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The Civic Forest Urbanism After Extraction


The Civic Forest Diana Ang Giovanni Bellotti Kelly Leilani Main Alexander Wiegering


The Civic Forest Silesia developed during the twentieth century mainly through the economy of coal. As new mines were opened, worker’s settlements followed along with infrastructure and services. This growth produced what we read today as a dispersed metropolitan area, where scattered industrial and extraction facilities are connected through railroads and motorways, where woodlands and water bodies exist as islands, framed by a low density, fragmented “city”. As coal extraction drove urbanization, housing followed in a relation of mutual dependence with mines and industry. Today, while the metropolitan area sets itself to gradually transition to a post extraction economy, the traces of coal mining and consumption remain clearly visible on the ground, not only in housing and industry but in the soil, the plants, and the water. Emissions of sulfur dioxide, deposits of heavy metals in the ground, and terrain subsidence due to mining have affected the acidity of the soil and the topography of the land, transforming over the span of 50 years the vegetation and the form of the region. Conifers were replaced by deciduous species; new water bodies appeared as a consequence of soil subsidence; farming for edibles became impossible. The current definition of “forest” as areas mainly occupied by hard wood species determines perimeters and boundaries subject to common vegetation patterns. According to this definition, forests in Silesia account for thirty percent of land cover, mainly located on publicly owned land. This reading, however, fails to define the forest as a political space, a component of the Silesian metropolis rather than its counterpart. We propose to address the forests of Silesia as new centers, capable through their scale and complexity to speak of the current problems and ambitions of the metropolis. The civic forest frames the collection of Silesian forests as a civic space; a space charged with a human agenda - environmental, economical and social - where to address ambitions and frictions between preservation, production, and extraction, through which to imagine new relations between domestic, productive, and protected spaces.


civic adj, [ etim. 1540s, originally mostly in civic crown (corona civica), a chaplet of oak leaves awarded to one who saved the life of a fellow citizen in battle, from Latin civicus “of a citizen,” adjectival derivation of civis “townsman” •Relating to the duties or activities of people in relation to their town, city, or local area

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forest noun, [etim. foris, outside the realm of the enclosed, domestic sphere.] •A dense collection of trees covering a relatively large area. •A certain territory of woody grounds and fruitful pastures, privileged for wild beasts and fouls of forest, chase and warren, to rest and abide in, in the safe protection of the king, for his princely delight and pleasure (John Manwood in Treatise and Discourse of the Laws of the Forest).

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The Civic Forest Jarosław MIKOŁAJEC, “Spatial Restructuring of The Katowice conurbation, as a typical coal conurbation, has been trying throughout the Katowice Conurbation” its history to get rid of its original chaos and fortuity. This disorder affects not only the conurbation as a whole, but also each element of its parts, including even the smallest mining estates. There are two different ways of conforming the spatial order to the changing society: either can it be completely rebuilt, or new sense can be given to the existing spatial order. A real evolution of the spatial order of the mining estate would be found somewhere between these two different possibilities.” Janusz Sowa, President of the Polish Scientific There is [only] one method for managing forests: an axe.” Council of Forestry Peter Del Tredici, “Disturbance Ecology and “[Reclamation] starts with the assumption that the ecological clock cannot be turned symbiosis in mine-reclamation design” back to an earlier time. Its broad goals are to minimize the negative impacts that the site may have on the surrounding environment and to maximize its aesthetic and ecological functionality….A core principle of reclamation is that everything that happens to a given piece of ground becomes an inseparable part of what it can become in the future.” Kathryn Moore, “A New Look at Landscape” “Landscape can be described in many ways, for example, is ecological diversity, botanical or cultural significance, its history and traditions, through its evolution, spatial structure, economic value as well as the countless narratives describing the way it impacts on us and the aspirations we have for its future. This is the idea of landscape, that is to say the relationship we, as communities, individuals and nations have with the landscape in response to its materiality. It is not just an abstract, academic concept. IT is not simply about technical details. IT is the whole package. This holistic view is in stark contrast to the habit we have fallen into of compulsively evaluating its constituent parts.” Jan Szyszko, Polish Minister of the Environment . “We must accept two assumptions. First, that it is man that is the subject of sustainable development, and so man has not only the right, but the duty to use natural resources. Second, that human development is not detrimental to the environment.” Kathryn Moore, “A New Look at Landscape” “WE are not just in a close relationship with the landscape, but part of it. It is as impossible to separate or detach ourselves from it as the air we breathe...We no longer need to reconcile the irreconcilable.” Kathryn Moore, “A New Look at Landscape” “From this perspective, landscape is not only concerned with the countryside or matters of heritage, it is not just a physical entity. It is our values and memories, the experience we have of place, our culture and identity...Landscape, what we see and experience around us, from the towns and cities to the most remote corners of the world, reflects our principals and ambitions and the expression of these aspirations in form, shape the quality of this experience.” Anne Spirn, The Language of Landscape “Landscape, as langage, makes thought tangible and imagination possible. Through it humans share experience with future generations, just as ancestors inscried their vaues and beliefs in the landscapes they left as a legacy.” 8


The Civic Forest Peter Zoch, “On Identity” “...And thus it is really about shared and individual memories, and the common or individual interpretations of the signs, structures, and atmospheres in landscapes and public realms….In times when our landscapes and environment are rapidly changing, this ability to fully understand the landscape is more important than ever… [landscape architects] must be able to read, convey, maintain and create both traces int he landscape and points and places of identification. In order to do this they have to understand cultural contexts, interpret the landscape and develop it further.” Peter Del Tredici, “Disturbance Ecology and “In short, mining results in the total destruction of existing biological communities and symbiosis in mine-reclamation design” the creation of geological conditions reminiscent of a much earlier successional state. Any concept of restoration of the land to its pre-mining state is beyond the realm of possibility.” J.G.A. Pocock. “Introduction.” Community on “The decline of community is about individualism, but it is also about local place Land: Community, Ecology, and the Public Interest increasingly subordinated to distant economic power. Environmental damage is about self-interested individualism, but it is also about land-use decisions being removed from local populations.” “Before, the natural environment was considered outside the possession of any one person but the individual had rights of usage tied to membership in a community. Subsequent economic and cultural developments that emphasized the existence of the individual over the communal eroded this relationship form. The loosening of social obligations moved landed resources into he realm of commodities that were abstracted from social context and traded on the open market.” Book of Genesis, 1:28

“Be fruitful, and multiply, replenish the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birrds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth...Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you;...”

J.G.A. Pocock. “Introduction.”Community on “…the concept of commons represents a way of being in a community. Thus, the story of Land: Community, Ecology, and the Public Interest the rendering of the commons is also a story of the eroding of a sense both of the communal and of community rights….As the sense of ownership of the environment became more individualized, so also did legal rights, which led to the demise of mediating structures that stand between the individual and the state….The traditional sense of embeddedness in family and community was lost and along with it a sense of connection with nature and commitment to a place.” Berry, Wendell. “The Road to a Place.” “Our best memories of being in a community require us to see ecological soundness and In Community on Land: social responsibility as positive goals rather than negative constraints. The economic, Community, Ecology, and the Public Interest ecological, and social dimensions of life are part of an inseparable whole.” Polish Proverb “Jakie pytanie, taka odpowiedź. Just as one calls into the forest, so it echoes back.” – Polish Proverb

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The Upper Silesian Agglomeration: Ecology and Society After Extraction

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Overview For the past fifty years, the Silesian region has been a critical driver of Poland’s coal-centric economy and political identity as an industrial society. But things are changing. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Poland has transitioned into a market-based economy and joined the European Union, where it has faced tremendous environmental and political pressure to reduce its carbon emissions and transition from coal production. While many segments of Polish society remain bound to coal’s cultural epithet, others, such as the government of the Silesian Voivodeship, are seeking a new imaginary for the future of their region. This transition has the potential to reshape the identity of Silesia from a region of extraction into a globally competitive center of innovation and production, with deeper social and cultural ties to Europe and an economy that will remain competitive and productive into the twenty first century. However, to accomplish this task, the region’s social identity and its urban form both most change.

that the forest presents beyond complete logging and extraction on one hand and preservation on the other. Unlike purely environmental objectives, a renewed appreciation for the natural environment can be seen as a driver of economic growth in the region, in addition to its essentiality for human health and its social and political functions.

At a smaller scale, such as the forests in Silesia, attempts to reintroduce native plant species is not only ecologically unsubstantiated and unwarranted given the significant pollution that still exists in the ground, water, and air, but erases the historical role and relevance of forests in the region. The coal industry transformed the natural environment of Silesia. As the region re-brands itself, another definition of the “natural” environment will be paramount. While the coal industry revolved around extraction (taking from the earth), the new Silesian industry can become multi-modal in its relationship to the environment, namely by uplifting the multitude of opportunities

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Martin Helwig, Map of Silesia (Silesiae types descriptus et editus a Martino Heilwig Neissense), 1561, Badische Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe.

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Conurbation, Trans-industrialism, and Development Potential The Silesian Agglomeration is a polycentric urban agglomeration, which is broadly defined as a region comprised of multiple self-contained settlements. Polycentric agglomerations, also called conurbations, are often characterized by a single homogeneous economic activity, where each smaller city plays ether a supporting function or is characterized by the same or similar productive function. In the case of Upper Silesia, numerous small towns developed around the central driving force of social, economic, and political life: the mine. Some cities, such as Katowice and Gliwice, have maintained their importance as centers of economic and cultural relevance even as the role of the mine has waned. Other cities, such as Bytom, were originally industrial centers, but have lost their economic vitality due to de-industrialization and disinvestment. While the fourteen cities of the agglomeration each maintain much of their original qualities and characteristics, the impacts of economic transition have been felt differently. Defining the role of each city in the future of the agglomeration is a challenge that is yet unmet.

functions, resulting in the collapse of related functions, resulting in complete de-industrialisation, de-urbanization and urban shrinkage.1 The Upper Silesian Agglomeration embodies all of these characteristics simultaneously, existing as a trans-industrial region whose different cities are experiencing different phases of industrialization, reindustrialization, and de-industrialization. If the region is to truly achieve a comprehensive development strategy that benefits all cities without selectively benefiting a few, a broader and more comprehensive development trajectory must be defined. Although the region overall is experiencing population decline, Katowice and Gliwice in particular have highly educated young populations, many of whom both appreciate the affordable cost of living and seek to contribute to a positive transformation for their communities. Local authorities are investing heavily in education and seeking foreign investment to develop industries revolving around the service sector and innovation. Investors, especially those from EU countries such as Germany continue to push for more environmentally sound practices in new manufacturing industries. A complete transition to a servicebased economy is highly unlikely given the significant challenges the area still faces in terms of quality of environment, services, and urban amenities, although this may change over time.

Although it is unclear what direction these fourteen cities and the workers estates that intertwine them are heading in, it is clear that a new type of regional spatial planning strategy is required. Other regions of central-eastern Europe that have experienced or are undergoing transitions from industrial economies tend to be influenced by four processes: (1) limited continuation of mining and traditional industry (late-industrialism); (2) re-introduction of industrial functions or new industrial plants, accompanied by special economic zones and incentives, often favoring brownfield redevelopment (reindustrialization); (3) a change in functional economic structure away from industry and towards a service-basd economy, (postindustrialism) and; (4) the disappearance of all exogenous industrial

A few remnant features of the industrial economy present interesting development opportunities. The first is reasonably low property values. The land rent curve for a polycentric agglomeration is traditionally shaped like a series of waves, with crests much smaller than in in traditional 1 Krzysztofik, Robert, Maria Tkocz, Tomasz SpĂłrna, and Iwona Kantor-Pietraga. “Some Dilemmas of Post-Industrialism in a Region of Traditional Industry: The Case of the Katowice Conurbation, Poland.â€? Moravian Geographical Reports 24, no. 1 (January 1, 2016). doi:10.1515/ mgr-2016-0004.

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The Institution:

European Union Grants Funding

Universities

Community Groups

Advanced Research

Carry out work at local scale

Establish as State-Owned Enterprise

Civic Forest EU2020 Economic Policy

Parks and Recreation

Environment:

Sociocultural:

Economy:

Carbon Retention

Biodiversity

Productive Landscape

Vision: Remediation

Vision: Good Living Quality Identity & Branding

Vision: Decomission Coal Production Increase Sustainable Timber Industry

Forested Area Recreation

Nature Reserves

Housing Public Facilities Tourism

Forestry Incentives for Pro Innovation Policy

Vision

Timber

Coal Decreasing Coal

Investors

Lifestyle

Environmental Groups

Increasing Timber

The Public

Labor Unions

Government

Industries

Workers

Coal Mine

Coal Supporting Industries

Coal Plant

Coal Miners, Engineers, etc.

Logging

Timber Processing

Products Manufacturing

New Workers in Timber Industry

Labor Law Ensuring Fair Transition

Stakeholder engagement diagram, showing the centrality of The Civic Forest as an arbiter of competing interests in economy, environment, and culture.

cities. This means that properties with high potential in terms of their relationship to existing transportation infrastructure and population centers are still relatively affordable. Another opportunity comes from the distinction between brownfield and greenfield development sites. Most brownfield sites in Silesia are currently owned by one private or public entity, whereas greenfield sites in rural areas often have many different private landholders with small plots. Developers are often more interested in developing brownfield sites from one entity rather than attempting to acquire numerous plots from multiple stakeholders

in the suburbs. Additionally, funding for environmental remediation of brownfield sites, which is usually a prohibitive start up cost for adaptive reuse or rehabilitation of old mines, is increasingly available from environmental groups, the government, or European Union funds. Many of these sites are located next to or within forested areas, creating the opportunity for a variety of stakeholders to engage with and negotiate on the future development of these neglected green spaces.

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Environmental Degradation, Nativism, and Prospects for Reclamation The traces of coal extraction and consumption in Silesia remain clearly visible not only in the built infrastructure, but also in the soil, plants, and water. Emissions of sulfur dioxide, deposits of heavy metals, and terrain subsidence due to underground mining affect both the acidity and topography of the land, transforming completely both the vegetation and the topographical form of the region. During the height of coal production, the native species of European coniferous trees and the pedunculate oak were damaged significantly, with wide swaths of forests completely destroyed. As the native forests died, they were replaced with non-native trees less susceptible to air contamination. Planners of the time planted a green belt to surround the Silesian metropolis, thinking that the project would clean the air and provide a more habitable and green environment, although the project was eventually abandoned. Overtime, these new forests have regrown and overgrown into themselves, often merging with now-closed industrial centers or underutilized railways. Both the forests and the infrastructure now face similar conditions of abandonment.

on private property. These actions not only create internal political tensions within Polish society between environmental groups and more conservative pro-growth elements, but are leading to increased isolation from the European Union, who may consider taking legal recourse against Poland for such actions. At the same time, environmentalism and preservationism will not suffice for addressing the complex dynamics of environmental degradation in Upper Silesia, as mining results in a near complete and total destruction of all ecological functions in its proximity. Given the immense damage done to the entire environment of Silesia, of which no corner is left unscathed, the likelihood of achieving any form of remediation which will restore the environment to a pristine wilderness is practically impossible, given both the time and capital required to undertake such investment. If preservation is adopted as a primary strategy, it will take generations or longer for the landscape to even begin to heal itself, as post-industrial landscapes require significant human investment to address contamination in water, soil, and vegetation. While total remediation is impossible, isolation is not a solution either: the forest currently functions as both a site of productive and recreational use and it will continue to do so, although the terms of engagement may need to change.

As the region slowly moves away from coal, reducing its particulate outputs from mining and industrial production, there is a movement to “naturalize” the environment by re-introducing “native” species that existed before the coal industry moved in. While these “nativization” trends speak deeply to an attachment and connection to Polish identity, these landscape trends also exist within broader paradigmatic trends towards nativism in political, economic, and social life. Trends towards right-wing nationalism, which espouse a reaffirmed commitment to traditional polish values including Catholicism, industry, and family life, are occurring simultaneously with broad sweeps against environmentalism and eco-preservation. These include threats to the Białowieża Forest, a UNESCO heritage site in Eastern Poland, and “Szyszko’s Law,” a recent law authorizing unregulated removal of trees

Thus, the divide between environmental protection and economic growth is neither productive nor adequate for describing or addressing the complexity and the opportunity that the forest provides. Only by deeply challenging our assumptions about the forest, that it is something to either be protected and preserved or subdued and used, can we push the limits of our understanding on how policy, process, and community engagement can guide the role of the forest in the future.

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The group Polish Mothers on Tree Stumps breastfeed their babies on recently felled trees around Kraków to protest “Szyszko’s Law.” Photograph: Tomasz Wiech/Polish Mothers on Tree Stumps

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Towards a new understanding of the forest and civic life In Anglo-Saxon Europe, the forest was “not a function of kingship, [but] rather the prerogative of the landed.”2 This changed under Norman law, whereby The New Forest became the explicit object of hunting and pleasure for the king, and the administrative rules of the forest encapsulated all arable land and human settlements in its midst. Those who resided within or in proximity to the forest were denied the right to use and develop their land as they saw fit.3 In this definition of the forest, the modern concept of natural preservation was born. In contrast, current definitions of forest rely on botanical rather than social or legal frameworks.Our modern interpretation of the forest evokes images of lush nature, of wooded areas and feral animals. But these are not the only qualities of the forest: the forest, when understood as a deeply anthropogenic endeavor, is placed in the foreground of political debate. The forest is an object that either belongs to all, as a resource to be exploited, or to none, preserved for itself. In Upper Silesia, the forest has the potential to be a centerpiece of regional identity is defined by the nature of the post-coal transition. The forest is a social and political project, an economic investment, and an essential component of biological life and recreation.

and tourism: although hard to quantify, the aggregate value of the social function of the forest is considered to be much more significant than its economic function.4 These three functions of the forest mirror the traditional values associated with the Silesian mining estates: home, work, and church. These three pillars formed a closed-loop circuit of production and reproduction that revolved around the continued operation of the mine and deep cultural and familial ties. At the foundation of this relationship was a deep attachment to community, a civic duty defined through work and relationships to others.

The University of Economics in Katowice describes the forest as having three major functions: protective, productive, and social. The protective function broadly addresses issues of the environment and public health, including biodiversity of plants and animals and limited nourishment through scavenging. Productive functions include that of timber, which currently comprises 10% of Poland’s economy, and other raw materials. Social functions encapsulate recreation, leisure, culture,

The Slaskie Voivodeship’s “Slaskie 2020 Development Strategy” forms a similar triad. The three priorities, broadly defined as economic, environmental, and cultural, set a framework for addressing a longterm strategic vision for the growth and development of a globallyrelevant urban region. The priorities are (A), a New Economy centered around research and innovation, (B) High Quality Regional Public Services, and (C), Culture, Science, and connections to Europe. While the current direction of the new economy is centered around services and auotmotive manufacturing, there remains a significant space for re-industrialization in sectors such as forestry, which can develop not only an awareness of environmental principles in the area but also provide work opportunities for generations. Priority B covers a wide variety of challenges, including leisure spaces, waste management, and revitalization of post-industrial and degraded areas. But it also includes an objective of developing “permanently sustainable and multi-

2 Winters, Jane. “Early English Laws: Forest Law.” Early English Laws, University of London. Accessed May 12, 2017. http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/reference/essays/forest-law/. 3 Ibid.

4 Katowice, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w. “Functions of the Forest.” Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny W Katowice. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://www.ue.Katowice.pl/en/units/unieko/functions-of-theforest.html.

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Church

functional forestry management,” an allusion to the need to both recognize and find the utility of existing forests, as well as incorporate the forest into the region’s strategic vision and identity. Such an intention can also addresses issues of air quality, degraded lands, waste management, and tourism.5 As the Upper Silesian Agglomeration and the region more generally transition away from an economy of extraction to a multi-dimensional relationship between livelihood generation, cultural identity, and environmentalism, the concept of civicness, of a duty to one’s community, may be useful. In the same way that a more nuanced understanding of the forest is impossible when framed between conservation and preservation in one extreme, and destruction and harvesting on the other, an understanding of civic identity in the agglomeration is not about the imposition of cultural values from the state, nor about the self-interest of the individual.

Work

Home

Traditional closed-loop system of Polish mining communities

Civic Forest

The Civic Forest is a new institution which mediates these conflicting ecological and economic interests and acts as arbiter between the individual and society.

Economy Society

Environment Civic Forest

5 “Slaskie 2020 Development Strategy.” Silesia Voivodeship. Katowice, 2010.

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The Grammar of the Forest

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Anthropogenic Land An intuitive assumption of what comprises a forests will often fall short in understanding the complexity and conflicts that exist beneath the tree canopy. More than layers of water, soil and plants, the forest is a complex ecology, where conflicts emerge at the intersection between varying agendas that are imposed upon it and compete within it. A traditional reading of the forest often considers solely the biological and geological elements: water, trees, animals, mountains, soil. An archaeological approach documents the legacy of industrial man: mines, rail, roads, homes. An anthropogenic evaluation reveals that slag heaps changed the skyline and topography of the land; high concentrations of tailings and heavy metals in the soil made food production impossible; rivers, lakes, and streams are the result of hundreds of kilometers of collapsed tunnels, filled with radioactive water that cannot shelter any life. Just as man makes his mark, plants also reclaim the territory. Woods and vines ensnare the steel networks that once fed the region’s economy; homes for workers, now abandoned, shelter small animals from winter frosts. The grammar of the forest proposes a catalogue of elements understood as part of a broader definition of “nature� to be found in Silesia, one where the search for new forms of pastoral, wilderness, and sublime may begin. This anthropogenic land invites new forms of knowledge and experiences yet to be discovered.

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B P PPPP BP PPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP BPB nia PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP chod PBPB a Za ---- PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Bolin PBPB ------PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PBPBPBPBP B -------PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PPPPPPPPPP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P BPB PBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBP PBPB BPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPPBPB PBPB Laka PBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PB P B P -PBP BPBPBPBPBPBP ---- BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBP BP 323 m n.p.m. B PB P B P BPBPBPBPBPB ----- -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BP BP PBPBPBPBPBPB - - - - - - B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BB P BE B PBPBPBPBPBPBPB - - - - - B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB B P BBS PBPBPBPBPBPBP ---- PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PB B PBB BPBPB PBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P PB B P BE PBPBP BPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BP PBPB BBBS BPBPB PBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B Staw P B P Bolina BPB P B B B P BE P B -----PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PB PBPBPBPBPB P BBBSPBBBP -------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPB BE B B B S P B B B P --------P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBP BPBPBPBPBPB BE BBBSPBBB ---------PPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBP BPBPBPBPBPB Kajakowy B P B P B BE B B B S P B B P ---------PPPPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBP BP PBPB BE B B B S P B B B -------- PPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBP -P P B PB P BE B B B S P B B B -------- PPPPPPPP BPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B- - - - - - - - B P B P B - - - P BE B B B S P B B B P -------- PPPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPB --------PB L BE B B B S P B B B P BE -------- PP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -----------B B B S P B B B P BE B B B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP S BPBPBP S P B B B P BE B B -S S S S S S S S S S SB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPB B S P B B B P BE B ----- - - PB P B P B SSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B B S P B B B P BE B B B S 311 m n.p.m. P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P --------- PBPBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSSS P BE B ---------P P P P P P P P P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B - - - - - - - - - - - - - PB P B P SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B B P BE B B B S P B B B --------- -P P P P P P P P P P P P P B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B ------------------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B SPBB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BniaP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P -------------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS d PPPPPPPPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P ------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS ho P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B P P P P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BacP B P B P B P B P B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B aPZB P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B BPBPBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSS lin B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B o S S S S S S P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S S S P B P B PB B BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S BPBPBPBPB BBP S P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP BSPB BPBPB -PBPBP -- --------P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P B P B P - - - - - - - - - - - - - P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BPBPB P P P P P PP B P B P B - - - - - - - - PPPPPPP PBPBPBPBPB P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P B P B - - - - - - - - - - - - - BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P PB P B P P P P P P PB P B P B - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Janina B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B PBPB P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P - - PPPPPP PB PPPPPP PBPBPB --------- --------B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P F F F F F F B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PPPPPPPPPPPP P PPPPP PBPBPB --BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P FFFFFFFFFFF --------PPPPPPPPPPPPP -- PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -------PBPBPB ---BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B FFFFFFFF ----PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPB ---B PPPPPPPPPP PBPBPB B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S FFFFF PPP ------- PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P B PB P B P P B P B P ----- -PBPBP P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B Slep P PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP - ---------- PPPPPPPPPPP B P B P B B P B P B P BBarbara ------- -iotk B P B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B P BE B B B S P P P P P a PPPPPP BPBPBP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP --------------PBPBPB P P P P P P P P B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE - - - - - P B B B P BE B - - - - - - - - B P B P PPPPPP BPBPBP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ----P Pm P Pn.p.m. P P P P B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE P P P P325 ------ BBSPBBBP PPPPPPPPPPP B PBP PPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPP ----- BPBPBP P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B B B S P B B - - - - - BE B B B S P B B B P - - - - B PB P B PPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPP PPPPPP PPPPPPPP HO A F L P B --BE B B B S P B B B PBP ----- PPPPPPPP PPPPPPP PPPPPPPP PPPPPP P --BE HO A F L P B BE HO P P P P P P P P P P P P P ---- - - - - - PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S PPPPP --------B P P P P P BE B B B S - ----- PPPPPP P P P P P P P A F L P B BE B HO A P P P P P P P P P P P P P ------------ - - - - - - P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P SSSS BP PPPPP PBB --P P P P P P P P F L P B P B P B P B BE P P P P P P P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - P P P P P PPPPPP PPPPP --------- BPB --------PPPPP SSSSS B P B P P PP P P P -----316 m n.p.m. P P P P P P HO P B P B PB P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - P P P P P S S S S S P P P P PP - - - - - - - - - P B SSSSSSS PP --------SSSS P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B PB P B P B P SSSSS PPPPPP --------- PB PP PP SSSSS SSSSSSSSS -----PB P B P B P P P P P P P P P B P B P B PB P B P B P BP P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S P P P PP P - - - - - - - - - P ----PP SSSSSS SSSSSSSS SSSSSSSSS -PBPBP P P P P B P B PB P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S B PP SSSSSS BPBPB --------PPPPPPPPPPPPP B PB P S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B P P B P B PB P B P B S S S S S S P P PP P P P PPPPP SSSSS P B P B P B S S S S S S S S S S S S S PBPBP PPPPPPPPPP BPB SSSSSS PPPPPP PPPPPPPPP BPBPBP P - - - PB P B P B P SSSSS PP PP HO A - P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S B PB P P PPPP B P B P B P B P B P F L P B BE HO A F L P B - - - - - - - - B P B P B S S S S S S P SS SSSSSSSSSS BPBP -------- SSSS P ---------------B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO - - - - - - - - - - - PB BP P S BPBP 313 m n.p.m. BPBPBPBP BE O BE O BE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO A F L P - - - ---------------- BPBPBPBPBPB B PB P O BE OBE O BE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PPPP ------------ BPBPBPBP PBP B BE HO A F L P B BE O BE O BE OBE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P HO A F L P B BE HO A F P P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - B P B P B P B B P B PB O BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P L P B BE HO A F L P B BE ---------- PBPBPBPPBPBPB P P P P P P P P BPBP BPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B PB --------- BPBPBPBPBP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---- PBPBPB BPBPB PPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPBP --PPPPP PB PBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B -- PBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPB PBPBPB PPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P - - B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B PB P B P PBPBPBPPPPPPPPPP P BPBPBPBPB P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB P B BPBPBPBP PPPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PBPBPBP P P PPPP PBPBPBP P PPPPP P BB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B B PB P P P P P P P P P P PP PPPPP - P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PPPPP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP - - - P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PPPPPP P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P B P B B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P PPPPPP P ---- PPPPPPPPP PPPPP PPPPPPPPPP - - - - - - PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P PPPPP PPPPPPPPPPP HO A F L P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P PP P P P F F F F F F P B BE HO PPPPP PPPPPP P BPB BE O BE P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P B PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PPPPPPP F F F F F F F F F F A F L P B BE PPPPP O BE O BE OBE O P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPB PPP B P B B P B F F F F F F F F F HO A F L P B BEPHO BE O BE O BE OBE O BE P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P AF P Wesola Fala --------P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F F L P B BE HO A F L P B O BE O BE OBE O BE O P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B HO PPPPPPP ---------------B P B P P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F BE HO A F L P B BE HO B BE O BE OBE O BE O BE P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B AFLP PPPPPP ------------------BPBPB FFFFFFFF B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPB O BE OBE O BE O BE O P A F L P B BE HO A F P P P B BE Wzgórza Wandy ---------------BPBPBPPBPBP FFFFFFFF B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB PBPB BE OBE O BE O BE O L P B BE HO A F L --------BPBP FFFFFFFF B P360 BPm B Pn.p.m. zinc PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B PB B P P B BE HO A F L BE O --- PPPP -----------------------B P B P BB P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B BE HO A F ti ---- PPPPPP B P B P PP --------PBPB BPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B -------SSSS -------------PPPPPPPPPPPP B P B P B L P B BE HO A ph B B P B P P B P S PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP SSSSS --------------- PPPPPPPPPP P B P B P B P F L P B BE HO -----------BPBPB S S S S F F F F F F F F F F F F F pb B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B SSSSSS ----- - - - - - - -P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE HO BPBPB FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSSS ---------P B PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO ir SSSSSS ------P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB A F L P B BE HO A B P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B 309 ch - - -m - -n.p.m. ---PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P HO A F L P B S S S S S F L P B BE HO A F B P B P B P B PB P B P SSSSS B P BE B B FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSS ca B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P 316 B P Bm P n.p.m. L P B BE HO A F L BE HO A F L P B P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S B S P B B B P BE B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE HO A F P B BE cd BPBPB PB 334 B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B - - - - - - - B B Pm B n.p.m. P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P L P B BE HO S S S S S S PB P B - - - - - - b P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P - - - - - - - PBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE S HO A F PBP BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S PBB BP a PBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B L P B BE HO A F L P B -----------BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S PBB BPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BE HO A F L P B BE HO - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO A F L P - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B BE BPBPB - - - - - - B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB -BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB P B P B P - - - - - - S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P ---------PPPPP BPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB - - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B ----------M P B P B P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P - - - - - - - B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B lec --------------zn P B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB B P - - - - - B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B a -----------------321 m n.p.m. P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PB B P B - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB ----------------------B P B P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P - - - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B - - - - - - - - - P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P P P P P PP P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPB PB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P - - - - - - - - - - - P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PPPP - - - - - - - - - - - - B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---------BBBSPBB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -----BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP-------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B PB P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB --------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B PB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP ------------ ---PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B PB PPPPPPPP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------------ --------- PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------------- ------------ PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPP BP P P P P P P P P P P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P PP P P P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - P P P P P P P P P P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP HO A F L B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B BE HO A F LPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P P P P SSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BP Ochotka P P P P P P P P P P P SSSSSSSSSSS P P P P P P P P P P P P BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B Karton PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S S S S S S PP P P P P HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P - - - - - - - - -P PPP Zapadilisko S S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P PBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---------P - - - - - - - - - - - - -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B - - S S P P P P P P PP P P P P B BE HO A F L P B BE P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BE B B --------PPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B PB P B P P P P P P P PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -------- -------------BSPBB BPB - - - -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B - P PPPPP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B PB P B P B P P P BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PPPPPPPP ---- ---------B P BE B B B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P -P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P PP P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -PBPBPB --------PBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F P PP P P P P P P P P P S P B B B P BE P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P SSSSSSSSS BPB PBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B B B S P B B B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - P P P PP P P P P P P P P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F F F P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P BE B B B S P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P PP P P P P P P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F F F P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B B P BE B B B S P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P Jezowa HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P B B B P BE B B P P P P P P P P P HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P PP P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P PPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPB BSPBBBP Drobowizna HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P PP P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BMPleB P B P B F F F F F F F P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P BE B B B S P B P P P P P PP P P P P P P HO A F cz P B P B F F F F F F F P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B na B B P BE B B B B P B P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPB S P B B B P BE B B B P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F F PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P B P B P B PB P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P - PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP B ------------ PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP S P B B B P BE P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F P P P P P BPBPBPBP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS B P B P B PB P B P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFFFFF BBBSP PP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PPPPPP BPBPBP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBFFFFFFF F BBB ---------------BPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B PB S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P PP P P P P P PBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFFF P BE B B B --------------- BPBPBPBPBPB PBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFF S P B B B P BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS Pot P B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P P P PP P P P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B P B P B P B P B Ma B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P Bok Pkolo B P wie BBBSP BPBPBPBPBPBP BSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS FF cFFFFF PP P P P P P P P P P PP P S S S S S S S S S S P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BB ------------ BPBPBPBP FFFFFF --------SS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P PP P P P - - - - - - - - - - - P B P B P B P BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFFF -----------------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P PBPBP PBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFF --------------------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P PBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB --------------------P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -----------------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP BP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP-------- --------------BPBPBPBPBPBP BP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP ----------------- BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP --------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -------------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP a BPBPBPBPBPBPBP rw zy BPBPBPBPBPBPB Pr PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBP BPB

ms

za

20

15

a

rw

zy

Pr

Pztra zn

ik

10

5

Poto

k Tys

331 m n.p.m.

ki

na

cz Mle

0km

5

10

23

15

20

25


The Grammar of the Forest

Administrative Boundaries

The Upper Silesian Agglomeration is an autonomous administrative territory and polycentric conurbation of fourteen cities in Southern Poland, formally joined as a union in 2007. The cities included in the conurbation are Katowice, Gliwice, Zabrze, Bytom, Piekary Śląskie, Świętochłowice, Chorzów, Ruda Śląska, Siemianowice, Mysłowice, Sosnowiec, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Jaworzno, and Tychy, with a population over over two million people. Each city has a unique identity and defining history which is identifiable for those who are familiar with the area. Katowice, the arts and cultural district; Gliwice, the technology hub. The main push for formal agglomeration has been driven by the desire of local governments to become a regionally and internationally competitive center for commerce and industry. While agglomeration has recently begun to impact some of the economic strategies for the region, including special economic zones which traverse more than one municipality, the agglomeration’s governing body still lacks experience in managing assets shared across a variety of administrative boundaries.

24


The Civic Forest 25

20

Myslowice

Katowice

15

Kostuchna

Murcki

10

Myslowice Tychy

5

0km

5

10

15

25

20

25


The Grammar of the Forest

Housing

Housing in the Upper Silesian Metropolitan area is characterized by three major trends. First, workers housing estates evolved as a direct response to the opening of mines. Mine owners would build workers housing directly next to the mines, often with supporting institutions such as administrative and community centers as well as churches. While the workers estates varied greatly in shape, size and design, they were almost uniformly categorized by multi-family units called “familok.” These insular communities operated on a closed-loop system of faith (church), family life (home), and work (mine or industrial plant). There were historically over 200 examples of this type of housing in Silesia.1 The second typology is the prefabricated soviet concrete block apartment. By 1969, more than 40% of the historical workers estates were destroyed and replaced by workers housing. Hundreds of thousands of units of the prefabricated concrete blocks are decades beyond their 25 year life span. Third, current housing markets in the Silesian Agglomeration are characterized by an overproduction of unregulated and unplanned housing on private land. From 20002010, an estimated 36% all housing constructed were built as part of gated estates. In addition, almost all new housing constructed is self built or built explicitly as an investment. The housing boom has resulted many scattered developments occurring in precious greenfield sites and agricultural zones. While there is enough housing, affordable housing stock is extremely low quality and the suburban growth pattern poses many challenges for future planning.

1 Sulimowska-Ociepka, Anna. “Industrial Heritage in the Landscape of the Upper Silesian Agglomeration.” In Industrial Heritage Regeneration. Prague, 2013. http://www.cesb.cz/cesb13/proceedings/2_industrial/CESB13_1233.pdf.

26


The Civic Forest

5 min walk

25

Wypozyczalnia

Muchowiec 2.865 mi²

Nikisowiec

Janow Miejski

20

Osiedle Zgrzebnioka

Janow

Giszowiec 4.645 mi2

Cmok

Slupna

Brzƒôczkowice Ochojec

Morgi

Stara Wesola

Murcki 16.03m2

15

Brzezinka

Kostuchna 3.317 mi² Wesola 3.143 mi2

Boze Dary

Krasowy

10

Kopaniny Lawki Zaopusta

Kozlina

Czulow

5 Gniotek

Lędziny 12.36 mi²

Zamoscie

Wygorzele

Zawisc

0km

5

10

15

27

20

25


The Grammar of the Forest

Water

The Silesian Voivodeship is located in the upper basin of the three largest rivers in Poland: the Vistula, the Odra, and the Warta. Water resources are one of the most heavily impacted by mining processes. In the Upper Silesian Agglomeration, 2/3 of surface water is considered to be unsuitable even for industrial processes, and over two hundred years of mining has had devastating impacts on the region’s hydrology. Coal mines require a constant pumping of water out of underground galleries to prevent flooding. Surface discharge of saline water, which often contains traces of radioactive elements such as radium and barium, totals around 100,000 cubic meters per day. Mines often have artificial reservoirs and settling ponds intended to prevent the uncontrolled spread of sediments, although runoff from mines and acid rock drainage caused by rainfall on slag heaps often contaminates rivers and other natural formations, negatively impacting local water supplies.2 Traditionally, mines were filled with water after closure. However, in the 1980s this practice was discontinued and the controlled caving method was introduced, resulting in significant subsidence and the formation of hundreds of anthropogenic lakes. The number of bodies of water including mining pits, reservoirs, and subsidence basins in the region now total an estimated 4,700 lakes and counting. The filling of old sand mines in particular has become a focal point of water-based sports recreation and tourism in the area.3

2 Boguslaw, Michalik. “Environmental pollution and remediation challenges in Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland.” 2nd Meeting of the EMRAS II Workings Group 2. Vienna 23-25 September 2009. https://www-ns.iaea.org/downloads/rw/ projects/emras/emras-two/first-technical-meeting/second-working-group-meeting/working-group-presentations/workgroup2-presentations/presentation-wg2-poland.pdf 3 Boguslaw, Michalik. “Environmental pollution and remediation challenges in Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland.” 2nd Meeting of the EMRAS II Workings Group 2. Vienna 23-25 September 2009. https://www-ns.iaea.org/downloads/rw/ projects/emras/emras-two/first-technical-meeting/second-working-group-meeting/working-group-presentations/workgroup2-presentations/presentation-wg2-poland.pdf

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The Civic Forest

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The Grammar of the Forest

Parks & Reserves “The most important event in the history of GOP revitalization efforts was the decision – dating back to 1950 – to build the Silesian Culture and Leisure Park at the outskirts of devastated Chorzów….Even today, the Park still remains the greatest tourist offering in Silesia, and is one of the largest parks in Europe. This oldest complex of sports facilities, exhibition halls, hotels and restaurants in the region also includes an ethnographic park, a zoo, planetarium, artificial ponds, a rose garden and an amusement park. All these facilities have in the past been inter-connected by the then longest in Europe terrestrial cable car. The park complex covers an area of 620 ha (while for example the Central Park in New York has an area of 256 ha), which is covered with the now 65-year-old tree stand. Numerous public events and festivities were held here during the socialist period of Polish history….To exemplify just how large a project this was, it’s enough to consider the available data: 4.0 million m3 of humus and peat soil were transported to cover the mining bings, heaps of other mining waste, illegal open coal pits, dumps and swamps, and 3.5 million trees and shrubs of 70 different species were planted over them.”4 The Katowice Forest District was founded in 1974 in the center of the region, with over 14.5 thousand hectares of forests. Within the district are numerous parks and reserves, including Rezerwat Las Murckowski, Katowicki Park Lesney, and Park KWK Staszic. The Valley of the Three Ponds was established as a 125 hectare leisure space in the 1960s and was eventually incorporated into the larger Katowice Forest Park. The Valley of Three Ponds includes a seasonal campground, tennis courts, and fine dining as well as leisure activities on the ponds including bathing, fishing, and water sports. Also included in the larger Katowice Forest park is the small Muchowiec airfield, which is commonly used for sports aviation and is the site of the annual OFF music festival, which is a significant regional attraction. 5

4 Dwucet, Krystyna, Mariusz Rzetala, and Zbigniew Snieszko. “Regeneration and Adaptation of Strongly Anthropogenically Altered Areas For Recreation and Tourism Purposes - Case Study of the Silesian Upland,” Vol. Book 2. Political Sciences, Law, Finance Economics & Tourism, Vol. 4 Economics & Tourism. Albena, Bulgaria, 2016. 5 Valley of Three Ponds | Sightseeing | Katowice.” In Your Pocket. Accessed May 13, 2017. https://www.inyourpocket. com/Katowice/Valley-of-Three-Ponds_59665v.

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Three Ponds Valley leisure ponds adiacent to the highway

Park Kościuszki

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flora: birch, pine, hornbeam , beech , linden, maple, sycamore, bird cherry, Euonymus europaeus and viburnum reef, thuja, catalpa, poplar, physocarpus, laburnum, cherry laurel, Prunus serrulata

Katowicki Park Leśny protected plants: green hellebore, Lily of the valley, Kopytnik pospolity, leaved helleborine, kruszyna pospolita, English ivy, yellow water lily protected animals: owls, coots, Water moorhen,grebes dwuczube,perkozki, tits, Redstart, finches, gray wagtails, mazurkas, pheasants, bats, Norn, terrier, deer, wild squirrels

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Park Murckowski

Nature reserve Ochojec protected flora: ìhellebore green , guelder rose , lily of the valley , buckthorn , more than 200 other species of vascular plants

Murckowski Reserve

protected fauna: among others,roe deer, fallow deer and many species of birds, including hawks, crows and pheasants.

protected plants: Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) , Leaved Helleborine (Epipactis latifolia), Listera jajowata (Listera ovata), Kopytnik pospolity (Asarum europaeum), Marzanka Wonna (Asperula odorata), lily of the valley (Convallaria maialis), Kruszyna Pospolita (Frangula alnus), guelder (Viburnum opulus), Ivy (Hedera helix), Barwinek pospolity (Vinca minor), black currant (Ribes nigrum)

Płone Bagno Reserve

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Protects part of the bog forest with a fragment of peat bog. Coniferous mire develops in acidic peaty soils. It is the best preserved in the bog forest patch. Bog Bilberry and Cranberry are found in the area.

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Trees

During the height of coal production, the native species of European coniferous trees and the pedunculate oak were damaged significantly, with wide swaths of forests completely destroyed. As the native forests died, they were replaced with non-native and deciduous trees less susceptible to air contamination such as the black pine the northern red oak, the Japanese larch, and birch6. As an example, in the 1960s pine accounted for 80% of the stand, but today it is only 39% .

6 Katowice, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w. “Conversion of Forest Stands.� Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny W Katowice. http:// www.ue.katowice.pl/en/units/unieko/conversion-of-forest-stands.html

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- B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B PB P B P PBPBPBPPPPPPPPPP P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B B P B P B P B PB P B B P B P B P B P B P B BPBPBPBP PPPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PPPPP P PBPBPBP P PPPPP P BB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B B PB P P P P P P P P P P PP PPPPP - P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PPPPP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP - - - P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PPPPPP P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P B P B B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P PPPPPP P ---- PPPPPPPPP PPPPP PPPPPPPPPP - - - - - - PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P PPPPP PPPPPPPPPPP HO A F L P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P PP P P P F F F F F F P B BE HO PPPPP PPPPPP P BPB BE O BE P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P B PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PPPPPPP F F F F F F F F F F A F L P B BE PPPPP O BE O BE OBE O P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPB PPP B P B B P B F F F F F F F F F HO A F L P B BEPHO BE O BE O BE OBE O BE P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P AF P --------P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F F L P B BE HO A F L P B O BE O BE OBE O BE O P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B HO PPPPPPP ---------------P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F BE HO A F L P B BE HO B BE O BE OBE O BE O BE P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B AFLP PPPPPP ------------------B P B P B B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F PBPBPB O BE OBE O BE O BE O P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE HO A F P P P B BE ---------------BPBPBPPBPBP FFFFFFFF B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB PBPB BE OBE O BE O BE O L P B BE HO A F L --------BPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFFF PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B PB B P P B BE HO A F L BE O --- PPPP -----------------------B P B P BB P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B BE HO AF ---- PPPPPP B P B P PP --------------------------PBPB BPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B -------SSSS -------------PPPPPPPPPPPP B P B P B L P B BE HO A B B P B P P B P S PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP SSSSS --------------- PPPPPPPPPP P B P B P B P F L P B BE HO FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSS -----------B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P BS S S S S S - - - - - - - -P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE HO BPBPB FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSSS -------------P B PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO SSSSSS ------P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB A F L P B BE HO A B P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B --------PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P HO A F L P B S S S S S F L P B BE HO A F B P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S B P BE B B - - - - - - - - - L P B BE HO A F L B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BE HO A F L P S S S S S B P B P B P B PB P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S B S P B B B P BE B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE HO A F P B BE BPBPB PB B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B - - - - - - - B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P L P B BE HO S S S S S S PB P B - - - - - - P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P - - - - - - - PBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE S HO A F PBP -----------BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S PBB BP PBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B L P B BE HO A F L P B -----------BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S PBB BPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BE HO A F L P B BE HO - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO A F L P - - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B BE BPBPB - - - - - - B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB -BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB P B P B P - - - - - - S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P ---------PPPPP BPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB - - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B ----------P B P B P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P - - - - - - - B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B --------------P B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB B P - - - - - B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B -----------------P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PB B P B - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB ----------------------B P B P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P - - - - - - - - B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B - - - - - - - - - P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P P P P P PP P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPB PB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P - - - - - - - - - - - P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---------BBBSPBB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -----BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP-------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B PB P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB --------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B PB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP ------------ ---PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B PB PPPPPPPP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------------ --------- PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------------- ------------ PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPP BP P P P P P P P P P P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP----------- ------------- PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P PP P P P P P P --------PPPPPPPPPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP HO A F L BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B BE HO A F BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP LPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S P P P P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBBE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P SSSSSSSSSSS PPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPP P P P P P P P PP P P P P HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B - - - - - - - - -P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P S S S S S S S S S S P P P- - - - - - - - - PPPPPP PPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPB F L P B BE HO A F L P B BE HO A F L P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P ------------SS PBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P B BE HO A F L P B BE PPPPPPP - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - BE B B P B P B P B P B P --------- PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -PPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B PB P B P P P P P P P PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -------- -------------BSPBB BPB - - - -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B - P P P P P P P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B PB P B P B BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PPPPPPPP ---- ---------B P BE B B B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P -P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P PP P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -PBPBPB --------PBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F P PP P P P P P P P P P S P B B B P BE P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P S S S S S S S S S P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P BBBSPBBB S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F F F P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P BE B B B S P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P PP P P P P P P P P P BPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F F F P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B B P BE B B B S P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P B B B P BE B B P P P P P P P P P HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P PP P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P BSPBBBP HO A F L P B BE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P PP P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P BE B B B S P B P P P P P PP P P P P P P HO A F P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P B B P BE B B B B P B P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPB S P B B B P BE B B B P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B F F F F F F F F PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P B P B P B PB P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P - PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP B ------------ PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP S P B B B P BE P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P F F F F F F F F P P P P P BPBPBPBP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS B P B P B PB P B P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFFFFF BBBSP PP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P BPBPBP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBFFFFFFF F BBB ---------------BPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B PB S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S P P P P PP P P P P P PBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFFF P BE B B B --------------- BPBPBPBPBPB PBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P B P B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFF S P B B B P BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P P P PP P P P P P P P P P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B P B P B P B P B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP FFFFFFF BBBSP BPBPBPBPBPBP BSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP SSSSSSSSSS B P B P B P B P B P B P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P - - - - - - - - - - - - B P B P B P B P PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPFFFFFF BB BPBPBPBPBPB --------SS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P PP P P P - - - - - - - - - - - P B P B P B P BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFFF -----------------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P PBPBP PBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB FFFFF --------------------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P PBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB --------------------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP PPP BPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -----------------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP BP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP-------- --------------BPBPBPBPBPBP BP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP ----------------- BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP --------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB -------------PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ---PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPBPBP BPB

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The Grammar of the Forest

Coal Mines

Mining has been an active part of Silesian life for over 200 years. The resource-rich Upper Silesian Coal Basin, which extends from south central Poland into the Czech Republic, is abundant in silver, coal, zinc, and lead ore deposits. Estimates cite the amount of raw materials extracted from the area at over thirteen billion tonnes, with bituminous coal mining accounting for over 80% of the total. The centrality of the mines explains the region’s polycentric urban form, as human settlements developed around the dozens of operational mines. The region played an essential role in energy production for the Germans during World War II and production peaked in the mid to late 20th century under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union. Since Poland transitioned to a market economy in 1989, the coal industry has experienced significant decline. Although many mines continued to be state owned, the industry underwent significant restructuring in order to remain profitable, leading to dramatic unemployment. In 20 years, the annual production of coal decreased by half from 150 million tonnes in 1990 to 75 million tones in 2013. Katowice, the capital of the Silesian Agglomeration, had over 50 mines throughout the 20th century. Today, only three are still in operation.7 Despite the fact that coal production is increasing in several mines due to technological innovations, many are slated for closure due to EU decarbonization limits and industry shifts. Such closures continue to impact employment levels in the region, and many people continue to mine coal illegally in shallow surface pits for personal consumption and sale on the black market. 7 Chmielewska, Marta. “Coal Mines in Katowice.� The History of the Mining Industry - Part of the European Cultural Heritage, 3rd Ed., 2010.

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Wieczorek Mine 82 years Owner: KHW

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Category Operation Type Mine Sub-TypeUG Status: Operating Startup Year: 1935 Product: Coal Annual Production: Nearest Port: Gdansk -458 km Nearest Town / City: Katowice -4 km

Staszic Mine 53 years Owner: KHW Category: Operation Type: Coal Mine Sub Type: UG Status: Operating Startup Year:1964 Product: Run-of-Mine Coal Annual Production: 5 Mtpa Resources: 250 Mt Nearest Port: Gdansk - 459 km Nearest Town / City: Murcki 3 km

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Mine Staszic "was founded in 1964 and is in turn one of the youngest in the Polish mining industryustry. In 1993 the two mines included in the Katowice Coal Holding SA and now constitute a mining company under the name KHW SA KWK "Murcki-Staszic. Daily mine production is on average 23 000 tonnes. New mine coal resources are estimated at about 50 years of extraction.

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Murcki Mine 41 years Owner: KHW

Wesola Mine 76 years

Category: Operation Type: Coal Mine Sub Type: UG Status: Operating Startup Year:1976 Product: Run-of-Mine Coal Annual Production: 3.7 Mtpa

Owner: KHW Category: Operation Type: Coal Mine Sub Type: UG Status: Operating Startup Year:1942 Product: Run-of-Mine Coal Annual Production: 3 Mtpa

Resources: 143 Mt Nearest Port: Gdansk - 464 km Nearest Town / City: Murcki 3 km

Resources: 230 Mt Nearest Port: Gdansk - 464 km Nearest Town / City: Murcki 4 km

Murcki "is one of the oldest Polish mines, if not the oldest. The first mention of coal mining on the so-called. "Hill Murckowskim" dates back to 1657. Coal was mined in opencast then. Establishment of the mine and begin underground mining method dates back to 1769. The first name of mine is the "Blessing Emmanuel" ("Emanuelssegen"). In the period between the mining areas murckowskich there were two mines: "Prince-Maria" in Murckach and "Christmas Gifts" in Kostuchna. In 1976, two mines were combined in a mining plant "Murcki.

The mines Myslowice and Wesola were merged in 1997. Production figures for the combined entity are recorded under Wesola.

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The Grammar of the Forest

The Grid

The grid, roughly 1km by 1km, is often used as a management tool in forestry. While some features of the grid are marked by roads, similar grid patters can likewise be used for the transfer of water or electricity. The grid references the planting of the current forest stands by environmental wardens hoping to clean the air emitted from adjacent mines.

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Paths and Roads

While many of the paths that exist are co-optations of the existing grid, humans and animals alike have charted new courses through the forest and its overgrowth. The wanderings sometimes stretch alongside railways or parallel to roads, both subverting existing new uses, overgrown, not all utilized, but also existing regimes of circulation. Two major trans-European transport network corridors run through the Upper Silesian Agglomeration: the East-West A4, which is part of European route E40, the longest European road network at more than 8,000 kilometers. A4 connects Calais, France in the West through Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, and into Central Asia. The Autostrada A1, or the amber highway, is a north-south motorway under construction in Poland that is part of European Route E75. E 75 starts on the Barents Sea in the north, running through Finland, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Macedonia, and Greece, with a route of approximately 5600 kilometers. Although the region historically relied on rail as a primary route of transportation, trucking is increasingly used to transport goods both out of and through Silesia. Additionally, as incomes rise, an increasing number of middle class households have access to personal automobiles, leading to an increase in demand for road networks and pavement that further pollute the atmosphere and divide an already fragmented territory. This is reinforced by the opening of multiple automotive manufacturing plants in the agglomeration, including General Motors, Fiat, and Isuzu, who encompass 63% of all investments in the Katowice Special Economic Zone.

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The Grammar of the Forest

Pollution

An estimated 25% of the total surface of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin contains varying levels of industrial waste. The topsoils of forested and agricultural areas of Upper Silesia have high levels of minerals caused by mining processes, the combustion of coal for power, and iron and steel production. Pollutants include iron oxide, zinc, lead, and cadmium, all of which are extremely poisonous to humans, plants, and animals. Most mines in Silesia also contain radium and barium with concentrations of radionuclides high enough to be classified as radioactive waste.8 Air pollution is also a significant issue, with high concentrations of several gases, volatile compounds metals, and organic compounds and particulate matter that exceeded both daily and annual admissible levels.

8 Heller, F., Z. Strzyszcz, and T. Magiera (1998), Magnetic record of industrial pollution in forest soils of Upper Silesia, Poland, J. Geophys. Res., 103(B8), 17767–17774, doi:10.1029/98JB01667.

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The Grammar of the Forest

Agriculture

Farming and agriculture play a large role in Polish tradition and culture. Although many Poles were employed in the industrial, mining, and manufacturing industries after the war, there were still more than 2 million individual farms in Poland in the early 1990s, many of them subsistence plots. Since joining the European Union in 2004, farm incomes have tripled, and industries such as the dairy sector have flourished. Poland remains one of the most significant producers of potatoes, rye, and sugar beet in Europe, and surpassed China as the world’s biggest exporter of apples in 2013.9 However, high levels of air and water pollution in Silesia have made agricultural production for foodstuffs in the Silesian agglomeration impossible. Agricultural products raised for consumption will absorb high levels of minerals and radioactive elements in the soil, making them dangerous to consume. For these reasons, agricultural production for food in Silesia is highly discouraged, if not outright banned. Agricultural land use has shifted to producing non-edible items such as biofuels, flowers, and grasses which can deconcentrate harmful substances. 9 “AGolden Age for Polish Farming?� The Economist, March 24, 2014. http://www.economist.com/blogs/eastern approaches/2014/03/polands-agriculture.

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The Grammar of the Forest

Mountains

Shaft mining in Silesia results in many significant geological transformations, including subsidence, where land sinks due to extraction in lower layers.It also creates new mountainous features called slag heaps, or spoil tips. A slag heap is a pile of accumulated waste created through process of extracting coal, where the extraneous dirt and other materials extracted from the ground are piled next to the mine. Some slag heaps may have traces of very valuable materials, including coal, zinc lead, iron and other metals, which can be extracted and recycled. However, rock extracted from the ground in the process of mining also typically has slightly higher levels of naturally radioactive isotopes, making the land unfit for land reclamation or for building.10 Estimates from the last decade project there are least 10 billion cubic meters of slag heap material in Poland. These contaminated mountainous features are the visible traces of underground activity. -

10 Orlova, Svetlana, and Jolanta Marcinkowska. “The Regeneration of Mining and Industrial Areas.� Council of Europe Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, 2004. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?p=&id=889839&Site=COE&direct=true.

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323 m n.p.m.

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Wzgórza Wandy 360 m n.p.m.

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--------- PBPBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSSS PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP - - - - - - - - - - - - - PB P B P SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------------------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -------------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PPPPPPPPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB ------SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS ho P P P P P P P P PP P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BacP SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B aPZB P BPBPBPB SSSSSSSSSSSSS in ol P B S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PBB P B P B PB S S S S S S S S S P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PPPP BPBPB -PBPBP P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PPPP P B P B P B BPBPB PPPPPP PPPPPPP P B P B P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P PPP PB P B P B PB P B PPPPPP Janina P B P B P P P P P PPP PPPPPP PB PPPPPP PBPBPB F F F F F F P P P P P P PPP PPPPPPPPPPPP P PPPPP PBPBPB --FFFFFFFFFFF PPPPPPPPPPPPP -- PPPPPPPP -------PBPBPB ---FFFFFFFF P P P P P P P P P P --PPPPPPPP B P B P B P B P B ---B PBPBPB FFFFF P P P -- PPPPPPPP P B PB P B P ----- -PBPBP PBPBP B Barbara - --- PPPPPPP B P B P B ------- -BPBPBPB BP P BE B B B S PPPPPP P B B B P BE B BPBP PBPBPB PPPPPP ------ BBSPBBBP PPPPPPPPPPP ----- BPBPBP - - - - - BE B B B S P B B B P - - - - B PB P B HO A F L P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P BE B B B S P B B B PBP --BE HO A F L P B BE HO P P P P P P P P P P P P S B P P P P P BE B B B S - P P P P P P P A F L P B BE B HO A P P P P P P P P P P P P SSSS BP PPPPP PBB --P P P P P P P P F L P B P B P B P B BE P P P P P P P P P P P P SSSSS B P B P P PP P P P -----P P P P P P HO P B P B PB P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P SSSSSSS SSSS P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P B P B P B PB P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P P PP PP SSSSS SSSSSSSSS PB P B P B P P P P P P P P P B P B P B PB P B P B P BP P P P P P P P P P P PP SSSSSS SSSSSSSS SSSSSSSSS PBPBP P P P P B P B PB P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P P P PP SSSSSS PPPPPPPPPP B PB P S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B P P B P B PB P B P B PPPPP SSSSS PPPPPPPPP BPB SSSSSSSSSSSSS PBPBP PPPPPPPPP BPBPBP P SSSSS PP PP P B P S S S S S S S S S S S S S B PB P P PPPP B P B P B P B P B P F L P B BE HO A SS SSSSSSSSSS BPBP -------- SSSS P ---------------B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE HO A F L P B BP S BPBP 313 m n.p.m. BPBPBPBP BE O BE O BE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO B P B ---------------- BPBPBPBP B PB P O BE OBE O BE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B BE HO A F L PPPP ------------ BPBPBPBP PBP O BE O BE OBE P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P HO A F L P B B B P B PB PPPPPPPP ----------- BPBPBPB O BE B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P L P B BE HO A P B P B P B ---------- PBPBPBP BPBP PPPPPPPP B P B PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B PB --------- BPBPBPBPBP B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BPBPB PPPPPPPP --PPPPP PB PBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B PBPBPB PPPPPPPP P P P P P PP P PPPPPP P P P P P P P P P P BPBBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP -PBPBPBP P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P B P P P P P P PB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPBP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP P P P P P P P BB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPB PPPPP - P P P P P PP P P P P P P P PPPPP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB - - - P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P PPPPPP P BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P PPPPPP P ---- PPPPPPPPP PPPPP PPPPPPPPPP - - - - - - PP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P PPPPP PPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P P P PP P P P PPPPP PPPPPP P BPB BE O BE PPPPPP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PPPPPPP FF PPPPP O BE O BE OBE O P P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BPBBPB F BE O BE O BE OBE O BE P P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P --------PBPBPB PBP O BE O BE OBE O BE O P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B ---------------P BPBPBP BPBP BE O BE OBE O BE O BE P P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B ------------------B P BPBPBPBPBP O BE OBE O BE O BE O P P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P Wzgórza W ---------------BPBPBPPBPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB BE OBE O BE O BE O -BPB B P360 BPm B Pn.p.m PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BE O --- PPPP --------BPB B P B P B BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP ---- PPPPPP PP --------PBPB BPB BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP B SSSS -------------PPPPPPPPPPPP B PBP PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBP SSSSS ------- PPPPPPPPPP FF B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P BS S S S S S - - - - - - - -P P P P P P BPBPB F ----P B PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B SSSSSS ------P B P B P B PB P B P F PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB PBPBPB B P B P B P B PB P B P F PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P HO A F L P B S S S S S B P B P B P B PB P B P SSSSS B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P 316 B P Bm P n.p.m. BE HO A F L P B P B P B P B PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B BE HO A F S S S S S B PBPB PB 334 B B Pm B n.p.m. P B P B P46 B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P L P B BE HO S S S S S S ------PB P B PBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE S HO A F PBP -----------PBPBPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B L P B BE HO A F L P B -----------PBPBPBPBPBP P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P BE HO A F L P B BE HO - - - - - - - - - - --BPBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B A F L P B BE HO A F L P - -


PBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P B ---------BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP P P P P P P P P P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PPPPPPPPPPPPP B B B P BE B B B S P B B B a BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPB P B P B P BniP P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P d B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P o PBPBPBPBPBPBPB B P B PhB PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP c BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B B P ZBa P B P B P B P B P B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE a PB PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in P B P B P B P l B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P o PB B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE BPBPBPBPB PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP - - - - - - - - - - - P B B B P BE B B B S P B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P B P B P - - - - - - - - - - - - P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P B P B - - - - - - - - - - - - - BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P B PB P B P B P - - B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP BPBPB BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE BBBSPBBBPB P PPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P P P P P B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B PPPP BPBPBP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P P P P P P P P B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B PPPPP BPBPBP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P P P P P P P P B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B 325 m n.p.m. PPPP PPPP B PBP PPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPP P P P P PPP BBBSPBB P P P P P P PP P PPPPP PPPPPPPP PPPPPP PPPPPPPP --P P P P PPP PPPPPPPP PPPPPP PPPPPPPP PPPPPP P ---P P P P PPP PP P P P P P P P PPPPPP PPPPP ----- PPPPPP ---P P P P PP P P PP P P P P P PPPPPP ---------PPPPP PPPPPP BPB -------P P P P P PPPPP PPPPPPP --------- PPPPP S S S S S P P P P PP - - - - - - - - - P B P P PPPPPPP -------SSSSS PPPPPP --------- PB -----PPPPPPP S S S S S S P P P PP P - - - - - - - - - P -----PPPPPPPP -- BPBPB SSSSSS PPPPPP --------- B PPPPPPPP P B P B P B S S S S S S P P PP P P P PPPPPP SSSSSS PPPPPP - - - PB P B P B P P P P HO A - SSSSSS P BE HO A F L P B - - - - - - - - B P B P B P A F L P B BE HO - - - - - - - - - - - PB B BE HO A F L P - - - HO A F L P B BE F L P B BE HO A F BE HO A F L P B BE BPBP ---- PBPBPB B PBPBPBPBP -- PBPBPBPBPBPBP BPBPBPB P B P B PB P B P B P B P B P B P B P PBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B P B PB P B B P B P B P B P B PBPBPBP BPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBP PBPBPBP P BPBPBPBP B P B P B P B P B P B P B B PB P P P P P P P P P P PP B P B P B P P P P P B P B P B P B P B P B B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P B P B P B P P P P P P P P B P B B P B P B P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P BPBPBP PPPP P B P B P B P B P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P PP P BPBPBPB HO A F L P B P B P B P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P P P F F F F F F P B BE HO BPB B P B P B PP P P P P P P P P P PP P P P P P P P F F F F F F F F F F A F L P B BE PBPB PPP BPB FFFFFFFFF HO A F L P B BE HO A F P Wesola Fala PBP FFFFFFFFF L P B BE HO A F L P B HO P P P P PPP BPBP FFFFFFFF B BE HO A F L P B BE HO AFLP PPPPPP P B P B P B F F F F F F F F A F L P B BE PBPBPB B BE HO A F P P P órza Wandy PPBPBP FFFFFFFF P B P B PB P B P B L P B BE HO AFL m -------BPBP FFFFFFFF B Pn.p.m. zinc P B P B P B PB B P P B BE HO A F L ---------------P BB P B P ti B P B P P B BE HO A F ------------------PB BPBP -------L P B BE HO A BPBPB ph B P S ---------------P B P B P B P F L P B BE HO FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSS pb B P B P B P B P B P A F L P B BE HO PB FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSSS ---------A F L P B BE HO ir PBP FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSSSSSSSSSSS BPBPBPBPBP A F L P B BE HO A P B P F F F F F F F F F F F F F S S S S S S S S S S S S S B P B P B 309 ch - - -m - -n.p.m. ---F L P B BE HO A F PBP FFFFFFFFFFFFF SSSS B P BE B B ca L P B BE HO A F L BPBP FFFFFFFFFFFF B S P B B B P BE B B - - - - - - - - P B BE cd PB B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B - - - - - - - - 47 --b P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P - - - - - - - ------BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S PBB BP a ----BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B - - - - - B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P B B B P BE B B B S P


48


The Data Forest

49


The Forest Scale Conflicting agendas are at play in the Silesian forests. The division between environmental and forestry policies promoted competing priorities which operate according to different mandates. Over time, valuing successes and failures according to different units has cemented a culture of productive and protected spaces as irreconcilable poles.

The three themes are the basis for the agenda of the civic forest; by quantifying the needs and possiblities of each program new knowledge, policies and projects may be conceived.

Quantifying the program, and understanding the need for a choral agenda can allow one to render operative proposals which currently exist in the form of visions Three core functions for the forest are proposed and or recommendations, with no agency or possibility of an exercise of quantification is applied to introduce a enforcement. The forest thus starts to operate and be scale upon which they may operate, revealing conflicts, conceived as an institution, charged with a mission, limitations and opportunities for change: subject to political decisions, and a central part of a • the forest as a carbon retention center civic debate about the possible futures of the region. • the forest as a productive landscape • the forest as a space for non-human inhabitants.

Annual Carbon Emission per Person1 8,000 kg

4,448 m3

Annual Carbon retention per Poplar Tree2 21.7 kg

Annual Carbon retention per Birch Tree3 6 kg

12 m3

3.3 m3

”CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita).” CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) | Data. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. 2 ”50,000 Trees.” Scenario Journal. N.p., 29 May 2015. Web. 08 May 2017. 1

50


51


Current Carbon Retention The forest is a vast carbon retention site. On a simple relation, however, is often disregarded at the national scale, the amount of CO2 emissions can be municipal and regional scales, where most policies compared with the carbon retained each year. This are actually in place for their management.

Volume of Carbon Currently Detained in Forest Site =

Forest Site Area Poland Forest Area3

x

=

10,000 ha 9,088,000 ha

x

=

657,150,127 m3

Carbon Detained in Forest Biomass of Poland3

x

1,073,000,000 Tonnes Carbon x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4 556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

Volume of Carbon Currently Detained in Silesia =

Silesia Forest Area Poland Forest Area1

x

Carbon Detained in Forest Biomass of Poland3

x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4

=

393,423 ha 9,088,000 ha

x

1,073,000,000 Tonnes Carbon

x

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

=

3 4

25,826,000,000 m3

Milewski, Wawrzyniec, ed. Forests in Poland 2015. Warsaw: The State Forests Information Center, 2015. Print. Volume calculation of one ton CO2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017.

52


53


Annual Carbon Retention Each year, a forest the size of 10,000 ha can absorb and poplar trees with a distribution of circa 20m2 the emissions equivalent to a population of 90.000 per plant, with each retaining 6 kilograms of carbon people, assuming an area covered mainly by birch per year.

Volume of Carbon Detained Annually in the Forest Site =

Current Numbers of Trees in Forest Site*

x

=

10,000,000 m2 20 m2

x

=

Amount of Carbon a Birch Tree Absorbs Per Year2 6 Kg x

1 Ton 1,000 Kg

x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4

x

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4

x

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

16,680,000 m3

Volume of Carbon Detained Annually in Silesia =

Current Numbers of Trees in Silesia5

x

=

4,760,000,000 m2 20 m2

x

=

793,968,000 m3

2 4

Amount of Carbon a Birch Tree Absorb Per Year2 6 Kg x

1 Ton 1,000 Kg

�50,000 Trees.� Scenario Journal. N.p., 29 May 2015. Web. 08 May 2017. Volume calculation of one ton CO2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017.

54


55


Optimized Annual Carbon Retention

With a denser grid of 3,6 m, composed only of poplar site could increase sevenfold. Each tree would occupy trees, replaced every 5 years - during which their an area of 13.7m2 and retain 21.7kg of carbon per year growth rate and carbon absorption is the highest - during the first five years. the carbon retention capacity of the same 10.000ha

Volume of Optimized Carbon Detained Annually in the Forest Site =

Optimized Numbers of Trees in Forest Site*

x

=

10,000,000 m2 13 m2

x

=

Amount of Carbon a Poplar Tree Absorbs Per Year2 21.7 Kg x

1 Ton 1,000 Kg

x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4

x

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

92,809,230 m3

Volume of Optimized Carbon Detained Annually in Silesia =

Optimized Numbers of Trees in Silesia5

x

=

4,760,000,000 m2 13 m2

x

=

2 4

Amount of Carbon a Poplar Tree Absorbs Per Year2 21.7 Kg x

1 Ton 1,000 Kg

4,397,361,230 m3

�50,000 Trees.� Scenario Journal. N.p., 29 May 2015. Web. 08 May 2017. Volume calculation of one ton CO2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017.

56

x

Amount of Carbon Contained in 1 m3 volume4

x

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon


57


Volume of Carbon Needed for Net Zero Carbon Footprint If all Silesian forests were optimized for carbon region is emitting CO2 at a rate at which four times retention, the amount of trees required to balance Silesia’s entire area would be needed to be covered the region’s annual emissions would not fit in an by poplars to balance its carbon footprint. area four times the size of the region. In other words, with the current regime of emissions, the

=

Volume of Annual Carbon Emission by Silesia Metropolis

=

Population Amount of Carbon Amount of Carbon x 5 5 x of Silesia a Person Emit a Year Contained in 1 m3 volume4

=

5,294,000 people x

=

23,547,712,000 m3 -

=

19,150,350,770 m3

8 Ton

x

-

Volume of Optimized Annual Carbon Detention by Silesia Forest

556 m3 1 Ton Carbon

-

3 m3 4,397,361,230- m4,397,361,230

4,397,361,230 m3

% of Forest Needed for Net Zero Carbon Footprint =

Volume of Carbon that needs to be detained in Silesia Volume of Optimized Annual Carbon Detention by Silesia Forest

=

19,150,350,770 m3 4,397,361,230 m3

=

4 5

x

x 100%

100%

435%

Volume calculation of one ton CO2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. “Silesian Metropolis.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 May 2017. Web. 08 May 2017.

58


59


The Size of Coal On the Forest studied, with an area of approximately 10,000ha, an amount of coal equivalent to a volume of a 1x1km, 40 meter high (as tall as a twelve story building) cube is extracted from the ground each year. Coal production is expected to increase in the coming years in Silesia, although the amount of mines and employed people will decrease. Coal is not likely to disappear from the polish economy,

but its role in the daily life will change. Introducing the extraction of coal in the scale of the forest is a way to begin measuring the consequences - not always easily monetizable - that coal entails: from air pollution to soil subsidence, to the production of new water lakes and the simultaneous loss of water due to underground tunneling.

Volume of Coal Produced Annually in the Forest Site =

Total Coal Produced Annually on Site

=

14,700,000 Ton

=

17,647,058 m

x

3

x

Density of Coal7 1,000 Kg 1 Ton

1 m3 833 Kg

x

Coal Mines on Site Annual Production (mtpa, million tonnes/year) Murcki 6 3.7 Wesola 7 3 Staszic8 5 Wieckorek* 3 Total Coal Produced Annually on Site 14.7

”Murcki Coal Mine.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 08 May 2017. ”Mysłowice-Wesoła Coal Mine.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 08 May 2017. 8 ”Staszic Coal Mine.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 08 May 2017. * Output of Wieckorek Coal Mine is estimated. 9 Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Bulk Materials. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. 6 7

60


61


Volume of Timber Produced Annually An average timber home of 250m2 requires around 50m3 of lumber to be built. At the current regime of harvesting, the 10,000ha forest in the south of

Katowice would permit the construction of 760 new wooden homes per year - more than two houses per day.

Volume of Timber Produced Annually in the Forest Site = = =

Forest Site Area Poland Forest Area3 10,000 ha 9,088,000 ha

x x

Annual Production of Round Timber in Poland10 34,500,000 m3

37,962 m3

Volume of Timber Produced Annually in Silesia = = =

Silesia Forest Area Poland Forest Area3 476,000 ha 9,088,000 ha

x x

Annual Production of Round Timber in Poland10 34,500,000 m3

1,806,998 m3

Milewski, Wawrzyniec, ed. Forests in Poland 2015. Warsaw: The State Forests Information Center, 2015. Print. Zochowska, Monika. “Forestry situation and solid wood products in Poland.� Comp. Agata Kingsbury. Global Agricultural Information Network (2011): n. pag. Web. 8 May 2017. 3

10

62


63


Preservations and Biodiversity As the region begins its transition from an economy of extraction to one of services and manufacturing, a program for the non-human inhabitants emerges as both a political responsibility and as a gateway for tourism, for new forms of leisure, and for new ways of knowing. While quantifiable as biomass or amount of species present in an area, the issue of habitats is mainly related to physical geography:

long, thin, interconnected stretches of land are best suited to increase biodiversity. Four rivers cut the Katowice forest, if each were subject to a regime of control, the land where human disturbance is limited would encompass a variety of soil and vegetation types, from riparian to deciduous and perennial forests.

Area of Bioreserve in the Forest Site* 4 Bioreserves, 700 ha

Area of Bioreserve in Silesia11 64 Bioreserves, 87,773 ha

* The area of reserve on Forest Site was obtained by calculating polygon area from GIS and Google Map 11 Revolve, LLC. “”Nature reserves in Poland” on Revolvy.com.” All Revolvy Quizzes. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017.

64


65


Negotiations

The scale and effects of the forest on the air, the economy, and the lifestyle of the region highlight it as a privileged place for political discourse. Seeing the forests as a single entity and charging it with an institutional role locates it as a field of debate, one where consequences may be understood and evaluated without forgetting their ideological, environmental and aesthetic implications.

to manufacturing and the evolution of the building industry. Carbon retention has global environmental consequences as well as direct impacts on health, while the current numbers reveal the weight of coal extraction and consumption on the air and the soil. The role of biodiversity may set a twentyfirst century agenda for the region, reflecting on the new wilderness that may be discovered in this anthropogenic land.

Each agenda, when approached independently, breeds irreconcilable oppositions. Evaluated as a whole, each becomes measurable, its consequences accountable. Timber production and the construction of wooden structures are directly linked to carbon retention, to education,

The tower of program hovering over the tree canopies mirrors the proposed priorities for the forest, framing the proportions of its vertical axis and the composition of its slabs as the space for debate and political engagement.

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67


68


69


70


Sixteen Scenes for the Civic Forest

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Images of the forest

From a distance, the consistent canopy cover produces a common image. Seen from a height, this vast carpet, punctuated by mine shafts, slag heaps, power lines and industrial chimneys is a unifying element with a recognizable presence at the scale of the agglomeration; the readable form is a powerful counterpoint to the otherwise sparse, circumstantial, fragmented elements that gave shape to the urbanism of extraction.

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The Civic Forest

73


The Golden Belt Sunflowers not able to lead, but dangerous heavy metals

as chromium, They were used lead, but other arsenic, zinc, copper, manganese. were

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soil

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and manganese. They were to clean up contaminated soil in following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other dangerous heavy metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil in Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other dangerous heavy metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil in Ukraine the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other dangerous such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil in Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other heavy metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were up contaminated soil following the Chernobyl Sunflowers to absorb metals copper, clean up disaster but other dangerous heavy and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other dangerous heavy metals copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil in disaster Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, were used to clean up contaminated soil in Ukraine Sunflowers not only able to absorb lead, but other zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used in Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers lead, but other dangerous heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up soil in Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers to absorb lead, but other dangerous heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up contaminated soil in Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster not only able to absorb lead, but other dangerous heavy metals such chromium, copper, and manganese. They were used to clean up Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster Sunflowers not only able dangerous heavy metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, used to clean up contaminated soil disasteSunflowers

used Ukraine

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A seemingly endless sunflower field surrounds the forest. Polluted land, no longer suited for food production, becomes a place where one may think about the future. Sunflowers are not only able to absorb lead, but also other heavy metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and manganese. The golden field speaks optimistically of the future - one where land may be returned to agricultural use - but also gives a warning to those who enter the forest: no food may grow here today, the soil is dangerous. This was a place of violence.

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The Civic Forest

75


The Forest in hand

From the ground, the forest is a maze of intersecting grids - trees, roads and power lines punctuated by discrete objects: chimneys, mountains, industrial buildings. The skyline may appear from the occasional clearing, but navigation is not intuitive, and getting lost is easy without guidance. For the Great exhibition in London of 1851, the organizers manufactured a glove with a touristic map of the city for foreigner visitors. Fashion changes, and the glove acquires new meanings, mediating the contact with polluted soil, guiding visitors through an unfamiliar territory.

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The Civic Forest

77


A Dangerous Path

Protecting plants and animals from human disturbance - or humans from contaminated places - the fence constructs a narrow path. Compressed by the growth of the vegetation, one may wonder who is the guest and who the host, who the protector, who the protected.

78


The Civic Forest

79


Beeline

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al

w

at

C

The poplar field is an endless, monotonous grid. One type of plant of the same age multiplied by the thousands, planted at regular intervals; an open air maze of columns. As in an alpine trail, marks on the bark of the trees guide the steps, tracing vectors across the forest, busier paths are elevated to prevent rudding while the ground traces of less traveled roads fade over time.

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80


The Civic Forest

81


The Biggest Table in Silesia

Logging dictates the appearance and disappearance of clearings in the forest; a curatorial program orchestrates events and projects following its calendar. A vast table resting on tree stumps elevates people from a dangerous soil and prevents rudding.

The civic scale emerges in the collective choreography of eating, dancing or playing, while the genericness of the object invites different, individualized uses. On the table, every action becomes a performance.

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The Civic Forest

83


To The Mine

Bar

Holy Perogi

A forest of symbols

To The Mine

To the Train

Bar

Holy Perogi To the Train

To The Mine

Bar

Holy Perogi To the Train

At night, the forest glows with the light of neon totems. Signs invite the traveler to taverns, clubs, exhibitions, and illuminate the path of the worker in the early hours of the morning.

To The Mine

To The Mine

Bar

Holy Perogi To the Train

84

Bar

Holy Perogi To the Train


The Civic Forest

85


The Forest Front

Silesia has no waterfront, but hundred of kilometers of forest fronts. New private housing developments have sprawled amorphously into the pastures of rural Silesia, leading to a lack of unified housing culture and function. The Forest Front provides a unifying visual element for hundreds of homes, defined by a shared view of the

86

expansive canopy below. The need for new housing is limited: a radical infill project of replacement defines the edge of the forest, constructs a new skyline for the agglomeration, and introduces housing and forest as a unified and scaled relationship.


The Civic Forest

87


949 Homes

Historically, prefabricated concrete housing built after 1970s shows poorer construction quality than in earlier years, with the average lifespan of a unit at roughly 25 years 1. Research shows that 45% of the overall housing stock in Poland needs renovation2, which in Katowice amounts to 1,031,065 units. Considering that the housing construction peaked in late 1970s then fell between 1970 and 1980 at an average annual rate of 200,000 houses built per year, we can calculate that Katowice has 236,842 houses that were not only built with poor construction quality but are also more than 30-40 years old. The total housing units needed in Silesia for a population of 5,294,000 people is roughly 2,313,478 units (calculated using 437 units housing/1000 people)1 . At current production capacity, forests in Silesia can replace 36,000 houses each year. In Poland, 2,000,000 housing units need to be replaced. The amount of lumber needed to produce 2,000,000 houses would be 2,000,000 x 50m3, or 100,000,000 m3. Every year in Poland, 34,500,000 m3 of lumber are produced. When divided by 525,600 minutes per year we understand that means that 65.6 m3 of lumber is produced per minute, implying that the forests of Poland are capable of producing approximately one house every minute. If all of Poland’s national wood production was maximized for replacing these housing stocks, (34,500,000 m3/100,000,000 m3 = .345), the whole 2,000,000 units of housing could be replaced with wood housing construction in .345 years. The challenges that deteriorating housing stock poses for the Silesian agglomeration are immense. Developing a more sustainable form of architecture and construction methodology that can support the creation of viable and high quality housing for new and old residents alike will be paramount for ensuring the vibrancy and vitality of the region.

1 Orłowski, Witold, ed. Report on Major Polish Cities: Katowice. Katowice: PWC, 2011. Print. 2 “United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.” UNECE Homepage. N.p., 10 May 2017. Web. 12 May 2017. 88


Residential Tower 18 Floors, 18,550m2 Need: 1747 trees Carbon sequestered: 3091m3

2 Bedroom Cabin, 72m2 Need: 7 trees Carbon sequestered: 40m3

Residential Tower 34 Floors, 11,450 m2 Need: 1078 trees Carbon sequestered: 1908m3

1 Bedroom House,106m2 Need: 10 trees Carbon sequestered: 17m3

Residential Complex 12 Floors, 17,000 m2 Need: 1601 trees Carbon sequestered: 2833m3

1 Bedroom House, 79 m2 Need: 7 trees Carbon sequestered: 13m3

1 Bedroom House, 35 m2 Need: 3 trees Carbon sequestered: 6m3 2-Bedroom Cabin, 200m2 Need:19 trees Carbon sequestered: 33m3

Residential Towers 20 Floors, 10,400 m2 Need: 979 trees Carbon sequestered: 1733m3

Residential Tower 18 Floors,17,568 m2 Need: 1654 trees Carbon sequestered: 2928m3

Residential Tower 16Floors, 8,000 m2 Need: 753 trees Carbon sequestered: 1333m3

2 Bedroom House, 90 m2 Need: 8 trees Carbon sequestered:15m3

3-Bedroom Villa, 300 m2 Need: 28 trees Carbon sequestered: 50m3

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Assuming 1 mature Pine Tree yield 1.77 m3 lumber Pine rotation usually takes 15-20 years cycle


A New Domesticity

All of the units shared the same smell, a bright and slightly porous scent of young pine and oak. The living room came with a chair and simple table when she moved in, constructed in a nearby estate.

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She lived alone on the 16th floor, where she could enjoy the view of the forest from her bedroom at night. In the foyer, she could hear the distant sounds of the city, but it all felt so far away...


The Civic Forest

91


Stewardship Estate

Guest Houses

Workshop

Plant Nursery

Dining Area

Estate Dwellings

Allotment Gardens

Pool

Compost Center

The stewardship estate is a leisure and learning community within the forest that opens its doors to residents of Silesia and visitors alike. Guests participate in light manufacturing and craftsmanship of wood products and furniture while learning how to become better stewards of the forest through compositing, soil remediation, allotment gardening, and the tending of small trees. Recreational activities within the estate include swimming and communal dining with food harvested on site. Visitors can also

Kitchen

hike on nearby trails or take a guided tour focused on the anthropogenic landscapes created by mining and industrial activities. While the estate is not self-sustaining, it attempts to embody the many competing and contradictory forces at play in the forest. At a small scale, it introduces the visitors to the uses as well as limitations of the forest in a way that can shape a more complex understanding of ecology, economy, and society. Forest 92


The Civic Forest

93


School of Forestry Hotel Gallery

University University

Hostel

Library

University

University

Contractor

Museum Warehouse Paper Manufacturing

University

Forest Products Company

Timber Factory

Timber Factory

Lumber Yard

Engineered Woods Factory

Warehouse

Library

Thousands of square meters of industrial relics populate the forest and its surroundings. As some are converted into clubs, restaurants and unique homes, the majority lay vacant, their size and structure too dependent on specific industrial functions. While these spaces await adaptive reuse, their spaces may be adopted by local institutions, factories and small enterprises.

As timber related industries expand, informing a new kind of domesticity and demand in the region, professional education in carpentry, woodworking, and furniture production will be required. Partnerships with prominent local institutions can promote the development of these new industries and utilize the existing built infrastructure.

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The Civic Forest

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tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing tailingmine minetailting mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing tailing mine tailingmine minetailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing tailing tailing mine tailing mine tailing minemine tailing minemine tailing minemine tailingtailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing minemine tailing minemine tailing tailing tailing

mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine mine

mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailting mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailting mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine the tailing mine tailing mine tailting mine tailing mine tailing mine tailing mine coal coal the the

mountains the

mountains coalthecoal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal tcoal coal coal coal mountains the mountains mountains the the coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains thecoal mountains mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the the mountains the coal coal coal coal coal coal coalmountains coal coal coal coal coal coal coal tcoal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal mountains the mountains the mountains mountains the mountains thecoalmountains mountains coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coalmountains coal coal the coalmountains coal coalthe coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coalmountains coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal coal the coal coal coal coal coal coal the coal coal coal coal coal the mountains thecoal mountains

the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the

the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountainsmountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountainsmountains the mountains the the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the

the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains the mountains

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The Civic Forest

97


2403 Steps

As industrial landforms enter the domain of recreation, new modes of exploration speak of accessibility and public use.

98


The Civic Forest

99


Mountains and Volcanoes

At the summit, the smoke of campfires communicates with the fumes of distant power plants.

100


The Civic Forest

101


Hazy Views

The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, is a type of air quality index, which is a number used to indicate the level of pollutants in air. The PSI considers six air pollutants - sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). During haze

episodes, PM2.5 is the most significant pollutant. If the air in Katowice were brought to pre industrial levels, the visibility would be around 150 miles, currently, it averages between 15 and 40 miles. When looking from the belvedere, what is not visible reveals other, less detectable presences.

102


103


Piekary Slaskie3

Piekary Slaskie1

The Forest Line Bytom1

Piekary Slaskie4

Olkuz10

Piekary Slaskie Olkuz11

Bytom The Silesian InterurbansBytom2 Tram is one of the longest and largest tram systems in the world, comprising approximately 235 total kilometers of rail and extending 50 kilometers East-West across the agglomeration. Other public transportation networks include regional bus lines, a provincial rail system, inter-city trolley lines, and connections to national and EU rail lines.

Gliwice3

Gliwice2

In addition toGliwice this transportation infrastructure, the region is also heavily characterized by hundreds of

za

kilometers of active and abandoned rail lines.Olkuz12 Rail continues to shuttle coal throughout the region and to greater markets throughout the continent, often Dabrowa Gornizca sharing stations and routes with passenger lines. Olkuz13 The Forest Line, which includes both circular perimeter lines around the largest forest features as well as interforest connectivity, provides a new definition Olkuz5 for regional exploration and growth.

Ruda Slaswka

Lacza1

Olkuz4 Mikolow2

Katowice3

3 Sosnicowice1

Mislowice

Olkuz3

Katowice2

Mikolow

Ozwiecim1

Knurow

Katowice5

Katowice1

Rybnik1

Ozwiecim2 Katowice6

Tychy

Sosnicowice2

Rybnik3

Tychy1

Bierun

Bierun

Tychy2 Psczyna4

Rybnik2

Ozwiecim Zory1

Olkuz2

Katowice

Gliwice1

Sosnicowice

Olkuz7

Olkuz6

Zory

Psczyna3

Zory2

Psczyna1

104

Pscszyna

Psczyna2


The Civic Forest

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106


107


Bibliography

Daou, Daniel, and Pablo Pérez-Ramos. New geographies. Cambridge, Staszic Coal Mine.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2017. MA: Harvard U Graduate School of Design, 2016. Print. Web. 08 May 2017. Palma, Vittoria Di. Wasteland: a history. New Haven: Yale U Pr., 2014. Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Bulk Materials. N.p., n.d. Print. Web. 08 May 2017. DeLanda, Manuel. ˜Aœ thousand years of nonlinear history. New York, Kobuszynska, Mira, comp. “Forestry and Wood Products in NY: Zone , 2011. Print. Poland.” Global Agricultural Information Network  (2017): n. pag. Web. 08 May 2017. Berger, Alan, Henk Hoeks, Lucy Klaassen, and Dirk Sijmons. Systemic design can change the world. Amsterdam: SUN, 2009. Print. Zochowska, Monika. “Forestry situation and solid wood products in Poland.” Comp. Agata Kingsbury. Global Agricultural Information Maas, Winy, Jennifer Sigler, and Hans Werlemann. Metacity/datatown. Network (2011): n. pag. Web. 8 May 2017. Rotterdam: MVRDV, 1999. Print. Revolvy, LLC. “”Nature reserves in Poland” on Revolvy.com.”  All Shepheard, Paul. The cultivated wilderness: Or, what is landscape? Revolvy Quizzes. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press, 1997. Print. Chris Demers, Michael Andreu, Babe McGowan, Alan Long, and Jarek “CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita).” CO2 emissions (metric tons Nowak. “Thinning Southern Pines?A Key to Greater Returns.” EDIS per capita) | Data. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. New Publications RSS. School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 06 May 2016. Web. 11 May 2017. “50,000 Trees.” Scenario Journal. N.p., 29 May 2015. Web. 08 May 2017. SS FOR24/FR159: Thinning Southern Pines?A Key to Greater Returns Milewski, Wawrzyniec, ed. Forests in Poland 2015. Warsaw: The State Orłowski, Witold, ed.  Report on Major Polish Cities: Katowice. Forests Information Center, 2015. Print. Katowice: PWC, 2011. Print. Volume calculation of one ton CO2. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2017. “Silesian Metropolis.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 May 2017. Web. 08 May 2017. “Murcki Coal Mine.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 08 May 2017.

“United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.” UNECE Homepage. N.p., 10 May 2017. Web. 12 May 2017.


The Civic Forest  

Spring 2017, Studio: Urbanism After Extraction (4.163) Instructors: Rafi Segal and Marie Law Adams The Civic Forest Students: Diana Ang, Gi...

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