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INVESTIGATION, CONSERVATION, AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIRADOR BASIN, GUATEMALA: A Summary of the Annual Activity of the Mirador Basin Project, 2013

The FARES Foundation, Global Heritage Fund, FARESGuatemala, Perenco, PACUNAM, Idaho State University, Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Morgan Family Foundation, APANAC, Selz Foundation, Kislak Foundation, Rosalinde & Arthur Gilbert Foundation, Wolf Creek Foundation, U.S. Department of the Interior-International Technical Assistance Program


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                               The  Selz  Foundation   INVESTIGATION, CONSERVATION, AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIRADOR BASIN, GUATEMALA: A Summary of the Annual Activity of the Mirador Basin Project, 2013 Table of Contents Table of Contents………………………………………….

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Acknowledgements…………………………………………

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Activities 2013………………………………………………

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Investigations and Conservation in the Mirador Cultural And Natural System: A Report on the 2013 Field Season……

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Introduction……………………………………………………..

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3   Scientific Investigations The Great Central Acropolis, 2013: Str.313, 314, and 315 ………………………………

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The Popol Vuh Frieze ……………..………………..

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Structures 304, Operation 304…………………………….. 70 Cascabel Group………………………………………………… Str. 200………………………………………………….

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Str. 204…………………………………………………..

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Str. 207…………………………………………………..

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Danta Complex…………………………………………………… 79 Invisible Structures………………………………………………. 82 Coral Snake House / Casa del Coral……………………………..

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Test Excavations…………………………………………………. 90 Literacy and Educational Programs……………………………… 92 INVESTIGATIONS IN TINTAL, 2013…………………………………. 97 PROTECTIVE ROOF STRUCTURE, EL MIRADOR 2013……………. 101 INVESTIGATIONS AT NAKBE, 2013………………………………..

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ANALYSES AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS……………… 119 Microscopic Analyses of Projectile Points, Tigre………

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PXRF Analyses of Obsidian, BYU Laboratories……….

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Identification Protein Residues, Proj. Points, Tigre……… 123 Carbon 14 Analyses…………………………………….

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Neutron Activation of Ceramics……………………….

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Photo Type Collection of Ceramics, Mirador Basin……

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Project Papers, Technical Reports, and Publications 2013….124 Financial Reports, 2013 Season…………………………… 132 List of Operations 2013………………………………….

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Acknowledgements The work conducted by the Mirador Basin Project during the 2013 year could not have been accomplished without the support of numerous institutions and individuals. We are extremely indebted to the Foundation for Anthropological Research and Environmental Studies (FARES). We are extremely appreciative of the Global Heritage Fund and its executive director Dr. Vince Michael, Stefaan Portmann-GHF Director of International Development, and Jeff Morgan, former director of GHF and current board member. We are also extremely appreciative of FARES-Guatemala, and its president Francois Berger-Dorion, Vice President Roberto Labbe, Treasurer Antonio Minondo, Director Nini Berger, and Vocal Pedro Barnoya. They have been exemplary in their support. We are appreciative of PACUNAM and its previous director Lic. Jose Pivarral and current director Marianne Hernandez, Perenco Oil and directors Antonio Minondo, Idaho State University, particularly President Arthur Vailas and Vice President Kent Tingey, Dean of the College of Arts and Letters, Dr. Kandi Turley-Ames, and Department of Anthropology Chair Dr. Paul Trawick, the U.S. Department of the Interior and the deputy director of the Office of International Technical Assitance Program Cynthia Perera, the Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala and director Lic. Oscar Mora, the Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes de Guatemala, and APANAC, the Selz Foundation and the Rotary Club of Pacifica, California. We are especially indebted to important individuals, including Kurt Vogt (Citi, HSBC), Kerry Arritt, Jody Hansen, Lee McCullough, Francois Berger, and Mel Gibson for their services on the FARES board. Josie Thompson, Stanley Guenter, Nina Coto, and Dr. Kevin Johnston did important work, planning, and research for the foundation. Important funding came from Linda Pierce, Joanna Miller, Robert Berry, the Alfredo Vila Family, the Carlos Abraham family of Merida, Pedro Aguirre, Diego Arzu, Maria Odette Arzu and family, Wallace Armes, Jim Bader, Scott Baker, Keith Ballard, Marta Barger & Richard B. Barth, Sharon Lee Belkin, Richard and Iris Ballew, Gary Beletsky, Julius and Millie Bendat, Andy and Annie Bleggi, Diann Boehm, Javier Bonilla, Carol W. Casey, Art Cassanos, Eunice Childs, Clayton Cook, Ezequiel Cortez, Nina Coto, J. Stanton Curry, the late John and Marlys Cybulski, Richard and Sally Dawson, Francois DuBois, Paul and Kathy Duncan, Audrey Keller Dyer, George Fery, William and Lynda Folan, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, John Dyer, Mark Gibian & Marcy Rosewater, Betty Guggolz, John and Pat Hansen Anthony Hick, Ken Hitz, Robin Hylton, Institute of Maya Studies, Joshua F. Jones, Yoon Kang, Jay I. Kislak, Jonathan Layton, James Luceno, Cynthia Luce, John Maniscalco, Lisa Marie, Ruben G. Mendoza, Sherry Miller, M. Groot Nibbelink, Jonathan Ojinage, Beatriz Padilla, Judy Perlstein, Robert J. & Molly V. Pettit, Walter Jack Pettit, Stephen Ratto, Kathleen Rollins, Ann Ruffer, Iris Ruiz, Mario Sandoval, Lisa Sardegna and David Carillo, Mario Sandoval, John Schwandke, Bernard Selz, The Selz Foundation, Joel M. Skidmore, Brent L. Sohngen, Hiram L. Smith, Victoria Salter, the Harry and Roberta Salter Foundation, David and Deborah Sheets, Gregory and Flo Silver, Hiram Smith, Doe Stowell, John J. And Margaret M. Sullivan, William Taylor, Janice Van Cleve, Marian Walker, Elizabeth M. Welty, Roger and Nancy M. Williams, Brian Walker, Christian and Holly Walker, Addison R. Warner, Bob Woods, Kathleen Rollins, Brian E. Walker, J. Marlan and Colleen Walker, Elizabeth Welty, Gary Whitely, Terry and Barbara Young, and several anonymous donors who have made an economic and moral support of the project. We are especially appreciative to our families for their sacrifices and hardships that were incurred because of the Project. We are also appreciative of all Project staff members who worked tirelessly in the field and in the laboratory to contribute to the knowledge of the cultural and natural systems that arose and exist in the Mirador Basin. Thank you to all of you.


 

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Guatemalan Project Staff of the Mirador Basin

ACTIVITIES 2013 The Mirador Basin Project had a full agenda during the 2013 year, resulting in extensive travel, new and innovative ideas, and the implementation of important conservation procedures. In addition, new information relevant to the origins, dynamics, and collapse of ancient Maya civilization was recovered from the sites of El Mirador, Tintal, and Nakbe, including data on the environmental context in which ancient Maya civilization flourished, and the conditions in which it collapsed within the Mirador Basin. In addition, during 2013, the Project released the first of a series of published volumes on the insects of the Mirador Basin, which has received international praise. The combined, multi-disciplinary fieldwork has resulted in increased attention from national and international groups interested in participating in some way in the research, conservation, and development of the Basin. Former President of Guatemala and current mayor of Guatemala City, President Alvaro Arzu, convened a special meeting with all the heads of the different parties in the Guatemalan Congress with a PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Richard Hansen so as to inform the congressional delegations about the remarkable potential that the Mirador Basin has for the long term and permanent development of the country. The surprise visit of the Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti, in July 2013 at El Mirador further brought attention to the government about the need for protective measures and for basic infrastructure for tourism such as bathrooms, showers, and informational systems. Project members presented numerous scientific papers at conferences throughout the world, providing important data and presentations about the Mirador Basin. The Project has maintained a fully operating lab and crew in Guatemala City throughout the year to process the thousands of artifacts recovered during the field seasons at Tintal and El Mirador in 2013. A


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summary of the annual activities of the foundation is noted here with an additional report on the field season to provide the reader with the scope and scale of the investigations. A special thank you to all who have made it possible. FARES Director Kurt Vogt has moved from his position in Citibank to HSBC Bank as the Managing Director, Head of CMB Collaboration and Capital Financing. His responsibilities include growing the capital financing business of the bank with commercial bank clients throughout Latin America. The FARES Board and the Mirador Basin Project are thrilled at this new opportunity, and we look forward to working with Kurt in the years to come. Kurt also entered into a Masters’ program at Columbia University in Sustainability Management, and has already taken clases in applying macro and micro economic concepts to environmental sustainability issues. This type of knowledge is sorely needed today and Kurt’s education will provide important guidance for FARES and the Mirador Basin Project.

HSBC Managing Director of CMB Collaboration, Kurt Vogt began his Master’s Degree program at Columbia University (Photo: K. Vogt). On January 16, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at the Institute of Maya Studies at Miami, organized by Marta Barber. The presentation on the Mirador Basin was well attended and generated numerous questions from the audience.


 

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Dr. Richard Hansen with Institute of Maya Studies President Rick Slazyk and Mr. George Fery of IMS who provided two full pallets of computers for the schools surrounding the Mirador Basin. Mr. Fery is the CEO of Escrap, Computers, Electronics, and Lamps Recyclers in Hialeah, Florida. The FARES Foundation and the Mirador Basin Project are extremely fortunate in having this type of support for the schools in the communities surrounding the Mirador Basin.

Computers provided by Mr. George Fery and the Institute of Maya Studies at Miami, and shipped to Idaho where they are being conditioned for Spanish programs. The computers will be taken to Guatemala in 2014.


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While in Miami, Dr. Hansen was invited to view the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables by Kislak curator Arthur Dunkelman. The Kislak Museum has some of the most remarkable Maya art, all of which had unfortunately been looted and smuggled to the U.S., but nevertheless, represents some of the finest Maya art in the world. A majority of the collection has been donated to the U.S. Library of Congress. This productive visit also generated interest from the Kislak Foundation in the conservation and protection of the Mirador Basin, and future collaboration between FARES and the Kislak Foundation will be a substantial benefit to Guatemala.

One of the remarkable pieces on display at the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables, Florida, which is one of the most unusual ceramic boxes known. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). In addition, the museum had several pieces from the Mirador Basin, including a codexstyle vase belonging to a known Mirador Basin lord named YoPaat Ba’laam, whose ceramics have been noted at Nakbe, Tintal, and numerous Codex-style vessels from the Mirador Basin, dating to between AD 680 and AD 740. Yopaat Ba’laam is noted to be an “ahaw”, and a ball player, but does not seem to have been an important king in the overall dynamics of Late Classic Maya interactions. This is consistent with the modest Late Classic populations that were residing among the ruins of the great Preclassic centers.


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One of several vessels from the Mirador Basin in the Kislak Museum in Coral Gables Forida, this Codex-style vessel bears the name of Yopaat Ba’laam, a Late Classic period lord whose ceramics have also been found at Nakbe and Tintal. On February 7, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at the annual gathering of the PAIZ foundation which was held at the Spanish Cultural Center in Antigua, Guatemala. Hansen had been invited at the request of Fernando Paiz, a prominent Guatemalan businessman and benefactor of the Mirador Basin project. On February 13 to 20, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was a featured speaker at several venues on the Riviera Maya, south of Cancun. Hansen, his wife Jody, and son Weston, were invited at the request of Doe Stowell, a prominent activist and socialite living in the wonderful resort area of Puerto Aventuras, Mexico.

Members of the organizing committee for the series of lectures on the Maya Riviera. L-R: author Tim Howard, Doe Stowell, Debbie Howard; R-L: Jody Hansen, Richard Hansen, and Doe’s daughter The Hansen’s had the privilege of staying with Tim and Debbie Howard in their beautiful home on the southern beaches of Puerto Aventuras. Howard is a prominent author, who has written extensively on economic activities of the U.S. government, particularly with the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac episodes of U.S. economic history. On February 14, Hansen had numerous interviews with radio, television, and journalists in anticipation of the lectures at the Colegio Mayaland (Spanish), and Playa del Carmen (English), which brought out large crowds to hear the updates on research in the Mirador Basin.


 

Flyyers and posters were placed throughout Cancun, Playa del Carmen, Akumal, and Puerto Aventuras.

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A group of students from Colegio Mayaland at Playa del Carmen, Mexico with Dr. Hansen after the presentation.

Hosts Tim and Debbie Howard at the site of Coba, Quintana Roo.


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On Feburary 22-4, 2013, project epigrapher Stanley Guenter presented a paper at the 10 Tulane Maya Symposium entitled Kaanal: The Snake Kingdom of the Classic Maya: Profiles in Continuity and Resilience. Stan presented a workshop and a paper entitled Royal Internment and Enduring Social Memory: The Archaeology of Burial 61 at El Peru-Waka’s Principal Public Shrine. th

On February 25 and 26, Dr. Hansen went to El Mirador with prominent Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, Dr. Arguesta, and Rodolfo Rodriguez. Jarquin, whose pharmaceutical company Agefinsa provides a substantial quantity of medical supplies to the hospitals and pharmacies of the country, was eager to see the site before the inauguration of the CIEM Medical tower building in Guatemala City.

Dr. Richard Hansen, Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, and Dr. Argueta on the summit of Danta pyramid. (Photo:


 

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Rodolfo Rodriquez, Dr. Argueta, and Fernando Jarquin at the base of Str. 204 in the Cascabel group at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). While there, they were greeted by a Korean film crew, supervised by Yoon Kang, a Korean film producer, photographer Lim Chul and a Korean writer who organized and directed a production of a Korean documentary on El Mirador which will be released late 2013 or early 2014. The remainder of the day was spent filming at the site.

Some of the Korean film crew for EBS television (Educational Broadcast Services) in South Korea at the base of the central summit structure of Danta pyramid. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). a On February 27 , Dr Richard Hansen went to the meeting of the Multi-sectorial Table (Mesa Multisectorial) to listen to the updating of the Master Plan for the Maya Biosphere.


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The event was held at the Hotel Casona del Lago and was moderated by Estuardo Secaira who extracted considerable discussion from all present. Teresita Chinchilla noted that a total of Q41,975,400 of “productos maderables” or wooden products had been taken from the Peten. On February 28, Dr. Richard Hansen presented the inaugural address at the opening of the Centro de Investigaciones y Education Mecia (CIEM) Medical Tower, located across from the Herrera Llerandi hospital in Zona 10. The building was commissioned by Guatemalan businessman Fernando Jarquin, is set to provide medical counseling, consulting offices, and medical supplies. The event was an outstanding gala with dignitaries, medical personnel, and supporters from throughout Guatemala, the U.S. and Canada.

Agefinsa CEO Fernando Jarquin and Dr. Richard Hansen at the inauguration of the Centro de Investigacion y Educacion Medica (Center for Medical Research and Education).


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The murals of the K’abel conference room have forest and the Preclassic triadic temple, resembling Tigre or Danta pyramids, on the walls. The Maya theme is present throughout the building.

Dr. Richard Hansen was the keynote speaker at the inauguration of the CIEM medical tower building in Guatemala City.


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The ribbon cutting by Fernando Jarquin and family members at the inauguration of the CIEM medical tower in Guatemala City

Prominent architects of Guatemala, Mario and Kiki Rocasemeño whose firm did the architectural work for the CIEM medical tower, with Dr. Hansen.


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On March 4, Guatemalan archaeologist Francisco Lopez arrived at the FARES offices in Idaho to continue the write up of the reports for the work done in 2012 on Danta pyramid. On March13-15, Dr. Richard Hansen and Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade from Guatemala flew to Washington DC with dignitaries from National Geographic, INGUAT, and other officials from the government of Guatemala to launch the Dialogue of Civilizations, a conference that Dr. Hansen and Ambassador Andrade had devised, proposed, and was accepted by National Geographic and the Inter-American Development Bank. The inaugural event took place at the Guatemalan Embassy in Washington, D.C., with extensive press coverage and many visitors. The concept of the Dialogue of Civilizations was designed to understand the factors that give rise to social, economic, and political complexity, the factors that maintain it, and the factors that can destroy it. These concepts were to be presented by scholars from each area of the five founding civilizations of the world, including China, India-Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Mesoamerica.

Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade- Co-organizer of the Dialogue of Civilizations, National Geographic Executive Vice President Terry Garcia, INGUAT Sub-Director Maru Acevedo, Andrew Morrison of the Inter-American Development Bank (sponsor), Dr. Richard Hansenfounder and co-organizer of the event, and Dr. Christopher Thornton-National Geographic Research at the launching of the Dialogue of Civilizations conference, in a special ceremony in Washington, D.C. On March 16-March 31, Dr. Kevin Johnston came to Idaho to continue his work as an advisor, work on reports, and work with the assimilation and publication of materials for the Mirador Basin Project. Dr. Johnston also began to compile the data of the work of a Carbontrading proposal that was requested from FARES by several large companies in the Middle East. On March 20, Dr. Ray Matheny was honored at Brigham Young University for his contributions over decades of research and student supervision. The “festschrift” consisted of


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a series of coordinated events including presentations related to the archaeology of Utah, presentations on projects outside of Utah, a keynote address by Dr. Matheny, and an undergraduate poster session and a reception for Dr. Matheny and the numerous students and acquaintances that came to the event, held in the JFSB Building on the BYU campus. A formal volume, entitled “An Archaeological Legacy: Essays in honor of Ray T. Matheny” was edited by Deanne G. Matheny, Joel C. Janetski, and Glenna Nielsen, and published by the Museum of Peoples and Cultures at Brigham Young University Press, Occasional Paper No. 18. A total of 16 chapters were included in the volume, but papers on Mesoamerica within the book include essays by John E. Clark “Olmec Gods: Perspectives, Problems, and Proposals”, Deanne G. Matheny and Suzanna M. Ekholm “The Stuccoed and Painted Ceramic Vessels from the Northwest Plaza Burials of Lagartero, Chiapas, Mexico”; Donald W. Forsyth “The Preclassic Occupation of Southwestern Campeche”, and Richard D. Hansen’s “The Beginning of the End: Conspicuous Consumption and Environmental Impact of the Preclassic Lowland Maya.” Each of these papers is a significant contribution and has data relevant to Preclassic societies of Mesoamerica and/or the Mirador Basin. Interested individuals can contact with the Museum of Peoples and Cultures at BYU in Provo, Utah, or contact the FARES offices in Idaho.

Some of the former students of Ray Matheny at the reception held in his honor on March 20, 2013. Dr. Matheny is flanked by his wife Deanne (on his right) and Glenna Nielsen and Dr. Richard Hansen on his left. A memorial volume was produced in his honor. Also, on March 20, Dr. Hansen flew to Guatemala to meet with officials at INGUAT for the planning and execution of the Dialogue of Civilizations conference and to discuss the planning of the tourist infrastructure to be built at El Mirador. INGUAT has accepted the


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opportunity to match a fund proposed by the Morgan Family Foundation for the placement of toilet facilities at El Mirador for tourists, and plans were submitted to the government by three separate Guatemalan architects for selection and approval. The plans submitted by Adelzo Pozuelos, staff architect with the Mirador Basin Project, were ultimately selected by the INGUAT committee over two other professional architecture firms due to their practicality and functionality in remote and isolated conditions. Excavations will begin on the facilities during the 2013 field season, which will require a large cisterns and water collection facilities (roof collections) since the toilets will have flush systems and septic tanks. In April 15-17, 2013, Guatemala hosted the Dialogue of Civilizations, a program that was created by Dr. Richard Hansen and Ambassador Luis Fernando Andrade, and sponsored by National Geographic and the Inter-American Development Bank. More than 1000 people per day attended the conference with scholars representing the five founding civilizations of the world. The conference was an extraordinary success, with presentations in English and in Spanish. INGUAT had also prepared excursions for participants to see the Highlands and Tikal, which allowed great opportunity to interact and socialize with scholars working in other areas of the world, but wrestling with many of the same questions and issues regarding the rise the demise of civilizations. As a result of the success, Turkey has agreed to host a follow up program in 2014.

Lunes 15 de abril 08:00 a 09:00 Inauguración Sr. Pedro Pablo Duchez, Director de INGUAT Sr. Tomás Calvo, Nim Winaq de la Alcaldía Indígena y Ancestral de Santo Tomás Chichicastenango.

Sr. Pablo Roldán, Representante del BID en Guatemala Sr. Terry García Presidente de Programas de Misiones y Concesiones Ejecutivas para National Geographic Society (NGS).

Martes 16 de abril 09:00 a 10:50 Civilización EGIPCIA 09:00 a 09:40 Dr. Ramadan Hussein 09:40 a 10:20 Dr. Renee Friedman 10:20 a 10:50 Discusión: Dr. Fabio Amador (NGS)

10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio

Sr. Otto Pérez Molina, Presidente de la República de Guatemala.

11:15 a 13:00 Civilización MAYA

09:00 a 10:50 Civilización CHINA

11:15 a 11:55 Dra. Bárbara Arroyo 11:55 a 12:35 M.A. Tomás Barrientos 12:35 a 13:00 Discusión: Dr. Edgar Carpio

09:00 a 09:40 Dr. Dorian Fuller 09:40 a 10:20 Dr. LI Xinwei 10:20 a 10:50 Discusión: M.A. Liwy Grazioso

13:00 a 14:00 RECESO

10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio

14:30 a 16:00 Panel Cultura Maya Viva

11:15 a 13:00 Civilización MESOPOTAMIA

“Experiencias exitosas en turismo comunitario en la Región del Mundo Maya”

11:15 a 11:55 Dra. Augusta McMahon 11:55 a 12:35 Dr. Giorgio Buccellati 12:35 a 13:00 Discusión: Dr. Fred Hiebert (NGS)

13:00 a 14:00 RECESO

14:30 a 16:30 Civilización VALLE DEL INDO 14:30 a 15:10 Dr. Mark Kenoyer 15:10 a 15:50 Dr. Vasant Shinde 15:50 a 16:10 Discusión: Dr. Christopher Thornton (NGS)

16:10 a 16:30 Refrigerio 16:30 a 17:30 Panelista Invitado Lic. Lolmay García “Movimiento de Revitalización e Idiomas Mayas”

El Salvador: Sr. Medardo Hipólito López, Ruta Nahuat Pipil Honduras: Sr. Inmar Díaz, Espectáculos Maya Copán Guatemala: Sr. Salvador Coché, Touroperador Viva Atitlán México: Sr. Freddy Nah, Red Ubeel Maya - Campeche Sr. Andrew Morrison, División de Género y Diversidad del BID, Washington, DC. USA.

16:00 a 16:30 Refrigerio 16:30 a 17:30 Panelista Invitado Lic. Narciso Cojtí “Contribuciones contemporáneas de los Mayas”

17:30 Muestra Gastronómica y Cultural de Egipto. Cortesía de la Embajada de Egipto en Guatemala.

The final program of the event.

Miércoles 17 de abril 09:00 a 10:50 Descubrimientos arqueológicos recientes en el Mundo Maya de Guatemala 09:00 a 09:30 09:30 a 10:00 10:00 a 10:30 10:30 a 10:50

El Mirador - Dr. Richard Hansen Perú-Waka´ - Lic. Juan Carlos Pérez La Corona - Dr. Marcello Canuto Discusión - Dr. Fabio Amador (NGS)

10:50 a 11:15 Refrigerio

11:15 a 13:30 El Diálogo de las Civilizaciones “Conclusiones, El pasado como una Ventana al Futuro”

Discusión: Dr. Chris Thornton, National Geographic Society y Dr. Fabio Amador

13:30 Cierre del evento


 

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Dr. Richard Hansen speaking at the conference, Dialogue of Civilizations (Photo: Evelyn Moran).

Dr. Ernest Arredondo (at podium) , Lic. Juan Carlos Perez, Dr. Richard Hansen, and Dr. Marcello Canuto at the conference (Photo: Evelyn Moran).


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The distinguished collection of scholars for a final discussion and questions from the audience (Photo: Glenda Rodriguez). April 18-20, Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter spoke on “The Lost Queen of Coba” at the Maya at the Lago Conference at Davidson Day School at Davidson, North Carolina, with a reference to the cluster of monuments at the site of Coba that refer to this enigmatic female ruler. On April 23, 2013, ex –President Alvaro Arzu convened a crucial meeting with all of the heads of the political parties in the Guatemalan congress for a presentation by Dr. Richard Hansen. Co-Director Edgar Suyuc was also present, as well as Maru Acevedo, sub-director of INGUAT. The meeting was held on the 7th Floor of the Municipal Building of Guatemala City. The purpose of the meeting was to inform the congressmen of the treasure of the Mirador Basin, and the factors that have to be considered in the long-term preservation of the area. The event was extraordinarily well received, and numerous members of the most influential members of the congress showed up to listen to President Arzu’s arguments for the defense and conservation of the Basin, which both preceded and followed Dr. Hansen’s presentation. Additional comments were provided by Diputado Manuel Barquin, Congressman from the Peten, and Diputado Roberto Alejos. Both men are and were members of the executive congressional Board of Directors of the Congress. Unanimous support for the conservation of the Basin was voiced by all 60+ members in attendance. After the congressional meeting, the ambassador of Taiwan to Guatemala, Adolfo Sun and his executive staff from the Taiwanese embassy invited Dr. Hansen and Edgar Suyuc to a special luncheon with archaeology student Marissa Lynn Lopez whose family was a special friend to Ambassador Sun to talk about future participation of Marissa in the archaeological program at El Mirador.


Former President of Guatemala and current, 3-term mayor of Guatemala City, with an impassioned speech for the wise development and conservation of the Mirador Basin.

Congressional members in attendance at Dr. Hansen’s presentation to the Congressional delegation in Guatemala City.

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Dr. Richard Hansen made the presentation about the Mirador Basin to the entire executive Leadership of the Guatemalan congress with President Alvaro Arzu.

Former president of the Congressional delegation, Diputado Roberto Alejos, commenting on the importance and need to act on the Mirador Basin initiative.


 

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Dr. Hansen with congressional members, President Alvaro Arzu, and Diputado Manuel Barquin at a special presentation convened by President Arzu in the Municipal Building of Guatemala City.

Co-Director Edgar Suyuc with family members of archaeology student. Marissa Lynn Lopez, Dr. Hansen, Ambassador of Taiwan Adolfo Sun, executive secretary for Taiwan Pablo Hui, and other members of the Taiwan embassy at a special luncheon in Guatemala City.


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April was also the launching for the first volume of the series of volumes in preparation by the Mirador Basin Project. The volume, entitled Mayab Yik’elil Kan, The Tropical Insects of the Ancient Kan Kingdom of Mesoamerica, was written by Jose Monzon and Dr. Jack C. Schuster of the Universidad del Valle, and edited by Richard Hansen and Edgar Suyuc. The book is written in both Spanish and English. The book represents the range of multidisciplinary work that the Mirador Basin Project and the FARES Foundation has financed and organized. The event, held at la Universidad del Valle in Guatemala City had the presence of numerous government officials, foreign ambassadors, and the interested public. Dr. Roberto Labbe, Vice President of FARES-Guatemala made the introductions, and presentations were made on behalf of Lic. Roberto Moreno, Chancellor of the Universidad del Valle who welcomed the crowd. Francois Berger presented the inauguration of the book, Dr. Richard Hansen provided the formal presentation of the volume, while Dr. Jack Schuster and Jose Monzon made the keynote presentations as the authors. Dr. Monica Stein, the Dean of the Institute of Research of the University del Valle closed the event. The book can be obtained on Amazon.com.

Cover of the first of the series of volumes on the Mirador Basin.


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Lic. Francois Berger conducted the inauguration of the Insect volume. Seated is the representative of the Rector of the University, Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Jack Schuster, Lic. Jose Monzon, and Dr. Monica Stein.

Nini Berger of Apanac and FARES, Pablo Hui of the Embassy of Taiwan, Coronel Carlos Estuardo Avendaño, commander of the Northern Guatemalan Air Force and Dr. Richard Hansen at the launching of the Mirador volume on insects.


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On May 16, Dr. Richard Hansen was the speaker at an executive staff meeting of National Geographic in Washington, D.C. This event was designed to inform the National Geographic television and magazine staff about the research being conducted in the Mirador Basin and to update the staff with the most recent discoveries. The event was organized and coordinated by Dr. Christopher Thornton, Program Officer for the Committee for Research and Exploration at Nat Geo. On June 6-9, 2013, Dr. Richard Hansen was flown to Guatemala by the Rotary Club of Huehuetenango, Guatemala to make keynote addresses at the International Convention of the Rotary Club, which was held in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Dr. Hansen was received in Guatemala City by Dr. Oscar Marroquin, a prominent pediatrician, and his wife Orquidia and driven through the Highlands of Guatemala to the city of Huehuetenango, where Dr. Hansen stayed with Dr. Julio Herrera and his wife, Mimi. On the evening of June 7, Dr. Hansen spoke to students from the DaVinci University in Huehuetenango, and the following morning, was the first speaker at the International Rotarian Club convention held at the Centro Municipal of the city and talked about the cultural and natural legacy of the Mirador Basin. Hansen received a standing ovation from all Rotarians present. The following speaker was Frank Devlyn, former World President of Rotary International, who gave an inspiring and uplifting address. However, much to Dr. Hansen’s surprise, Mr. Devlyn called Hansen to the podium, had him take the Rotary Oath, prepared and signed the papers on the spot, and had Hansen inducted officially into Rotary International, even giving Hansen the pin off his (Devlyn’s) own jacket. The next several days were conducted with major musical events, a formal gala ball, light shows, ancient ball game reenactments, fireworks displays, and prodigious feasts both in Huehuetenango and at the archaeological ruins of Zaculeu, an important Postclassic Maya city on the outskirts of town. In addition, Hansen received a personal tour of the Cuchumatanes Mountains by the Herrera family. Dr. Hansen considered his induction into the Rotary Club by the International President of Rotary as a great honor.

Dr. Hansen gave World President of Rotary International a copy of the Tropical Insects of the Mirador Basin volume at the ancient city of Zaculeu.


 

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Dr. Richard Hansen reciting the Rotary Club International oath as administered by Rotary International President Frank Devlyn at Huehuetenango, Guatemala, and witnessed by Presidents of clubs from throughout Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras.

Special reception held in honor of Frank Devlyn (right) and Dr. Richard Hansen (center) at the convention of Rotary International in Huehuetenango, Guatemala.


 

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Representatives of the Rotary Club International from the various chapters in Guatemala. Six countries were also represented in the convention.

Dr. Julio and Mimi Herrera at the ancient city of Zaculeu, located on the outskirts of Huehuetenango. The Herreras were the hosts at the Rotary convention.


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June 14, 15, and 16, 2013, was the excellent VI World Convention on Maya Archaeology, held at the Juan Bautista Gutierrez of the Universidad Francisco Marroquin. This event, organized by Rosendo Morales, was financed by Pacunam, Francisco Marroquin University, Cerveceria Centroamericana, Cementos Progreso, Grupo Occidente, Citi, Walmart, and Guate Vision. The theme was Millennial Cities of the Maya Jungles: Urbanism and Environment (Ciudades Milenarias de las Selvas Mayas: Urbanismo y Medio Ambiente). The event had spectacular folklore presentations, and participation with the audience by musicians, dancers, and Maya storytellers. Professor Cesar Castañeda spoke on “Maya Cities and the Environmental Impact During the Preclassic and Classic Periods in the Peten.” Dr. Richard Hansen spoke on “Settlement and the Cultural and Natural Process in the Mirador Basin.” Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter spoke on the captivating title “One Thousand Years of History: The Capitals of the Serpent Kingdom.”

Presenters and organizers of the VI World Congress on Maya Archaeology at Francisco Marroquin University.


 

Program for the VI World Convention on Maya Archaeology.

Dr. Richard Hansen spoke on the Maya settlements in the Mirador Basin and the cultural and natural dynamics associated with them.

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Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter gave an excellent presentation on the thousand years of history as recorded in the hieroglyphic texts about the Snake Kingdom.

PACUNAM President Jose Pivarral, gave the closing remarks at the conference.

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On June 28, 2013, Lic. Pedro Barnoya, one of the executive board members of FARES-Guatemala and Julio Meneses of the China-Guatemala committee invited Dr. Richard Hansen as a founding member of the China-Guatemala Chamber, which was formed as a legal entity in Guatemala. Both Barnoya and Meneses have long worked to develop ChinaGuatemala business and political relations, and they both organized the Guatemalan pavilion at the World Expo (World’s Fair) in Shanghai, China, in 2010. More than 5 million visitors came through the Pavilion, and Dr. Hansen was an invited speaker at a special forum on Cultural Heritage and Urban Regeneration (see the 2010 FARES Annual Report). By signing the proper papers, the China-Guatemala Chamber has become a legal formal entity in Guatemala. From June 24-28, the IX International Congress of Mayanists was held in Campeche, Mexico. Five members of the Mirador Basin Project presented papers: Maria Laura Velasquez-Fergusson, Carlos Morales Aguilar, Beatriz Balcarcel, Gustavo Martinez, and Richard Hansen. Laura presented a paper entitled “ El Patron Triadico: Contexto Urbano y simbolismo” (The Triadic Pattern: Urban Context and Symbolism). Carlos spoke on ”Naachtun y su Contexto Regional durante el Clasico Temprano” (Naachtun and its Regional Context during the Early Classic Period), with reference to the regional data that we have accumulated from the 51 sites that the Mirador Basin Project has investigated in the Basin.

This is the invitation from the government of Mexico for the grand opening of the art exhibit held at the Mexican embassy in Guatemala City on July5, 2013, with art produced by Beatriz Padilla at El Mirador. The exhibit was entitled “The Language of the Stones.” The unique technique, using prints from actual leaves from trees on the ruins, plus the actual footprints of


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Dr. Hansen, combined with images of the ruins and forest make the art most unusual. The exhibit lasted for two weeks at the embassy.

Mexican artist (Cuernavaca) Beatriz Padilla at work at El Mirador. Note the leaves and the paint stained footprints of Dr. Hansen on the canvas. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)

Beatriz Padilla painting a “moonlight on La Danta” canvas as seen from her vantage point tree house overlooking the upper plaza of the building. (Photo: Tony Portillo)


 

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One of the beautiful works by Beatriz Padilla and Mirador Basin archaeologist Francisco Lopez, showing the fragments from Codex-style ceramics recovered from archaeological excavations in the Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Mirador Basin staff at the art exhibit by Beatriz Padilla, which was opened at the Mexican embassy in Guatemala City (L-R. Architect Danilo Callen, Dr. Thomas Schreiner, artist Sharon Belkin, Dr. Richard Hansen, epigrapher Stanley Guenter, archaeologist Francisco Lopez, planner and map coordinator Josie Thompson, and archaeology student Pilar Vazquez Llorente).


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The art exhibit in the Mexican embassy was well received with numerous visitors and interested observers, which promoted the culture and nature of the Mirador Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). The month of July (July 22-26) celebrated the XXVII annual Symposium of Guatemalan Archaeology in Guatemala City with four papers presented (see Project Bibliography at the end of this report). Project epigrapher Stanley Guenter presented a fascinating paper on the “Royal Court of the K’uhul Chatan Winik (titles of the Lords in the Late Classic period in the Mirador Basin): Recovering information from the Codex-style Ceramics.” Maria Anaite Ordoñez presented a paper on the “Artistic Representations of Flora and Fauna in the Archaeological Artifacts recovered in the Mirador Basin, Peten” which synthesized much of her research conducted for her graduate thesis at San Carlos University. Dr. Richard Hansen, Edgar Suyuc, Hector Mejia, Julio Cotom, Enrique Hernandez, Josue Garcia, Laura Velasquez, and Carlos Morales-Aguilar presented a paper on “Observations on Looting in the Mirador Basin: The Intensity of an Illegal Industry and Challenges for the Conservation of the Cultural and Natural Heritage.” Dr. Richard Hansen and Edgar Suyuc presented a paper on “New Data from the Research of the Mirador Basin Archaeological Project: the 2012 Season.“


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Recent graduate of San Carlos University, Licda. Anaite Ordoñez presented a paper at the XVII Symposium of Maya Archaeology in Guatemala on the artistic representations of flora and fauna in artifacts from the Mirador Basin. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Stanley Guenter provided an important paper on Codex-style ceramics from the Mirador Basin.


 

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On July 27, the Mirador Basin Project received a surprise visit from the Vice President of the Republic of Guatemala, Vice President Roxana Baldetti. Vice President Baldetti arrived with her family to view the site and to seek information. The enjoyable experience was special in many ways, since Stefaan Portmann of the Global Heritage Fund also arrived to accompany the Vice-presidential entourage. The Vice President stated that she now had a much better view of the important and urgency of the conservation of the area, and that she considered herself extremely fortunate to have seen the site first hand.

The Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti, on Danta pyramid posing with several of the guards from FARES, IDAEH and CONAP. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

The Vice President with archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel, Dr. Richard Hansen, and staff artist (and daughter) Brianna Hansen on Str. 313. This building has been worked on by Beatriz Balcarcel for many years.


 

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Vice President Baldetti and her son, Luis Pedro, at the Popol Vuh frieze at El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Vice President Baldetti and her husband saw many of the cultural and natural marvels at the site, and engaged in extensive discussions and explanations of the importance of the area. (Photo: A. Pozuelos).


 

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Vice President of Guatemala, Roxana Baldetti with some of the CONAP, IDAEH and FARES guards at the site. These men were thrilled that the Vice President had an interest in the area that they were defending. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

From July through to September 2013, the Mirador Basin Project conducted excavations at Tintal and at El Mirador (see report by Hansen and Suyuc below). On July 30 however, the project hosted Dr. Brent Sohngen, Professor at Ohio State University in the Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics and a contributing and participating recipient of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Sohngen and his wife, Ann, came into the site as part of a fact finding program in anticipation of the studies required for a carbon-trading program in the Basin in which several world-wide companies have approached FARES to be the conduit for the participation in Carbon Trading or REDD program.


 

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Dr. Brent Sohngen, his wife Ann, and Dr. Hansen near the architectural mask on Str. 313 at El Mirador. Sohngen, part of the Nobel Prize winning group in 2007, is a world expert on carbon trading.

On September 5, Dr. Richard Hansen flew to Indianapolis to meet with prominent attorney, judge, and activist Greg Silver for a presentation with an interested group of businessmen, attorneys, and associates that he had organized. In addition, Judge Silver and Dr. Hansen met with Rob Smith, Chief Executive Officer of the Lilly Foundation, one of the most prestigious foundations in the U.S. for detailed talks about possible involvement of the foundation, which is an arm of a major industrial complex in the United States. This contact may be an important link in the long-term conservation of the Mirador Basin, and we look forward to future involvement with them in the future.


 

The luncheon meeting was arranged by Greg and Flo Silver with a group of prominent businessmen, attorneys, and associates in the Indianapolis area.

Dr. Richard Hansen, Judge Greg Silver, and CEO Rob Smith of the Lilly Foundation

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On September 6, Dr. Hansen flew to Washington D.C. to participate, host, and moderate in the conference entitled “The World of the First Ahaws”, which was organized by the PreColumbian Society of Washington, D.C. and their directorship, particularly Bill Puppa and Lucy Wilson as part of their 20 year anniversary celebration as a society. This conference, which was unprecedented in theme and scope for the Washington society, was moderated and hosted by Dr. Richard Hansen. The event was held at the U.S. Navy Memorial and Naval Heritage Center on 701 Pennsylvania Avenue. Speakers included David Anderson of Radford University/ Roanoke College, Barbara Arroyo of the Department of Prehispanic Monuments in Guatemala, Jaime Awe-director of the Belize Institute of Archaeology, Francisco EstradaBelli of Tulane University, Stanley Guenter of Idaho State University, and Richard Hansen of Idaho State University. Hansen’s paper was entitled “The Archaeological and Environmental Perspectives of the World of the First Ahaws” and Project member Stanley Guenter’s paper was “First Words and First Kings: The Epigraphy of the Preclassic Period in Maya History.” Hansen received Word at the conference from the University of Colorado Press that they would publish the results of the conference. To add to the papers, a total of 7 additional speakers and papers were added for the conference, which will provide a comprehensive understanding of the origins of Divine Maya kingship in the Lowlands. The title of the volume as agreed upon by the University of Colorado Press is “The First Lords: The Origins of Maya Divine Kingship” with papers by David Anderson, Francisco Estrada Belli, Barbara Arroyo, Vilma Fialko, William Saturno, Takeshi Inomata, Jaime Awe, Bruce R. Bachand, David Sedat, Christa Schieber, Miguel Orrego, Stanley Guenter, and Richard Hansen, Bill Puppa and Lucy Wilson.

The  World  of  the  First  Ahaws   a  one-­day  symposium  sponsored  by  

                                                                                                                         THE  PRE-­COLUMBIAN  SOCIETY  OFWASHINGTON,  D.C.  

                       Saturday,  September  7,  2013   U.S.  Navy  Memorial  &  Naval  Heritage  Center                                                                                  701  Pennsylvania  Avenue,  N.W.,  Washington,  D.C.     It  has  long  been  held  that  the  Preclassic  Period  (2000  BC  –  AD  250)  was  a  mere  precursor  to  the  full   flowering  of  Classic  Maya  culture.  However,  results  of  research  over  the  last  two  decades  at  sites  from  the   Pacific  coast  of  Guatemala  to  the  Yucatan  peninsula  and  Belize  are  forcing  a  new  appreciation  of  the  widespread   and  astonishing  precocity  of  the  Preclassic  Maya.  Amazing  architectural  structures;  large  urban   complexes;  monumental  sculpture;  stunning  art  and  iconography;  a  shared  cosmology;  and  complex   calendrics  and  hieroglyphic  writing  systems—once  considered  the  hallmarks  of  the  Classic  Period—are   turning  out  to  have  flourished  throughout  many  parts  of  the  PreclassicMaya  world.  Researchers  have  found   hard  evidence  for  the  emergence  of  kingly  leaders,  or  ahaws,  something  previously  thought  unimaginable  in   the  Preclassic,  and  they  have  even  begun  to  delineate  the  interactions  among  fledgling  polities.  Indeed,  it  can   be  argued  that  the  Preclassic  Period  was  the  first  fluorescence  of  the  Maya,  and  that  the  Mirador  Basin   was  home  to  the  first  true  state-­‐level  political  system  of  the  New  World.   In  richly  illustrated  presentations,  our  speakers  will  update  us  on  the  latest  developments  in  interpreting  this   seminal  period  in  Maya  development,  using  the  results  of  their  recent  archaeological  and  epigraphic  research.   The  issues  they  will  discuss  include  the  origins  and  attributes  of  Maya  polities  and  kingship;  the  association  of   public  architecture  with  the  calendar  and  cosmology;  the  evidence  of  epigraphy,  both   from  the  Preclassic  and  later;  developments  in  Belize  and  its  place  in  the  wider  Maya  world;   the  unique  developments  in  Yucatan;  and  the  evidence  for  the  interactions  in  Guatemala   that  made  this  period  so  dynamic.  Join  us  to  learn  more  about  the  Preclassic  Maya,  and  how  recent  research  is   providing  a  fresh,  more  nuanced  view  of  Maya  cultural  development  and  change;  challenging  the  traditional   understanding  of  the  Preclassic  Period;  and  raising  new  questions  about  the  Maya  and  the  crystallization  of  their   cultural  identity.   Participants1   David  S.  Anderson   Radford  University/Roanoke   College  


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Barbara  Arroyo   Departamento  de  Monumentos   Prehispánicos  y  Coloniales   Direcciόn  General  del  Patrimonio   Cultural  y  Natural,  Guatemala   Jaime  Awe   Director,  Belize  Institute  of   Archaeology   Francisco  Estrada-­Belli   Tulane  University   Stanley  Guenter   Idaho  State  University   Richard  Hansen   Idaho  State  University   PROGRAM  

8:15  a.m.  REGISTRATION,  Morning  Refreshments   9:00  a.m.  WELCOME  AND  OPENING  ANNOUNCEMENTS   9:15  a.m.  Archaeological  and  Environmental  Perspectives  of  the  World  of  the  First  Ahaws  .....................Richard   Hansen2   10:15  a.m.  BREAK   10:45  a.m.  The  Making  of  Maya  Civilization:  A  New  Perspective  from  Cival,  Peten,  Guatemala.....  Francisco  Estrada-­‐ Belli   11:35  a.m.  First  Words  and  First  Kings:  The  Epigraphy  of  the  Preclassic  Period  in  Maya  History  .................Stanley   Guenter   12:25  p.m.  LUNCH   1:45  p.m.  The  Genesis  of  Lowland  Maya  Civilization  in  the  Belize  River  Valley  .................................................Jaime  Awe   2:35  p.m.  A  View  from  the  Periphery:  On  the  Development  of  Cultural  Identity  in  Preclassic   Mesoamerica  ......................................................................................................................David  S.  Anderson   3:25  p.m.  BREAK   3:50  p.m.  The  Dynamic  Preclassic  in  the  Maya  Highlands:  Recent  Findings  from   Kaminaljuyu  ............................................................................................................................  Barbara  Arroyo   4:40  p.m.  BOOK-­‐DRAWING  BREAK   4:50  p.m.  Panel  Discussion  ...............................................................................................................................All  Speakers   6:00–9:00  p.m.  RECEPTION  at  TEAISM...............................................................................................(optional;  additional  fee)   1  The  Pre-­‐Columbian  Society  of  Washington,  D.C.,  reserves  the  right  to  substitute  symposium  participants  in  the  event  of  

unexpected  cancellations.   2  After  his  talk,  Dr.  Hansen  will  be  our  host  and  moderator.

Program for the 20th Anniversary celebration of the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington D.C. with the theme of The World of the First Lords (Ahaws), with Dr. Hansen as the host and moderator.


 

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World of the First Ahaw presenters at a panel discussion after the event. L-R: Dr. David Anderson, Stanley Guenter, Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Barbara Arroyo, Dr. Jaime Awe, Dr. Francisco Estrada-Belli. (Photo: Lucy Wilson).

The event in Washington with the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington, D.C. celebrated the 20 year (katun) anniversary of its founding. Eagerly awaiting the celebratory cake, which had an intricate image of the Preclassic masks from Group H at Uaxactun, was Dr. Richard Hansen, Dr. Barbara Arroyo, Dr. Francisco Estrada-Belli, Dr. Jaime Awe, and Dr. David Anderson. (Photo: Lucy Wilson).


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On October 2, the Global Heritage Fund celebrated its 10-year anniversary gala, held in Palo Alto, California. The event was well attended by the numerous sponsors, friends, and associates of the Global Heritage Fund. Global Heritage Fund has been exemplary in its protection and vision of site development as a mechanism for poverty alleviation. Their theme, “Preserving Heritage Globally, Changing Lives Locally” resonates well with government officials and businessmen. All to frequently, important world-class archaeological sites are destroyed, and Global Heritage Fund is one of the few institutions in the world that really cares and is actively seeking to protect these unique resources. The Global Heritage Fund is the largest single contributor to the Mirador Basin Project and the FARES Foundation. To them, much credit and recognition for their outstanding service and record for the investigation, conservation, and protection of the Mirador Basin.

New executive director of the Global Heritage Fund, Dr. Vincent L. Michael, provided the opening remarks at the GHF 10 Year Anniversary Gala. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)


 

Judy Koch, Honorary Trustee of the Global Heritage Fund read a moving tribute to outgoing executive director and founder of the Global Heritage Fund, Jeff Morgan. .

Tony Wheeler, Founder of the Lonely Planet Travel Guide and GHF Board member gave the keynote address at the 10th Year Anniversary of the Global Heritage Fund.

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The GHF event in Palo Alto generated a moving tribute to the 10 years of active conservation of cultural sites throughout the world.

The GHF gala 10 year anniversary event in Palo Alto, California, with Dr. Richard Hansen, Julian Morgan, Jeff Morgan, and John Swift.


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On October 16-22, 2013, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico celebrated the Festival Internacional de la Cultura Maya with a special four day conference entitled “Relacion sociedad-naturaleza entre los Mayas” (The Societal-Environment Relationship of the Maya), which was held in the new Gran Museo del Mundo Maya de Merida. This impressive new museum had the inaugural address by David Stuart, entitled “Earth-Cave and Heaven-Cave: Concepts of Territory and Cosmology in Ancient Maya Landscapes.” (Tierra-Cueva y CieloCueva: Conceptos del territorio y cosmologia en el paisaje maya antiguo). Three subsequent days of fascinating papers were presented, with papers by Galina Ershova, Dr. Erik Velasquez, Guillermo Bernal, Jesus Galindo, Susan Milbrath, Oswaldo Chinchilla, Barbara Arroyo, Doninique Michelet, Eva Lemonnier, Boris Vanniere, Lydie Dussol, Ernesto Vargas, Geoffery Braswell, Alexander Vos, Adrian Maldonado, Jeff Kowalski, Alfredo Barrera, Scott Johnson, Peter Schmidt, Francisco Perez, Maria Rocio Gonzalez, Jose Osorio Leon, Ruben Maldonado, Marilyn Masson, Carlos Peraza, Timothy S. Hare, Antonio Benavides, Lourdes Marquez, John F. Chuchiak IV, Gabriel Bourdin, Ramon Arzapalo, Mario Humberto Ruiz, Laura Elena Sotelo, Ella F.Quintal, Michele Bocara, and Fidencio Briceño Chel, and Richard Hansen. Hansen’s paper was entitled “La sociedad Maya Preclasica y la Naturaleza: Perspectivas de la Relacion Exitosa y el Fracaso en la Cuenca Mirador-Calakmul.” (“Preclassic Maya Society and the Environment: Perspectives of Successful Relationships and Failures in the MiradorCalakmul Basin.” The conference hall was heavily attended and numerous favorable comments were received and noted. According to Dr. Hansen, one of the most fascinating papers was presented by Dr. John Chuchiak of the University of Missouri, who provided a detailed account of the consequences of colonial tribute systems on nutrition of the Maya. Chuchiak scoured countless colonial documents to recover data showing the detailed effects of the Spanish conquest, Colonialism, and the impact on the Maya between 1542 and 1812.

The new museum, the Great Museum of the Maya World, in Merida, Mexico was the venue for the International Festival of the Maya World, in October 2013 (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Protective Roof From October 13 through November, 2013, the Mirador Basin Project under the supervision of FARES-Guatemala, and FARES-US, with funding from Perenco, the Kislak Foundation, the Global Heritage Fund, the Selz Foundation, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, David and Deborah Sheets, Jonatan Layton, Francois Dubois, Diego Artuz, and Doña Odette Arzu began the arduous process of transporting and building the protective roof over the Popol Vuh frieze. A special thank you to FARES-Guatemala and the support staff for the administration of the funds, and follow up on thousands of details involved with this herculean undertaking. The work was supervised by Mirador Basin staff member Adelzo Pozuelos and Pedro Cordova, with a team of workmen, cooks, staff, assistants, technicians, and archaeological personnel which resulted in a remarkable protective structure. (see the subsequent report by Hansen and Suyuc, below) as well as a construction team from Aceros Arquitectónicos of Guatemala, and a team physician. The monumental transport of materials and supplies for the construction of the building involved helicopters and mules. Transport included tons of equipment, including scaffolding, the metal framework of the building, polycarbonate panels, scaffolding, ladders, welders, acetylene torches, tools, food, supplies, and technical equipment for the construction of the roof over the Popol Vuh frieze. The roof is similar in design to those constructed over Structure 34 and Monument 1 at La Murat. These protective structures were originally designed by Dr. Richard Hansen, Edgar Suyuc, and Boeing engineer John Cybulski. Cybulski was responsible for calculating the capacity of the roof to withstand the occasional hurricane force winds that sometime find their way into the northern Peten. Electronic monitoring of the roof efficiency and impact was conducted by FARES over an entire year period with temperature and relative humidity monitored every half hour, day and night. The results, processed by Dr. Fenella French of the U.S. Library of Congress, demonstrated that the temperatures and relative humidity below the roof are much more constant than the wild fluctuations of temperature and humidity in the natural forest. As a result of the success of the two previous protective roof structures, the Mirador Basin Project and FARES and FARES-Guatemala contracted with Aceros Arquitectónicos of Guatemala to have the metal structure built in Guatemala City, transported to Carmelita, and lifted by helicopter under the supervision of Adelzo Pozuelos and Pedro Cordova. The helicopter transport was provided by TAG helicopters (Transportes Aereos Guatemaltecos), with a total of 47 flights from Carmelita to El Mirador with external cargo. Pozuelos, Cordova, the Aceros staff, mules, food supplies, workers, cooks, cook’s helpers, and a camp doctor were present at all times, and Dr. Hansen made two visits to the site during construction. The excavations for the base supports had already occurred during the field season, with the rebar and cement bases poured in advance. The construction of the roof involved the manual transport from the heliport by hand to the frieze area, each beam requiring up to 30 workers to transport, and then welded into place (See below).


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Plans for the protective roof which was constructed over the Popol Vuh frieze (digital drawing by Danilo Callen). On October 25-31, 2013, the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia of Guatemala City and the World Monuments Fund sponsored the Workshop on the Design of Coverings for Archaeological Protection (Taller de Diseño de Cubiertas para la Protección Arqueologica). The event was organized by Dr. Barbara Arroyo and Dr. Norma Barbacci, and Vice Minister Rosa Maria Chan and involved the presence of four architects with experience in diverse types of protective roofs: Nicholas Goldsmith (USA), Joao Caeiro (Portugal), Gionata Rizzi (Italy), and Javier Robles (Peru). Dr. Richard Hansen, Lic. Edgar Suyuc, and Dr. Fenella French (U.S. Library of Congress) presented a paper on 29 October entitled “Protective Coverings: The Case of the Mirador Basin, Guatemala.” Other papers included papers by Nicholas Goldsmith Javier Robles, Joao Caeriro, and Gionata Rizzi on the importance of archaeological coverings designed to conserve, Vilma Fialko and Raul Noriega presented on the case of Yaxha, Topoxte, and Nakum, Haydee Orea presented on the case of Yaxchilan, Mexico, Francine Valiente presented on the case of Naranjo, Guatemala. Dr. Barbara Arroyo presented the case at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala, and Jose Crasborn made a presentation on the case of Quirigua. These papers, or versions of them, will be published by the World Monuments Fund and Fomento Cultural Banamex. The Mirador Basin project completed the new roof over the Popol Vuh frieze (see below) which corresponded nicely with the conference and the results obtained therein.


 

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Examples of protective roofs at known sites such as Tikal, with perishable materials (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Protective roofs over the architectural art on Str. 1 at Ek Balam, Yucatan, made of perishable materials (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

Protective roof designed by Dr. Richard Hansen, John Cybulski, and Edgar Suyuc over Monument 1 at La Muerta, El Mirador (Photo: M.A. White)

Protective roof constructed over the Jaguar Paw Temple, El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen)

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On November 5-8, 2013, the annual classic XXIII Encuentro Internacional de los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya “Vida Cotidiana” took place in Campeche, Mexico, with a paper presented by Maestra Beatriz Balcarcel, Gustavo Martinez, and Richard D. Hansen. The Balcarcel-Martinez-Hansen paper was entitled “La evidencia cotidiana preclasica en el norte del Peten a traves de datos cerámicos” (Evidence of Preclassic Daily Life in the Northern Peten According to the Ceramic Data). The paper will be published in a forthcoming volume. On November 17-19, 2013, the Mirador Basin had the privilege of receiving the visit of John Swift, his sister Nancy Swift Furlotti, and Stefaan Portmann of the Global Heritage Fund. The Swifts, long time supporters of conservation programs world- wide and the Mirador Basin Project desired to see the accomplishments and activities of the Project. The experience and insights of the Swifts were invaluable, and many important agreements and understandings were discussed at the site. In addition, the Swifts went to Nakbe to see the site and to get an understanding of the area, gain an insight into the nature of the upcoming work that needs to be conducted at the site, and to determine financial needs. The Swifts, and people like Francois and Nini Berger, the Morgan Family, and the Global Heritage Fund will become historic figures in the struggle to save the Mirador Basin.

Nancy Furlotti (L), Dr. Hansen, and John Swift at the Nakbe quarries (Photo: Rafael Rottmann).


Dr. Richard Hansen, GHF’s Stefaan Portmann, Nancy Furlotti, and John Swift on Danta pyramid. (Photo: Rafael Rottmann).

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The Swifts and Stefaan Portmann and La Muerta Stela 2, El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). On November 21, Dr. Richard Hansen made the final presentation for the year at the Universidad Francisco Marroquin quarterly lecture series. Hansen spoke on the “ Cuenca Mirador-Calakmul: Corazon del Mundo Maya.” The event was open to the public for a nominal fee. Francisco Marroquin University is one of the finest universities in Central America. The ideals, values, and ethics it promotes are exemplary, and the University provides important lectures on archaeology to the public throughout the year.


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Dr. Richard Hansen lecturing at Francisco Marroquin University lecture series. (Photo: Enrique Hernandez). On November 30, Richard and Jody Hansen celebrated the wedding of their daughter, Brianna, who also was a staff artist during the 2013 field season, to Ryan Chad Ruger. The wedding took place in Twin Falls, Idaho, and the Ruger’s will be attending school for the next few years as Ryan will be attending medical school. Brianna’s art work at the site was excellent and she will be working for years to come with artist Sharon Belkin on archaeological illustrations for the Project.

Ryan Chad Ruger and Brianna Hansen were married on November 30. We all wish them well.


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Modeled and painted stucco from the Casa Coral (see below) drawn by Brianna Hansen.

Work at Nakbe On December 10-17, 2013, the Mirador Basin Project launched a mini-project at the site of Nakbe to establish a new camp since the old one was placed directly on the first platform of the West Group at the site. A camp location near the heliport and the Cascabel causeway was selected for easier access from the helipad and closer to the important water source of Zacatal. Workmen cleared the area for the new camp, and project tents were set up for future research that will be conducted at the site. In addition, Project team members examined the site to evaluate conservation and stabilization necessities, and will be incorporating the needed consolidation requirements in the upcoming field season. Several key areas in need of pressing conservation needs are Str. 1, Str. 13, Str. 27, Grupo Codice Str. 103 and Str. 104, and the ball court in the East Group at the site. Monument 8 is also in critical need of roof protection. Team members included Enrique Monterroso, Josue Guzman, Beatriz Balcarcel, Adelzo Pozuelos, Pedro Cordova, and Dr. Richard Hansen. LATIN TRADE MAGAZINE- Bravo Business Association: Hansen named as one of 24 Individuals who “Changed Latin America.” In the November-December 2013 issue of LT Latin Trade magazine, the most prestigious and wide spread business magazine in Latin America devoted the entire issue to “Two Decades of Decisions that Changed Latin America: Interviews with the Corporate, Political, and Social Leaders Who Made Them” (www.latintrade.com) . The magazine cited the 24 individuals who “changed Latin America” which included Dr. Richard Hansen, President of FARES (p. 72) and Peruvian Albina Ruiz Rios (p. 70) as the two Social Sector individuals featured in the issue. Albina Ruiz Rios, founder and President of Ciudad saludable (Healthy City) received the 2005 BRAVO award as Environmentalist of the Year for Latin America and Dr. Richard Hansen received the BRAVO award in 2008. Hansen noted the


 

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advantages of using archaeology as the lens for understanding contemporary issues in society, and using the past as a path to the future by learning from successes and failures of past civilizations. In addition, the magazine noted that President Otto Perez Molina, President of Guatemala, was named as the 2013 Leader of the Year for Latin America, an event that was held in Miami in October 2013.


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INVESTIGATIONS AND CONSERVATION IN THE MIRADOR CULTURAL AND NATURAL SYSTEM: A Report on the 2013 Field Season Richard D. Hansen Edgar Suyuc-Ley INTRODUCTION The Mirador Basin Project conducted field research from the months of July through December 2013, with work conducted at the major sites of Tintal, El Mirador and Nakbe, which represent three of the most important sites of the Mirador Basin. The work was done under the direction of Dr. Richard Hansen and Lic. Edgar Suyuc, with funding from the Global Heritage Fund, FARES Foundation, FARES-Guatemala, PERENCO, APANAC, PACUNAM, the Selz Foundation, the Jay I. Kislak Foundation, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Interior-International Technical Assistance Program. Numerous individuals made this work possible, particularly Ms. Linda Pierce, Bernard Selz, Arthur Dunkleman Linda Pierce, Joanna Miller, Robert Berry, the Alfredo Vila Family, the Carlos Abraham family of Merida, Pedro Aguirre, Diego Arzu, Maria Odette Arzu and family, Wallace Armes, Jim Bader, Scott Baker, Keith Ballard, Marta Barger & Richard B. Barth, Sharon Lee Belkin, Richard and Iris Ballew, Gary Beletsky, Julius and Millie Bendat, Andy and Annie Bleggi, Diann Boehm, Javier Bonilla, Carol W. Casey, Art Cassanos, Eunice Childs, Clayton Cook, Ezequiel Cortez, Nina Coto, J. Stanton Curry, the late John and Marlys Cybulski, Richard and Sally Dawson, Francois DuBois, Paul and Kathy Duncan, Audrey Keller Dyer, George Fery, William and Lynda Folan, the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation, John Dyer, Mark Gibian & Marcy Rosewater, Betty Guggolz, John and Pat Hansen Anthony Hick, Ken Hitz, Robin Hylton, Institute of Maya Studies, Joshua F. Jones, Yoon Kang, Jay I. Kislak, Jonathan Layton, James Luceno, Cynthia Luce, John Maniscalco, Lisa Marie, Ruben G. Mendoza, Sherry Miller, M. Groot Nibbelink, Jonathan Ojinage, Beatriz Padilla, Judy Perlstein, Robert J. & Molly V. Pettit, Walter Jack Pettit, Stephen Ratto, Kathleen Rollins, Ann Ruffer, Iris Ruiz, Victoria Salter, the Harry and Roberta Salter Foundation, Mario Sandoval, Lisa Sardegna and David Carillo, Mario Sandoval, John Schwandke, Bernard Selz, David and Deborah Sheets, Gregory and Flo Silver, Joel M. Skidmore, Brent L. Sohngen, Hiram L. Smith, Hiram Smith, Doe Stowell, John J. And Margaret M. Sullivan, William Taylor, Janice Van Cleve, Marian Walker, Elizabeth M. Welty, Roger and Nancy M. Williams, Brian Walker, Christian and Holly Walker, Addison R. Warner, Bob Woods, Kathleen Rollins, Brian E. Walker, J. Marlan and Colleen Walker, Elizabeth Welty, Gary Whitely, and Terry and Barbara Young. This field season had some extremely important discoveries and conservation measures of historic importance which will strengthen the potential for future World Heritage status for the Mirador Basin. In addition, great efforts were incorporated in the conservation, not only of the cultural heritage, but the natural heritage as well. The work included emergency interventions and systematic work of conservation and preservation monitoring. Additional advances have been implemented in the social and economic development of the communities due to the quantity of workers from the surrounding villages that are incorporated into the Project and the educational training and capacitation implemented during the field seasons. For decades now, the Project has taken an active role in the defense and protection of the Mirador Basin because of severe threats due to road intrusions, invasive settlers, massive deforestation, looting, poaching, and narcotics trafficking. The transition from “exploitation” to “conservation” is a process, not an event, and will take time and effort. But huge strides are


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being made through educational efforts, and the concerted efforts of groups and people as they learn and understand the unique geological, natural, and cultural importance of the Mirador Basin. The research conducted in 2013 also sought information to understand the chronology and the economic and political relationship between El Mirador and Tintal. At Tintal, mapping was conducted with Total Station technology for the first time at the site, with mapping completed in much of Mano de Leon Group in the civic center of the site, which is the portion of the city that was surrounded by an artificial moat. In addition, mapping was conducted with Total Station on the Northern side of the site center. Excavations were conducted within the artificial moat that surrounds the central portion of the city as well as in the Pavo Group, the Ballcourt, the Henequen Group and the Henequen Causeway. In addition, the research camp was established near the heliport, which has prepared the way for extensive future work at the site by the Project. Although the camp is a considerable distance from the existing facilities near the aguada or reservoir of the site, the Project has developed adequate water collection measures to permit the presence near the heliport. In this fashion, the scientific camp has managed to avoid much of the traffic along the trail by tourists, xateros, chicleros, and mules. At El Mirador, excavations continued on a variety of locations, including work on the Popol Vuh frieze, Structures 313, 314, and 315, and Structure 304 and the Central Stairway of the Great Central Acropolis. Preparatory work was also conducted for the placement of the protective roof over the Popol Vuh frieze, with the removal of certain trees, placement of the cement foundations for the vertical support columns of the roof, and the improvement and preparation of the temporal protective roofs to preserve and Project the stucco until the construction of the permanent protective facility. During the 2013 field season, excavations were also conducted in the Cascabel Group, with major work on Structures 200, 204, and 207, under the supervision of Edgar Ortega, Gustavo Martinez, and Pilar Vazquez-Llorente. Work also continued on the Danta Complex, with investigations in the Pava Group and the third level of the pyramid. Additional exploratory excavations were conducted in the Venado Group (Deer) located on the Eastern side of Danta pyramid. Salvage excavations were conducted in the Casa Coral, located near the Nakbe-El Mirador causeway to the south east of Danta pyramid. The work was originally done to recover information related to the concentrations of painted and modeled stucco that had been ripped through by a looters trench. However, the excavations of 2013 recovered evidence that the building had been richly decorated with deity portraits and modeled art of exceptional quality. Mapping continued in the area to the east and southeast of Danta pyramid, which contains evidence of extensive Preclassic residences, small Classic period compounds, and large platforms. Work  continued  at  El  Mirador  on  the  study  of  the  “invisible  house  mounds”    or   perishable  structures  that  left  no  superficial  evidence.    This  information  is  crucial  to   providing  a  more  reliable  demographic  estimate,  and  to  understand  the  demographic   density  of  the  cities  within  the  Mirador  Basin.         The  highly  trained  conservation  team  continued  the  consolidation  and   stabilization  of  the  monumental  architecture  at  El  Mirador,  with  work  being  conducted   with  the  use  of  stone  and  stucco.    The  work  contributed  enormously  to  the  long-­‐term   preservation  and  conservation  for  the  permanent  exposure  of  architecture  for  scientific   and  touristic  value  in  the  future.       The  Mirador  Basin  Project  has  maintained  a  trained  crew  of  archaeologists,  artists,   photographers,  accountants,  and  restoration  Experts  in  the  laboratories  in  the  Peten  and   in  Guatemala  City,  as  well  as  key  personnel  in  the  Peten  responsible  for  logistics  


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purchases,  community  relations,  and  activities.        The  laboratory  work  in  Guatemala  City   has  involved  the  processing  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  artifacts  recovered  during  each   field  season,  with  cleaning,  consolidation,  photography,  classifications,  interpretations,   selection  of  artifacts  for  type  collections,  photography  of  type  collections,    and  technical   preparations  for  the  delivery  of  artifacts  to  the  National  Museum  of  Archaeology.    All   archaeological  materials  are  marked,  classified,  separated  according  to  site  and   provenience  within  each  site,    original  context  identification,  types  of  materials,   chronological  order  of  materials,    and  other  diagnostic  features  that  have  allowed  careful   curation  of  artifacts  for  analyses  by  present  and  future  specialists.    The  political  posture   of  the  Project  is  that  the  artifacts  recovered  from  carefully  controlled  excavations  have  an   important  value  because  they  are  “finite”,  meaning  that  they  can  never  be  recovered  from   their  original  context  again.  It  is  believed  that  future  developments  in  technology  will  be   able  to  extract  data  from  artifacts  of  known  and  precise  contexts.  For  this  reason,  the   Project  processes  and  stores  all  artifacts  so  that  they  are  available  to  scholars  and  Project   staff  at  any  time.    This  practice  has  proven  invaluable  due  to  the  fact  that  new   technological  advancements  have  allowed  new  studies  to  be  conducted,  which  would   have  been  impossible  if  the  artifacts  (ie.  Potsherds,  fragments,  Obsidian  blades,  and  stone   tools)    had  simply  been  discarded.            

SCIENTIFIC  INVESTIGATIONS,  EL  MIRADOR        THE  GREAT  CENTRAL  ACROPOLIS  /  GRAN  ACRÓPOLIS  CENTRAL:     Structures  313,  314,  and  315.           Intensive   excavations   continued   on   Structures   313   314,   and   315   under   the   supervision   of   archaeologist   Beatriz   Balcarcel.     The   excavations   were   part   of   the   last   phases   of   the   scientific   research   in   this   architectural   group,   located   on   the   southwest   corner   of   the   Great   Central   Acropolis.     The   research   has   focused   on   the   horizontal   and   vertical  exposure  of  Structure  313  and  the  accompanying  Structures  314  and  315  which   surround   the   central   plaza   to   the   north   of   Structure   313.     The   contiguous   nature   of   the   architecture,   as   well   as   the   similar   masonry,   contemporaneity,   and   other   architectural   features   suggest   that   these   buildings   were   an �� integral   unit   socially   and   economically.       The  importance  of  the  architectural  compound  is  indicated  by  the  excellent  condition  of   the   architecture   as   well   as   the   similar   antiquity,   which   dates   exclusively   to   the   Late   Preclassic   period.     The   primary   facades   exposed   during   the   2013   season   were   the   northeast  corner  of  Structure  313  as  well  as  the  west  facade  of  Structure  314  and  315.       Discoveries  of  particular  interest  included  a  more  complete  understanding  of  the  flanking   wall   at   the   eastern   base   of   Structure   313,   which   had   collapsed   in   nearly   complete   condition,   providing   an   unusual   perspective   of   the   walls   and   the   possible   roof   constructions   that   formed   the   Preclassic   architecture   of   the   complex.     In   addition,   enormous  corner  blocks  were  located  in  or  near  the  corners  of  the  buildings,  similar  to   those  of  Structure  34  and  the  Pava  Temple  in  the  Preclassic,  and  Structure  2  at  La  Muerta   in  the  Early  Classic  period.      Complete  ceramic  vessels  were  recovered  from  their  original   position   directly   on   the   floors   of   the   building,   indicating   that   the   abandonment   of   the   structures   had   not   only   been   rapid,   but   thorough,   and   subsequent   inhabitants   did   not   return  to  collect,  alter,  or  interfere  with  the  original  artifacts  directly  on  the  floors.    The  


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archaeological   materials   are   representative   of   the   cultural   apogee   at   El   Mirador   in   the   Late  Preclassic  period.        

  The   northeast   corner   of   Structure   313   indicating   the   excellent   condition   of   the   Preclassic   walls.    (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).  

    Northeast  corner  of  Structure  313  showing  the  pattern  of  collapse  of  the  exterior,   appended  wall  which  formed  a  narrow  chamber  that  flanked  the  primary  building   (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).        


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        Archaeologist  Beatriz  Balcarcel  with  an  intact  Preclassic  tecomate  vessel  directly  on  the   floor  of  Structure  314  (Photos:    R.D.  Hansen).      

  Intact  ceramic  tecomate  directly  on  the  floor  of  Structure  314,  El  Mirador  (Photo:    R.D.   Hansen).    


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  Late  Preclassic  ceramics  from  Structure  313,    indicating  the  final  utilization  of  the   building  before  abandonment  at  the  end  of  the  Preclassic  period  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).      

        Southeast  corner  of  Structure  314  and  its  architectural  relationship  with  Structure  313  to   the  left,  showing  the  slope  and  the  cornice  of  the  exterior  face  of  the  building  (Photo:    R.D.   Hansen).    


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  Portion  of  a  Chicanel  Sierra  Red  bowl  from  the  Late  Preclassic  period  with  horizontal   flutes  directly  from  the  floor  at  the  base  of  Structure  314,    El  Mirador  (Photo:    R.D.   Hansen).       POPOL VUH FRIEZE / Friso Popol Vuh Major excavations continued in the area of the Popol Vuh frieze in the Great Central Acropolis in 2013. Archaeological student Dr. Craig Argyle supervised the work, which continued in the western reservoir system. Argyle made some fascinating discoveries, including artifacts, which may have some remnants of name tagging or texts.


 

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Excavations to the west of the frieze have not detected more evidence of the stucco sculpture that was exposed on the superficial stucco panels. However, as reported in the 2012 report, Dr. Richard Hansen discovered that the panels continue below the floor of the pools and the reservoir system and excavations by Hansen to the east of the center pool of the water system has discovered evidence that the panels do continue to the east. The presence of wellpreserved art buried below the stucco floors but not above it suggests that the panels above the floors, such as the Popol Vuh frieze, were intentionally buried.

Incised ceramic earspools recovered from excavations in the vicinity of the frieze in the Great Central Acropolis at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Conservator Lisa Sardegna examining the ear spool and knot bundles of the architectural art uncovered during the 2013 field season. (Photo: R.D. Hansen)


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Excavations of the lower frieze panels showed the excellent preservation of color and iconography because of their intentional burial below the hard stucco floors of the water collection pools (Photo: R.D. Hansen © FARES 2013).

The ear spools and knot bundles uncovered during the 2013 season, show that the art found in the panels on the western side of the central pool is replicated on the eastern side. The soil in the middle of the ear spool is intentionally there to strengthen the art until adequate stabilization and consolidation measures can be enacted (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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  Excavations  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  central  pool  revealed  that  the  richly  modeled   stucco  art  continues  below  the  floors  and  sealed  by  rubble  on  the  eastern  side  as  well.     The  image  recorded  is  part  of  a  fierce  serpent,  with  two  fangs  and  liquid  (venom)   dripping  from  them,  as  found  on  the  western  side.      

Structure  304,  Operation  304      

Investigations   continued   on   the   primary   Preclassic   stairway   of   the   Great   Central   Acropolis,   located   on   the   Northern   facade   of   the   enormous   platform   overlooking   the   principal   plaza   of   El   Mirador.     The   primary   objective   was   to   understand   what   may   be   the   single   most   important   stairway   at   the   site,   and   to   expose   it   vertically   and   horizontally.     The   work   was   supervised   previously   by   Licda.   Carmen   Ramos,   and   during   the   2013   season,  was  supervised  by  USAC  (Universidad  San  Carlos)    archaeological  student  Josue   Garcia.    The  location  of  the  stairway  as  the  primary  access  to  and  from  the  main  plaza  at   the   site   makes   it   exceptional   in   the   history   of   the   site.     The   outermost   phase   of   the   stairway   was   in   relatively   poor   condition,   due   to   exposure   to   weather   and   abundant   vegetation,  but  the  relationship  of  the  stairway  to  the  northeastern  facade  of  the  platform   of  the  Great  Central  Acropolis  was  revealed  in  the  field  season.       The   stairway   is   also   considered   to   be   extremely   important   because   it   allowed   direct   access   to   what   appears   to   have   been   a   royal   platform   throne,     which   had   been   composed  of  numerous  megalithic  stones,  most  of  which  appear  to  have  been  stelae  and   monuments   placed   on   all   four   sides   of   the   platform.       This   platform   was   situated   in   the   northern  edge  of  the  Acropolis  overlooking  the  plaza,  as  well  as  situated  in  the  middle  of  


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an  important  Triadic  group  on  the  Central  Acropolis..    In  addition,  the  facade  of  an  earlier   construction  phase  of  the  building  had  an  intricate  woven  mat  motif  modeled  in  stucco.     The  woven  mat  is  considered  to  be  a  symbol  of  royal  authority,  thus  lending  credence  to   the  possibility  that  this  particular  construction  is  a  royal  throne.      

  Eastern  edge  of  the  main  stairway  (on  right0    of  the  Great  Central  Acropolis  at  the   site,  showing  the  relatively  poor  condition  of  the  face  of  the  platform  (Photo:  T.  Portillo)  

  Fragment  of  a  Stela  fragment  with  the  portion    of  a  large  scroll  carved  on  the   surface  (Photo:    T.  Portillo).    


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Excavations  along  the  eastern  face  of  the  platform  of  the  Great  Central  Acropolis   near  the  edge  of  the  main  stairway  (Photo:    Josue  Garcia).          

  Excavations   of   the   upper   stairway   of   the   Great   Central   Acropolis   at   El   Mirador   (Photo:  T.  Portillo).          

 


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  Workers  taking  measurements  of  one  of  the  stelae  that  had  collapsed  anciently  from  the   wall  of  Structure  304.,  El  Mirador  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).    

  Row  of  monuments  that  formed  the  southern  wall  of  the  platform  of  Structure  304,    El   Mirador  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).    


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  Detailed  view  of  the  walls  with  the  megalithic  Stones  that  formed  the  platform  of   Structure  304    (Photo:  T.  Portillo)        

CASCABEL  GROUP  /    GRUPO  CASCABEL     The   Cascabel   Group   is   located   on   the   section   of   the   monumental   architecture   of   the   civic   center   of   the   site,   forming   the   Northern   edge   of   the   Great   Plaza   and   the   Leon   Plaza   at   El   Mirador.     Work   during   the   2013   season   in   the   Cascabel   Group   continued   in   scope  and  intensity  in  both  investigations  and  conservation  of  the  buildings.       The   work   concentrated   on   three   buildings   of   the   group,   with   consolidation   and   conservation   of   the   summits   of   Structure   200   and   Structure   204.     The   exposure   of   the   summits  of  these  extremely  early  buildings  to  countless  storms  and  tree  vegetation  made   the  excavations  extremely  tedious  and  delicate,  but  the  Project  was  able  to  identify  floors,   walls,   and   stairways   of   the   upper   portions   of   the   buildings.     In   addition,   work   was   conducted  at  the  bases  of  both  Structure  200  and  204  in  order  to  stabilize,  consolidate,   and   permanently     expose   the   basal   facades   of   these   buildings.     Conservation   measures   were   employed   on   the   stairways   of   the   building   as   well   as   routine   maintenance.     Approximately  75%  of  the  existing  stairways  of  the  buildings  has  now  been  consolidated.          


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Structure  200,  Cascabel  

Excavations   on   Structure   200   revealed   the   entire   stone   and/or   rubble   fill   of   the   southern     facade   of   the   building.   All   loose   soil   has   been   removed   from   the   face   of   the   building,   revealing   terrace   levels,   remnants   of   architectural   art,     stairway   blocks,   walls,   and  floors.    The  work  was  supervised  by  archaeologist  Edgar  Ortega       Operation  200  M  opened  the  western  facade  of  the  building,  revealing  the  corner   stairway   in   precisely   the   same   location   as   had   been   discovered   on   the   eastern   side   of   the   building.       The   work   on   the   summit   of   the   structure   revealed   the   presence   of   at   least   two   thick  stucco  floors,  which  were  in  good  condition  considering  the  lengthy  exposure  to  the   elements.      Ortega  also  found  that  the  same  evidence  that  R.  Hansen  and  L.  Hansen  had   found   earlier,   with   evidence   that   the   building   had   been   utilized   near   the   end   of   the   Preclassic   period,   but   that   the   building   had   been   constructed   in   the   Middle   Preclassic   period  between  700  and  400  B.  C.       Stabilization  and  consolidation  work,  supervised  by  Enrique  Monterroso  Tun  and   Marco   Tulio   Enamorado   was   also   conducted   on   the   building   with   the   purpose   of   permanent  exposure  of  the  building  to  the  public.        

  Fragment  of  a  Middle  Preclassic  figurine  from  Structure  200,  Cascabel  El  Mirador  (Photo:     R.D.  Hansen).      


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    Arm  from  a  Middle  Preclassic  (700-­‐400  B.C.)  figurine  from  Structure  200,,    Cascabel,  and   El  Mirador.    (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).          

     

Base  panorama  of  Structure  200  of  the  Cascabel  Group    (Photo:  M.  Portillo)  

Structure  204  /  Estructura  204  

 

  Excavations  continued  on  Structure  203  of  the  Cascabel  Group  during  the  2013   season  at  El  Mirador.    The  work  included  the  horizontal  excavation  of  more  of  the  facade,   stairway,  and  consolidating  the  upper  portion  of  the  building.      The  research  was   supervised  by  archaeologist  Gustavo  Martinez,  and  the  corresponding  stabilization  and   consolidation  work    on  the  architecture  was  supervised  by  Enrique  Monterroso  Tun  and   Marco  Tulio  Enamorado.          


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  Cascabel  Structure  204,  indicating  a  portion  of  the  facade  and  the  primary  stairway  of  the   building  (Photo:  R.D.  Hansen).  

  Portion  of  the  facade  and  southeast  corner  of  Structure  204  of  the  Cascabel  Group,  El     Mirador  (Photo:  R.D.  Hansen).    


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Structure  207  /  Estructura  207  

Excavations  began  on  Structure  207,  one  of  the  small  row  of  buildings  located  on   the  southern  edge  of  the  Cascabel  Platform  and  immediately  overlooking  the  Great  Leon   Plaza   at   El   Mirador.     The   work   was   supervised   by   archaeology   student   Pilar   Vazquez-­‐ Llorente.     The   research   included   the   horizontal   revelation   of   the   Northern   side   of   the   building,  which  appears  to  have  been  the  rear  of  the  structure.  In  addition,  a  test  pit  was   placed   adjacent   to   the   base   of   the   building.     The   test   excavation   revealed   a   sequence   of   at   least   five   floors,   but   with   ceramics   dating   to   the   Late   Preclassic   period   until   the   lower   floor.    This  detail  indicates  that  not    all  of  the  Cascabel  platform  was  constructed  in  the   Middle   Preclassic   period,   but   that   the   platform   had   received   modifications   and   structural   additions  in  the  Late  Preclassic  (300  B.C.-­‐AD  150)  period.          

    Test  pit  excavations  of  Structure  207,  Cascabel,  indicating  the  depth  of  the  structural  fill   and  the  sequence  of  lime  plaster  floors.    The  presence  of  five  successive  floors  indicates  a   lengthy  tradition  of  architectural  modification  in  this  area  of  the  Cascabel  platform.   (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).              


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Danta  Complex  /    Complejo  La  Danta    

Intensive  excavations  and  architectural  consolidation  procedures  were  conducted   on  the  Danta  complex,  the  massive  pyramidal  structure  that  dominates  the  eastern  side  of   El   Mirador.   Excavations   were   supervised   by   Lic.   Edgar   Suyuc   and   Cheryl   Carcuz,   with   assistance   from   archaeological   student   Marissa   Lopez.     Enrique   Monterroso   Tun,   Josue   Guzman,   and   Marco   Tulio   Enamorado   supervised   the   consolidation   of   the   excavated   areas.     Work  on  the  Pava  Group,  which  is  located  on  the  first  platform  of  Danta  included   work  on  the  primary  basal  stairway  of  the  building.    In  addition,  the  access  stairway  was   improved.    Excavations  along  the  eastern  basal  façade  of  the  building  began  the  process   of   identification   of   the   form   and   format   of   the   basal   levels   of   Pava   pyramid.     Explorations   on  the  eastern  side  of  Pava  revealed  the  massive  blocks,  placed  with  the  long  axis  into  the   building,  which  is  characteristic  of  the  entire   construction  of  Danta  pyramid  in  the  Late   Preclassic  period.      

                            Consolidation   of   the   summit   of   the   Pava   Pyramid   was   completed   in   the   2012   and   2013   seasons  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).          


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Excavations  at  the  base  of  the  third  level  of  Danta  pyramid  managed  to  detect  the   remains   of   the   wall   at   the   northwest   corner   of   the   platform.     This   platform,   the   most   massive   of   the   three   platforms   of   Danta   pyramid,   will   be   the   focus   in   future   seasons   to   adequately   expose   and   consolidate   this   architectural   behemoth.     The   work   was   supervised   by   archaeologists   Sheryl   Carcuz   and   Francisco   Lopez,   both   of   whom   have   extensive   experience   working   on   Danta   and   know   the   structure   well.     Excavations   by   Sheryl  Carcuz  also  explored  the  walls  of  the  southwest  corner  of  the  building,  revealing   the  recessed  corners  of  the  building,  as  well  as  artifacts  directly  on  the  terrace  levels  of   the  structure.  The  massive  stones  which  were  placed  with  the  long  axis  into  the  building   continues  to  be  the  standard  architectural  format  of  the  building,    and  the  corner  of  the   structure   indicated   Artifacts   are   consistent   with   the   Preclassic   construction   and   utilization  of  the  building,  with  an  overburden  of  debris  of  the  occupants  that  resided  on   the  building  nearly  800  years  later.          

  Base   of   the   third   level   of   Danta   pyramid   with   consolidation   beginning   on   the   central  primary  stairway  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).                  

 


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  An unusual carved shell pendant from the base of the 3rd level of Danta pyramid, El Mirador, found by archaeologist Sheryl Carcuz and drawn by Brianna Hansen.

The pendant had apparently been worn horizontally, with the face of the “bird” image looking upward towards the wearer. Two drilled perforations on the “chest” of this bird creature suggests a that it may have been hung in this fashion (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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  Wall  of  Danta  pyramid  in  the  northwest  corner  of  the  third  level  of  the  massive  structure     (Photo:    T.  Portillo)    

INVISIBLE  STRUCTURES  /  Casas  no  visibles       Investigations  continued  in  the  2013  season  to  understand  and  define  the  invisible   house  mound  phenomenon  that  has  been  found  to  exist  in  the  Mirador  Basin  and  other   areas  of  the  Maya  Lowlands.    Dr.  Kevin  Johnston,  formerly  a  professor  at  Ohio  State,  had   identified   hidden   house   mounds   a   decade   earlier   at   the   site   of   Itzan,   a   site   in   the   Petexbatun  region  of  the  southern  Peten  that  he  was  exploring.    As  a  result  of  detecting   the   presence   of   hidden   house   mounds   in   excavations   conducted   by   Dr.   Hansen,   Carlos   Castellanos,   Stephanie   Schrodt,   and   Beatriz   Balcarcel   at   El   Mirador   and   Nakbe,     Dr.  


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Johnston  was  invited  several  years  ago  to  begin  a  study  of  the  hidden  house  mounds  at  El   Mirador  in  an  attempt  to  re-­‐define  the  demographic  densities  of  ancient  major  cities.    A   “hidden”  house  mound  is  a  residence  with  perishable  roof  and  side  walls,  and  a  packed   earthen  floor,  similar  to  what  the  majority  of  inhabitants  in  the  Peten  have  today,  which   has  been  abandoned,  deteriorated,  and  is  buried  under  a  few  centimeters  of  jungle  soils   with  no  surface  indications  of  its  existence.        

  Example  of  a  hidden  house  mound:    A  packed  earthen  floor  with  Preclassic  ceramics  still   in   place   on   the   floor   of   the   structure.     A   perishable   roof   and   wooden   posts   formed   the   boundaries  of  the  structure,  but  which  leave  no  surface  indications  of  their  existence  after   abandonment.    (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen)  


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  Excavations  by  Dr.  Kevin  Johnston  revealed  the  presence  of  hidden  house  mounds,  in  this   case,  had  walls  with  stones  one  course  high  (Photo:    T.  Portillo)      

  Excavation  in  Op.  113b  below  the  escarpment  of  the  West  Group  at  El  Mirador  with  walls   and  single  course  stones  just  a  few  centimeters  below  the  surface,  but  with  no  surface   indications  whatsoever  of  their  presence.    (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).    


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    Maya  axe  directly  on  the  packed  floor  or  a  hidden  house  structure,  Op.  113B,    El  Mirador.     (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).      

          Fragment  of  a  bark  beater  for  making  paper,  found  on  the  floor  of  a  hidden  house  mound   in  the  West  Group  at  El  Mirador  (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).          


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CORAL  SNAKE  HOUSE    /  CASA  DEL  CORAL     One   of   the   most   interesting   excavations   in   2013   was   supervised   by   Guatemalan   student   archaeologist   Douglas   Mauricio   y   discovered   evidence   of   a   looted   building   with   large   quantities   of   painted   and   modeled   stucco   in   2012.     Salvage   excavations   began   in   earnest  in  2013  on  the  building,  which  is  located  to  the  south  east  of  Danta  pyramid.    The   salvage  excavations  revealed  that  the  art  had  been  appended  to  the  upper  portions  of  the   external  wall  of  the  building,  and  had  collapsed  through  time.    A  total  of  13  stucco  heads   were  recovered  in  whole,  near  complete,  or  fragmented  conditions,  displaying  a  variety  of   deity   portraits.     The   remarkable   quantity   of   art   on   a   relatively   small   and   unobtrusive   building  has  created  tremendous  interest  in  understanding  how  and  why  this  particular   building,  dating  to  the    Late  Classic  period,  was  the  object  of  such  elaborate  decoration.     Future   work   will   continue   to   expose   and   understand   the   original   context   of   the   art,   as   well   as   identify   areas   of   the   building   where   the   art   may   still   be   intact   or   in   its   original   condition.        

 

  Building  of  the  Casa  del  Coral  Group,  a  structure  that  dates  to  the  Late  Classic  period  (  T.   Portillo)    

                View  of  the  Casa  del  Coral,  a  relatively  small  structure  with  a  looters’  trench  (Photo:    D.   Mauricio).  


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      Large  fragments  of  modeled  and  painted  stucco,  which  had  been  by  looters,  indicating   some  form  of  elaborate  art  had  decorated  the  exterior  of  the  building  (Photo:    D.   Mauricio).      

  Exterior  wall  of  the  Casa  del  Coral  with  one  of  the  deity  heads  in  its  original  location.    The   head  was  found  face  down  in  this  location  (Photo:    D.  Maurico)  


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  Guatemalan  student  Douglas  Mauricio  with  the  deity  head  in  its  original  location.    (Photo:     D.  Mauricio).    

Guatemalan  student  archaeologist  Douglas  Mauricio  with  a  delicate  feminine  head  of   exceptional  beauty,  perhaps  a  portrait  of  Ixchel,  the  moon  goddess.  (Photo:    D.  Mauricio).  

 


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  Remnants  of  an  anthropomorphic  head  in  its  location  in  the  rubble  and  collapse  of  the   exterior  wall  of  the  Casa  del  Coral.    (Photo:    D.  Mauricio).  

   

  Some  of  the  modeled  stucco  recovered  from  the  Casa  del  Coral,  with  evidence  of   the  original  color  (Drawing:    Brianna  Hansen  Ruger).  


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TEST  EXCAVATIONS    /    SONDEOS    

  Monos  Plaza.    A  series  of  test  excavations  were  placed  at  El  Mirador  with  the   objective  of  establishing  chronological  sequences    and  architectural  contexts.    However,   in  some  cases,  the  excavations  served  as  part  of  a  future  infrastructure  for  the  placement   of  water  collection  facilities  for  bathrooms.    Funding  had  been  received  from  the  Global   Heritage  Fund  to  begin  to  construct  a  series  of  public  bathrooms,  which  were  to  have   flush  toilets.    Students  John  Pettit  and  Marissa  Lopez  conducted  excavations  in  the  Monos   Plaza  to  determine  the  sequence  of  construction  of  the  plaza  and  to  determine  the   feasibility  of  a  water  collection  facility  in  this  area  for  the  future  use  for  tourist  facilities.     Pettit  and  Lopez  discovered  that  the  plaza  to  the  immediate  northwest  of  Monos  pyramid   had  been  built  over  a  dense  layer  of  imported  marsh  mud,  which  had  been  transported   from  the  bajos  for  agricultural  production  within  the  civic  center  of  the  site.    It  then  was   built  over  with  rubble  fill  and  plaster  floors,  not  unlike  the  construction  of  shopping   centers  in  Orange  County,  California,  where  the  most  productive  real  estate  is  removed   from  agricultural  production  for  urban  needs.      

  Archaeology  student  John  Pettit  discovered  that  the  plaza  to  the  northwest  of  Monos   Pyramid  had  been  built  over  an  agricultural  field  of  imported  marsh  muck,  typical  of   many  of  the  ancient  cities  in  the  Mirador  Basin.    This  highly  productive  agricultural   technique  provided  the  economic  power  for  the  ancient  cities  in  the  Basin.            

 


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    Stark  contrast  between  the  fill  of  the  plaza  and  the  imported  marsh  mud.    The  mud  has   consistently  shown  to  have  phytoliths  of  corn,  squash,  beans,  palms,    and  gourds.    (Photo:     R.D.  Hansen).    

    Operation  113D,  with  student  John  Pettit  and  the  stratified  layer  of  marsh  mud  which  has   also  been  found  in  this  excavation.      


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    Late  Preclassic  bowl  recovered  from  the  marsh  muck  field  in  the  Monos  Plaza  excavations   (Photo:  R.D.  Hansen).       LITERACY  AND  EDUCATIONAL  PROGRAMS     The  Mirador  Basin  project  continued  with  its  extensive  program  of  education  and   training  for  Guatemalan  workers.    This  practice  has  been  enacted  by  the  project  for   decades,  and  involves  detailed  course  work  for  workmen  after  hours  in  reading,  writing,   mathematics,    and  English.    The  courses  are  taught  every  Friday,  Saturday,  and  Sunday   evenings  and  has  proven  to  be  one  of  the  more  successful  programs  for  workmen   conducted  by  the  project.    The  project  uses  a  government  program  called  CONALFA,   which  has  simple  workbooks  designed  to  teach  people  to  write,  identify  the  letters  of  the   alphabet,  and  the  phonetic  values  associated  with  letters,  vowels,  and  consonants.    In   addition  to  literacy  programs,  the  project  established  a  rigorous  educational  lecture   series  with  staff  members  teaching  subjects  such  as  history,  health,  hygiene,  first  aid,   family  finances,    investment  strategies,  archaeology,  environmental  responsibility,  and     geography.    These  classes  provided  information  and  knowledge  to  workers  for  their   personal  benefit  and  to  make  them  more  aware  of  the  world  and  their  responsibilities  in   it.      


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  Educational  classes  were  taught  by  project  staff  every  Friday,  Saturday,  and  Sunday   nights  to  workmen  (Photo:    B.  Hansen).  

                  Teacher  and  students  learning  literacy  skills  and  English  with  teacher  and  artist,  Brianna   Hansen  (Photo:    B.  Hansen).          


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Intensive  literacy  programs  were  taught    by  project  staff  to  workmen  after  hours  on   weekends  (Photo:    B.  Hansen).          

 


Example  of  the  writing  and  letter  identification  skills  afforded  to  workmen  using  the   CONALFO  workbook  and  taught  by  Mirador  Basin  project  staff.    (Photo:    R.D.    Hansen)  

  Cursive  writing  skills  were  also  taught,  along  with  a  moral  message.    For  example,  the   required  cursive  text  above  states  “I  love  my  children,  my  spouse,    and  all  my  family.”   (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).    

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  Another  example  of  cursive  writing,  which  states  “My  name  is  Francisco  Coc  and  and  I  am   the  descendant  of  a  noble  legacy.”    (Photo:    R.D.  Hansen).    

  Artist  Beatriz  Padilla  teaching  mathematics  (addition)  problems  to  workmen.    Such  skills   allow  investment  knowledge  and  personal  financial  management  to  be  possible.    (Photo:     R.D.  Hansen).      


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INVESTIGATIONS  IN  TINTAL  2013        

Extensive   excavations   began   for   the   first   time   since   2004   in   the   major   site   of   Tintal,   located   between   El   Mirador   and   Carmelita.     The   work,   supervised   by   student   archaeologists   Enrique   Hernandez,   Francisco   Lopez,   Dr.   Thomas   Schreiner,   archaeological   artist   Hiro   Iwamoto,     and   the   mapping   firm   DEPIC.     The   first   accomplishment   was   the   establishment   of   the   archaeological   field   camp   for   the   project,   located  near  the  heliport  and  separated  from  the  main  tourist  camp,  which  is  located  near   the  aguada.    The  site  was  selected  due  to  its  proximity    to  the  major  architecture  of  the   Mano   de   Leon   Group,   plus   the   utilization   of   the   heliport   for   the   occasional   drop   off   of   supplies  and  personnel.      The  new  camp  also  provided  a  certain  measure  for  privacy  from   numerous  chicleros,  xateros,  and  tourists  who  frequented  the  trail  towards  El  Mirador.        

  A   new   field   camp   has   been   established   at   Tintal   which   will   be   the   base   of   operations  in  the  coming  years  as  fieldwork  and  investigations  continue  at  the  site.         Mapping   at   the   site   was   conducted   with   Total   Station     technology     for   the   first   time,   although   much   of   the   site   architecture   had   been   mapped   in   2004   by   the   Mirador   Basin   Project.       The   mapping   was   conducted   by   the   seasoned   and   experience   Guatemalan   company,   DEPIC,   who   has   been   responsible   for   the   mapping   at   El   Mirador.     The   mapping   during  the  2013  year  is  important  because  it  provides  accurate  (to  the  millimeter)  laser   technology,   which   can   result   in   3-­‐D   renditions   of   the   site   as   well   as   a     more   precise   location  of  excavations  and  structures.      


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  Map  of  Tintal,  Mirador  Basin  (©FARES  2006)  

 


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  Total  Station  map  of    a  portion  of  Tintal  looking  towards  the  southwest.    The  Henequen   Group  is  located  on  the  lower  right,  and  the  Mano  de  Leon  Group  is  located  in  the  center,   surrounded  by  a  large  artificial  moat.  (Map:    DEPIC,    ©FARES  2013).        

The large artificial moat or trench that surrounds the Mano de Leon Group at Tintal. Note the three individuals, two at the interior base and one on the far bank of the system (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

Excavations spanned the depth and breadth of the moat at Tintal (Photo: R.D. Hansen)

Preclassic ceramics were recovered directly off the floor of the artificial moat (Photo: R.D. Hansen)

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Edge of a ramp adjacent to the moat at Tintal (Op. 101E) (Photo: Francisco Lopez)

Protective Roof Structure, El Mirador From October through December 2013, the Mirador Basin Project, together with FARES-Guatemala, Perenco Oil, the Global Heritage Fund, PACUNAM, the FARES Foundation, the Kislak Foundation, the Selz Foundation, and important funding from Pero Aguirre, Francois DuBois, David and Deborah Sheets, Jonathan Layton, Odette Arzu and family, and Diego Arzu had the protective roof, which was to be over the frieze in the Great Central Acropolis, constructed in the headquarters of Aceros Arquitectónicos in Guatemala City, and transported to Carmelita. It was then transported by TAG (Transportes Aereos Guatemaltecos) helicopters from Carmelita to El Mirador, with a reported total of 47 helicopter flights with external cargo. This effort involved the transport of scaffolding, welders, acetylene torches, pulleys, ropes, medical supplies, food supplies, and other equipment. In addition, the columns and beams had to be transported by helicopter, a technique that required extreme caution and care by seasoned pilot Federico Monzon. The cement foundations for the large columns had been poured during at the end of the field season in late August, but the cement needed to cure for several months before being capable of withstanding the weight of the structure. The building design was created by Dr. Richard Hansen, with mathematical calculations from John Cybulski, and suggestions from Edgar Suyuc. However, in spite of the fact that two similar protective roofs had been constructed previously at El Mirador, none had the dimensions or the size of this particular roof. However, the virtues and capabilities of these protective roof are extraordinary: The allow light, but not UV light; they allow the surrounding vegetation to be seen; the copper color polycarbonate panels reduce heat; the staggered polycarbonate panels let air movement under the roof so that temperature and relative humidity remain constant; the joist columns and beams allow the vegetation to be viewed through the metal, dramatically reducing the visual impact; the protective structure is not competitive with the original art and architecture. These factors have provided a new model for conservation and preservation that can be applied elsewhere in the Mirador Basin, and other areas of the world.


 

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Staff and personnel on the hike from Carmelita to El Mirador through extremely rigorous and difficult conditions due to excessive water from the continual rains (Photo: A. Pozuelos).

Helicopter transport of heavy columns, polycarbonate panels, cross beams, and associated equipment required skill and caution. (Photo: A. Pozuelos).


 

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After delivery by the helicopter came the arduous task of transporting the beams and columns through the forest to the construction site (Photo: A. Pozuelos).

Transport of heavy beams to the construction site (Photo: A. Pozuelos).


 

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Placement of the first 33 meter long cross beam over the Acropolis causeway (Photo: A. Pozuelos).

Placement of cross beams and support joists on the vertical columns on the northeast corner of the protective building (Photo:A.Pozuelos).


 

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Construction of the staggered panels and cross beams over the temporary plastic covering over the frieze (Photo: A. Pozuelos)

Construction of the side beams, protective roof over the Acropolis frieze (Photo: A. Pozuelos)


 

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Placement of side beams in preparation for the polycarbonate panels (Photo: A. Pozuelos)

Completed roof at El Mirador. Note the staggered panels which allow air and humidity movement (Photo: R.D.Hansen).


 

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The polycarbonate panels let light through, but not UV light. They also allowed visibility of surrounding vegetation which reduces the visual impact of the roof. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Edge of the protective roof, Great Acropolis. collection (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Note the 10-inch downspouts for water


 

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The Great Central Acropolis roof as viewed from the air. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

The Popol Vuh frieze uncovered after the finalization of the roof construction at El Mirador. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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INVESTIGATIONS AT NAKBE, 2013 Preliminary archaeological work began in 2013 at Nakbe, located 12 km to the southeast of Danta pyramid at El Mirador. The site was extensively investigated by Dr. Richard Hansen from 1987 to 1998, but work was halted at the site in 1998 to begin exploration and mapping of sites closer to the threatened areas near Carmelita and the southern part of the Basin. The extensive work at the site was accompanied by a government request that all exposure of art and architecture be completely re-buried in order to protect and conserve the exposed features. Due to increasing interest from the public however, the Mirador Basin Project will conduct extensive work at the site to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve the architecture, much of which is extremely early dating to the Middle Preclassic period (1000 B.C.-400 B.C.). In December, 2013, Lic. Edgar Suyuc, Licda. Beatriz Balcarcel, Lic. Josue Guzman, Conservator Enrique Monterroso Tun, camp architect Adelzo Pozuelos, camp manager Pedro Cordova, and Dr. Richard Hansen, as well as a group of workmen formed an expedition to establish a new camp facility and to evaluate all the known major architecture to determine priority intervention in the future. The original camp had been placed directly on the primary platform of the West Group at the site, and was deemed an inappropriate place for a permanent camp. New tent facilites were provided some years previously by the dynamic Rotary International Club of Helson-Lizard England. A new location was selected to the southwest of the heliport, located along the Cascabel Causeway. The advantage of the camp was that it had an easier access to the heliport, and was closer to the permanent water source of Zacatal, as well as being more remote from the major of the monumental architecture at the site.

New camp established at Nakbe features new and spacious tents provided by the dynamic Rotary International Club of Helston-Lizard, England. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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The ancient city of Nakbe, as viewed from the summit of Danta pyramid at El Mirador. The largest building, at the right, is Str. 1, and the easternmost group of buildings, at the left, is dominated by the massive Str. 59. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Conservator Josue Guzman measuring the amount of erosion from the summit of Str. 1 since the project left in 1998. The erosion was due to the extensive presence of tourists at the summit without the necessary consolidation required to accommodate the tourism at the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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The mapping marker left by the Inter-American Geodesical Survey group in 1968 had been flush with the ground surface. Now, nearly 5 cm of soil has washed away from the summit, indicating the need to adequately stabilize and consolidate the summit of the building in the face of increasing tourism to the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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The extremely precarious back wall of Str. 27, Nakbe. The wall is near a point of collapse and is in desperate need of intervention. The building, the facades of which have been excavated previously by Dr. Richard Hansen and Dr. Donald Forsyth, had been damaged by looters previous to the first visit by Dr. Hansen in 1987, but recent heavy rains have now made conservation intervention an emergency priority. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Staff archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel surveying the architecture at Str. 103 in the Codex Group at Nakbe. The building had been partially stabilized by the Mirador Basin Project in the 1990’s (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Interior wall niches of the Late Classic building, Str. 103, in the Codex Group at Nakbe which had been excavated and consolidated by the Mirador Basin project in the 1990’s (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Mirador Basin conservators Enrique Monterroso Tun and Lic. Josue Guzman in the chamber excavated by Francisco Lopez in the 1990’s in the Codex Group at Nakbe. Note to the immediate right of Monterroso is a doorway that had been filled by the ancient Maya. The room was part of a residence of a codex-style scribe whose pottery has been found in private collections throughout the world. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Exposed stairway of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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Archaeologist Balcarcel documenting the walls of the interior chamber of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

The northern face of Str. 104 in the Codex Group at Nakbe. This Late Classic building had only been partially stabilized before the project began work at other sites that were more threatened near the western and southern sides of the Basin. (Photo; R.D. Hansen).


 

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Site conservator Josue Guzman at the base of the wall of Str. 200 in the Benson Plaza of the Coral Group at Nakbe. The wall had been stabilized and consolidated in 1996 by the Mirador Basin Project, and was still in good condition. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Conservators Enrique Monterroso Tun, Archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel, and Conservator Josue Guzman examining the excavated residential structure 203. The building was in need of additional conservation and stabilization, but had fared well over the 16 years of project absence at the site (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Mirador Basin Project staff examining the Middle Preclassic period ballcourt at Nakbe. This ballcourt, which had been partially excavated by Juan Luis Velasquez in the 1990’s shows the need for additional consolidation measures to stabilize the architecture and to prepare it for tourism. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Dr. Richard Hansen standing in one of the excavated quarries at Nakbe (Photo: Guzman).

Josue


 

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The northern wall of Str. 502, a Middle Preclassic residential platform excavated by archaeologist Beatriz Balcarcel in the 1990’s. This wall, one of the earliest platforms at the site, is in additional need of stabilization and consolidation. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Monument 8 at Nakbe, an extremely early monument believed to date to the late Middle Preclassic period was found to have been abandoned by park guards. The monument originally had a roof over it, but due to the lack of palm thatch, the guards simply removed the roof. Work in 2014 will place a polycarbonate roof over the monument for its permanent protection. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Analyses and Laboratory Investigations 2013 Isotopes. Analyses of several bone samples from burials from Nakbe and Tintal by Clayton Meredith of Idaho State University continued to identify evidence of diet in human bones from five burials dating to the Middle Preclassic, Early Classic and Late Classic periods. Meredith’s report is being published in one of the upcoming volumes of the archaeology of the Mirador Basin in 2014. As reported in the 2012 report, the isotope evidence indicates that most of the inhabitants had diets of maize (43.9%), dog (39.7%), and C-3 plants (16.3%). The ability to retrieve this data from the Mirador Basin burials indicates that it can identify, with greater reliability, dietary evidence of the original inhabitants. It is hoped that future technology will be able to further identify the C-3 plants that were being harvested and consumed by the inhabitants of the Mirador Basin. Microscopic Analyses of Projectile Points, Tigre.: ISU CAMAS laboratory 2013 Preliminary laboratory analyses were initiated at the Center for Archaeology, Materials, and Applied Spectoscopy (CAMAS) laboratory at Idaho State University, conducted by Dr. John Dudgen. Dudgen and staff technicians were examining projectile points recovered from the upper platform of the Tigre Pyramid in the lab’s electron microscopes, which proved to be an extremely tedious and lengthy process. Although preliminary evidence indicated the possible presence of human blood cells on some points, as well as what appeared to be small traces of human tissue, the results were too tenuous to be considered reliable at this stage with the present technology. The points were returned to FARES and to the Project Laboratory in Guatemala City to await refinements in the technology that would allow more successful identification of the proteins and residues on the punts.

Dr. John Dudgeon examining the projectile points from the Tigre Pyramid with an electron microscope in the CAMAS laboratory at ISU. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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Identification of organic residues (depicted in blue) on the projectile points from the summit of Tigre pyramid. (Photo: R.D. Hansen). PXRF Analyses of Obsidian, BYU Laboratories During the 2013 season, PXRF analyses were conducted on points from the summit of Tigre pyramid at the Geology and Geochemistry laboratories at Brigham Young University. The study was conducted by BYU Geo-lab technician Aubrey Longhurst, under the supervision of BYU Professor of Geochemistry, Dr. Steven Nelson. The study did detect sharp elemental distinctions in the points, which will allow positive identification of the sources of the obsidian. Analyst Fred Nelson at BYU had previously conducted XRF studies for Dr. Hansen, and discovered that all of the obsidian recovered on the summit of Tigre pyramid had sources from Highland Mexico, including the obsidian sources at Pachuca, Otumba, Paredon, and Zaragoza. It is believed that the remainder of the several hundred points will demonstrate a similar sourcing.


 

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Geochemistry lab technician Aubrey Longhurst conducted the analysis of the obsidian points from the summit of Tigre pyramid in the laboratories of the Department of Geology under the supervision of Professor Steven Nelson. (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

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The portable (potentially hand held) XRF machine which analyzed the obsidian from Tigre pyramid (Photo: R.D. Hansen).

Trace element readings of the XRF machine indicated strong variations as well as similarities in the chemical composition of the obsidian points, suggesting both common and varied sources of obsidian. Comparative analyses are currently underway to identify the precise sources of the obsidian (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


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Identification of Protein Residues, Projectile Points: Paleo Research Institute 2013 Analyses began at the Paleo Research Institute of Colorado in 2013 with the purpose of identifying evidence of proteins on the projectile points recovered from the summit of Tigre pyramid. The protein residues were definitely found on 28 the points, and contextual evaluations are currently underway for more accurate understanding of the nature of the proteins. The analyses are supervised by Dr. Linda Cummings with assistance from Jenny Milligan and the results will be forthcoming in the 2014 year. Carbon-14 Analyses: Beta Analytic 2013 Analyses of charcoal and bone were conducted by the laboratories of Beta Analytic, in Coral Gables, Florida with an additional 37 carbon dates extracted from the materials. One of the more surprising series of dates came from a series of burned posts in postholes carved in bedrock, which consistently yielded dates between 2600 and 2400 B.C. This data matches perfectly with that found by Wahl, Schreiner, and Hansen in the Puerto Arturo and Chuntuqui lake bottom cores. These cores consistently revealed the presence of corn by about 2600 B.C., but until now, there was no evidence of their location due to the fact that these were preceramic populations. It is possible, and now, apparently likely, that the earliest occupations of the Maya will be found under large Middle Preclassic platforms and constructions due to the fact that subsequent populations, particularly those in the Late Preclassic period, dramatically altered their landscape due to extensive quarry and fill activity. Neutron Activation of Ceramics. Studies of neutron activation sherds are being conducted by Dr. Ron Bishop, Dr. Dorie Reents-Budet, and Dr. Erin Sears with the Smithsonian Institution. The sampling of a larger data base including ceramics from a wide range of geographical sites and chronological periods will provide data relevant to the interactions between primary sites at various periods of time. It is believed that these studies will finish by end of 2013, and the results presented in 2014.     Photographic Type Collection of Ceramics, Mirador Basin   The Mirador Basin Project has initiated a Project to digitally photograph all samples extracted from the excavation lots for type collections, providing the first photographic type collection of ceramics in history. The photographic ceramic type collection, which will be made available to all interested scholars and institutions upon completion, will contain detailed information of the provenience of the samples, the ceramic Group, type, and variety of the sampled ceramics, and thus allow a comparative samples much easier to deal with while in the field or at a location away from the actual type collections. This project, initiated by Dr. Richard Hansen, is being conducted by Lic. Gustavo Martinez and Licda. Maria Anaite Ordoñez and is expected to complement the extensive work by Dr. Donald W. Forsyth (BYU) on the ceramics of the Mirador Basin.        


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Publications, Project Papers, and Technical Reports 2013 Argyle, J. Craig 2013 Continuacion de las excavaciones en la Estructura 316, Adyacente a la Calzada: Operaciones 316 A y 610 X. In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:     Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐ Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  19-­‐32.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de   Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Balcarcel-­Villagran,    Beatriz     2013a    Gran  Acropolis  Central,  Grupo  Balam,    Estructuras  313,  314,  y  314,     Temporada  2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de   la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  139-­‐156.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de   Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.         2013b    La  importancia  de  la  educación  en  comunidades  rurales,    Temporada  de   campo  2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la   Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  531-­‐534.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de   Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.       Balcarcel-­Villagran,  Beatriz,    Gustavo  Martinez-­Hidalgo,  y  Richard  D.  Hansen     2013    La  evidencia  cotidiana  preclásica  atraves  de  datos  cerámicos:    Una   Perspectiva  de  la  Cuenca  Mirador-­‐Calakmul  del  Norte  del  Peten.    Conference  in   Campeche,  XXIII  Encuentro  Internacional  “Los  Investigadores  de  la  Cultura  Maya”    Vida   Cotiana,    2013.    Universidad  Autonoma  de  Campeche,  Campeche,  Mexico.    Nov.  4-­‐9,  2013.       Bustamante, Eduardo 2013 Excavaciones en las inmediaciones del panel de estuco y sistema hidraulico: Operaciones 316B, 610AA, y 610AB. In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca   Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  33-­‐44.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de   Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Callen,  Danilo     2013    Programa  de  monitoreo  y  conservación,  Informe  de  actividades  Temporada   2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la   Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  535-­‐550.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de   Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.       Garcia-­Valdez,  Josue  R.  


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  2013    Excavaciones  en  la  Gran  Acropolis  Central  asociada  a  los  sistemas  de  control   y  uso  hidrico  y  ritual,  Fachada  Este,  Estructura  316  y  Calzada  Este,  Estructura  310.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  45-­‐ 62.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.   Guenter, Stanley Paul 2013a La Corte Real de los K’uhul Chatan Winik: Recuperando Información de la Cerámica Estilo Códice. Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 23 July 2013. 2013b  First  Words  and  First  Kings:  The  Epigraphy    of  the  Preclassic.    The  World  of   the  First  Ahaws,  20th  Annual  Precolumbian  Society  of  Washington,  D.C.  Symposium,   Washington,  D.C. Sept. 7, 2013. 2013c  Mil  años  de  historia  de  las  capitals  del  Reino  Serpiente.    VI  Convención   Mundial  de  la  Arqueología  Maya.  Guatemala  City.   Guzman, Josúe Leonardo, Lisa Sardegna, Marco Tulio Ical Bo, Arnoldo Che Ical, Bartolo Yat Pop. 2013    Mantenimiento,  medidas  de  conservación  y  estabilización  en  el  sitio   arqueológico  El  Mirador.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe   Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,   and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  453-­‐480.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e   Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental   Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       Hansen, Richard D. 2013a The Mirador Basin: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Lecture at the Institute for Maya Studies (IMS), Miami, Florida. Jan. 16, 2013. 2013 b. Discovering the Lost Cities of Mirador. Paper presented at the Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Organized by Doe Stowell y la Asociacion de Residentes de Puerto Aventuras, Mexico. 14 February 2013. 2013c. El Legado Cultural y Natural del Reino Kan. Paper presented to university students at Colegio Mayaland, Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 15 February 2013. 2013d. The Mirador Basin: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Paper sponsored by the International Rotary Club, Puerto Aventuras, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 17 February 2013. 2013e. Salvando la Cuna de la Civilizacion Maya. Keynote address at the inauguration of the Centro de Investigacion y Educacion Medica, CIEM Medical Center, Guatemala City, 28 February 2013.


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2013 f. The Kan Kingdom: The Cultural and Natural Legacy in the Cradle of Maya Civilization. Presentation to staff of National Geographic Society, Washington D.C. 16 May 2013.

 

2013g    La  Operación  610W,    Informe  de  la  Temporada  de  Campo  2012.    In  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  109-­‐ 118.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       2013  h  The  Dialogue  of  Civilizations:    The  Model  of  the  Origins,  Dynamics,  and   Collapse  of  a  Complex  Society  from  a  Cradle  of  Maya  Civilization  in  Northern  Guatemala.     Paper  presented  at  the  Conference    Dialogo  de  las  Civilizaciones:    El  Pasado  como  una   Ventana  al  Futuro,    organized  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Luis  Fernando  Andrade,  Christopher   Thornton,  and  Fred  Hieber;    National  Geographic  Society,  Government  of  Guatemala,   InterAmerican  Development  Bank  (IDB),  Hotel  Tikal  Futura,  17  April  2013.       2013 i. Los Origines de la Civilizacion Maya. Keynote presentation at the Central American Congress of the Rotary Club, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. 8 June 2013. 2013  j  Asentamiento  y  proceso  cultural  y  natural  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Ciudades   Milenarias  en  la  Cuna  de  la  Civilización  Maya.    Paper  presented  at  the  VI  Convencion   Mundial  de  Arqueologia  Maya,  2013.    Universidad  Francisco  Marroquin,  Guatemala.  15   June  2013.     2013k    Archaeological  and  Environmental  Perspectives  of  the  World  of  the  First   Ahaws.    Abstract  and  keynote  address  at  the  conference,  The  World  of  the  First  Ahaws,     U.S.  Naval  Memorial  and  Naval  Heritage  Center,  Washington,  D.C.    Pre-­‐Columbian  Society   of  Washington  D.C.    Sept.  7,  2013.             2013L  La  Sociedad  Maya  Preclásica  y  la  Naturaleza:    Perspectivas  de  la  Relacion   Exitosa  y  el  Fracaso  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador-­‐Calakmul.    Paper  presented  at  the  “Coloquio:     La  Relación  Sociedad-­Naturaleza  Entre  Los  Mayas.”  Festival  Internacional  de  la  Cultural   Maya,  Merida,  Mexico,  Conference  17-­‐20  October,  2013.           2013  m.    La  Arqueologia  de  la  Cuenca  Mirador.    Paper  presented  at  the  Museo   Popol  Vuh,    Universidad  de  Francisco  Marroquin,  21  Nov.  2013.         Hansen,  Richard  D.  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­Ley     2013a    Introduction.    In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:     Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐ Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  1-­‐18.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia   e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental   Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.         2013  b.    Nuevos  Datos  de  las  Investigaciones  del  Proyecto  Arqueologico  Cuenca   Mirador,  La  Temporada  2012.  Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 26 July 2013.


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Hansen,  Richard  D.,  Edgar  Suyuc,  y  Fenella  French     2013    Cubiertas  Protectoras:    El  Caso  de  la  Cuenca  Mirador,  Guatemala.    Paper   presented  at  the  III  Taller  de  Diseño  de  Cubiertas  para  la  Protección  Arqueológica,     organized  by  Norma  Barbacci  (World  Monuments  Fund),  Rosa  Maria  Chan  (Viceminister   of  Culture),  and  Barbara  Arroyo  (Coordinadora  Kaminaljuyu).    Museo  Nacional  de   Arqueologia  y  Etnologia,  28-­‐29  Octubre,  2013.           Hansen,  Richard  D.,  Edgar  Suyuc,  Hector  Mejia,  Julio  Cotom,  Enrique  Hernandez,   Josue  Garcia,  Laura  Velasquez,  y  Carlos  Morales-­Aguilar     2013    Observaciones  del  Saqueo  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    La  Intensidad  de  una   Industria  Ilicita  y  Retos  para  la  Conservacion  del  Patrimonio  Cultural  y  Natural.  Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 24 July 2013.       Hernandez,  Enrique  y  Thomas  Schreiner     2013    Excavaciones  preliminares  en  la  Calzada  La  Muerta-­‐El  Mirador.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  313-­‐-­‐ 340.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Hernandez,  Enrique,  Thomas  Schreiner  y  Carlos  Morales-­Aguilar     2013    Uso  publico,  uso  privado  y  mitos  asociados  a  las  calzadas  y  sacbeob  de  El   Mirador.      In  XXVI  Simposio  de  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  Guatemala,  Vol.  2,  edited   by  Barbara  Arroyo  and  Luis  Mendez  Salinas,  pp.  939-­‐950.    Ministerio  de  Cultura  y   Deportes,  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  Asociacion  Tikal.     Johnston,  Kevin  J.     2013    Buscando  “Asentamientos  No  Visibles”  en  El  Mirador:    Excavaciones  en  las   Operaciones  112B,  112C,  112D,  112E,  y  112G.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la   Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  287-­‐312.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto   de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       Llorente,  Maria  Pilar  V.     2013    Temporada  de  campo  2012,    Operación  610S  ampliación.  In  Investigaciones   Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by   Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  95-­‐108.    Report   filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for   Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Lopez,  Francisco  y  Sheryl  Carcuz     2013    Investigaciones  arqueológicas  en  el  complejo  acropolis  Danta:    Tercera   Plataforma.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la   Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  263-­‐274.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  


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Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.     Martinez-­Hidalgo,  Gustavo     2013a    Informe  Final  de  las  Operaciones  610V  ampliación,  y  316  D  de  la   temporada  de  campo  2012  en  el  sitio  El  Mirador.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la   Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  63-­‐82.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de   Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       2013  b    Operaciones  204P,  204  HC  y  204  H-­‐R  de  la  temporada  de  campo  2012  en   el  sitio  El  Mirador.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final   de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and   Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  1177-­‐182.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia   de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.     Mauricio-­Martinez,  Douglas  y  Carlos  Morales-­Aguilar     2013    Reconocimiento  y  mapeo  en  los  sectores  Oeste  (Asentamiento  Los  Pericos,   Calzadas  4  y  5)  y    Este  (Grupo  Loro  Real)  de  El  Mirador,  Peten:    Temporada  de  campo   2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la   Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  341-­‐384.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de   Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.     Mejia,  Hector  E.     2013    Excavaciones  en  la  Estructura  316:    Operación  316F.  In  Investigaciones   Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by   Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  83-­‐94.    Report   filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for   Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Mejia,  Hector  E.  y  Laura  Velasquez     2013    Representaciones  cosmogónicas  en  la  planificación  urbana  de  El  Mirador,   Peten,  Guatemala.  In  XXVI  Simposio  de  Investigaciones  Arqueolóigicas  en  Guatemala,  2012,   editado  por  Barbara  Arroyo  y  Luis  Mendez  Salinas,  pp.  459-­‐470.    Museo  Nacional  de   Arqueologia  y  Etnologia,    Ministerio  de  Cultura  y  Deportes,  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e   Historia,  Asociacion  Tikal,  Guatemala     Monterroso-­Tun,  Enrique     2013    Unidad  de  conservación  en  arquitectura  y  estucos.  In  Investigaciones   Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by   Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  385-­‐452.     Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for   Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Morales-­Aguilar,  Carlos  


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2013    Viviendo  entre  las  ruinas:    el  Area  Central  de  El  Mirador,  Peten,  Guatemala,   durante  el  Período  Clasico  Tardío.    In  XXVI  Simposio  de  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en   Guatemala,  Vol.  2,  edited  by  Barbara  Arroyo  and  Luis  Mendez  Salinas,  pp.  773-­‐786.     Ministerio  de  Cultura  y  Deportes,  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  Asociacion  Tikal.             Morales  Aguilar,  Carlos  y  Julien  Hiquet     2013    Naachtun  y  su  contexto  regional  durante  el  Clasico  Temprano.    IX  Contreso   Internacional  de  Mayistas,    Campeche,  Mexico,  24  Junio  2013.         Ordoñez,  Maria  Anaite   2013    Las  Representaciones  Artísticas  de  Flora  y  Fauna  en  los  Artefactos   Arqueológicos  de  la  Cuenca  Mirador,  Peten,  Guatemala.  Paper presented at the XXVII Simposio de Arqueología Guatemalteca, Museo Nacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 23 July 2013.   Ortega,  Edgar  Rene     2013a    Estructura  200,  Grupo  Cascabel,  sitio  arqueologico  El  Mirador,  Peten.     Informe  final,  Temporada  de  campo  2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca   Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  167-­‐177.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto   de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       2013b    Estructuras  4D3-­‐4  y  4D3-­‐2  del  Grupo  Tigre,  sitio  arqueológico  El  Mirador,   Peten.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la   Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar   Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  199-­‐212.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de   Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;     Idaho  State  University.     Ortega,  Edgar  Rene  y  Enrique  Hernandez     2013    Actividades  de  Campo  2011  durante  la  intervención  arquitectónica  en  El   Mirador:    Muro  Perimetral,  Estructuras  4D3-­‐2,  4D3-­‐4  y  34  del  Grupo  Tigre.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  213-­‐ 262.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Pozuelos,  Adelzo     2013    Infraestructura,  sitio  arqueológico  El  Mirador,  Peten,  Guatemala.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  497-­‐ 516.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.         Ramos,  Carmen     2013    Nuevas  investigaciones  en  la  escalinata  monumental  del  ingreso  a  la  Gran   Acropolis  Central,  El  Mirador,  Peten.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  


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Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  119-­‐138.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto   de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Rodens  de  Pozuelos,  Vanessa.     2013    Los  artefactos  especiales  de  la  Zona  Cultural  y  Natural  de  la  Cuenca  Mirador,   Peten:    Temporada  de  campo  2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca   Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  481-­‐496.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto   de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       Suyuc-­Ley,  Edgar     2013    Investigaciones  en  la  acropolis  triadica  La  Pava,    Temporada  2012.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  275-­‐ 286.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     Suyuc-­Ley,  Edgar,  and  Richard  D.  Hansen     2013    Conclusiones  de  la  Temporada  2012.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la   Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura   Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  551-­‐554.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto   de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       Suyuc  –  Ley,  Edgar  y  Richard  D.  Hansen   2013   El complejo piramidal La Danta: ejemplo del auge en El Mirador. In Millenary Maya Societies: Past Crises and Resilience, edited by M.-Charlotte Arnauld and Alain Breton, pp. 217-234. Electronic document, published online at Mesoweb: www.mesoweb.com/publications/MMS/14_Suyuc-Hansen.pdf. Suyuc-­Ley,  Edgar  y  Adelzo  Pozuelos     2013    Pozos  de  Sondeo  en  el  friso  de  la  Gran  Acropolis  Central,  El  Mirador.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,   edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  517-­‐ 530.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.       Vazquez-­Llorente,  Maria  Pilar    y    Richard  D.  Hansen     2013    Nuevo  Hallazgo  de  iconografia  preclasica  en  El  Mirador:    el  Monumento  21.   In  XXVI  Simposio  de  Investigaciones  Arqueolóigicas  en  Guatemala,  2012,  editado  por   Barbara  Arroyo  y  Luis  Mendez  Salinas,  pp.  275-­‐286.    Museo  Nacional  de  Arqueologia  y   Etnologia,    Ministerio  de  Cultura  y  Deportes,  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,   Asociacion  Tikal,  Guatemala.             Velasquez-­Fergusson,    Maria  Laura     2013    Estructura  4D3-­‐1,  Piramide  El  Tigre,  El  Mirador:    Operaciones  01V  y  01W.  In   Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:    Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  


131  

edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  183-­‐ 198.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation   for  Anthropological  Research  &  Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.     2013      b    El  Patron  Triadico:    Contexto  Urbano  y  Simbolismo.    IX  Congreso   Internacional  de  Mayistas,  Campeche,  Mexico.    25  Junio,  2013.         2013c    Juegos  visuales  o  conceptuales:    las  variantes  de  los  conjuntos  de  patrón   triádico  en  El  Mirador.  In  XXVI  Simposio  de  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  Guatemala,   Vol.  2,  edited  by  Barbara  Arroyo  and  Luis  Mendez  Salinas,  pp.  951-­‐960.    Ministerio  de   Cultura  y  Deportes,  Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  Asociacion  Tikal.     Warner,  Addison     2013    Exploración  e  investigaciones  del  Chultun  No.  17  en  la  porción  central  de  El   Mirador,  Peten,  Guatemala.  In  Investigaciones  Arqueologicas  en  la  Cuenca  Mirador:     Informe  Final  de  la  Temporada  2012,  edited  by  Richard  D.  Hansen,  Laura  Velasquez-­‐ Fergusson,  and  Edgar  Suyuc-­‐Ley,  pp.  157-­‐166.    Report  filed  with  the  Instituto  de   Antropologia  e  Historia  de  Guatemala.    Foundation  for  Anthropological  Research  &   Environmental  Studies,  Idaho;    Idaho  State  University.      

Project conservator Lisa Sardegna and friends at El Mirador (Photo: R.D. Hansen).


 

132  

FARES Financial Reports, 2013 Season F.A.R.E.S.

Profit and Loss Standard January through December 2013 Ordinary Income/Expense Income Book Sales Patronage Dividends Contributions Total Income Expense Donation-Global Heritage Found Donations-FARES Guatemala Field Programs Research expenses Honorarium Artists Field Program Directors Mapping Photography Scientific Analysis Scientific Research Arch. Research & Conservation Guatemalan Team Students Guatemalan Team Other Total Guatemalan Team Lab Research & Consulting Scientific Research - Other Total Scientific Research Research expenses - Other Total Research expenses Total Field Programs Field Support & Logistics Camp Staff Food Site Security Site Supplies Travel Helicopters

Cash Basis Jan - Dec '13

170.94 27.86 581,781.02 581,979.82 550.00 121,900.00

29,285.64 1,200.00 194.15 9,000.00 1,101.20 21,722.97

190,541.53 500.00 34,140.00 34,640.00 606.78 3,054.98 228,843.29 140.95 291,488.20 291,488.20 208.41 3,649.19 1,171.82 1,937.59 30,359.59


 

133   Other Travel Travel-Local Travel - Other Total Travel Total Field Support & Logistics Management & Administrative Advertising & Promotional Accounting Depreciation Insurance Insurance-Guatemala Insurance-U.S. Total Insurance Interest & Bank Charges Legal Office supplies Postage and shipping Rent Rent-Guatemala Total Rent Staff U.S. Staff Taxes - payroll SUTA ID wh FICA & med & fed wh Taxes - payroll - Other Total Taxes - payroll Total Staff Utilities Utilities-Guatemala Internet Telephone Total Utilities-Guatemala Utilities-U.S. Electricity Internet Propane Telephone Total Utilities-U.S. Total Utilities Total Management & Administrative Total Expense Net Ordinary Income Net Income

55,819.07 233.96 1,009.71 87,422.33 94,389.34 13,578.03 2,801.00 13,710.54 1,027.87 2,866.00 3,893.87 11,693.44 799.50 4,722.83 1,219.23 18,000.00 18,000.00 7,681.77 14.74 -14.00 1,145.89 70.18 1,216.81 8,898.58

6,897.97 501.02 7,398.99 1,165.10 432.45 701.45 5,987.41 8,286.41 15,685.40 95,002.42 603,329.96 -21,350.14 -21,350.14


134  

F.A.R.E.S.

Balance Sheet Standard As of December 31, 2013 ASSETS Current Assets Checking/Savings Fares-WF-checking 1251 Fares1-WF checking 6376 Fares Endowment Acct 9320 Total Checking/Savings Total Current Assets Fixed Assets Real estate-Guatemala Water Systems Vehicles Buildings Camp Equipment Office equipment Accumulated Depreciation Total Fixed Assets TOTAL ASSETS LIABILITIES & EQUITY Liabilities Long Term Liabilities Loan payable-Choate Loan payable-Francois Berger Loan payable - Richard Hansen Loan payable-Wells Fargo Bank Total Long Term Liabilities Total Liabilities Equity Net Assets Retained earnings Net Income Total Equity TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY

Cash Basis Dec 31, '13

-48.90 25,431.37 35.00 25,417.47 25,417.47 2,700.00 37,000.00 40,500.00 245,800.00 34,285.37 55,487.37 200,735.88 215,036.86 240,454.33

17,800.00 155,000.00 109,619.56 79,998.86 362,418.42 362,418.42 31,648.58 132,262.53 -21,350.14 121,964.09 240,454.33


135  

F.A.R.E.S. GLOBAL HERITAGE FUND DONATION for 2013 January through December 2013 Date 1/7/13 4/26/13 7/3/13 12/30/13

From

Amount

GHF GHF GHF GHF

100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000

TOTAL

200,000

                                           


136  

  List  of  Operations  2013  

Op.  113  A       Op.  113B       Op.  113C     Op.  113  D   Op.  113  E       Op.  200L         Op.  200  M         Op.  204P     Op.  204M       Op.  204Q         Op.  204R     Op.  304       Op.  304   Central         Op.  313Z     Op.  313ZA     Op.  313  ZB     Op.  313  ZC     Op.  314J         Op.  314K     Op.  314L          

     

Mirador  Basin  Project     Kevin  Johnston     Platform  at  men’s  camp   Kevin  Johnston     Invisible  housemounds   Kevin  Johnston      

   

John  Pettit,  Marissa  Lynn  Lopez   John  Pettit,  Marissa  Lynn  Lopez  

   

Edgar  Ortega          

   

Cumbre,  plataforma  superior,  Str.     200,    Cuerpos  sureste  

 

Edgar  Ortega      

 

Fachada  ,  sure  oeste,  Str.  200  

 

Gustavo  Martinez  

 

SW  corner  of  Str.  204  

 

Gustavo  Martinez  

 

front  of  wall  

 

Gustavo  Martinez  

 

Wall,  SE  Corner,  Str.  204  

 

Gustavo  Martinez  

 

Summit  excavations,  Str.  204  

 

Enrique  Monterroso    

Consolidation  of  Str.  304  

 

Josue  Garcia    

 

Fachada  norte  del  gran  Acropolis  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Main  trench  on  east  side  of  Str  313  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Extension  to  north  from  313  Z  

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Parte  superior  al  sur  del  colapso     de  313Z  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Colapso  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Fachada  Oeste  de  Str.  314  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Esquina  suroeste  de  Str.  314  

 

Beatriz  Balcarcel  

 

Extension  al  norte  de  la  fachada  de              Str.  314  

Cistern  Pits,  Monos  plaza   Cistern  pits,  Monos  plaza  


137  

    Op,  400  YY       Op.  400  AB     Op.  406  C     Op.  610  X    

     

Cheryl  Carcuz           Cheryl  Carcuz    

     

 

Edgar  Suyuc/Marissa  Lopez        Lower  eastern  façade,  Pava  

 

Craig  Argyle    

 

610  GG  

 

Craig  Argyle    

 

610  HH     610  ii       610  AC  

 

Craig  Argyle    

 

E-­‐W  extension,  5  x  2  adjacent  to       Frieze     4.5  m  to  west,  11  x  1  m,  then  2  x  6    to  west     Possible  stairway  on  west  of  frieze  

 

Craig  Argyle    

 

Excavations  around  tree  removal  

Craig  Argyle    

 

Pit  for  basal  foundation  for      protective  roof  

 

Extension  norte,  fachada  suroeste,    Danta   Southeast  Corner,  3rd  level,  Danta  

  Op.  610  WW    

Richard  Hansen  

 

Excavation  of  the  lower  eastern     Frieze,  Central  Acropolis    

Stanley  Guenter   John  Pettit          

   

Excavations  the  Grupo  Venado,     East  of  Danta  pyramid    

Tin  101  A      

Francisco  Lopez   Thomas  Schreiner  

 

Moat  

Tin  101B          

Francisco  Lopez   Thomas  Schreiner  

 

bottom  of  moat  

Tin101C    

Francisco  Lopez  

 

Moat  edge  

Tin  101  D  

Francisco  Lopez  

 

Moat  edge  

Tin  101E      

Francisco  Lopez  

 

Moat  edge  

Tin  102A     Tin.200A      

Francisco  Lopez  

 

Ball  court  

Enrique  Hernandez            

lower  platform  below     Henequen  pyramid  

Tin  200B  

Enrique  Hernandez    

Lower  platform  below     Henequen  pyramid  

Op.  701A          

     

Tintal                                    

 


FARES 2013 Annual Report (Long Version)