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issue #9

Tiguasina: A Tikigaq Story told by Asatchaq The Fault in Our Blood Quantum Coffee & Quaq Highlights

Caribou Soup for the Soul Recipe

SPRING - 1 - 2019

Artist Highlight: Tristan Agnauraq Morgan & Landon Eck Solutions for Strength Lessons of Love Taught By The Land


From the Editor

The concept of an artist’s hiatus was foreign and at times came off as selfish to me. When I discover artists or brands that seem to complete me because they reflect an aesthetic I value, it’s an immediate attachment. I dive deep into their story and the entire realm of their product. Over the course of at least a decade, I’ve learned how to pay close attention to the details of a music artist, an independent publication, a non-profit or a corporate brand. There is a lot that goes into a single product that brings satisfaction. Few of them have went out of business or even completely changed their entire brand and, as a consumer, I’ve wanted to kivit. Kivit means to throw a fit in Inupiaq. It means to get dramatically upset. But, since beginning to break trail with my own product, I can finally understand the importance of a hiatus. And I’ve been worried about my supporters. I didn’t want to leave you hanging but this past year demanded the most attention on all levels of dedication. Fall 2017 was the last time I could put effective energy into The Qargizine, after two years of recruiting, editing, designing, distributing, funding, etc on my own as a one-woman show. The burn out was so strong, it took me a full year to finally confront the fear of failure. So here I am, with an issue that’s “overdue” but with a spirit that’s been fulfilled thanks to the moral support of family, friends, followers and of course, therapy. Read about it on page 24.

M. Jacqui Lambert

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Contributors

to The Qargizine Spring 2019 Tim Argetsinger tiffany rosamond creed alice qannik glenn inuuraq evans tristan morgan teressa baldwin landon eck raven madison ayyu qassataq eben hopson asatchaq warren jones nyla ivanoff stephen d. bolen paulette schuerch

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On The Cover

Photo By: Nyla Ivanof f The qargi (kuh-dee-gee) was traditionally the community gathing place for Inuit. The Qargizine (kuh-dee-gee zeen) is a new way for rural and Alaska Natives to gather and share their artwork, photography and stories. Mission: to instill the knowledge and pride of the rural and Alaska Native cultures in today’s generation through multi-media productions.

SUBSCRIBE OR SUBMIT AT

W W W. E S Q U I M E D I A . C O M -4-


Table of

CONTENTS

6 comparison of Inuit dialects

8 QZ Spotify: canadian throat singing 11 wind off the back of cemetary hill 12 ak thru insta 14 coffee & quaq podcast highlights 16 artist highlight: tristan morgan 20 the fault in our blood quantum 22 lessons of love taught by the land 24 solutions for strength 30 artist highlight: landon eck 34 i am eyak 35 colonial love 36 some days 37 photographer highlight: eben hopson 40 tiguasina as told by asatchaq 45 the hunt 46 photographer highlight: nyla ivanoff 48 earthbound 49 qz spotify: spirit in the sky 50 caribou soup for the soul -5-


c o m p a r i n g INUIT DIALECTS by Tim Aqukkasuk Argetsinger Taikuullapiaq to Monica Ittusarjuat and Kathleen Tagoona for editing the Inuktitut phrases and Vivi Sørensen for editing the Kalaallisut phrases.

Iñuit live in northern Alaska (Iñupiat), Canada, and Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland) and we share a common language and culture. The word Iñuit means ‘the People’ in Iñupiatun, Inuktitut, and Kalaallisut. Iñuit migrated from Alaska eastward to Canada and Greenland thousands of years ago where the dialects evolved differently in each region and community. As a result, Iñupiatun is to Inuktitut and Kalaallisut what Old English is to modern day English: similar or the same in many ways but very different in others. The table below compares common phrases in Iñupiatun, Inuktitut, and Kalaallisut. The majority of the 60,000 Iñuit in Canada speak Inuktut (the word used to encompass

all Iñuit dialects in Canada, including Inuktitut) as a first language. Iñuit in Canada live in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (Northwest Territories), Nunavut, Nunavik (Northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador). There are approximately 60,000 Iñuit in Kalaallit Nunaat, a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark. Kalaallisut is the only official language in Kalaallit Nunaat and is spoken as a first language by virtually the entire population at all sectors of society. Kalaallit Nunaat is the only majority Iñuit jurisdiction in the circumpolar Arctic where it is possible to receive a K-12 and university education in the Iñuit language.

Note on pronunciation: In Inuktitut ‘r’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ sound as in the word ‘atiġa’ (my name). The Inuktitut ‘j’ sound, unless paired with ‘rj’ or ‘jj’ is pronounced like an Iñupiatun ‘y’ sound. The ‘r’ sound in Iñupiatun is unique to our dialect and is pronounced similar to the rolled ‘r’ in the Spanish word ‘gracias’. In Kalaallisut, ‘r’ is pronounced similar to Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ but is much softer. Kalaallisut ‘ll’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an ‘ł’ sound in Iñupiatun, as in the word ‘atikłuk.’ Iñupiatun ‘ŋ’ is written as ‘ng’ in all other Iñuit dialects and is pronounced the same as ‘ng’ in the English word ‘thing’.


c o m p a r i n g INUIT DIALECTS by Tim Aqukkasuk Argetsinger Taikuullapiaq to Monica Ittusarjuat and Kathleen Tagoona for editing the Inuktitut phrases and Vivi Sørensen for editing the Kalaallisut phrases.

NALUAGMIUTUN INUPIAQ ENGLISH

north slope

I’m going to go to Anchorage When are you all moving to Canada?

INUKTITUT

KALALLIT

north baffin

west

Anchoragemuŋniaqtuŋa

Anchorageliarniaqtunga

Anchoragemukarniarpunga

Qakugu Canadamun nuuññiaqpisi?

Qakugu Canadamut nuunniaqpisi?

Qaqugu Canadamut nuunniarpisi?

Siḷagiksuq/Silagittuq

Silattiavak

Silagippoq

I’m writing to my mom

Aakamnun aglaktuŋa

Anaanannut titiraqtunga

Anaanannut allappunga/ allattunga

Where are we?

Sumiitpisa?

Naniippita?

Sumiippugut?

My son is five years old

Iġñiġa tallimanik ukiuqaqtuq

Irnira tallimanik ukiuqaqtuq

Ernira tallimanik ukioqarpoq

He’s waiting behind the house

Iglum tunuani utaqqiruq

Igluup tunuani utaqqijuq

Illup tunuani utaqqivoq

He works on the ship

Umiaqpaŋmi savaktuq

Umiarjuarmi sanajuq

I have three kids

Piŋasunik qitunġaqaqtuŋa

Pingasunik qiturngaqaqtunga

Pingasunik qitornaqarpunga meeqaqarpunga

When did you wake up?

Qaŋa itiqpit?

Qanga tupakpit?

Qanga iterpit?

Unnuaq siññaktuqtuŋa

Unnuaq sinnaktulauqtunga

Unnuaq sinnattorpunga

Siñilluataqtuŋa

Sinittiaqtunga

Sinilluarpunga

The weather is nice

I dreamed last night I slept well

ALASKA

CANADA

GREENLAND

Umiarsuarmi sulivoq

In Inuktitut ‘r’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ sound as in the word ‘atiġa’ (my name). The Inuktitut ‘j’ sound, unless paired with ‘rj’ or ‘jj’ is pronounced like an Iñupiatun ‘y’ sound. The ‘r’ sound in Iñupiatun is unique to our dialect and is pronounced similar to the rolled ‘r’ in the Spanish word ‘gracias’. In Kalaallisut, ‘r’ is pronounced similar to Iñupiatun ‘ġ’ but is much softer. Kalaallisut ‘ll’ is pronounced the way you would pronounce an ‘ł’ sound in Iñupiatun, as in the word ‘atikłuk.’ Iñupiatun ‘ŋ’ is written as ‘ng’ in all other Iñuit dialects and is pronounced the same as ‘ng’ in the English word ‘thing’.

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CANADIAN INUIT

Throat Singing Playlist Uja Ta n y a Ta g a q

Maujaraq - Snow Dub Silla + Rise

Kituriat The Jerry Cans

Kuluk - Summer Silla + Rise

Ukiuq The Jerry Cans

Anuri Ivaluarjuk

FIND T H IS P L AY L I S T O N THE Q A RG IZIN E SPOTIFY


Aahiiñguuq ukua ilaŋich uvva ilaŋiqamiŋ immagguuq uivvaġutiŋ tamatkua tuquruat qaiñiaqtut. Tuqurualilaitkaiguuq tainna ilani tuqumman uivvaġutigguuq imma qaiñiaqtut. Iñugutqigñiaqtut. Tavraahii taimani imma utuqqailli taipkua niġiugiraġniġaich uivvaġutigguuq imma qaiñiaqtut. Marragguuq tamatkua ilaanni hiñiktuanik taipkua itiqhaġsiuġaqtut. Inna hila nakuumman. Immagguuq uivvaqhaat qallirut itiġitchi. Aniġaġigaiyguuq. Ilatiŋ itiqhaqtuġaġigaich uvlaami. Immagguuq uivvaqhaat qallirut itiġitchi. Imma ilatik taipkua niġiugivlugich. Uivvaqhaat qallirut. Siñiŋaiġitchi! Hilagguuq nakuumman tavra tainna itiqhaqtuutiraqtut. Ilamignik imma niġiukhutiŋ. - K ak in n aaq

Pu i g u i t k a a t


And so, it is said, these relatives, when they lose one of their own, those who have died will round the bend when they return. It is said they don’t think of them as having died, when one of their members die, after rounding the bend, it is said, they will return. They will come alive again. And so those people of the older times would wait expectantly for the return (of their loved ones), it is said, after they have rounded the bend. These people would go around waking up sleeping ones. When the weather was good. Those spirits-who-have-rounded-thebend are getting nearer, they said, wake up, all of you. They would say to them. They would immediately awaken them in the morning. The spirits-which-have-rounded-the-bend are near, they said, wake up, all of you. This is because they wait expectantly for the coming of those relatives. The spirits-whohave-rounded-the-bend are getting nearer. Quit sleeping! It is said that when the weather was good they would all awaken each others like that. Waiting expectantly for their relatives. - Eli jah K ak in y a

1978 B a r row El d e r s ’ C o n f e re n c e Chapter 3, pages 78-79


Wind Off The Back of Cemetery Hill by Tiffany Rosamond Creed

These, the fingers that have picked blues, are rigid, so slipped back inside to wind yarn in pocket, to warm. Red plastic bucket is tucked into nest of legs, Legs tucked into nest of tundra. The wind is letting us know what it wants this year. It’s whipping up the waters that swallow the shores. It whistles past my ears and screams at my cheeks: “Make peace with your brothers and sisters.” “Start with your own walls.” It warns me again with a whisper through tiny leaves: “I’ll keep whipping you just like the waters,” “I’ll wash away your houses before I let you be unkind.” And so, with peace fingers warmed, Plastic bucket half full, I tell the wind I will: I’ll keep my ear close to the matted tundra That fills pails with berries and hurts underneath.

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s t h g i l COFFEE & QUAQ high

The mission of Coffee & Quaq is to celebrate, share, and explore the collective experience of contemporary Native life in urban Alaska. Coffee & Quaq aims to incite discussion on topics of interest for young Alaska Native people and bring awareness to the various facets of modern Indigenous life. It's a podcast show for Indigenous people, by Indigenous people to help provide an accurate representation of Alaska Native life in urban and rural settings.

Quaq is the Iñupiaq word for frozen or raw meat or fish and it is also a verb: to eat frozen or raw meat or fish. Coffee to represent our contemporary and woke side and Quaq to examine our topics through an Alaska Native lens. Sip on this. Chew on that. Coffee & Quaq. Tavra.

A podcast hosted by alice qannik glenn celebrating and exploring contemporary Native life in urban Alaska.

Episode 1: Traditional Inuit Tattoos

Inupiaq women, and in general, you’re representing Alaska Native people. I’m very conscious of that in all my actions and how I speak to people and how “I think that’s the valuable part when I react. It’s been really special to have we’re tattooing. It’s one-on-one and you can talk to them and they’re feeling that self-reflection.” connected to culture. And we tell - Charlene Apok stories and they tell us their story, and lots of these women, mostly, have never told their story or their connection to their own culture. That’s the valuable part, and that what I was hoping it “I was wanting to spend more time with would bring, and it’s been freaking my son and trying to think of ways that amazing.”

Episode 2: all about native foods

- Holly

Nordlum

“It’s become an ethic; it’s become a way of living. It’s informed my way of life in a higher capacity. It really makes you own s*** up. You are representing

I could make money with things that I’m naturally good at. So I thought of cooking; I’d be happy to cook. I didn’t even have any kitchen experience. I don’t know-maybe I was crazy--but I know I could make people happy with what I cook.” -

Leila Smith

radio check... anybody copy?


Support the podcast by purchasing these products at coffeeandquaq.com

“I see food as medicine, period. I think it’s a big disconnect in our western model...I see food as a foundation for economy and health and I think in our rural communities there is an economic opportunity to break away from the dependency on the western economic model.” -

Tikaan Galbreath

Episode 3: lgbtq in the native community

Episode 4: eskimo vs. inuit

“It depends on the generation. I’m okay with using either Eskimo, Iñupiaq, Iñuit, or Native person, but with my children I don’t teach them that they’re “Eskimo” because that is the word that was placed on our people. So, the word that I place on my children is that they are Iñupiaq. They are not Eskimo. I also instruct them though that if an elder says that you’re Eskimo—then just agree with them. Don’t correct them.”

Mellisa Heflin

“It’s a really weird experience to be an Inupiaq woman, sitting at the computer, researching why or why not I should call myself Inuit or Eskimo. I don’t even think our ancestors or even just a few generations older than us would understand that this kind of identity crisis can exist. This kind of soul searching, basically, can exist through the internet but also that we find that stuff from outsiders. How can we shift from that?” -

Jacqui Lambert

Episode 5: art & Cultural appropriation

“It’s this idea that these notions can be adopted by somebody and that they can, in some way, have ownership over them and have ownership of these ideas that are based in indigenous culture. but the truth is these Ideas of indigenous culture are communal ideas. They don’t belong to one person. So why do you think as a one person you can cherry pick, you can take these ideas. That seems really problematic.”

“In order for us to heal as Indigenous people, we need to let the iIndigenous two-spirit, LGBTQ+ people know you have a space in your family, you have a space in your community, and in your village. Because otherwise, if we continue on the rate that we’re going, we’re removing our own people simply for being who they are--moving to cities becoming more disconnected with their culture.”

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“I’m really thankful for the youth that I’ve mentored with Identity (Alaska). They have a youth summit twice a year now. It wasn’t until the second summit in 2013 that I’d learned about what non-binary was and gender fluid. And it was from them that I learned about it and I thought that was a pretty amazing thing.”

“I love Inuit culture. I don’t think we’ll ever be in a place where we’re all in agreement, but I do think that as time goes on and we evolve that that word is just going to phase itself out. We identify ourselves as Inuit, Inupiaq, Yup’ik, Inuvialuit, Inuinnait, Kalaallit we’re so diverse and I love to just embrace that. As far as the word Eskimo, I think it’ll phase itself out over time. “

“It’s our intellectual property, our designs, because we’ve been using them as clan crests, as our libraries, our documentation. All of our art is encoded with all of our information. Our ancestors used this as our reading and writing, and our tools of survival, our tools of identifying who someone is, who their family is, where they’re from and our relationship to that person. So they have these deeper meanings that go way back before time immemorial.”

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Jenny Miller

Will Bean

“Dude, I am standing right in front of you, as an Inuit woman telling you I don’t like it. Isn’t that proof enough?...I never faulted another Inuit for saying it—you do whatever is you—but a white guy who’s educated should know better.” -

Holly Nordlum

Inuujaq Fredlund

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Melissa Shaginoff

Crystal Worl


About the Artist: Tristan Morgan is a contemporary visual artist who lives and works out of Anchorage, Alaska. As a mixed IĂąupiat Alaska Native woman, Tristan pulls from her experiences from her unique outlook on life to create culturally contemporary pieces that explore traditional IĂąupiat values through a Western lens while also discussing Alaska Native and Native American issues. She hopes to create spaces where native womxn and members of the community can hold important conversations about #MMIW (Missing and Murdered Indigenous Womxn) to foster healing and action among inviting indigenous youth to celebrate their cultures.

find her on Instagram @agnauraq

Tristan Agnauraq Morgan


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The Fault in Our Blood Quantum by Teressa Baldwin All tribal communities within the United States have some sort of requirement to be enrolled into their tribe. Yet, the establishment of this comes from a deep history of colonization within Indigenous communities in the United States. Most tribes still use blood quantum, a measurement of how much Native blood a person has, to identify who is qualified to enroll into the tribe. What most tribal communities no longer recognize is that blood quantum was established by the federal government during the Termination Era of 1935. It was established as one of the federal laws to get rid of the Indian and reorganize their communities so that they reflect the federal government’s system of power and not their own established political entities that they once were. This regulation is still in effect today though it only exists in tribal communities as it is no longer a requirement of the federal government. In fact, tribal communities can choose to relinquish their blood quantum requirement through a majority vote. Yet many tribes still withhold it as a practice of sovereignty and self-determination and, as a young Native woman, I believe in sovereignty. But as someone who is concerned with social justice and Native identity, I believe that blood quantum—as a defining factor of being Native—is only hurting us. Native corporations, established as part of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971, have become part

of the modern-day lived experiences of Alaska Natives. There are many differences between tribal communities in the lower-48 and Alaska Native communities—for instance, because of the establishment of Native corporations in ANCSA, I have seen people understand themselves as shareholders rather than tribal members. However, this op-ed does not focus on the differences between tribal communities, but the history of blood quantum. All corporations had a cut off date for tribal enrollment on December 18th, 1971, which means that if you were born after this date your corporation had to vote on whether or not you can be included as a shareholder. Since the establishment of Native corporations in Alaska, each corporation has their own history of ratifications of who can be considered a shareholder/ tribal member. I am fortunate that my own Native corporation has voted to include descendants as part of the enrollment while other corporations have not. Yet, even if the descendants are included within the corporation’s enrollment blood quantum is still a quantifying fact of tribal enrollment. In order to become a shareholder, the individual must also meet the blood quantum requirements which state that they must have one quarter of Inupiat blood (¼). This is measured using simple math and a scroll by the Native corporations that verifies the individual’s American Indian/ Alaska Native ancestry. There have been

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many outcomes from these requirements which include descendants not qualifying to be a part of the Native corporation, because they do not have enough blood, to strong sided debates about what it means to be Inupiaq in today’s modern society. This is no doubt a controversial issue within Native communities. Often times the fear is that opening up the scroll would expand tribal communities immensely so that people who did not grow up in their tribal community, or are so far removed from their tribal lineage, would enroll not for being part of a community but only for the benefits. To be transparent, being part of a tribal community does not reap more benefits than the average United States citizen; this is a common misconception. The fear of expansion within Native com-

conversations between Native women border the line of how to make sure their children can be enrolled into their tribal community. The pressure to marry or have children with others who qualify to enroll is real, and the consequences are starting to become the experience of many young people in our communities.


defined by a fraction, but by the strength of our communities, where our traditions deredisnoc eb ot redro nI evah tsum eno ,evitaNand ylcultures luf are the center of who we are as being Native. ,stnerap evitaN 2 In an ideal world, the relinquishment ,stnerapdnarg evitaN 4 of blood quantum can motivate ,stnerapdnarg-taerg evpeople itaNto8stay involved with learning our language, eht nehw ot kca b .cteor protecting our lands. We are Inupiaq of our relationship to our devirra tsrif tnemn revobecause c land, animals, and each other and not a number that defines us.

Most tribes still use blood quantum, a measurement of how much Native blood a person has, to identify who is qualified to enroll into the tribe. What most tribal communities no longer recognize is that blood quantum was established by the federal government during the Termination Era of 1935.

Editor’s Note: The diagram below visually expresses the formula used to quantify blood. Every Native born gets half the blood count from each parent. When they began the system, the first generation to have their blood quantified was considered to be full. Then, it began splitting the blood in half for each generation. As you can see, this formula is highly dependant on minor fractions to make or break a Native’s eligibility. Some children are more Native than their parents are. Some are as little as 1/16 away from not qualifying. Which ultimately means that pretty soon, an entire generation will be counted by 1/32 then later 1/64.

munities is real and rationale for Native traced back for 14,000 years yet we will fail communities, however it is misconceived to save the next 14,000 years of Inupiaq as this is part of the colonization process people if we continue to use blood quanin which individuals cannot see what is tum to identify who we are. The question beyond the current situation. What would here is not if we should dismantle a funour communities look like beyond blood damental part of colonial history, but how quantum? The modern-day experience of we can dismantle it while maintaining the Native people is consistently challenged integrity of our people. We should not be and changing, so no one truly knows what it would mean to FULL-NATIVE HALF-NATIVE FULL-NATIVE NON-NATIVE relinquish blood quantum. Yet, there is one thing that will hapGRANDPARENT GRANDPARENT GRANDPARENT GRANDPARENT pen if blood quantum continues within the next few generations and that is the diminishment of people who qualify to be called Inupiaq. As we are starting see, the younger generations are 3/4 NATIVE HALF-NATIVE most affected by blood quanPARENT PARENT tum; conversations between Native women border the line of how to make sure their children can be enrolled into their tribal community. The pressure to marry or have children with FULL-NATIVE NON-NATIVE 5/8 NATIVE others who qualify to enroll is real, and the consequences are starting to become the experience of many young people in our communities. We should no longer see ourselves as just shareholders, but Inupiaq people who have inherited strong, unique ties to our land. Our lineage can be

13/16 NATIVE CHILD - 21 -

5/16 NATIVE CHILD


Lessons of Love Taught By the Land By inuuraq evans

1.

2.

they are whispered in the wind etched in the weaving valleys and on the rolling tundra

The Land beckons But never begs

they are sung in the rushing river water and hushed in the crashing waves they have always been here for us now the sun’s shining on your heart illuminating these lessons to heal you once again

She calls with Sweet sighs of the wind But do not forget It can so easily Turn freezing, Chilling to your bone Defensive, casting away With the same breeze You once thought Was meant to Comfort and Caress you


3. have you noticed your chapped lips look just like the jagged mountains you are from your dry, cracking skin mirror the shattering ice your curves resemble the winding waterways that provide joy and sustenance your folds of the skin same as the rolling tundra with berries you feast on once you see the ways in which you are a reflection of the land you can love yourself as you do the land and you will stop hating the very parts of you that reveal how much you have weathered, you beautiful and striking life force


Solutions for Strength Generational trauma explained by m. jacqui lambert Not a lot of people know that in the past, I have seen multiple mental health professionals for symptoms of both the Bipolar and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders. The crazy part about the diagnoses was that I initially recognized the symptoms myself because of my past studies of psychology in college. I’ve always wondered what would have been different if my field of study wasn’t in psychology. What would have happened if I wasn’t learning some of the concepts in depth? How many people (who don’t study it) aren’t aware of their own symptoms? Is there an abnormally high rate of misdiagnoses and mistreatments hidden in the statistics about Natives? Can our people be accepting the (quick and) wrong diagnoses, resulting in going through the wrong treatments? I was one of those people for a couple years. I accepted the wrong treatments. I listened to the wrong answers. Even though I knew something was wrong, I believed them when they said only the medications will cure me. But I knew just enough to raise an eyebrow at the system and finally sought help outside of the Indian Health Services (IHS). I believed that there was more to do than to take any pills for the rest of my life. It was a long journey to first admit something was wrong and that I needed help. Then, to look for it—initially while I was living in Kotzebue, rural Alaska. Fortunately, it was in a hub town where the regional hospital is located. It would have been an

even harder trek had I been in a surrounding village, for many reasons but one of them being the lack in simple access to the resources that were down the street from me in Kotzebue. I do not want to go into many specific details of my own story, because we all have our own ways of going down our healing journeys. But, there are concepts that I believe the general public should know as more common knowledge. Memorizing actions to take while in public emergencies should be balanced with remembering what to do in a personal emergency, too. We’re more often told how to help others in their mental health crisis or look for their warning signs, but we should also be taught how to recognize the state of our mental well-being, too. Please note that I am not a mental healthcare professional. I am providing this information to raise awareness on what I’ve learned while seeing them. If you or someone you know needs more information, please reach out to a professional.  Three things to know about our mental health:

#1 We can inherit trauma from the generations that came before us.

Just as we can look, sound or act like our parents, we can also think, feel and

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cope like them, too. There were studies done before on lady lab rats where they sprayed a cherry blossom smell, then immediately shot the lady rat with a BB gun. There is a concept called Classical Conditioning, which means that after a while, all the lady rat had to do was smell the cherry blossom and she reacted to the feelings of being hit by a BB gun shell, even though they didn’t shoot her. She got anxiety, expecting the pain from the BB gun because she’s associated it with the smell of the cherry blossom. Her body went into Fight or Flight mode, the survival tactic in our brains to keep our bodies alive.  Then, the lady rat had a baby. Guess what happened? Generational trauma showed up. Something we talk about a lot when it comes to Native issues. The baby of this lady rat smelled the cherry blossom and experienced the anxiety her mother went through. All without the use of a BB gun at all. She was reacting to the pain her mother experienced. She had no explanation for this anxiety. It was inherited because it wasn’t healed in the earlier generation.  This is something we experience at the human level, as a result of the trauma our Ancestors and Elders experienced during the waves of missionaries and boarding school teachers. Many victims of this era did not learn how to heal the trauma, causing it to trickle into our generation through our genes. The unresolved wounds of the past can lead to substance


abuse, violence and other community problems. This does not mean it has to stay like this forever. We can be the generation that heals the wound, which ultimately can mend the trauma of both the past and the future. The most important piece of advice I want people to remember is that we are not at fault for these issues we’ve inherited. Sometimes carrying full responsibility or accountability for our mental health can feel so heavy and we can feel like it’s only our fault, only our problem. The load is lighter to carry if we remember that the past plays a role, too.

#2 There is a physiological reason for psychological symptoms

It does not come out of the blue. It is not a spiritual or moral curse. It is not just “all in our heads.” There is a literal brain-to-body process to explain it! And let me remind you, everyone’s brain has the same foundational function. They vary amongst individuals for sure, just as our fingerprints do, but for the most part, a brain is a brain no matter the skin color. So, this is not just a Native discussion. This does not only apply to Natives. Non-Natives can also inherit trauma and experience a dysfunction in this brain process. What I mean by brain process is that there are different regions of our brain that control specific things, and there’s a communication link between three different areas that can help or hurt us, depending on the trauma we inherit or that we’ve experienced in our lifetime. The three different areas in this are the Brain Stem, Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex. The brain stem is in the back and bottom, connecting with our spine. Think of it like our animal part of the brain, it helps to keep us alive by sending messages to our bodies (through the spinal cord). It’s our basic survival part of our brain, right in the back of our neck. The amygdala is the region that controls memories and emotions. It’s more on the right side of our brains, closer to our ears. It’s like our brain’s souvenir box or

“There is a concept called Classical Conditioning, which means that after a while, all the lady rat had to do was smell the cherry blossom and she reacted to the feelings of being hit by a BB gun shell, even though they didn’t shoot her... Then, the lady rat had a baby. Guess what happened? Generational trauma showed up. Something we talk about a lot when it comes to Native issues. The baby of this lady rat smelled the cherry blossom and experienced the anxiety her mother went through. All without the use of a BB gun at all. She was reacting to the pain her mother experienced. She had no explanation for this anxiety. It was inherited because it wasn’t healed in the earlier generation.” yearbook, reminding us of different things when we smell, see, touch, taste or hear anything. The prefrontal cortex is kind of like the more human part of our brain. It controls our logic and reason. It’s in the front of our brain, basically in between our eyebrows. This part is very critical when it comes to making decisions.  So, back to the lady lab rat study. It was the brain stem that smelled the cherry blossom and the amygdala remembered the BB gun. So, amygdala told the brain stem to tell the body to be ready for pain, to try to survive the BB gun shot. When the body reacts to the smell and remembers the hit, that’s the amygdala doing its job. And the brain stem is doing its job by making the body anxious for the shot.  Normally, here’s where to prefrontal cortex steps in with all its logic and interrupts to tell the body, “It is okay! That was fear from a past event! This is a present moment, not attached to what happened back then.” and the brain stem says “Oh, okay!” to slow down and alleviate the fear in the body. It recognizes the present senses and re-associates. This communication between the

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three regions explains why an old song can bring back vivid memories, why you remember elementary class when you smell the Mr. Sketch markers or why you remember not to touch a hot stove. It’s even why soldiers may react to loud noises back at home, because their brain is reminded of the war zone. This process is meant to protect you. It keeps you alive. It makes sure you’re okay.  But when this process is linked to something traumatic (like the lady rat or a soldier), it becomes problematic and doesn’t work correctly. Your prefrontal cortex totally shuts down when the amygdala remembers something bad and doesn’t remind your brain stem that it’s okay. Which means your brain stem is not telling your body to calm down. Reason and logic go out the door because of the prefrontal cortex shutting down. This broken process is where bad habits and addictions may root. Our loss in reason or logic means that we cannot simply talk ourselves out of drinking, fighting, smoking, etc. until we restart our prefrontal cortex (I’ll explain in a bit). An example for how this applies to our communities is when the older genercontinued on page 28...


Russia

Alaska

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INUIT Canada

Greenland

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The brain stem is in the back and bottom, connecting with our spine. Think of it like our animal part of the brain, it helps to keep us alive by sending messages to our bodies (through the spinal cord). It’s our basic survival part of our brain, right in the back of our neck. The amygdala is the region that controls memories and emotions. It’s more on the right side of our brains, closer to our ears. It’s like our brain’s souvenir box or yearbook, reminding us of different things when we smell, see, touch, taste or hear anything. The prefrontal cortex is kind of like the more human part of our brain. It controls our logic and reason. It’s in the front of our brain, basically in between our eyebrows. This part is very critical when it comes to making decisions. 

Prefrontal Cortex Amygdala Brain Stem ...continued from page 25 ations were abused into speaking English in the past, many of them did not speak their Native languages even after returning home and having babies or grandkids. They may be too scared to speak or teach it because their prefrontal cortex is shut down; their amygdala remembers the abuse that is associated with speaking their Native language. The brain stem keeps telling the body to be prepared to be hit but our prefrontal cortex is not saying “It’s okay!” This can apply to other situations where abuse was used, too. This might seem random but this is where I want to mention our Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep cycle and why it’s important for this process. Our eyes rapidly move in all directions during this cycle which is the restarting process of our prefrontal cortex after each day. This means both sides of our brains are working at the same exact time together, rather than how it normally works during the day where the right brain controls the left body and vice versa. When a prefrontal cortex is shut down and causes the broken process, we’re not getting enough time in the restarting process (using both sides of the brain simultaneously, like during REM sleep). A symptom of experiencing trauma is the lack of REM sleep, which adds on to the stress that lingers after the traumatic event.

But we can also restart the prefrontal cortext while awake by simply tapping back and forth between the sides of our bodies. For example, there is a process called Emotional Freedom Technique, or the Tapping Solution that’s proved to change our responses and reduce anxiety and restlessness. In aligns our mind and body connection. You can simply Google or YouTube this process. Or through professional help, you can receive something called the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy. Eventually, the process won’t be broken anymore and life will change. Our logic and reason will be back and we’ll continue to heal. Then our REM sleep improves too which helps us to maintain mental health!

#3 We have something called the Window of Tolerance

It has to do with our highs and lows and it can play a big role in our addictions and habits. Imagine two horizontal lines that form a window, or hold your index finger and thumb straight out and see this window. Now, picture a line that follows

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your moods. Sometimes it’s higher, closer to the top when you’re doing great and in a good mood. Or there are times when you have a bad day and you’re feeling down. This line should stay within the window, but it can go up and down as it pleases. But sometimes, things happen that causes it to leave the window like a sudden death in the family can cause it to go out of the window on the bottom, making us severely depressed. Or, we can panic if we’re almost hit by a car, which makes the line go out of the window on the top. This is where anxiety roots, it is opposite of depression. When we experience traumatic events and suppress our emotions without healing ourselves, this window gets smaller! Imagine putting the horizontal lines or the index finger and thumb of the window closer together. That means it’s easier for the line to leave the window, resulting in anxiety or depression. So we’re stuck in those emotions for much longer, it’s harder to stay in the window because now a simple bad day can cause us to feel depression the same way we’d feel the loss of a loved one. It is when we seek help and nurture our wounds that we can help the Window of Tolerance get bigger again. We must now know how to recognize if we’re out of the window below it or above it. So, when we’re below and feeling


depressed, that means our heart rate is low. We don’t want to do anything. Or, if we have substance abuse problems, we want to get higher somehow. To get back into the window, we need to get our heart racing again. This is why exercise is important when going through a hard time, too. We need to move around and get the line back to normal to rid ourselves of the depressing moods. But, if we’re keeping ourselves too busy and we’re moving ourselves around too much, we experience anxiety. Our heart rate is too high and we’re out of the window too much. This is when we need to settle down to enjoy a sunset, do some yoga, practice meditation or simply just rest to slow down our heart. The Window of Tolerance is connected to addictions because of this high and low dynamic. Some people smoke weed because they want to calm down and bring the line down from the top of the window, which brings us down to below the window. Some people get addicted to cocaine because the line is below the window when they’re not feeling great, so they want to bring it above the window. This is also applicable with other things like alcohol, meth, heroine, etc. That is why it’s important to widen this window if it’s small due to trauma. This is why it’s important to heal the wounds of the past, the things we go through now.

Bonus: Help is out there for you. You can receive all types of professional help and there isn’t just one way of going through therapy. Here are some examples. I mentioned the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy earlier before. This has to do with helping your process improve by restarting your prefrontal cortex. Therapists get certified in this type of therapy and it’s becoming more accessible. It is especially suggested to go through when you experience symptoms of PTSD. There is also something called Sensorimotor Therapy. If you’ve been physically or sexually abused, this type is suggestion. It is a body-centered approach. Sometimes, going to therapy where you just talk with a professional isn’t enough because the trauma is within our bodies and how we carry ourselves. Within the

moment of trauma (like with domestic chologytoday.com That is where I found abuse), the victim may not fight back and my help after deciding to look somewhere it becomes an unfulfilled response. These else other than the Indian Health Services. unfulfilled responses stay in your nervous Google is a helpful source to look further system (brain to body communication) into these therapies. and can result in things like slouching, Please take care of yourself before shaking, nervous tics, anxiety, depression, taking care of others. Try to be honest with etc. Sensorimotor Therapy allows you to yourself and don’t be afraid to call these fulfill the responses in a safe space. professionals. They want to help you. Cognitive Behavior Therapy helps And for those who live in rural you change your patterns of thinking or Alaska, the first step to getting the limited behavior that may affect your day to day help that is already available in or near life. This could be helpful when it comes to your home is still a big, important step. As verbal abuse and it causes negative self-talk. a Native community, we can push this conWe never think we’re good enough because versation forward and start talking about we’ve been told over and over before that more specific solutions. We do not have we’re bad people. If we’re told something to accept the wrong diagnoses, treatments enough, we begin to believe it even if it and answers. We are not a bad statistic. may not be true. CBT changes our minds We are not the lack of resources. And just from being negative to being more posias our trauma can be inherited or passed tive. It takes a lot of practice and support. down, so can our strengths. These are just a few examples amongst many types of therapies out there. This article was originally published in the There’s also Interpersonal Therapy (for rela- Fall 2018 issue of First Alaskans Magazine tionships), Mindfulness-based Therapy (re- and was re-published with permission. lapse prevention), Family Therapy, Group Therapy, and Psychodynamic Therapy (early childhood) addressed trauma for a couple other quick car crash examples. Anxiety You can even find deadline or test therapists who help bad day through texting or depression e-mailing these days! loss of a loved one If you are interested ignored trauma in learning car crash more about receiving deadline or test Anxiety professional help, a great resource bad day depression for local therapists is at www.psyloss of a loved one

Window of Tolerance

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About the Artist: Landon Eck grew up in Kotzebue, Alaska. He is currently residing in Phoenix, Arizona. He hopes his hard work will pay off so that he can make his dream come true of becoming a professional tattoo artist. His art journey began with his love for art that his mother instilled in him at a young age. Landon says that his philosophy when it comes to art is, “Try not to suck.” and “Don’t worry about the things of life. Just practice how you represent them on paper.” Mediums he uses are Drawing, Digital, and Watercolor.

Landon Eck


d A X u n h q ‘A l   x u u  I am Eyak By Raven Madison The traditional homeland of the Eyak people covers the Southeastern shores of the Prince William Sound in the North Gulf Coast of Alaska. The Native Village of Eyak is a federally recognized tribe with 420 tribal citizens. As of 2015, 44 percent of Eyak tribal members did not have the required one-fourth blood quantum to legally harvest marine mammals under the current MMPA regulatory criteria. Although I descend from many generations of Eyak people who harvested marine mammals, I am among the growing number of Eyak descendants that are legally unable to carry on this part of our culture. This is especially important given the gradual loss of culture and language that Alaska Natives have experienced since contact. This is harming our communities. Our culture is at the brink of extinction, as well as many tribal members being made criminals for teaching and mentoring. We Cannot Become “More” Native The reality today is that with each successive generation, Alaska Natives blood quantum continues to decline. Currently, over 60 percent of Alaska Natives within the Gulf of Alaska are under one-fourth blood quantum (SeAlaska Heritage). This presents a significant issue for Alaska Native descendants who harvest and use marine mammals for subsistence and cultural use. The Criminalization of Tradition Congress enacted the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to prohibit the taking of marine mammals in danger of extinction. Recognizing the impact that such law would have on Alaska’s first people, the late Senator Ted Stevens created an

“Our culture is at the brink of extinction, as well as many tribal members being made criminals for teaching and mentoring.” exception for Alaska Natives to continue harvesting marine mammals for purposes of subsistence and handicraft. Tragically, this exception only applied to those Alaska Natives with one-fourth blood quantum or higher. Under the current law, Alaska Natives of less than one-fourth blood quantum can be criminally charged for harvesting the very animals that their ancestors have for thousands of generations. Marine mammals are especially critical Alaska Natives that dwell in coastal areas who harvest them for food, clothing, regalia, art, and income. The reality today is that with each successive generation, Alaska Natives blood quantum continues to decline. Currently, over 60 percent of Alaska Natives within the Gulf of Alaska are under one-fourth blood quantum (SeAlaska Heritage). This presents a significant issue for Alaska Native descendants who harvest and use marine mammals for subsistence and cultural use.

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Blood Quantum in Alaska The use of blood quantum to determine a persons’ degree of Native ancestry is a construct that has long used by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In Alaska, the term “Native” was defined in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 to mean persons’ of one-fourth degree or more Alaska Indian (including Tsimshian Indians not enrolled in the Metlakatla Indian Community) Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or combination thereof.”  In the absence of proof of a minimum blood quantum, the law also included those who were “regarded as an Alaska Native by the Native village or Native group of which he/she claimed to be a member and whose father or mother was regarded as Native by any village or group.” (Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act. Public Law 92-203, Sec. 3 (b)). Although blood quantum has never been a true indicator of Native identity, it continues to pose a threat to tribal peoples in the form of laws such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972.

As of 2015, 44 percent of Eyak tribal members did not have the required onefourth blood quantum to legally harvest marine mammals under the current MMPA regulatory criteria.


1

4

my body is pulled

when you didn’t call

into your orbit

i turned to poetry

remembering all the longing my mind tucked away, because of the galaxies between us

5 Conditional. Spatial. Incomplete.

2

The trauma in you Mirrored the tragedy in me

even after all this time your soul, smile, and words

Splintered homes, shattered trust

melt the ice

Our souls creaked in the same pressure

that has packed away my heart

Sleepless eyes, silenced hearts Time, dissonance

3

Miles apart

I settle, nestle into your nooks so easily I know the creak of the floorboards of your soul

I ached for you always Until it became evident We were not each other’s Medicine

and they only sound to me like home

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by Inuuraq Evans

colonial love


so m e d a y s a re l i k e th at and the rainbow in m y r e a r v i e w mi r r o r m a k e s m y e y es feel p ie r ci n g a nd h o t h ow d oe s t he wo r ld a lw a y s k n o w a s i t ph y s i cally h u r t s to r e st r ai n t h e ou t r a g e at h o w t h e f u ck d id t h i s h a ppe n b ut t h e n s he wh i s pe r s i n my ear f rom a n oth er t i me so m e ti m e s I alway s t h i n k of h o w i t u s e d to be an d mi ss it

wi t h a glassy far away look seei ng and f e e ling my mothe r’s c h i ldhood and he r o wn t h e close st we ’ll e v e r c o me to naming wh at has happe ne d t o us an d she is playing so li taire on the flo o r with the smell of cigare tte smo k e and stale Lab a tt’s thicke ning t h e w all be twe e n us so we can ne v e r sp eak ab o ut how womanhood c an be an inv isible b at t le within e v e ry d ay

SOME DAYS B y Ay y u Q a s s a t a q

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and how hurt w om e n we aponize the i r suppre sse d pain t o claw f or af f irmation f rom all the wrong place s and that le arni ng to warn our daughte rs is a lif e long le sson a s no one te ache s us how to make the sile n t scre am audible ye t some how t he stre ngth f orged f rom our e te rni t y of ov e rcoming transf orms int o be auty and no one te lls you you are your ow n re ward in the e nd


Photography By Eben Hopson


Photography By Eben Hopson

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Tiguasina:

A Tikigaq Inupiaq story as told by A s a t c h a q to Tom Lowenstein, translator I’m going to tell the story of a Tikigaq boy who spent all day in the qalgi. When he had nothing else to do he played in the qalgi. And whenever he heard someone in the village had died, he took a strip of baleen that was lying in the qalgi and he went to the katak, and with his legs on either side of it, he lowered the baleen through the katak. And pretended to be working on it, slicing it in narrow strips. His game was to lower the baleen and then pull it up again. He did this when he heard someone died in Tikigaq. He worked like this with baleen when he heard there’d been a death in the village. Now, one evening he got himself a flare which was a stick dipped in seal oil and he took an owl’s wing brush. These are things the spirits are scared of. While he was sitting in the qalgi, he felt cold air rising through the katak. He had the stick and wing with him. And the first time he sat there with the stick and wing. They started moving on their own beside him. Their bouncing and their quivering got violent, And then the stick and wing jumped through the katak. People used to talk a lot about the spirits in those days. The stick and wing had chased away the spirit. And in its sudden flight, the spirit had left some things that belonged to it. One thing that a spirit sometimes leaves behind is a grave wrapper. And the first man to come into the qalgi was heard saying, “some children have left this caribou skin in the qanitchaq.” It was a corpse wrap. The spirit had left it.

In those days there were six qalgis. Now there are only two in Tikigaq, Qagmaqtuuq and Unasiksikaaq. And when Tiguasina heard that they were going to shamanise in Qagmaqtuuq, he went to the qalgi but found the entrance of the qalgi was blocked with a sled. And the boy, whose name is Tiguasina, continued playing. He was pretending to be shaman. Now Tiguasina knew another boy in Tikigaq who told him they were going to hold a shaman se’ance at the qalgi called Qagmaqtuuq. In those days there were six qalgis. Now there are only two in Tikigaq, Qagmaqtuuq and Unasiksikaaq. And when Tiguasina heard that they were going to shamanise in Qagmaqtuuq, he went to the qalgi but found the entrance of the qalgi was blocked with a sled. They had closed the entrance but Tiguasina moved the sled a little, to one side and climbed down to the qanitchaq entrance tunnel. And he hid himself between two whale jaw bones in the qanitchaq. He stood between the jaw bones of a whale and listened. He heard them starting in the qalgi The name of the anatkuq was Utkusik He had three people in there, a man, a small boy and a woman, and he was

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instructing them. And while Tiguasina was hiding in the qanitchaq, he heard them starting. He heard the shaman say “take a light and see if there’s anyone down in the qanitchaq.” He thought someone might be hiding down there. Someone lit a stick, and went down to the qanitchaq. He saw nothing. He missed Tiguasina who was hiding between the whale bones: The man passed him, but didn’t see him. When he got back in the qalgi he said “there’s no one in there?” “ii,” said Utkusik Now, after this, a little later, Tiguasina noticed the sled which blocked the entrance moving sideways. Someone was coming. A man was coming he came in and closed the entrance after him. The man’s face was hidden by a wolf mask. The man with the wolf mask sat down in the qanitchaq, facing the katak. Tiguasina, standing hidden between whale bones, watched. Then he saw a man’s legs


And people were told to go to the qalgi that evening. Tiguasina went there with them and sat down by the wall bench. In some qalgis there was this one narrow board they used to sit on and the shaman Utkusik began performing. He held up a harpoon in his hand and he started walking around the qalgi aiming the harpoon at the people who were sitting there. Finally he came to Tiguasina. And Tiguasina took some plaque from his teeth and spat it on the harpoon that the shaman pointed at him. And the head of the harpoon fell off. Utkusik pointed the harpoon at Tiguasina again and again. But each time he did it, the head fell off

coming through the katak. A man came down through the katak, and when he’d arrived, the wolf ’s mask snapped its jaws together; And the man went up into the qalgi, saying that he dared not stay down in the qanitchaq. He’d seen a terror, he could not approach it. The man said it was a spirit. He dared not approach it. Now it was the boy’s turn to go. The boy lowered his body through the katak; then he stopped. He saw the man in the wolf mask. And the wolf ’s jaws snapped. And he too went back up into the qalgi. He didn’t dare approach the spirit. And Utkusik said “whoever goes up to the thing in the tunnel will become shaman’ that’s what Utkusik said. Now it was the woman’s turn. Show lowered her legs through the katak and went down. And the man who sat facing the katak took his mask off. He beckoned to the woman and she went towards him. Tiguasina watched from his hiding place When the woman got to him, the man pulled a caribou skin from underneath his parka and spread it on the floor. “Lie down” he said to the woman, “lie down” and then her took her on it. When they were finished, the woman went back up to the qalgi. And after that they all went to their houses for the night. When he woke up the next morning, Tiguasina

went to find the boy who was training to be a shaman. He found him outdoors playing. “Did they see a spirit yesterday” Tiguasina asked him “Yes “ the boy said “A real spirit?” “A real one,” the boy said Tiguasina pointed to an iglu skylight that was lit from within. “You see that window? There’s your spirit.” He pointed, and he told the boy about the man last night who acted the spirit “The owner of that iglu was your spirit” Tigusina said and the boy said that he would get back what he’d paid the shaman for his instruction. He found out that it wasn’t a real spirit that had scared him. He said he’d get back what he’d paid the shaman.

When Utkusik saw he was defeated, he aimed the weapon at himself. He harpooned his own breast and he killed himself. He had been shamed by Tiguasina That’s why in the earlier days, the women never wanted to become shamans. They didn’t want to end up like the woman in the story. The story ends here. In the stories we’ve published so far in our series, there’s been some mention of the Tikigaq ceremonial house, the qalgi. There were, before contact, with Euro-Americans, at least six qalgis, in Tikigaq. Today, as you may remember Asatchaq mentioning, there are only two, though these qalgis only denote social groupings now: the last qalgi buildings collapsed in the early part of this

The qalgi was predominately, but not exclusively, a men’s house: and it was here that ceremonies, games, dancing, work on hunting gear and storytelling sessions were conducted. The periods of maximum qalgi activity were autumn and early spring, when the major whaling rituals were performed. - 41 -


century. The qalgi was predominately, but not exclusively, a men’s house: and it was here that ceremonies, games, dancing, work on hunting gear and storytelling sessions were conducted. The periods of maximum qalgi activity were autumn and early spring, when the major whaling rituals were performed. The mid-winter period was quieter: and it is this fact which helps us to place Tiguasina’s story in the annual cycle of events, and explains Tiguasina’s presence alone in the empty men’s house – although this circumstance is actually exceptional, since the qalgi was strictly an adult precinct. To help you visualize events both in this story and in those to come, I should like to give you a simplified sketch of iglu and qalgi architecture: for in a real sense, it is this space carved from wthin the earth which gives shape to a lot of the narrative action. In fact, the qalgi was more or less identical to the domestic iglu, only larger. Each was a semi-subterranean driftwood and whalebone dwelling insulated with sod and seated and lit with seal oil lamps. Entry was through a passage, the qanitchaq, (this was often build entirely of whalebone), and from the qanitchaq, you raised yourself into the living area through a hole called the katak. It’s above the katak that we first meet Tiguasina.

Utkusik’s accomplice, to bring truth and falsehood into confrontation, and so unmask the fraud. Just as the man in the qanitchaq is masked to represent a spirit, so Utkusik is really only wearing the mask of a shaman. And as Asatchaq observed during his own childhood in the early part of this century, there were real shamans (anatkupiaq) and what he called ‘lying shamans’: anatkut sagluruat. Over the generations many people were no doubt often duped by the pretensions of shamans such as Utkusik. Nonetheless, the community seems to have kept a sharp eye on its practitioners: and it’s in stories like this one that a tradition of practical skepticism was apparently cultivated. By demonstrating that the self-seekers and the frauds could without too much trouble be exposed by genuine visionaries, even in periods of decadence, the spiritual life of the community could be revitalized.

Now in the highly elaborated Tikigaq society, the qalgi was perhaps the central social, political and religious institution. A destitute child such as Tiguasina who has taken up residence here suggests to an Inupiaq audience only one thing: the bravura of someone who is already a shaman, and whose behavior is therefore to a large extent free of conventional constraints. In fact what we see happening at the beginning of the story is part of a process of self-initiation: Tiguasina is handling spirits (tuungaq) almost as other children play with model skin boats and bows and arrows. And it is perhaps, this fact of Tiguasina’s self-initiation which opens for us the meaning of the rest of the story. For in the personal experience of neither the other shaman Utkusik, nor his students, do real spirits exist: instead they are caught up in comedy of cynicism, greed and deceit, and it therefore become the responsibility of Tiguasina, who has witnessed both genuine spirit-life and the charade of

Now in the highly elaborated Tikigaq society, the qalgi was perhaps the central social, political and religious institution.

Note from editor: This story was taken from a publication by Maniilaq Association, pictured to the left. This original copy was gifted to the editor by Willie Hensley. Please contact us if you would like any more information on the old publication.

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Iñuk suli ilitqusia tuqusuitchuaq ilisimammigaat. Niġrutit aglaan taputivlugich tainna Iñupiat pisuurut. -Pa gu a la k

Puiguitkaat


They also know that a person’s soul, spirit, never dies. The Eskimos extend this concept to include the animals also. - C ora Un g a r o o k

1 9 7 8 El d e r s ’ C onf e re n c e C h a p t e r 2 , pag e 55


The Hunt_______________________ It is a ritual of sorts in the sense that all rituals require blood.

All the rest of the animals are wondering who do we think we are to dine among men?

Ah but the temple, our tundra our ocean our prayer.

I do not deserve the rich heritage gifted to me.

You go into this and truly give yourself up to God. A world where you can be the greatest among living things, and the least.

It is a higher order ritual, We have always maintained that what is occurring is not that animals, these wisest of God's Creatures, are so dumb as to be caught by us

I am the ugliest and pettiest of men and only because I know myself so well.

Yeah we knew God alright but rather, they take pity upon us and give themselves up. That was the world we lived, and the one many of us still live in. we came into this world abruptly, us who had so much dignity, only to have the nature of dignity exposed for what it is: a luxury. Our birth into this new world we came in at the level of dogs but like that dystopian pig we demanded a place at the table.

The easiest thing in the world to be a good human being I say I hardly know what the fucking words even mean sometimes. But I am blessed, and I have been charged by virtue of birth into this world and Christened Maaruk by the only people in the world who love me without condition. They love me and I love them; our sad little family. We hobble around life and wonder what happened to us?

because he speaks to us continually if we just sit and be quiet. This is our prayer and the ritual blood is provided, the sacrifice to God that the animal is no unwilling participant. A gift to us, the most foolish of God's creatures.

_______________________by Warren jones


Photography By Nyla Ivanoff My name is Nyla Ivanoff and my passion for photography started 3 years ago when I went to Fairbanks for RAHI (Rural Alaskan Honors Institute). I was in a new place so of course I wanted to take it all in and capture the special moments. Once I would look them over, I noticed that I had a unique perspective than others and a special eye for a beautiful photo. Ever since then I’ve been looking for all the beauty thus world has to offer. My next move is to take steps into starting my own photography business in a few photography genres.


e a r t h bound by Stephen D. Bolen

A woman so lovely; I hold my tongue in awe Rumbling with the strength to walk and walk on further An enigma I course through, the battlement of heart and mind I lose both at her every moment’s presence, possibly in vain Outsourced is the sentence, this beauty of our time standing still A mistake to claim all these words belong to me Alone, I am a venturer–leaping forth to the wildness of my blood I burn, playing with life like mazes I’ve created out of boredom Blossoming entities procure the sanctity of my eternal estate Joining the others’ bodies, I’ll be dragged from the grave Thrown, placed upon the top of the dusty stack for the blind to love Would I count upon the honor of exhaustion; tending to the pulsing penalty The joy and dream of granting her every subliminal desire Why must I recite her beauty, the vessel of the unobtainable Bringing on the extinguished before aflame, so this light may shed her wants To history as if we trust it’s coming, to daylight as if we believe it will last I am a mode of precision decorated under a kaleidoscope of an original instrument What density of mannerisms quell, surely if smiles dilute question A chimera might beat out the chiaroscuro for a secular marriage’s mound To break tectonic tendencies as substance ascends to a summit’s face.

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SPIRIT IN THE SKY

Playlist Make you feel my love A D EL E

seasons in the sun J a c q u e s B re l , R o d M c K u e n & Te r r y J a c k s

I’ll Be Missing You P u f f D a d d y & Fa i t h Ev a n s

Aakuluk, Pt 1 The Jerry Cans

She talks to Angels T h e B l a c k C ro w e s

JUkai J h e n e A i ko

Spirit in the sky N o r m a n G re e n b a u m

You Turn Me On I’m a Radio Joni Mitchell

FIND T H IS P L AY L I S T O N THE Q A RG IZIN E SPOTIFY


Caribou Soup for the Soul By Paulette Schuerch

"Always smile and dance a little while cooking. If you cuss, or you're in a bad mood, this recipe will not turn out at all. Happy cooks make happy and delicious food." Alaska Natives have been here since time immemorial surviving by what the land, air, and the water can provide. Our people not only relied on the animals, but we also cooperated to ensure everyone in the community had what was needed. Over many generations, we have learned to adapt to a changing world. First by following the migration of our herds, the movement of the sea animals and the vegetation that kept us healthy. Today, we are faced with obstacles such as public policy, federal regulations, multi-governing bodies, agencies and departments that protect our animals, lands and waters. They make decisions on what they perceive to be best for us as Alaska Natives. There are many federal, state, and local boards, commissions and committees that have spent a lot of years seeking the correct answer to what “subsistence” means. Although this work has not gone unnoticed, it still did not find a solution to food securities nor has it come to a consensus on what subsistence is.

Caribou

Four handfuls (if your Mom didn’t send enough caribou less is okay) Cut your caribou into 1-inch pieces and coat with a beef stew packet in a medium bowl, heat your pot and add olive oil. When hot, sear caribou pieces until fully brown to lock in all the juices. Once the

caribou looks like it is done, add a couple courts of water or fill ¾ of the way up. Make sure you have caribou fat for flavor. (Boil for an hour)

Carrots, Celery & Onions

Two handfuls each, however, you may use half a large onion or one small onion. You should cut them about a ¼ inch thick and be consistent, so it can cook evenly. (Add to your pot about 15 minutes into boiling) Once it comes to boil, reduce heat to a rolling boil. That’s at about medium heat.

Stewed Tomatoes

One can Del Monte, or Hunts is best, however if you are still in college or shopping at AC then you can purchase those cheap generic type (not much flavor but will still do the trick). The flavored options, like Italian, are great too.

Cabbage

½ small head shredded. No, you don’t pull out the cheese grader; you cut your cabbage in half and slice very thinly and cook until translucent (there’s that darn word again). This recipe is a laid back recipe and after about an hour and a half you will have some of the best caribou soup you ever tasted. Always smile and dance a little while cooking. If you cuss, or you’re in a bad mood, this will not turn out at all.

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Happy cooks make happy and delicious food.

Variations

You can use various kinds of meat, it is fine if you use moose (which I don’t like because it’s tough and tastes too gamey for my taste buds). If you don’t have access to game meat, you can use beef too. This recipe is also good with corned beef; no, not from a can. You buy it at Fred Meyers or Costco and boil it whole for about four hours then cut into bite size pieces and follow the instructions above. If you have caribou heart and tongue, it’s even more amazing. Use 1 heart and two tongues! If you are in the city, beef tongue is good too, but that’s if you are very homesick and have no other caribou tongue to cook. If you prefer your soup to comfort soup (hearty rather than healthy) omit the cabbage and substitute it with a hand full of rice and potatoes (cut into pieces of course), two handfuls of macaroni and a handful of spaghetti broken in quarters in the last 20 minutes.

Traditional Style

If you are out in the country caribou hunting in the fall, boil your caribou with river water, add onions and cook for about an hour then add rice. That’s all we had a long time ago, and you can find a lot


If you are out in the country caribou hunting in the fall boil your caribou with river water add onions and cook for about an hour then add rice of people in our villages cooking it like that. Don’t use as much water so it can be tastier. You don’t have many fresh veggies in the villages, so this is your typical soup you eat more than you’d like throughout the year. If you have bones or ribs use that too, it gives it a lot of flavor and the patiq (marrow) is great! My favorite time to go hunting used to be Labor Day weekend on the Kobuk River. However, with warmer days and transporter hunters (which are unregulated by the way) we now head up river three weeks following Labor Day. It’s very expensive to buy gas to travel from Kotzebue to Onion Portage on the Upper Kobuk area. We can hunt as late as when the sound and rivers freeze. In the Fall of 2011, when I moved back home to the Region after being gone for six years I had to hitch hike to go hunting… literally! My friends Guy, Allen, Daniel and Juanita, brought Adrian and I to Noorvik in a boat. I waited at my Aunt Nunga’s until she got off of work. Then we left with my Uncle Verne for the Upper Kobuk River. We spent the entire weekend hunting and drank boxed wine! You should see my new wine glasses that my friend Bea made for me; she glued stems

My favorite time to go hunting used to be Labor Day weekend on the Kobuk River. However, with warmer days and transporter hunters (which are unregulated by the way) we now head up river three weeks following Labor Day. to mason jars so now I won’t spill a drop! Once our hunting weekend was over, we traveled down the river to Martha Wells’ camp (she’s one of my many Aana’s) and visited Tommy and his family. A couple of boats from Noorvik and Kotzebue came by to see how our hunting went and how many we caught. They were short on gas, so I offered them some if they can take me home. We transferred my caribou into Martha and Gary’s boat, and they drove

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me to Noorvik. Once there, we transferred them into Pakik and Kim’s boat and they brought Adrian and I back to Kotzebue! That was the best hunting trip ever! Well, almost! I once took my daughter Jacqui and son Ned hunting when they were little. Jacqui, in all her brilliance, asked if we could just shoot the fox running on the river bank so we can just go home after being out all day without any luck at getting a caribou! Once you have made the caribou soup several times you won’t have to look at this recipe again, it will soon come naturally to you. If you don’t like this recipe, just rip out this recipe from the book and throw it away or use a red pen and write… she lied, it’s not the best! Remember all recipes are for guidance; you can omit and change anything. You can use your spices rather than the beef stew packet. If you don’t have all ingredients in your refrigerator then you’l have to use what you have. I added zucchini before and it was great. Happy cooking and always remember: happy cooks make happy food, happy food makes happy families. And, like my Papa told me in the 2nd grade, cooks don’t wash dishes!


THE QARGIZINE HAS AN OPEN SUBMISSION PROCESS If you or someone you know would like to submit stories, artwork, photography or any new ideas, please visit www.esquimedia.com for more information. STORIES OLD PUBLICATIONS NATIVE LANGUAGE LESSONS TRADITIONAL STORIES ARTWORK PHOTOGRAPHY ESSAYS MUSIC PLAYLISTS AND MORE...

Profile for M. Jacqui Lambert

The Qargizine Spring 2019 #9  

The Qargizine aims to instill the knowledge and pride of the rural and Alaska Native cultures in today's generation.

The Qargizine Spring 2019 #9  

The Qargizine aims to instill the knowledge and pride of the rural and Alaska Native cultures in today's generation.

Profile for mjacqsonn
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