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特别制作 SPECIAL REPORT VENICE BIENNALE

威尼斯建筑双年展

威尼斯双年展

Venice Biennale of Architecture 空间相约 People Meet, Spaces Meet 文 摄影 由宓 / Text and photos by Umi 图片提供 威尼斯双年展 / Photo courtesy of Venice Biennale of Architecture

Transsolar +Tetsuo Kondo Architects, “Cloudscape”

们知道,19世纪迷恋的是历史,迷恋的是诸如发展与

停滞、危机与周期的主题,不断增长之过去的主题

想本身亦是孕育于当代文化中的独立自由精神。 —妹岛和世,2010年威尼斯建筑双年展策展人语

等,迷恋的是压倒多数的死者和气势汹汹的冰川世界。19世纪

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在热力学第二定律中发现了它基本的神话根源,但是当今这个

走过福柯空间性的20世纪,21世纪的前十年人们忙于解开

纪元也许将首先是空间的纪元。我们处在一个同时性的时代:

前人梦幻与现实的魅影,这些魅影萦绕在哲学和社会学领域,

一个并置的时代,一个远与近的时代,一个比肩的时代和弥撒

控制着概念的生产,进而控制空间的生产和对其的解读。这些

的时代。我相信,我们所经验的世界与其说是在时间之中发展

是否还适用于当下变革中产生的社会关系,是否对日益虚拟化

的漫长生活,不如说是一个用自身的经纬联结诸点和交叉点的

的世界有同样的作用?针对空间而言,“用自身经纬联结诸点

网络。人们也许可以说激起当今争辩的某些意识形态方面的冲

和交叉点的网络”之中的空间维度是否还是唯一可信的空间维

突反对的是时间的虔诚子孙,空间的坚定居民。

度?21世纪的现实和虚拟空间是否会加强,甚至增添空间维

—福柯,《关于其他空间》 度?2010年威尼斯建筑双年展的策展人妹岛和世没有定义贯穿 现实的复杂系统,她提出了“相约于建筑”的主题,邀请建筑 21世纪刚刚开始,惊人的改变已经开始发生。在飞速变化的环 师、城市规划者、艺术家、评论家、诗人、电影导演从人的尺 境里,建筑能否应对现实提出的新价值体系与新生活方式?我们相 度出发,回归独立视角和多重声音,试图勾勒现实与未来的图 信建筑可以带来新视角,因此至关重要。想法会带来长远结果,梦 景,从建筑本身转而思考人与空间,甚至从人出发思考空间问

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Hans Ulrich Obrist

T

he great obsession of the nineteenth century was, as we know, history: with its themes of development and of suspension, of crisis, and cycle, themes of the ever-accumulating past, with its great preponderance of dead men and the menacing glaciation of the world. The nineteenth century found its essential mythological resources in the second principle of thermaldynamics- The present epoch will perhaps be above all the epoch of space. We are in the epoch of simultaneity: we are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed. We are at a moment. I believe, when our experience of the world is less that of a long life developing through time than that of a network that connects points and intersects with its own skein. One could perhaps say that certain ideological conflicts animating present-day polemics oppose the pious descendants of time and the determined inhabitants of space. "Of Other Space" Foucault "The twenty-first century has just started. Many radical changes are taking place. In such a rapid-changing context, can architecture clarify new values and a new lifestyle for the present? …we believe that architecture plays a significant role in this: it has the power to open up new perspectives. We imagine ideas that can have far reaching effects. These dreams come from many sources and may

Do ho Suh+Suh Architects, “Blueprint”

represent a new independent freedom that is essentially inherent to contemporary culture. " Kazuyo Sejima Curator of 2010 Venice Biennale of Architecture After Foucault’s spatial twentieth century, the beginning of twenty-first century is dedicated to furthering the flights of thoughts that we inherit, as their menace in philosophy and sociology is ever evident, and control the production and interpretation of space. Do they still apply to today’s changing social relations? Are they still relevant in an ever virtualized world? Is the “network that connects points and intersects with its own skein” the only spatial dimension? Could the real and virtual space in twenty-first century reinforce or add to the existing spatial dimension? The curator Sejima didn’t propose a closed system in answer to that, instead, she proposed the theme “People Meet in Architecture” and invited architects, urban planners, artists, critics, poets, filmmakers to make propositions from the measure of human beings. Individual and multiple points of view are critical in understanding now and drawing the blueprint for the future. Space no longer dominates human, light is shed on the relation of human and space, and even understanding space through human. The dream quality allowed in this attempt makes it possible to transcend existing social structures and networks.

Raumlabor, “Kitchen Monument”

R&Sie(n),“Isobiot®ope”

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题。这个尝试本身的梦想精神是超越现实社会建构和系统的必 要手段。 我们沿着几件参展作品的思维轨迹,观看他们对主题的试 探及其表达。

身体的秩序 几件作品触及了空间认知中最基本的单位——身体。正如 列斐伏尔在《空间的生产》中述及,整个社会空间都从身体开 始,不管它是如何将身体变形以至于彻底忘记了身体,也不管 它是如何与身体彻底决裂以至于要消灭身体。只有立足于最接 近我们的秩序——即身体的秩序,才能对遥远的秩序(国家 的?全球的?)的起源问题做出解释。 Do ho Suh及事务所Suh Architects的作品Blueprint是对他居所 的再造和重现,采用的却是一种幽静轻薄的蓝色织物作为材 料,有一面等比例营造的12.7米长的住宅外立面水平悬在空中。 房子的细节——门框、窗棂、梯级,用这种半透明的材料刻画 的极为精致,但不同于家给人带来的坚实的和具体的印象,这 种材料暗示着房子若近若远,若虚若实,把一个游子对家的情

Raumlabor, “Kitchen Monument”

感表达得恰到好处。 空间维度在地面上再次改变:地面上平铺的蓝色材料构成 了头顶房屋的影子,也是一个更个人的深思和梦想空间。这里 记忆里的家同时出现,时间与地理不再形成羁绊,与现实中的 家一上一下,一阳一阴的辩证完整了。 超日建筑能源公司(Transsolar)和近藤哲雄建筑设计事务所 (Tetsuo Kondo Architects)的作品Cloudscape把自然界中最平常的现 象——云,带到可以触及的距离。这片云由饱和空气,凝结剂 和凝结水珠相互作用而成,漂浮在空间的顶部,甚至有种永恒 的感觉。沿上升的坡道缓缓走入其中,观众即被温热湿润的雾 气包围,光的质感亦发生改变,视线所及的一切与方向、高度 有关的暗示物也逐渐淡出了。这个迟缓的过程非常重要——如 果我们把此作品和Olafur

Eliasson之前在北京的“感觉即真实”

展览做比较的话——让人的感官在如此经历后变得更加敏锐, 亦即重识感官是这个作品的关键,而Eliasson的作品则是一个充 满雾气与光的纯粹的另外的世界,旨在劫持人的感官。

多义的环境 环境可以是政治的,环境的,可见的,无踪的,文化的, 隐喻的,开放的,自给自足的,检视环境也可以自微观的、局域的

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到全人类共享的,自内至外,自外至内,并置或重组。双年展赋予


We will follow the paths of a few works, in order to map their interpretations of the theme. Bodily order A few pieces touch upon the most basic unit of a cognitive world--the body. As Henri Lefebvre maintains in The Production of Space, the whole society starts from the body, however altered and even forgotten it is, or however it has departed from the body and wants to kill it. It is only through the order that we are most in kinship to, namely the bodily order, can we respond to the origin of the more lofty orders such as the national or global. Do ho Suh and Suh Architects re-present his houses in the piece Blueprint. Fabricated with a light-weight ? in mysterious blue tone, a full scale 12.7m long facade of his current New York house is suspended horizontally. The details, door frames, window lattices, steps leading to the door, are realistically formed, yet the translucent quality of the house doesn’t convey a feeling of solidity associated often with home, rather the missing of it, in this home away from home.The spatial dimension changes again on the blue fabric cladded floor, supposedly the shadow that the overhead house casts, and naturally a space for deep meditation and dream. Here all the houses the artist has resided in are represented in paints, as if tracing down a steam of memory, when time is no longer a constraint. Here, the house in reality and in memory complete a cycle of yang and yin. In the piece Cloudscape, Transsolar and tetsuo Kondo Architects brings a daily natural phenomenon, the cloud, into the exhibition space. A work of the coagulant agent and saturated vapor, the cloud floats at the top of the space, a height that almost calls for revering. Ascending on the ramp, the audience gradually enter a warm, damp haze, where the quality of light is different and visual references no long possible. This slow process is the key. If we are to draw comparison of this work to Olafur Eliasson’s Feeling is Reality? in Beijing a few months ago, a sheer space filled with haze and altering ambient light, Cloudscape sharpens the audience’s sense in a rather friendly manner, makes for a rediscovery of senses, while Olafur aims to hijack senses.

R&Sie(n),“Isobiot®ope”

Ambiguous environment The environment we occupy could be political, physical, visible, invisible, cultural, metaphorical, open, self-contained, to navigate we could look at the microscopical, local and universal, we could examine from inside out or outside in, we could juxtapose, or reassemble. The new perspectives on the environment at the Biennale are at once familiar, and strange. The architects R&Sie(n) creates an installation called Isobiot®ope, in

R&Sie(n),“Isobiot®ope”

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人新的角度看待环境,它像梦一样遥远,熟悉而陌生。 建筑师小组R&Sie(n)的装置作品Isobiot®ope在黑洞洞的空间 里发散着迷人又神秘的光,来自一种能够探测大气层紫外线强 度的矿物元素放射的余晖,由此人们可以判定臭氧层损害程 度。它的表意远远超越日常生活之维度,代表了科技最前沿,

Mark Pimlott + Tony Fretton, “Piazzasalone”

在遥遥千里之外的环境里同观众对话,其表达也深深的带有诗 意。关于这件作品给观众带来的直观体验,这种内外关系晦涩 的辩证,建筑师们写道: “我想到电影《潜行者》里那片无人能及的区域和那个能 满足你所有愿望的房间,它是人与天抗争的结果,至今也不知 道孰是孰非。休战是不稳定态。什么都不能辨别,除了静魅, 潜行者在其中向着无人地带冒险。最终,衰灭笼罩着愿望之 屋,这建筑恰恰是相遇的地方。” R&Sie(n)也以此对“相约于建筑”做出回应:相遇即是面对不 可知与陌生,甚至是直面自我对这种不可知与陌生的排斥。 Mark Pimlott和Tony Fretton事务所的作品Piazzasalone探讨了空 间含义混合的可能性。在他们的展览空间里,人的主体是确定 的,但环境中的物件、装置时而让人感觉置身于室外广场 (piazza),时而又在会客厅(salone),建筑师采取的手段是 并置不同的尺度,混合不同的暗示和透视关系:街灯,等比例

which it reveals the degree of Ozone degeneration through a mineral element capable of indicating the degree of UV crossing the stratosphere through its after glowing appearance. The green light shooting from the installation has a constantly perplexing quality. The experience is by no means commonplace in daily life, yet comes with a poetic touch. The architects describe this feeling as follows: “I remember the inaccessible zone and the room where wishes are granted in the Tarkovsky’s movie Stalker; a place you enter after crossing a territory where the gods clashed with humanity – we still don’t know who won that battle. The truce is unstable. Nothing can be discerned but sweat and silence, like climbers roped together, seeking to transgress the forbidden… At the end of the journey, amid the humid dilapidation, looms this Room of Wishes, where architecture is precisely the meeting point…” And regarding “People Meet in Architecture”: Meeting someone means facing the unknown, the strange, or even confronting your own repulsion at negotiating unfamiliar surroundings. Architects Mark Timlott and Tony Fretton set up a piece called Piazzasalone, conceived as a fusion between a Slone Grande and a Piazza. The objects possess ambiguous meanings, together with a variety of perspectives and inferences, they shape the audience’s view of where one is or what things are. Street light, a car, a loggia or monumental staircase, but soon enough, an image of swaying branches of trees at dusk shimmering upon a wall as if in a room, a mirror, the door to infinity… The space is open for interpretation. It urges us to think, can space take shape in between things--not buildings, but in between buildings, the cracks and emptiness? Can space happen in between time, or as Einstein has it, something that grows out of the destruction of buildings, a vacancy in power, geography and time?

的汽车,亦是家具亦是房屋的物件——它们在这个多义的空间 中甚至有教堂般的感召力,一幅有树影的画再次把空间变成室 内,一面镜子留给观众自己补充接下来的故事。一切取决与从 何处看,空间由此打开:空间能否位于事物之间——不是房 屋,而是房屋之间的空间,缺口、空白与裂缝?空间能否位于 时间之间——根据爱因斯坦的时空观念,把它看作是当一件或 成片的房屋倒塌时才出现的空间,一个在权力、地理、时间上 可测量的空白?

网络的生产 空间的研究认为生产的社会关系是一种社会存在,以至于 是一种空间存在;它们将自身投射到空间里,在其中留下烙 印,与此同时又生产着空间。即使在纯抽象领域,在意识形态 和再现领域,也存在普遍的、相关的虽然常常是隐秘的空间维 度。(爱德华·索亚)同样,社会关系网络也具有空间形态,当 这种形态在一个具象空间呈现时——通常具有时间和地缘空间 le nna Bie

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上的强度,结果总好像纷繁切线触碰了同一个圆环后又驶入各 自的方向,于此一圆环上火花四射。 小汉斯把他二十年来不懈的采访搬到展览现场,空间中间同 时是他的舞台和影棚,8月22日至27日他一直在此完成记录历史和 创造历史的任务,这是New Interviews。展览空间的四面墙上写满共

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The production of networks The study of space maintains that the social relations are a spatial construct, they project themselves into space and leave their marks, and at the same time they produce spaces. Even in the most abstract realms, in ideology and representation, there are relevant, although often discreet, spatial dimensions. (Edward Soja) This is also true in social networks. When such a spatial form takes shape in a certain geographical and temporal circumstances, it may yield great potential.Hans Ulrich Obrist brings his endless quest of interviews into the exhibition space. The room is a film studio and stage, where he interviews people live and film the process from August 22th through 27th, this task of writing new history is called Now Interviews. Moreover, there are 850 names written on the wall, they are but a selection of interviewees from his 20 years of engagement, this is the Wall of Names. There are screens seated neatly in chairs spread in the room that bears videos from previous interviews at Serpentine Gallery. The space is designed by SANAA, its simplicity contrasts to the monumentality and intensity of time of Obrist’s works, which goes beyond simultaneity and performativity of his past interview occasions. Precisely because people will leave, voices will fade, that something larger than time and individuals emerge from this consistent timeline of interview efforts. The Berlin-based practise Raumlabor installed the Kitchen Monument, a large, translucent mobile structure outside the exhibition hall at Giardini. Raumlabor’s structures following the same concept has toured many parts of the world, often set up at seemingly uninteresting places or lesser known corners, as dance hall, cinema, music venue, dormitory or even Sauna parlor, they have often changed the dynamics of the neighborhood. At the biennale, the Kitchen Monument is used as a conference hall, where people in the know and people hanging


Mark Pimlott + Tony Fretton, “Piazzasalone”

Do ho Suh+Suh Architects, “Blueprint”

Mark Pimlott + Tony Fretton, “Piazzasalone”

Do ho Suh+Suh Architects, “Blueprint”

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计850个名字——小汉斯多年对访谈过的人物的一部分,这是Wall of Names。另外整齐排放满屋的椅子上有参与对谈的人物特写屏幕, 来自于2006年蛇形画廊采访的剪辑。展览空间由SANAA设计。在 这样一个环境里,纪念性与时间的密度显现出来,远远超出了小 汉斯先前采访环境的那种自发和表演性质。这也是因为人总要逝 去,话音渐渐微弱,在一个时间轴线上的人物网络中,某种大于 时间和个体的精神出现了。 来自柏林的建筑事务所Raumlabor在展场户外设置了大型移动 结构Kitchen Monument,企图在这个充气的半透明体中聚集各种人 群,时间的密度在此也为他们助力。Raumlabor同样概念的类似结 构已经巡游过世界很多地区,多设立在城市中不为人关注的角 落,作为舞厅、影院、音乐现场、宿舍、蒸汽浴室等等在短时间 内改变了活动当地的能量场。在双年展场地,Kitchen Monument被 用作流动会议室,在既定的一段时间内见证了若干自发的或有组 织的关于建筑与城市的讨论,知情者与凑热闹的往来者,社交网 络中的关键点与孤独的游荡者,迷思与想象。 我们藉与建筑事务所Raumlabor成员Markus Bader与Christof E. Mayer 的对话把“相约于建筑”的讨论留给更多人。 你们的很多作品与艺术和建筑有关,也就是说你们设计时已经在 考虑参观和使用者,这与传统的设计建造相异。你怎样看这过程的不同? 作为建筑师我们要对城市化和集体性作出回应。这不仅仅是 字面上的、研讨会上或业内小范围讨论。我们一开始就自觉创造机会同 当地人面对面互动。可以说,我们用行动回应亨利·列斐伏尔“空间是社 会关系体现”的说法。这个立场的反面观点就是传统的看法:建筑是建 筑师和客户共同造就的。 最早我们获得一个很有意思的委托,是关于如何处理正在缩小的德国城市 的。与城市扩张的内力外因相反,我们恰恰要研究城市萎缩的境况与原 因。所有为城市扩长而打造的城市化理论在这里完全派不上用场了。这促 使我们思考使得城市变化的关键点及其作用各是什么,自此我们开始实践 社区性参与性的工作方式,并且有意使其带有点玩闹色彩和随意性。 所以我们当时在Halle-Neustadt租了房子,在城市里体

Transsolar +Tetsuo Kondo Architects, “Cloudscape”

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验生活,而不是看看图纸了事。 你们又是怎样从观察得出具体的干涉方案呢? 这是漫长的过程。这个项目由市政府委托,但并没有得到机会实 行。后来我们是在Hotel Neustadt项目里实现这些想法的:我们同当地的 年轻人合作,把一个空置的高层变成了一个剧场,这个社交网络甚至保 留下来,这些参与过的年轻人还保有很积极的回忆。我们使用的是自上 至下的规划设计,也容纳自下至上的参与可能。 这个项目的实施也含有想像的成分。因为没有钱进行系统的城市改 造,那里几乎所有人都放弃了。我们便介绍了“行动库”的想法,把地 方力量、文化机构、基金会结合起来,在某一时间某一地点制造出大 量活动。这让城市面貌大不相同,或者说临时转换了建筑和环境,使其 在是与不是间有了新的意义。在鲁尔工业区我们把一个地铁站临时改 造成了歌剧院,当时地铁还照常运行。事后,城市规划和管理当局受到 启发,开始考虑如何利用这个活动释放的能量以及其中参与者建立的联 系,来投入下一步对城市的更新改造。 如何相约于建筑? 很显然,需要椅子。 可以讲讲我们的Kitchen Monument。它是一个流动结构,我们把它 带到城市中不那么有人气的地方,干预城市生活,创造一种集体感。我 们起初设计的活动方式其一即是烹饪。当时我们把附近社区里的人都请 出来聚餐,而这正发生在最不可能的地方:高速公路下,无人使用的公 园等等所谓的公共空间。我们质问公共空间的真正功用,并试图给出我 们答案。我们营造的这种场景与日常生活密切相连,但是放大了其规模 和地点,就形成一种特殊体验。在建筑双年展,Kitchen Monument脱离 最初形式,被当作流动会议室用。 Kitchen Monument是临时的纪念碑。时间性—时间的强度— 也是促成我们相遇的条件。如果没有时间限制呢? 那会是氛围和内容。我们的一贯策略是创造可能性。为此我们要能 够提供给人们一点他们需要的东西,比如在我们空间里的椅子就是很好 的例子。人们总能在使用中建立同周围环境的联系。当然,我们也让人 自己尝试木匠活计造椅子,使用它,占有它,甚至把它们带回家。 其实说相约于建筑几乎是说建筑就是世界。 人们的真正需要是什么,建筑怎样可以不只关心商业,建筑怎样能够更 有内容?我们希望从建筑最基本的特质出发思考。我想建筑师应该回答 这些问题,反思并应对当下的社会状况。

Transsolar +Tetsuo Kondo Architects, “Cloudscape”


around, social butterflies and lonely wanderers, myths and imaginations meet. Abitare speaks with Raumlabor’s Markus Bader and Christof E. Mayer about “People Meet in Architecture”. Abitare You do a lot of works between art and architecture. In a way you design with the visitors or users in mind, a lot more than when designing conventional buildings. How is this experience different? Markus Bader As architects, we discuss ideas of urbanity and collectivity, and discuss not through theoretical texts, or conferences addressing only to the professional audience. From the beginning it was very important for us to create a situations where you can have more direct interactions with local people. In this sense, we follow the idea of Henri Lefebvre in that space is a form of social interaction. This could contrast to the traditional idea of architecture being the products of architects, builders and clients. In the beginning, we had a very interesting commission to deal with German cities that shrink. We were not planning on the condition of forces driving the city to grow but on the condition of shrinkage, which renders the modern planning tools somehow irrelevant, as they are really made for shaping growth. This brought us into deeply thinking the roles of the actors involved in city making. It was the starting point of our participatory projects and we wanted in the beginning perhaps more playful and fluid ways. Christof E. Mayer For this Neustadt commission, we rented an apartment and stayed for a while to experience the city, instead of looking at the plans and drawing here and there.

is a temporary transformation of the buildings into something else, into an in-between world. From that point, we start seeing this happening at an area where usually nothing much happens. If this is possible, what other hopes can we raise? We have another project in the Ruhr region, in which we temporarily transformed a Metro station into an opera house, while the the station functions as usual. Now it kicks off from this highly energetic point of a temporary opera, and is gong onto the next steps, i.e. the planning and administration officers start to think how to use this energy created with the project, the links initiated by the local people, to feed this into a regeneration process of this area.  Abitare How do people meet in architecture? CM They need chairs! MB We could use the Kitchen Monument as an example. It’s a mobile structure that we originally used to tour parts of the city that are less used and less “happy”. We created this structure to intervene and set off a sense of collectiveness. One form of activity taking place inside is cooking. The original setting was that we invited a number of people from a neighborhood to enjoy a huge feast. Under the motorway, in a deserted parks, all these kinds of public spaces. For us the question is what is a public space good for and what is our demand for such places. We try to provide a set that is linked to very banal everyday experiences but to transform it in a matter of scale and location, so to make it a special experience. At the Biennale, it is used as a mobile conference hall.

Abitare It is, in a way, a “temporary” monument. How do we meet in architecture if architecture is not necessarily temporary? Abitare How do you go from the experience and observation to proposing Christof: It is through atmosphere, and the programming. Our strategy is participatory measures? always to create possibilities. We need to offer something to the people, chair CM It’s a long way to go. The project was initiated by the City Hall and we is a very simple example. You can always involve yourself in using things. So worked intensely for a while, but the commissioned ended somehow after a we offer people chairs and they are integrated into the environment when while, so we had to find other ways to apply our strategies. Later we had the using them. Of course, another possibility is that people build the chair first, chance to transform a festival place into hotel. We worked with young use it, and then take it home.  people from the area, which demonstrates a double strategies we adopt, one of top-down planning and one involving bottom up processes. What is more MB To say “People Meet in Architecture” is almost to say, architecture is interesting is that we created a social network out of this project, it is still the world. What might be people’s needs, what is the architecture that working, and people still remember this event fondly. doesn’t have to answer commercial needs, and are simple programmatic MB This project is also about imagination. If you have a place where stories? We should talk about space from very basic qualities, from the everybody would say, we have serious problems but we don’t have money to simple service it provides. I think this is interesting question for architects, follow the traditional way of transformation, and everyone sort of gives up. to reflect on the condition of society and what are the possible reactions to By inserting what we call “lot of actions”, where you bundle activities of local that condition.  actors, some cultural players and various funds available, to one spot at one particular time, you can create a quite impressive array of activities, and that

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测绘当代威尼斯 Mapping Contemporary Venice 文 摄影 由宓 / Text and photos by Umi 图片提供 威尼斯双年展 / Photo courtesy of Venice Biennale of Architecture

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举办的展览“测绘当代威尼斯(Mapping Contemporary Venice)” 即是一例。其中的主要介质是笔记本,记录着参展建筑师、规划 师和学生对威尼斯过去、现在、未来的情感,认识及想象。模 型、照片和影像反而仅仅是辅助,加强作者的叙事。在这里,笔 记本构成了旅行和经验沟通的媒介。旅行是空间中的一系列运 动,旅行者的经验生成一种新的秩序,借助这种秩序,地理学超 越了知识。当知识变成世界性的和空间性的时候,当它不依赖于 任何权力的时候,地理学就诞生了。道路、路线、运动、平面、 地图等是描述世界时的一种空间语言,这些语汇的出现或再次出 现是走向新的认识论阶段的标志阅读和旅行是两种完全相同的活 动。想像和解读威尼斯的尝试似乎总不能摆脱文学家卡尔维诺的 《看不见的城市》,书中马可·波罗为忽必烈描述了数十个自己旅 程中见到的城市,隐喻的,寓言的,直接的,冷静的,最终这些 城市都是马可·波罗对威尼斯的描绘和想像:“记忆的形象一旦被 词语固定下来就会消失了,”波罗说。”也许我不愿意讲述威尼 斯是害怕失去它。也许,讲述别的城市的时候,我已经正点点滴 滴失去它。”因此关于一座城市情感的探索和表达弥足珍贵,这 在很多参展的学生作品中有所体现。

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he collateral events at the Venice Biennale of Architecture often responds to architectural and urban situations from different points of view. Mapping Contemporary Venice, currently exhibited at the Venice International University, is one good example. The main medium one comes across at the exhibition is paper notebook, where the architects, urban planners and students let their view, emotion and imagination of Venice in the past, present and future flow. Models and photos collages are but employed to strengthen these different narratives. Here, the notebook becomes a primary medium of exchange between travel and experience. Travelers occupy a constant consequence in the space, thereby their experience constitute a new order, with which geography goes beyond knowledge. When knowledge inhabit the world and time, when it no longer depends on power of any form, geography emerges as a new subject. Passages, paths, movement, plates, maps are the new vocabulary to describe space, its emerging or reemerging signifies a new stage in understanding the world. Reading and Traveling are the same activities. Coming down to Venice. All attempts in imagining and interpreting Venice cannot suffice without paying a certain amount of tribute to Italo Calvino’s book Invisible Cities. There, Marco Polo described numerous cities that he encountered along his journey for Kublai Khan, cities packed with metaphorical, allegorical, direct and cold, which as later revealed, are all but Marco Polo’s imagination and interpretation of Venice:“Memory’s images, once they are fixed in words, are erased,” Polo said. “Perhaps I am afraid of losing Venice all at once, if I speak of it. Or perhaps, speaking of other cities, I have already lost it, little by little.”This ought to make the effort of going into a city’s psyche ever more cherished. The theme are exploited in some student and architect works.

Abitare与组织者、威尼斯国际大学院长Stefano Micelli对话。 Abitare speaks with the organizer of the project, dean of Venice International University Stefano Micelli . 请介绍组织这次活动及策划展览的初衷。 关于威尼斯现状与未来的讨论已经很多,有时这些讨论 不免落入俗套。我们的想法是同时请来有影响力的建筑师和学生参与对 城市的想像和创造,限定时间为2050年的威尼斯。我们保持处理问题的 严肃态度,也不失天马行空的想象力。每位参与者得到一个Moleskine本 子,这个既定的模式给他们带来了挑战:本子页数有限,怎样在有限空 间中发挥无限的想像力?被邀请的著名建筑师们用了大规格的本子以做 规划、填入渲染图等,学生则用小规格的本子,在城市中四处游荡,寻 找灵感。 这个形式很有意味,本子是生活的必需品,很多人会随身携带, 随时记录灵感,其中有某种及时性。 我同意及时性这点,另外我还要补充“真实性”。有些学生作品中 体现了对这座城市的热爱与激情。你要携带这个本子三个月,自然会和 它建立一种关系。随后的表达正是这种情感强度的体现。 观看这个展览和解读这些作品,也许好像旅行一样,但不仅是在 地理上旅行,也是在时间中旅行。 对。其实有一部分作品是极乐观的面向未来,这种乐观同正在经历 城市变革的亚洲大都市——如上海、北京——展示的乐观是相同的。 比如荷兰建筑事务所JDS的把威尼斯外围水域用环形土地包围并保护起 来,增加了现代化城区。这些作品是具有批判性和想像力的。另外一 部分作品却是与逝去的时光和遗产有关,比如对威尼斯礁湖区域早先的 木结构住宅的细致刻画。我认为两个方向都为我们呈现了一些改变的可 能,这些可能性因其艺术价值而更能吸引和打动我们。 我在想读《看不见的城市》的体验,这些想像带给真实的城市更 多的维度与意义。 正巧有几位学生的作品就是对《看不见的城市》的解读。他们从原 文中截取几段文字,针对每一段文字在威尼斯寻得一个在空间和寓意上 对应的地点,在每个地点他们分别于人烟稀少的清早和满是游客的午后 拍照。这便构成了他们对“看不见的城市”的解读。 不仅仅是《看不见的城市》中论及的威尼斯与中国的缘分,这两个文化 有很深的联系。我们正在计划把此次展览带到中国,也许能唤起人们重 108

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Abitare Please introduce the idea of the exhibition. Stefano Micelli There is a continuous debate about the present and future of the city, sometimes the discussion is so dense that one may sometimes feel that there is too much stereotypes. So our idea is to ask both the established architects and young students from all over the world to express themselves in a creative way, that is, imagining Venice in 2050. On the one hand we were serious about the topic, and at the same time we used imaginations to express a new vision for the future. We obtained the vision we were expecting. The Moleskine notebook adopted in the project presents a format that is challenging. One has to fill up a certain number of pages so there is never enough space. Students were given small notebooks, the architects used the artists’ pads. Abitare The notebook is almost a daily essential thing, it has a sense of immediacy. SM I would add another word, authenticity. Some of the students’ works really reflected a genuine passion and love for the city. You really carry this around everyday for three months and it starts a relationship with you. Abitare Looking at them will be like traveling to places, but also in time. SM On the one hand you will see Venice projected into the future in a very optimistic matter, somehow comparable to what’s happening in large Chinese cities like Shanghai and Beijing, exemplified by the JDS project. This is the Venice very much in the future. On the other hand, some projects look at the past and ancient inheritance. One project depicts living in the lagoon in unstable wooden structures. I think both exercises prove that there’s a change in front of us. Abitare This reminds me of Invisible Cities, naturally. SM Nice that you mentioned it. One student group did use references from the Italo Calvino book. They took sentences from it, for each they picked one spot in the city. Each spot has been photographed at two extremely different hours, one in early morning when it’s practically empty, the other in the


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新看待自己的城市的热情。 说到联系,现在的世界由复杂的关系网络组成,包括可见的和 无形的网络。这个展览在某种意义上也是在城市、人与时间之间建立联 系,并且把它表现出来。您是怎么看待这些联系呢? 我开始在威尼斯国际大学从事国际项目工作时,很快就发现很难 让参与者——尤其是非本地人——与城市、历史以及生活在这里的人们 建立联系。于是我用此次活动或类似形式的活动邀请这些参与者主动探 索非常规维度。他们可以去思考复杂深远的问题,如比如礁湖地区的可 持续发展未来,这些思考使得他们与威尼斯的联系亦更为持久。 无形的联系也是在情感和心智意义上的。我对参与此次展览的建筑师和学 生说过,如果你想真正成为城市的一分子,你一定要为它的未来着想。只 有这样,才有可能建立与城市的情感连结。这样的人越多,这种连结越紧 密。我们自己也要更开放,尤其要欢迎其他文化对威尼斯的解读。

daytime with loads of tourists. That makes their own invisible cities. There is a deep link between Venice and China, not just evident in Calvino’s book. Honestly speaking, we are planning to bring this exhibition to China, and the Chinese audience may find inspirations to rediscover their own cities. Abitare: The modern day is all about connections,.Your exhibition is about making connections of things and presenting it. SM When I started working at the Venice International University on projects involving international participants, I discovered that usually it is hard to create real connections with the city. When I worked with foreign professors and students, they cannot easily grasp the connections. What I did was I launched activities like this that allow people to explore the dimensions not so obviously there. They could explore complex questions, for example the sustainability of the lagoon. Invisible connections also include emotional and intellectual connections. When I ask the architects and students, if you want to be part of the city, you need to be allowed to explore with its future. Otherwise the Venice community tends to get to smaller. If you are allowed to express your feelings of the future of the city, you are immediately connected with it emotionally, which makes the community stronger. The project we do is a tool for people to participate in a city like Venice. We need to be more open, people from faraway cultures should be included in this. 021

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未来城市设计: 幻想或幻想破灭? Designing Urban Future: Illusion or Disillusion? 文 摄影 由宓 / Text and photos by Umi 图片提供 威尼斯双年展 / Photo courtesy of Venice Biennale of Architecture

城市未来的想象和设计,从来都是一个童话与现实之 断得来)的启发下预测20年后我们将不用驾车,而是汽车在信 贯穿人类 历史,我们总依 赖机器生存。命运听起 来 间连续性的问题。每个时代的人可以尽可能勾画时间 息系统指导下自动驾驶我们。数字化道路将展示自动汽车、行 简直是讽刺。 的无限远处世界的蓝图,不自觉的入迷着魔,但是我们的文化 人的轨迹并保证他们互不相交,意图解决城市流动性问题。当 ... 解放你的心智。 积淀已经让这些对未来的想象在未来逼近之前变成了旧的想 然,这在本次设计竞赛的语境中这显得颇一劳永逸。

墨菲斯, 《骇客帝国》

象。这便是童话本身的辩证,童话一旦被制造,就已经老了。

Cloud 9事务所(西班牙)请来8至10岁的孩子——二十年后

那么既然童话难以超越,我们还是关注从现实出发,如何渐进 的决策者一起工作,围绕四个基本元素构想——其一清洁可再 式的接近一个可能的将来,同时保证不定义和规划这个未来, 生能源,其二制造能源的建筑,其三水能与燃料电池,其四合 以免它在我们的手中苍老逝去。 由德国Stylepark策划的奥迪未来城市设计大奖为六位在国际 上熠熠生辉的建筑师(事务所)提供了平台,邀请他们设计 2030年的城市。围绕流动性、建筑与城市发展的主题,设计环

理城市网格,他们一起描绘了美好的未来图景,如树木般生长 的房屋,包在气泡中的汽车、飞机。他们的图绘亦最有童话乐 园般的快乐基调。 标准营造(中国)的建筑师张轲反思了中国近几十年“道

节特别关注超规模都市的居住状况,希望从新能源以及交通策 路优先”的发展模式,提出地铁等公共交通优先的想法。针对 略方面反思现在城市的限制与问题,以求刻画未来的理想城 北京,他用庞大的高速铁路线把城市包围,并设计了沿线的超 市。经过前后三个多月的概念发展和成果展示,最终参与评奖 高层、高密度的立体发展。在内城,他用交通传输带取代路 的五位建筑师(事务所)呈现了积极与多样的设计结果。

网,人们在小型汽车里既可选择驾驶,亦可交由传输带完成旅

Alison Brooks事务所(英国)结合小型环保汽车和诸如数字 程,而赢得更多自由空间和交往空间。最后,张轲把新规划留 le nna Bie

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电话等智能终端创造了更轻松和个人化的驾驶体验,也为城市 出的土地、建筑外立面、旧马路还给了农业。 解放了大量空间,用以更人性的建设。建筑师以超大都市孟买

关于如何看待未来,张轲说:我们觉得2030年并不那么遥

为例,把当地极端拥挤的社会、文化、政治机构分配到沿既有 远,是具有现实和社会意义的。中国与欧美国家时间上并不对 基础设施展开的建设中,形成多样而有序的城市建构。

等,中国的2030年可能相当于欧美的2060年或2090年,所以中

Bjarke Ingels Group(丹麦)在克兹维尔曲线(由摩尔定律推 国城市结构要经历更大的转变。我们总结当下的问题,检视未

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magining and designing the future city has always been a matter of finding consistence between fairy tale and the reality. People from any given time in history have deliberately done so, and, as a consequence, making themselves fall in love with the future blueprint. As time goes, however, our own cultivation consciously resists such imagination, the future vision becomes outdated vision before future draws near. This is the dialectics of the fairy tale: once it is created and fixed, it becomes old too soon. As that quality of the fairy tale makes it hard to transcend, we may only start from the reality and approach the point where future is almost tangible, yet we avoid defining and fixing it, in order that it doesn’t slip away from our own hands. Curated by Stylepark, Audi Urban Future Award invites six remarkable, and by no means stereotypical, architects and firms to design the 2030 urban future. Mobility, architectural and urban development are particular issues addressed in the designs. Often concerning living situations in mega cities, the participating architects explore new energy forms and mobility strategies in attempt to draw a blueprint of the urban future. After three months of development, the final exhibition of five architects and firms presents very diverse approaches. Alison Brooks Architects (UK) employs compact electric cars and smart phone-based digital dashboard for more personal and relaxed driving experience, and thereby releases spaces for community development in the city. The architect takes megacity Mumbai as a case, and proposes a sustainable urban extension based upon an existing transport infrastructure, integrating culture, infrastructure, political and social institutions in an orderly construct. Bjarke Ingels Group (Denmark) prophesies a future of driverless

cars in 20 years’ time, based on a study of the Kurzweil curve. The cars will drive us, each supervised by an omniscient transport system that enables best optimal flow without causing interference between cars and with pedestrians. This take on mobility option seems to go at the future in a doing-it-once-and-for-all fashion. Cloud 9 (Spain) invites a group aged 8 to 10, the future urban leaders so to speak, to join the process. They present four core values, clean renewable energies, buildings as power plants, hydrogen technology and fuel cell and lastly smart grid, and insert them into urban prototypes, in a way not without fairy tale overtones. Houses with stems shooting out, automobiles and airplanes cast in bubbles are just some examples of this happy project. Standardarchitecture’s Zhang Ke (China) consider the “road first” city development model, practiced throughout China, to be outdated, and proposed a “subway first” model for the existing Beijing urban sprawl. Zhang Ke envisions a city circling the now Beijing, supported by vast subway infrastructure and containing extremely high density hybrid living and working spaces, the “meta-mountains”. In the inner city, he adopts traffic belts for individual and collective transportation, allowing more freedom and community activities even on the road. The roads no longer in use, recently freed spaces and facades of buildings are rendered green: the agricultural culture strikes back. In answer to the attitude toward future, Zhang Ke claims that 2030 is rather tangible and 2030 in China may be the equivalent of 2060 or even 2090 in western countries, for China will have to go through more dramatic transformation. Standardarchitecture builds upon a realistic base of current problems and challenges of the future. The future may be partly predicted with aid of statistics

Throughout human history, we have been dependent on machines to survive. Fate, it seems, is not without a sense of irony. ... Free your mind. Morpheus, in the movie "The Matrix" 

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J. MAYER H. Architects

来的挑战,以此提出应对方案,出发点是很现实的。我想对未

“童话,一,是一种教育手段,二,强调恰恰不是现实的

来的预测一部分通过数据和逻辑推断,另一部分完全不可预

那一部分。所以我很惊讶所有人以为我展示的就是未来蓝图。

见,例如大地震,而这些事件经常给城市带来重新审视发展策

其实不然。我展示的是我们看到和体验到的现实的一种趋向,

略的可能。

我把它几十年后的可能结果在此放大。讲这个故事是为了让我

但是也许正是这不可预见的因素决定了建筑师渐进式的对

们更批判的看待当下,对未来做些好事。好像所有人都同意电

未来的设计与科幻、童话的区别。参展的最后一个设计,亦是

子车、无人驾驶汽车的前景,认为社交网络可以改变世界,我

奥迪未来城市设计大奖得主,建筑师Jürgen Mayer H.恰恰给我们

觉得这才是浮夸的诺言(想想其利益驱动者,想想“绿色泡沫

讲了一个童话故事,A.WAY:个人的流动会成为城市增强现实

经济”)。所以我们的方案把目前这种认知放大到荒诞的境

(augmentedreality)系统的一部分,信息系统不仅让人与交通工

地,���为让人们更好认知现实的走向。在这些游说团体、利益

具自由行动,更能够高屋建瓴的整合所有人的个人信息,使得

既得者之中,还好有我们的小小童话供人阅读。”

人、车与周围的建筑和环境每时每刻相互传输各类信息,产生

大奖得主可能是这次未来城市设计竞赛唯一一位避过尝试

互动。汽车之于人的意义超过了简单的驾驶工具,成为为人提

定义未来的建筑师,而他的故事让人小小的恐慌之余找到些现

供感官享受和传递知识、信息的平台。具体而实在的东西在这

实社会的温存。我们至少可以自我警醒:

个数字增强现实维度里变得垂手可及,它的物质形态不再稳 定,可以轻易被人修改。数字形态加强、但也有可能取代物理 形态。 这个方案在拔得头筹后被广泛议论,大家都很严肃的考虑 这是否是我们所需要的未来——一个无所不包的数字系统控制 观感的未来,一个不再具有特定物理形态而是信息建构的城市 未来,以及这样的未来中人的身体实在性是否也受到威 胁。Jürgen Mayer H.本人在事后告诉我:

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真理源自幻想破灭。真实源自想像缺乏。(鲍德里亚)


Alison Brooks Architects

BIG - Bjarke Ingels Group

and deduction, the other part is left to uncertainty--an earthquake, for example, could prove to be a chance for a city to redevelop itself. This uncertainty factor, however, may well be where the architect’s future vision and fairy tales are set apart. The last project, by German architect Jürgen Mayer H., also the winner of Audi Urban Future Award, tells fittingly a fairy tale. “A.WAY” assumes that the individual is a node in an augmented reality system of the city, which not only allows trouble-free mobility, but also integrates all the information from user’s hobbies to habits in its intelligence, and make possible, in turn, for the user to interact with surrounding buildings and environment. Automobile becomes the ultimate sensorial experience machine, a platform of constant information and knowledge exchange. The concrete reality is brought to our fingertip, at the same time its form is challenged, altered by the layers of augmented reality at play. The digital augments but could also potentially replace physical forms. The prize winning of this project stirred a certain degree of distress. Do we want to hand out our future to an omniscient information system? Do we feel comfortable with our cities possessing no fixed form and being a construct of data and information? Is physicality any relevant? Confronting these serious questions, Jürgen Mayer H. answered me later, smilingly: You know, the idea of a fairytale is that, A, it might be a pedagogical tool, B, highlights somethings that is exactly not reality, is a fairytale. So, I am very surprised that almost everybody read my project as my vision of the future. It is not. It is meant to highlight a tendency we see now, we live now, and project that one into some more years to come. By telling this story we can become more critical of the situation now, and make decisions that might help us to create a better future. this whole “cars are electric and will drive

automatically”, and “sustainability and social media is the new big thing that will change society”, is such a general rhetoric, that seems not to be discussed or questioned at all (think about what are the interest groups behind this, the green bubble, and network empires), and our project takes this common agreement to a level where it becomes so obscene that it helps us to establish arguments now to understand better what really is going on. In the end it is also a whole network of lobbies, interest groups etc., so, our pokeville story is a reading tool for today! The award winner is the only participant who has succeeded in distancing himself from the pitfall of defining a future. Following a fit of upset, his little fairy tale proves duly heart-warming. Which reminds us, Truth is born of disillusion. The real is born of lack of imagination. (Jean Baudrillard)

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Venice Biennale report