Beaumont Glass Morgantown, West Virginia Sustainable Urban Redevelopment through Interpretive Design, Brownfield Reclamation and Mixed Uses.
M Juliana Lloreda Master of Landscape Architecture West Virginia University - Thesis Project
Beaumont Glass Site in Morgantown, West Virginia Sustainable Urban Redevelopment through Interpretive Design, Brownfield Reclamation and Mixed Uses.
Author Maria Juliana Lloreda Thesis submitted to Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design at West Virginia University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masterof Landscape Architecture Committee Members Peter M. Butler, M.L.A. (Chair) Carrie A. Moore, M.Na.R.M., E.E. Landscape Architecture Program Ron Dulaney Jr., M.Arch. Interior Design Program Patrick F. Kirby, M.A. (Collaborator) Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center Location Morgantown, West Virginia 2013 Keywords Sustainable Development; Brownfield Reuse; Interpretive Design; Phytoremediation; Beaumont Glass; Morgantown, WV
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Committee Members:
I would like to thank Peter Butler for his guidance and support throughout the production of this research and thesis. I am also grateful to Carrie Moore, Ron Dulaney Jr. and Patrick Kirby for their helpful suggestions and for serving on my thesis committee.
I would also like to thank my parents, Fabiola and Herman, and my beloved Lenny, for sticking with me through all the good times and bad, and helping to keep me sane, and my Gordi; always lifting my spirits.
Finally, I would like to thank my fellow class members, for their friendship, assistance and support over these two and a half years: Claire Jeran, Ayaka Hosogaki, and Jing Chu.
CONTENTS List of Figures
List of Tables
Introduction 10 Stakeholder Participation 12 Literature Review 20 Methods 28 Site Inventory and Analysis 30 Design Approach 52 Phytoremediation Strategies 84 Technical Drawings 102 Conclusion 114 Bibliography and References 118
4 | List of Figures
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. SunnysideUp masterplan. Figure 2. SunnysideUp masterplan, zones B and C. Figure 3. Explaining residential density (Ellis, 2004). Figure 4. Beaumont building before demolition (Morgantown History Museum, 1998). Figure 5. Proposed water system detail. Figure 6. Sanborn maps in 1899 and 1904. Figure 7. Sanborn maps in 1906 and 1911. Figure 8. Sanborn maps in 1921 and 1927. Figure 9. Sanborn maps in 1948 and 2013. Figure 10. Beaumont’s 1948 Sanborn map and historical photos. Figure 11. Beaumont three dimensional model. Figure 12. Photos of Seneca in 2013. Figure 13. Beaumont’s unique glassware. Figure 14. Land use map. Figure 15. Land uses and site conditions Figure 16. Land uses and site conditions (continuation). Figure 17. Site topographic section, illustrating 50 feet difference in elevation. Figure 18. Topography map. Figure 19. Topography and Cullet Maps with 1 Foot Contours. Figure 20. Existing circulation on-site (Google Maps , 2013). Figure 21. Half mile walkable radius (Google Maps , 2013). Figure 22. Site vistas from within. Figure 23. Morgantown zoning map (City of Morgantown, 2012). Figure 24. Floor Area Ratio (FAR). Figure 25. Proposed circulation and urban blocks’ layout. Figure 26. Functional diagram. Figure 27. Bubble diagram space layout. Figure 28. Bubble diagram circulation. Figure 29. Layout plan diagram. Figure 30. General circulation and space layout. Figure 31. Glassworks park circulation and space layout. Figure 32. Overall project masterplan. Figure 33. Enlarged Glassworks Park masterplan.
List of Figures | 5
Figure 34. Masterplan Zone 01 and Zone 02 Zone 01: Decorating Room / Lumber Garden Zone 02: Stock Room / Wash Room. Figure 35. Decorating Room and Lumber Garden photo-renderings. Figure 36. Stock Room and Wash Room photo-renderings. Figure 37. Masterplan Zone 03 Zone 03: Warehouse and Pattern Workshop. Figure 38. Warehouse and Pattern Workshop photo-renderings. Figure 39. Masterplan Zone 04 Zone 04: Melting Room. Figure 40. Melting Room photo-renderings. Figure 41. Melting Room photo-renderings. Piles. Figure 42. Masterplan Zone 05 and Zone 06 Zone 05: Mixing Room, Zone 06: Cullet Piles Figure 43. Cullet Pile photo-section. Figure 44. Proposed vegetation (Source: USDA, NRCS / National Plant Data Team, 2013). Figure 45. Cross section labels. Figure 46. Section 01 through the Lumber Gardens and the Decoration Room. Figure 47. Section 02 through the Wash Room and the Stock Room. Figure 48. Section 03 through the Pattern Shop and the Warehouse. Figure 49. Section 04 through the Melting Room. Figure 50. Section 05 through the Mixing Room. Figure 51. Section 06 through the Cullet Piles. Figure 52. Intensive green roof detail and photos. Figure 53. Elevated lumber path detail and photos. Figure 54. Permeable paving detail. Figure 55. Lumber trellises and ruinous seating walls details. Figure 56. Planting plan with bioretention zones. Figure 57. Bioretention typical detail. Figure 58. Layout Plan of the Decorating Room and Lumber Garden. Figure 59. Grading Plan of the Stock Room.
6 | List of Tables
LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Issues, Goals and Objectives, and Methods. Table 2. Program of needs. Table 3. Beaumont Glass siteâ€™s timeline. Table 4. Accumulation quantities in phytoremediation. Table 5. Accumulation types in phytoremediation. Table 6. Proposed urban block dimensions. Table 7. Proposed density chart. Table 8. Plant list selection. Table 9. Calculations for Level 1 Design.
Beaumont Glass site conditions in 2013.
8 | Abstract
This thesis project consists of a design approach to the former Beaumont Glass site and the adjacent sites, a total of 14.6 acres. The city of Morgantown and its downtown area are in need of demonstrations of sustainable development practices and mixed use design.
Beaumont Glass site conditions and Caperton Rail Trail in 2013.
The project design and development focus on site inventory and analysis, historic quality of the site, needs of the community, and stakeholder expectations. The applied design strategies are based on sustainable development, interpretive design, brownfield reclamation, phytoremediation technologies, and stormwater management. The vision of this project is the creation of an overall conceptual masterplan based on the siteâ€™s historical context, which can influence private or public development processes and decision making for the future of the Beaumont site and its adjacencies. The project has been named Beaumont Glassworks Concept Park due to the siteâ€™s strong glass-manufacturing heritage. Products of the design process include land cover maps and cross sections created in AutoCAD and ArcGIS; three dimensional models generated in ArchiCAD; and photo-rendered images produced in Artlantis.
10 | Introduction
This thesis project takes place in Morgantown, West Virginia, specifically at the former Beaumont Glass factory site and its adjacencies. Through site inventory, analysis and research, a need for sustainable urban redevelopment has been identified in Morgantownâ€™s downtown area. From the analysis, different expectations from the community have been integrated in the design approach, including from various stakeholders, and from young professionals and students.
Beaumont Glass Factory photo-rendering model. Built from information on Sanborn Maps.
High density development, interpretive design, and brownfield reclamation strategies are frameworks that helped establish the design approach. High density development implements different land uses on site, allowing the users to dwell, work and entertain themselves in a local setting. Interpretive design is applied in the design, through the lenses of historical backgrounds, including the glass manufacturing and former railroad heritage. The former Beaumont location has been identified as a brownfield site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992), and for this reason this project includes brownfield remediation approaches based on phytoremediation technologies, with soil and air treatments through native plant material to eliminate or transfer the contaminants. The products of this thesis project include a masterplan, a planting plan, cross-sections, photorealistic renderings, grading plan, layout plan, bioretention calculations, and other technical drawings.
12 | Stakeholder Participation
The design development for Beaumontâ€™s Glassworks Park recognizes and acknowledges the needs of the residents of the Sunnyside neighborhood, and has taken into consideration the influences of several other stakeholders that are involved in projects around the study area. The potential stakeholders have been identified to be the SunnysideUp neighborhood organization, the City of Morgantown and West Virginia University. These organizations have common interests in offering diversity in housing, mixed use developments, infrastructure and civic amenities.
Stakeholder Participation | 13
The design development for Beaumontâ€™s Glassworks Park recognizes and acknowledges the needs of the residents of the Sunnyside neighborhood, and has taken into consideration the influences of several other stakeholders that are involved in projects around the study area. The potential stakeholders have been identified to be the SunnysideUp neighborhood organization, the City of Morgantown and West Virginia University. These organizations have common interests in offering diversity in housing, mixed use developments, infrastructure and civic amenities. Influential Elements In order to begin the design process, several components were taken into account as influential elements. Organizations and projects that have been proposed previously have clear goals and objectives to fulfill the needs of the residents in the area. Morgantown is a fast growing city in population and land development; and transportation infrastructure and other urban services are needed (Morgantownâ€™s Comprehensive Plan, 2012). Morgantownâ€™s Comprehensive Plan According to the Morgantown Comprehensive Plan, many of the strategies involve cooperation with West Virginia University in order to promote positive urban growth (City of Morgantown, 2012). In the plan, important subjects for the development of the city are mentioned, such as infill development and redevelopment of underused sites (instead of greenfield development), expansion of the urban areas in concentric patterns, conservation of open spaces in suburban areas, mixed use design and complete pedestrianoriented neighborhoods, connection of places through walking and biking networks, proposals for parks and open spaces, and sustainable practices. This project seeks to satisfy the urban values listed above.
SunnysideUp Organization In 2002, a collective partnership between the City of Morgantown and West Virginia University made up the SunnysideUp Campus Neighborhoods Revitalization Corporation (CNRC), in collaboration with the City of Morgantown and WVU. Figure 1 illustrates the SunnysideUp comprehensive plan that has been divided into ten different zones that plan to offer diverse housing types, mixed use development, infrastructure improvements and civic amenities, aimed to a residential audience including students, faculty and young professionals (Environmental Planning and Design Collaborators, 2012). The overall zone divisions are labeled from A to J, and the planning for each zone is explained further. Zone A: Campus and neighborhood activity along with public open space. Zone B: Residential and Recreational Riverfront as marina and residential district (townhouses for young professionals).
Figure 1. SunnysideUp masterplan.
14 | Stakeholder Participacion
Zone C: Multimodal transit center between Beechurst and the river, and between 3rd and 6th streets / Transportation hub and high density residential development, including a new PRT station, parking, commercial activity, and a stormwater park. Zone D: Central Sunnyside as a transition with the campus. Includes duplexes and townhomes, a gathering plaza space, and sport activities. Zone E: Longview: bungalows and duplexes aimed towards University staff. Zone F: Grand Central Station with office developments, multi-family and single-family. Zones G and H: Seneca Park as a central gathering space, along with residential uses. Zones I and J: The Beechurst retail and working Riverfront are a complement to Seneca shopping center, with residential, offices, parking and a working riverfront. The Beaumont Glassworks Park design project is specifically located under zones B and C (indicated in Figure 2), which are the most influential to the project design. According to the SunnysideUp masterplan, the amenities offered in these two zones include a multimodal transit center with parking garages, a Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) Figure 2. SunnysideUp masterplan, zones B and C.
stop and bus stop, bicycle parking, and a marina on the Monongahela River. A park with ball-fields is also planned with high density and moderate density residential developments, street improvements for Beechurst Avenue, and connections to Stansbury Hall; part of West Virginia University’s downtown campus. Several projects have already been developed under the SunnysideUp plan, including Beechview Place apartments, which is the only new development included within the 14.6 acre Beaumont Glassworks Park study area. Other projects that are related to the study area are Honors Hall, Moser apartments, and Mountaineer Place apartments. West Virginia University’s 10-year Masterplan and Transportation Masterplan According to the 10-year masterplan from 2012, an increase in student housing and a phased modernization for the Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) is proposed. In addition, the plans propose an increase of bike lanes, sidewalks, crosswalks, signage, lighting, and covered parking. Furthermore, West Virginia University’s transportation masterplan intends to reduce traffic congestion on Beechurst Avenue, and to utilize Caperton and Decker’s Creek Rail Trails as commuting corridors. Design Process The vision of the project is to develop an overall conceptual plan for the 14.6 acre study area based on Morgantown’s historical context and research on the specific study site, including inventory and analysis; that can guide a process of development and decision making by the City of Morgantown or by private developer entities. The design process shown on Table 1 begins with an assessment of existing conditions, and
Stakeholder Participacion | 15
sustainable urbanism concepts, mentioned previously. Next, goals and objectives that provide solutions to identified urban problems are proposed. The final design then proposes approaches to resolving identified issues.
tion. For instance, when there is a dense neighborhood that offers a broad variety of land uses and services within, the residents have more opportunities to walk rather than use a car (Farr, Sustainable Urbanism, 2008).
Proposed Methods through Issues, Goals, and Objectives By identifying existing issues on site that hinder the area from being a sustainable urban development, a list of goals and objectives is derived. Subsequently, a methodology is created in order to resolve identified issues, and the goals and objectives are brought forward in order to inspire a program of needs.
Current trends in landscape architecture point to mixed use development as a strategy that creates dense, walkable, sustainable communities. Moving away from isolated commercial, industrial, and residential developments; the Glassworks Park project draws from historic town and neighborhood design that integrates uses to create a livable, productive urban infill environment. The term Brownfield refers to an under-used industrial or commercial land that is abandoned, and available for re-use. The redevelopment of a brownfield land may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. Brownfield remediation is a process in which the contamination is addressed in order to redevelop sites, and it is important in the communities due to preservation of undeveloped land or greenfields (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013).
Design Concepts After the establishment of methods, recognition of several design concepts is essential in the design approach, to establish clear strategies for a design that fulfills the needs of the neighborhood. The following design concepts provide a clear framework for the procedures that are used for Beaumont Glassworks Parkâ€™s design. Sustainable Urbanism is focused on density by reducing the use of resources per unit of populaTable 1. Issues, Goals and Objectives, and Methods.
16 | Stakeholder Participacion
The remediation process involves governmental agencies because of the environmental and legal complexity of cleaning up a site. In order to carry out this process, it is necessary to identify the contamination type and address it by cleaning up the soil, removing contaminants and isolating them to prevent further leakage. If the case allows it, another option is to rezone the site to a land use that does allow the presence of some contaminants (Smith, 2013). Brownfield cleanup may be environmentally complicated due to the liability of the contaminants, and legally complicated as well because sometimes it is a challenge to determine who is responsible for the cleanup (Smith, 2013). In this thesis project, particular issues related to brownfield reclamation, phytoremediation, and reclamation are addressed in the design of green infrastructure in the areas of stormwater and floodplain management; erosion control; mitigating possible soil and groundwater contamination. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, phytoremediation is a natural process that utilizes plants to alleviate contaminants in air, soil and water. The selected plant species are based on their ability to extract or degrade certain contaminants of concern, on their hardiness zone and compatibility with soils, their growth rate, and their capacity to absorb large quantities of water. The relatively new method has been tested in over 200 sites across the United States, and has been proven effective especially in sites that have moderate levels of contaminants and large cleanup areas and shallow depths (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013, p. Using Phytoremediation to Clean Up Sites), such as the former Beaumont Glass site addressed in this project. Green Economy offers solutions to the site development towards envisioning a sustainable economic solution for the future. In todayâ€™s economy, new solutions in green technology and
energy are necessary in converting and reimagining post-industrial urban sites. According to Karl Burkart (2009), green economy has six main sectors; 1) Renewable Energy through solar and wind energy, 2) Green Buildings with energy and water efficiency, 3) Clean Transportation like public transportation, 4) Water Management through water recycling, low water landscaping, gray and rainwater systems, water purification and stormwater planning, 5) Waste Management including toxic remediation and brownfield cleanup programs, and lastly, 6) Land Management applied to habitat conservation and restoration, parks, reforestation and soil stabilization (Burkart, 2009). Ecological Design suggests low impact development solutions with a focus on regional characteristics and patterns of natural elements such as water, soil, vegetation, and landform,. These solutions guide the design process in this project, and ground the design decisions within the siteâ€™s specific regional context. In addition, a variety of approaches to Urban Analysis are explored including the integration of community values and visions, as well as objective analysis of physical, historical, social, industrial and cultural context. According to Mougeot, (2000), Urban Agriculture is a food-security option for family homes. This tool can provide solutions to site design problems through developing a more productive use of urban open spaces, treatment and recovering of sites. In addition, urban agriculture may provide a way of generating employment and income (Urban agriculture: definition, presence, potentials and risks., 2000). For the Glassworks Park project, a market space is integrated in the urban infill design area. Landscape artists work with landscape as the medium. Marginalized communities (both physically and socially) are prime locations for artist experimentation. Landscape Art Components seeks to bring the community of Morgantown together in
Stakeholder Participacion | 17
this project, creating identity for the neighborhood, and increasing settlement. All areas of the design including infill, corridors, and open spaces include landscape art components. Historical Context is the setting for a specific event involving social, cultural, political, and/or economic connections to historical periods and tendencies (Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, 2013). In order to better understand something in history, we must look at its context, and understand that the context consists of those things that surround it in time and place, and which give it its meaning. Through historical context, the uniqueness of a place can be sensed. Morgantown has a valuable Sense of Place coming from the architecture, industry, social life, as Table 1. Issues, Goals and Objectives, and Methods.
well as the people and their ancestries. In addition, West Virginia University’s athletics have impacted the community’s sense of place due to prevailing sports such as football, basketball and soccer that the community proudly supports. For that reason, the integration of glass elements with the ‘Mountaineer’ sense of place is a strong design component in this project. Post-Industrial Design Traditions are important in this project to understand how the contemporary issues of remnant spaces within urban environments are established through the examination of current landscape architecture projects. Focus is set on interpretation of industrial processes and design strategies for revelation of ecological and reclamation processes.
18 | Stakeholder Participacion
Program of Needs Defining the program of needs is the following step to transform the existing problems into solutions. In this project, there is a response to organize the space while meeting practical demands of the community, and the purpose is to create design dynamics to revive the landscape through historic design and generate experiences in the users. The Glassworks Park visitors are provided with visual and physical design interpretations of the glass making process at the former Beaumont site; through the concept spaces such as the decoration room, the warehouse, the melting room and all the other spaces that are a palimpsest of the former Beaumont Glass building complex. In this planning phase, the factors that impact the direction of the project are analyzed, as well as the existing ideas from the stakeholders and their expectations. As seen in Table 2, the program for design is divided into four categories, focused on the different aims of the project. The places for the community are aimed towards young professionals and families; other places are aimed to students due to the proximity with WVUâ€™s downtown campus.
Aerial Image of Site, Google Maps.
20 | Literature Review
Due to the various topics that are addressed in this project, several literature categories have been identified in order to analyze the different solutions and options to each approach. The critical points and findings have been applied to Beaumont Glassworks Parkâ€™s design approach regarding sustainable development, brownfields reuse, interpretive design, and stormwater systems.
Literature Review | 21
Sustainable Development According to the American Society of Landscape Architects (2011), urban development should encourage interconnected green spaces, multi-modal transportation systems, mixed use development, and sustainable communities. In addition, it should protect historic, cultural, and environmental resources, support pollution reduction to generate balance between built and natural environments, provide walking cycling and other easy-access mobility options (City of Morgantown, 2013). Sustainable Neighborhoods Douglas Farr (2007) suggests that sustainable urbanism is focused on density by reducing the use of resources per unit of population. For instance, in a dense neighborhood with a broad variety of land uses and services within, the residents have more opportunities for dwelling, working, education, entertainment, and shopping within walking distance. When there are commercial, industrial, and residential developments in a project, historic design can be integrated to create a livable, productive urban infill environment. Density and Mixed Use Design Increasing local density has a global benefit, because it supports human and natural systems. At a higher density, there is lower stormwater runoff because the runoff rates decrease per unit, there is less impervious cover compared to low density developments, and also because higher density covers less of the watershed. Figure 3 illustrates an assortment of building types, which allows people with diverse lifestyles and incomes to live in the same neighborhood. John Ellis suggests including low, medium and high density developments ranging from single family houses, 2 and 3 story housing, townhomes, and building from 4 to 8 and 16 stories (Farr, 2008). At the Beaumont site particularly, the interest is to propose buildings between four (4) and seven (7)
stories high, for three reasons: 1. Due to the context and the neighboring buildings which range in heights between one (1) and seven (7) stories. 2. To meet the density requirements, or previously developed plans for the area. 3. And to maintain a pedestrian scale. The Beaumont Glassworks Park project seeks to provide a prototype of sustainable urban development for Morgantown. The city has yet to apply sustainable urbanism principles to their development. The proposals demonstrate how the principles can have a positive impact on the city in providing places for dwelling, working, entertainment, and education. Connectivity and Transportation Mixed use design is important for transportation because it reduces unnecessary traffic congestion, eliminating or shortening car trips. Sustainable urbanism strategizes opportunities for people to walk, ride, bike, be wheelchair-accessible, and offer good transit services (Farr, 2008). In order to have pedestrian-oriented neighborhoods, sidewalks are needed on both sides of streets, and have short distances between intersections (300-400 feet). For pedestrian safety, design speeds for roads must be from 25-30 mph, and streets should have no more than 2 lanes between curbs. In addition, sustainable developments should be located in transit corridors so it can be integrated to a transportation network (Farr, 2008). Pedestrian Oriented Neighborhoods The walkability of a place is shaped by the public right of way and the adjacent development, through the visual and haptic components of looks and feel. So it is very important to create an environment where pedestrians feel comfortable and safe. According to LEED levels, a complete street design criteria includes wide sidewalks,
22 | Literature Review
Figure 3. Explaining residential density (Ellis, 2004).
street furniture, signs and lighting, trees and planter strips, connectivity through short blocks, narrow streets with side parking and bike lanes, blocks have pedestrian alley-ways, and buildings are mixed use with over 20 to 30 dwelling units per acre (Farr, 2008). Brownfields Remediation and Reuse A brownfield site is real estate property with possible existence of hazardous pollutants, which is available for reuse or redevelopment. During that process, it is very important to influence a transformation effect in the community. In the process of reclaiming a brownfield; there are programs such as grants, loans and tax incentives that could support the transformation (Berens, 2011). Brownfield sites can be found in numerous communities throughout the nation, in a variety of sizes. There are between 450,000 and one million brownfield sites in the United States, according
to the Government Accountability Office (Hersh, Morley, Schwab, & Solitare, 2012). Brownfields exist because during the early and middle of the 20th century, the industrial sector in America decreased and while those facilities relocated, they left polluted real estate behind. Several manufacturers that remained in America relocated their facilities overseas, where more advantageous tax structures were available. These sites are frequently found in vital locations such as neighborhood edges, business districts, commercial corridors, and transportation routes, so the opportunities that brownfields have as redeveloped zones can strengthen communities by implementing mixed use developments, housing, community centers and gardens, urban agriculture, and open spaces (Hersh, Morley, Schwab, & Solitare, 2012).
Literature Review | 23
Each brownfield siteâ€™s redevelopment process is different due to the siteâ€™s context, the cultural heritage and history, the location and community, and the contamination. Nonetheless, the basic steps for this revitalization process are the following for every site: to begin, 1) a community vision must be developed, followed by 2) the identification of brownfield sites. Then the 3) level of contamination must be assessed in order to 4) determine the reuse options and to 5) evaluate the cleanup options. Lastly, 6) a redevelopment plan must be implemented (Hersh, Morley, Schwab, & Solitare, 2012). Brownfield sites are many times under valuated, but when considered for redevelopment they can offer crucial opportunities for the community such as public health and environmental improvements, aesthetic enhancements and create a sense of pride in place for the community. They can also promote job creation and growth, increase the value of the land for amenities, and transform the community itself (Hersh, Morley, Schwab, & Solitare, 2012). The community is troubled by the effects of underutilized brownfield sites due to its contaminants, which can compromise health and pollute the soil, water and air resources. Additional effects on communities containing brownfields include negative impacts upon the economy, decreasing it. Consequently, according to Hersh et al. (2102), despite these complications, community-based organizations are often excluded from brownfield redevelopment processes projects. The participation of community based organizations in the process is important because they may play roles like community advocates, organizations and primary developers (Hersh, Morley, Schwab, & Solitare, 2012). The Existence of Brownfields When industry arrived during the Industrial Revolution, it started to mark the physical layouts of
cities and countries, influencing the ways cities were located and developed. The form cities took were product of the domination by the industry of land, urban waterfronts, road systems and rails. Industry claimed waterfronts due to the power of access, there was to control raw materials and to distribute products. In order to accommodate the needs of industry, the natural landscape was altered and towns grew around it, changing physically and socially while expanding around the industry (Berens, 2011). River boats and horse carriages were the main modes of transport methods, so more efficient transportation means were demanded in order to move goods faster and more easily, from fuel to raw materials, and finished products. Canals were created and by the beginning of the 19th century, canals were transforming the transportation systems as well as the layouts of rural areas. Canals were constructed based on the financial feasibility of private companies, instead of being masterplanned, and by 1848 canals and railway systems were made public. Railroads became the newer transportation systems and were built along the outdated canalsâ€™ rights of ways (Berens, 2011). After World War II, industry had boomed while land, water and air resources had been deliberately misused. Rivers had become nearly sewage systems, land contained hazardous drums underground, and air was visibly being polluted by smoke. During the postwar, environmental sense started to arise while considering contamination hazards, and it seemed easier to abandon decaying land rather than remediate it (Berens, 2011). Industrial sites and facilities occasionally have been segregated from residential and commercial areas by roads and railroads, influencing the patterns of land uses and development of cities. Contamination occurred around civilizations and within, raising concerns about the environmental issues. These concerns have become stronger
24 | Literature Review
and critical in the revitalization of industrial sites. During the 1970s and 1980s, federal and state laws were enacted in response to pollution in the United States. In 1963 and in 1970, the Clean Air Act was approved followed by the Clean Water Act, passed in 1972 (Berens, 2011).
four cleaning methods; in-situ oxidation, soil vapor extraction, organosilica material process, and bioretention.
The remediation for brownfields is divided into three categories; detoxification of the site, covering the contaminants or burying them, and/ or utilizing phytoremediation methods with plant material or natural cleaning processes.
The In-situ Chemical Oxidation or ISCO aims to reduce contaminants to acceptable levels through advanced oxidation processes. Chemical oxidizers (potassium, sodium, persulfate and ozone) are injected into the soil or groundwater to extinguish the contaminants. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, bioremediation methods are usually used afterwards to maintain low levels of chemicals (In Situ Chemical Oxidation, 2012). The Soil Vapor Extraction method or SVE is intended to remove high levels of contamination from soil by heating the soil, and eliminating impurities through air or steam (Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), 2012). The Organosilica Material or Osorb method, targets to absorb organic compounds from water, through organically modified silica or glass. This material picks out contaminants and absorbs them like a sponge that can be cleaned and reused (ABS Materials, 2013).
The main five steps start with the identification of the brownfield site, then the assessment of the levels and types of contaminants, followed by the determination for reuse options. Next step is the evaluation of the cleanup where the land may be rezoned to a land use that allows the presence of some contaminants, and lastly is the proposal of a cleanup method phase. The last step includes
For Bioremediation methods, the objective is to remove contaminants by using micro-organisms either on-site or off-site. This process can occur through natural reduction or by adding fertilizers. There are several technologies (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012, pp. In-Situ Groundwater Bioremediation) including composting, rhizofiltration and phytoremediation.
Brownfield Remediation Strategies Environmental remediation affects brownfield remediation in strategies for land use, economic feasibility and scheduling of projects. Some of the obstacles present in the process include the site investigations, economic and market feasibilities, where projects can easily turn into numerous phase processes with several steps. In addition, policies and processes for reuse vary depending on the state, the country, and the year because of the different guidelines, regulations and rules.
Table 3. Beaumont Glass siteâ€™s timeline (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008).
Literature Review | 25
The brownfield remediation approach in this project includes phytoremediation methods due to it being the most economic and natural option. Table 3 shows Beaumontâ€™s timeline that shows that site has undergone soil cleaning in 1989 and in 1998, by removing contaminated soils and filling with new soil (Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center, 2008). For that reason, phytoremediation practices may are an ideal implementation, in combination with bioretention for stormwater management. Smart growth and the United States Green Building Councilâ€™s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) encourage the revitalization of underutilized industrial sites to reduce sprawl, air pollution, commuting times, and to increase public transit. As a result, the Smart Growth Network was created in 1996 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other organizations, in order to educate and promote smart growth in communities, including walkable neigh-
borhoods, community cooperation, mixed used design, and developing and conserving open spaces (Berens, 2011). Phytoremediation Phytoremediation has become a popular technology in the past two decades, and although it requires a long term commitment because of the diverse plant growth rates, its major advantage is treating the contaminants on-site. Some of the other benefits of phytoremediation include the lower cost compared to other cleaning methods, easiness of maintenance and monitoring of the plants, and the potentially low risk it poses to the environment (since itâ€™s a more natural approach). In contrast, phytoremediation techniques are effective only on the surface area and the depth occupied by the roots, it is not possible to prevent the toxins from leaking to the groundwater, and the plant survival rates are disturbed by the contamination. In addition, since the contaminants
Table 4. Accumulation quantities in phytoremediation.
Table 5. Accumulation types in phytoremediation.
26 | Literature Review
are passed to the plants, they are not edible and require safe disposal (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2008). Accumulation Quantities and Types The plants used for phytoremediation have four main different accumulation quantities depending on the plant species; Tolerant, Precipitant, Accumulator and Hyperaccumulator. Each accumulation quantity, shown in Table 4, represents the plant uptake of certain contaminants and how it survives with the toxin. There are six main accumulation types, which are presented in Table 5. They indicate how the plant contains, degrades or eliminates the contaminants and what it does with the toxin after certain biological processes. In its origins, phyto means plant, and rhizo means roots. Interpretive Design James Corner (1999) explains that the landscape reshapes the world with its physical and experiential characteristics, and it has the capacity to express ideas and engage the mind. To recover a landscape means to find something that has been lost, devalued, forgotten or misplaced. He quotes Cosgrove and Daniels; â€œ...landscape seems like a palimpsest whose real or authentic meanings can somehow be recovered with the correct techniques, theories or ideologies...â€? A palimpsest is something altered that shows visible traces of its earlier form, and in this case, even though Beaumont buildings were demolished, only leaving one (the current surplus building); the site still endures visible forms of the floor plans in the topography. Corner identifies three strategies for reclaiming sites; by retrieving the memory and the cultural enrichment of the place and time, by developing new uses and activities in terms of social program and utility, and by renewing the significance of
ecological diversification and succession. Interpretive Approach The Beaumont Glassworks Park intends to reclaim history by employing forms and footprints that existed on-site when it was a glass factory. The Beaumont Glassworks Park design interprets historical facts that occurred at the old Beaumont Glass Factory. Figure 4 shows a photo of the Beaumont Glass building before its demolition in 1998. The interpretive influences of the Beaumont Glassworks Concept Park are: 1. The former Beaumont glass factoryâ€™s footprints applied through spaces and edges of building remnants 2. Building materials including brick walls and brick pavers 3. Glass-making process and machinery utilized when the factory was at its peak The unique colors and textures of Beaumont glassware Stormwater Systems Water runoff is directly associated with increased erosion, sedimentation, flooding, water quality degradation, loss of biodiversity and climate change. Contemporary land uses have drastically Figure 4. Beaumont building before demolition (Morgantown History Museum, 1998).
Literature Review | 27
altered historical patterns of stable hydrology and water quality, with polluted stormwater runoff. The sustainable approach for water management is to treat it as a resource instead of waste, through cleansing, diffusing and absorbing it. Some site design techniques for water management are green roofs, porous paving systems, bioswales and bioretention, rainfall collection and storage, and deep-rooted, highly absorbent native landscape (Farr, 2008). Sustainable water management systems can be implemented in new developments or can be retrofitted in existing developments. Each practice must be designed based on specific local conditions and land use characteristics, even though these systems can be integrated into roofs, parking lots, streets, driveways, alleys, sidewalks, lawns and parks. Benefits of Stormwater Systems Green roofs have been proven to promote clean air by filtering pollution, reduce runoff by 60% and peak flow by 85%, provide habitat for wildlife, to be 40째 to 50째 cooler than a conventional roof and reduce heat island effect. In addition, these roofs can last 40 to 50 years, which is longer than conventional roofs, and are energy efficient because they reduce the demand of air conditioning in the summer by 75%. Furthermore, they reduce stress in people, increase property value, reduce crime rates and are visually appealing (Campbell A. , Green Roofs Lecture, 2013). Bioretention systems are intended to drain quickly; between one and two hours, and they have high stormwater storage capacities. They allow infiltration, treat pollution, and they provide a natural and cost-effective alternative, as well as aesthetic and habitat values (Campbell A. , Bioretention Lecture, 2013). Stormwater Strategies For the Beaumont project, the main systems
implemented are green roofs, permeable paving, and bioretention areas. The green roofs include vegetated areas with a wide range of species containing grasses, shrubs and trees. The hardscape areas are planned to allow water to pass through surface using permeable pavers, and where water can be stored in open-graded stone beneath the surface. The bioretention areas consist of depressed islands planted with highly absorbent native landscape to serve the purpose for soil cleansing and phytoremediation practices. For all implemented stormwater systems, the collected water is conveyed to the water storage system for reuse. The water storage system consists of tanks underneath the bioretention areas that collect remaining runoff water. The water is then conveyed to the above-ground tower water tank, like Figure 5 shows. Figure 5. Proposed water system detail.
28 | Methods
Information gathering is essential in the decision-making process in order to establish a design approach for the study site. The inventory, analysis and research phases are intended to collect, analyze and organize the natural, social, historic, and cultural and visual elements of the landscape and its urban context.
Methods | 29
Site Inventory, Analysis and Research (IAR) Research, Modeling and Mapping Various forms of mapping and building models are applied to the urban context, in order to comprehend urban form and pattern. Both objective and subjective methods of mapping reveal patterns and textures of topography, landscape, land use, circulation, economics, community, industry, memory, and history. The maps and archives created function as inspiration for design intervention. The GIS data function as a base map for analysis and includes: streets, railroads, streams, land cover, parks, topographic data, trails data, and aerial photos. AutoCAD 2D and ArchiCAD 3D Models function as primary base maps for design development. Construction of the Digital Model, Views and Architecture An AutoCAD and GIS base map are created, and a three dimensional landform model of the neighborhood in ArchiCAD. Digital models include the footprints and approximate heights of existing buildings, road and street networks, and other relevant structures and information. The digital model is as detailed as existing AutoCAD, GIS and ArchiCAD data allow. Photographic exploration including views offsite, from site, and within site. Land Cover Maps Land cover of aerial images and site survey. Vegetation communities with forest types. The Form of the City over Time Identification of growth patterns through time with aid of Sanborn Maps. Interpret land use change over time. Land Use Mapping existing land uses Collect and map land use guidance and planning documents developed by the City of Morgantown, SunnysideUp, and the community.
Visiting the study site To provide opportunities for data collection, impressions and idea generation. The purpose of the site visits is to collect information and impressions of the site and community. Mapping Lynch’s “Elements of the City Image” Create diagrammatic drawings including Lynch’s elements (paths, edges, districts, nodes, landmarks). Overall Plan Spatial Organization/Systems Issues of Place-making by Integrating Systems The masterplan includes the development of a spatial organization, patterns of circulation, integrated site program elements and green infrastructure components. Spatial Organization: Figure / Ground and Mass / Void A specific strategy for organizing the spaces and experiences of the site provide a framework for programmed spaces, interpretive design, and landscape art. The interpretive design at the Beaumont site responds to the industrial history, materials, systems, social structure, and processes of the glass making process. Urban Infill and Site Inventory Process Issues of Urban Fabric: Integrating Systems A variety of urban systems are integrated in the overall spatial organization of the urban infill site. These systems include elements such as buildings, water, energy, vegetation, transportation, mixed use spaces, and landscape art. Caperton Rail Trail Corridor The rail trail brings the different counties together physically, experientially, and aesthetically. Multi-modal, green street design concepts provide guidance in developing the corridor.
30 | Site Inventory and Analysis
SITE INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS
Through the process of inventory and analysis, landscape conditions and site elements are identified, impacting the project design. In addition, the analysis determines the usersâ€™ needs, as well as improving of the environment. The first steps for inventory and analysis are to locate the site elements, including size and conditions, history of the site and previous land uses, as well as who the project is be aimed for and which activities are proposed.
Site Inventory and Analysis | 31
Site Location and Extents The study site is located in Morgantown, West Virginia, and has an extent of 14.6 acres. It is bordered by Beechurst Avenue to the Northeast, and to the Southwest is the Monongahela River. The Caperton Rail Trail breaks through the central axis of the site, below the elevated Personal Rapid Transport (PRT) system tracks. The power plant borders the site to the North, while WVU’s Stansbury Hall is closest to the South edge. Within the study area there are is a mix of residential and commercial land uses, along with open areas currently used as parking lots. Historic Quality of the Site The study site has a significant historic quality that is comprised of several elements that directly affect the landscape character, including the former railroad which was transformed into a rail trail, and the growth and expansion of an urban environment throughout history. Morgantown and Kingwood Railroad: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Morgantown and Kingwood Branch: In 1877, after various failed attempts to build a railroad through Morgantown, it was decided that a project would be started along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, connecting Morgantown with Kingwood via Decker’s Creek, and Pittsburgh along the Monongahela River. It was in 1886 that the rails from Fairmont to Morgantown were completely laid down and the train was operating, and from 1903 to 1907 the tracks were completed from Morgantown to Bretz, and Kingwood to Rowlesburg, following the path of Decker’s Creek. In 1920, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad started to operate the Morgantown and Kingwood Railroad as a secondary railroad (Callahan, 1926).
The Morgantown Rail-Trail (Caperton Creek Trail): Presently, the B&O Railroad’s Morgantown and Kingwood Branch has been maintained and transformed to walking and biking trails for the community of Morgantown. Within the city the trail is the Caperton Rail Trail, and in the outskirts to the Southeast, it’s called the Decker’s Creek Rail Trail (Mon River Trails Conservancy Collaborators, 2007). As previously mentioned, the study area is located along the Caperton Trail, which is an 8 mile non-motorized trail. The part of the trail is 5.5 miles paved along the route, passing the open areas in the town, university, businesses, shops, and industrial areas. Due to the location and pedestrian traffic of the trail, it is a significant element that attracts people into the study site (Rails-to-Trails Conservancy Collaborators, 2009). Currently, the system of trails passes through a landscape with scenic and secluded paths with various vegetation types along the way, and is open for activities like biking, walking, cross country skiing, and rollerblading. It passes important sites in Morgantown such as the Edith Barill Park (in Star City), the WVU Core Arboretum and the Hazel Ruby McQuain Riverfront Park and Marilla Park. The first and latter mentioned sites offer parking for the use of the trail as well as at the Seneca Center, and the Wharf District (BOPARC Collaborators, 2013; The Greater Morgantown Convention and Visitors Bureau Collaborators, 2013). Urban Growth and Expansion of the Site The urban evolution throughout history of the area has been analyzed according to the available Sanborn maps shown in Figures 6 through 9, dated from 1889 to 1948. In 1899 the land was to some extent unoccupied, and the only standing businesses were the Morgantown Planing Mill, the Monongahela Textile Company, and the Lough Brothers Carriage Factory.
32 | Site Inventory and Analysis
Urban Growth and Expansion of the Site The urban evolution throughout history of the area has been analyzed according to the available Sanborn maps shown in Figures 6 through 9, dated from 1889 to 1948. In 1899 the land was to some extent unoccupied, and the only standing businesses were the Morgantown Planing Mill, the Monongahela Textile Company, and the Lough Brothers Carriage Factory. By 1904, the Planing Mill had expanded and the Textile Company was gone, leaving the building Figure 6. Sanborn maps in 1899 and 1904.
vacant. In addition, two new businesses arose by this period; the Morgantown Ice Company and the Morgantown Foundry & Machine Company. In 1911, the General Woodworking Company was erected, and near the foundry machine existed various businesses and shops. In the same year, the Planing Mill building became the setting of the Crystal Tumbler glass company, and the Union Stopper glass company moved to the former vacant building.
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The Union Stopper Company was the first glass company that operated in this building, which would then become the Beaumont Glass Company around the 1920s. In 1921, the Crystal Tumbler Company had vacated, and the Athens Glass Company had taken its place in the building. The Carriage Factory and the Foundry had vacated and the buildings were now occupied by various smaller businesses and shops. The study site is highlighted in red, and in the early years (1899 to 1911) it is shown that the Figure 7. Sanborn maps in 1906 and 1911.
development took place on the Northern area. By 1921, the Southern portion of the site was evidently denser with a commercial core to the North and a more residential character to the South. The 1948 Sanborn map confirms that the Beaumont Glass Company was still operating in its original building at this time, and had expanded into the building where the Athens Glass Company used to be. It had taken over the entire area. Additionally, the Morgantown Ice Company moved across the street from its original location,
34 | Site Inventory and Analysis
and the North Pole Ice Company was established in the vacant building. Figure 9 illustrates the most recent aerial image of the study site in 2013, which shows that even though some structures remain throughout the site, many of the buildings have been removed including the majority of the Beaumont complex. Beaumont Glass Building Complex The analysis completed from the Sanborn maps and the photos extracted from WVUâ€™s West Figure 8. Sanborn maps in 1921 and 1927.
Virginia and Regional History Collection, displayed in Figure 10, shows that there were three predominant physical elements that remained for decades on site, and functioned as features for the glass making process. These three elements are adopted into the project design, and serve as focal components within the site. The first historic piece is the one building that survived the demolition in the 1990s, which is the structure where Surplus City is today located. This building has kept its footprint for more than
Site Inventory and Analysis | 35
Figure 9. Sanborn maps in 1948 and 2013.
100 years, and it is a historic remnant of the glass factory where the furnaces for glass production were located, as well as the packing and shipping areas. The second object is the water tower which was erected on a 90-foot steel structure, and remained on site for over 92 years before the demolition. The third piece is the brick furnace that lasted for over 107 years on site, and is where the first steps of the glass making process took place in the factory.
The Sanborn maps consist of two-dimensional drawings with information of streets, building footprints, heights, window and door openings, materials, and building uses. The collected historic photographs only show limited angles of Beaumontâ€™s buildings, from different periods of time. For these reasons, a three dimensional model was created in ArchiCAD software, based on the analysis of the Sanborn maps and the historic images. The main purpose of the representation exhibited in Figure 11 was to be able to
36 | Site Inventory and Analysis
Figure 10. Beaumont’s 1948 Sanborn map and historical photos.
visualize how the Beaumont Glass complex would have looked in today’s context; therefore it was overlaid on top of a current Google Maps aerial image. As a result of the model, the overall Beaumont Glass complex can be perceived, and so the prototype is considered an influential and inspiring factor for the project design. History of Beaumont’s Glass Factory as a Brownfield Site According to the Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center’s report on Beaumont, in 1989 several problems on site were observed and soil samples were taken near the river, at the bottom of the cullet pile. The Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity results of the soil samples indicated no significant contamination by heavy metals in general, but there was a specific area, the Etching Room, that posed a concern to the Division of Waste Management due to the cullet pile and any future waste glass or batch mix. The company commenced remediation work at the area of concern, by excavating the soil and sludge beneath
the Etching room (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). From the same sample, high levels of lead were detected in the soil, and 12 drums of hazardous waste were detected and sent away for off-site disposal. In the same year, the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) conducted a Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance evaluation and determined that the cullet pile posed bigger problems that were being inadequately addressed. The next year the drums that were observed on site remained, so the company was noted for status in violation of hazardous waste management regulations. At this time, there were five primary concerns on site: the cullet pile, over 24 drums on site, the notification of hazardous waste activity, the soil under the Etching room, and a civil administrative penalty. In 1991, the Beaumont Glass Company’s workers went on strike (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008).
Site Inventory and Analysis | 37
visualize how the Beaumont Glass complex would have looked in today’s context; therefore it was overlaid on top of a current Google Maps aerial image. As a result of the model, the overall Beaumont Glass complex can be perceived, and so the prototype is considered an influential and inspiring factor for the project design. History of Beaumont’s Glass Factory as a Brownfield Site According to the Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center’s report on Beaumont, in 1989 several problems on site were observed and soil samples were taken near the river, at the bottom of the cullet pile. The Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity results of the soil samples indicated no significant contamination by heavy metals in general, but there was a specific area, the Etching Room, that posed a concern to the Division of Waste Management due to the cullet pile and any future waste glass or batch mix. The company commenced remediation work at the area of concern, by excavating the soil and sludge beneath the Etching room (Former Beaumont Glass, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). Figure 11. Beaumont three dimensional model.
From the same sample, high levels of lead were detected in the soil, and 12 drums of hazardous waste were detected and sent away for off-site disposal. In the same year, the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) conducted a Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance evaluation and determined that the cullet pile posed bigger problems that were being inadequately addressed. The next year the drums that were observed on site remained, so the company was noted for status in violation of hazardous waste management regulations. At this time, there were five primary concerns on site: the cullet pile, over 24 drums on site, the notification of hazardous waste activity, the soil under the Etching room, and a civil administrative penalty. In 1991, the Beaumont Glass Company’s workers went on strike (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). By 1991 there were already 31 drums on site and the next year the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Environmental Protection conducted another Conservation and Recovery Act compliance inspection, detecting
Beaumont Glass Factory photo-rendering model. Built from information on Sanborn Maps.
Beaumont Glass site conditions in 2013.
40 | Site Inventory and Analysis
high levels of lead. Glass production operations at the factory were terminated and the company closed its doors the same year (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). In 1994, SME Industries acquired the property from Beaumont Glass Company, and the next year Frank Carlow purchased the parcel from them. In 1996, Morgantown Engineering and Construction acquired the property from Mr. Carlow and the current site owner is Cleveland Biller (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). In 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Criminal Investigation Division notified the Environmental Protection Agency that drums containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) were stored on site. The following year, the E.P.A. settled for demolition and removal of materials containing asbestos, and in 1998 the building South of 4th Street was demolished and removed. An analytical report was conducted in the cullet pile area, and the contaminated soiled was hauled off site, bringing in new fill. Following the clearing, further cleanup was performed in 2000, when the E.P.A. excavated lead and cadmium contaminated soil around the cullet pile area, and the parking lot area (Former Beaumont Glass Site, Morgantown, WV - Site History and Timeline, 2008). In 2004, the neighborhood of Sunnyside, which is where the site is located in Morgantown, was interested in further redevelopment of the land for recreational use. Triad Engineering (2012) conducted a report of cost development for site remediation, and highlighted that in the upper two feet of soil, there are contaminants of concern present such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, lead and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The contaminants found in greater than two foot depth are the same. The report also
states that the concentrations of those contaminants exceed recreational and residential land uses for soil and groundwater. In the report, Triad Engineering proposes remediation in the form of soil removal and disposal in order to eradicate the contaminants, as well as demolition of the existing building North of 4th Street. The remediation cost estimate ranged from $200,000 to $218,000 for both parcels, North and South of 4th Street (Report of Cost Development for Site Remediation, 2012). History of the Glass Industry in West Virginia West Virginia has an extensive glass industry heritage that starts in the 1800s and includes glass products like bottles, containers, windows and tableware. The accessibility to natural resources such as natural gas, coal, timber, oil and sand was the driver for the glass industry to thrive in this state. The glass companies or â€˜glass housesâ€™ in West Virginia had a growing availability of inexpensive natural gas for fuel which provided a critical resource for glass production, so the state had around 15 percent of the national glass market while competing with neighbor states Pennsylvania and Ohio (Fones-Wolf, West Virginia Encyclopedia e-WV, 2012). The glass that was produced in West Virginia was various types of flat glass as well as glassware. Railroad transportation was very good in the state and the workforce was very effective, but during the Great Depression era, press molds were created and became very influential in the glass making process. The automatic bottle making machine came next, in the 1900s, which continued to mechanize the glass making process reducing the need for skilled glass crafters (FonesWolf, West Virginia Encyclopedia e-WV, 2012). Some of the reasons for the founding of glass companies in West Virginia were due to the easy availability of raw materials to produce the glass, and to help maintain a strong economy in-state (Callahan, 1926). After the Great Depression,
Site Inventory and Analysis | 41
many of the glass factories succumbed and were not able recuperate mainly due to mechanization processes that required lower salaries and less-skilled personnel. A survey in 1938 suggests there were around 62 glass houses in West Virginia, of which only eight remain currently (Lindsay, 2013). The Beaumont Glass Company, having a key location along the Monongahela River for sand extraction, started glass manufacturing in 1907 and closed its doors in 1991 due to labor disputes (Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center, 2008). Up to 1983, another glass factory that remained in Morgantown was the Seneca Glass Company, which was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985; two years after closing its doors. Currently, the Seneca Center is home to several shopping stores while attempting to preserve the cultural heritage of glass history in the city (Seneca Center Website, 2013). History of Seneca Figure 12. Photos of Seneca in 2013.
The Seneca Glass Company is located in the center of the neighborhood, near the Monongahela River; the former Baltimore and Ohio railroad tracks, a main vehicular route, and the Personal Rapid Transit system linking the WVU campuses. In 7891, the glass company started in Seneca County, Ohio, and then moved to Moundsville, West Virginia. In 1897, it was relocated to Morgantown. The building has changed slightly since 1902; the materials include brick, asphalt, concrete blocks, and metal sidings. The Seneca Glass Company was widely known in the city and the country, nonetheless closed doors in August 1983. It has been one of the most longstanding glass factory buildings of its kind, and has presently been transformed to a shopping center building that reflects its significant glass making history (United States Department of the Interior / National Park Service, 1973). Current photos of Seneca have been recorded as Figure 12 illustrates.
42 | Site Inventory and Analysis
History of the Glass-Making Process In the 1900s, the glass making process was somewhat different than in the modern days due to the artisanship involved in the process. The ingredients for basic glass are silica, sodium carbonate and calcium. The additives used for brilliance, refraction and to modify properties of the glass are lead, lead-crystal, flint glass, boron, barium and thorium oxide (1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012). Several ingredients added for colored glass were iron, chromium, sulfur, carbon, manganese, selenium, cobalt, and others, and the equipment for glass manufacturing were the furnaces, lehrs or annealing ovens, and various hand tools. The process began with the batch processing, in which raw materials contained in silos were screened, dried, preheated, mixed and delivered to the furnaces. Once transported to the furnaces, the materials were slowly fed at slow rates and high temperatures up to 1,575°C. This would produce the molten glass, which is a malleable form of glass (1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012). The next step would have been the glass blowing. At Beaumont they had two different processes of manufacturing the glass; hand blown glass, and mechanically pressed glass. Tableware and vases were blown and fashioned by hand, while cutting and engraving were done mechanically. Tube process was employed for fine vases and drinking Figure 12. Photos of Seneca in 2013.
cups; they were produced from a mass hollowed by hand-blowing and they could have different diameters and shapes. Bottles were made using cast iron molds by forcing the molten glass with air to take the shape of the mold. Later in history, mechanical processes for glass making began, where glass with higher masses and weights were produced (1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012). Finally, the shaped glass objects would be entered into a lehr, which was a temperaturecontrolled oven for slowly cooling the glassware, while transporting glass objects through a conveyor belt. The lehr would cool the object gradually with temperature just below the solidification point of the glass. If the glass were to be cooled rapidly, an uneven temperature distribution would occur, causing cracks in the objects (1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012). Figure 13 demonstrates some of the glassware produced at Beaumont Glass. The company was known mostly for their lamp shades, globes and glassware, typically made with light shades, translucent colors and jade, as well as hand painted glassware with floral chintz designs, dots and gold decorations. Some of their colors included amber, pale purple, black, blue, blue satin, crystal, crystal satin, cobalt, emerald green, green, green satin, pink, ruby, topaz and topaz satin.
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Land Uses On the Southwestern corner of the site area is where the former Beaumont Glass Factory operated beginning in the early 1900s and closing in 1991. Most of the Beaumont buildings were demolished in the 1900s, although one remained which is where Surplus City is currently situated. South of the Beaumont site is a wooded lot which, according to the Geographic Information System (GIS) contour data, is a very steep area. (WVU Natural Resource Analysis Center Collaborators, July 22, 2010). Across the Caperton Rail Trail and the PRT tracks exist several mixed use buildings, including Chico Bakery, Thinkin’ Ink Tattoo shop, a parking lot, and a two story residential building. The next zone holds the seven story Beechurst Apartments building that was completed in 2013, throughout the entire extents of the urban block. Figure 14 illustrates the land uses throughout the 14.6 acre study site, while Figures 15 and 16 indicate the conditions of each land use. Figure 14. Land use map.
Additional land uses on site include several one and two story residential buildings, a few vacant properties, numerous open spaces designated as parking lots, and some small businesses such as Papa John’s Pizza, Wincor Properties, Lavender Café, and Kingdom Rentals. It is important for the project density to identify the existing square footage per land use, in order to create a higher mixed use density neighborhood when designing. Based on that principle and according to the Morgantown Utility Board CAD drawings, the density areas for all existing residential land use adds up to approximately 61,917 square feet of building area, not including the estimated 52,983 square feet of building area pertaining to Beechview Apartments. Additionally, the business density areas add up to about 52,478 square feet of building area.
44 | Site Inventory and Analysis
Figure 15. Land uses and site conditions
Site Conditions and Landscape Characteristics As seen in Figures 15 and 16, the 14.6 acre study site has different existing features, including manmade structures and networks (as corridors), open urban areas, brownfields, minor green areas, a steep topography with historic evidence of former buildings, a riparian buffer (as edge) that creates a certain microclimate and wildlife habitat, a wide palette of vegetation, proximity and views to the Monongahela River and to WVUâ€™s downtown campus. Structures and Networks Most of the man-made structures on site and networks were built many years ago. Therefore, there is a considerable amount of unmaintained, vacant and abandoned properties which causes Figure 16. Land uses and site conditions (continuation).
a visual impairment, as well as a non-pedestrian character to the site. Disconnection of the site to important proximities such as WVUâ€™s downtown campus and the Monongahela River is also present. Many of the available open areas on site are designated as parking lots which take up a great amount of real estate and prevent a high concentration of parking units as opposed to underground parking structures. Moreover, despite the existing mixed use character on site, the densities are very low; which is counter to current sustainable urbanism principles. In addition, downtown Morgantown is in need of places for people to gather.
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Brownfield Impairment and Current Zoning Regarding the former Beaumont site being impaired as a brownfield site, several assessments by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have confirmed that the local soil in this area is contaminated with specific glass fabrication pollutants (Triad Engineering Inc., 2012). Furthermore, according to the Morgantown Planning Commission, the former Beaumont site extent was amended from multi-family residential district (R-3) to service business district (B-2) (Morgantown Planning Commission, 2012). Topography As mentioned before, and as seen in Figures 17 and 18, the GIS source data suggests that the topographic features on site have the highest point on the contours starting on Beechurst Avenue, and developing downward to the Monon-
gahela River and its riparian buffer. The lowest area on site is the riparian buffer which has an overall slope of 60%, followed by the Beaumontâ€™s former site with a 6% gradient and an additional 35% slope for the Southern zone. Underneath the PRT tracks occurs a 20% grade, followed by the upper blocks which have an 8% slope. The overall difference in elevation throughout the site is approximately 50 feet. According to the previously mentioned Sanborn Maps, the topography and urban character of the site have been altered multiple times. In the current interpretation of the landscape, it is clear that the physical conditions bare visible traces of Beaumont buildingsâ€™ earlier footprints in the topography. Additionally, since the Beaumont site was utilized for glass-making purposes, contaminants of concern have been found in the
Figure 17. Site topographic section, illustrating 50 feet difference in elevation.
Figure 18. Topography map.
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Figure 19. Topography and Cullet Maps with 1 Foot Contours
soil specifically where the cullet piles used to be during that period of time. A cullet pile is a batch of crushed rejected glass with a mineral composition that is the result of glass making processes, and is typically reused (1911 EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica, 2012). Industrial glass waste commonly contains certain metal contaminants that may have been passed on to the soil in the areas where the cullet piles were located at Beaumont (Vieitez, Eder, Villanueva, & Saveyn, 2011). Figure 19 points out a map with the specific locations of the cullet piles during the boom of the glass making period of Beaumont. Riparian Buffer The existing riparian buffer embraces a densely vegetated area along the entire site riverfront which offers a microclimate, as well as a diversity of animal and plant species. Riparian buffers capture runoff and sediments, consequently it is essential to the project that this corridor be conserved in order to increase water quality and to reduce pollution. Native grasses, shrubs and
trees are being proposed in the project in order to slow water runoff and absorb contaminants, to ensure the preservation of wildlife habitat, and to provide bank stability (Dosskey, Schultz, & Isenhart, 1997). Circulation The main existing vehicular and pedestrian circulation (illustrated in Figure 20) moves on Beechurst Avenue, on to the secondary circulations which are 1st Street, 3rd Street, 4th Street, and 4Â˝ Street. In addition, other secondary vehicular and pedestrian traffic flows to the site from Campus Avenue, which is currently not aligned with 1st Street. Another important pedestrian route that directs people to the site is from Caperton Rail Trail, which has a higher activity during the weekends with walkers and bikers. Walkable Radius According to Douglas Farr (2008), the size of the neighborhood should be suitable for walking, and the range should be from 40 to 200 acres. Most people walk about one quarter mile, or 12 to 15 minutes, before turning back, driving or biking.
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Figure 20. Existing circulation on-site (Google Maps , 2013).
In the study site, Figure 21 displays the quarter mile radius that includes proximities to roughly half of the downtown campus, including Stansbury Hall and the Life Sciences building, the Sunnyside neighborhood and Seneca Shopping Center. The half mile walkable radius includes
proximities to Woodburn Circle and the Mountainlair building. In a 45 degree aerial Google Mapsâ€™ images of the site is appreciated the contiguity to the campus, as well as how convenient it would be to create pedestrian connections directly to it.
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Views As mentioned before, and as revealed in Figure 22, the adjacencies are: to the North is the power plant which is a large sheet metal and concrete structure including storage towers and chimneys. To the West is the Monongahela River, which at a
pedestrian scale is challenging to perceive due to the dense vegetation incorporated in the riparian buffer. The East and South offer outlooks to the higher-level Beechurst Avenue and WVUâ€™s downtown campus including the Life Sciences building and Stansbury Hall, respectively.
Figure 22. Site vistas from within.
Land Use Regulations The zoning ordinance determines the land use development, building heights, lot coverage, parking, accesses, and other similar land use characteristics of a site. Morgantownâ€™s Zoning Ordinance The 14.6 acre study site is involved within two different zoning districts, and two additional overlay
zoning districts, which exist as complementary designations to the original zoning (City of Morgantown, 2013). In Figure 23, the Zoning Districts that affect the study area are multi-family (R-3) district, and service business (B-2) district. Both districts permit the development of multi-family dwellings, and have the following building envelope standards:
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Multi-Family (R-3) District Minimum lot size of 4,000 square feet, with lot coverage of maximum 60%, setbacks of minimum 10 feet on the front, 5 feet on the side, 20 feet on the rear, and 55 feet of maximum building height. Service Business (B-2) District Minimum lot size of 6,000 square feet, with lot coverage of maximum 60%, setbacks of minimum 15 feet on the front, 5 feet on the side, 40 feet on the rear, and 55 feet of maximum building height. Furthermore, the Zoning Overlay Districts are the Beechurst overlay, and the South Sunnyside overlay. The overlay districts are meant to override certain land use and setback characteristics of the ordinary zoning districts. Standards include: Figure 23. Morgantown zoning map (City of Morgantown, 2012).
Sunnyside South Overlay District Half of the minimum rear setbacks, additional 10% for lot coverage, maximum building height of 88 feet, primary materials for buildings should be metal and glass, and secondary materials should be precast concrete and stone. Beechurst Corridor Overlay District Vehicular access to development is not allowed from Beechurst Avenue unless no other alternative is feasible, no street parking on Beechurst Avenueâ€™s right of way, buildings shall be articulated to permit views to the river, and Beechurst Avenue setback shall be 15 feet.
50 | Site Inventory and Analysis
Floor Areas Ratio and Space Requirements The Floor Area Ratio (FAR) in Figure 24 illustrates the relationship between the gross floor area of the buildings and by the area of the lot, as a division. For instance, a FAR of 7.0 allows 7 square Figure 24. Floor Area Ratio (FAR).
feet of building area for 1 square foot of lot area, and a FAR of 2.0 allows two stories per the entire lot area, or four stories per half the lot area, or else eight stories per quarter lot area.
Beaumont Glass site conditions in 2013.
52 | Design Approach
Based on the historic quality of the site as well as the inventory and analysis, the project has been titled Beaumont Glassworks Concept Park. The park design is meant to reflect the glass-making history and make the perception of it present everywhere, by capturing the character and scenes of the past. Applying Cornerâ€™s (1999) strategies, the revitalization of the project site is done by developing new land uses and program activities, through recovering the place memory and period of Beaumont Glass, and by renovating the meaning of the environmentâ€™s diversity.
Beaumont Glass site conditions in 2013.
Beaumont Glass site conditions and Caperton Rail Trail in 2013.
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Land Uses and Densities Based on the Morgantown’s Zoning Ordinance, the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) has been determined, along with space requirements, lot coverage, parking, and block lengths. The FAR shall be between 1.0 and 2.0, with buildings between three and eight stories tall. The space requirements for open space shall be 10% to 20% of the lot, while retail and office space should be minimum 150,000 square feet. The maximum lot coverage must be a maximum of 60% or 8.8 acres, with 400 feet maximum for block length and a perimeter between 700 and 1,000 feet. In addition, parking units should be 1.5 units per dwelling space, and 4 units per 1,000 square feet of commercial space. Proposed Circulation According to Morgantown’s tax maps (Monongalia County Assessor’s Office, 2006), and seen in Figure 25; 4½ Street used to extend to the river, providing access to it, and Wharf Street existed behind the remaining Beaumont Glass building. These two corridors are proposed to be restored Figure 25. Proposed circulation and urban blocks’ layout.
where 4½ Street provides river access through a marina, and Wharf Street is adapted for only pedestrian circulation. A new street named 2nd Street has been proposed to break the vast length of the block, and 1st Street has been aligned with Campus Drive to allow a better traffic flow. Elkton Place has been proposed to be removed in order to give more space to the urban block, and an additional street has been proposed and named Glassworks Street, to break the extensive length of the block as well. Layout for Urban Blocks Based on the proposed circulation, and due to the previously established block length and perimeter, the urban blocks located between 4½ Street and 3rd Street have been conserved, while blocks between 3rd Street and Glassworks Street have been modified to meet the criteria. The blocks’ maximum lengths range from 210 feet to 305 feet, being lower than the maximum length established previously of 400 feet, and the
56 | Design Approach
perimeters range from 150 feet to 980, with an established maximum of 1,000 feet, as represented in Table 6. Table 6. Proposed urban block dimensions.
Design Diagrams The design diagrams comprise the functional diagram and the bubble diagram. The main objective for these illustrations is to identify spatial relationships applied to the study site, and serves as schemes for the conceptual design. The aspects that are covered in the drafts are indoor and outdoor relationships, vistas from the site, circulation networks, and access points. Functional Diagram The main step to determine the diagrams is to define the zones that the project is organized for. As mentioned before, the Beaumont GlassFigure 26. Functional diagram.
works Park is to be aimed at two different publics; young professionals (and families), and students. According to the functional diagram in Figure 26, three major areas are defined; the South end of the site is targeted for students due to its proximity to WVUâ€™s downtown campus; the North end of the site is planned for young professionals and families due to the residential character of the Sunnyside neighborhood; and in the center of these two areas is an articulator that offer an assortment of activities, creating relationships between the two different design areas and allowing people with different lifestyles to gather in a central place, within the same neighborhood. Bubble Diagram After having established the program of needs, and the functionality of the design layout, the bubble diagram represents the first ideas and solutions to the design approach. The graphic in Figure 27 organizes and articulates the spaces within the study area, including five different mixed use residential buildings along Beechurst Avenue, where the first floor is non-residential, including two underground parking basements.
Design Approach | 57
Figure 27. Bubble diagram space layout.
The open area along the riverfront is to be designated as an open space consisting of a park design that meets the needs of the users and the contextual proximities, and the design approach allows a considerable articulation of views to the river in order to create a visual relationship with it. In addition, the remaining Beaumont building is revitalized as a shopping center in the setting of a historical glass factory, while the structure Figure 28. Bubble diagram circulation.
and footprint of the building are preserved, and along the waterfront are two river accesses to the Monongahela, including a marina and a water taxi landing. The circulation diagram in Figure 28 displays the streets that have been designated to have vehicular traffic, which are 4Â˝ Street, 3rd Street and 1st Street, while the designated pedestrian paths are 4th Street, 2nd Street and Glassworks Street.
58 | Design Approach
Layout of Buildings As a reminder of the program of needs, the proposed layout in the design includes places for the community and for the students, river access and Beechurst Avenue improvements. As seen previously in the design diagrams, there are five proposed mixed use buildings offering housing for people with different lifestyles, as well as retail and office spaces along with underground parking. All buildings are laid out with lines parallel to Beechurst Avenue, and have open spaces in the rear in order to create relationships with riverfront open spaces. Each building has a rear plaza connected with stairs and ramps to the Glassworks Park, underneath the PRT trackâ€™s threshold. Users are able to gather in the plaza behind each building, or decide to walk to the nearby concept park. In Figure 29, Building (A) has been laid out in a U shape, with a shorter wing closer to the park that integrates the spaces together and creates relationships between them. Building (B) has an L shape which points the plaza to invite the users into the park as well. Buildings (C) and (D) are Figure 29. Layout plan diagram
proposed to be U shapes as well, opening the atriums to the park to create relationships, while building (E) follows the Beechurst Avenue lines and has a plaza behind it. Retail space is proposed within the remaining Beaumont (F) building characterized as a historical glass factory setting bringing back the early materials and shapes in the faĂ§ades. The structure and footprints are preserved, and the center of the building is open to the landscape, making it an open building from the front to the rear in order to articulate vistas to the Monongahela River. Along the riverfront, the area is kept as open space and provides the setting of the Glassworks Concept Park. The three earlier mentioned historical elements; Beaumontâ€™s building footprints, the water tower and the brick furnace are restored and rearranged within the open area in order to create focal points and to complement the orthogonal landscape context. The water tower is moved as emphasis for the users on 4th Street, while the brick furnace is slightly moved to be the central node for the users on 3rd Street.
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Table 7. Proposed density chart.
Around the water tower and the brick furnace as main elements, and taking into account the wiped out glass factoryâ€™s footprints, the Glassworks Park has been designed to fit the needs of the users, to create a sustainable development, and to remember the glass making history of the site. Program Density In view of the layout and in comparison to the zoning ordinance, the proposed density indicates that the project covers 19% of the site out of 60% of maximum lot coverage, it offers 726 parking units when the required amount is 522 including residential, commercial and retail, and the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of the project successfully reaches 1.3, with a permitted range between 1.0 to 2.0. In conclusion, the existing density as opposed to the proposed density, the increment is 2.7 times for retail and office, and 8.2 times for residential, like Table 7 shows.
Conceptual Design From the layout and density conclusions, a more clear approach to defined designs has been established in Figure 30. Due to the proximity to Caperton Rail Trial which is the main source to direct pedestrians to the site, the proposed circulation has been designed to have a pedestrian-oriented character. The primary pedestrian circulations are on the rail trail, and the traffic directed from Beechurst Avenue on to 4th Street, 2nd Street and Glassworks Street, which are all pedestrian corridors with no vehicular traffic. The secondary pedestrian circulation comes from Beechurst Avenue onto sidewalks on both sides of 4Â˝ Street, 3rd Street, and 1st Street. An additional secondary curvilinear path is proposed along the riverfront from 4Â˝ Street to 2nd Street. A tertiary circulation pattern has been proposed starting from the interior of each building to the Glassworks Park, underneath the PRT tracks. The paths follow the internal circulation of each building to create continuity for the users.
60 | Design Approach
Figure 30. General circulation and space layout.
Primary vehicular traffic is located on Beechurst Avenue, which takes the secondary circulation on to 4Â˝ Street, 3rd Street, and 1st Street, and each building has vehicular access points to each buildingâ€™s underground parking garage. With the reduction of vehicular traffic within the site, a more pedestrian oriented character has been created. Specifically within the Glassworks Park is a more defined circulation pattern as described in Figure 31. As seen before, the Sanborn Maps evidence the building footprints and for this reason, the pedestrian circulation has been designed to fit the outside edge of each footprint, to direct the users to each concept area in the park. In addition, to demarcate the edge of the demolished buildings, ruinous seating walls made out of brick have been placed and spaced along the perimeters of each section. With the Sanborn Maps as a basic design layer, each space within the park has been designed with the same name and a conceptual functional
activity of the glass making process that took place inside the factory. For instance, where Beaumont Glass Company had their Decorating Room, a space with the same name but with the functionality of an outdoor sculpture garden has been designed; and where the lumber storage area used to be in the factory, now is the Lumber Gardens which have woody plant material and act as bioretention area. The Stock Room is where the raw materials were kept for the glass making process, including the silica or sand, and in the design this space has been adopted as a sand playground area for kids. Next to it is the Wash Room that has water features like fountains for people of all ages to enjoy. The Warehouse is a section where metal panels have been designed to contain interior and exterior historical photos of Beaumont Glass Company throughout history, along with information panels to educate the users on the glass making heritage of the site. Adjacent to the Warehouse is the Pattern Workshop where the hand painting for glassware used to take place; this area has been
Design Approach | 61
implemented for kids and families to attend private or public arts and crafts activities, organized by the community. The Melting Room is where the restored brick furnace has been placed, along with smaller brick furnaces. The functionality of these structures is to provide a gathering space for the users, where they can sit around bonfires and understand the glass-making process, starting from the molten glass step. The brick furnaces have individual fireplaces with several curvy narrow watercourses emerging from underneath, representing the molten or fluid glass. The Mixing Room is an area that has raised picnic planters with an Osage Orange tree in the middle of each one to provide shade for the users. These two are articulator areas in the project because they are spaces where people of all different lifestyles and ages can gather. The Cullet Pile space has two water sculptures that resemble the concept of colorful glass waste mounds, represented through rising cubes at different elevations and various colors. Adjacent to this space are three sports courts; two for beach Figure 31. Glassworks park circulation and space layout.
volleyball, and one for tennis. The orientation of these courts is 22 degrees from the direction of the sun to eliminate sun interference or sun glare (Northern Arizona University, 2001). Close to this sports area is another space designated for outdoors recreation, as well as rail trails leading to the river through the dense vegetation where people can have a closer interaction with the Monongahela. Throughout the site are several spaces that have been reserved for bioretention areas in order to address and treat stormwater runoff management. These green areas are planted with native plant material in order to reduce runoff, and have phytoremediation specific plants to reduce the contaminant levels in the soils. Each space has been designed as integral to the entire park within the proposed spatial organization. Masterplan The masterplan drawing in Figure 32 has been divided into zones for a clear appreciation, and can be seen in Figures 33 to 43. Masterplans are derived from the bubble diagrams to form defined
62 | Design Approach
designs offering diverse ways of problem solving. The drawings define spaces, circulations and natural features in the Glassworks Park. From this Figure 32. Overall project masterplan.
point on, the research done with contours and topography has allowed a more accurate approach to the design decisions displayed.
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64 | Design Approach
Figure 33. Enlarged Glassworks Park masterplan.
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Decorating Room and Lumber Garden Masterplan.
The Decorating Room is an area designed for an outdoor sculpture garden, which has a permanent display of glass sculptures, made by regional glass companies or independent glass workers, which reflects the historic heritage of the glassworks in Morgantown. In addition, local artisans can come display their art in this space for the community to appreciate.
Decorating Room photo-rendering.
The Lumber Gardens is where the largest on-site bioretention area functions. Covered in gravel, this area is ideal for woody plant material to be placed, for stormwater runoff to percolate through while people can enjoy the shade of the trees, or sit around to dine.
Lumber Garden photo-rendering.
Stock Room and Wash Room Masterplan.
The Stock Room is a space designed for children to come play in the excitement of a sand lot. Playground equipment has been implemented for children to entertain themselves, while learning about the glass making process and the cultural heritage of glass in the area.
Stock Room photo-rendering.
The Wash Room is aimed for people of all ages to enjoy and cool off on summer days. The space has been divided into several rectangles where three include water fountains, and the other two include hardscape with spraying jets coming from the base. Near the Wash Room is a small bioretention area.
Wash Room photo-rendering.
Warehouse and Pattern Workshop Masterplan.
The Warehouse is a hardscape zone that holds steel structure panels, resembling the beams and trusses in a warehouse setting. The panels have been designed to have large historical photos from the glass making period at Beaumont, along with information panels for people to learn the heritage.
The Pattern Workshop is a space designed for the users to do arts and crafts activities. The children-sized tables and the brick benches offer places for people of all ages to enjoy this space. This space has a water feature which is a weeping glass wall, and as its name states it, it is a wall made out of colored glass with water running down from the top. The water over the colored glass creates an inspiring effect, ideal for this inventive space.
Pattern Workshop photo-rendering.
the Melting Room is an important space in the park due to its great brick furnace as focal element. Along with the main brick furnace, others have been situated to create more spaces for the users. The brick furnaces not only offer a historical experience, but also produce bonfires from each independent fireplace, for people to sit around during cold winter days. In addition, from every individual hearth is a narrow curvilinear stream that interprets the concept of molten or fluid glass that are directed to the two bioretention areas adjacent to the space.
Melting Room photo-rendering.
Melting Room Masterplan.
Mixing Room Masterplan.
The Mixing Room is a space that has six circular raised planters with lawn and an Osage Orange tree in the middle for shade. The planters have a diameter of 10 feet, and are 18 inches off the ground. The main purpose of the raised planters is for the users to sit under the shade and enjoy a picnic and some family and friendly time. Next to the Mixing Room is another bioretention area to ensure the collection of stormwater runoff in this area.
Mixing Room photo-rendering.
Mixing Room photo-rendering.
Cullet Piles Masterplan.
The Cullet Pile area has two circular sculptures with water fountains coming from them. The sculptures consist of 2 feet and 3 feet colored-glass cubes that rise form the ground at different elevations, and represent the glass waste piled up at the Beaumont Glass Company site back in time. Another bioretention area is located next to the Cullet Piles.
Cullet Piles photo-section.
84 | Phytoremediation Strategies
Beaumont Glass site is considered a brownfield due to its soil contamination. The contaminants found in the soil are arsenic, antimony, cadmium, lead, mercury, PCB, radioactive materials, selenium, and various hazardous and non-hazardous materials (Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center, 2008).
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According a WV Brownfields Mini Grant Program report (Northern WV Brownfields Assistance Center Collaborators, 2008), the Beaumont site has the possibility to have mixed use developments including housing, retail, open spaces and riverfront activities. These uses bring forth interest from the city of Morgantown, the SunnysideUp Organization, West Virginia University and the community, for economic development. Brownfield Remediation Strategy There are many plants throughout the country that can be used for phytoremediation purposes, although the criterion for plant selection at Beaumont site was based on native plant selection, the accumulation quantities, and the accumulation types of each plant species. Utilizing native plants for phytoremediation brings advantages because they reestablish the biodiversity to areas that have been disturbed by human activity, they restore wetlands and habitats, creating natural environments, and they improve and preserve wildlife habitat. In addition, indigenous plants provide a more economical approach over other cleanup methods, and they require less management because no fertilizer, pesticides, and watering is required. Existing Vegetation Through the site inventory and analysis, several predominant plant species have been identified throughout the extents. The recognized vegetation consists of Red Maple, Witherod, River Birch, Norway Spruce, American Holly, Tree of Heaven, Cattails, Black Walnut, Downy Serviceberry, and Honeysuckle. Only three of the existing plant species are known to be suitable for phytoremediation practices; the river birch, the cattails and the American holly.
Proposed Vegetation The plant palette was carefully selected out of hundreds of plant species that are suitable for phytoremediation. Several filters were established to reduce the number of plants for the 14.6 acre project site, and the number of selected plants was reduced to 22 plant species meeting all the criteria, which are presented in Table 8 and Figure 44. Plant Selection and Placement Criteria One of the main standards for plant election was that the plants should be native to West Virginia. After that, other filters were applied such as the number of toxins that can be taken up by the plant, followed by the accumulation type and the accumulation quantities, found in Tables 4 and 5. Once these main filters were applied and the 22 plant species were selected, the criteria for plant placement along the 14.6 acre site was based on the drought tolerance of each plant, and the landscape slope as phytoremediation practices are to be implemented where the bioswales are located. Apart from cleansing the soil, the objective is to collect stormwater runoff in these areas. Lastly, the remaining filters, which are the plant characteristics, were applied for plant placement along the site, starting with the growth rate, which is important in phytoremediation because it can be a determinant of the time commitment for the practice to succeed. In addition, plants were laid out along the site depending on the type of plant, its height and the foliage texture, in order to create different textured layers of green. Finally, the bloom periods, flower and fruit colors, and fall colors were taken into account for the plant placement criteria.
86 | Phytoremediation Strategies
Table 8. Plant list selection.
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Figure 44. Proposed vegetation (USDA, NRCS / National Plant Data Team, 2013).
88 | Phytoremediation Strategies
Project Sections The following illustrations, Figures 45 through 51, display the project cross sections through different areas of the Glassworks Park. The most accurate topography from the GIS software database is included (W.V.U. Natural Resource Analysis Center Collaborators, 2010), as well as the relationships between the different levels of each concept design. The design has been adapted to fit the topography as best allowed, and ramps have been implemented throughout to follow the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) access. Furthermore, several of the selected plant species are included and labeled, according to the location of the section line. Figure 45. Cross section labels.
In general, all cross sections start South at the Monongahela Riverâ€™s bank, and illustrate the native vegetation which is enhanced and preserved to maintain the wildlife habitat. The curvilinear exterior path is shown to have a lower elevation, and clearly crosses the existing vegetation in some areas, as seen in Figure 45, providing a different path for users to cross the site without the need of entering the park. The sections continue to explain the spaces within the park, where the earth-cut is minimal although there is a considerable amount of aggregate-fill anticipated for each concept space where the hardscape areas are proposed.
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The wooden paths within the Glassworks Park are displayed as elevated in order to allow stormwater runoff permeability. In addition, underneath the elevated lumber paths are weep holes or drainage pipes to allow the stormwater runoff flow and collection underneath the soil in retention tanks. The excess water is conveyed through a pipe located under the lowest elevated path, to the surface storage water tower. The cross sections then proceed to show the higher planted areas along Caperton Rail Trail where native vegetation is to be utilized in the planters, and the PRT tracks which have existing vegetation underneath that is preserved and enhanced.
Figure 46. Section 01 through the Lumber Gardens and the Decoration Room.
Section 01 shows the Lumber Garden and the Decoration Room. The Lumber Garden is depressed and strategically located to capture stormwater runoff at the lowest point of the project. The proposed trees in this zone are Eastern Cottonwoods due to their ability to absorb water, and because they are accumulators of arsenic, lead and PCB (Famulari, 2011). Indigo Bush is proposed along the edges of this area because this plant has good water absorption levels, and accumulates lead.
The Decoration Room is where the sculpture garden is located and is located at a higher elevation. Across from the elevated lumber path is the planted area which has Black Willow
trees and Common Yarrow as perennial. Both these plants accumulate cadmium; however the Black Willow also takes up PAH. Black Willows have a low drought tolerance, which makes it ideal for the collection of stormwater runoff coming from Beechurst, while Common Yarrows have a medium drought tolerance (Famulari, 2011). This cross section shows the water tower as a focal point, elevated on a 90 feet steel tower. With the aid of pumps, the excess water collected in all bioretention areas is conveyed to this superficial storage tank for future plant irrigation and reuse in the spaces with water features.
Figure 47. Section 02 through the Wash Room and the Stock Room.
Section 02 in Figure 47 displays the Wash Room and the Stock Room, along with a complementing smaller bioretention area, which includes Staghorn Sumacs and Fox Sedges. Staghorn Sumacs are a hyperaccumulator of PCB, while Fox Sedges are accumulators of lead and cadmium. They have a medium and low drought tolerance, respectively.
The Wash Room has several water fountains and spraying jets that are supplied by gravity with stormwater from the restored water tower, and through a pump that constantly recirculates it. The immediate planted area has Canadian Wild Rye which accumulates PAH and has a medium drought tolerance, along with White Ashes and Tulip Trees which take up PCB and both have a high water tolerance (Famulari, 2011).
Figure 48. Section 03 through the Pattern Shop and the Warehouse.
Figure 48 shows section 03 where the Pattern Workshop displays the weeping glass wall and tables for childrenâ€™s arts and crafts. There is a trellis between the Wash Room and the Pattern Shop to facilitate the immediate supervision of kids by their guardians. The Warehouse contains the metal panels for historical photograph display, along with information signs for people to learn about the glass mak-
ing heritage. The metal panels are designed to be moved around the space, and different displays can be setup. Due to the proximity of the Wash Room and Stock Room with the Pattern Workshop and the Warehouse, the tree selection is the same as previously described; Canadian Wild Ryes, White Ashes and Tulip Trees.
Figure 49. Section 04 through the Melting Room.
Figure 49 illustrates cross section 04 which goes through the Melting Room. This area contains one of the most important focal elements in the project, which is the restored brick furnace, and where people can sit around bonfires and enjoy some time in the winter. The plant selection in the bioretention area has Staghorn Sumacs and Common Corn, while the
furnace bioretention area has sunflowers. The Common Corn and the Sunflowers are two of the most important plants due to their ability to accumulate five and four contaminants, respectively. Both plants accumulate arsenic, cadmium, lead, and PAH, although Common Corn additionally takes up PCB and hyperaccumulates lead (Famulari, 2011). The upper planted area has White Ashes, and Canadian Wild Ryes.
Figure 50. Section 05 through the Mixing Room.
The Mixing Room in Figure 50 shows the picnic planters with Osage Oranges in the middle for shade. These trees accumulate PCB and have a medium drought tolerance. Common Yarrows are included in the lower bioretention area, which accumulate cadmium and have a medium water toler-
ance. In the upper planted area, Common Honeylocusts have been proposed along with Switchgrass for texture layering. Honeylocusts take up lead and Switchgrass accumulates PAH. Both plants have a medium drought tolerance.
Figure 51. Section 06 through the Cullet Piles.
Figure 51 illustrates cross section 06 through the Cullet Piles. At a low level is the continuation of the bioretention area, found along the Mixing Room, although in this zone there are Sunflowers and Black Willows. The Cullet Pile contains two sculptural elements that have been inspired by the colorful glass waste found at the former Beaumont site, and interesting water features have been added coming from within.
The Sandbar Willows behind the cullet pile sculptures function as a background for the space. This type of plant has a high water tolerance, and accumulates PAH and PCB. The above planted area contains Common Honeylocusts and Switchgrass.
102 | Technical Drawings
Details and Materials There are several repetitive elements throughout the park design, including green roofs on all five mixed use buildings along Beechurst, and bioretention areas with native plant material for stormwater management strategies. Throughout the Glassworks Park are elevated lumber paths for water percolation, brick permeable pavers, and recycled glass permeable pavers. In addition, ruinous seating walls are located along the edges of the demolished Beaumont building footprints and at all building plazas; and lumber trellises are found on all park access points from pedestrian streets, at all building plazas, and at the Glassworks Park.
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Green Roofs The comprehensive green roofs at the Beaumont Glassworks Concept Park are located on top of each proposed building. Designed to support between over 100 pounds of vegetation per square foot, these intensive green roofs offer community gardens for the residents, involving irrigation requirements, and other maintenance. The intensive green roofs at the Glassworks Park have a typical growing medium of 6 inches or more, and offer great biodiversity ranging from native grasses and shrubs, to native trees (Jรถrg Breuning & Green Roof Service, 2013).
Figure 52. Intensive green roof detail and photos.
104 | Technical Drawings
Lumber Paths The elevated lumber paths are placed throughout the Glassworks Park providing a sustainable material option, and allowing the percolation of stormwater through the surface to the soil below, reducing runoff. As seen in Figure 53, the paths consist of 1” x 6” lumber boards that stand on 2” x 8” lumber joists, which are fastened to an adjacent concrete footing pertaining to the park’s individual concept areas. The paths are typically designed to span 5 feet in some areas and 10 feet in other zones of the park.
Figure 53. Elevated lumber path detail and photos.
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Hardscape Zones The primary identified materials of the former Beaumont Glass buildings were brick walls and brick pavers, while the secondary materials were concrete blocks, and metal sidings. For this reason, the proposed main materials in all hardscape zones (shown in Figure 54), at the Glassworks Park is brick, along with a permeable hardscape material made from recycled glass. These two main materials allow water to percolate trough for collection.
Figure 54. Permeable paving detail.
106 | Technical Drawings
Ruinous Seating Walls and Lumber Trellises Figure 55 illustrates the ruinous seating walls along with the lumber trellises details. These elements are placed throughout the Glassworks Park and the building plazas to create repetitive
Figure 53. Elevated lumber path detail and photos.
design elements. The trellis provides a seating area with the ruinous walls underneath, as well as shade from climbing vines on top and panels of lightweight colored glass protect the users from rainwater.
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Bioretention Calculations and Planting Plan As previously mentioned, there are several bioretention areas spread out throughout the site to ensure better stormwater runoff collection. Figure 56 shows the project planting plan, with each bioretention area highlighted, while Figure 57 illustrates the typical bioretention detail. According to the Chesapeake Stormwater Network (2011), separate bioretention areas function well for impervious drainage areas with less than 2 acres, directing the stormwater runoff into a site depression to remove pollutants through natural processes. Throughout storms, runoff stormwater ponds between 6 and 12 inches above the surface and percolates through the soil, to then be collected in a bioretention filter. The Level 1 Design of the Chesapeake system has a design goal to maximize the runoff volume reduction and removal of nutrients. Table 9. Calculations for Level 1 Design.
In this project, Level 1 Design is used due to the amount of bioretention zones applied in the design. Level 1 Design has a pollutant removal of 55%. In the report, the design criteria, the sizing of the bioretention surface areas is based on the Treatment Volume (Tv) of the drainage area and the storage provided in the project. The required Surface Area (SA) equals the Tv, divided by the equivalent storage depth, which is calculated as the depth of media, gravel or surface ponding, multiplied by the Void Ratio (Vr) (Chesapeake Stormwater Network, 2011). Based on these formulas and on the planting plan (Figure 56), Table 9 shows the bioretention calculations for Level 1 Design, which concludes that the required bioretention area for the 1.6 acre calculation area in the Glassworks Park should be minimum 2,323 square feet. Altogether the designed bioretention zones add up to over 14,000 square feet. Figure 57. Bioretention typical detail.
108 | Technical Drawings
Figure 56. Planting plan with bioretention zones.
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Layout Plan According to Harris & Dines (1998), construction documents are graphic guidelines for the purpose of building a proposed design. The layout plan includes the location of the design structures and features based on a real existing point, which is called Point of Beginning (POB). Figure 58 illustrates the layout plan of the Decorating Room and the Lumber Garden. The dimensions are shown, along with the materials and detail leaders, and radiuses for curvilinear and round features.
Figure 58. Layout Plan - Decorating Room and Lumber Garden.
Grading Plan The grading plan is a guideline for establishing the construction and geometry of pathways, roads and edges (Harris & Dines, 1998). Based on the existing contours and elevations, the proposed grading consists on the movement of earth to suit the new construction by arranging soil cut and fill. The proper grading of the site allows appropriate surface drainage. The grading plan of the Stock Room, shown in Figure 59, includes contours, spot elevations and gradients, and designed structures such as paths and ramps, walls, and hardscape edges. As mentioned before, the earth-cut is minimal, although the aggregate-fill is significant under each concept are of the Glassworks Park.
Figure 59. Grading Plan â€“ Stock Room.
114 | Conclusion
The design approach applied for the 14.6 acre project site is based on the necessities of the community and other stakeholders. These needs were identified through research, inventory and analysis of past and current site conditions, and helped establish a defined historical design concept based on sustainability.
Conclusion | 115
At Beaumont Glassworks Concept Park, sustainable development strategies were applied, along with interpretive design, brownfield reclamation, phytoremediation practices, and stormwater management. Sustainable development is encouraged through interconnected green spaces, mixed use development, and the proposal for a sustainable community. Most importantly, the historic and cultural heritage is proposed to be restored, and environmental resources are planned to be protected by promoting soil and air pollution reduction. The soil contaminants present at the former Beaumont Glass site led to the application of brownfield reclamation strategies, which offer environmental improvements and aesthetic enhancements to increase the value of the land. Phytoremediation is the technique of choice in this project for cleansing the soil and air on site due to the lower cost compared to other cleaning methods, and the low risk concerning the environment. The proposed plant species are native to West Virginia and have moderate to high accumulation quantities of targeted contaminants, eliminating pollution from soil and air. The interpretive design approach is another important characteristic of the design. Glassworks Park expresses ideas, in its design and materials, that are meant to attract people to a mind-engaging place that has been recovered from the former glass making industry. The perceived devalued brownfield site, that still contains legible forms in its topography of the Beaumont glass buildings, has been reclaimed and transformed into a creative and playful place for people of all ages and lifestyles.
Beaumont Glass site conditions in 2013.
Aerial photo-rendering of proposal
Photo-rendering of proposed mixed use buildings.
118 | Bibliography and References
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Beaumont Glass Factory in 1992. Source from the EPA report Photo Description, 3/17/1992.
Photo-rendering of Beaumont Glassworks Park proposal.
Aerial photo-rendering of Beaumont Glassworks Park proposal.