INVESTIGATION, CONSERVATION, AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIRADOR BASIN, GUATEMALA: A Summary of the Annual Activity of the Mirador Basin Project, 2013
The FARES Foundation, Global Heritage Fund, FARESGuatemala, Perenco, PACUNAM, Idaho State University, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Morgan Family Foundation, APANAC, Selz Foundation, Kislak Foundation, Rosalinde & Arthur Gilbert Foundation, Wolf Creek Foundation, U.S. Department of the Interior-International Technical Assistance Program
The Selz Foundation INVESTIGATION, CONSERVATION, AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIRADOR BASIN, GUATEMALA: A Summary of the Annual Activity of the Mirador Basin Project, 2013 Table of Contents Table of Contents………………………………………….
Investigations and Conservation in the Mirador Cultural And Natural System: A Report on the 2013 Field Season……
3 Scientific Investigations The Great Central Acropolis, 2013: Str.313, 314, and 315 ………………………………
The Popol Vuh Frieze ……………..………………..
Structures 304, Operation 304…………………………….. 70 Cascabel Group………………………………………………… Str. 200………………………………………………….
Danta Complex…………………………………………………… 79 Invisible Structures………………………………………………. 82 Coral Snake House / Casa del Coral……………………………..
Test Excavations…………………………………………………. 90 Literacy and Educational Programs……………………………… 92 INVESTIGATIONS IN TINTAL, 2013…………………………………. 97 PROTECTIVE ROOF STRUCTURE, EL MIRADOR 2013……………. 101 INVESTIGATIONS AT NAKBE, 2013………………………………..
ANALYSES AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS……………… 119 Microscopic Analyses of Projectile Points, Tigre………
PXRF Analyses of Obsidian, BYU Laboratories……….
Identification Protein Residues, Proj. Points, Tigre……… 123 Carbon 14 Analyses…………………………………….
Neutron Activation of Ceramics……………………….
Photo Type Collection of Ceramics, Mirador Basin……
Project Papers, Technical Reports, and Publications 2013….124 Financial Reports, 2013 Season…………………………… 132 List of Operations 2013………………………………….
Acknowledgements The work conducted by the Mirador Basin Project during the 2013 year could not have been accomplished without the support of numerous institutions and individuals. We are extremely indebted to the Foundation for Anthropological Research and Environmental Studies (FARES). We are extremely appreciative of the Global Heritage Fund and its executive director Dr. Vince Michael, Stefaan Portmann-GHF Director of International Development, and Jeff Morgan, former director of GHF and current board member. We are also extremely appreciative of FARES-Guatemala, and its president Francois Berger-Dorion, Vice President Roberto Labbe, Treasurer Antonio Minondo, Director Nini Berger, and Vocal Pedro Barnoya. They have been exemplary in their support. We are appreciative of PACUNAM and its previous director Lic. Jose Pivarral and current director Marianne Hernandez, Perenco Oil and directors Antonio Minondo, Idaho State University, particularly President Arthur Vailas and Vice President Kent Tingey, Dean of the College of Arts and Letters, Dr. Kandi Turley-Ames, and Department of Anthropology Chair Dr. Paul Trawick, the U.S. Department of the Interior and the deputy director of the Office of International Technical Assitance Program Cynthia Perera, the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala and director Lic. Oscar Mora, the Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes de Guatemala, and APANAC, the Selz Foundation and the Rotary Club of Pacifica, California. We are especially indebted to important individuals, including Kurt Vogt (Citi, HSBC), Kerry Arritt, Jody Hansen, Lee McCullough, Francois Berger, and Mel Gibson for their services on the FARES board. Josie Thompson, Stanley Guenter, Nina Coto, and Dr. Kevin Johnston did important work, planning, and research for the foundation. Important funding came from Linda Pierce, Joanna Miller, Robert Berry, the Alfredo Vila Family, the Carlos Abraham family of Merida, Pedro Aguirre, Diego Arzu, Maria Odette Arzu and family, Wallace Armes, Jim Bader, Scott Baker, Keith Ballard, Marta Barger & Richard B. Barth, Sharon Lee Belkin, Richard and Iris Ballew, Gary Beletsky, Julius and Millie Bendat, Andy and Annie Bleggi, Diann Boehm, Javier Bonilla, Carol W. Casey, Art Cassanos, Eunice Childs, Clayton Cook, Ezequiel Cortez, Nina Coto, J. Stanton Curry, the late John and Marlys Cybulski, Richard and Sally Dawson, Francois DuBois, Paul and Kathy Duncan, Audrey Keller Dyer, George Fery, William and Lynda Folan, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, John Dyer, Mark Gibian & Marcy Rosewater, Betty Guggolz, John and Pat Hansen Anthony Hick, Ken Hitz, Robin Hylton, Institute of Maya Studies, Joshua F. Jones, Yoon Kang, Jay I. Kislak, Jonathan Layton, James Luceno, Cynthia Luce, John Maniscalco, Lisa Marie, Ruben G. Mendoza, Sherry Miller, M. Groot Nibbelink, Jonathan Ojinage, Beatriz Padilla, Judy Perlstein, Robert J. & Molly V. Pettit, Walter Jack Pettit, Stephen Ratto, Kathleen Rollins, Ann Ruffer, Iris Ruiz, Mario Sandoval, Lisa Sardegna and David Carillo, Mario Sandoval, John Schwandke, Bernard Selz, The Selz Foundation, Joel M. Skidmore, Brent L. Sohngen, Hiram L. Smith, Victoria Salter, the Harry and Roberta Salter Foundation, David and Deborah Sheets, Gregory and Flo Silver, Hiram Smith, Doe Stowell, John J. And Margaret M. Sullivan, William Taylor, Janice Van Cleve, Marian Walker, Elizabeth M. Welty, Roger and Nancy M. Williams, Brian Walker, Christian and Holly Walker, Addison R. Warner, Bob Woods, Kathleen Rollins, Brian E. Walker, J. Marlan and Colleen Walker, Elizabeth Welty, Gary Whitely, Terry and Barbara Young, and several anonymous donors who have made an economic and moral support of the project. We are especially appreciative to our families for their sacrifices and hardships that were incurred because of the Project. We are also appreciative of all Project staff members who worked tirelessly in the field and in the laboratory to contribute to the knowledge of the cultural and natural systems that arose and exist in the Mirador Basin. Thank you to all of you.
Guatemalan Project Staff of the Mirador Basin
ACTIVITIES 2013 The Mirador Basin Project had a full agenda during the 2013 year, resulting in extensive travel, new and innovative ideas, and the implementation of important conservation procedures. In addition, new information relevant to the origins, dynamics, and collapse of ancient Maya civilization was recovered from the sites of El Mirador, Tintal, and Nakbe, including data on the environmental context in which ancient Maya civilization flourished, and the conditions in which it collapsed within the Mirador Basin. In addition, during 2013, the Project released the first of a series of published volumes on the insects of the Mirador Basin, which has received international praise. The combined, multi-disciplinary fieldwork has resulted in increased attention from national and international groups interested in participating in some way in the research, conservation, and development of the Basin. Former President of Guatemala and current mayor of Guatemala City, President Alvaro Arzu, convened a special meeting with all the heads of the different parties in the Guatemalan Congress with a PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Richard Hansen so as to inform the congressional delegations about the remarkable potential that the Mirador Basin has for the long term and permanent development of the country. The surprise visit of the Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti, in July 2013 at El Mirador further brought attention to the government about the need for protective measures and for basic infrastructure for tourism such as bathrooms, showers, and informational systems. Project members presented numerous scientific papers at conferences throughout the world, providing important data and presentations about the Mirador Basin. The Project has maintained a fully operating lab and crew in Guatemala City throughout the year to process the thousands of artifacts recovered during the field seasons at Tintal and El Mirador in 2013. A
summary of the annual activities of the foundation is noted here with an additional report on the field season to provide the reader with the scope and scale of the investigations. A special thank you to all who have made it possible. FARES Director Kurt Vogt has moved from his position in Citibank to HSBC Bank as the Managing Director, Head of CMB Collaboration and Capital Financing. His responsibilities include growing the capital financing business of the bank with commercial bank clients throughout Latin America. The FARES Board and the Mirador Basin Project are thrilled at this new opportunity, and we look forward to working with Kurt in the years to come. Kurt also entered into a Masters’ program at Columbia University in Sustainability Management, and has already taken clases in applying macro and micro economic concepts to environmental sustainability issues. This type of knowledge is sorely needed today and Kurt’s education will provide important guidance for FARES and the Mirador Basin Project.
HSBC Managing Director of CMB Collaboration, Kurt Vogt began his Master’s Degree program at Columbia University (Photo: K. Vogt). On January 16, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at the Institute of Maya Studies at Miami, organized by Marta Barber. The presentation on the Mirador Basin was well attended and generated numerous questions from the audience.
Dr. Richard Hansen with Institute of Maya Studies President Rick Slazyk and Mr. George Fery of IMS who provided two full pallets of computers for the schools surrounding the Mirador Basin. Mr. Fery is the CEO of Escrap, Computers, Electronics, and Lamps Recyclers in Hialeah, Florida. The FARES Foundation and the Mirador Basin Project are extremely fortunate in having this type of support for the schools in the communities surrounding the Mirador Basin.
Computers provided by Mr. George Fery and the Institute of Maya Studies at Miami, and shipped to Idaho where they are being conditioned for Spanish programs. The computers will be taken to Guatemala in 2014.
While in Miami, Dr. Hansen was invited to view the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables by Kislak curator Arthur Dunkelman. The Kislak Museum has some of the most remarkable Maya art, all of which had unfortunately been looted and smuggled to the U.S., but nevertheless, represents some of the finest Maya art in the world. A majority of the collection has been donated to the U.S. Library of Congress. This productive visit also generated interest from the Kislak Foundation in the conservation and protection of the Mirador Basin, and future collaboration between FARES and the Kislak Foundation will be a substantial benefit to Guatemala.
One of the remarkable pieces on display at the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables, Florida, which is one of the most unusual ceramic boxes known. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). In addition, the museum had several pieces from the Mirador Basin, including a codexstyle vase belonging to a known Mirador Basin lord named YoPaat Ba’laam, whose ceramics have been noted at Nakbe, Tintal, and numerous Codex-style vessels from the Mirador Basin, dating to between AD 680 and AD 740. Yopaat Ba’laam is noted to be an “ahaw”, and a ball player, but does not seem to have been an important king in the overall dynamics of Late Classic Maya interactions. This is consistent with the modest Late Classic populations that were residing among the ruins of the great Preclassic centers.
One of several vessels from the Mirador Basin in the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables Forida, this Codex-style vessel bears the name of Yopaat Ba’laam, a Late Classic period lord whose ceramics have also been found at Nakbe and Tintal. On February 7, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at the annual gathering of the PAIZ foundation which was held at the Spanish Cultural Center in Antigua, Guatemala. Hansen had been invited at the request of Fernando Paiz, a prominent Guatemalan businessman and benefactor of the Mirador Basin project. On February 13 to 20, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was a featured speaker at several venues on the Riviera Maya, south of Cancun. Hansen, his wife Jody, and son Weston, were invited at the request of Doe Stowell, a prominent activist and socialite living in the wonderful resort area of Puerto Aventuras, Mexico.
Members of the organizing committee for the series of lectures on the Maya Riviera. L-R: author Tim Howard, Doe Stowell, Debbie Howard; R-L: Jody Hansen, Richard Hansen, and Doe’s daughter The Hansen’s had the privilege of staying with Tim and Debbie Howard in their beautiful home on the southern beaches of Puerto Aventuras. Howard is a prominent author, who has written extensively on economic activities of the U.S. government, particularly with the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac episodes of U.S. economic history. On February 14, Hansen had numerous interviews with radio, television, and journalists in anticipation of the lectures at the Colegio Mayaland (Spanish), and Playa del Carmen (English), which brought out large crowds to hear the updates on research in the Mirador Basin.
Flyyers and posters were placed throughout Cancun, Playa del Carmen, Akumal, and Puerto Aventuras.
A group of students from Colegio Mayaland at Playa del Carmen, Mexico with Dr. Hansen after the presentation.
Hosts Tim and Debbie Howard at the site of Coba, Quintana Roo.
On Feburary 22-4, 2013, project epigrapher Stanley Guenter presented a paper at the 10 Tulane Maya Symposium entitled Kaanal: The Snake Kingdom of the Classic Maya: Profiles in Continuity and Resilience. Stan presented a workshop and a paper entitled Royal Internment and Enduring Social Memory: The Archaeology of Burial 61 at El Peru-Waka’s Principal Public Shrine. th
On February 25 and 26, Dr. Hansen went to El Mirador with prominent Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, Dr. Arguesta, and Rodolfo Rodriguez. Jarquin, whose pharmaceutical company Agefinsa provides a substantial quantity of medical supplies to the hospitals and pharmacies of the country, was eager to see the site before the inauguration of the CIEM Medical tower building in Guatemala City.
Dr. Richard Hansen, Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, and Dr. Argueta on the summit of Danta pyramid. (Photo:
Rodolfo Rodriquez, Dr. Argueta, and Fernando Jarquin at the base of Str. 204 in the Cascabel group at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). While there, they were greeted by a Korean film crew, supervised by Yoon Kang, a Korean film producer, photographer Lim Chul and a Korean writer who organized and directed a production of a Korean documentary on El Mirador which will be released late 2013 or early 2014. The remainder of the day was spent filming at the site.
Some of the Korean film crew for EBS television (Educational Broadcast Services) in South Korea at the base of the central summit structure of Danta pyramid. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). a On February 27 , Dr Richard Hansen went to the meeting of the Multi-sectorial Table (Mesa Multisectorial) to listen to the updating of the Master Plan for the Maya Biosphere.
The event was held at the Hotel Casona del Lago and was moderated by Estuardo Secaira who extracted considerable discussion from all present. Teresita Chinchilla noted that a total of Q41,975,400 of “productos maderables” or wooden products had been taken from the Peten. On February 28, Dr. Richard Hansen presented the inaugural address at the opening of the Centro de Investigaciones y Education Mecia (CIEM) Medical Tower, located across from the Herrera Llerandi hospital in Zona 10. The building was commissioned by Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, is set to provide medical counseling, consulting offices, and medical supplies. The event was an outstanding gala with dignitaries, medical personnel, and supporters from throughout Guatemala, the U.S. and Canada.
Agefinsa CEO Fernando Jarquin and Dr. Richard Hansen at the inauguration of the Centro de Investigacion y Educacion Medica (Center for Medical Research and Education).
The murals of the K’abel conference room have forest and the Preclassic triadic temple, resembling Tigre or Danta pyramids, on the walls. The Maya theme is present throughout the building.
Dr. Richard Hansen was the keynote speaker at the inauguration of the CIEM medical tower building in Guatemala City.
The ribbon cutting by Fernando Jarquin and family members at the inauguration of the CIEM medical tower in Guatemala City
Prominent architects of Guatemala, Mario and Kiki Rocasemeño whose firm did the architectural work for the CIEM medical tower, with Dr. Hansen.
On March 4, Guatemalan archaeologist Francisco Lopez arrived at the FARES offices in Idaho to continue the write up of the reports for the work done in 2012 on Danta pyramid. On March13-15, Dr. Richard Hansen and Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade from Guatemala flew to Washington DC with dignitaries from National Geographic, INGUAT, and other officials from the government of Guatemala to launch the Dialogue of Civilizations, a conference that Dr. Hansen and Ambassador Andrade had devised, proposed, and was accepted by National Geographic and the Inter-American Development Bank. The inaugural event took place at the Guatemalan Embassy in Washington, D.C., with extensive press coverage and many visitors. The concept of the Dialogue of Civilizations was designed to understand the factors that give rise to social, economic, and political complexity, the factors that maintain it, and the factors that can destroy it. These concepts were to be presented by scholars from each area of the five founding civilizations of the world, including China, India-Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Mesoamerica.
Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade- Co-organizer of the Dialogue of Civilizations, National Geographic Executive Vice President Terry Garcia, INGUAT Sub-Director Maru Acevedo, Andrew Morrison of the Inter-American Development Bank (sponsor), Dr. Richard Hansenfounder and co-organizer of the event, and Dr. Christopher Thornton-National Geographic Research at the launching of the Dialogue of Civilizations conference, in a special ceremony in Washington, D.C. On March 16-March 31, Dr. Kevin Johnston came to Idaho to continue his work as an advisor, work on reports, and work with the assimilation and publication of materials for the Mirador Basin Project. Dr. Johnston also began to compile the data of the work of a Carbontrading proposal that was requested from FARES by several large companies in the Middle East. On March 20, Dr. Ray Matheny was honored at Brigham Young University for his contributions over decades of research and student supervision. The “festschrift” consisted of
a series of coordinated events including presentations related to the archaeology of Utah, presentations on projects outside of Utah, a keynote address by Dr. Matheny, and an undergraduate poster session and a reception for Dr. Matheny and the numerous students and acquaintances that came to the event, held in the JFSB Building on the BYU campus. A formal volume, entitled “An Archaeological Legacy: Essays in honor of Ray T. Matheny” was edited by Deanne G. Matheny, Joel C. Janetski, and Glenna Nielsen, and published by the Museum of Peoples and Cultures at Brigham Young University Press, Occasional Paper No. 18. A total of 16 chapters were included in the volume, but papers on Mesoamerica within the book include essays by John E. Clark “Olmec Gods: Perspectives, Problems, and Proposals”, Deanne G. Matheny and Suzanna M. Ekholm “The Stuccoed and Painted Ceramic Vessels from the Northwest Plaza Burials of Lagartero, Chiapas, Mexico”; Donald W. Forsyth “The Preclassic Occupation of Southwestern Campeche”, and Richard D. Hansen’s “The Beginning of the End: Conspicuous Consumption and Environmental Impact of the Preclassic Lowland Maya.” Each of these papers is a significant contribution and has data relevant to Preclassic societies of Mesoamerica and/or the Mirador Basin. Interested individuals can contact with the Museum of Peoples and Cultures at BYU in Provo, Utah, or contact the FARES offices in Idaho.
Some of the former students of Ray Matheny at the reception held in his honor on March 20, 2013. Dr. Matheny is flanked by his wife Deanne (on his right) and Glenna Nielsen and Dr. Richard Hansen on his left. A memorial volume was produced in his honor. Also, on March 20, Dr. Hansen flew to Guatemala to meet with officials at INGUAT for the planning and execution of the Dialogue of Civilizations conference and to discuss the planning of the tourist infrastructure to be built at El Mirador. INGUAT has accepted the
opportunity to match a fund proposed by the Morgan Family Foundation for the placement of toilet facilities at El Mirador for tourists, and plans were submitted to the government by three separate Guatemalan architects for selection and approval. The plans submitted by Adelzo Pozuelos, staff architect with the Mirador Basin Project, were ultimately selected by the INGUAT committee over two other professional architecture firms due to their practicality and functionality in remote and isolated conditions. Excavations will begin on the facilities during the 2013 field season, which will require a large cisterns and water collection facilities (roof collections) since the toilets will have flush systems and septic tanks. In April 15-17, 2013, Guatemala hosted the Dialogue of Civilizations, a program that was created by Dr. Richard Hansen and Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade, and sponsored by National Geographic and the Inter-American Development Bank. More than 1000 people per day attended the conference with scholars representing the five founding civilizations of the world. The conference was an extraordinary success, with presentations in English and in Spanish. INGUAT had also prepared excursions for participants to see the Highlands and Tikal, which allowed great opportunity to interact and socialize with scholars working in other areas of the world, but wrestling with many of the same questions and issues regarding the rise the demise of civilizations. As a result of the success, Turkey has agreed to host a follow up program in 2014.
Lunes 15 de abril 08:00 a 09:00 Inauguración Sr. Pedro Pablo Duchez, Director de INGUAT Sr. Tomás Calvo, Nim Winaq de la Alcaldía Indígena y Ancestral de Santo Tomás Chichicastenango.
Sr. Pablo Roldán, Representante del BID en Guatemala Sr. Terry García Presidente de Programas de Misiones y Concesiones Ejecutivas para National Geographic Society (NGS).
Martes 16 de abril 09:00 a 10:50 Civilización EGIPCIA 09:00 a 09:40 Dr. Ramadan Hussein 09:40 a 10:20 Dr. Renee Friedman 10:20 a 10:50 Discusión: Dr. Fabio Amador (NGS)
10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio
Sr. Otto Pérez Molina, Presidente de la República de Guatemala.
11:15 a 13:00 Civilización MAYA
09:00 a 10:50 Civilización CHINA
11:15 a 11:55 Dra. Bárbara Arroyo 11:55 a 12:35 M.A. Tomás Barrientos 12:35 a 13:00 Discusión: Dr. Edgar Carpio
09:00 a 09:40 Dr. Dorian Fuller 09:40 a 10:20 Dr. LI Xinwei 10:20 a 10:50 Discusión: M.A. Liwy Grazioso
13:00 a 14:00 RECESO
10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio
14:30 a 16:00 Panel Cultura Maya Viva
11:15 a 13:00 Civilización MESOPOTAMIA
“Experiencias exitosas en turismo comunitario en la Región del Mundo Maya”
11:15 a 11:55 Dra. Augusta McMahon 11:55 a 12:35 Dr. Giorgio Buccellati 12:35 a 13:00 Discusión: Dr. Fred Hiebert (NGS)
13:00 a 14:00 RECESO
14:30 a 16:30 Civilización VALLE DEL INDO 14:30 a 15:10 Dr. Mark Kenoyer 15:10 a 15:50 Dr. Vasant Shinde 15:50 a 16:10 Discusión: Dr. Christopher Thornton (NGS)
16:10 a 16:30 Refrigerio 16:30 a 17:30 Panelista Invitado Lic. Lolmay García “Movimiento de Revitalización e Idiomas Mayas”
El Salvador: Sr. Medardo Hipólito López, Ruta Nahuat Pipil Honduras: Sr. Inmar Díaz, Espectáculos Maya Copán Guatemala: Sr. Salvador Coché, Touroperador Viva Atitlán México: Sr. Freddy Nah, Red Ubeel Maya - Campeche Sr. Andrew Morrison, División de Género y Diversidad del BID, Washington, DC. USA.
16:00 a 16:30 Refrigerio 16:30 a 17:30 Panelista Invitado Lic. Narciso Cojtí “Contribuciones contemporáneas de los Mayas”
17:30 Muestra Gastronómica y Cultural de Egipto. Cortesía de la Embajada de Egipto en Guatemala.
The final program of the event.
Miércoles 17 de abril 09:00 a 10:50 Descubrimientos arqueológicos recientes en el Mundo Maya de Guatemala 09:00 a 09:30 09:30 a 10:00 10:00 a 10:30 10:30 a 10:50
El Mirador - Dr. Richard Hansen Perú-Waka´ - Lic. Juan Carlos Pérez La Corona - Dr. Marcello Canuto Discusión - Dr. Fabio Amador (NGS)
10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio
11:15 a 13:30 El Diálogo de las Civilizaciones “Conclusiones, El pasado como una Ventana al Futuro”
Discusión: Dr. Chris Thornton, National Geographic Society y Dr. Fabio Amador
13:30 Cierre del evento
Dr. Richard Hansen speaking at the conference, Dialogue of Civilizations (Photo: Evelyn Moran).
Dr. Ernest Arredondo (at podium) , Lic. Juan Carlos Perez, Dr. Richard Hansen, and Dr. Marcello Canuto at the conference (Photo: Evelyn Moran).
The distinguished collection of scholars for a final discussion and questions from the audience (Photo: Glenda Rodriguez). April 18-20, Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter spoke on “The Lost Queen of Coba” at the Maya at the Lago Conference at Davidson Day School at Davidson, North Carolina, with a reference to the cluster of monuments at the site of Coba that refer to this enigmatic female ruler. On April 23, 2013, ex –President Alvaro Arzu convened a crucial meeting with all of the heads of the political parties in the Guatemalan congress for a presentation by Dr. Richard Hansen. Co-Director Edgar Suyuc was also present, as well as Maru Acevedo, sub-director of INGUAT. The meeting was held on the 7th Floor of the Municipal Building of Guatemala City. The purpose of the meeting was to inform the congressmen of the treasure of the Mirador Basin, and the factors that have to be considered in the long-term preservation of the area. The event was extraordinarily well received, and numerous members of the most influential members of the congress showed up to listen to President Arzu’s arguments for the defense and conservation of the Basin, which both preceded and followed Dr. Hansen’s presentation. Additional comments were provided by Diputado Manuel Barquin, Congressman from the Peten, and Diputado Roberto Alejos. Both men are and were members of the executive congressional Board of Directors of the Congress. Unanimous support for the conservation of the Basin was voiced by all 60+ members in attendance. After the congressional meeting, the ambassador of Taiwan to Guatemala, Adolfo Sun and his executive staff from the Taiwanese embassy invited Dr. Hansen and Edgar Suyuc to a special luncheon with archaeology student Marissa Lynn Lopez whose family was a special friend to Ambassador Sun to talk about future participation of Marissa in the archaeological program at El Mirador.
Former President of Guatemala and current, 3-term mayor of Guatemala City, with an impassioned speech for the wise development and conservation of the Mirador Basin.
Congressional members in attendance at Dr. Hansen’s presentation to the Congressional delegation in Guatemala City.
Dr. Richard Hansen made the presentation about the Mirador Basin to the entire executive Leadership of the Guatemalan congress with President Alvaro Arzu.
Former president of the Congressional delegation, Diputado Roberto Alejos, commenting on the importance and need to act on the Mirador Basin initiative.
Dr. Hansen with congressional members, President Alvaro Arzu, and Diputado Manuel Barquin at a special presentation convened by President Arzu in the Municipal Building of Guatemala City.
Co-Director Edgar Suyuc with family members of archaeology student. Marissa Lynn Lopez, Dr. Hansen, Ambassador of Taiwan Adolfo Sun, executive secretary for Taiwan Pablo Hui, and other members of the Taiwan embassy at a special luncheon in Guatemala City.
April was also the launching for the first volume of the series of volumes in preparation by the Mirador Basin Project. The volume, entitled Mayab Yik’elil Kan, The Tropical Insects of the Ancient Kan Kingdom of Mesoamerica, was written by Jose Monzon and Dr. Jack C. Schuster of the Universidad del Valle, and edited by Richard Hansen and Edgar Suyuc. The book is written in both Spanish and English. The book represents the range of multidisciplinary work that the Mirador Basin Project and the FARES Foundation has financed and organized. The event, held at la Universidad del Valle in Guatemala City had the presence of numerous government officials, foreign ambassadors, and the interested public. Dr. Roberto Labbe, Vice President of FARES-Guatemala made the introductions, and presentations were made on behalf of Lic. Roberto Moreno, Chancellor of the Universidad del Valle who welcomed the crowd. Francois Berger presented the inauguration of the book, Dr. Richard Hansen provided the formal presentation of the volume, while Dr. Jack Schuster and Jose Monzon made the keynote presentations as the authors. Dr. Monica Stein, the Dean of the Institute of Research of the University del Valle closed the event. The book can be obtained on Amazon.com.
Cover of the first of the series of volumes on the Mirador Basin.
Lic. Francois Berger conducted the inauguration of the Insect volume. Seated is the representative of the Rector of the University, Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Jack Schuster, Lic. Jose Monzon, and Dr. Monica Stein.
Nini Berger of Apanac and FARES, Pablo Hui of the Embassy of Taiwan, Coronel Carlos Estuardo Avendaño, commander of the Northern Guatemalan Air Force and Dr. Richard Hansen at the launching of the Mirador volume on insects.
On May 16, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at an executive staff meeting of National Geographic in Washington, D.C. This event was designed to inform the National Geographic television and magazine staff about the research being conducted in the Mirador Basin and to update the staff with the most recent discoveries. The event was organized and coordinated by Dr. Christopher Thornton, Program Officer for the Committee for Research and Exploration at Nat Geo. On June 6-9, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was flown to Guatemala by the Rotary Club of Huehuetenango, Guatemala to make keynote addresses at the International Convention of the Rotary Club, which was held in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Dr. Hansen was received in Guatemala City by Dr. Oscar Marroquin, a prominent pediatrician, and his wife Orquidia and driven through the Highlands of Guatemala to the city of Huehuetenango, where Dr. Hansen stayed with Dr. Julio Herrera and his wife, Mimi. On the evening of June 7, Dr. Hansen spoke to students from the DaVinci University in Huehuetenango, and the following morning, was the first speaker at the International Rotarian Club convention held at the Centro Municipal of the city and talked about the cultural and natural legacy of the Mirador Basin. Hansen received a standing ovation from all Rotarians present. The following speaker was Frank Devlyn, former World President of Rotary International, who gave an inspiring and uplifting address. However, much to Dr. Hansen’s surprise, Mr. Devlyn called Hansen to the podium, had him take the Rotary Oath, prepared and signed the papers on the spot, and had Hansen inducted officially into Rotary International, even giving Hansen the pin off his (Devlyn’s) own jacket. The next several days were conducted with major musical events, a formal gala ball, light shows, ancient ball game reenactments, fireworks displays, and prodigious feasts both in Huehuetenango and at the archaeological ruins of Zaculeu, an important Postclassic Maya city on the outskirts of town. In addition, Hansen received a personal tour of the Cuchumatanes Mountains by the Herrera family. Dr. Hansen considered his induction into the Rotary Club by the International President of Rotary as a great honor.
Dr. Hansen gave World President of Rotary International a copy of the Tropical Insects of the Mirador Basin volume at the ancient city of Zaculeu.
Dr. Richard Hansen reciting the Rotary Club International oath as administered by Rotary International President Frank Devlyn at Huehuetenango, Guatemala, and witnessed by Presidents of clubs from throughout Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras.
Special reception held in honor of Frank Devlyn (right) and Dr. Richard Hansen (center) at the convention of Rotary International in Huehuetenango, Guatemala.
Representatives of the Rotary Club International from the various chapters in Guatemala. Six countries were also represented in the convention.
Dr. Julio and Mimi Herrera at the ancient city of Zaculeu, located on the outskirts of Huehuetenango. The Herreras were the hosts at the Rotary convention.
June 14, 15, and 16, 2013, was the excellent VI World Convention on Maya Archaeology, held at the Juan Bautista Gutierrez of the Universidad Francisco Marroquin. This event, organized by Rosendo Morales, was financed by Pacunam, Francisco Marroquin University, Cerveceria Centroamericana, Cementos Progreso, Grupo Occidente, Citi, Walmart, and Guate Vision. The theme was Millennial Cities of the Maya Jungles: Urbanism and Environment (Ciudades Milenarias de las Selvas Mayas: Urbanismo y Medio Ambiente). The event had spectacular folklore presentations, and participation with the audience by musicians, dancers, and Maya storytellers. Professor Cesar Castañeda spoke on “Maya Cities and the Environmental Impact During the Preclassic and Classic Periods in the Peten.” Dr. Richard Hansen spoke on “Settlement and the Cultural and Natural Process in the Mirador Basin.” Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter spoke on the captivating title “One Thousand Years of History: The Capitals of the Serpent Kingdom.”
Presenters and organizers of the VI World Congress on Maya Archaeology at Francisco Marroquin University.
Program for the VI World Convention on Maya Archaeology.
Dr. Richard Hansen spoke on the Maya settlements in the Mirador Basin and the cultural and natural dynamics associated with them.
Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter gave an excellent presentation on the thousand years of history as recorded in the hieroglyphic texts about the Snake Kingdom.
PACUNAM President Jose Pivarral, gave the closing remarks at the conference.
On June 28, 2013, Lic. Pedro Barnoya, one of the executive board members of FARES-Guatemala and Julio Meneses of the China-Guatemala committee invited Dr. Richard Hansen as a founding member of the China-Guatemala Chamber, which was formed as a legal entity in Guatemala. Both Barnoya and Meneses have long worked to develop ChinaGuatemala business and political relations, and they both organized the Guatemalan pavilion at the World Expo (World’s Fair) in Shanghai, China, in 2010. More than 5 million visitors came through the Pavilion, and Dr. Hansen was an invited speaker at a special forum on Cultural Heritage and Urban Regeneration (see the 2010 FARES Annual Report). By signing the proper papers, the China-Guatemala Chamber has become a legal formal entity in Guatemala. From June 24-28, the IX International Congress of Mayanists was held in Campeche, Mexico. Five members of the Mirador Basin Project presented papers: Maria Laura Velasquez-Fergusson, Carlos Morales Aguilar, Beatriz Balcarcel, Gustavo Martinez, and Richard Hansen. Laura presented a paper entitled “ El Patron Triadico: Contexto Urbano y simbolismo” (The Triadic Pattern: Urban Context and Symbolism). Carlos spoke on ”Naachtun y su Contexto Regional durante el Clasico Temprano” (Naachtun and its Regional Context during the Early Classic Period), with reference to the regional data that we have accumulated from the 51 sites that the Mirador Basin Project has investigated in the Basin.
This is the invitation from the government of Mexico for the grand opening of the art exhibit held at the Mexican embassy in Guatemala City on July5, 2013, with art produced by Beatriz Padilla at El Mirador. The exhibit was entitled “The Language of the Stones.” The unique technique, using prints from actual leaves from trees on the ruins, plus the actual footprints of
Dr. Hansen, combined with images of the ruins and forest make the art most unusual. The exhibit lasted for two weeks at the embassy.
Mexican artist (Cuernavaca) Beatriz Padilla at work at El Mirador. Note the leaves and the paint stained footprints of Dr. Hansen on the canvas. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Beatriz Padilla painting a “moonlight on La Danta” canvas as seen from her vantage point tree house overlooking the upper plaza of the building. (Photo: Tony Portillo)
One of the beautiful works by Beatriz Padilla and Mirador Basin archaeologist Francisco Lopez, showing the fragments from Codex-style ceramics recovered from archaeological excavations in the Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Mirador Basin staff at the art exhibit by Beatriz Padilla, which was opened at the Mexican embassy in Guatemala City (L-R. Architect Danilo Callen, Dr. Thomas Schreiner, artist Sharon Belkin, Dr. Richard Hansen, epigrapher Stanley Guenter, archaeologist Francisco Lopez, planner and map coordinator Josie Thompson, and archaeology student Pilar Vazquez Llorente).
The art exhibit in the Mexican embassy was well received with numerous visitors and interested observers, which promoted the culture and nature of the Mirador Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). The month of July (July 22-26) celebrated the XXVII annual Symposium of Guatemalan Archaeology in Guatemala City with four papers presented (see Project Bibliography at the end of this report). Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter presented a fascinating paper on the “Royal Court of the K’uhul Chatan Winik (titles of the Lords in the Late Classic period in the Mirador Basin): Recovering information from the Codex-style Ceramics.” Maria Anaite Ordoñez presented a paper on the “Artistic Representations of Flora and Fauna in the Archaeological Artifacts recovered in the Mirador Basin, Peten” which synthesized much of her research conducted for her graduate thesis at San Carlos University. Dr. Richard Hansen, Edgar Suyuc, Hector Mejia, Julio Cotom, Enrique Hernandez, Josue Garcia, Laura Velasquez, and Carlos Morales-Aguilar presented a paper on “Observations on Looting in the Mirador Basin: The Intensity of an Illegal Industry and Challenges for the Conservation of the Cultural and Natural Heritage.” Dr. Richard Hansen and Edgar Suyuc presented a paper on “New Data from the Research of the Mirador Basin Archaeological Project: the 2012 Season.“
Recent graduate of San Carlos University, Licda. Anaite Ordoñez presented a paper at the XVII Symposium of Maya Archaeology in Guatemala on the artistic representations of flora and fauna in artifacts from the Mirador Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Stanley Guenter provided an important paper on Codex-style ceramics from the Mirador Basin.
On July 27, the Mirador Basin Project received a surprise visit from the Vice President of the Republic of Guatemala, Vice President Roxana Baldetti. Vice President Baldetti arrived with her family to view the site and to seek information. The enjoyable experience was special in many ways, since Stefaan Portmann of the Global Heritage Fund also arrived to accompany the Vice-presidential entourage. The Vice President stated that she now had a much better view of the important and urgency of the conservation of the area, and that she considered herself extremely fortunate to have seen the site first hand.
The Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti, on Danta pyramid posing with several of the guards from FARES, IDAEH and CONAP. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The Vice President with archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel, Dr. Richard Hansen, and staff artist (and daughter) Brianna Hansen on Str. 313. This building has been worked on by Beatriz Balcarcel for many years.
Vice President Baldetti and her son, Luis Pedro, at the Popol Vuh frieze at El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Vice President Baldetti and her husband saw many of the cultural and natural marvels at the site, and engaged in extensive discussions and explanations of the importance of the area. (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti with some of the CONAP, IDAEH and FARES guards at the site. These men were thrilled that the Vice President had an interest in the area that they were defending. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
From July through to September 2013, the Mirador Basin Project conducted excavations at Tintal and at El Mirador (see report by Hansen and Suyuc below). On July 30 however, the project hosted Dr. Brent Sohngen, Professor at Ohio State University in the Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics and a contributing and participating recipient of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Sohngen and his wife, Ann, came into the site as part of a fact finding program in anticipation of the studies required for a carbon-trading program in the Basin in which several world-wide companies have approached FARES to be the conduit for the participation in Carbon Trading or REDD program.
Dr. Brent Sohngen, his wife Ann, and Dr. Hansen near the architectural mask on Str. 313 at El Mirador. Sohngen, part of the Nobel Prize winning group in 2007, is a world expert on carbon trading.
On September 5, Dr. Richard Hansen flew to Indianapolis to meet with prominent attorney, judge, and activist Greg Silver for a presentation with an interested group of businessmen, attorneys, and associates that he had organized. In addition, Judge Silver and Dr. Hansen met with Rob Smith, Chief Executive Officer of the Lilly Foundation, one of the most prestigious foundations in the U.S. for detailed talks about possible involvement of the foundation, which is an arm of a major industrial complex in the United States. This contact may be an important link in the long-term conservation of the Mirador Basin, and we look forward to future involvement with them in the future.
The luncheon meeting was arranged by Greg and Flo Silver with a group of prominent businessmen, attorneys, and associates in the Indianapolis area.
Dr. Richard Hansen, Judge Greg Silver, and CEO Rob Smith of the Lilly Foundation
On September 6, Dr. Hansen flew to Washington D.C. to participate, host, and moderate in the conference entitled “The World of the First Ahaws”, which was organized by the PreColumbian Society of Washington, D.C. and their directorship, particularly Bill Puppa and Lucy Wilson as part of their 20 year anniversary celebration as a society. This conference, which was unprecedented in theme and scope for the Washington society, was moderated and hosted by Dr. Richard Hansen. The event was held at the U.S. Navy Memorial and Naval Heritage Center on 701 Pennsylvania Avenue. Speakers included David Anderson of Radford University/ Roanoke College, Barbara Arroyo of the Department of Prehispanic Monuments in Guatemala, Jaime Awe-director of the Belize Institute of Archaeology, Francisco EstradaBelli of Tulane University, Stanley Guenter of Idaho State University, and Richard Hansen of Idaho State University. Hansen’s paper was entitled “The Archaeological and Environmental Perspectives of the World of the First Ahaws” and Project member Stanley Guenter’s paper was “First Words and First Kings: The Epigraphy of the Preclassic Period in Maya History.” Hansen received Word at the conference from the University of Colorado Press that they would publish the results of the conference. To add to the papers, a total of 7 additional speakers and papers were added for the conference, which will provide a comprehensive understanding of the origins of Divine Maya kingship in the Lowlands. The title of the volume as agreed upon by the University of Colorado Press is “The First Lords: The Origins of Maya Divine Kingship” with papers by David Anderson, Francisco Estrada Belli, Barbara Arroyo, Vilma Fialko, William Saturno, Takeshi Inomata, Jaime Awe, Bruce R. Bachand, David Sedat, Christa Schieber, Miguel Orrego, Stanley Guenter, and Richard Hansen, Bill Puppa and Lucy Wilson.
The World of the First Ahaws a one-day symposium sponsored by
THE PRE-COLUMBIAN SOCIETY OFWASHINGTON, D.C.
Saturday, September 7, 2013 U.S. Navy Memorial & Naval Heritage Center 701 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. It has long been held that the Preclassic Period (2000 BC – AD 250) was a mere precursor to the full flowering of Classic Maya culture. However, results of research over the last two decades at sites from the Pacific coast of Guatemala to the Yucatan peninsula and Belize are forcing a new appreciation of the widespread and astonishing precocity of the Preclassic Maya. Amazing architectural structures; large urban complexes; monumental sculpture; stunning art and iconography; a shared cosmology; and complex calendrics and hieroglyphic writing systems—once considered the hallmarks of the Classic Period—are turning out to have flourished throughout many parts of the PreclassicMaya world. Researchers have found hard evidence for the emergence of kingly leaders, or ahaws, something previously thought unimaginable in the Preclassic, and they have even begun to delineate the interactions among fledgling polities. Indeed, it can be argued that the Preclassic Period was the first fluorescence of the Maya, and that the Mirador Basin was home to the first true state-‐level political system of the New World. In richly illustrated presentations, our speakers will update us on the latest developments in interpreting this seminal period in Maya development, using the results of their recent archaeological and epigraphic research. The issues they will discuss include the origins and attributes of Maya polities and kingship; the association of public architecture with the calendar and cosmology; the evidence of epigraphy, both from the Preclassic and later; developments in Belize and its place in the wider Maya world; the unique developments in Yucatan; and the evidence for the interactions in Guatemala that made this period so dynamic. Join us to learn more about the Preclassic Maya, and how recent research is providing a fresh, more nuanced view of Maya cultural development and change; challenging the traditional understanding of the Preclassic Period; and raising new questions about the Maya and the crystallization of their cultural identity. Participants1 David S. Anderson Radford University/Roanoke College
Barbara Arroyo Departamento de Monumentos Prehispánicos y Coloniales Direcciόn General del Patrimonio Cultural y Natural, Guatemala Jaime Awe Director, Belize Institute of Archaeology Francisco Estrada-Belli Tulane University Stanley Guenter Idaho State University Richard Hansen Idaho State University PROGRAM
8:15 a.m. REGISTRATION, Morning Refreshments 9:00 a.m. WELCOME AND OPENING ANNOUNCEMENTS 9:15 a.m. Archaeological and Environmental Perspectives of the World of the First Ahaws .....................Richard Hansen2 10:15 a.m. BREAK 10:45 a.m. The Making of Maya Civilization: A New Perspective from Cival, Peten, Guatemala..... Francisco Estrada-‐ Belli 11:35 a.m. First Words and First Kings: The Epigraphy of the Preclassic Period in Maya History .................Stanley Guenter 12:25 p.m. LUNCH 1:45 p.m. The Genesis of Lowland Maya Civilization in the Belize River Valley .................................................Jaime Awe 2:35 p.m. A View from the Periphery: On the Development of Cultural Identity in Preclassic Mesoamerica ......................................................................................................................David S. Anderson 3:25 p.m. BREAK 3:50 p.m. The Dynamic Preclassic in the Maya Highlands: Recent Findings from Kaminaljuyu ............................................................................................................................ Barbara Arroyo 4:40 p.m. BOOK-‐DRAWING BREAK 4:50 p.m. Panel Discussion ...............................................................................................................................All Speakers 6:00–9:00 p.m. RECEPTION at TEAISM...............................................................................................(optional; additional fee) 1 The Pre-‐Columbian Society of Washington, D.C., reserves the right to substitute symposium participants in the event of
unexpected cancellations. 2 After his talk, Dr. Hansen will be our host and moderator.
Program for the 20th Anniversary celebration of the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington D.C. with the theme of The World of the First Lords (Ahaws), with Dr. Hansen as the host and moderator.
World of the First Ahaw presenters at a panel discussion after the event. L-R: Dr. David Anderson, Stanley Guenter, Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Barbara Arroyo, Dr. Jaime Awe, Dr. Francisco Estrada-Belli. (Photo: Lucy Wilson).
The event in Washington with the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington, D.C. celebrated the 20 year (katun) anniversary of its founding. Eagerly awaiting the celebratory cake, which had an intricate image of the Preclassic masks from Group H at Uaxactun, was Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Barbara Arroyo, Dr. Francisco Estrada-Belli, Dr. Jaime Awe, and Dr. David Anderson. (Photo: Lucy Wilson).
On October 2, the Global Heritage Fund celebrated its 10-year anniversary gala, held in Palo Alto, California. The event was well attended by the numerous sponsors, friends, and associates of the Global Heritage Fund. Global Heritage Fund has been exemplary in its protection and vision of site development as a mechanism for poverty alleviation. Their theme, “Preserving Heritage Globally, Changing Lives Locally” resonates well with government officials and businessmen. All to frequently, important world-class archaeological sites are destroyed, and Global Heritage Fund is one of the few institutions in the world that really cares and is actively seeking to protect these unique resources. The Global Heritage Fund is the largest single contributor to the Mirador Basin Project and the FARES Foundation. To them, much credit and recognition for their outstanding service and record for the investigation, conservation, and protection of the Mirador Basin.
New executive director of the Global Heritage Fund, Dr. Vincent L. Michael, provided the opening remarks at the GHF 10 Year Anniversary Gala. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Judy Koch, Honorary Trustee of the Global Heritage Fund read a moving tribute to outgoing executive director and founder of the Global Heritage Fund, Jeff Morgan. .
Tony Wheeler, Founder of the Lonely Planet Travel Guide and GHF Board member gave the keynote address at the 10th Year Anniversary of the Global Heritage Fund.
The GHF event in Palo Alto generated a moving tribute to the 10 years of active conservation of cultural sites throughout the world.
The GHF gala 10 year anniversary event in Palo Alto, California, with Dr. Richard Hansen, Julian Morgan, Jeff Morgan, and John Swift.
On October 16-22, 2013, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico celebrated the Festival Internacional de la Cultura Maya with a special four day conference entitled “Relacion sociedad-naturaleza entre los Mayas” (The Societal-Environment Relationship of the Maya), which was held in the new Gran Museo del Mundo Maya de Merida. This impressive new museum had the inaugural address by David Stuart, entitled “Earth-Cave and Heaven-Cave: Concepts of Territory and Cosmology in Ancient Maya Landscapes.” (Tierra-Cueva y CieloCueva: Conceptos del territorio y cosmologia en el paisaje maya antiguo). Three subsequent days of fascinating papers were presented, with papers by Galina Ershova, Dr. Erik Velasquez, Guillermo Bernal, Jesus Galindo, Susan Milbrath, Oswaldo Chinchilla, Barbara Arroyo, Doninique Michelet, Eva Lemonnier, Boris Vanniere, Lydie Dussol, Ernesto Vargas, Geoffery Braswell, Alexander Vos, Adrian Maldonado, Jeff Kowalski, Alfredo Barrera, Scott Johnson, Peter Schmidt, Francisco Perez, Maria Rocio Gonzalez, Jose Osorio Leon, Ruben Maldonado, Marilyn Masson, Carlos Peraza, Timothy S. Hare, Antonio Benavides, Lourdes Marquez, John F. Chuchiak IV, Gabriel Bourdin, Ramon Arzapalo, Mario Humberto Ruiz, Laura Elena Sotelo, Ella F.Quintal, Michele Bocara, and Fidencio Briceño Chel, and Richard Hansen. Hansen’s paper was entitled “La sociedad Maya Preclasica y la Naturaleza: Perspectivas de la Relacion Exitosa y el Fracaso en la Cuenca Mirador-Calakmul.” (“Preclassic Maya Society and the Environment: Perspectives of Successful Relationships and Failures in the MiradorCalakmul Basin.” The conference hall was heavily attended and numerous favorable comments were received and noted. According to Dr. Hansen, one of the most fascinating papers was presented by Dr. John Chuchiak of the University of Missouri, who provided a detailed account of the consequences of colonial tribute systems on nutrition of the Maya. Chuchiak scoured countless colonial documents to recover data showing the detailed effects of the Spanish conquest, Colonialism, and the impact on the Maya between 1542 and 1812.
The new museum, the Great Museum of the Maya World, in Merida, Mexico was the venue for the International Festival of the Maya World, in October 2013 (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Protective Roof From October 13 through November, 2013, the Mirador Basin Project under the supervision of FARES-Guatemala, and FARES-US, with funding from Perenco, the Kislak Foundation, the Global Heritage Fund, the Selz Foundation, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, David and Deborah Sheets, Jonatan Layton, Francois Dubois, Diego Artuz, and Doña Odette Arzu began the arduous process of transporting and building the protective roof over the Popol Vuh frieze. A special thank you to FARES-Guatemala and the support staff for the administration of the funds, and follow up on thousands of details involved with this herculean undertaking. The work was supervised by Mirador Basin staff member Adelzo Pozuelos and Pedro Cordova, with a team of workmen, cooks, staff, assistants, technicians, and archaeological personnel which resulted in a remarkable protective structure. (see the subsequent report by Hansen and Suyuc, below) as well as a construction team from Aceros Arquitectónicos of Guatemala, and a team physician. The monumental transport of materials and supplies for the construction of the building involved helicopters and mules. Transport included tons of equipment, including scaffolding, the metal framework of the building, polycarbonate panels, scaffolding, ladders, welders, acetylene torches, tools, food, supplies, and technical equipment for the construction of the roof over the Popol Vuh frieze. The roof is similar in design to those constructed over Structure 34 and Monument 1 at La Murat. These protective structures were originally designed by Dr. Richard Hansen, Edgar Suyuc, and Boeing engineer John Cybulski. Cybulski was responsible for calculating the capacity of the roof to withstand the occasional hurricane force winds that sometime find their way into the northern Peten. Electronic monitoring of the roof efficiency and impact was conducted by FARES over an entire year period with temperature and relative humidity monitored every half hour, day and night. The results, processed by Dr. Fenella French of the U.S. Library of Congress, demonstrated that the temperatures and relative humidity below the roof are much more constant than the wild fluctuations of temperature and humidity in the natural forest. As a result of the success of the two previous protective roof structures, the Mirador Basin Project and FARES and FARES-Guatemala contracted with Aceros Arquitectónicos of Guatemala to have the metal structure built in Guatemala City, transported to Carmelita, and lifted by helicopter under the supervision of Adelzo Pozuelos and Pedro Cordova. The helicopter transport was provided by TAG helicopters (Transportes Aereos Guatemaltecos), with a total of 47 flights from Carmelita to El Mirador with external cargo. Pozuelos, Cordova, the Aceros staff, mules, food supplies, workers, cooks, cook’s helpers, and a camp doctor were present at all times, and Dr. Hansen made two visits to the site during construction. The excavations for the base supports had already occurred during the field season, with the rebar and cement bases poured in advance. The construction of the roof involved the manual transport from the heliport by hand to the frieze area, each beam requiring up to 30 workers to transport, and then welded into place (See below).
Plans for the protective roof which was constructed over the Popol Vuh frieze (digital drawing by Danilo Callen). On October 25-31, 2013, the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia of Guatemala City and the World Monuments Fund sponsored the Workshop on the Design of Coverings for Archaeological Protection (Taller de Diseño de Cubiertas para la Protección Arqueologica). The event was organized by Dr. Barbara Arroyo and Dr. Norma Barbacci, and Vice Minister Rosa Maria Chan and involved the presence of four architects with experience in diverse types of protective roofs: Nicholas Goldsmith (USA), Joao Caeiro (Portugal), Gionata Rizzi (Italy), and Javier Robles (Peru). Dr. Richard Hansen, Lic. Edgar Suyuc, and Dr. Fenella French (U.S. Library of Congress) presented a paper on 29 October entitled “Protective Coverings: The Case of the Mirador Basin, Guatemala.” Other papers included papers by Nicholas Goldsmith Javier Robles, Joao Caeriro, and Gionata Rizzi on the importance of archaeological coverings designed to conserve, Vilma Fialko and Raul Noriega presented on the case of Yaxha, Topoxte, and Nakum, Haydee Orea presented on the case of Yaxchilan, Mexico, Francine Valiente presented on the case of Naranjo, Guatemala. Dr. Barbara Arroyo presented the case at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala, and Jose Crasborn made a presentation on the case of Quirigua. These papers, or versions of them, will be published by the World Monuments Fund and Fomento Cultural Banamex. The Mirador Basin project completed the new roof over the Popol Vuh frieze (see below) which corresponded nicely with the conference and the results obtained therein.
Examples of protective roofs at known sites such as Tikal, with perishable materials (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Protective roofs over the architectural art on Str. 1 at Ek Balam, Yucatan, made of perishable materials (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Protective roof designed by Dr. Richard Hansen, John Cybulski, and Edgar Suyuc over Monument 1 at La Muerta, El Mirador (Photo: M.A. White)
Protective roof constructed over the Jaguar Paw Temple, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
On November 5-8, 2013, the annual classic XXIII Encuentro Internacional de los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya “Vida Cotidiana” took place in Campeche, Mexico, with a paper presented by Maestra Beatriz Balcarcel, Gustavo Martinez, and Richard D. Hansen. The Balcarcel-Martinez-Hansen paper was entitled “La evidencia cotidiana preclasica en el norte del Peten a traves de datos cerámicos” (Evidence of Preclassic Daily Life in the Northern Peten According to the Ceramic Data). The paper will be published in a forthcoming volume. On November 17-19, 2013, the Mirador Basin had the privilege of receiving the visit of John Swift, his sister Nancy Swift Furlotti, and Stefaan Portmann of the Global Heritage Fund. The Swifts, long time supporters of conservation programs world- wide and the Mirador Basin Project desired to see the accomplishments and activities of the Project. The experience and insights of the Swifts were invaluable, and many important agreements and understandings were discussed at the site. In addition, the Swifts went to Nakbe to see the site and to get an understanding of the area, gain an insight into the nature of the upcoming work that needs to be conducted at the site, and to determine financial needs. The Swifts, and people like Francois and Nini Berger, the Morgan Family, and the Global Heritage Fund will become historic figures in the struggle to save the Mirador Basin.
Nancy Furlotti (L), Dr. Hansen, and John Swift at the Nakbe quarries (Photo: Rafael Rottmann).
Dr. Richard Hansen, GHF’s Stefaan Portmann, Nancy Furlotti, and John Swift on Danta pyramid. (Photo: Rafael Rottmann).
The Swifts and Stefaan Portmann and La Muerta Stela 2, El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). On November 21, Dr. Richard Hansen made the final presentation for the year at the Universidad Francisco Marroquin quarterly lecture series. Hansen spoke on the “ Cuenca Mirador-Calakmul: Corazon del Mundo Maya.” The event was open to the public for a nominal fee. Francisco Marroquin University is one of the finest universities in Central America. The ideals, values, and ethics it promotes are exemplary, and the University provides important lectures on archaeology to the public throughout the year.
Dr. Richard Hansen lecturing at Francisco Marroquin University lecture series. (Photo: Enrique Hernandez). On November 30, Richard and Jody Hansen celebrated the wedding of their daughter, Brianna, who also was a staff artist during the 2013 field season, to Ryan Chad Ruger. The wedding took place in Twin Falls, Idaho, and the Ruger’s will be attending school for the next few years as Ryan will be attending medical school. Brianna’s art work at the site was excellent and she will be working for years to come with artist Sharon Belkin on archaeological illustrations for the Project.
Ryan Chad Ruger and Brianna Hansen were married on November 30. We all wish them well.
Modeled and painted stucco from the Casa Coral (see below) drawn by Brianna Hansen.
Work at Nakbe On December 10-17, 2013, the Mirador Basin Project launched a mini-project at the site of Nakbe to establish a new camp since the old one was placed directly on the first platform of the West Group at the site. A camp location near the heliport and the Cascabel causeway was selected for easier access from the helipad and closer to the important water source of Zacatal. Workmen cleared the area for the new camp, and project tents were set up for future research that will be conducted at the site. In addition, Project team members examined the site to evaluate conservation and stabilization necessities, and will be incorporating the needed consolidation requirements in the upcoming field season. Several key areas in need of pressing conservation needs are Str. 1, Str. 13, Str. 27, Grupo Codice Str. 103 and Str. 104, and the ball court in the East Group at the site. Monument 8 is also in critical need of roof protection. Team members included Enrique Monterroso, Josue Guzman, Beatriz Balcarcel, Adelzo Pozuelos, Pedro Cordova, and Dr. Richard Hansen. LATIN TRADE MAGAZINE- Bravo Business Association: Hansen named as one of 24 Individuals who “Changed Latin America.” In the November-December 2013 issue of LT Latin Trade magazine, the most prestigious and wide spread business magazine in Latin America devoted the entire issue to “Two Decades of Decisions that Changed Latin America: Interviews with the Corporate, Political, and Social Leaders Who Made Them” (www.latintrade.com) . The magazine cited the 24 individuals who “changed Latin America” which included Dr. Richard Hansen, President of FARES (p. 72) and Peruvian Albina Ruiz Rios (p. 70) as the two Social Sector individuals featured in the issue. Albina Ruiz Rios, founder and President of Ciudad saludable (Healthy City) received the 2005 BRAVO award as Environmentalist of the Year for Latin America and Dr. Richard Hansen received the BRAVO award in 2008. Hansen noted the
advantages of using archaeology as the lens for understanding contemporary issues in society, and using the past as a path to the future by learning from successes and failures of past civilizations. In addition, the magazine noted that President Otto Perez Molina, President of Guatemala, was named as the 2013 Leader of the Year for Latin America, an event that was held in Miami in October 2013.
INVESTIGATIONS AND CONSERVATION IN THE MIRADOR CULTURAL AND NATURAL SYSTEM: A Report on the 2013 Field Season Richard D. Hansen Edgar Suyuc-Ley INTRODUCTION The Mirador Basin Project conducted field research from the months of July through December 2013, with work conducted at the major sites of Tintal, El Mirador and Nakbe, which represent three of the most important sites of the Mirador Basin. The work was done under the direction of Dr. Richard Hansen and Lic. Edgar Suyuc, with funding from the Global Heritage Fund, FARES Foundation, FARES-Guatemala, PERENCO, APANAC, PACUNAM, the Selz Foundation, the Jay I. Kislak Foundation, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Interior-International Technical Assistance Program. Numerous individuals made this work possible, particularly Ms. Linda Pierce, Bernard Selz, Arthur Dunkleman Linda Pierce, Joanna Miller, Robert Berry, the Alfredo Vila Family, the Carlos Abraham family of Merida, Pedro Aguirre, Diego Arzu, Maria Odette Arzu and family, Wallace Armes, Jim Bader, Scott Baker, Keith Ballard, Marta Barger & Richard B. Barth, Sharon Lee Belkin, Richard and Iris Ballew, Gary Beletsky, Julius and Millie Bendat, Andy and Annie Bleggi, Diann Boehm, Javier Bonilla, Carol W. Casey, Art Cassanos, Eunice Childs, Clayton Cook, Ezequiel Cortez, Nina Coto, J. Stanton Curry, the late John and Marlys Cybulski, Richard and Sally Dawson, Francois DuBois, Paul and Kathy Duncan, Audrey Keller Dyer, George Fery, William and Lynda Folan, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, John Dyer, Mark Gibian & Marcy Rosewater, Betty Guggolz, John and Pat Hansen Anthony Hick, Ken Hitz, Robin Hylton, Institute of Maya Studies, Joshua F. Jones, Yoon Kang, Jay I. Kislak, Jonathan Layton, James Luceno, Cynthia Luce, John Maniscalco, Lisa Marie, Ruben G. Mendoza, Sherry Miller, M. Groot Nibbelink, Jonathan Ojinage, Beatriz Padilla, Judy Perlstein, Robert J. & Molly V. Pettit, Walter Jack Pettit, Stephen Ratto, Kathleen Rollins, Ann Ruffer, Iris Ruiz, Victoria Salter, the Harry and Roberta Salter Foundation, Mario Sandoval, Lisa Sardegna and David Carillo, Mario Sandoval, John Schwandke, Bernard Selz, David and Deborah Sheets, Gregory and Flo Silver, Joel M. Skidmore, Brent L. Sohngen, Hiram L. Smith, Hiram Smith, Doe Stowell, John J. And Margaret M. Sullivan, William Taylor, Janice Van Cleve, Marian Walker, Elizabeth M. Welty, Roger and Nancy M. Williams, Brian Walker, Christian and Holly Walker, Addison R. Warner, Bob Woods, Kathleen Rollins, Brian E. Walker, J. Marlan and Colleen Walker, Elizabeth Welty, Gary Whitely, and Terry and Barbara Young. This field season had some extremely important discoveries and conservation measures of historic importance which will strengthen the potential for future World Heritage status for the Mirador Basin. In addition, great efforts were incorporated in the conservation, not only of the cultural heritage, but the natural heritage as well. The work included emergency interventions and systematic work of conservation and preservation monitoring. Additional advances have been implemented in the social and economic development of the communities due to the quantity of workers from the surrounding villages that are incorporated into the Project and the educational training and capacitation implemented during the field seasons. For decades now, the Project has taken an active role in the defense and protection of the Mirador Basin because of severe threats due to road intrusions, invasive settlers, massive deforestation, looting, poaching, and narcotics trafficking. The transition from “exploitation” to “conservation” is a process, not an event, and will take time and effort. But huge strides are
being made through educational efforts, and the concerted efforts of groups and people as they learn and understand the unique geological, natural, and cultural importance of the Mirador Basin. The research conducted in 2013 also sought information to understand the chronology and the economic and political relationship between El Mirador and Tintal. At Tintal, mapping was conducted with Total Station technology for the first time at the site, with mapping completed in much of Mano de Leon Group in the civic center of the site, which is the portion of the city that was surrounded by an artificial moat. In addition, mapping was conducted with Total Station on the Northern side of the site center. Excavations were conducted within the artificial moat that surrounds the central portion of the city as well as in the Pavo Group, the Ballcourt, the Henequen Group and the Henequen Causeway. In addition, the research camp was established near the heliport, which has prepared the way for extensive future work at the site by the Project. Although the camp is a considerable distance from the existing facilities near the aguada or reservoir of the site, the Project has developed adequate water collection measures to permit the presence near the heliport. In this fashion, the scientific camp has managed to avoid much of the traffic along the trail by tourists, xateros, chicleros, and mules. At El Mirador, excavations continued on a variety of locations, including work on the Popol Vuh frieze, Structures 313, 314, and 315, and Structure 304 and the Central Stairway of the Great Central Acropolis. Preparatory work was also conducted for the placement of the protective roof over the Popol Vuh frieze, with the removal of certain trees, placement of the cement foundations for the vertical support columns of the roof, and the improvement and preparation of the temporal protective roofs to preserve and Project the stucco until the construction of the permanent protective facility. During the 2013 field season, excavations were also conducted in the Cascabel Group, with major work on Structures 200, 204, and 207, under the supervision of Edgar Ortega, Gustavo Martinez, and Pilar Vazquez-Llorente. Work also continued on the Danta Complex, with investigations in the Pava Group and the third level of the pyramid. Additional exploratory excavations were conducted in the Venado Group (Deer) located on the Eastern side of Danta pyramid. Salvage excavations were conducted in the Casa Coral, located near the Nakbe-El Mirador causeway to the south east of Danta pyramid. The work was originally done to recover information related to the concentrations of painted and modeled stucco that had been ripped through by a looters trench. However, the excavations of 2013 recovered evidence that the building had been richly decorated with deity portraits and modeled art of exceptional quality. Mapping continued in the area to the east and southeast of Danta pyramid, which contains evidence of extensive Preclassic residences, small Classic period compounds, and large platforms. Work continued at El Mirador on the study of the “invisible house mounds” or perishable structures that left no superficial evidence. This information is crucial to providing a more reliable demographic estimate, and to understand the demographic density of the cities within the Mirador Basin. The highly trained conservation team continued the consolidation and stabilization of the monumental architecture at El Mirador, with work being conducted with the use of stone and stucco. The work contributed enormously to the long-‐term preservation and conservation for the permanent exposure of architecture for scientific and touristic value in the future. The Mirador Basin Project has maintained a trained crew of archaeologists, artists, photographers, accountants, and restoration Experts in the laboratories in the Peten and in Guatemala City, as well as key personnel in the Peten responsible for logistics
purchases, community relations, and activities. The laboratory work in Guatemala City has involved the processing of hundreds of thousands of artifacts recovered during each field season, with cleaning, consolidation, photography, classifications, interpretations, selection of artifacts for type collections, photography of type collections, and technical preparations for the delivery of artifacts to the National Museum of Archaeology. All archaeological materials are marked, classified, separated according to site and provenience within each site, original context identification, types of materials, chronological order of materials, and other diagnostic features that have allowed careful curation of artifacts for analyses by present and future specialists. The political posture of the Project is that the artifacts recovered from carefully controlled excavations have an important value because they are “finite”, meaning that they can never be recovered from their original context again. It is believed that future developments in technology will be able to extract data from artifacts of known and precise contexts. For this reason, the Project processes and stores all artifacts so that they are available to scholars and Project staff at any time. This practice has proven invaluable due to the fact that new technological advancements have allowed new studies to be conducted, which would have been impossible if the artifacts (ie. Potsherds, fragments, Obsidian blades, and stone tools) had simply been discarded.
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS, EL MIRADOR THE GREAT CENTRAL ACROPOLIS / GRAN ACRÓPOLIS CENTRAL: Structures 313, 314, and 315. Intensive excavations continued on Structures 313 314, and 315 under the supervision of archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel. The excavations were part of the last phases of the scientific research in this architectural group, located on the southwest corner of the Great Central Acropolis. The research has focused on the horizontal and vertical exposure of Structure 313 and the accompanying Structures 314 and 315 which surround the central plaza to the north of Structure 313. The contiguous nature of the architecture, as well as the similar masonry, contemporaneity, and other architectural features suggest that these buildings were an �� integral unit socially and economically. The importance of the architectural compound is indicated by the excellent condition of the architecture as well as the similar antiquity, which dates exclusively to the Late Preclassic period. The primary facades exposed during the 2013 season were the northeast corner of Structure 313 as well as the west facade of Structure 314 and 315. Discoveries of particular interest included a more complete understanding of the flanking wall at the eastern base of Structure 313, which had collapsed in nearly complete condition, providing an unusual perspective of the walls and the possible roof constructions that formed the Preclassic architecture of the complex. In addition, enormous corner blocks were located in or near the corners of the buildings, similar to those of Structure 34 and the Pava Temple in the Preclassic, and Structure 2 at La Muerta in the Early Classic period. Complete ceramic vessels were recovered from their original position directly on the floors of the building, indicating that the abandonment of the structures had not only been rapid, but thorough, and subsequent inhabitants did not return to collect, alter, or interfere with the original artifacts directly on the floors. The
archaeological materials are representative of the cultural apogee at El Mirador in the Late Preclassic period.
The northeast corner of Structure 313 indicating the excellent condition of the Preclassic walls. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Northeast corner of Structure 313 showing the pattern of collapse of the exterior, appended wall which formed a narrow chamber that flanked the primary building (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel with an intact Preclassic tecomate vessel directly on the floor of Structure 314 (Photos: R.D. Hansen).
Intact ceramic tecomate directly on the floor of Structure 314, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Late Preclassic ceramics from Structure 313, indicating the final utilization of the building before abandonment at the end of the Preclassic period (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Southeast corner of Structure 314 and its architectural relationship with Structure 313 to the left, showing the slope and the cornice of the exterior face of the building (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Portion of a Chicanel Sierra Red bowl from the Late Preclassic period with horizontal flutes directly from the floor at the base of Structure 314, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen). POPOL VUH FRIEZE / Friso Popol Vuh Major excavations continued in the area of the Popol Vuh frieze in the Great Central Acropolis in 2013. Archaeological student Dr. Craig Argyle supervised the work, which continued in the western reservoir system. Argyle made some fascinating discoveries, including artifacts, which may have some remnants of name tagging or texts.
Excavations to the west of the frieze have not detected more evidence of the stucco sculpture that was exposed on the superficial stucco panels. However, as reported in the 2012 report, Dr. Richard Hansen discovered that the panels continue below the floor of the pools and the reservoir system and excavations by Hansen to the east of the center pool of the water system has discovered evidence that the panels do continue to the east. The presence of wellpreserved art buried below the stucco floors but not above it suggests that the panels above the floors, such as the Popol Vuh frieze, were intentionally buried.
Incised ceramic earspools recovered from excavations in the vicinity of the frieze in the Great Central Acropolis at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Conservator Lisa Sardegna examining the ear spool and knot bundles of the architectural art uncovered during the 2013 field season. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Excavations of the lower frieze panels showed the excellent preservation of color and iconography because of their intentional burial below the hard stucco floors of the water collection pools (Photo: R.D. Hansen © FARES 2013).
The ear spools and knot bundles uncovered during the 2013 season, show that the art found in the panels on the western side of the central pool is replicated on the eastern side. The soil in the middle of the ear spool is intentionally there to strengthen the art until adequate stabilization and consolidation measures can be enacted (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Excavations on the eastern side of the central pool revealed that the richly modeled stucco art continues below the floors and sealed by rubble on the eastern side as well. The image recorded is part of a fierce serpent, with two fangs and liquid (venom) dripping from them, as found on the western side.
Structure 304, Operation 304
Investigations continued on the primary Preclassic stairway of the Great Central Acropolis, located on the Northern facade of the enormous platform overlooking the principal plaza of El Mirador. The primary objective was to understand what may be the single most important stairway at the site, and to expose it vertically and horizontally. The work was supervised previously by Licda. Carmen Ramos, and during the 2013 season, was supervised by USAC (Universidad San Carlos) archaeological student Josue Garcia. The location of the stairway as the primary access to and from the main plaza at the site makes it exceptional in the history of the site. The outermost phase of the stairway was in relatively poor condition, due to exposure to weather and abundant vegetation, but the relationship of the stairway to the northeastern facade of the platform of the Great Central Acropolis was revealed in the field season. The stairway is also considered to be extremely important because it allowed direct access to what appears to have been a royal platform throne, which had been composed of numerous megalithic stones, most of which appear to have been stelae and monuments placed on all four sides of the platform. This platform was situated in the northern edge of the Acropolis overlooking the plaza, as well as situated in the middle of
an important Triadic group on the Central Acropolis.. In addition, the facade of an earlier construction phase of the building had an intricate woven mat motif modeled in stucco. The woven mat is considered to be a symbol of royal authority, thus lending credence to the possibility that this particular construction is a royal throne.
Eastern edge of the main stairway (on right0 of the Great Central Acropolis at the site, showing the relatively poor condition of the face of the platform (Photo: T. Portillo)
Fragment of a Stela fragment with the portion of a large scroll carved on the surface (Photo: T. Portillo).
Excavations along the eastern face of the platform of the Great Central Acropolis near the edge of the main stairway (Photo: Josue Garcia).
Excavations of the upper stairway of the Great Central Acropolis at El Mirador (Photo: T. Portillo).
Workers taking measurements of one of the stelae that had collapsed anciently from the wall of Structure 304., El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Row of monuments that formed the southern wall of the platform of Structure 304, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Detailed view of the walls with the megalithic Stones that formed the platform of Structure 304 (Photo: T. Portillo)
CASCABEL GROUP / GRUPO CASCABEL The Cascabel Group is located on the section of the monumental architecture of the civic center of the site, forming the Northern edge of the Great Plaza and the Leon Plaza at El Mirador. Work during the 2013 season in the Cascabel Group continued in scope and intensity in both investigations and conservation of the buildings. The work concentrated on three buildings of the group, with consolidation and conservation of the summits of Structure 200 and Structure 204. The exposure of the summits of these extremely early buildings to countless storms and tree vegetation made the excavations extremely tedious and delicate, but the Project was able to identify floors, walls, and stairways of the upper portions of the buildings. In addition, work was conducted at the bases of both Structure 200 and 204 in order to stabilize, consolidate, and permanently expose the basal facades of these buildings. Conservation measures were employed on the stairways of the building as well as routine maintenance. Approximately 75% of the existing stairways of the buildings has now been consolidated.
Structure 200, Cascabel
Excavations on Structure 200 revealed the entire stone and/or rubble fill of the southern facade of the building. All loose soil has been removed from the face of the building, revealing terrace levels, remnants of architectural art, stairway blocks, walls, and floors. The work was supervised by archaeologist Edgar Ortega Operation 200 M opened the western facade of the building, revealing the corner stairway in precisely the same location as had been discovered on the eastern side of the building. The work on the summit of the structure revealed the presence of at least two thick stucco floors, which were in good condition considering the lengthy exposure to the elements. Ortega also found that the same evidence that R. Hansen and L. Hansen had found earlier, with evidence that the building had been utilized near the end of the Preclassic period, but that the building had been constructed in the Middle Preclassic period between 700 and 400 B. C. Stabilization and consolidation work, supervised by Enrique Monterroso Tun and Marco Tulio Enamorado was also conducted on the building with the purpose of permanent exposure of the building to the public.
Fragment of a Middle Preclassic figurine from Structure 200, Cascabel El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Arm from a Middle Preclassic (700-‐400 B.C.) figurine from Structure 200,, Cascabel, and El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Base panorama of Structure 200 of the Cascabel Group (Photo: M. Portillo)
Structure 204 / Estructura 204
Excavations continued on Structure 203 of the Cascabel Group during the 2013 season at El Mirador. The work included the horizontal excavation of more of the facade, stairway, and consolidating the upper portion of the building. The research was supervised by archaeologist Gustavo Martinez, and the corresponding stabilization and consolidation work on the architecture was supervised by Enrique Monterroso Tun and Marco Tulio Enamorado.
Cascabel Structure 204, indicating a portion of the facade and the primary stairway of the building (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Portion of the facade and southeast corner of Structure 204 of the Cascabel Group, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Structure 207 / Estructura 207
Excavations began on Structure 207, one of the small row of buildings located on the southern edge of the Cascabel Platform and immediately overlooking the Great Leon Plaza at El Mirador. The work was supervised by archaeology student Pilar Vazquez-‐ Llorente. The research included the horizontal revelation of the Northern side of the building, which appears to have been the rear of the structure. In addition, a test pit was placed adjacent to the base of the building. The test excavation revealed a sequence of at least five floors, but with ceramics dating to the Late Preclassic period until the lower floor. This detail indicates that not all of the Cascabel platform was constructed in the Middle Preclassic period, but that the platform had received modifications and structural additions in the Late Preclassic (300 B.C.-‐AD 150) period.
Test pit excavations of Structure 207, Cascabel, indicating the depth of the structural fill and the sequence of lime plaster floors. The presence of five successive floors indicates a lengthy tradition of architectural modification in this area of the Cascabel platform. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Danta Complex / Complejo La Danta
Intensive excavations and architectural consolidation procedures were conducted on the Danta complex, the massive pyramidal structure that dominates the eastern side of El Mirador. Excavations were supervised by Lic. Edgar Suyuc and Cheryl Carcuz, with assistance from archaeological student Marissa Lopez. Enrique Monterroso Tun, Josue Guzman, and Marco Tulio Enamorado supervised the consolidation of the excavated areas. Work on the Pava Group, which is located on the first platform of Danta included work on the primary basal stairway of the building. In addition, the access stairway was improved. Excavations along the eastern basal façade of the building began the process of identification of the form and format of the basal levels of Pava pyramid. Explorations on the eastern side of Pava revealed the massive blocks, placed with the long axis into the building, which is characteristic of the entire construction of Danta pyramid in the Late Preclassic period.
Consolidation of the summit of the Pava Pyramid was completed in the 2012 and 2013 seasons (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Excavations at the base of the third level of Danta pyramid managed to detect the remains of the wall at the northwest corner of the platform. This platform, the most massive of the three platforms of Danta pyramid, will be the focus in future seasons to adequately expose and consolidate this architectural behemoth. The work was supervised by archaeologists Sheryl Carcuz and Francisco Lopez, both of whom have extensive experience working on Danta and know the structure well. Excavations by Sheryl Carcuz also explored the walls of the southwest corner of the building, revealing the recessed corners of the building, as well as artifacts directly on the terrace levels of the structure. The massive stones which were placed with the long axis into the building continues to be the standard architectural format of the building, and the corner of the structure indicated Artifacts are consistent with the Preclassic construction and utilization of the building, with an overburden of debris of the occupants that resided on the building nearly 800 years later.
Base of the third level of Danta pyramid with consolidation beginning on the central primary stairway (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
An unusual carved shell pendant from the base of the 3rd level of Danta pyramid, El Mirador, found by archaeologist Sheryl Carcuz and drawn by Brianna Hansen.
The pendant had apparently been worn horizontally, with the face of the “bird” image looking upward towards the wearer. Two drilled perforations on the “chest” of this bird creature suggests a that it may have been hung in this fashion (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Wall of Danta pyramid in the northwest corner of the third level of the massive structure (Photo: T. Portillo)
INVISIBLE STRUCTURES / Casas no visibles Investigations continued in the 2013 season to understand and define the invisible house mound phenomenon that has been found to exist in the Mirador Basin and other areas of the Maya Lowlands. Dr. Kevin Johnston, formerly a professor at Ohio State, had identified hidden house mounds a decade earlier at the site of Itzan, a site in the Petexbatun region of the southern Peten that he was exploring. As a result of detecting the presence of hidden house mounds in excavations conducted by Dr. Hansen, Carlos Castellanos, Stephanie Schrodt, and Beatriz Balcarcel at El Mirador and Nakbe, Dr.
Johnston was invited several years ago to begin a study of the hidden house mounds at El Mirador in an attempt to re-‐define the demographic densities of ancient major cities. A “hidden” house mound is a residence with perishable roof and side walls, and a packed earthen floor, similar to what the majority of inhabitants in the Peten have today, which has been abandoned, deteriorated, and is buried under a few centimeters of jungle soils with no surface indications of its existence.
Example of a hidden house mound: A packed earthen floor with Preclassic ceramics still in place on the floor of the structure. A perishable roof and wooden posts formed the boundaries of the structure, but which leave no surface indications of their existence after abandonment. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Excavations by Dr. Kevin Johnston revealed the presence of hidden house mounds, in this case, had walls with stones one course high (Photo: T. Portillo)
Excavation in Op. 113b below the escarpment of the West Group at El Mirador with walls and single course stones just a few centimeters below the surface, but with no surface indications whatsoever of their presence. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Maya axe directly on the packed floor or a hidden house structure, Op. 113B, El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Fragment of a bark beater for making paper, found on the floor of a hidden house mound in the West Group at El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
CORAL SNAKE HOUSE / CASA DEL CORAL One of the most interesting excavations in 2013 was supervised by Guatemalan student archaeologist Douglas Mauricio y discovered evidence of a looted building with large quantities of painted and modeled stucco in 2012. Salvage excavations began in earnest in 2013 on the building, which is located to the south east of Danta pyramid. The salvage excavations revealed that the art had been appended to the upper portions of the external wall of the building, and had collapsed through time. A total of 13 stucco heads were recovered in whole, near complete, or fragmented conditions, displaying a variety of deity portraits. The remarkable quantity of art on a relatively small and unobtrusive building has created tremendous interest in understanding how and why this particular building, dating to the Late Classic period, was the object of such elaborate decoration. Future work will continue to expose and understand the original context of the art, as well as identify areas of the building where the art may still be intact or in its original condition.
Building of the Casa del Coral Group, a structure that dates to the Late Classic period ( T. Portillo)
View of the Casa del Coral, a relatively small structure with a looters’ trench (Photo: D. Mauricio).
Large fragments of modeled and painted stucco, which had been by looters, indicating some form of elaborate art had decorated the exterior of the building (Photo: D. Mauricio).
Exterior wall of the Casa del Coral with one of the deity heads in its original location. The head was found face down in this location (Photo: D. Maurico)
Guatemalan student Douglas Mauricio with the deity head in its original location. (Photo: D. Mauricio).
Guatemalan student archaeologist Douglas Mauricio with a delicate feminine head of exceptional beauty, perhaps a portrait of Ixchel, the moon goddess. (Photo: D. Mauricio).
Remnants of an anthropomorphic head in its location in the rubble and collapse of the exterior wall of the Casa del Coral. (Photo: D. Mauricio).
Some of the modeled stucco recovered from the Casa del Coral, with evidence of the original color (Drawing: Brianna Hansen Ruger).
TEST EXCAVATIONS / SONDEOS
Monos Plaza. A series of test excavations were placed at El Mirador with the objective of establishing chronological sequences and architectural contexts. However, in some cases, the excavations served as part of a future infrastructure for the placement of water collection facilities for bathrooms. Funding had been received from the Global Heritage Fund to begin to construct a series of public bathrooms, which were to have flush toilets. Students John Pettit and Marissa Lopez conducted excavations in the Monos Plaza to determine the sequence of construction of the plaza and to determine the feasibility of a water collection facility in this area for the future use for tourist facilities. Pettit and Lopez discovered that the plaza to the immediate northwest of Monos pyramid had been built over a dense layer of imported marsh mud, which had been transported from the bajos for agricultural production within the civic center of the site. It then was built over with rubble fill and plaster floors, not unlike the construction of shopping centers in Orange County, California, where the most productive real estate is removed from agricultural production for urban needs.
Archaeology student John Pettit discovered that the plaza to the northwest of Monos Pyramid had been built over an agricultural field of imported marsh muck, typical of many of the ancient cities in the Mirador Basin. This highly productive agricultural technique provided the economic power for the ancient cities in the Basin.
Stark contrast between the fill of the plaza and the imported marsh mud. The mud has consistently shown to have phytoliths of corn, squash, beans, palms, and gourds. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Operation 113D, with student John Pettit and the stratified layer of marsh mud which has also been found in this excavation.
Late Preclassic bowl recovered from the marsh muck field in the Monos Plaza excavations (Photo: R.D. Hansen). LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS The Mirador Basin project continued with its extensive program of education and training for Guatemalan workers. This practice has been enacted by the project for decades, and involves detailed course work for workmen after hours in reading, writing, mathematics, and English. The courses are taught every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evenings and has proven to be one of the more successful programs for workmen conducted by the project. The project uses a government program called CONALFA, which has simple workbooks designed to teach people to write, identify the letters of the alphabet, and the phonetic values associated with letters, vowels, and consonants. In addition to literacy programs, the project established a rigorous educational lecture series with staff members teaching subjects such as history, health, hygiene, first aid, family finances, investment strategies, archaeology, environmental responsibility, and geography. These classes provided information and knowledge to workers for their personal benefit and to make them more aware of the world and their responsibilities in it.
Educational classes were taught by project staff every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights to workmen (Photo: B. Hansen).
Teacher and students learning literacy skills and English with teacher and artist, Brianna Hansen (Photo: B. Hansen).
Intensive literacy programs were taught by project staff to workmen after hours on weekends (Photo: B. Hansen).
Example of the writing and letter identification skills afforded to workmen using the CONALFO workbook and taught by Mirador Basin project staff. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Cursive writing skills were also taught, along with a moral message. For example, the required cursive text above states “I love my children, my spouse, and all my family.” (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Another example of cursive writing, which states “My name is Francisco Coc and and I am the descendant of a noble legacy.” (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Artist Beatriz Padilla teaching mathematics (addition) problems to workmen. Such skills allow investment knowledge and personal financial management to be possible. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
INVESTIGATIONS IN TINTAL 2013
Extensive excavations began for the first time since 2004 in the major site of Tintal, located between El Mirador and Carmelita. The work, supervised by student archaeologists Enrique Hernandez, Francisco Lopez, Dr. Thomas Schreiner, archaeological artist Hiro Iwamoto, and the mapping firm DEPIC. The first accomplishment was the establishment of the archaeological field camp for the project, located near the heliport and separated from the main tourist camp, which is located near the aguada. The site was selected due to its proximity to the major architecture of the Mano de Leon Group, plus the utilization of the heliport for the occasional drop off of supplies and personnel. The new camp also provided a certain measure for privacy from numerous chicleros, xateros, and tourists who frequented the trail towards El Mirador.
A new field camp has been established at Tintal which will be the base of operations in the coming years as fieldwork and investigations continue at the site. Mapping at the site was conducted with Total Station technology for the first time, although much of the site architecture had been mapped in 2004 by the Mirador Basin Project. The mapping was conducted by the seasoned and experience Guatemalan company, DEPIC, who has been responsible for the mapping at El Mirador. The mapping during the 2013 year is important because it provides accurate (to the millimeter) laser technology, which can result in 3-‐D renditions of the site as well as a more precise location of excavations and structures.
Map of Tintal, Mirador Basin (©FARES 2006)
Total Station map of a portion of Tintal looking towards the southwest. The Henequen Group is located on the lower right, and the Mano de Leon Group is located in the center, surrounded by a large artificial moat. (Map: DEPIC, ©FARES 2013).
The large artificial moat or trench that surrounds the Mano de Leon Group at Tintal. Note the three individuals, two at the interior base and one on the far bank of the system (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Excavations spanned the depth and breadth of the moat at Tintal (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Preclassic ceramics were recovered directly off the floor of the artificial moat (Photo: R.D. Hansen)
Edge of a ramp adjacent to the moat at Tintal (Op. 101E) (Photo: Francisco Lopez)
Protective Roof Structure, El Mirador From October through December 2013, the Mirador Basin Project, together with FARES-Guatemala, Perenco Oil, the Global Heritage Fund, PACUNAM, the FARES Foundation, the Kislak Foundation, the Selz Foundation, and important funding from Pero Aguirre, Francois DuBois, David and Deborah Sheets, Jonathan Layton, Odette Arzu and family, and Diego Arzu had the protective roof, which was to be over the frieze in the Great Central Acropolis, constructed in the headquarters of Aceros Arquitectónicos in Guatemala City, and transported to Carmelita. It was then transported by TAG (Transportes Aereos Guatemaltecos) helicopters from Carmelita to El Mirador, with a reported total of 47 helicopter flights with external cargo. This effort involved the transport of scaffolding, welders, acetylene torches, pulleys, ropes, medical supplies, food supplies, and other equipment. In addition, the columns and beams had to be transported by helicopter, a technique that required extreme caution and care by seasoned pilot Federico Monzon. The cement foundations for the large columns had been poured during at the end of the field season in late August, but the cement needed to cure for several months before being capable of withstanding the weight of the structure. The building design was created by Dr. Richard Hansen, with mathematical calculations from John Cybulski, and suggestions from Edgar Suyuc. However, in spite of the fact that two similar protective roofs had been constructed previously at El Mirador, none had the dimensions or the size of this particular roof. However, the virtues and capabilities of these protective roof are extraordinary: The allow light, but not UV light; they allow the surrounding vegetation to be seen; the copper color polycarbonate panels reduce heat; the staggered polycarbonate panels let air movement under the roof so that temperature and relative humidity remain constant; the joist columns and beams allow the vegetation to be viewed through the metal, dramatically reducing the visual impact; the protective structure is not competitive with the original art and architecture. These factors have provided a new model for conservation and preservation that can be applied elsewhere in the Mirador Basin, and other areas of the world.
Staff and personnel on the hike from Carmelita to El Mirador through extremely rigorous and difficult conditions due to excessive water from the continual rains (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
Helicopter transport of heavy columns, polycarbonate panels, cross beams, and associated equipment required skill and caution. (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
After delivery by the helicopter came the arduous task of transporting the beams and columns through the forest to the construction site (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
Transport of heavy beams to the construction site (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
Placement of the first 33 meter long cross beam over the Acropolis causeway (Photo: A. Pozuelos).
Placement of cross beams and support joists on the vertical columns on the northeast corner of the protective building (Photo:A.Pozuelos).
Construction of the staggered panels and cross beams over the temporary plastic covering over the frieze (Photo: A. Pozuelos)
Construction of the side beams, protective roof over the Acropolis frieze (Photo: A. Pozuelos)
Placement of side beams in preparation for the polycarbonate panels (Photo: A. Pozuelos)
Completed roof at El Mirador. Note the staggered panels which allow air and humidity movement (Photo: R.D.Hansen).
The polycarbonate panels let light through, but not UV light. They also allowed visibility of surrounding vegetation which reduces the visual impact of the roof. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Edge of the protective roof, Great Acropolis. collection (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Note the 10-inch downspouts for water
The Great Central Acropolis roof as viewed from the air. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The Popol Vuh frieze uncovered after the finalization of the roof construction at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
INVESTIGATIONS AT NAKBE, 2013 Preliminary archaeological work began in 2013 at Nakbe, located 12 km to the southeast of Danta pyramid at El Mirador. The site was extensively investigated by Dr. Richard Hansen from 1987 to 1998, but work was halted at the site in 1998 to begin exploration and mapping of sites closer to the threatened areas near Carmelita and the southern part of the Basin. The extensive work at the site was accompanied by a government request that all exposure of art and architecture be completely re-buried in order to protect and conserve the exposed features. Due to increasing interest from the public however, the Mirador Basin Project will conduct extensive work at the site to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve the architecture, much of which is extremely early dating to the Middle Preclassic period (1000 B.C.-400 B.C.). In December, 2013, Lic. Edgar Suyuc, Licda. Beatriz Balcarcel, Lic. Josue Guzman, Conservator Enrique Monterroso Tun, camp architect Adelzo Pozuelos, camp manager Pedro Cordova, and Dr. Richard Hansen, as well as a group of workmen formed an expedition to establish a new camp facility and to evaluate all the known major architecture to determine priority intervention in the future. The original camp had been placed directly on the primary platform of the West Group at the site, and was deemed an inappropriate place for a permanent camp. New tent facilites were provided some years previously by the dynamic Rotary International Club of Helson-Lizard England. A new location was selected to the southwest of the heliport, located along the Cascabel Causeway. The advantage of the camp was that it had an easier access to the heliport, and was closer to the permanent water source of Zacatal, as well as being more remote from the major of the monumental architecture at the site.
New camp established at Nakbe features new and spacious tents provided by the dynamic Rotary International Club of Helston-Lizard, England. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The ancient city of Nakbe, as viewed from the summit of Danta pyramid at El Mirador. The largest building, at the right, is Str. 1, and the easternmost group of buildings, at the left, is dominated by the massive Str. 59. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Conservator Josue Guzman measuring the amount of erosion from the summit of Str. 1 since the project left in 1998. The erosion was due to the extensive presence of tourists at the summit without the necessary consolidation required to accommodate the tourism at the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The mapping marker left by the Inter-American Geodesical Survey group in 1968 had been flush with the ground surface. Now, nearly 5 cm of soil has washed away from the summit, indicating the need to adequately stabilize and consolidate the summit of the building in the face of increasing tourism to the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The extremely precarious back wall of Str. 27, Nakbe. The wall is near a point of collapse and is in desperate need of intervention. The building, the facades of which have been excavated previously by Dr. Richard Hansen and Dr. Donald Forsyth, had been damaged by looters previous to the first visit by Dr. Hansen in 1987, but recent heavy rains have now made conservation intervention an emergency priority. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Staff archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel surveying the architecture at Str. 103 in the Codex Group at Nakbe. The building had been partially stabilized by the Mirador Basin Project in the 1990’s (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Interior wall niches of the Late Classic building, Str. 103, in the Codex Group at Nakbe which had been excavated and consolidated by the Mirador Basin project in the 1990’s (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Mirador Basin conservators Enrique Monterroso Tun and Lic. Josue Guzman in the chamber excavated by Francisco Lopez in the 1990’s in the Codex Group at Nakbe. Note to the immediate right of Monterroso is a doorway that had been filled by the ancient Maya. The room was part of a residence of a codex-style scribe whose pottery has been found in private collections throughout the world. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Exposed stairway of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Archaeologist Balcarcel documenting the walls of the interior chamber of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The northern face of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe. This Late Classic building had only been partially stabilized before the project began work at other sites that were more threatened near the western and southern sides of the Basin. (Photo; R.D. Hansen).
Site conservator Josue Guzman at the base of the wall of Str. 200 in the Benson Plaza of the Coral Group at Nakbe. The wall had been stabilized and consolidated in 1996 by the Mirador Basin Project, and was still in good condition. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Conservators Enrique Monterroso Tun, Archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel, and Conservator Josue Guzman examining the excavated residential structure 203. The building was in need of additional conservation and stabilization, but had fared well over the 16 years of project absence at the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Mirador Basin Project staff examining the Middle Preclassic period ballcourt at Nakbe. This ballcourt, which had been partially excavated by Juan Luis Velasquez in the 1990’s shows the need for additional consolidation measures to stabilize the architecture and to prepare it for tourism. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Dr. Richard Hansen standing in one of the excavated quarries at Nakbe (Photo: Guzman).
The northern wall of Str. 502, a Middle Preclassic residential platform excavated by archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel in the 1990â€™s. This wall, one of the earliest platforms at the site, is in additional need of stabilization and consolidation. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Monument 8 at Nakbe, an extremely early monument believed to date to the late Middle Preclassic period was found to have been abandoned by park guards. The monument originally had a roof over it, but due to the lack of palm thatch, the guards simply removed the roof. Work in 2014 will place a polycarbonate roof over the monument for its permanent protection. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Analyses and Laboratory Investigations 2013 Isotopes. Analyses of several bone samples from burials from Nakbe and Tintal by Clayton Meredith of Idaho State University continued to identify evidence of diet in human bones from five burials dating to the Middle Preclassic, Early Classic and Late Classic periods. Meredith’s report is being published in one of the upcoming volumes of the archaeology of the Mirador Basin in 2014. As reported in the 2012 report, the isotope evidence indicates that most of the inhabitants had diets of maize (43.9%), dog (39.7%), and C-3 plants (16.3%). The ability to retrieve this data from the Mirador Basin burials indicates that it can identify, with greater reliability, dietary evidence of the original inhabitants. It is hoped that future technology will be able to further identify the C-3 plants that were being harvested and consumed by the inhabitants of the Mirador Basin. Microscopic Analyses of Projectile Points, Tigre.: ISU CAMAS laboratory 2013 Preliminary laboratory analyses were initiated at the Center for Archaeology, Materials, and Applied Spectoscopy (CAMAS) laboratory at Idaho State University, conducted by Dr. John Dudgen. Dudgen and staff technicians were examining projectile points recovered from the upper platform of the Tigre Pyramid in the lab’s electron microscopes, which proved to be an extremely tedious and lengthy process. Although preliminary evidence indicated the possible presence of human blood cells on some points, as well as what appeared to be small traces of human tissue, the results were too tenuous to be considered reliable at this stage with the present technology. The points were returned to FARES and to the Project Laboratory in Guatemala City to await refinements in the technology that would allow more successful identification of the proteins and residues on the punts.
Dr. John Dudgeon examining the projectile points from the Tigre Pyramid with an electron microscope in the CAMAS laboratory at ISU. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Identification of organic residues (depicted in blue) on the projectile points from the summit of Tigre pyramid. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). PXRF Analyses of Obsidian, BYU Laboratories During the 2013 season, PXRF analyses were conducted on points from the summit of Tigre pyramid at the Geology and Geochemistry laboratories at Brigham Young University. The study was conducted by BYU Geo-lab technician Aubrey Longhurst, under the supervision of BYU Professor of Geochemistry, Dr. Steven Nelson. The study did detect sharp elemental distinctions in the points, which will allow positive identification of the sources of the obsidian. Analyst Fred Nelson at BYU had previously conducted XRF studies for Dr. Hansen, and discovered that all of the obsidian recovered on the summit of Tigre pyramid had sources from Highland Mexico, including the obsidian sources at Pachuca, Otumba, Paredon, and Zaragoza. It is believed that the remainder of the several hundred points will demonstrate a similar sourcing.
Geochemistry lab technician Aubrey Longhurst conducted the analysis of the obsidian points from the summit of Tigre pyramid in the laboratories of the Department of Geology under the supervision of Professor Steven Nelson. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
The portable (potentially hand held) XRF machine which analyzed the obsidian from Tigre pyramid (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Trace element readings of the XRF machine indicated strong variations as well as similarities in the chemical composition of the obsidian points, suggesting both common and varied sources of obsidian. Comparative analyses are currently underway to identify the precise sources of the obsidian (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
Identification of Protein Residues, Projectile Points: Paleo Research Institute 2013 Analyses began at the Paleo Research Institute of Colorado in 2013 with the purpose of identifying evidence of proteins on the projectile points recovered from the summit of Tigre pyramid. The protein residues were definitely found on 28 the points, and contextual evaluations are currently underway for more accurate understanding of the nature of the proteins. The analyses are supervised by Dr. Linda Cummings with assistance from Jenny Milligan and the results will be forthcoming in the 2014 year. Carbon-14 Analyses: Beta Analytic 2013 Analyses of charcoal and bone were conducted by the laboratories of Beta Analytic, in Coral Gables, Florida with an additional 37 carbon dates extracted from the materials. One of the more surprising series of dates came from a series of burned posts in postholes carved in bedrock, which consistently yielded dates between 2600 and 2400 B.C. This data matches perfectly with that found by Wahl, Schreiner, and Hansen in the Puerto Arturo and Chuntuqui lake bottom cores. These cores consistently revealed the presence of corn by about 2600 B.C., but until now, there was no evidence of their location due to the fact that these were preceramic populations. It is possible, and now, apparently likely, that the earliest occupations of the Maya will be found under large Middle Preclassic platforms and constructions due to the fact that subsequent populations, particularly those in the Late Preclassic period, dramatically altered their landscape due to extensive quarry and fill activity. Neutron Activation of Ceramics. Studies of neutron activation sherds are being conducted by Dr. Ron Bishop, Dr. Dorie Reents-Budet, and Dr. Erin Sears with the Smithsonian Institution. The sampling of a larger data base including ceramics from a wide range of geographical sites and chronological periods will provide data relevant to the interactions between primary sites at various periods of time. It is believed that these studies will finish by end of 2013, and the results presented in 2014. Photographic Type Collection of Ceramics, Mirador Basin The Mirador Basin Project has initiated a Project to digitally photograph all samples extracted from the excavation lots for type collections, providing the first photographic type collection of ceramics in history. The photographic ceramic type collection, which will be made available to all interested scholars and institutions upon completion, will contain detailed information of the provenience of the samples, the ceramic Group, type, and variety of the sampled ceramics, and thus allow a comparative samples much easier to deal with while in the field or at a location away from the actual type collections. This project, initiated by Dr. Richard Hansen, is being conducted by Lic. Gustavo Martinez and Licda. Maria Anaite Ordoñez and is expected to complement the extensive work by Dr. Donald W. Forsyth (BYU) on the ceramics of the Mirador Basin.
Publications, Project Papers, and Technical Reports 2013 Argyle, J. Craig 2013 Continuacion de las excavaciones en la Estructura 316, Adyacente a la Calzada: Operaciones 316 A y 610 X. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐ Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 19-‐32. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Balcarcel-Villagran, Beatriz 2013a Gran Acropolis Central, Grupo Balam, Estructuras 313, 314, y 314, Temporada 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 139-‐156. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013b La importancia de la educación en comunidades rurales, Temporada de campo 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 531-‐534. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Balcarcel-Villagran, Beatriz, Gustavo Martinez-Hidalgo, y Richard D. Hansen 2013 La evidencia cotidiana preclásica atraves de datos cerámicos: Una Perspectiva de la Cuenca Mirador-‐Calakmul del Norte del Peten. Conference in Campeche, XXIII Encuentro Internacional “Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya” Vida Cotiana, 2013. Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico. Nov. 4-‐9, 2013. Bustamante, Eduardo 2013 Excavaciones en las inmediaciones del panel de estuco y sistema hidraulico: Operaciones 316B, 610AA, y 610AB. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 33-‐44. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Callen, Danilo 2013 Programa de monitoreo y conservación, Informe de actividades Temporada 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 535-‐550. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Garcia-Valdez, Josue R.
2013 Excavaciones en la Gran Acropolis Central asociada a los sistemas de control y uso hidrico y ritual, Fachada Este, Estructura 316 y Calzada Este, Estructura 310. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 45-‐ 62. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Guenter, Stanley Paul 2013a La Corte Real de los K’uhul Chatan Winik: Recuperando Información de la Cerámica Estilo Códice. Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 23 July 2013. 2013b First Words and First Kings: The Epigraphy of the Preclassic. The World of the First Ahaws, 20th Annual Precolumbian Society of Washington, D.C. Symposium, Washington, D.C. Sept. 7, 2013. 2013c Mil años de historia de las capitals del Reino Serpiente. VI Convención Mundial de la Arqueología Maya. Guatemala City. Guzman, Josúe Leonardo, Lisa Sardegna, Marco Tulio Ical Bo, Arnoldo Che Ical, Bartolo Yat Pop. 2013 Mantenimiento, medidas de conservación y estabilización en el sitio arqueológico El Mirador. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 453-‐480. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Hansen, Richard D. 2013a The Mirador Basin: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Lecture at the Institute for Maya Studies (IMS), Miami, Florida. Jan. 16, 2013. 2013 b. Discovering the Lost Cities of Mirador. Paper presented at the Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Organized by Doe Stowell y la Asociacion de Residentes de Puerto Aventuras, Mexico. 14 February 2013. 2013c. El Legado Cultural y Natural del Reino Kan. Paper presented to university students at Colegio Mayaland, Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 15 February 2013. 2013d. The Mirador Basin: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Paper sponsored by the International Rotary Club, Puerto Aventuras, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 17 February 2013. 2013e. Salvando la Cuna de la Civilizacion Maya. Keynote address at the inauguration of the Centro de Investigacion y Educacion Medica, CIEM Medical Center, Guatemala City, 28 February 2013.
2013 f. The Kan Kingdom: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Presentation to staff of National Geographic Society, Washington D.C. 16 May 2013.
2013g La Operación 610W, Informe de la Temporada de Campo 2012. In In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 109-‐ 118. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013 h The Dialogue of Civilizations: The Model of the Origins, Dynamics, and Collapse of a Complex Society from a Cradle of Maya Civilization in Northern Guatemala. Paper presented at the Conference Dialogo de las Civilizaciones: El Pasado como una Ventana al Futuro, organized by Richard D. Hansen, Luis Fernando Andrade, Christopher Thornton, and Fred Hieber; National Geographic Society, Government of Guatemala, InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB), Hotel Tikal Futura, 17 April 2013. 2013 i. Los Origines de la Civilizacion Maya. Keynote presentation at the Central American Congress of the Rotary Club, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. 8 June 2013. 2013 j Asentamiento y proceso cultural y natural en la Cuenca Mirador: Ciudades Milenarias en la Cuna de la Civilización Maya. Paper presented at the VI Convencion Mundial de Arqueologia Maya, 2013. Universidad Francisco Marroquin, Guatemala. 15 June 2013. 2013k Archaeological and Environmental Perspectives of the World of the First Ahaws. Abstract and keynote address at the conference, The World of the First Ahaws, U.S. Naval Memorial and Naval Heritage Center, Washington, D.C. Pre-‐Columbian Society of Washington D.C. Sept. 7, 2013. 2013L La Sociedad Maya Preclásica y la Naturaleza: Perspectivas de la Relacion Exitosa y el Fracaso en la Cuenca Mirador-‐Calakmul. Paper presented at the “Coloquio: La Relación Sociedad-Naturaleza Entre Los Mayas.” Festival Internacional de la Cultural Maya, Merida, Mexico, Conference 17-‐20 October, 2013. 2013 m. La Arqueologia de la Cuenca Mirador. Paper presented at the Museo Popol Vuh, Universidad de Francisco Marroquin, 21 Nov. 2013. Hansen, Richard D. and Edgar Suyuc-Ley 2013a Introduction. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐ Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 1-‐18. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013 b. Nuevos Datos de las Investigaciones del Proyecto Arqueologico Cuenca Mirador, La Temporada 2012. Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 26 July 2013.
Hansen, Richard D., Edgar Suyuc, y Fenella French 2013 Cubiertas Protectoras: El Caso de la Cuenca Mirador, Guatemala. Paper presented at the III Taller de Diseño de Cubiertas para la Protección Arqueológica, organized by Norma Barbacci (World Monuments Fund), Rosa Maria Chan (Viceminister of Culture), and Barbara Arroyo (Coordinadora Kaminaljuyu). Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 28-‐29 Octubre, 2013. Hansen, Richard D., Edgar Suyuc, Hector Mejia, Julio Cotom, Enrique Hernandez, Josue Garcia, Laura Velasquez, y Carlos Morales-Aguilar 2013 Observaciones del Saqueo en la Cuenca Mirador: La Intensidad de una Industria Ilicita y Retos para la Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural y Natural. Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 24 July 2013. Hernandez, Enrique y Thomas Schreiner 2013 Excavaciones preliminares en la Calzada La Muerta-‐El Mirador. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 313-‐-‐ 340. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Hernandez, Enrique, Thomas Schreiner y Carlos Morales-Aguilar 2013 Uso publico, uso privado y mitos asociados a las calzadas y sacbeob de El Mirador. In XXVI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueologicas en Guatemala, Vol. 2, edited by Barbara Arroyo and Luis Mendez Salinas, pp. 939-‐950. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Asociacion Tikal. Johnston, Kevin J. 2013 Buscando “Asentamientos No Visibles” en El Mirador: Excavaciones en las Operaciones 112B, 112C, 112D, 112E, y 112G. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 287-‐312. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Llorente, Maria Pilar V. 2013 Temporada de campo 2012, Operación 610S ampliación. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 95-‐108. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Lopez, Francisco y Sheryl Carcuz 2013 Investigaciones arqueológicas en el complejo acropolis Danta: Tercera Plataforma. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 263-‐274. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de
Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Martinez-Hidalgo, Gustavo 2013a Informe Final de las Operaciones 610V ampliación, y 316 D de la temporada de campo 2012 en el sitio El Mirador. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 63-‐82. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013 b Operaciones 204P, 204 HC y 204 H-‐R de la temporada de campo 2012 en el sitio El Mirador. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 1177-‐182. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Mauricio-Martinez, Douglas y Carlos Morales-Aguilar 2013 Reconocimiento y mapeo en los sectores Oeste (Asentamiento Los Pericos, Calzadas 4 y 5) y Este (Grupo Loro Real) de El Mirador, Peten: Temporada de campo 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 341-‐384. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Mejia, Hector E. 2013 Excavaciones en la Estructura 316: Operación 316F. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 83-‐94. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Mejia, Hector E. y Laura Velasquez 2013 Representaciones cosmogónicas en la planificación urbana de El Mirador, Peten, Guatemala. In XXVI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueolóigicas en Guatemala, 2012, editado por Barbara Arroyo y Luis Mendez Salinas, pp. 459-‐470. Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Asociacion Tikal, Guatemala Monterroso-Tun, Enrique 2013 Unidad de conservación en arquitectura y estucos. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 385-‐452. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Morales-Aguilar, Carlos
2013 Viviendo entre las ruinas: el Area Central de El Mirador, Peten, Guatemala, durante el Período Clasico Tardío. In XXVI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueologicas en Guatemala, Vol. 2, edited by Barbara Arroyo and Luis Mendez Salinas, pp. 773-‐786. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Asociacion Tikal. Morales Aguilar, Carlos y Julien Hiquet 2013 Naachtun y su contexto regional durante el Clasico Temprano. IX Contreso Internacional de Mayistas, Campeche, Mexico, 24 Junio 2013. Ordoñez, Maria Anaite 2013 Las Representaciones Artísticas de Flora y Fauna en los Artefactos Arqueológicos de la Cuenca Mirador, Peten, Guatemala. Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 23 July 2013. Ortega, Edgar Rene 2013a Estructura 200, Grupo Cascabel, sitio arqueologico El Mirador, Peten. Informe final, Temporada de campo 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 167-‐177. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013b Estructuras 4D3-‐4 y 4D3-‐2 del Grupo Tigre, sitio arqueológico El Mirador, Peten. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 199-‐212. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Ortega, Edgar Rene y Enrique Hernandez 2013 Actividades de Campo 2011 durante la intervención arquitectónica en El Mirador: Muro Perimetral, Estructuras 4D3-‐2, 4D3-‐4 y 34 del Grupo Tigre. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 213-‐ 262. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Pozuelos, Adelzo 2013 Infraestructura, sitio arqueológico El Mirador, Peten, Guatemala. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 497-‐ 516. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Ramos, Carmen 2013 Nuevas investigaciones en la escalinata monumental del ingreso a la Gran Acropolis Central, El Mirador, Peten. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca
Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 119-‐138. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Rodens de Pozuelos, Vanessa. 2013 Los artefactos especiales de la Zona Cultural y Natural de la Cuenca Mirador, Peten: Temporada de campo 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 481-‐496. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Suyuc-Ley, Edgar 2013 Investigaciones en la acropolis triadica La Pava, Temporada 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 275-‐ 286. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Suyuc-Ley, Edgar, and Richard D. Hansen 2013 Conclusiones de la Temporada 2012. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 551-‐554. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Suyuc – Ley, Edgar y Richard D. Hansen 2013 El complejo piramidal La Danta: ejemplo del auge en El Mirador. In Millenary Maya Societies: Past Crises and Resilience, edited by M.-Charlotte Arnauld and Alain Breton, pp. 217-234. Electronic document, published online at Mesoweb: www.mesoweb.com/publications/MMS/14_Suyuc-Hansen.pdf. Suyuc-Ley, Edgar y Adelzo Pozuelos 2013 Pozos de Sondeo en el friso de la Gran Acropolis Central, El Mirador. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 517-‐ 530. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. Vazquez-Llorente, Maria Pilar y Richard D. Hansen 2013 Nuevo Hallazgo de iconografia preclasica en El Mirador: el Monumento 21. In XXVI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueolóigicas en Guatemala, 2012, editado por Barbara Arroyo y Luis Mendez Salinas, pp. 275-‐286. Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Asociacion Tikal, Guatemala. Velasquez-Fergusson, Maria Laura 2013 Estructura 4D3-‐1, Piramide El Tigre, El Mirador: Operaciones 01V y 01W. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012,
edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 183-‐ 198. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University. 2013 b El Patron Triadico: Contexto Urbano y Simbolismo. IX Congreso Internacional de Mayistas, Campeche, Mexico. 25 Junio, 2013. 2013c Juegos visuales o conceptuales: las variantes de los conjuntos de patrón triádico en El Mirador. In XXVI Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueologicas en Guatemala, Vol. 2, edited by Barbara Arroyo and Luis Mendez Salinas, pp. 951-‐960. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Asociacion Tikal. Warner, Addison 2013 Exploración e investigaciones del Chultun No. 17 en la porción central de El Mirador, Peten, Guatemala. In Investigaciones Arqueologicas en la Cuenca Mirador: Informe Final de la Temporada 2012, edited by Richard D. Hansen, Laura Velasquez-‐ Fergusson, and Edgar Suyuc-‐Ley, pp. 157-‐166. Report filed with the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Foundation for Anthropological Research & Environmental Studies, Idaho; Idaho State University.
Project conservator Lisa Sardegna and friends at El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).
FARES Financial Reports, 2013 Season F.A.R.E.S.
Profit and Loss Standard January through December 2013 Ordinary Income/Expense Income Book Sales Patronage Dividends Contributions Total Income Expense Donation-Global Heritage Found Donations-FARES Guatemala Field Programs Research expenses Honorarium Artists Field Program Directors Mapping Photography Scientific Analysis Scientific Research Arch. Research & Conservation Guatemalan Team Students Guatemalan Team Other Total Guatemalan Team Lab Research & Consulting Scientific Research - Other Total Scientific Research Research expenses - Other Total Research expenses Total Field Programs Field Support & Logistics Camp Staff Food Site Security Site Supplies Travel Helicopters
Cash Basis Jan - Dec '13
170.94 27.86 581,781.02 581,979.82 550.00 121,900.00
29,285.64 1,200.00 194.15 9,000.00 1,101.20 21,722.97
190,541.53 500.00 34,140.00 34,640.00 606.78 3,054.98 228,843.29 140.95 291,488.20 291,488.20 208.41 3,649.19 1,171.82 1,937.59 30,359.59
133 Â Other Travel Travel-Local Travel - Other Total Travel Total Field Support & Logistics Management & Administrative Advertising & Promotional Accounting Depreciation Insurance Insurance-Guatemala Insurance-U.S. Total Insurance Interest & Bank Charges Legal Office supplies Postage and shipping Rent Rent-Guatemala Total Rent Staff U.S. Staff Taxes - payroll SUTA ID wh FICA & med & fed wh Taxes - payroll - Other Total Taxes - payroll Total Staff Utilities Utilities-Guatemala Internet Telephone Total Utilities-Guatemala Utilities-U.S. Electricity Internet Propane Telephone Total Utilities-U.S. Total Utilities Total Management & Administrative Total Expense Net Ordinary Income Net Income
55,819.07 233.96 1,009.71 87,422.33 94,389.34 13,578.03 2,801.00 13,710.54 1,027.87 2,866.00 3,893.87 11,693.44 799.50 4,722.83 1,219.23 18,000.00 18,000.00 7,681.77 14.74 -14.00 1,145.89 70.18 1,216.81 8,898.58
6,897.97 501.02 7,398.99 1,165.10 432.45 701.45 5,987.41 8,286.41 15,685.40 95,002.42 603,329.96 -21,350.14 -21,350.14
Balance Sheet Standard As of December 31, 2013 ASSETS Current Assets Checking/Savings Fares-WF-checking 1251 Fares1-WF checking 6376 Fares Endowment Acct 9320 Total Checking/Savings Total Current Assets Fixed Assets Real estate-Guatemala Water Systems Vehicles Buildings Camp Equipment Office equipment Accumulated Depreciation Total Fixed Assets TOTAL ASSETS LIABILITIES & EQUITY Liabilities Long Term Liabilities Loan payable-Choate Loan payable-Francois Berger Loan payable - Richard Hansen Loan payable-Wells Fargo Bank Total Long Term Liabilities Total Liabilities Equity Net Assets Retained earnings Net Income Total Equity TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY
Cash Basis Dec 31, '13
-48.90 25,431.37 35.00 25,417.47 25,417.47 2,700.00 37,000.00 40,500.00 245,800.00 34,285.37 55,487.37 200,735.88 215,036.86 240,454.33
17,800.00 155,000.00 109,619.56 79,998.86 362,418.42 362,418.42 31,648.58 132,262.53 -21,350.14 121,964.09 240,454.33
F.A.R.E.S. GLOBAL HERITAGE FUND DONATION for 2013 January through December 2013 Date 1/7/13 4/26/13 7/3/13 12/30/13
GHF GHF GHF GHF
100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000
List of Operations 2013
Op. 113 A Op. 113B Op. 113C Op. 113 D Op. 113 E Op. 200L Op. 200 M Op. 204P Op. 204M Op. 204Q Op. 204R Op. 304 Op. 304 Central Op. 313Z Op. 313ZA Op. 313 ZB Op. 313 ZC Op. 314J Op. 314K Op. 314L
Mirador Basin Project Kevin Johnston Platform at men’s camp Kevin Johnston Invisible housemounds Kevin Johnston
John Pettit, Marissa Lynn Lopez John Pettit, Marissa Lynn Lopez
Cumbre, plataforma superior, Str. 200, Cuerpos sureste
Fachada , sure oeste, Str. 200
SW corner of Str. 204
front of wall
Wall, SE Corner, Str. 204
Summit excavations, Str. 204
Consolidation of Str. 304
Fachada norte del gran Acropolis
Main trench on east side of Str 313
Extension to north from 313 Z
Parte superior al sur del colapso de 313Z
Fachada Oeste de Str. 314
Esquina suroeste de Str. 314
Extension al norte de la fachada de Str. 314
Cistern Pits, Monos plaza Cistern pits, Monos plaza
Op, 400 YY Op. 400 AB Op. 406 C Op. 610 X
Cheryl Carcuz Cheryl Carcuz
Edgar Suyuc/Marissa Lopez Lower eastern façade, Pava
610 HH 610 ii 610 AC
E-‐W extension, 5 x 2 adjacent to Frieze 4.5 m to west, 11 x 1 m, then 2 x 6 to west Possible stairway on west of frieze
Excavations around tree removal
Pit for basal foundation for protective roof
Extension norte, fachada suroeste, Danta Southeast Corner, 3rd level, Danta
Op. 610 WW
Excavation of the lower eastern Frieze, Central Acropolis
Stanley Guenter John Pettit
Excavations the Grupo Venado, East of Danta pyramid
Tin 101 A
Francisco Lopez Thomas Schreiner
Francisco Lopez Thomas Schreiner
bottom of moat
Tin 101 D
Tin 102A Tin.200A
lower platform below Henequen pyramid
Lower platform below Henequen pyramid