s and region’s preventative work. Promote the development of learning and knowledgedeveloping organisations with a cause-oriented approach that takes advantage of experience and informal knowledge, such as intercultural competence. Promote the democratic development of governance and enable participation in various forms through inclusive management. Create new forms of collaboration between the private and public sectors as well as the voluntary sector based on knowledge alliances, which can contribute to changing the relationship between economic growth and welfare.

Table 2 | Evaluation of Malmö’s objectives against S.M.A.R.T Principles


Objective Strengthen all children's and young people's opportunities for influence and participation. Halve child poverty by 2020 and in the long term eliminate it completely. Reduce homelessness, overcrowding, poor housing conditions and poor outdoor environments for children and young people in Malmö.

Objective Environmental Life on Land Life Below Water Climate Action

Economic No Poverty Responsible Consumption + Production Decent Work + Economic Growth

Social Reduced Inequalities Quality Education Good Health + Well-being Affordable + Clean Energy

Spatial City of Neighbourhood Public Transport + Density City of Short Distances

Governance Peace, Justice + Strong Institutions Partnerships for the Goals

The city should ensure that all Malmö residents have the prerequisites for suitable accommodation and a good residential environment. Urban planning should contribute to reducing residential segregation. Urban planning should contribute to strengthening trust and promoting good and accessible environments and meeting places that invite participation. All children and young people in the city of Malmö should have access to equitable preschools / after-school centres / schools of high quality. All children of preschool age in Malmö should attend a preschool of good quality at least 20 hours a week by 2015. All children in Malmö who complete compulsory school should qualify for continued studies at upper secondary school or vocational programmes. All children of 6 –12 years of age should have access to a place at an after-school centre of good quality. All pupils who have started upper secondary school studies should have completed their studies within a five-year period. Late arrived children in Malmö should be given access to or rapidly be transferred to studies within an ordinary compulsory school or upper secondary school. The composition of pupils in Malmö’s schools should be integrated with reference to socio-economic, ethnic, gender and performance categories. The City of Malmö should actively seek to enable an economically reasonable standard of living for everyone and reduce economic inequities between households. The City of Malmö should actively explore new ways to stimulate the development of the labour market and the emergence of new jobs. The City of Malmö should be a role-model in terms of uniting a high quality of welfare services with good working conditions. The unpaid work which contributes to a socially sustainable development of Malmö must be made visible, supported and undergo gender equity integration. The City of Malmö city in co-operation with Region Skåne prepares an action plan to better achieve more equitable health and health care on equal terms for the entire population of Malmö. All children in Malmö should have equitable access to healthcare as well as health-promoting and preventative efforts until they leave school. School health care in Malmö should guarantee equity and high quality in both municipal and private schools. The knowledge about the population’s health in Malmö should be improved and the results should be analysed and used in the municipality’s and region’s preventative work. Promote the development of learning and knowledgedeveloping organisations with a cause-oriented approach that takes advantage of experience and informal knowledge, such as intercultural competence. Promote the democratic development of governance and enable participation in various forms through inclusive management. Create new forms of collaboration between the private and public sectors as well as the voluntary sector based on knowledge alliances, which can contribute to changing the relationship between economic growth and welfare. Table 3 | Comparison for Conceptual Framework Objectives and Malmö’s Strategy

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Fig 13 | Evaluation of Malmö’s Strategy


The spatial dimension is partly addressed within the report, some objectives deal with the issue of density within the city and encourages the creation of neighbourhoods for all and a city which is not divided but still retains different characters. The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö advocates the creation of ‘knowledge alliances’ involving broad collaboration with stakeholders with different levels of responsibilities across sectors and with different skills sets, encompassing both scientific and experiencebased competences to generate new knowledge as a basis for action Five dimensions were evaluated which provided a holistic view in which to address the issue of sustainability; these dimensions comprised of 15 objectives. Each of the objectives have been given a score between 1 (No consideration at all) and 5 (Well considered and adherers to S.M.A.R.T Principles). See Figure 13 for diagram of scoring. From the diagram it can be seen that the current strategy ignores environmental issues, however previous progress within the city has covered, in detail, this aspect of sustainability. They city already has targets to become carbon neutral by 2030 and create green infrastructure and transport. They also have dealt with environmental protection zones around the city as well as in the harbour (Malmö Stad, 2013). See Figure 14 for diagram of scoring incorporating previous progress with the current strategy.

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Fig 14 | Evaluation of Malmö’s Strategy taking into account the previous progress


6 | Conclusion and Recommendations

The report does not focus on all three aspects of sustainable development, although the Commission state that they want to tackle all aspects equally. However, Portney believes “a city that is working hard to promote some operational version of sustainability” (2010, p.2) is a city achieving sustainable development. Malmo is doing this, however the report is viewed through a lens concerned about health. Potentially other lenses could have been used within the report; the Commission justify their choice in terms of the ethical necessity to do something about inequitable differences in health and social status. The Scottish Executive (2006) notes that the ideal of a ‘win-win-win’ scenario of progress within all three dimensions of sustainable urban development is now, more than ever, seen as being unrealistic. The Malmö strategy’s focus on social sustainability exemplifies this issue with sustainable urban development. Jessop (2014) comments that it would have be interesting to see links made between the social investment discussed in the strategy and environmental investment. Even if Malmö has in the past dealt with environmental sustainability this effort should be reinforced in the current strategy and not forgotten; perhaps this could be the topic of another Malmö Commission. The report identifies and elaborates carefully considered and interconnected policy recommendations that, together, can aim to address the causes and effects of these inequities in social position identified by the Commission. Lafferty& Hovden (2003, p.15) believe it is “semantically inconsistent to conceive of sustainable development without successful policy integration”. This is a strong aspect of the strategy developed by The Commission

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A clear road-map, using ‘Malmö’s path towards a sustainable future’ could strengthen Malmö as an enviromental and social role-model with strong economic growth and power of attraction. While the strategy does provide, in some circumstances, time-based objectives these are often left open to interpretation. A clearly defined road-map setting out key dates to meet objectives could only strengthen the Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö’s work. Language such as ‘should do’ and ‘aim to’ can be seen as non specific. In order to ensure the compliance of the local government and businesses objectives need to have definitive language such as ‘need to’ and ‘must provide’. As stated, there is a notable lack of indicator within the Malmo sustainability strategy. Bossel (1999, p.7) states that “indicators provide comprehensive information about the systems shaping sustainable development” and are needed to guide policies and decisions at all levels. Overall The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö’s strategy ‘Towards a Sustainable Malmö’. Tackles the issue it sets out to deal with; namely social sustainability within the city. This however, as seen within the report not considered with the other two aspects of sustainable urban development: economic and environmental sustainability. This is a key flaw within the strategy. In order to resolve this The Commission should aim to deal with all three aspects of sustainable urban development.


7 | Appendix I - Malmö’s Sustainability Report

Link to full Malmo sustainability strategy: www.Malmö.se/kommission Summarised objectives and aims found over next three pages.

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Dimension 1 Everyday conditions of children and young people

Objective

Aim

Strengthen all children's and young people's opportunities for influence and participation. Halve child poverty by 2020 and in the long term eliminate it completely.

Develop actions to ensure that the children's rights perspective pervades all political decisions. Develop and implement a municipal action plan to reduce child poverty. Establish municipal family support. Raise the municipal social assistance for families with children with longterm social assistance. Introduce a norm of a standardised addition on an annual basis for households with children with long-term social assistance, intended for children's leisure and cultural activities.

Provide all children in Malmö with free access to public transport within the city. Increase access to computers and Internet in the home for families with children in Malmö. Reduce homelessness, overcrowding, poor housing conditions Develop an action programme to increase the availability of housing of and poor outdoor environments for children and young people good quality that families can afford. in Malmö. Develop an action programme to address deficiencies in the environment for children and young people in Malmö.

2 Residential environment and urban planning

The city should ensure that all Malmö residents have the prerequisites for suitable accommodation and a good residential environment. Urban planning should contribute to reducing residential segregation.

Urban planning should contribute to strengthening trust and promoting good and accessible environments and meeting places that invite participation.

3 Education

All children and young people in the city of Malmö should have access to equitable preschools / after-school centres / schools of high quality.

Reduce the housing shortage. Establish a new municipal contractor organisation for assignment based housing development. Introduce social impact assessments which should precede any decision concerning physical investments. Develop and intensify the successful work on mixing different forms of tenure, types of housing, workplaces and services. Transform barriers into linking areas. Invest in two major city improvement projects – “Amiralsstaden” and “Bygga om Dialogen” (Rebuild Dialogue). Create more accessible meeting places, especially in areas with great overcrowding. Urban planning should contribute to strengthening the inhabitants' participation and influence. Conduct a thorough survey of resource needs in the city's educational institutions accompanied by a financial plan. The knowledge-supporting structures in the city must be strengthened. Staff who work in the City's educational institutions must have a high level of knowledge and opportunities for professional development. Continue to invest in professional development, what is called Skolsatsning 2012 (School Investment 2012), for increased competence among teachers at all levels in order to manage the transfer to the new Education Act, curricula and syllabi. The results of each type of school's systematic quality work should form the basis for how the staff's continuing professional education and further training is prioritised. The influence of children and youths on everyday activities at preschool, after-school centres and school, based on the prevailing conditions at every school level, should be strengthened by actively including them in systematic quality work. This also applies to parental influence. Educational institutions should actively work with health-related issues through strengthening the subject of Physical education and Health given to all pupils in the City of Malmö's schools.

All children of preschool age in Malmö should attend a preschool of good quality at least 20 hours a week by 2015.

Map out which children are outside preschool followed by active outreach work and adapted information to parents who do not have their children in preschool. The size of groups of children in Malmö's preschools should decrease. A first objective is that groups of children in the age range of 0-3 should not exceed 15.

All children in Malmö who complete compulsory school should qualify for continued studies at upper secondary school or vocational programmes.

Early and regular monitoring of children's language development followed by early interventions when needed. This applies to both the Swedish language and other native languages. Targeted professional development investments in preschools and schools with many children from multilingual environments and especially in Year 13 schools with low attainment of objectives. All teaching staff must have skills in the reading and writing process as well as increased awareness of deficiencies in children's language and communication abilities. Where these skills are lacking, professional development should be made mandatory. Early and continuous monitoring of learning outcomes which when needed are followed up with adequate interventions. All pupils with a foreign background should have access to and be offered study instruction in their native language.


All children of 6 –12 years of age should have access to a place at an after-school centre of good quality.

The size of groups of children in Malmö's after-school centres should be decreased. As a first step groups should not exceed 30 children/unit. The proportion of university-trained staff should be increased in Malmö's after-school centres. A first objective should be that 75 per cent of afterschool centre staff have university training and in the long term all staff. Establish at least one full-time position responsible for after-school centres in the new administration for compulsory education.

All pupils who have started upper secondary school studies Make the Ungdomsuppföljningen (Youth Monitoring Service) at the should have completed their studies within a five-year period. Vägledningscentrum (Guidance Centre) permanent and provide resources for monitoring, informing and motivating young people to study and/or take up work experience. Make major efforts to expand and reinforce medical, psychological, special education and socially trained staff within the Elevhälsan (School Health Service), at the municipal secondary schools. Late arrived children in Malmö should be given access to or rapidly be transferred to studies within an ordinary compulsory school or upper secondary school.

Reform the system for the reception of newly arrived pupils. For each newly arrived pupil of upper secondary school age previous knowledge should be properly mapped and an action plan drawn up from the first day at school that consists of a strategy for how the pupil will be supported in order to achieve the most success possible.

The composition of pupils in Malmö's schools should be integrated with reference to socio-economic, ethnic, gender and performance categories.

Establish, finance and locate attractive profiles for schools in the most vulnerable areas to attract pupils from the whole city. Review the impacts of the localisation of planned schools and consider a new structure for the organisation of compulsory schools in Malmö. Find new ways of disseminating information about the educational institutions’ activities and development to the public in order to prevent stigmatisation.

4 Income and work The City of Malmö should actively seek to enable an

economically reasonable standard of living for everyone and reduce economic inequities between households.

The municipality monitors the effects of redistributive policies in the city and takes steps to reduce and mitigate their adverse effects. Initiate a discussion at the national level to raise the national minimum level for national social assistance.

The City of Malmö should actively explore new ways to stimulate the development of the labour market and the emergence of new jobs.

Develop an integrated approach to employment and welfare issues with national (Försäkringskassan, The Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Arbetsförmedlingen, The Swedish Public Employment Service, Migrationsverket, The Swedish Migration Board) and local agencies (Social Services etc.). Use investments in the physical environment as an engine for local employment and urban development. Decentralise labour market policy initiatives to places where people feel at home. Continue to strengthen municipal labour market training initiatives and thereby prevent the emergence of a low-wage sector. Conduct periodic surveys on living conditions to map hidden competences and other potentials in the local society. Extend the municipal information responsibility to 25 years of age.

The City of Malmö should be a role-model in terms of uniting a Coordinated inspections with regard to the work environment high quality of welfare services with good working conditions. Develop and implement strategies that promote good working conditions in the City of Malmö's own operations as well as services that are procured.

The unpaid work which contributes to a socially sustainable development of Malmö must be made visible, supported and undergo gender equity integration.

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Introduce peer review as a method for developing new forms of organisations characterised by discretionary learning. Strengthen the co-operation with the voluntary sector and take advantage of its potential to create social innovations. Conduct recurrent surveys of living conditions to identify the extent of unpaid work.


5 Health care

The City of Malmö city in co-operation with Region Skåne prepares an action plan to better achieve more equitable health and health care on equal terms for the entire population of Malmö.

Ensure that maternal health care has the prerequisites to offer care on equal terms. Ensure that child health care has the prerequisites to offer care on equal terms. Improve the conditions for socially equitable mammography screening. Conduct an analysis of visits to the doctor in out-patient care in Malmö's city districts. Offer health checks to everyone aged 80 and above. Improve intercultural competence and knowledge about the importance of social determinants for health-related behaviours within health care.

All children in Malmö should have equitable access to health Strengthen the focus on the social determinants of health in maternal health care as well as health-promoting and preventative efforts until care, child health care and municipal school health care. they leave school. Conduct a review of collaborative efforts relating to children's health Make preventative actions against violence, neglect and sexual abuse of children a priority. Evaluate the Family Centres. School health care in Malmö should guarantee equity and high Establish a common management structure for school health care. quality in both municipal and private schools. The knowledge about the population's health in Malmö should Establish a qualified epidemiological surveillance system of the entire be improved and the results should be analysed and used in population of the city. the municipality's and region's preventative work. Use analyses from the injury registry in Malmö to continuously convert the results into practical preventive work in all areas.

6 Transformed processes for socially sustainable development

Promote the development of learning and knowledgeInclude regular surveys on living conditions in processes. developing organisations with a potential- and cause-oriented Use peer review to make work organisations more learning and in the approach that takes advantage of experience and informal long-term to develop knowledge about working life. knowledge, such as intercultural competence. Use on-going evaluation in both projects and ordinary activities to develop knowledge of problems, solutions, concepts and contexts. Promote the democratic development of governance and enable participation in various forms through inclusive management.

Develop leadership that enables sustainable development. Develop holistic instruments of management. Develop new and complementary measures of societal development which relate to overall sustainability.

Create new forms of collaboration between the private and public sectors as well as the voluntary sector based on knowledge alliances, which can contribute to changing the relationship between economic growth and welfare.

Further develop an infrastructure for social innovation and urban integration. Ensure that members of the Malmö Commission, together with the City of Malmö, Region Skåne and interested institutions create a joint agency for implementing and monitoring the Malmö Commission's proposals.


8 | References

Altwegg, D., Roth, I. & Scheller, A. (2004), Monitoring Sustainable Development, Neuchâtel; Swiss Federal Statistical Office Bogue, R. (2005), Use S.M.A.R.T. goals to launch management by objectives plan [online], Available at: https://www. techrepublic.com/article/use-smart-goals-to-launch-management-by-objectives-plan/ [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018] Bossel, H. (1999), Indicators for Sustainable Development: Theory, Method, Application, Winnipeg; IISD Cherp, A. George C. & Kirkpatrick C (2004), A Methodology for Assessing National Sustainable Development Strategies, Environment and Planning, Budapest; Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy Central European University Curwell, S., Deakin, M. & Symes, M. (2005), Sustainable urban development, London; Routledge. ICLEI (2017), Sustainable City [online], Available at: http://www.iclei.org/activities/agendas/sustainable-city.html [Accessed 29 Mar. 2018] Jessop, B. (2014), Malmö’s path towards a sustainable future: Health, welfare and justice [online], Available at: http:/ www.Socialmedicinsk_tidskrift_5/2014 [Accessed 24 Feb. 2018] Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2017), International cities: case studies - Malmö [online], Available at: https://www.jrf. org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/files-research/international_cities_Malmö.pdf [Accessed 23 Feb. 2018] Lafferty, W. & Hovden, E. (2003), Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework, Environmental politics, vol 12, p. 1-22 Malmö Stad (2013), The UN’s global goal will be local in Malmö [online], Available at: https://www.xn--malm-8qa.se/ Kommun--politik/Sa-arbetar-vi-med.../Hallbarhet/Socialt-hallbart-Malmo/Nyheter-om-social-hallbarhet/2017-0313-FNs-globala-mal-blir-lokala-i-Malmo.html [Accessed 15 Feb. 2018] Malmö Stad (2018), Continuing work for a socially sustainable Malmö [online], Available at: http://Malmö.se/Kommun-politik/Sa-arbetar-vi-med.../Hallbarhet/Malmökomissionen/Continuing-work-for-a-socially-sustainable-Malmö.html [Accessed 05 Mar. 2018] Pearce, D., Markandya, A. & Barbier, E. (1989), Blueprint for a Green Economy, London; Etherscan Pinderhughes R. (2004): Alternative Urban Futures. Oxford; Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

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Reepalu, I. (2013), Malmö – from industrial waste land to sustainable city [online], Available at: http://www. climateactionprogramme.org/climate-leader-papers/ilmar_reepalu_mayor_city_of_Malmöe_sweden [Accessed 19 Feb. 18] Ritchie, J. & Lewis, J. (2003), Qualitative Research Practice, London; Sage Publications Scottish Executive (2006), Sustainable Development: A Review of International Literature [online], Available at http:// www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/123822/0029776.pdf [Accessed 15 Feb. 2018] Stiglitz, J. (2012), The price of inequality, London; Allen Lane Stiglitz. J., Sen, A. & Fitoussi, J. (2009), Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, Paris; OFCE Swedish Institute (2010), Quick Facts [online], Available at: https://sweden.se/quick-facts/p1/ [Accessed 05 Mar. 2018] Thatcher, A. (2015). HFSD Definition Working Paper, Johannesburg; University of Witwatersrand The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö (2012), The Commission for a Socially Sustainable Malmö - Interim Report [online], Available at: www.Malmö.se/kommission [Accessed 27 Feb. 218] The Marmot Review (2010), Fair Society, Healthy Lives [online], Available at: www.ucl.ac.uk/marmotreview [Accessed 05 Mar. 2018] United Nations (2016), The Sustainable Development Agenda [online], Available at: http://www.un.org/ sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/ [Accessed 19 Feb. 18] United Nations (2018), Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable [online], Available at: http://www.un.org/ sustainabledevelopment/cities/ [Accessed 28 Mar. 2018] United Nations Development Programme (2015), Human Development Report 2016 - Human Development for Everyone [online], Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/HDR2016_EN_Overview_Web.pdf [Accessed 04 Mar. 2018] United Nations Development Programme (2018), Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities [online]. Available at: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-11-sustainable-cities-andcommunities.html [Accessed 28 Mar. 2018]


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2012), Education for Sustainable Development, Paris; UNESCO Woodcraft, S., Hackett, T. & Caistor-Arendar, L. (2011), Design for Social Sustainability - A framework for creating thriving new communities, Future Communities; London World Health Organisation (2014), Global health observatory Urban population growth [online], Available at : http:// www.who.int/gho/urban_health/situation_trends/urban_population_growth_text/en/ [Accessed 18 Feb. 2017] World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), Our Common Future, 3rd ed., Oxford; Oxford University Press. World Population Review (2018), Malmรถ Population 2018 [online], Available at: http://worldpopulationreview.com/ world-cities/Malmรถ-population/ [Accessed 15 Feb. 18]

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9 | Bibliography

Colantonio, A. (2013), Social sustainability: a review and critique of traditional versus emerging themes and assessment methods, Oxford; Oxford University books Hassan, A., Bakar, A. & Cheen, K. (2013), A Framework for Assessing the Sustainable Urban Development, Plau Pinang School of Housing, Building and Planning Redclift, M. (2005), Sustainable Development (1987-2005): An Oxymoron Comes of Age - Sustainable Development [online], Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sd.281/epdf [Accessed 18 Feb. 2018] Robinson, J. (2004), Squaring the circle? Some Thoughts on the Idea of Sustainable Development Ecological Economics [online], Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800904000175# > [Accessed 14 Mar 2018] Srivastava, A. & Thomson, S. B. (2009).Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Research Note Policy Research. Melbourne; JOAAG

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Sustainability in Contemporary Cities  

An Evaluation of Malmo

Sustainability in Contemporary Cities  

An Evaluation of Malmo

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