From the Editor Just like any other issue, doing research for the Spring 2017 Qargi Zine was an exciting journey. It started out with a piece shared by my taata Tarruq. I must have read his words about 4 times since he submitted it and I'll definitely be reading it more in the future as well. In it, he makes a great point by saying "it is important to emphasize that we can promote positive change individually for the capacity to change collectively." After doing a call out on Faceboook for submissions, I got in contact with Chuck Schaeffer who recently traveled to Greenland to show them how he makes a basket sled. Although they dogsled in that part of the Arctic too, they've never seen our version of a sled before. He also talks about the way racing changed the Husky breed in Alaska and shares some great photos, too. One of my biggest missions for this magazine is to help educate the youth of Alaska about our history. So, I shared a speech given by Elizabeth Peratrovich in February of 1945. As the production of this magazine continues, I am learning more and more about the designing process. I've been picking up any magazine I can to study their layouts and typography. My collection of design textbooks is increasing as I am teaching myself different techniques and styles. This was once an intimidating dream of mine, but I faced my fear and confidence followed
M. Jacqui Lambert
contributors Inuuraq Evans Kim Sheldon Chloe Naylor Tarruq Christina Fields Chuck Schaeffer Tiffany Creed Taylor Bernard Hannah Atkinson Stephen D. Bolen Alice Glenn Melissa Ingersoll Iqilan Glenn Gabe Tegoseak
On the cover: Illustration by Jacqui Lambert
Inupiaq: A Surviving Language
14 18 28 33 40 42 47
About the Artist: Kim Sheldon An Inupiaq Guide to Survival Tarruq Dogmushing Symposium in Greenland Chuck Schaeffer Window Seat, 153 Tiffany Creed Elizabeth Peratrovich Speech Victimized or Empowered: The controversy and social undertones of an Alaskan brewery's beer title Alice Glenn Tuttullak: Caribou soft bottom maklaks Hannah Atkinson
145 lbs Stephen D. Bolen
Recipes Iqilan Glenn & Melissa Ingersoll
PHRASES FOR CAMP Siiksuq. Aanaga siiksuq. Asiaqtuqtuq. Qirriuqtuq. Aapaga qirriuġuuruq. Sikutaqtuq. Imiqtaqtuq.
She is cutting fish. My grandmother cuts fish. He is eating berries. He is chopping wood. My father chops wood. He is getting ice. He is carrying water.
iñupiaq a surviving language
Tautuktugut tuttumik. Tautukkiga tuttu. Aŋuniaqtuq. Aullaaqpich auravak? Qanutchiñik asiaġniaqpich? Manniŋñiaqpich?
We see a caribou. I see a caribou. He is hunting. Did you go to camp this summer? What kind of berries did you pick? Did you gather any eggs?
Nikaitchuat Phrase Book
Puiguitkaat, 1978 Barrow Elders Conference
well, here I'll just tell it the way I understand it
Puiguitkaat, 1978 Barrow Elders Conference
#inspiredbyalaska use this hashtag to see your photo featured in the next issue
Lettering and Photo by Chloe Naylor
AbOUt THe ARtiST Kim Sheldon My name is Kimberlyn Qutailguq Sheldon. I was raised in Noorvik, Alaska, and I'm currently attending the University of Alaska Anchorage. My journey as an artist began with a love for drawing. I use art to portray parts of my life, thoughts, and imagination that I otherwise wouldn't be able to express.
acrylic on canvas paper
ker, and ink on illustration rd
marker and ink on illustration board
marker, ink, and colored pencil on illustration board
scratch board portrait of Ezra Adams
AN IÑUPIAQ GUIDE TO SURVIVAL by Tarruq
CONTENTS: Forward - General Overview of current conditions Respect - What it should be and why it’s important Identity and its’ Power - An exercise in self awareness Fear - Being Afraid or Being Courageous The Roles Of Our Inupiaq People What Needs To Get Done - And By Who
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF CURRENT CONDITIONS This paper was difficult to write. When the realization that most of the reason was because most Inupiaq and their descendants have been taught to think in circular patterns, most of the difficulty went away. Accepted western linear writing methodologies and disciplines do not necessarily fit our ways of articulation and thought, and this paper may be easier to read and follow once this is understood. Additionally, virtually all material written about us is from the outside looking in, and it is not easy to reflect upon ourselves not only for the reason stated above, but that our inner selves do not lend themselves to be open for discussion, so to speak. Yet in many public meetings, we hear of the issues and problems that plague us, and we have to know where we have been in order to know where we must go to heal and get on with life. It may be important to note that it is not only us that needs healing, but more and more, the enitre human race that is not well could contribute to improve their lot and strive to heal as well.
"Our Elder’s by themselves are not the singular educational task to restore and improve - we as the Inupiaq society all are."
The first thing to say is that anything to do with our Elders is not meant to be disrespectful by making assumptions that they may not agree with. The following is only a guide to promote thought that is intended to contribute to restoring our traditional respect for our Inupiaq spiritual ways of the past. Then, we can work to restore the traditional respect for ourselves, others, and our Elders. Our Elder’s by themselves are not the singular educational task to restore and improve - we as the Inupiaq society all are. As they would say, thought that is good for us is useful if it contributes to us as Inupiaq People, but unless we take whatever action we do as a result of our being educated to their ways, it will be forgetten and useless. Far more important is that we act and do what we need to do together with the utmost respect for our Elders and each other, becuase it is for our children. They, more than anything else, are the hope we have for us to thrive as Inupiaq. No one else but us can and should do the task. And we must, because our children learn from us not only by how we say things to them, but also by our actions. In many ways, our children are much more intelligent than what we have been led to believe by western educational systems, which has little faith in children’s and different minorities’ intelligence.
The re-awakening of the value of our Elders has caught our Inupiaq people unprepared and unsure how to proceed with returning them to their rightful place as our traditional teachers. In the past, we have grown up being taught to ridicule our Inupiaq identity as well as the teachings of our Elders. This resulted in the intentional devaluation and shame of our Inupiaq society by the BIA and religious intervention by stripping away our traditional spiritual roots for the last one hundred years. Today, as the descendants of what’s left of our Inupiaq way of life, we are now at a crossroad as to where to go next. Along with the devaluation of ourselves, we are struggling with issues of dependence upon the “white ways” that predominate our current chaotic state of social order. The choice, rather bluntly, is to continue to do little or nothing, or to “get over it” and do something positive to contribute to the restoration of our Inupiaq way of life. We can only save ourselves if we strongly feel that we make important what we believe. It is up to us to instill those values, whatever they are determined to be, to regain the spiritual strength in ourselves, our children, our families and our Tribe. As human beings with human rights as Inupiaq, we need to know what we have as “Inupiaq Treasures” (all that is good and healthy for us) on a social, intellectual and spiritual sense, as well as to know what those human rights are. That is why the Elders are so important. For the most
part, they have the valuable life experiences and “have been there and done that” yet we intentionally ignore their wisdom because we have been taught to do so. It is no small wonder that they have been made to feel ashamed of what they know, so much so that they pass away without teaching and leaving the legacy of their wisdom. Therein
"In the past, we have grown up being taught to ridicule our Inupiaq identity as well as the teachings of our Elders. This resulted in the intentional devaluation and shame of our Inupiaq society by the BIA and religious intervention by stripping away our traditional spiritual roots for the last one hundred years."
lies the task. We need to do what needs to be done to unravel the past so that we can restore their confidence to share the wisdom they have. In a historical perspective, we are the remnants of a society that has endured innumerable hardships. Yet we still have the basic good habits of our ancestry, such as the will to survive amongst social chaos along with the prolific abuse of drugs, alcohol and other bad things which we are now and have
experienced. The end result is the spiritual deprivation and social insecurity caused by the negative aftereffects we know too well. Unfortunately, some of us think that these are ends to themselves, and treat such issues with detached sincerity coupled with an attitude of non-commitment and apathy to the well being of our Inupiaq identity as a whole. Then we expect someone else to fix the problem. At some point in our history, we must change our way of thinking and stop treating ourselves as victims, and begin the process of thinking of ourselves and participants to whatever change we can agree. Physical health is important but so is spiritual health. Social inner peace can only come if we take the time to teach ourselves, our children and our grandchildren with the wisdom of our Elders. Even those Elders who have personalities that tend to “turn us off ” have knowledge that is valuable, and ways must be found to approach them so that they can contribute to the well being of our efforts to survive. It is important to emphasize that we can promote positive change individually for the capacity to change collectively. While the American systems of social order are based on democratic principles of individuality and its inherent selfishness, we need to know that, as Inupiaq People, we have the human right to our Inupiaq identity. This is family, extended family, and tribe, we we value as “communal.” Our traditional Inupiaq way of life was and could still be communal in
nature. Despite the stigma of what the non-native American nation thinks of communal lifeways*, using inaccurately defined words such as communism (considered an enemy of democracy) is stupid and tragic at the same time. While we understand the concepts of democracy and individual rights, communities should also have rights, to maintain their values and social well-being that are needed in their villages. It is important to understand that individuality unto itself contributes to individual greed. Traditional Inupiaq systems of social behavior had ways of dealing with individual wealth. Honoring the giver of wisdom, foods and clothing was a way of life which contributed to the communities and their social order which ensured the survival as a group. The reality is that communal life was the way of life of past centuries contributed to a reasonably happy although sometimes difficult Inupiaq existence. We have the human right to be proud of who we are and what makes us who we are, despite enormous pressure to be assimilated into western society. Since we now know that we do not fit into totally “antiseptic” western ways, this is a grave cause for concern since this has resulted in “social uncertainty” to how we function as individuals, as a family and as a society. This triggers community spiritual and social unrest, a community lack of confidence, and all the social ills that accompany a dysfunctional community on an unprecedented scale. This is, in reality, a on-going evolution of the
"We can only save ourselves if we strongly feel that we make important what we believe." destruction of families, extended and otherwise, that we are talking about. Ultimately, this will result in the total elimination of our Inupiaq people if we continue to do nothing to contribute to our well-being and purpose to exist as Inupiaq. The tragic result of the western world’s misunderstanding of our Inupiaq society are policies and governmental programs and rules and regulations that continue to force-fit our past social structure into one that cannot last, since the outcome is not the desired result of either our Inupiaq cultural ways or the western way of life. It makes one wonder why we continue on this dangerous and terminal path. Obviously, over generations, the power of education and who controls it, which is the hope of the future of our way of life of our people, has been taken away, and is now the product of the dominant western ways. Assuming we all can agree that education is of primary importance to even begin to fix our problems on our own terms, we must take the time to find ways that fit for today’s educational needs, and blend both our Inupiaq way of life and the western world in which we must
excel. To do anything less will be to admit defeat and have our social situation continue on its path of continued destruction. We, in fact, are awash in ethnic cleansing. This has happened to Alaska’s Native people since the early 1900’s and continues today. It may well be said that since institutions like the BIA that intentionally helped us disrespect our identity and values have long since gone, we have done a better job of contributing to our own demise since they left. Do we have the courage to admit that this is true, and ask why? And even more important, what are doing about it? We have the human right to peace. Despite what we have evolved into for the past one hundred years or so, our past spiritual and cultural ways of getting along respectfully with ourselves and others need a lot of restoration in life today. While giving the appearance of being rather simple values, they are the key elements of our path to a peaceful and harmonious family and communities. The comprehensions of spirituality, respect and Inupiaq worth that can contribute to a healthy community must be taught. Uses of wholistic* respect along with the individual
and community commitment is understood to be both physical and spiritual. We must also relearn who and what we are, and encourage the task to come to agreement for what we envision as the solution either in whole or in stages. Without our Elders, and the knowledge of social order and spiritual harmony they possess, we cannot correct the path of where we are heading today. In simple language, we must know where we have been in order to know where we must go. *lifeways is used instead of “lifestyle” which suggests a casual choice which does not exist in this context *wholistic (holistic) is intentionally spelled this way to avoid a religious misinterpretation A sign of a true Elder is the powerful peace they bring. RESPECT What it should be and why it’s important Respect is the cornerstone of what we were and are now. If we are to return to our true identity, it is impossible without the restoration of wholistic respect, in the Inupiaq world of view. It cannot be emphasized enough how important respect is. In the world today, wholistic respect for fellow humanity has diminished to a point of causing global insecurity, which results in the spiritual and social dysfunctional failures of nations, countries, cities and villages. Tribes, families and
individuals, and in our case, our Inupiaq being is affected as well. It could be reasoned that respect, or the lack of it in an individual person, will reveal itself in a family, tribe and nation. It also reveals a disconnection from physical and spiritual teachings that taught respect and the need for it in the first place. With the diminishing of spiritual strength is the potential combination of arrogance and ignorance, which are defined as the twins of evil. When they prevail, it is difficult to reverse, especially when the negatives are generations old.
"We have the human right to be proud of who we are and what makes us who we are, despite enormous pressure to be assimilated into western society." We are fortunate, in most ways, to have a direct link to the success of our People in our Elders. In spite of the fact that we have been “civilized” by outside influences for the past one hundred years or so, there are still Elders who are knowledgeable about our past ways of family and social behavior and spiritual inner strength. The task we face is re-establishing the respect for the Elders knowledge, as well as to think of ways to
restore the tribal appreciation for what they contribute to our sought-after harmony. In order to do so, it must be understood that the respect of Elders exists because they have earned respect. For those who think that respect can be demanded because they have reached an age where the role of Eldership is automatically given, traditionally, this is not so. If the traditional ways of Eldership is not followed, this situation presents another set of problems, such as hypocrisy, disrespect, and the inability to be a sincere contributor as an Elder. As a matter of fact, any village knows who their Elders are. As a cornerstone in any healthy existence, respect is an absolute necessity for future survival of Inupiaq. Quiet wisdom rings deep. IDENTITY AND ITS’ POWER An exercise in self awareness Since we as Inupiaq people are only a hundred year separated from our traditional hunting and gathering ways of life, those skills remain important to us. So, we try to pay attention to what happened to our ways of survival skills. Unfortunately, political happenings cannot be ignored, not to blame, but to understand. In researching the Alaskan Constitutional Convention proceedings in 1955-56, the sole reason for doing so was to try and find out how they handled
the “Native Problem” during the course of their deliberations for Statehood. Of course, when you also know that of the 55 delegates elected to the Constitutional Convention, only one was an Alaskan Native, it could drive the desire to distract from the proceedings themselves into other instances of injustice towards Native Peoples from the time of the Western arrival here during the turn of the last century. When, during the course of the discussion of how to structure the fish and game management system for the new state, one delegate made the observation that “In England, a wild animal is inherently sovereign until reduced to possession.” Understanding the political environment of the days prior to statehood, and learning from that to today’s application, if we change “wild animals” to “Native People,” it could create some debate as to if we have been “reduced to possession.” From our point of view, we can relate to our experiences the damage that has been caused by the latter assumption. If indeed we have been reduced to possession, then we must examine what happened to us during the course of “ethnic cleansing” that has happened for the last one hundred years or so.
The important point to make is the attempt to strip us as Inupiaq People of our inherent identity, and in fact has created a silent situation of “identity crisis” that we need to recognize for what it is, since the effects are far reaching in the results of our current spiritual and social condition. What must also be understood is that this exercise is not intended to lay blame to feel again as victims, but to teach us what we must know to educate ourselves out of our identity problem by those knowledgeable amongst us and our own terms. The start of Nikaitchuat Ilisagviat and the teaching of the little ones of knowing who they are, as well as to instill in them Inupiaq pride is only a beginning, and we will see the outcome of their success as human beings now and years “down the road.” It is the responsibility of the Inupiaq community to make welcome any effort to be Inupiaq. If we do declare that our Inupiaq heritage is important enough to stand up for, then we should be well on our way in healing ourselves with an intrinsic commitment to restore all that is good within our Inupiaq ways as tools for the future survival of our Inupiaq people. It is as simple as that. Race, as an identifier of our
"Obviously, over generations, the power of education and who controls it, which is the hope of the future of our way of life of our people, has been taken away, and is now the product of the dominant western ways."
Inupiaq ancestry, should not be construed as the western world connotes it - as an evil thing. We have the human right to identify ourselves as Inupiaq, and we have the human right to protect our inherited identity. Anything short of doing so is to give away a part of who we are, and we have done enough of that! A valuable exercise to try is to ask your loved ones the question - “Who are you?” and “Who do you belong to?” The resulting conversation should be interesting, since it will reveal either some knowledge of their thoughts on who they are, or at least generate some curiosity to talk about identity within the extended family. Simply put, the family is the center of teaching, where it should be respected as such. Are we willing to continue to give this responsibility to someone else? To exist as free people, we cannot enslave ourselves with ignorance. FEAR Being afraid or courageous While growing up, we were told of what to be afraid of, and our little heads were wild with whatever imaginations happened as a result of being conditioned to know fear. For some, we were told that when we were out in winter and the Northern lights were bright and beautiful, when we whistled, they would turn red and that our heads were going to be cut off. This was probably a good fear to have, since in the old days, we did not have curfews, so that when we
were supposed to be home to rest up for school, that was a way to get us home. Another fear, and not so good, was being taught to fear dogs and other animals. In the old days, dogs were very mean, and would think nothing of biting anyone they did not know or who might have teased them. Unfortunately, when children were taught to be afraid without explaining or fear was used to discipline them, this kind of fear stayed and even grew with the child. We can all relate to these kinds of fear. There is, however, another realm of fear that needs to be understood to try to overcome. This fear is uncertainty, and an absence of confidence, spiritual and otherwise. On the surface, it looks simple. But looks are deceiving, and this fear has grown much deeper than people realize. As a matter of fact, fear is used by some people to convince them to do what they would not normally do. Whether itâ€™s politics, religion or social issues that are used, in the absense of spiritual strength, fear will rule, so to speak. When we speak about spiritual fear, some examples are fear of death, fear of others different than ourselves, or simply fear of truth. Before we go any further, it is important to understand that to be spiritual, we need not be religious. If the good of the past is to be understood and used to improve ourselves, we must come to terms with the past religious and spiritual practices to better understand our ancestors. Topics such as shamanism, traditional spirituality, and religious ways
"It is the responsibility of the Inupiaq community to make welcome any effort to be Inupiaq."
should be encouraged. It must also be understood that not all shamans were bad, and that we must get over the brainwashing of ourselves to become whole people again, and in order to do so, we must become educated about those ways of life. I, like everyone else, would not welcome anything bad upon ourselves, while we understand that there were both good and bad shamans, just like there are good and bad human beings. This kind of fear could be because of ignorance, or if felt by those who would have nothing to do with this kind of teaching, there should be reciprocal respect for those with differences and leave it at that. It will take a healthy dose of truth to even begin to overcome the fear that prevents progress. THE ROLES OF OUR INUPIAQ PEOPLE
Within the realm of social, spiritual and personal chaos, the lack of clarity of purpose causes more of the same. In order to have a society restore itself to spiritual peace and harmony, all members of the Inupiaq society must contribute not only with clarity of purpose, but the total commitment to positive change. In the life experience of what we have had to deal with in the last 200 years, it is abundantly clear that what is happening now is not acceptable. In the sequence of what it is we must do, the distractions of physical and material existence must not deter us from the real problem which everything else
stems from. It is not meant that they should not exist- it only means that we should agree to have our priorities permanently straight. We must agree that the core problem is spiritual. For those with a religious objection, it is an issue that they must learn to separate contemporary religion from traditional spirituality. We must agree that our Inupiaq identity stems from a spiritual core into other identity issues such as language customs, traditional skills, and our social behavior. Why not work to become a social model that works? If we could come to agree that spirituality is where to start, then the roles can become clear. First, the role of Elders is to be the keepers of the peace and harmony of our Inupiaq spiritual and physical selves, as well as the Inupiaq intellectual capacity. Then we work to find ways to improve
our identity issues, such as reuse of our language, and the spiritual strength to restore social order. Second, the roles of parents is to commit to the use of Inupiaq language and lifeways in the home, and to contirbute to the success of Eldership by learning from those who know regardless of age. In this way, self esteem will mean something to the intrinsic spirit. Third, we must find ways to improve the spiritual growth of ourselves for the good of our children. It would be up to individual families to better support the ways of our extended family, as it is the core of our Tribal identity and existence. It will require taking our educational tasks back from materialistic to traditional spiritual core values. Fourth, we must understand that as a distinct Inupiaq People, we have the right to practice our ways. To do this, we must restore the good ways of the past, such as the passage of youth to manhood and womanhood, the traditional gatherings to convey our wisdom, and all other ways of our Inupiaq being, including who we elect to help govern ourselves, with the commitment to excel in all aspects of whatever it is we commit to. When we are able to celebrate the good in life, this adds to the unity of our Inupiaq identity. Social activities important to identity is what must be done regularly to reinforce traditional activities such as dancing, feasting, and the revival of the Qatiigi.
"Whether itâ€™s politics, religion or social issues that are used, in the absense of spiritual strength, fear will rule, so to speak." What we do not understand, we should not judge.
WHAT NEEDS TO GET DONE Work? This paper is a very simple attempt at possible solutions for a very complex set of problems that are generations deep, and will likely take generations to fix, if at all. It requires families with guidance from their Elders they respect to talk about what needs to get done, because every family must commit
to changes within themselves to effect outcomes healthy for them as indviduals, as traditional extended family, and as Tribe. As Inupiaq People, it is the spiritual strength to our survival we must talk about. Then, we get busy on doing what it takes to get things done. No one else is going to do it for us, because we wonâ€™t accept any other way. At some point, we must quit talking and start doing. We must practice what we preach. We must also state what our values will be. As well as the Inupiat Ilitqusiat values, we must establish community values as well. This will give direction and a vision of what we want to be, instead of becoming something not of our choosing. If the Elders and their communities accept that peace and harmony is important and the only way of life that is acceptable, then it is a lot of work that must be taken on by all. The opportunity has presented itself, as we are well aware of the risk of the loss of our Inupiaq identity. Now, we must deal with issues of dependencies, from materialistic selfishness to the expectation of someone else dealing with problems that belong to us, and by taking the responsibility of doing the saving of a valuable way of life by all contributing in a positive way to whatever it is we agree is the issue and the solution. All it takes is the commitment of every Inupiaq to contribute. Then, we can look forward as being a whole People again. We will have tried. The opposite of love is not hate, but indifference.
Taku is the Inupiaq term for when hunters check the ice conditions in the morning before getting the crew to go out hunting and whaling. This piece won 13th place in Renoartio's December open contest, an international art contest that accepts sculpture, sketch, drawing street art, tattoo art, and painting. acrylic on canvas 12" x 24"
dogmushing symposium in
GREENLAND by Chuck Schaeffer
Greenland! It never ever entered my mind that someday I would be going to Greenland. But I have and here’s our story. It all started a few years ago when I got invited to the Nahdezda ( Hope ) Sled dog race in Chukotka ,Russia. Mille Porsild a very good friend of ours and the partner to Joar Ulsom of Norway had asked me if I had wanted to go. Of course I wanted to go! What’s it going to cost me? Ten grand….OK…We’ll see if we can raise some money. She had read about me doing one of my trips across Alaska from Nenana to Kotzebue. So she calls me and asked if I would be interested in going to Greenland for a dog mushing symposium. I was needed to represent the Native Dog mushers of Alaska. My job would be to build a traditional sled that would later be put in a museum in Sisimiut, Greenland. I’m like….What’s it going to cost me? She says not very much. They can’t pay you but will put you up with a host family. You will get your airfare taken care of though and the hotel paid for in Copenhagen since you’ll have to overnight there. Let’s do it. We needed one other musher to come over and help me with building a sled. I contacted a few musher friends of mine but couldn’t find one with a passport. Time was of essence…we needed someone very quickly. I ended up submitting my daughter Bailey’s name and she got selected! Off to Greenland we went. It was a very long trip. We
ended up having to go from Seattle to Rahjavnik, Iceland. From there to Copenhagen, Denmark, over nighting and then the next day back to Iceland and then to Sisimiut via Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. We were met by Pipaluk Logstup and our host’s Jan and Johanne. Jan
“When we got to Sisimiut everyone spoke Inuit.” being Danish and Johanne being Inuit. The first thing that struck me was as we were flying there from Copenhagen the announcements on the flight were in Inuit, Danish and then English. When we got to Sisimiut everyone spoke Inuit. The announcements in the terminal were Inuit, the radio in the car was in Inuit. The little kids with the parents at the terminal and on the flight spoke Inuit. The majority of people I was to meet in the next few days had Inuit names. The stores and businesses announcements were all in Inuit. When we came to our host families home and Jan turned on the TV the news station was done in Inuit.Wow! I was blown away, especially coming from a place where Inupiaq is a second language amongst the Indigenous people of Alaska. We did our sled building at the local Trade School College. This was in a part of the carpentry shop. Everything we needed would be
provided to us. Our host’s at the last two days of building as they were Tech School were awesome. The man completed with their sled. I taught cutting all of our materials would them the basics of lashing and had be Erik. So the first morning there them do their thing. It was a lot I meet Erik and gave him some of fun. We spent Monday through measurements for various parts Friday afternoon from 9 AM to of my sled while I went and made 5PM attempting to finish our sleds. some jigs and benders for the basket Saturday was to be the Symposium. sled. No one had any idea of what On Sunday morning at noon we I was about to create because they were to try the sleds out with some had never seen a basket sled before. Greenlandic dogs. That was a lot of Anyways, Bailey and I get back to the fun! Our sleds went into the Dog work bench and I’m wondering why Mushing museum in Sisimiut. I didn’t see any cut materials around our work bench. There were a bunch At the Symposium we had speakers of little scrap looking pieces laying from different agencies. The minister in the recessed top of the bench. of Culture, the Mayor of Sisimiut and I looked at them..the width and a DNA research team each spoke thickness looked like what I might about the importance of cultural need but they were all to small. What and traditional uses of dogs and how the heck? It then dawned on me important the dog had been to the that when I gave the measurements survival of the Indigenous peoples of to Erik he had cut everything in the Arctic. There are a lot of people Centimeters and just in Sisimiut that not inches. We have and use dogs “The minister of had a very good for subsistence Culture, the Mayor of activities and laugh about it all so Erik and myself Sisimiut and a DNA also for tourism. went back to cut research team each spoke Tourism seems to the proper length be viable resource about the importance of pieces. A very because of the humorous start cultural and traditional geographic location to our week of of Greenland being uses of dogs and how building. We did somewhat close important the dog had not have a steam to Denmark and box to do all of been to the survival of the the rest of Europe. our bending with Indigenous peoples of the I saw one major so I laminated problem just in Arctic.” the runners. This Sisimiut with may not have been having dogs and very traditional but it insures that that was you could not park the dogs the runner will never lose it’s bend. in your yard. There was a designated John and Erik made a steam box area right outside of the city. Very that worked very well for bending similar problems with most towns the rest of the sled pieces. The most in Alaska. This creates number of time consuming part of the project problems. You end up with an animal was all the lashing that had to be that doesn’t have a lot of interaction done as I was going to build a basket with people therefore becoming sled without bolts. I had some help a bit wilder. You have dog fights from the Russian boys during the because of this and you also have
a lot of accidental breeding. Dogs need supervision and interaction with owners. My suggestion to them was…People create rules and regulations so people can change them. I had a very difficult time attempting to convince the participants of what the situation was in Alaska as far as utilization of the dogteam in a cultural and traditional sense. I did not have concrete data as to the population of mushers and dogs within the northern part of the state so I gave my best guesstimate of memory. Growing up as a kid before snowmobiles came along just about every other family in Kotzebue owned at least 10 to 20 dogs. Kotzebue at the time had a population of at least a thousand people. It was the same in the villages because of the fact that the dogs were the mode of transportation. If you didn’t have them you simply could not survive. They were used for hauling wood, getting water or ice for drinking. They were also used for trapping and most importantly for hunting and fishing. They were a hearty breed of dog that could survive in the harsh elements. The dogs did not require special care or even a dog house.You not only had to keep them fed but had to keep your family fed. So as of 1965 I would say the just within the Northern part of the state the Inupiaq had and owned 30,000 dogs. By 1975 there might have been 5000 dogs. The snowmobile had taken over. By 1985 the number had dwindled to about a thousand dogs. During this time the purpose of the dogs began to change also. The few hardy souls that kept dogs had started breeding them for racing. Sprint racing began to attract a lot of mushers from the village. There was also a lot of
interest within the urban areas as well with the biggest races held in the state. Long distance racing was in it’s infancy but would soon blossom in the 1980’s. Little did anyone realize that this transition would have a huge impact on what the “Husky” was to become. Racers in the urban areas began breeding the Husky to various breeds of hounds to make a faster, well-built dog. Soon the village racers couldn’t compete and started breeding the village dogs to hounds also. This breeding also lead to the long distance mushing community to create a super dog that was fine boned, well proportioned and didn’t have as much fur as the original Alaska Husky. The “new” dog would not be able to survive in the harsh climate of the north any longer. Now you needed a doghouse for them, annual shots for different domestic diseases, booties, coats, leggings and various other important things. By state regulations you could no longer feed wild meats to you’re animals so now you had to buy a good commercial kibble for them. The point being is now you have made a super dog but the maintenance of the animal increased 10 fold. We have been basically decimating the Alaska Husky without even realizing the consequences. Racing has given the interpretation of “the dog” a whole new meaning to the indigenous people of Alaska. The reason that it was difficult to explain at the symposium was the Greenlandic mushers and participants from Canada and Chukotka assumed that mushing in Alaska was the same. Once they realized what I was trying to say then things got a bit smoother. They had no clue whatsoever about how drastic this change can be especially in a traditional and cultural sense.
“Long distance racing was in it’s infancy but would soon blossom in the 1980’s. Little did anyone realize that this transition would have a huge impact on what the ‘Husky’ was to become.” This new information hopefully had given some insight to participants of the symposium of what they do not want to become. The simple fact is the Greenlandic Inuit know what the importance of the Greenlandic husky means to them and are taking huge strides for the preservation of the husky and the importance in a traditional and cultural sense. They are a people that realize that they would not have survived without the Greenlandic husky and are taking measures to insure it remains a viable part of their culture. This in itself is unique because of the fact that here at home our people have not taken any steps to insure that preserving the Alaska Husky is an important part of their culture. I believe that the “racing mentality” has basically turned “off ” most people’s minds in association with the husky. Now it is my job to get the “traditional” interpretation back in the minds and take steps to insure that we don’t lose this vitally important part of our culture. It is also important to re-introduce true Alaska huskies back into the culture and to teach the younger generations not only how important this animal was to us but also being able to actually use the huskie for hunting and fishing. Bailey and I totally enjoyed our trip to Greenland. We enjoyed the association with other members of our Arctic people and of course the people of Sisimiut and their hospitality.
Chuck and Bailey at the Cultural Center
Chuck in seal skin clothing
Dogsledding in Greenland
Alaskan and Greenlandic Sleds
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by Tiffany Creed
Taylor Bernard Photography
a little girl learns to dance one day while her brother plays the drum they sing the songs from yesterday and they do it just for fun.
behind each dance and within each song lies the truth of our story a culture almost gone. at the tips of our tongues at the breath of our lungs comes the truth we ignore we might sing these no more. -jacqui lambert -iĂąuuraq evans
how different are we? the land and i we are both life bringing; fertile & generous or life taking; harsh & depriving according to how we are treated -iĂąuuraq evans
ELIZABETH PERATROVICH FEBRUARY 1945
I would not have expected that I, who am barely out of savagery, would have to remind gentlemen with 5,000 years of recorded civilization behind them of our bill of rights. When my husband and I moved to Juneau, we sought a home in a nice neighborhood where our children could play happily with our neighbors' children, and we found such a house and had arranged to lease it. But when the owners learned that we were Indian, they said, "No."
Would we be compelled to live in the slums? Even now there are doors to schools closed to our children and
signs that make it quite clear that I, as well as dogs, are not allowed in certain establishments, and
Well, discrimination occurs in many ways, let me assure you. There are three kinds of persons who practice discrimination. First, the politician who likes to maintain an inferior minority group so that he can always promise them something. Second, well, the Mr. and Mrs. Jones who aren't quite sure of their social position, and so are
kind to you on one occassion and can't see you on the next, depending on who they are with.
Third, the great "Superman" who believes in the superiority of the white race. Well, it is this kind of perpetuated thought that serves to segregate and discriminate. And an answer to Senator Shattuck's earlier question,
"Do we believe that the passage of this bill will eliminate discrimination?" Well, have you eliminated larceny or murder, by passing a law against it?
No law will eliminate crime, but at least you, as legislators, can assert to the world that you recognize the evil of this present situation, and speak your intent to help us overcome discrimination for all Alaskans.
the controversy and social undertones of one Alaskan brewery's beer title by Alice Glenn
Local Alaskan craft beer brewery, The Midnight Sun Brewing Company, has recently been under fire with accusations of promoting rape culture and the sexual victimization of women for their Belgian-style tripel beer named Panty Peeler and the associated label artwork on the beer can. Members of the Alaskan community have stated that this beer is offensive and dangerous to women, especially coming from a state with the nation’s highest rate of sexual assault. While these accusations are founded in constructive social ideals, they are a misguided solution to an underlying problem of victimizing women rather than empowering them. Rape and sexual assault is a serious problem within our communities that all too often goes unreported and unjustified. One sexual assault is one too many. It is unfortunate that our social structure and justice system have not always provided the safe and supportive environment needed for women to stand up against their offenders. There are also alcohol and substance abuse problems within our state as well. Oftentimes alcohol and substance abuse go hand in hand with sexual assault. Within our country as a whole, this is a problem—take for instance
"While these accusations are founded in constructive social ideals, they are a misguided solution to an underlying problem of victimizing women rather than empowering them." the highly publicized case of college student and rapist Brock Turner and his short six‐month sentence for sexually assaulting an unconscious woman during a college party. The woman he assaulted was incoherent. He dismissed any responsibility for his actions. Prosecutors fought for a six year sentence in prison, but the judge sentenced him six months in jail; he was released after three. Because Turner was a young, bright, Stanford college student and because he was under the influence of alcohol, the judge granted him leniency, allowing him to be released early. Isn’t drunken sexual assault still sexual assault? And shouldn’t the law be upheld for everyone—regardless of class or race? By granting leniency, the judge dismissed the crimes committed against the young woman who fought for her own
justice for a full year. Additionally, our society oftentimes places the blame on victims of sexual assault for allegedly getting themselves into risky situations. In no way does a woman solicit sexual assault by wearing a sexy or skimpy outfit, and in no way does this relinquish any man from his own self-control—drunk or sober. Women are not objects of sexual desire. All women should be respected for their mind, body, and spirit, however they are dressed. And we should all, men and women, be held accountable for our actions. Alaska has recently received a federal grant to reopen over one thousand unfinished cases of rape and sexual assault. No one seems to know why so many rape kits over several decades
had gone unprocessed, but this is a great opportunity for some victims of sexual abuse to potentially receive lawful justice. Taking strides against sexual assault continues to be a long and tumultuous battle in our communities on the local and national level. The gravity of rape carries over to the gravity of the accusations of promoting rape. This brings me back to The Midnight Sun Brewing Company. Upon a glance I can see where people make the connections from a beer named Panty Peeler, to the naked woman on the label artwork, to the image being perceived as sexual in nature, and then to alcohol related sexual assault. But even breaking down this connection step by step, I have
"Midnight Sun Brewing Company also carries another beer called Pleasure Town IPA with a naked man riding a caribou through the sky as well. We are not up in arms over this beer, but why? Because a naked man doesnt warrant sexual solicitation, but a woman does?"
some difficulty. The beer name is Panty Peeler. Without context, I can see that this name might seem a little unorthodox to some, but the name is open to interpretation. This beer is made from coriander and orange peel. Panty Peeler may be just be a play on words with orange peel and undergarments. To make the leap from a beer named Panty Peeler, to sexual assault is a stretch. There are many reasons to remove one’s undergarments, but rape is the last reason I think of. Second the picture on the beer can doesn’t appear to be sexual in nature at all. There is a cartoon woman who is riding a caribou across the sky, naked, throwing her bra and panties to the wind. Sure the woman is nude, but being nude doesn’t always imply or solicit sexual advances. The woman appears to be a happy, strong, and free person, who is naked by her own accord. Midnight Sun Brewing Company also carries another beer called Pleasure Town IPA with a naked man riding a caribou through the sky as well. We are not up in arms over this beer, but why? Because a naked man doesn’t warrant sexual solicitation, but a woman does? If so, I am not only concerned that people in my community jump from a mild image of a naked woman to rape, I am disgusted. As
a woman, my body—naked or clothed—will never be subjected to over‐sexualization or victimization by anyone. Men and women are not just their bodies, and Midnight Sun Brewing Company's cartoon images do not support any notion of victimization. I understand that concerned people seek to be sensitive to social and health issues within our state, but sometimes when one becomes overly sensitive to issues, it can perpetuate problems rather than alleviate them. Take for instance the issues of racial inequality. As an Alaskan Native Inupiaq woman, I believe it is important to be proud of my culture and proud of my fellow native people, but at the same token I don’t separate myself from my nonnative peers. I don’t wish to be treated any differently in opportunity or accolades amongst any group of people. When we start using gender or racial identifiers in everything that we do, we are perpetuating a separateness between people rather than working together. If we’re sensitive enough to know and understand there are differences among us, but create a world catering to those differences we’re perpetuating a problem of inequality. If we become overly sensitive about this cartoon image of a woman’s body and even insofar suggest that it promotes rape culture, we are supporting an idea that
"If we become overly sensitive about this cartoon image of a womans body and even insofar suggest that it promotes rape culture, we are supporting an idea that womens bodies are reduced to objects of prey.... Is the problem the beer can, or is the problem a dated perception of women?" women’s bodies are reduced to objects of prey. And this is not true. Women are not prey; they own their bodies, just like men do. I advocate the empowerment of women, but by attacking a local brewery owned and operated by women, will that fix anything? Is it the best route to combat a statewide sexual assault epidemic? There are bigger and better avenues to combat sexual assault like raising awareness and educating people at a young age. We should be teaching children and adults about boundaries. Everyone should recognize that these people are your friends, your family members, and your neighbors. We should be persecuting sexual offenders, rather than giving them a slap on the wrist. Instead of blaming
a beer can, we should be holding offenders accountable, the justice system should follow through and carry out proper sentencing, and we should empower women, not victimize them. Changing one beer name isn’t the solution to the greater problem. The discussion is ongoing and the exposure to social issues are being recognized. It’s both a shame and blessing that it had to happen at the expense of a local, cooperative, and forthcoming organization The Midnight Sun Brewing Company.
I understand that most people have good intentions behind these accusations. I understand that they feel they are doing their part in combatting serious social and health problems. It can be difficult to draw a line between what is creative and what is appropriate, and sometimes when one has to question or defend the motives so much, then there probably are inherent flaws in it to begin with. I agree. I see this, but I also feel I have some responsibility to question the basis of these allegations and to question these perceptions of women as a whole. Our perceptions of each other drive our social interaction. It is important to be progressive and empowering towards women rather than belittling or victimizing, especially in a state with the highest rate of sexual assault. Is the problem the beer can, or is the problem a dated perception of women? Because a naked woman on a beer can doesn’t offend me, but the fact that you correlate women’s bodies with rape culture offends me, and concerns me as well. Victimized or empowered? I choose empowered.
"I advocate the empowerment of women, but by attacking a local brewery owned and operated by women, will that fix anything?"
Walking Downstairs at Maniilaq As he passes, he says: Too much coffins, Too much caskets, Too much crosses. He drops his eyes, He shakes his head. by Tiffany Creed
1 2 3
TUTTULLAK caribou soft bottom maklaks
1 2 3
Tanning caribou leggings with sour dough.
The leggings had to be scraped with an ikuun to make the skin soft for sewing.
The pattern for the body of the maklak utilizes almost the entire set of leggings. The back legs are shaped into the front of the boot. The front legs are cut for the back of the boot. Here the front and back have been sewn together.
The strip that connects the uppers to the sole is called the killiġauq in Iñupiaq. I used a strip of caribou fur that has been dyed with alder bark by Ally Nelson.
Connecting the sole to the killiġauq.
by Hannah Atkinson
I started dreaming about maklaks last winter. On a snowmachine ride, ice fishing, or on the back of my friend's dog sled. Bunny boots felt like a block of ice on each foot. I switched to stagger mukluks some time last year, looking for something lighter. I was light on my feet, but the cold would creep in within an hour of being out in the country. Although I had learned how to sew hats of fur and leather using traditional methods, maklaks seemed out of my league. Then I was gifted a set of caribou leggings. After a lot of encouragement and direction, I set off on a journey to make maklaks. I’ve got my caribou soft bottom maklaks all wrapped up! I’ve gone such a long ways with them and I haven’t even left the house yet! Learning to make maklaks was an amazing journey and it wouldn’t have been possible without mentorship. Thank you to Vika Owens for introducing me to skin sewing. Thank you to Lena Jones for cutting the pieces for mymaklaks and all of the guidance on tanning and sewing. Thank you to Alice Gallahorn for the beautiful alder dyed killiġauq. And thank you to Louie Nelson for the gift of caribou leggings and all the thorough instruction and demonstration on how to put the maklaks together. Thanks also to Diana Saverin for encouragement to learn the traditional skill of tanning. Sewing is something I’m passionate about: it’s helps me make sense of the world and it is an avenue for me to express myself. I hope that others feel empowered to try it out while there are so many elders willing to teach the traditional ways. Or if it isn’t sewing, find something else you’re passionate about.
145 lbs. by: Stephen D. Bolen I had taken my rise to power Each dance on a ring, The boundaries of my moments, The mat—always free. I would hit the skulls Crash down upon frames of all Unlucky souls. Bands around our ankles We fought and bled to clocks —and I was untouchable. My graceful counters, The legs I’d claim and quickly set down. My rounds and the machine My body had become. Each movement as lightening, yet placed So accurately as thread breaking through Needles barriers, my pride—I matched. In the golden armor I was lifted Out of this darkness Into raw instinct. Some would cower, all would fall, The opponents of my life Would be held to their bounded backs. I composed history in the honest form Of technique Undeniably my arm would rise, Then I found defeat— Handed to me by a faceless stance, In a breath, under the light, I lost My name, my dream, my passion, My pride. My hands had been strong, My hands had been faithful, Praised— then at my side, my hand did not rise.
shared cuisine by iqilan glenn
Maktak. Mikigaq. Quaq. Qiaq. Boil it. Ferment it. Freeze it. Chop it. No o d l e s . Wi ne. Ice cream. Salad.
Oh how varied our meal choices of today: Tradition or modern day options. Different foods from different cultures. Different foods for different generations. Its preparation is universal. Its purpose is to nourish. For the old, traditional Native foods are essential, for the young, modern day meals are available. Whale steaks and french fries anyone?
Uncle Sam’s 3 Bean Buq Buq Soup Ingredients
by Melissa Ingersoll
6C Chicken Bone Broth (made from 4 chicken thighs) 4 Chicken Thighs with bone and skin 3C Dry Beans: 1C Garbanzo, 1C Great Northern, 1C Large Lima Beans/6C water soak 1C Button Mushrooms, sliced very thin 12oz Hempler’s Peppered Bacon, cubed 12oz Quartered Red Cabbage 1 Med White Onion, pureed with 1 cup of water 1 Cup Coca Cola 1 Cup Broccoli 2 TBS Butter 1/2 cup plain, organic yogurt, NOT LOW FAT
1 tsp Parsley 1/2 tsp Celery Salt 1/2 tsp Ground Sage 1/8 tsp Pink Himalayan Sea Salt 1/8 tsp Cayenne Pepper 1/8 tsp Coriander 1/8 tsp Cinnamon 1/8 tsp Paprika 1 Bay Leaf
Day Before Bone Broth - 14 hours Rinse chicken thighs under cold water, inspect for feathers, clean etc. Add to large pot with 1 gallon of filtered water. Bring to boil, then simmer until meat falls off the bones @2 or more hours. Remove meat from bones and store for soup and shred, remove skin to save for later use (not in this recipe). Return bones to liquid and return to boil. After boiling has been reached, turn heat to LOW, cover with a lid and simmer for 12 more hours. Next day, reserve 6 cups of broth for soup. Beans - 8 hours Step 1 - process dried beans according to recommendations or use the overnight soaking instructions (8 hours) using 6 cups of filtered water with 3 cups of beans. Day Of Bacon Using Hempler’s Peppered Bacon, cube and panfry. Remove Veggies Slice mushrooms finely. Chop cabbage and broccoli into desired sizes, set aside until the last 5 minutes of cooking. Dice onion and add to food processor or Vitamix and puree with 1 cup of filtered water until a puree is made. ***Onion is extremely hard to process in the tummy for people with weak immune systems or a compromised digestive systems. Pureeing will help the body absorb the nutrients. Soup Add 6 cups of bone broth, 1 cup Coca Cola, pureed onion, sliced mushrooms, fried bacon and shredded chicken to pot of water and bring to boil. Add butter, spices, reduce to medium heat and simmer for 1.5 hours covered. Last 3 mins of cooking, add Red CabbageLast 1 min of cooking, add Broccoli. Serve immediately, garnish with side of organic plain yogurt, do not use fat free.
The Qargizine aims to instill the knowledge and pride of the rural and Alaska Native cultures in today's generation.