The Qargizine Summer 2017 #7

Page 1


(kuh-dii-gii zeen)

Twelve learners. Two weeks. One language at the top of the world

Q&A with Miss Teen and Miss Arctic Circle

Comparing Iñuit dialects from Alaska, Canada and Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)

Memoir of the Nana museum of the arctic

the philosophy of the circumpolar north Artist highlight: BritT’nee Brower, Barrow AK


from the editor If you’ve kept up with The Qargizine or even glanced through the issues from the beginning, you can notice my growth through each one. The funny thing is that when I first started, I thought that I knew more than enough but with each issue, my humility is consistently developing. And I owe it all to the community of contributors and supporters. I’m constantly gaining knowledge about both the designing process and the perspectives that contributors share with me. With this issue alone, my mind cracked just a little more open to new points of views. Connecting with new artists, photographers and writers has become better than my birthday and Christmas combined because I always find new inspiration and passion within each submission. A big part of why I am driven to continue the growth of The Qargizine is because of the lucky opportunities I’ve had in the past. The Kotzebue IRA and Northwest Arctic Borough’s contribution to starting a youth media training group in 2005 began my career path before I even understood what I wanted to do. The Arctic Sounder’s encouragement to write articles helped me believe that my dreams are valid. The direction and guidance provided by Northwest Strategies helped shape the perspective of my dreams and how I approach them. Now that I’ve built a strong foundation, I believe it is my responsiblity to share these opportunities with others and help them acknowledge their passion for the expressional arts while simultaneously providing an outlet for them to share their vision with the world. Ta i k u u l a p i a q to each and every one of you.

M. Jacqui Lambert


Elizabeth Ferguson Tim Aqukkasuk Argetsinger Joy Huntington Britt’nee Brower Warren Jones Paaluk Reid Magdanz Qignaq Cordelia Kellie Berett Wilber Chloe Naylor Freddie Olin Kaisa Kotch Shaylin Thomas Maija Lukin Red Seeberger


O n T h e C o v e r : Photographer unknown, taken from Facebook The qargi (kuh-dii-gii) was traditionally the community gathering place for Inuit. The Qargizine is a new way for rural Alaskans and Alaskan Natives to gather and share their artwork, photography and stories. Mission: to instill the knowledge and pride of the rural Alaskan and Alaskan Native culture in today’s generation through multimedia. Subscribe to hard copies at

contents Comparing Inuit Dialects Tim Aqukkasuk Argetsinger Page 6 #AKthruInsta Page 10 My Mother's Sisters Joy Huntington Page 12 About the Artist: Britt'nee Brower Page 14 The Philosophy of the Circumpolar North Warren Jones Page 18 Ilisaqativut: Twelve learners. Two Weeks. One language at the top of the world. Cordelia Kellie and Reid Magdanz Page 29 Chloe Naylor Photography Page 34 Memoir of the NANA Museum of the Arctic M. Jacqui Lambert Page 36 Q&A with 2016 Miss Teen and Miss Arctic Circle Kaisa Kotch and Shaylin Thomas Page 38 2017 College Graduates Page 49 Brined Smoked Salmon Maija Lukin Page 50

~ Comparing Inuit dialects from Alaska, Canada, and Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)

b y T i m Aq u kk a s u k Arget s i nger * Taikuullapiaq to Monica Ittusarjuat and Kathleen Tagoona for editing the Inuktitut phrases and Vivi Sørensen for editing the Kalaallisut phrases. Iñuit live in northern Alaska (Iñupiat), Canada, and Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland) and we share a common language and culture. The word Iñuit means ‘the People’ in Iñupiatun, Inuktitut, and Kalaallisut. Iñuit migrated from Alaska eastward to Canada and Greenland thousands of years ago where the dialects evolved differently in each region and community. As a result, Iñupiatun is to Inuktitut and Kalaallisut what Old English is to modern day English: similar or the same in many ways but very different in others. The table below compares common phrases in Iñupiatun, Inuktitut, and Kalaallisut. The majority of the 60,000 Iñuit in Canada speak Inuktut (the word used to encompass all Iñuit dialects in Canada, including Inuktitut) as a first language. Iñuit in Canada live in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (Northwest Territories), Nunavut, Nunavik (Northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador). There are approximately 60,000 Iñuit in Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland), a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark. Kalaallisut is the only official language in Kalaallit Nunaat and is spoken as a first language by virtually the entire population at all sectors of society. Kalaallit Nunaat is the only majority Iñuit jurisdiction in the circumpolar Arctic where it is possible to receive a K-12 and university education in the Iñuit language. Note on pronunciation: In Inuktitut ‘r’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ sound as in the word ‘atiġa’ (my name). The Inuktitut ‘j’ sound, unless paired with ‘rj’ or ‘jj’ is pronounced like an Iñupiatun ‘y’ sound. The ‘r’ sound in Iñupiatun is unique to our dialect and is pronounced similar to the rolled ‘r’ in the Spanish word ‘gracias’. In Kalaallisut, ‘r’ is pronounced similar to Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ but is much softer. Kalaallisut ‘ll’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an ‘ł’ sound in Iñupiatun, as in the word ‘atikłuk.’ Iñupiatun ‘ŋ’ is written as ‘ng’ in all other Iñuit dialects and is pronounced the same as ‘ng’ in the English word ‘thing’.

~ Inñupiatun

Inuktitut (North Baffin)

Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic)





How are you?




Where are you from?

Qanuqitpa siḷa?

Qanuippa sila?

Qanorippa sila?

How’s the weather?

Kiña ilvit / Kisuuvit?



Who are you?

Uvaŋa Aqukkasuk / Aqukkasuuruŋa

Uvanga Aqukkasuk / Aqukkasuujunga

Uanga Aqukkasuuvunga

I’m Aqukkasuk




What are you all doing?

John iḷisimaviuŋ?

John qaujimaviuk?

John ilisimaviuk?

Do you know John?

Ii, John iḷisimagiga

Ii, John qaujimajara

Aap, John ilisimavara

Yes, I know John




I am from Alaska


Iñupiatkii makua record-giḷḷutiŋ pimarut taimaŋŋa qaŋa agliutilaiłługich iḷisimaqpakkayaġivut imma quliaqtualiuŋakpatigik. Taimaŋŋa nalunaiqsrullaakpatigik tainna kiŋuvaaġich from generation to generation iḷisimanayaġivut. -Kusiq, 1978 Puiguitkaat


As you know these Eskimos did not have records of happenings, ever since that time long ago they never wrote things down; we might perhaps have known a great deal about them if they had put these in (written) story form. If, from since that time long ago, each successive generation clearly and distictly recorded events we would know (everything that happened) from generation to generation. -Waldo Bodfish, Sr., 1978 Barrow Elder's Conference 8

A P L AY L I S T O F M U S I C B Y N A T I V E S I n d i a n C i t y - A Tribe Called Red U k i u k - Jerry Cans C e n t r e - Tanya Tagaq B u b b l e G u m - Pamyua F e a r N o t - Saali & The Ravens

D r i v i n g M e C r a z y - Northern Cree N o M o r e - Fawn Wood S t i l l H e r e - Red Eagle G e t U p - Shining Soul 9












@sewfallon Use this hashtag to have your photo featured in the next issue! only public photos will work

















My Mother’s Sisters

My mother’s sisters Are sacred Their children Their songs Their grandchildren Their ceremonies They walk with steps More steady than my own They have traveled far Through terrain My feet will never know Some walked Through darkness Some walked Through light Each of them Carries A gentle truth In her eyes Deep brown And alive They learned to Survive My mother’s sisters Scare me When I am not prepared For harshness My skin fails me again It is paper thin To them Their eyes tell me My blood Is made of water Too weak To hold anything Together


They are still So beautiful Even when I cannot speak Or move Or breathe My mother’s sisters Are sacred They hold candles To lead us with their footsteps To lead us with their faith They have fed me Clothed me Spoiled me Spanked me Loved me Their tenderness Their discipline Some have lived through The worst And kept it all in Some are open books With open doors And open arms My mother’s sisters Are sacred For my Aunties

With Love, Joy Huntington December 14, 2009


About The Artist (Britt'nee Brower)

Inupiaq artist Britt’Nee Kivliqtaruq Brower was born and raised in Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. She spent her childhood summers under the midnight sun picking wildflowers for her mother and absorbing the values of her culture from her Elders. Britt’Nee is a strong proponent of Inupiat values and their relevance in our modern age. She advocates the revitalization of the language, arts and traditions of her Inupiat people and brings this passion to her artwork. Her work in prints and children’s coloring books incorporates traditional Qupak motifs and adds a modern twist. Visit her website at for a virtual tour of her work and contact information.

find more work by Britt'nee @, @Kivliq on Facebook and Instagram. 14

Berry Picking


eagle mask women of the sea


ulu & maktak


of the


find more work by Britt'nee @, @Kivliq on Facebook and Instagram. 17

The Philosophy of the Circumpolar North There is joy in Feeling the warmth Come to the great world And seeing the sun Follow its old footprints In the summer night

Written by Warren Jones

There is fear in Feeling the cold Come to the great world And seeing the moon —Now new moon, now full moon— Follow its old footprints In the winter night. Beyond the High Hills: A Book of Eskimo Poems To this day in America, thousands of people die from exposure related deaths. Alaska leads the nation for deaths by hypothermia by a significant margin. Even in this modern world our northern environment enforces its primacy. My uncle froze to death outside Hooper Bay. He was trying to go from one house to another in a zero visibility storm. He lost his way and ended up two miles outside of town where he froze to death. My uncle understood the environment, and he only underestimated it once. All he was doing was traveling within the village. The arctic and subarctic are unforgiving for those who don’t understand them. If you don’t understand and respect the environment it will take your life. Modern technology and life delude people into a false sense of security. This land will still kill you. This was the crucible in which my culture was formed. We were

not the Yupik people until we came to the land that became our home. Our culture and identity was born here in this place. The lessons the environment has to teach a person are hard ones, but are worth learning. Harsh environments breed an entirely different worldview. This is the basis of Northern Philosophy. The environment of the circumpolar north has created a worldview that is distinct from Western and Eastern philosophies. Even within these disciplines it can be seen that northerners from these respective disciplines think differently than those from the south. Soren Kierkegaard is a perfect example, a Danish philosopher with a focus on pragmatic human reality over abstraction. The northern environment breeds a level of utilitarianism to those who are born into it. As such Northern Philosophy is itself a very practical philosophy in many ways, but deeply romantic in others. Kierkegaard is considered a Western philosopher but I would claim him as Northern.


There are other harsh climates which breed similar traits in people, such as the desert. For now we focus on the north, and the cold climate and seasonal variation found here. The winter months are longer, days are shorter and the resources available in the north are much different. The north has created peoples with a unique philosophy. Philosophy itself is somewhat of a Western concept. The word itself is Greek in origin: “philo” which means love, and “sophos” which is wisdom. This is not to say reasoning and reflection are solely Western, but the classification and discipline of philosophy trace their roots to West. Plato, Aristotle et. al. are the people who I have studied as part of my schooling, which is an altogether different thing than my education which spans my lifetime. For the West philosophy is often broken into parts: metaphysics (the nature of reality), epistemology (theory of knowledge), ethics, politics, logic, etc. We don’t necessarily have to buy into these distinctions, philosophy can really

be boiled down to the whats and whys of the nature of reality. You will however see how Northern Philosophy manifests within some of these branches of philosophy. Examples In Philosophy Many philosophers have explored the differences environment creates in the people who live in them.In the beginning of Machiavelli’s work Discourses on Livy he speaks to the differences that an environment breeds in those who live in them.

Because men work either by necessity or by choice, and because greater virtue can be found where choice has less authority, it should be considered whether it is better to choose sterile places for the building of cities so that men, constrained to be industrious and less seized by idleness, live more united, having less cause for discord, because of the poverty of the site… Niccolò Machiavelli Discourses on Livy Mansfield and Tarcov trans. Part 1:4

up most of the year, the north seems very much a sterile environment unless you know how to live there. Those people who live in the circumpolar north know you must live a certain way, and work with other people in order to survive. You need individuals who work hard, but you also need a community that works with one another.

In The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu has an entire book in part three on the relationship between the nature of the climate and the kinds of laws that are created in them. Montesquieu being a political philosopher was well versed in Machiavelli and perhaps influenced by his ideas. He makes interesting assertions about the vim "We were not the Yupik and vigor of northern people until we came to people. He claims they are more courageous, the land that became our magnanimous, and home. Our culture and “with more frankness and fewer suspicions, identity was born here in maneuvers, and tricks”. this place. The lessons the Later in the book Montesquieu says environment has to teach barren lands make a person are hard ones, men “industrious, sober, inured to work, but are worth learning. courageous, and fit for Harsh environments breed war”. His observations are decidedly an entirely different unscientific, yet are worldview. unlikely to be wholly fabricated. They are This is the basis of likely based on real Northern Philosophy. observed differences between people from The environment of the different climates as circumpolar north has throughout the book he gives many examples of created a worldview that how climate affects the is distinct from Western views of the people who live in it. and Eastern philosophies."

Machiavelli discusses how the different environments create a different kind of person. Environments where it is easy to live (e.g. temperate climate, abundance of food) vs the “sterile” environments where it is harder to live. Machiavelli points out that people from the northern environment are better suited for creating his ideal Republic because the environment they live in forces them to be industrious and to learn to live and work with one another. People from more abundant and fertile places are “apt to produce men who are idle and unfit for any virtuous exercise.” The issue for Machiavelli with the harsher environments is they will not allow for large populations due to the limits of resources available and the tyranny of the environment itself. We see this play out in the north, the sizes of our traditional communities were quite small by today’s standards. Machiavelli characterizes such places as the north as sterile. Indeed the winter months which make

Examples In Fiction Other than the historical examples of which there are many more, northern philosophy is also noted in fiction. The contemporary story A Song of Ice and Fire, more commonly known as The Game of Thrones the north’s characters are shaped by their environment and are much different than the characters who come from the southlands.

You were born in the long summer, you've never known anything else. But now winter is truly coming. In the winter, we must protect ourselves, look after one another.


When the snows fall and where the inkling of the white winds blow, the this idea came from. lone wolf dies but the pack As I went to school for survives. political philosophy I Eddard Stark, A Song of found myself questioning "The environment of the north Fire and Ice by George R.R. many of the premises of puts things into perspective Martin the ideas I was reading. for you. In a world such as the Eddard Stark is I wrote papers on Plato one our ancestors inhabited the patriarch of the Stark and “decolonization”, the kinds of things that were family who makes their I was constantly home in the north. The questioning the ideas of important were different than peoples of the north are the philosophers who the kinds of things people from practical, just and hard were invariably of the easier climates. It demands no people. This is juxtaposed Western tradition. I grew wasted actions." with the southerners who up in Nome which is on live much different lives the coast of the Bering and concern themselves Sea. I would roam the with things that are frozen tundra and the not as important in the sea ice in the winters. north. The Stark motto “Winter is Coming” is much We would hunt and fish all summer long preparing for the different in nature than the braggadocio mottos of the longer winter and this life forever shaped the way I view other great houses. In the North they are in constant the world. I felt we were trying to preserve something preparation for the winter they know is coming. They important with our culture but couldn’t quite put my finger are more inclined to know how much they rely on one on it. I struggled with whether or not the reason we were another. preserving culture was because of pride, as that would itself violate our cultural values. In fact, if we were trying to Jack London’s famous story To Build a Fire has preserve this only out of a sense of pride then it would be two versions, and both are cautionary tales about foolish and the best course of action would be to assimilate. what happens when you underestimate the northern As a result of this introspection I realized that what we were environment. In the book the protagonist doesn’t heed trying to preserve was important, and I think this is the the warning given to him about the weather ends up reason why we resist assimilation so strongly. We recognize freezing to death. that there is something valuable in our worldview. There is something worth fighting for here. Much of what follows In the 1965 novel Dune, Frank Herbert imagines is imperfect, but a beginning sketch of some of the ways Arrakis a desert planet which is so harsh that no one in which the northern view manifests. Some of them are except a people known as the Fremen live there. This perhaps only my own ideas, but I am a denizen of the north. is a common theme throughout many of Herbert’s books. The Fremen were made hard and strong by the I unfreeze great lumbering beasts to be resurrected on this environment, being very resourceful and incredibly earth, fierce fighters. These attributes were a result of living the proverbial mammoth in the room. on the planet itself via its hostile environment. Their I am doglike with wolf dreams, ambitions, and instincts. entire worldview was shaped by their world. Although a I circle you in my superpack in superposition, I am. desert planet might seem to be the polar opposite of the far north the two environments share much in common. The two biomes both share temperature extremes, Northern Political Philosophy and scarcity of resources. Herbert’s theme is that hard environments create hard peoples. The summer months in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta is a time of great abundance. It is during this time More colloquial examples of the recognition of the that a great amount of food and resources are gathered differences of the north and south are replete. In The and stored for the coming winter months. In the spring, United Kingdom differences between northerners and returning birds are hunted and their eggs gathered, spring southerners are well noted. In American, the South has greens are collected and hunting begins. Over the course of had a distinct identity that continues to the modern the next few months the north is a place filled with life, the age. In Alaska itself, the differences between the north very air vibrates with the buzzing of insects, birds can be and south is also apparent in the differences of the heard at almost all hours. This season affirms and celebrates indigenous people who come from this state. The lines life. These months lead into the fall, days are noticeably drawn between states and countries are fairly arbitrary shorter, the weather turns cold and the birds begin to but the differences in the environment are not. migrate south. There is still much hunting and gathering taking place but already winter is upon us. Summers are These examples are to demonstrate some of the places short. Winter is long, cold and dark. During the winter,


food can be found but it is a much different enterprise altogether. Winter storms can leave people stranded and lost, and it is during this time that many people who come unprepared succumb to the weather itself. If you failed to prepare for the winter, then they are lean times which could very well lead to death. This is the environment my people come from. In this environment you live a certain way or you die. Simple as that, the environment brooks no dissent. Prior to the modern age this was the defining factor governing people's existence, he environment itself. When western explorers first came this far north they were surprised to find people living in this place. The environment of the north puts things into perspective for you. In a world such as the one our ancestors inhabited the kinds of things that were important were different than the kinds of things people from easier climates. It demands no wasted actions. In these environments people are very conservative, you stick to tried and true techniques. Epistemology in this context is pragmatic. We all share the same origins no matter what narrative you believe in. We are all one species, the institution of man. Once my people came to the land we now call our home we became the Yupik people. This

identity, this culture was co-created with the environment. It is all reflective of the land we inhabit, our culture, our language, our dance, our food and clothing. The culture makes the most sense in the place where it was created. This place was waiting for us, the Yupik people. The Yupik people came into existence here. The governing structures that dictated the Yupiit way of life were of two main sources: As we have mentioned ad nauseum the environment is the single biggest factor. The place who shaped us as a people is a harsh master that demands much of the people who choose to live there. In this sort of environment most of the daily and seasonal activities are dictated by the environment. We were a hardy people. Within the bounds set for us by the environment we thrived. The boundaries were hard set. Just as the rest of humanity we share some of the bounds of the flesh. We all need fresh water, nutritious food, and shelter. Here these were available and often abundant but were not always easily obtained and stored, but once obtained are of almost unsurpassed nutritional quality anywhere on earth, again as a result of the environment.Even warmth itself being much more precious in the north.

"I struggled with whether or not the reason we were preserving culture was because of pride, as that would itself violate our cultural values. In fact, if we were trying to preserve this only out of a sense of pride then it would be foolish and the best course of action would be to assimilate. As a result of this introspection I realized that what we were trying to preserve was important, and I think this is the reason why we resist assimilation so strongly. We recognize that there is something valuable in our worldview. There is something worth fighting for here"


"People were leaders because they embodied leadership, they embodied the values of the culture. People were leaders because of their wisdom, generosity, character, temperament. No one had to listen to them, but they did because they were people worth listening to."

The other part of our governance structure was a system called yuuyaraq. Yuuyaraq was a decentralized governance system. Every person born into the Yupik culture was taught yuuyaraq from birth. These were the rules by which human beings lived. All of the stories and values reflected yuuyaraq. Much of yuuyaraq was about developing, maintaining and growing your awareness. This system is much different from the western governance systems such as the legal system. In his book Yuuyaraq: The Way of the Human Being Harold Napoleon characterizes this system as being similar to Mosaic Law. As he explains “ governed all aspects of a human being’s life.” This was the governance system of the Yupik people and within the constructs of the environment and yuuyaraq people were otherwise free. Leadership manifested differently in this governance structure. All Yuk’s obeyed yuuyaraq. People were leaders because they embodied leadership, they embodied the values of the culture. People were leaders because of their wisdom, generosity, character, temperament. No one had to listen to them, but they did because they were people worth listening to. Reason was an important part of yuuyaraq as the ability to reason things out was very important in this environment. You often had to reason many steps in advance in order to survive. Self-control was important,

one had to be in complete control of your body and emotions. If you let emotions rule you even in this day and age it is a bad thing, in the context of the north you could bring your entire community to ruin by not having self-control. A central aspect of yuuyaraq was awareness. One had to have awareness of everything at all times. You were aware of your surroundings, aware of others, aware of yourself. People were aware of details we are now oblivious too, they could even sense changes in weather. Much of yuuyaraq was continually growing your awareness in all the different ways it could be grown. One had a responsibility to one’s self, and one's community to maintain this awareness. Yuuyaraq was a governance structure that made perfect sense for the society and environment, you had the responsibility to govern yourself. Ethics Our ethics were, and are much different in the north. Borne from this environment there was no room for over sentimental attitudes about many things. For instance we were hunters, and as such we killed animals. Our relationship with the animals was very intimate, if brutal. Our very existence depended upon theirs so although we would kill them they were very important to the people. Animals were certainly valued and respected but I am not entirely sure we ever took anthropomorphism to the level it now exists in America. In 2015 a

study forecasted we would spend 703 million dollars on valentines gifts for pets. Some groups have even gone so far as attempting to obtain status as persons for animals. I will reiterate that we showed our animals compassion and respect but that means something completely different in the north. We also had such things as “mercy killings”, ritual strangulation in the event that a person was so gravely injured they would die. Life in the north can seem cruel sometimes and so can the people and the things they do in it. But put in the proper context it makes perfect sense. In many cases ethics for one group of people is a luxury for another. Metaphysics and Epistemology

by living in a place for a long time, things you are unlikely to see as a visiting or casual observer. In the case of the indigenous peoples of the north we have not only lived here all our lives, we have knowledge that has been passed generation to generation by a people who have lived in this environment for thousands of years. There are things we have noticed and know from this experience. This might be similar or the same as tacit knowledge, a term coined by Michael Polanyi is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by telling or writing it must be instead experienced.

“Life has its own hidden forces which you can only discover by living” Soren Kierkegaard

“This part of you is no different than a dog,” gesturing to my body. He continued “yuuyaraq is about developing the part of yourself created in the image of God, your spirit”. I was being lectured by my uncle. The human spirit in particular was a powerful spirit and was called anerneq or breath. In Napoleon’s book he does into more detail about this belief, iinruq or the spirit is separate from the material in which they reside. All things had iinruq in the Yupik view.

Sometimes truth can only be ascertained from the inside. So rather than a skeptical “objective” outside observer one has to learn as a subjective participant. Very often you just have to accept what you are being told, and try it on and try it out in order to see if there is any truth to it. This is how we learn almost everything, you are told what to believe by trusted sources and it is up to us to test this knowledge. This is perhaps the opposite of radical skepticism in which you doubt everything you do not explicitly know.

Traditional Knowledge often just referred to as TK which is the information that a people have from living in an environment. There are things you can really only know

In the Western system, distinctions are constantly being made. Just like the distinction I am trying to make between Northern philosophy and other worldviews. However seeing the

"Reason was an important part of yuuyaraq as the ability to reason things out was very important in this environment... Self-control was important, one had to be in complete control of your body and emotions... A central aspect of yuuyaraq was awareness. One had to have awareness of everything at all times." 22

wholeness of things, seeing how things are related and are the same is just as valid as making distinctions. When you first see a herd of caribou it can be difficult to tell the difference between them. It is only after spending a lot of time in the proximity of the herd can you begin to tell the differences. The obvious ones are easy, the caribou who are phenotypically common are much harder. Although the caribou themselves know the differences amongst themselves very well. In the end though, they are all caribou and really are more similar than they are different. Similarly humans think we are all special little snowflakes, each and every one of us different and unique. We are, but in the end snowflakes are all just frozen water, falling from the sky, destined to melt into the earth. Northern philosophy is simply philosophy from the Northern perspective but it is different enough to warrant exploration and important to those of us who come from this environment and history. Many aspects of Northern Philosophy are not that different from Western or Eastern Philosophy. We are all humans after all, it is the environments we come from and other experiences which form the frameworks we operate from. This is an incomplete picture, but one that I hope makes it clear that Northern Philosophy is a distinct way of viewing the world complete with its own metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and political structures. There is much more work yet to be done to further distinguish and articulate this discipline. I consider all of my own work to be Northern

"Northern philosophy is simply philosophy from the Northern perspective but it is different enough to warrant exploration and important to those of us who come from this environment and history. Many aspects of Northern Philosophy are not that different from Western or Eastern Philosophy. We are all humans after all, it is the environments we come from and other experiences which form the frameworks we operate from."

Philosophy, and some of that work is to set Northern Philosophy itself as being distinct from the others. For those of us who come from the north, these ideas are not new. We know we see the world differently. Even contemporary Alaskans know there is something different about the north. Across the circumpolar north the communities that exist in this environment are different in fundamental ways. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, these are countries in which Northern Philosophy is still alive. In the northern parts of Alaska, Canada and Russia as well. The arctic and subarctic create a unique worldview for those who inhabit it.

This is changing as technology neuters the impact the environment has but the environment still dictates much in the north. After all, there is a reason construction season is still mainly in the summer. Roads don’t crisscross our state and flights are often canceled because the environment will not allow you to do as you please. Just twenty years ago Alaska was a much different place. With the advent of cellphones and other technology we are not as reliant on one another as we once were. The Alaska of our ancestors is gone, and in many ways we cannot even understand the world they lived in. We live too differently. But the knowledge is still out there to be discovered, and all of the old views are not lost. The North still has its very own philosophy.

"The Alaska of our ancestors is gone, and in many ways we cannot even understand the world they lived in. We live too differently. But the knowledge is still out there to be discovered, and all of the old views are not lost."



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open daily: May 15, 2017 – September 4, 2017 Winter schedule online

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Alaska 26

i l lustrat ion by Jacqui Lambert


Greenland 27

ICLOSEMYEYES TO LOOK UPON THE ENDLESS A R C T I C HORIZON Freddie Olin is from Tanana, Alaska; inspired by Native women poets and N. Scott Momaday, he writes.

THE winter, spring, summer, and early

autumn of 2006, I worked at Alpine Oilfield on the North Slope, just north of Nuiqsut. My crew worked the night shift, a lonely time to work in a vast, quiet place. The winter time, when there were no storms rocking and shaking human creations, was briefly interrupted by a bright object on the southern horizon for a few days, but most days it couldn’t peek over the world’s edge. Frighteningly, I would peer into the great, dark violet maw of the northern horizon, all but a sliver of pitch black gently resting at the end of human sight. I always thought about what brave soul might have ventured that far north on a brittle winter’s night, entering what would surely be an entrapping cave of death. The spring time was an amazing time – the sun could rise and gleam pools of albedo, travelling and piercing human sight to blindness without protection. During the start of one storm, betrayed by ever longer streams of grainy snow, I witnessed a small vole skitter above and wind over packed snow, only to disappear again in its tunnel maze. The spring light

would be deceptively welcoming. Humans found out they could not stay out of doors for long before their boots would freeze and clop on solid ice. The summer time, when there were no mosquitos, held expectation of many things to come, even late in the night. The sun would be swung all the way around toward the north, enlivening mirages far to the south – tundra dusty rouge and shimmering with what appeared to be plains of flat lakes and ponds here and there, distorted under human sight. I would quietly kick my legs over a flat side of the oil rig and watch the busy summer night. In the distance, summer fowl would lift themselves into a low arc over the flat of the world and land elsewhere. In the autumn time, when dusk returned and the sun began to set behind the northern pole, I would find myself on an oft-unused deck outside and on top of the oil rig. Bright stars acted as fixed markers as special moments passed. The tundra below would transform through an infinite number of color ranges, extrapolated by the dusk itself, an untouchable substance to human kind. Deep sea greens were prevalent in both tundra and sky: high, thin clouds strewn from one horizon to another, lit all the way by wonder.


"The sun would be swung all the way around toward the north, enlivening mirages far to the south – tundra dusty rouge and shimmering with what appeared to be plains of flat lakes and ponds here and there, distorted under human sight."

"There is everything beautiful about a linguistic style that provides connection to the land and place you are from and who you and your people are."

Twelve learners. Two Weeks. One language at the top of the world. Words By Qiġnaaq Cordelia Kellie and Paałuk Reid Magdanz Photos by Berett Wilber As typical for the latter two weeks of May, Utqiaġvik hosted thousands of niġligit, plenty of snow and mud, and community members working hard to refill their freezers. In 2017, Utqiaġvik also hosted something new during those long spring days: Iḷisaqativut. Twelve Iñupiaq language learners, representing all regions where Iñupiatun is spoken, met those two weeks on the Iḷisaġvik College campus. Together, we devoted ourselves to full-time Iñupiaq study, working with each other, talking with speakers in the community, struggling at times, but always laughing. With Iḷisaqativut, we chose to experiment in several ways, most notably by challenging second-language learners to take it upon themselves to not only learn Iñupiaq but also to share the knowledge they already had. At one point, a community member came by our class and asked, “Who is the teacher?” She looked a little astonished when we replied, “Ourselves.” Iḷisaqativut arose out of a conversation the two of us had at a Fairbanks coffee shop during AFN last year. We knew we wanted uninterrupted time where we, second-language learners, could go deeper into the language. We knew we most enjoyed studying when surrounded by friends and community supporters. We believed that even though we didn’t know a lot, we knew enough to share. And we wanted to do something. We spread the word, and were thrilled that a number of community members


Nikaitchuatguuq piraqtut. “Those who think they can, will accomplish something.” answered the call. Prior to the start of the program, we called all the participants to ensure they knew what they signed up for. These were going to be intensive days. In Utqiaġvik, we spent five to eight hours a day together working on the language, and many more studying individually. Seeking to truly connect with our host community, we spoke with and learned from elders, including Kuutuuq Fannie Akpik from the school district, Mark Ahsoak and Paniattaaq Edna MacLean. We listened to elders working to translate the Old Testament and went to a church service partially in Iñupiaq. We toured town, including of course pictures by Utqiaġvik’s famous whalebone arch and visited the Iñupiaq Heritage Center and senior center. We made duck soup (qauġak suu), held a community potluck, and performed skits for the community in the language. All dialects were welcome at Iḷisaqativut. While we largely speak the same language across regions, our local "styles" differ, most notably between North Slope and the Bering Straits region. While we studied from North Slope resources, recognizing we were in Utqiaġvik, if people knew something that was reflective of home, we encouraged them to say it. There is everything beautiful about a linguistic style that provides connection to the land and place you are from and who you and your people are. There is everything beautiful about wanting to learn and preserve the exact ways of your family and community. But we also remembered that our ancestors traveled across the regions for game and for trade, and that they knew and still know a variety of dialects and ways of speaking. Learning more and different ways to speak Iñupiaq does not diminish our ability to learn our own dialects — rather, it enhances it. With Iḷisaqativut, we hope to encourage sharing of the ways of speaking in each of our communities. It will only make our experience of the language richer and stronger. We have built this sharing into the model of Iḷisaqativut — we intend for the program to rotate among regions, meaning next year’s will likely be in Kotzebue or Nome. Iḷisaqativut is formally unaffiliated, independent, and not official in any meaningful way besides the fact that it took place (and has a website — We as the program designers sought to make it as sustainable as possible into the future. We streamlined expenses

T h e i n a u g u r a l I l i s a q at i v u t c o h o r t. photos by berett wilber Top row, L-R: Qiñuġan Roddy, Utqiaġvik; Iyaġak Myles Creed, Kotzebue; Annauk Denise Pollock Shishmaref/Anchorage Middle row, L-R: Aluŋauq Lynette Hepa, Utqiaġvik; Unŋachee Marie Trigg, Golovin/Nome; Qiġnaaq Cordelia Kellie, Wainwright/Wasilla; Paałuk Reid Magdanz, Kotzebue Bottom row, L -R: Niviaaluk Nivi Brandt, Nome; Auka Dee Nayokpuk, Shishmaref; Atuqtuaq Chrisann Justice, Utqiaġvik; Aklaseaq Heidi Senungetuk, Wales/Anchorage Not pictured: Iviilik Hattie Keller, Nome 30


"By embracing this broader concept and moving from a teaching to a mentorship concept, a generation can grow in learning together, while leaving systemic learning barriers at the door, such as the fear of criticism, ridicule, or getting something wrong."

"We did not want funding to drive the project or be the decisionmaker as to if this would continue in the future; too often, we’ve seen immense efforts elapse once a grant is spent."


and instead leaned heavily upon community support, relationships and partnerships, including the generous offer from Iḷisaġvik College to have the academy hosted at their facility. (Though also a big thanks to Alaska Humanities Forum and Rasmuson Foundation, who provided the cash support we did receive.) We did not want funding to drive the project or be the decision-maker as to if this would continue in the future; too often, we’ve seen immense efforts elapse once a grant is spent. We relied instead on human energy and effort that we expect to be replicable far into the future. Our intention is for the academy to be annual and mobile, rotating through the hubs of Iñupiaq country, which are Utqiaġvik, Kotzebue and Nome.

of our inspirations for creating a cohort and building cross-regional connections with Ilisaqativut. No language has ever been revitalized without a core group of fanatics. In order for our language to truly thrive, it will take efforts on all fronts, from a multitude of people; language learners can and should become part of the language teaching and leadership community. If we are not soon raising new first-language speakers, in a generation we are all going to be learners. We hope not to get there, for our language is beautiful and worth fighting for. As Annauk shared, “When I speak Iñupiaq, I can feel my mother and my grandpa closest to my heart. This spiritual and cultural connection with my mom and my ancestors is what makes speaking Iñupiaq special, identity affirming, and healing.”

Something we like to say at Ilisaqativut is that you don’t have to know everything to teach: you just have to know more than the person you are teaching. By embracing this broader concept and moving from a teaching to a mentorship concept, a generation can grow in learning together, while leaving systemic learning barriers at the door, such as the fear of criticism, ridicule, or getting something wrong. Toddlers and youth are granted years to practice making speech sounds; adult second language learners should be afforded the same privilege.

One of the words we learned in Utqiaġvik was “qapiġnasi,” meaning “never give up.” Keep going. There are many people who don’t believe they can learn a language, or learn their language; however, people learn languages all the time. And as we also said during those long spring days in Utqiaġvik: “You only have to learn it once.”

Taking action with Ilisaqativut attests to our growing sense of responsibility for reclaiming our language — such an effort cannot and should not continue to fall on the shoulders of a few We recognize the trauma which has affected older generations; there are many reasons why the language has faded from daily life, and especially because of this, it is our responsibility to rise up and meet our elders where they are.

Nikaitchuatguuq piraqtut: Those who think they can, will accomplish something.

we intend for the program to rotate among regions, meaning next year’s will likely be in Kotzebue or Nome.

Language loss of this kind and magnitude is, to our people, an anomaly within our history. As such, and this can be forgotten, we are all going through this experience for the first time, together. That makes the perspectives and experiences of the second-language Iñupiaq learner unique. As second-language learners, we know what the journey of language acquisition is like. This means we can (and must) offer support to others on the same journey, for it is different than that of a fluent first-language speaker who cannot truly remember how they learned. Better understanding those perspectives and experiences, and providing that support, was one

Photos by Berett Wilber

At one point, a community member came by our class and asked,

“Who is the teacher?”

She looked a little astonished when we replied,



Chloe Naylor Photography



The old NANA Museum of the Arctic, built in the 1970s, seemed a little out of date in the early 2000s. It was like I stepped back in time whenever I arrived. 36

The main door was lopsided so you had to slam it closed. The light mostly comes from showcases so you have to adjust your eyes after coming in from the bright summer day. The museum smelled like hard bottom mukluks, which are made from seals. You can also smell a hint of walrus hide coming from the blankets. During lunch break though, it smells like the best Chinese-American food in town.

The main office had a laid back feel to it while performers waited on the next flight or bus of tourists. There was one little window in the corner and it was usually bright enough outside to keep the lights off.

themselves and the show.

Drummers usually tightened their drum skins or taped their broken sticks. So every once in a while, you can hear a drumbeat to make sure it sounds right. Dancers were out of their regalia so you usually had to step around mukluks and atikluks to get around the room. No one seemed to like cubbies.

“We pass down our culture from generation to generation.” An old man says to narrate.

There was always an ongoing open conversation between everyone. A lot of laughter came out of the main office. A door opposite side of the window led to what we called the cave. It was the cool place to hang out. Kids sat in there to hold hands or talk on the phone with their short lived boyfriend or girlfriend, because it was so dark. This was the place for secrets. The cave leads to the main stage of the auditorium. Still to this day, the auditorium seems like the biggest place in the world to me. Bleachers split the place in half with land animals on one side and water animals on the other. Scenery is painted on the walls to make you feel like you’re outside. Animals are life size because they’re taxidermy. Behind the stage is a huge fake mountain with goats on it. Between shows, we used to turn out the lights and see who can sit alone in the middle for the longest time. I used to be scared but as I got older, I usually found myself here for the free space. If I close my eyes now, I can just imagine being a little kid in my second home away from home. The old NANA Museum of the Arctic not only gave me a safe place to spend my summer days as a child, but it gave me a sense of pride and ownership in my Inupiaq heritage. My family never had a lot of money to live the subsistence lifestyle, so I got in tune with my culture at the museum. When the tourists arrived, a few of us young girls would follow an older teenager to the main entrance where we greeted everyone. We loved to pose for disposable cameras in hopes of getting some cash out of it. Between shows, we would curl each other’s long, straight, and black hair. Sometimes the older girls would allow us to wear some of their make-up. We stood pretty for strangers until they all got into the auditorium. The older teenager went to introduce

The show starts out with a diorama and a short film about our region. The video talks about our long history to this land and how we subsist all year around.

This always caught my attention because I always wondered what it meant. At the museum, we always heard talk about passing down these dances through generations. I didn’t realize back then that it meant a lot that I was learning as a young girl so I can teach other younger kids as I get older. To keep the dances alive. After the slideshow, the lights turned out and a long show of the animals came next. They held a spotlight over animals and described what they’re useful for as tourists sit in a big dark room to learn. Sometimes animal noises would come on. The show got interesting for us performers when it went into storytelling. They started out with a story about a big mouse. “I am big! I am big!” A man’s voice roars over the speakers to fill the auditorium. One of the performers has a mouse shaped mask on and they are holding their arms in flex position above their head. “I am so big that my back touches the sky and my belly touches the Earth.” The story goes on to explain that eventually he realizes that he’s just a small mouse under a seal skin hide. It was told to children to remind them to be humble. Humility is a very important value in our daily Inupiaq lives. I learned that through having summer fun and acting out this story for tourists. The next story tells about the Eagle mother and how she started gatherings in the Qargi, the community house. She does all the planning a woman would do for a get together. There’s cooking and invitations involved, followed by everyone finally showing up. This is when we all got fox masks and walked out to dance next to the Eagle mother. Finally, we all came out as a dance group to perform for them. There are girl dances, boy dances, women and men’s dances. There are family dances. There are partner dances. All these dances tell a story and we share them with the tourists until we finish and allow them to join us. “Nalu Katak!” Our leader yelled while


pushing the bleachers back at the end of the show. “Blanket toss!” We all yell back to translate for the tourists. A couple of us carried the blanket, which smelled like walrus hide, to the center of the floor. My stomach tickled with excitement to be thrown back into the air again. Nervous laugher filled the air when they practiced with a bucket filled with gravel. The leader taught them simple Inupiaq to follow instructions — Atausiq. Malguk. Pinasut. Ki! One. Two. Three. Go! Before I knew it, they called me up. A couple people let go with one hand while I stepped on to get a huge whiff of the walrus hide again — a smell I still comfortably cling to the rare moments it comes around. My calf muscles relaxed. Then my shoulders and finally my stomach. Over the silence I can barely hear a couple tourists comment about their anxiety over tossing me into the air. I let out a big breath and told them that I love to fly. Atausiq. The blanket seemed to breathe right along with me. Malguk. My focus relied on the fake mountain straight across. Suddenly, I couldn’t hear anyone besides the breath of the blanket and the voice of our leader. Pinasut. Chills. All over. Just waiting for that fleeing moment in the air. Ki! All at once, the crowds voices come back. My legs and core flexed to spin me into a full circle. Within that one turn, I caught a glimpse of all the animals of our region. Starting first with the mountain, going into the water, and then the land animals. Just as fast as I was in the air, I landed back on my feet to see the excitement in everyone’s eyes. They slapped the blanket and cheered me on. All the tensed muscles relaxed and I was ready to try again.

By M. Jacqui Lambert

uvana atiga Ahluniq! Hi! My name is Kaisa Kotch. I'm named after my Ahna, Jennie Ahluniq Johnson. I'm from Kotzebue and Sisaulik. My parents are Maija Katak Lukin, Dean Siksu Lukin, Keoni Kotch, and Mildred Sampson-Kotch. My grandparents are Jennie Ahluniq Johnson, Willie Johnson, Nate Kotch, and Betty Nelson-Kotch. 1) W hat inspired you to run for Miss Teen Arctic Circle? When I was younger, my auntie, Elsa Argagiaq* Johnson ran for Miss Teen and won. My mom had helped her during the pageant and brought me along. Watching her have fun and make new friends has always made me want to run. So you can credit that to Elsa. She's my inspiration. 2) What was your favorite part running? While running, I loved being able to make new friends and share my message about suicide awareness. What was your favorite part of the year? In October of last year I was able attend the 2016 Elders and Youth Conference. While there, I was able to meet people my age from around the state and hear stories from elders that come from almost every Alaskan Native tribe there is. 3) What do you hope to accomplish next? I hope to further spread awareness about suicide. I'll also be going to Mt. Edgecumbe High School starting this fall and advocating for a smoke-free Alaska as an ATCA teen ambassador. (ATCA stands for Alaska Tobacco Control Alliance.) 4) Who influences/inspires you the most? Why? My mom- Maija Lukin- has definitely influenced me the most in my work about suicide awareness, while my aunt, Elsa Johnson, has influenced me with my smokefree Alaska goal. They both push me to do things that I want to do, but I'm scared that people won't understand, and I'm grateful for that. 5) What's your favorite cultural activity? Why? I love playing eskimo football. I've always had fun playing and unwinding, so I think that it's a good way to be active. 6) What's your advice for young girls? Dream as big as your mind can handle, and strive to reach them. If you want to grow up and become a rockstar, pick up a guitar and start practicing. Believe that you can do it, and you will. Don't listen to anyone that tells you no, find people that tell you yes. Don't rely on anyone to make you happy. Make yourself happy. 7) What's your favorite childhood memory? When I was little and my Ahna and Taata still lived in Kotzebue, every Christmas Eve, we'd all get together and at around 8pm the grandkids would be sent upstairs to bed. Well one year, my cousin Clara and I woke up because we heard the door open and close. Being around 5 and 7 we thought that we should probably investigate it. We crept down the stairs and laid on our stomachs because we thought we'd be flat and no one would be able to see us. The only thing I saw was a white beard, a red hat, and a matching red jacket. It was Santa Claus! 8) What's your favorite thing about the region? I love the food that it provides, but I'd have to say that my favorite part of the region is how pretty it is. From the flowers and the berries to the color of a fox in the summertime, it is truly a sight to behold. 9) Would you like to share anything else? Some advice to everyone, young or old, boy or girl, Inupiaq or African American. Teach your values, speak the native language, prepare traditional foods, and give instead of expecting to take. Thank you!


Uvangaa aatiga Amainiq! Hi everyone! My name is Shaylin Thomas, I’m the 2016 Miss Arctic Circle. My parents are Allen and Brenda Geffe, grandparents are Mollie and the late Karl Geffe, Glenn SR and Josephine Thomas. I’m from the small village of Buckland, but my big Gallahorn family also lives in Kotzebue and Point Hope. I’m currently working for our local health center here in Kotzebue full time and taking online college classes part time, working towards my Bachelor’s degree in Nursing. 1) What inspired you to run for Miss Arctic Circle? I have a passion for eskimo dancing, subsistence harvesting, and language. My amou Irene Gallahorn encouraged me to run for Miss Arctic Circle because of my passion for our beautiful and valuable Inupiaq culture. 2) W hat was your favorite part of running? What was your favorite part of the year? My favorite part of running for Miss Arctic Circle was just having fun and getting to know one another. It was also fun being around other ladies that are just as passionate about their culture and family. Running for Miss Arctic Circle and the pageant in general is a good way to share knowledge with one another, it’s a good way to inspire young people to keep our Inupiaq culture and values alive. 3) W hat do you hope to accomplish next? I hope to go beyond just my year as Miss Arctic Circle, I believe just because the year is over doesn’t mean I should stop inspiring others and stop people the community or just being involved in general. But before my year I pass down the crown I hope to inspire others to run and not only share their knowledge but have fun learning from others. 4) Who influences/inspires you the most? Why? The one person that inspires me the most is my strong and loving great grandma (amou) Irene Gallahorn, she’s taught me so much that’s so valuable. Growing up I always loved spending my summers with my great grandpa Eddie Gallahorn and amou at camp, picking berries, catching and putting away fish. 5) What's your favorite cultural activity? Why? If I have to choose just one, my favorite cultural activity would be eskimo dancing because just one eskimo dance song tells this whole story, whether it’s a family story that was passed down generation to generation or just how to make an igloo which is one of the first songs that I learned. 6) W hat's your favorite Inupiaq value? Why? For me personally it’s hard to choose one Inupiaq value as a “favorite” because I cherish them all, growing up at camp my grandparents and Inupiaq teacher always talked about them and how valuable they are. But one that I guess stands out to me is Respect for Elders, because they are so strong and knowledgable, they held down the roots of their beliefs for us so we can survive and thrive. 7) W hat's your advice for young girls? My advice for younger girls is to just be proud to be who you are, where you come from, learn from your elders and family history. Never be scared to try something new. 8) W hat's your favorite childhood memory? My favorite childhood memory is always spending my summers at camp, whether it’s at my great grandparents camp at Sisualik or my grandparents Glenn and Josie’s camp in elephant point. Always outside, whether it’s doing subsistence work or just playing out. So carefree, no electronics what so ever, and no tv. 9) W hat's your favorite thing about the region? My favorite thing about the NANA region is when a family is going through a tough time we come together as one to help that family. There’s also a lot of scholarship opportunities just for our people to get the education that’s needed to give back to the community. I also love our traditional “soul” food, I love all the hard work put in. Throughout this year Chip and Cindy Fields gave me the opportunity to help them work on and put away traditional foods.


Arctic Queens


Photos provided by Red Seeberger








7 1 0 e

2 lleg Co ads Gr


natives highly educated

Christina Qaiyaan Fields

Kaylene IĂąuuraq Evans

Bachelor of Arts Art Minor: Anthropology

Bachelar of Arts Political Science & Ethnic Studies

Colton Jessup

Bachelor of Science Geomatics Engineering

Brianna Sauraq Triplett

Bachelor of Science Natural Science Minor: Chemistry and Psychology

Alysha Amiiraq Nanouk

Bachelor of Arts Psychology Minor: Clinical & Community Behavioral Health

Ukallaysaaq Tom Okleasik Master of Arts Rural Development

Benjamin Anderson-Agimuk

Bachelor of Arts Political Science


Brined Smoked Salmon Maija Katak Lukin

July and August are prime seasons for all Alaskan’s to enjoy the bounty the ocean and rivers provide. Just about everywhere you go, you’ll find some sort of salmon being utilized by indigenous people. In Kotzebue, we have ocean run Chum, a firm fleshed Salmon much different than the late river Chum you see with alligator teeth and colorful stripes. One of the best ways to prepare it, is to brine, and smoke it. Fillet you salmon (or thaw last year’s salmon), rise and pat dry. Cut into 2-3” chunks cut across the fillet. Layer the salmon in a large bowl or tub and generously cover with dry brine mix as follows: brine, fish with the skin side down (flesh to flesh), brine, fish with the skin side up, brine, fish with the skin side down (skin to skin), etc. until you are done. Cover with saran wrap and let set in the fridge overnight, or at least 8 hours. DRY BRINE: 4 C Brown Sugar 1 C Pickling Salt ¼ C Powdered Garlic, or ½ C chopped fresh garlic 3 TBS Dried Dill 2 TBS Paprika Mix all ingredients together, store in cool dry, covered container until ready for use. After 8 hours, the brine will release the moisture from the fish, so it will be sticky and watery. Carefully and thoroughly rinse the brine off your fish. The chunks will have firmed up a bit, and soaked in the flavor of the brine. Pat dry and let sit for a few hours to allow the pellicle, or skin to form on top. You can also use a fan to help speed this along. Smoke as directed. In the hot smoker, smoke fish for approximately 2-3 hours if you are canning the fish, or 4-5 hours if you are not canning. We have a custom built smoker, and it is heated for about an hour to hit 180 degrees consistently. If you have an electric smoker, follow the directions on your package. Smoking varies, but you want the internal temperature of the meatiest part of the fish to be 140 degrees. Try to keep your neighbors away. Store by vacuum sealing and freezing for later use, if you have leftovers.



or contact Jacqui Lambert at 51


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