Mining Business Africa - Sept 2021

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Targeting Africa’s Mining Decision Makers


Alternative project financing CSA Global - from Exploration to Closure

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Targeting Africa’s Mining Decision Makers

September - October 2021



Editor’s Note Increased Burden on Mining Companies to Guarantee Employee Safety

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Alternative project financing CSA Global - from Exploration to Closure

Cover Image: Jihadists in Northern Mali

COVER STORY: PG 06 Duty of Care for Employees in High-Risk Areas


In the past three years, the level of kidnap and ransom risk in some regions in Africa has been escalating alarmingly. Doubtless, this is a clarion call for mining companies to be wellequipped.


onditions in mineral resource-rich African countries – mainly West Africa – mimic scenes in a Wild, Wild West-themed movie in which changes in subplots take place at the bat of an eyelid, leaving the audience bamboozled. The situation in the region is so unpredictable that anything can happen at any time, as the recent coup in Guinea - and the preceding one in Mali - have attested. Against the backdrop of the endemic state of poor governance are unremitting activities of various local franchise of jihadists, who have become a law unto themselves. If the bandits are not attacking vulnerable local communities, they would be abducting foreign workers of multinationals or international aid agencies and asking for stratospheric sums of money in ransom. More often than not, the volatility poses a great risk to billion-dollar assets of multinational mining companies in the region. For this reason, the respective companies have to proactively explore various ways of mitigating the impact of the risks on their business interests. Judging from recent developments, assurances of host governments cannot be taken seriously - placing increased burden on mining houses to devote ample resources towards guaranteeing the safety and security of their employees and critical infrastructure.

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FEATURE 3D Geological Modelling & Resource Estimation for Exploration & Mining Projects

Life-of-Mine Value Chain

From Exploration to Closure With a footprint of mining services complementary across geographies, clientele, and capabilities, CSA Global is unrivalled in the provision of reliable resource estimation for exploration and mining projects. With respect to Africa, from their regional office in Johannesburg, South Africa, the firm provides relevant local knowledge and skills.

Osino Resources’ Twin Hills Gold Project.


or clientele involved in contemporary exploration and mining projects, the financial viability of a project is still at the forefront, with sustainability (Environmental, Social and Governance) taking on a strong focus in recent years. Just over two years ago, CSA Global was acquired by sustainability consultancy ERM Group, headed out of London and is perfectly placed and well-resourced to add value in these areas for prospective clientele in Africa. CSA Global excels in providing technical and management consulting services and independent corporate advice to mining and exploration companies and financial and legal groups worldwide. In good stead Galen White, Partner (EMEA) based in the United Kingdom, Graham Jeffress, Partner (APAC) based in Australia and Anton

Graham Jeffress, Partner – Asia Pacific.

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Geldenhuys, Principal Resource Consultant based in South Africa foresee CSA Global playing a more prominent role in Africa as project prospects are positive following a lull that greeted the news of the COVID-19 pandemic. The three resource specialists are confident that, well-resourced, thoroughly compliant with industry best practice, and constantly innovative, the company is in good stead to solve complex challenges for clients. There are vast opportunities in mining and exploration on the continent, and there is a lack of credible geological data. One of the areas where they look to consult is in resource estimation and work with clientele on delivering value through 3D geological modelling, orebody characterisation and improving orebody knowledge through their geometallurgy service offering, which has seen growth over recent years.

CSA Global is currently working on an early-stage gold exploration project in the Eastern Desert, Egypt.

Well-resourced • Skills Undoubtedly, CSA Global’s most valuable assets are the vast diversity of skills complemented by a host of relevant and current industry-specific software. This gives the company the flexibility to handle different project needs for clients. CSA Global’s human capital pool constitutes the cream of skills in mining, geoscience, exploration, data, and water management. The company’s employees and associates globally include a team of geologists, engineers, mining consultants, hydrologists, hydrogeologists, and data specialists who are some of the most experienced and sought-after professionals across the mining industry backed by many years of various levels of commodity expertise. CSA Global’s consultants have worked on a vast array of projects in most African countries, across all mineral commodities and covering all stages of the exploration and mining cycle. Since 2006, CSA Global has worked in 40 African countries and issued more than 700 technical reports on projects in Africa. West African projects account for 40% of our work in the region, followed by Southern Africa (25%), North and East Africa (13% and 12% respectively) and 10% in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Leveraging ERM’s global infrastructure, CSA Global provides expertise in environmental, health, safety, risk, social consulting across the life cycle of a mining business. ERM has more than 5,500 people in over 40 countries and territories operating from more than 160

offices around the world. “We guarantee proper estimation, proper Environmental Social Governance (ESG) and Health and Safety (HS) of the project,” Jeffress comments, adding that sustainability services help companies operate more safely, efficiently and as stewards of society and the environment.

Galen White, Partner – EMEA

Anton Geldenhuys, Principal Resource Geologist

Software CSA Global Resources team uses a host of software relevant to industry needs. “Using relevant software, we are able to provide block models in the client’s required format. We can prepare resource estimates for almost every style of mineralisation, under all international reporting codes, using relevant software. This sets us apart from competitors. Having a background that is strong in mining geology, best practice alignment with reconciliation, short- and long-term models and nonlinear estimation techniques to routing offerings also sets us apart.” Geldenhuys states. The common software packages that CSA Global uses are Datamine, Surpac, Micromine, Isatis, Leapfrog, Vulcan, and Supervisor. However, the software does not work in isolation; it needs to be in the hands of a proficient team with a strong geological background, Geldenhuys clarifies. “Powerful tools become easy when you are confident with geological modelling.” Compliance with Best practice One of the cornerstones of CSA Global’s success is compliance with best practice.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 3

FEATURE • Machine learning Another area where CSA Global sees opportunities emerging is the application of machine learning techniques. Currently, a lot of buzz in the academic world and select institutions is yet to be echoed in mainstream mining. The resource team is constantly exploring how machine learning can unlock complex geological problems, like how to use models using the entire database and in other mining processes.

Panoramic view of the Eastern Desert showing small scale mine workings in Egypt

Mainly, this is founded on two critical factors: the competence of the consultants engaged and robust QA&QC (Quality Assurance and Quality Control). •

Competence of CSA Global specialists The competence of CSA Global specialists involved in the process gives confidence in the integrity of data. As old hands and members of various recognised bodies, consultants are wellversed. For instance, a team of data geologists involved in resource work is responsible for packaging data and reviewing, checking, validating, and then handing over the robust database on satisfaction. CSA Global’s team of competent geologists and resource practitioners handle software, comprising a wealth of geological experience to underpin geological modelling, complimented by geostatistical skills to deliver the clients mineral resource estimation. As a standard practice, the importance of securing data and having competent specialists in software (as mentioned earlier) is constantly stressed and based on the client’s requirement.

Continuous innovation CSA Global is at the cutting edge of innovation. When necessary, the company adopts technologies that can enable it to add value to clientele’s project expectations. This is evident mainly in In-situ recovery and opportunities opening in machine learning, amongst others. • In-situ Recovery CSA Global’s adaptation of In-situ leaching, commonly known as In-Situ Recovery (ISR), has been revolutionary. While traditionally a primary extraction method used to obtain uranium from the ground, CSA Global has initiated its deployment to the extraction process of other metals such as nickel, gold, and copper successfully.“It has proved to be an alternative to conventional milling and mining methods .in terms of low operational costs and a lower environmental footprint. It is a very desirable recovery method,” Jeffress explains, predicting increased usage as the electric vehicle market continues to gain traction. Thus far, ISR has been successfully used in Russia, Turkey, and Kazakhstan.

• Robust QA&QC Worth mentioning, CSA Global’s approach is informed by the notion that “Quality output is dependent on the data you have.” For this reason, the resources team goes all-out in testing the quality and precision of the input data. “We do not compromise on the need to critically assess the robustness of QA and QC on drill data, survey information, as well as the way the samples are prepared to be sent to the labs,” White emphasises. “There is more rigour, more discipline in the company’s approach, every process is peer-reviewed, under all international reporting codes.”

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What gives CSA Global the edge CSA Global has an edge over competitors in handling client’s project needs mainly in the following areas: • A global footprint of complementary services Firstly, with a footprint of mining services complementary across geographies, clientele, and capabilities, CSA Global is unrivalled. With respect to Africa, from the regional office based in Johannesburg, South Africa, the firm provides local knowledge and skills to mining companies. CSA Global’s resource consultants are involved in projects from the get-go to enable them to understand the data of the deposit geology better. They do the groundwork properly first, relying on client insight, using drill holes and sample data to determine the quality of input data with respect to density, grade, and recovery characteristics. The discussion revolves on where, when, and how to collect input data. Eventually, this gives confidence in 3D geological modelling to support resource estimation, resulting in a clear understanding of the project to determine whether it makes geological sense. “Our estimates of resources are informed by geological understanding, practical mine-site experience, and current industry best practice,” Geldenhuys points out. Substantiating the point, Jeffress says, once resource work is concluded, the team compares the resource with the estimate. “Others may not have the required skills set to do data interrogation and draw a conclusion to accuracy. We use experience and expertise in generating resource models and grade control models and help optimise what they are mining fundamentally. At the end of the day, a company can be confident to bring a project into production.” Managing client expectations Another area where CSA Global Resource consultants are adept at is managing clients’ expectations when working on a project, which is always a big challenge. Sometimes clients can have very optimistic figures in their head about an ore bodies viability. Unfortunately, there is no ‘Hollywood ending’ in resource estimation, as the quality of input data always determines the

output. For this reason, at all costs, Geldenhuys underlines CSA Global balances optimism with realism. Relishing the challenge Overall, CSA Global’s consultants have always thrived where challenges abound, and they are relishing the current mining environment where sustainability is a critical business imperative as an immense opportunity. They declare that they will go all-out to enable clients to realise real value from their assets. CSA Global’s resource estimation solutions, which include sampling and data reviews, cover 3D geological modelling; statistical and geostatistical studies; grade estimation and conditional simulation; mineral resource reporting; mineral geology; and due diligence and training. The company’s diverse clientele comprises junior, mid-tier and major mining companies, the financial and legal services industry, development agencies and governments. CSA Global is headquartered in Perth, Western Australia, and serves clients across Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas.

Project Milestones in Africa


SA Global views Africa as a big growth avenue and continues to register milestones for clients in diverse mineral commodities in different countries. The following are some of their recent projects:

Mozambique Involvement in a graphite project in Mozambique. Graphite is in manufacturing vehicle batteries.

Mali Operational support to the mine geology function of a mid-tier gold producer, to minimise dilution and increase gold recovered.

Ghana Exploration and database management services, and Mineral Resource estimation. Operational support to a mid-tier underground gold producer to further optimise mine geology and reconciliation practises, and improve gold recovered.

Burkina Faso Mineral Resource Estimation, including periodic updates, for a mid-tier gold producer. Liberia Mineral Resource Estimation, Prefeasibility Study and Definitive Feasibility Study for a gold mine expansion project. DR Congo Prefeasibility studies for the client for the world’s largest lithium ore reserve.

Namibia Technical Report for Twin Hills Gold Project, Namibia. *Half of the projects in Africa are in West Africa, where a lot of work relates to resource estimates, mainly Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Mali.

BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE MINING FUTURE CSA Global is a world-leading geological and mining consulting company providing strategic advisory services and high-quality solutions to help clients manage the entire Life of Mine of a mineral asset.

With an extensive network of international experts, let CSA Global help you to solve your critical challenges, create high results and make a significant contribution to your next project.

We focus on helping clients take their mine from concept through to discovery, optimization, development and operation. Our world class experts advise in all practice areas from exploration through to mining, development and closure.

For more information email:








AUSTRALIA • CANADA • INDONESIA • IRELAND • SOUTH AFRICA • UNITED KINGDOM CSA Global is part of the ERM Group, a leading global provider of environmental, health, safety, risk, social consulting services and sustainability-related services.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 5

FEATURE Kidnap and Ransom Insurance for Expatriates in Africa

Duty of Care for Employees in High-Risk Areas In the past three years, the level of kidnap and ransom risk in some regions in Africa has been escalating alarmingly. Doubtless, this is a clarion call for mining companies to be well-equipped to effectively deal with possible cases of abductions their employees deployed for duty in those areas may face. As part of adherence to good corporate governance, mining companies have an obligation to guarantee the safety of their employees. And one of the ways is through taking out Kidnap and Ransom Insurance Policies.

Jihadists in Northern Mali

6 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021


ecent reports of deterioration in security and geopolitical volatility in a number of territories in West Africa and more recently in East and Southern Africa underscore significant security risks that mining companies with operations in these areas face. West Africa in particular is notorious for cases of kidnappings and ransom. Clearly, the onus is on the respective mining companies to invest in initiatives that can guarantee the safety of employees. Currently, mining companies are seeking cost-effective alternatives to what are generally regarded as traditional ways of doing business from their pit to port operations. So, could a similar approach be applied to managing the escalating risk of kidnap and ransom? Comprehensive kidnap and ransom insurance Unfortunately, thus far, there is no approach that has been established to be effective exclusively – if any - in addressing the risk of kidnap and ransom. So far, including comprehensive kidnap and ransom insurance as an integral part of a mining company’s human resources management has proved to be most effective. Hence, at the outset, it is paramount to grasp vital elements in kidnap and ransom risks that affect employees that may be considered making decisions. Areas of interest Information gathered from a questionnaire sent out to leading brokers and insurers that provide kidnap and ransom insurance to clientele in African countries paints a vivid picture of trends in the contemporary kidnap and ransom insurance arena. Prominently, the following emerge as main areas of interest: The modus operandi employed in Kidnap and Ransom; the Vulnerability of Employees; Policy Relevance; Scope of Coverage; and Informed Advice. Two industry authorities encapsulate the views of their peers in these above-mentioned areas. Mark Doust is the Regional Director of Special Contingency Risks (SCR), a firm that provides specialised services to clients in the insurance and management of kidnap and extortion, political evacuation events, risk mitigation and general security in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) regions. David Tompkins is President of Vancouver-based TFG Global Insurance Solutions Ltd., one of the leading insurance broking firms that has been serving global mining companies with operations in highrisk areas including Africa. •

The modus operandi employed in kidnap and ransom Having studied trends and consulted for clientele, Doust describes the typical modus operandi that criminals employ and the assistance rendered through an insurance policy: “Typically, after an employee is taken

hostage, abductors ask for a huge sum of money to be paid as a ransom. And to address the crisis, major costs incurred that cover the consultant’s professional assistance; supporting the client with negotiations with the abductors; and general incident response. These can reach millions of dollars. Negotiations are a complicated process involving local law enforcement, host and foreign governments, the media, family members, lawyers and many other stakeholders.” Nevertheless, it must be stressed that payment of a ransom to proscribed terrorist groups to resolve a hostage crisis is deemed illegal under international law. In actual fact, it is illegal to negotiate with terrorist organisations or hostage takers. • Employee vulnerability Urging organisations to take kidnap and ransom insurance coverage for their employees is not being alarmist. Actually, their employees are more vulnerable due to their standing. Criminal gangs - usually members of an organised criminal group, terrorist group or a local militia - may deliberately target expatriates and other foreigners expecting to get a more lucrative ransom from insurance. These employees are deployed in some of the regions in which conditions provide fertile ground for kidnap and ransom activities. In the respective regions, typically, political systems are unstable, law enforcement agencies are weak or under-resourced and government officials are corrupt. • Scope of coverage Traditionally, to help mining companies manage the risk of kidnap and ransom incidents, insurers underwrite for overall policy coverage mainly reimbursement of ransom, crisis consultancy fees and expenses and limited special expenses. However, due to the evolving nature of risks, insurers have extended underwriting to mitigating serious risks to employees beyond traditional kidnapping for ransom, including postincident crisis management support, business interruption (as a result of both physical and non-physical damage), reputational and financial consequences. Commendably, through this approach, insurers can meet contemporary challenges. Actually, it is critical that an insurance package has a wide scope of coverage to address the unique risks that an organisation’s employees may be exposed to. A case in point could be an area like the trauma that a victim experiences during the duration of the abduction, which traditional packages may not address adequately. Traditional insurance packages may overlook the reality that a victim can live with the trauma of a hostage crisis for a long time. For this reason, current insurance packages should be structured in such a way that they

enable the employee to return to normal life routine, Doust states. “If not well managed, the traumatic experience can alter someone’s life forever. Offering psychological support for six months then leaving the employee to his or her own devices may not suffice,” he observes, stressing that coverage for post-incident trauma is fundamental. • Policy Relevance Seeing that there are hundreds of insurance cover packages out there, from a broker’s perspective, Tompkins tells organisations to thoroughly establish if a product before them could best serve their exact needs (relevance). Mainly, he informs mining companies to beware of what are punted as ‘convenient’ off-the-shelf insurance packages. “Unfortunately, in most cases, off-the-shelf insurance turns out to be piecemeal coverage in the form of business travel medical and evacuation plans from travel agencies, or even retail entities. This piecemeal coverage can fall short as services may not be rendered as required, becoming a potential risk in itself.” Instead, Doust chirps in, mining companies should secure insurance plans to provide robust emergency medical, evacuation and repatriation coverage for short-term trips. “Mines should avoid asking employees to source their own coverage, as the coverage they source as individuals will often be more expensive, and not as robust as a group policy.” Moreover, mining companies should avoid thinking that insurance cover is a cure-all for all risks that employees are exposed to, Doust adds. This is because coverage cannot compensate for an organisation’s lapses in sound health, safety and security management, he elaborates. •

The Mining Company’s Obligation Essentially, the obligation falls on mining companies to prioritise investment in measures that ensure adequate health, safety and security for their employees, as much as their main focus is their core businesses. More often than not, insurance companies do not want to underwrite risks, which, in most part, result from the client’s lapse or failure to demonstrate robust basic measures when it comes to protecting their people. Markedly, insurer appetite has and is changing, with underwriters becoming more selective on what they choose to quote on and what level of cover they are willing to offer. “Due to the evolving nature of liabilities, underwriters are asking the client more questions before entering into a contract. For instance, the client should have a detailed plan, documenting evidence of thorough planning to ensure employee protection. In a nutshell, certain measures will have to be taken to identify risk and mitigate risk inhouse,” Tompkins points

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 7

FEATURE out. Some of the initiatives to best mitigate risks in may involve pre-incident training, pre-travel and security awareness briefings as part of the standard pre-departure operating procedure. • Informed advice The last thing mines would loath to experience is being caught unawares in times of urgent need – belatedly realising that their insurance packages fall short. For this reason, decisions on insurance packages should be based on informed advice after consulting a credible broker. “It is wise to have a central point of contract of a broker that can provide legal advice on assessing the client’s respective level of exposure in a possible crisis situation and finding an appropriate solution to meet their needs,” Tompkins emphasises. “It is worthwhile that only underwriters that are ahead of global trends should be engaged. This necessitates a client seeking expert legal advice in assistance with reviewing their exposure in a possible crisis situation and finding an appropriate solution to meet their needs,” he adds. Compliance with sound corporate governance Taking out suitable insurance for employees is a duty of care for mining companies, as it underlines a commitment to compliance with sound corporate governance. Insurance is vital in the management of exposure of employees to risks. It is about being well-equipped in preparing for incidents of threat to employees and responding effectively when they occur. A necessity By and large, kidnap-and-ransom insurance has become a necessity more than ever. This is due to increase in joint ventures globally, which has resulted in employees being assigned for work in volatile regions where the risk of kidnap and ransom incidents is high. Sub-Saharan Africa – a hotspot of kidnap and ransom •

• •

In Nigeria, staff from mining, oil and development sectors face a rise in kidnap activity from insurgents, specifically in Borneo, Kaduna and Delta states. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and South Sudan are the countries of highest danger. Security in Mali’s northern and central regions remains poor. In the country, several criminal and jihadist organisations, including al-Qaeda-affiliated groups, have set up camp. Recently, Mozambique has emerged as another hotspot. Terrorist attacks have resulted in indefinite closure of gas projects worth billions of dollars.

Credits: Expat Financial/TFG Global

The risk of Kidnap and Ransom real, not perceived


tatistics of incidents recorded between 2016 and 2021 illustrate that the prevalence of the risk of abductions is real, not perceived. The following ranks amongst some of the high-profile incidences: • June 2016 - Abduction of seven employees of Macmahon Holdings, an Australian mining and services company, at gunpoint from a worksite in Nigeria. The employees were held for five days until the company secured their release. The driver was killed during the attack • 02 Mar 2017 - Five workers were kidnapped from Banro Mining Corp.’s Namoya mine in eastern Congo and rebels demanded $1 million in ransom. Their nationalities included Congolese, Tanzanian and French. • October 2019: A gang of men armed with automatic rifles took company employees hostage at DRDGold’s Ergo operation near Brakpan, east of Johannesburg. The company’s chief security officer, Bart Coetzee, was shot dead. The gang escaped with 17 kg of gold in concentrate worth about R12-million. • 17 Dec 2019 - Kirk Woodman, who worked for Vancouver-based Progress Minerals Inc., was found dead in Burkina Faso’s Oudalan province. • April 2021- Two Chinese workers were kidnapped from a gold mine site in

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Nigeria’s southwestern Osun state. The criminals also shot and injured two private guards. • June 2021 -Chinese miners were abducted in Niger near the country’s border with Mali and Burkina Faso, a hotbed for Islamists (Detschwelle) • July 2021 - Gunmen kidnapped six workers of West African Ceramic Company in Ajaokuta Local Government Area of Kogi State, where the company mines stones (Premium times Nigeria) In fact, between 2017 and 2019, an estimated 80% of workers in the extractive sector - including mining, oil and gas exploration, dredging and quarrying – in SubSaharan Africa were kidnapped, according to 2020 Travel Security Special Edition: Held to Ransom: Kidnapping and Extortion in the Extractive Sector. The 2020 Travel Security Special Edition also noted that, in terms of the number of foreign nationals targeted, sub-Saharan Africa remains the highest-risk destination, followed by the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Latin America. 2021 Kidnap and Ramson Insight, published by Constellis, reveals that over the first two months of 2021, Africa recorded an increase of 26% in foreign victims, compared to November/December 2020.

Kidnapping risks for executives and minors on the rise Upsurge in opportunistic kidnappings highlights need for kidnap and ransom insurance


one caveat to keep in mind: when companies take out a kidnap and ransom insurance policy, there is a clear condition in the policy that obliges the insured company to take reasonable steps to restrict knowledge of the insurance as far as possible. In other words, the insured organisation should ensure that only key employees are aware that the cover is in place.”

ccording to the most recent statistics, Africa has experienced a significant increase in kidnappings in recent months, with June and July 2021 witnessing a 39% increase in the number of victims compared to previous months. Perhaps one of the most prominent cases of kidnapping this year was when Islamic militants attacked the northern Mozambican town of Palma in March and surrounded a hotel where some 200 foreigners and Mozambicans had taken shelter.

In addition to the reimbursement of ransom money, kidnap and ransom insurance also covers the destruction, loss, confiscation, or wrongful appropriation of money in transit to the kidnapper. It also reimburses the costs incurred in attempting to mitigate physical disfigurement or emotional harm suffered as a result of a kidnapping as well as judgements and legal expenses incurred by the insured company due to legal action taken by the victims or their families.

With South African businesses increasingly looking to further expand on the African continent, Dave Honeyman, Business Head: Accident & Health/Motor Fleet solutions at SHA Risk Specialist, a division of Santam, says that there has been a move towards expatriating staff to foreign countries to help set up the new business hubs. “This is accompanied by a host of risks - one being potential kidnap and ransom. Employees are often at greater risk of falling victim to opportunistic abductions when traveling to cities that they are unfamiliar with and may be at risk of being snatched by kidnappers who believe they can extort money from their families and employers.” In addition to this, Honeyman says that the abduction of school-aged children is also becoming increasingly prevalent. “It is believed that there have been numerous incidents where schools and parents have been victims of extortion following the abduction of a child. When faced with the choice of saving a life, there is no sum too high. Coming up with the ransom funds can, however, be financially crippling, this is why we strongly urge organisations (including schools) to familiarise themselves with kidnap and ransom insurance products.” Honeyman highlights that the real value behind having kidnap and ransom insurance is not only

Dave Honeyman, Business Head of Accident and Health, and Motor Fleet Solutions at SHA

having the policyholder reimbursed for the cost of the ransom, it also provides unlimited access to a team of specialised response consultants. These are highly trained and qualified individuals who have primarily had careers in the military, police, intelligence and diplomatic services. The consultants provide valuable kidnap response advice services, as well as dedicated support to secure the hostage’s safe release. “Proper management of a kidnapping by highly trained individuals is essential to protecting the life and well-being of the victim, as well as the organisation’s assets. With that said, there is

“Whilst kidnapping cannot be prevented, businesses can secure the appropriate insurance cover to alleviate the damage caused and assist both the hostage as well as their family on the road to recovery,” says Honeyman. “The sad reality is that kidnappings are on the rise in Africa and South Africa, and business owners, school administrators and parents alike, need to be prepared to deal with it in the correct and safest manner. Businesses and schools have a responsibility to those in their care, and this cover should be considered as part of every organisation’s overall insurance armoury,” he concludes. Please contact Dave Honeyman on:

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 9

FEATURE Kidnap and Ransom Insurance for Expatriate Workers in Africa

iTOO’s Special Contingency Policy iTOO’s K&R insurance cover aims to reduce risky situations by providing protection from the financial consequences of a kidnapping and extortion. iTOO’s specialized consultant has local African based consultants and together with iTOO, provide expert solutions tailored for the African continent. The core team has responded to more than 1,500 successful operations in over 80 Countries, with the management team a recognized leader in this discreet area of the security landscape.


Catia Folgore, ITOO’s Senior Specialist Underwriter

hen thinking about insurance, the last thing you might expect to need is coverage for kidnap and ransom. Kidnap and extortion have long been a feature of Africa’s challenging criminal environment – with some of the higher risk countries being Nigeria, Mozambique, Kenya, DRC, Angola and South Africa. It is also increasingly becoming an epidemic on a global scale. Even so, special risks such as these are a small subset of many companies’ concerns. Kidnapping for ransom is a lucrative business for perpetrators and the shortest means to wealth by those involved in this crime, and as a result should be an important concern for companies, especially if they are operating in Africa and in unstable regions. “K&R covers all employees of a company and their direct family members,” says iTOO MD, Justin Naylor. “If people are a company’s most important asset then that company should really purchase K&R insurance.” As businesses continue to grow their global footprint or operations across continents, companies find themselves operating in many of the most volatile parts of the world. Which is why it is critical to ensure they have access to experts who are positioned to offer them the foremost technical expertise and service at the most critical times. iTOO’s K&R insurance cover aims to reduce risky situations by providing protection from the financial consequences of a kidnapping and extortion. “Our partnership with specialised consultant, enables us to provide in-country crisis response for kidnap related scenarios anywhere in the

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world with local negotiators who understand how to operate on the ground. Our consultants assist by advising the client how to secure the safe and timely release of hostages or detainees together with the removal of any threat and the safeguarding of people and assets. “Our specialized consultant, has local African based consultants and together with iTOO, provide expert solutions tailored for the African continent,” says K&R expert, Catia Folgore. “The core team has responded to more than 1,500 successful operations in over 80 Countries, with the management team a recognized leader in this discreet area of the security landscape.” With iTOO’s Kidnap and Ransom Cover you are covered for kidnapping, ransom, hijacking, home invasion, political and natural catastrophe evacuation, threats and more. This cover assures you of protection against financial loss in over 20 events, as well as direct access to the specialised consultant and On Call International as both your consultants and service providers. “With over 20 events covered under our special contingency policy, you would have to ask yourself, why wouldn’t I take out this cover?” comments K&R expert, Catia Folgore. “This policy provides coverage and peace of mind for so much more than just Kidnap and ransom.” Corporate and Commercial Clients in most industries such as financial services, mining, telecoms, hotels, construction, media, professional services, retail, manufacturing in South Africa and particularly if they are travelling into Africa or high-risk countries, face an increased risk of kidnap or extortion threats. In this instance, our K&R policy can cover them for incidents such as:

• • • •

Workplace Violence Kidnapping Emergency Political or Natural disaster evacuation Terrorism

Kidnap and Ransom Incidents: In recent news, we have seen expatriate workers face multifaceted kidnapping threat, including: • A mining company operating in a remote part of the Eastern Congo, where multiple personnel were taken hostage by heavily armed guerrilla fighters. Our consultants provided a team on the ground at the mine site and at the company head office, where they gave continuous advice and support during the 3-month case. All the hostages were released safely. • Armed gang kidnapped 2 Chinese miners in Mbanga, a volatile area near the borders of Mali and Burkina Faso. After several weeks of negotiation, the militants released the workers. • Armed men abducted and killed 11 coal miners in Mach, a small mining town in Baluchistan province. The group carried

out multiple attacks in Baluchistan to incite sectarian conflict between ethically mixed population. Our consultants have attended to 356 number of kidnappings over the past 2 years in Africa alone - broken down by country as follows: • Nigeria – 194 • Mali – 4 • Cameroon – 38 • CAR – 3 • South Africa – 32 • Tanzania – 3 • Kenya – 18 • Burkina Faso – 2 • Uganda – 15 • Zimbabwe – 2 • Somalia – 13 • Benin – 2 • Ghana – 11 • Togo – 1 • DRC – 8 • Equitorial Guinea – 1 • Libya – 8 • Malawi – 1

Every incident is different to the rest, but in the hands of skilled consultants, the expenses and costs of a Kidnap or Extortion situation are greatly reduced. Most importantly, the possibility of the victim surviving the ordeal will be greatly increased. At iTOO we understand these potential hazards and together with an independent crisis consulting company and on call international. With retained consultants globally and one based in South Africa with extensive knowledge of Africa, we can arrange training and advice to assist in lowering travel risks, as well as advising on security issues, cultural factors and travel logistics. Preparation and a robust prevention plan are essential, so you need to know Who is part of your crisis management team, Who will be dealing with the press and authorities and Who will be the spokesperson for the family. These and other questions will be found in your crisis management plan developed and assisted by our specialised consultant.


KIDNAP AND RANSOM INSURANCE EXPERTS For more information, speak to Catia Folgore at or visit

THINK EXPERT, THINK iTOO iTOO Special Risks (Pty) Ltd (Reg No: 2016/281463/07) is an authorised Financial Services Provider (FSP No. 47230) Underwritten by The Hollard Insurance Company Limited (Reg No. 1952/003004/06), a Licensed Non-Life and an authorised Financial Services Provider.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 11

FEATURE Kidnap and Ransom Insurance for Expatriate Workers in Africa

Going Beyond the Duty of Care TFG Global Insurance Kidnap & Ransom (K&R) policies offer truly comprehensive coverage and are bespoke to the risk profile of each Assured. Actually, scope of these policies go beyond basic K&R as programmes can cover malicious threats, disappearances, home invasions, assaults and hostage takings (distinct from a traditional ‘kidnap for ransom’).

guarantee professional crisis support – insured policyholders are considered ‘priority’ clients by the response firms. On TFG’s approach, Tompkins says, “The policies offered by our associates at SCR offer truly comprehensive coverage and are bespoke to the risk profile of each Assured. In fact, the term ‘kidnap and ransom’ does not adequately describe the scope of these policies as our programmes can cover malicious threats, disappearances, home invasions, assaults and hostage takings (distinct from a traditional ‘kidnap for ransom’). We provide recommendations on the level of coverage required and always aim to provide a range of options to ensure that clients understand exactly what they can cover.”


to address common gaps, mainly, through: a Special Risks Policy; Coverage of the entire workforce; and, to boot, a team adequately qualified to do due diligence on client’s behalf.

Addressing common gaps “Not all Kidnap & Ransom (K&R Policies) are ‘packaged in the same way’. Unfortunately, cases of some insurance policies leaving clients to their own devices when it comes to providing some forms of assistance are not uncommon,” Tompkins notes, pointing out how TFG Insurance customises its Special Risk insurance packages

• Special Risks policy One of the most fundamental parts of the Special Risks Policy (K&R) is the ‘service provision’ component. Typically, each insurer is partnered with a crisis response consultant. These consultants provide 24/7 and immediate crisis response to policyholders facing a critical security incident. The consultant will advise the policyholder on every aspect of incident response including ransom negotiations, stakeholder management (including family members) and liaison with local law enforcement, military and diplomatic interests. Thus, purchasing a Special Risks Policy is the best way an organisation can

avid Tompkins of TFG Global Insurance Solutions Ltd. and Mark Doust of Special Contingency Risks (SCR) have forged a strategic partnership in the provision of Kidnap & Ransom (K&R) insurance coverage to mining companies in Central and South America and Africa (MEA). Drawing attention particularly to increasing risks in the region, the two tell mining companies to be thorough when shopping around for insurance cover packages for their respective needs.

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• Coverage of the entire workforce The trend of events in high-risk countries indicates that even senior employees from a host country may also be abducted and a huge ransom demanded. For this reason, the K&R policy that TFG sources for international clients caters for this need. These special risk policies often cover the senior management, expats and local staff and the extensive negotiations and security consultancy that comes with an incident, which often exceeds the actual ransom paid by the employer and then later reimbursed by the insurance company. “We strongly recommend that any special risk policy for global mining operations not only cover the expatriates and senior executive staff, but the entire workforce and any contractors on site as there is a duty of care that comes in play,” emphasises Tompkins. Seconding David’s point on duty of care obligations, Mark stresses, “Any individual working for the organisation (in whichever capacity) should be covered by a Special Risks Policy. Local nationals are often targeted more often than expatriates and deserve the same protection afforded to expatriate colleagues.” •

Engaging brokers for due diligence With the insurance market awash with hundreds of products, the significance of mining companies exercising prudence in selection

cannot be overstressed. It is advisable to rely on a broker who has extensive experience in K&R coverage. So, Tompkins urges mining clients to let credible brokers do due diligence on their behalf. “Most brokers will be able to provide quotes, but do they have the team behind the scenes to examine existing coverage and the negotiating leverage on the insurers – existing or new? Finally, do they have the partnership that TFG Global has with SCR, which has a 24/7 Response team at the ready to assist the client in dealing with the insurer and their response firm during a potential or ongoing claim,” he says. “My experience is that kidnapping is not a 9 to 5 business, and the response centre staffed by former special forces and security officers at SCR is key. The last thing you want is to try to Thorough Planning in Crisis Management n SCR, TFG could not have found a more perfect partner for global mining clients in Africa. SCR has the expertise, in-house, to help mitigate the client’s risks and reduce their exposures. Its success is rooted in the mindset of thorough planning and examining all possible scenarios, not leaving anything to chance. “Planning is key and SCR can create crisis management plans from scratch or audit existing ones against international standards. Once a plan is in place it needs to be tested – this can be done via simulated incident training and ‘stress tests’ where various scenarios are put to clients to resolve. All training and consultancy is carried out by ex-law enforcement and ex-military personnel who are full time members of our team. Their


contact your broker, who might not be available in the event of a crisis.” An enduring partnership Mark hails the enduring partnership TFG has forged with SCR, saying that it is the result of having so much in common, sharing the same mentality of securing the most competitive premiums for clients while not compromising on coverage. “As brokers we act on behalf of clients, advancing their interests to the insurance market and doing everything we can to secure the best possible claims outcome. Our sizeable market share and leadership position in regards to a 24/7 client proposition reinforces what we can do for clients – we are more than a transactional insurance broker. We go beyond the Duty of Care.” experience is invaluable to clients who may have never dealt with a critical security incident before,” says Doust. Part of the crisis management planning process also includes risk intelligence – understanding the territories a client is operating in. SCR is able to offer bespoke intelligence packages to clients which issue notifications when an incident of interest takes place in a country of operation or prospective operation. Additionally, clients are trained to understand, analyse and report risk intelligence to their boards and stakeholders. Underlining the practical relevance of training, Doust cites the core objective of the ‘family liaison’ course, “One of our most popular courses at the moment is ‘family liaison’ training where a staff member is coached and mentored by a senior consultant to prepare them to deal with a victim’s family members. This is an exhausting role and not one that can be contracted out to HR!”

Global Insurance Coverage For Your Mining Employees in Africa

Work with a global insurance consultant We are your independent resource for: ● International Health Insurance ● Personal Accident Plans ● Local National Employees Cover ● Global Life Insurance ● Special Risk Insurance ● Kidnap & Ransom Coverage


Client rescue case studies nfortunately, some of TFG’s clients have been impacted by kidnappings. Handily, the kidnap coverage, more especially all the response services and support provided by the insurer’s policy were instrumental. In one case, the insurer had specialists flown into a remote part of Africa and supported the negotiations and the client 24/7 for several months. Worth mentioning, the significant costs for these highly trained individuals that were incurred were completely paid by the insurer and the employees were returned safe and sound. David hails the winning partnership on K&R policies TFG has forged with SCR. “It’s in every sense, we could not ask for a more ideal partnership.”

Mark says key to the success in all incidents around the world including in a number of current hotspots such as Ethiopia, DRC, Nigeria and Afghanistan in the past 18 months has been timely intervention. “Early intervention has proven to be key in preventing a ‘nuisance’ from materialising into something far more concerning. This is why we add cover for malicious threats rather than have a policyholder wait until a serious security incident has taken place which may have been months in the making. Important to note that our policies also provided temporary security and threat assessments during the civil unrest in South Africa – not many clients appreciate that these programmes can be activated at home as well as overseas.”

We help mining companies around the world meet their duty of care to their expatriate and local employees. Expat Financial, a division of TFG Global Insurance Solutions Ltd., has extensive experience in working with clients in Africa. Contact us today to discuss your current global mining coverage and requirements. Visit us at Or email us at

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 13


Snake awareness courses for mineworkers

Taking the bite out of the risks of snake presence Granted, there may only be a few cases of snakebites recorded at mine sites in Africa. However, this does not mean that the risks should be underestimated. That’s why, snake awareness advice should always be sought from only qualified personnel, as misinformation from non-experts/incompetent snake catchers or snake catchers can cause hazards.


ining companies should plan for the risk of dealing with snakes and snakebites in remote areas as they are embarking on mineral exploration and mine development projects in remote regions of Africa. “Snakes are present everywhere. They may not be visible but they live in holes deep under the ground, underneath rubble and in grass and trees. Mining activity disturbs snakes. Many people are superstitious about snakes. “All these needs to be addressed so that people know what to do if snakes are encountered,” Mike Perry, owner of African Reptiles & Venom, a company that offers specialist snake awareness courses all over Africa at remote mines, based in Gauteng,

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Johannesburg, stresses, cautioning that the potential risk posed by snakes at new mining sites is not to be taken lightly. Potential liability A snakebite by a venomous snake could result in an employee going several days or even weeks off work, or in worst case scenarios, fatalities. Besides, an untrained workforce will refuse to work if there are any snakes in the area, resulting in loss of productivity as a result of work stoppages. Consequently, in order to eliminate potential liability, mines should prioritise initiatives to raise awareness about the risk snakes pose to employees.

And it is only through proper training that mineworkers can be able to remove snakes from the mine site, Perry suggests. “By teaching people about snakes and providing them with the correct methods of capturing them, you prevent work stoppages and well as possible snake bites.” Vital elements in snake awareness There are a number of vital elements for mining houses to take into account before carrying out snake awareness initiatives. Mainly, these include: the calibre of personnel offering advice on snake bites and core areas of the training. •

Engaging a qualified snake consultant Snake awareness advice should be sought from only qualified personnel, as misinformation from non-experts/incompetent snake catchers or snake relocators can cause hazards. A snake consultant specialises in this field and will have proper knowledge about the subject. •

Core areas in the course content The course covers the following core area: venomous snake handling, snake awareness, snake identification and snakebite treatment with first aid. African Reptiles & venom recommends that all courses should be registered. All of its courses are accredited by Field Guides Association of Southern Africa and HPCSA.

Mind-set change needed Granted, there may only be a few cases of snakebites recorded at mines. However, this does not mean that the risks should be underestimated. Lamentably, according to Perry, the level of awareness or seriousness that mining houses attach to snake awareness could be 5 out of 10 from the scale of 10. “There are many mines that have not done anything in snake risk awareness. The majority of them are aware that they have to get their staff to do it, but are not focusing on this because they believe a snakebite will not happen to them,” he observes, calling for a mind-set change. “Mining companies should aim to have safety systems in place, the fact of the matter is that people need to be given time to attend the snake awareness training courses. The course should impart facts that will address concerns the mineworkers have, and will also empower them in the handling of venomous snakes.” African Reptiles & Venom always notices a huge change in attitude of employees at mines after conducting snake awareness courses. “Some people have even told me that they no longer see the need to kill snakes anymore because of the new understanding they have gained, which is certainly a positive mind change,” Perry confirms.

Snake Courses presented by Mike Perry from African Reptiles and Venom Snake Awareness and Identification | First Aid for Snakebite Protocol | Medical Snakebite Treatment Venomous snake capturing skills

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 15


Ambient and Stack Emission Monitoring

The Importance of Ambient and Stack Emission Monitoring in the Mining Sector In times of scarce resources and a steadily growing world population, environmental monitoring is of particular importance. Monitoring data will not only advance the understanding of air pollution and climate change in the region but also ensure that future policies on air pollution are based on sound science. Most importantly, it will ensure that achieving Africa’s development goals limits air pollution and climate change.

Ambient air quality monitoring station


egislation in certain parts of Africa has now made monitoring of ambient and stack emissions mandatory, recognising the impact of air quality on not only on human health but also the overall natural environment and related ecosystems. The idea is that, once stack emissions such as nitrogen oxide/dioxide (NO/ NO₂), sulphur dioxide (SO₂) and ambient plus

fugitive emissions such as dust from coal and haul roads are effectively monitored, it will be easier to minimise the impact of activities on the quality of the air through monitoring. In addition, accurate and reliable data collected can then be submitted to regulators to demonstrate compliance and can also be used for other critical quality management requirements such

USEPA and EU approved monitors/analysers are recommended

16 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

as Environment, Social, Governance (ESG) reporting, thereby enhancing the circle of sustainability. Juliette Biao Koudenoukpo, the Director and Regional Representative of the Africa Office at UN Environment Programme, says: “In the face of growing inequality on pollution, a significant burden of air pollution-related deaths occur in Africa, yet we lack accurate timely information, hindering progress in mitigating the increasing harmful effects of air pollution to human health, regional climate and crop yield. To fill this gap, it is important to prioritise creating awareness, investing in contextualising the progress made and the unique challenges and solutions in monitoring air pollution in Africa, and in assessing the impacts. Philip Osano, Centre Director of Stockholm Environment Institute in Nairobi, said recently about a new assessment being led by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC): “The African regional assessment will determine how

development in Africa can proceed at the same time as limiting air pollution and its negative impacts on health, agriculture, environment, forestry, and livelihoods.” The assessment will also promote capacity building and action geared towards reducing emissions among government and stakeholders in Africa. While development is a priority for Africa to achieve the “Africa we want”, as outlined in the African Union’s Agenda 2063, this does not have to be at the expense of the environment or people’s health. In respect of mining and mines, not all miners are equal regarding emissions, with some facing larger challenges than others. With this in mind, and as responsible environmental guardians, it is of the utmost importance to have systems in place that continually assess and review both ambient and stack emission impacts, particularly during the life cycle of the mine. These in turn highlight areas that require special attention and having a credible, independent monitoring partner to support definitely helps with the process. The solution: Independent thirdparty monitoring companies Mark Rowand, a director of SI Analytics Pty Ltd (SIA), an independently owned company that provides monitoring services for ambient, stack and water, believes one of the biggest challenges facing mining companies in Africa is maintaining the environmental monitoring programme for any length of time. All too often post the initial installation and commissioning phase, the monitoring equipment programme - particularly in remote areas - is overlooked and not given the same attention and focus as

other plant equipment. This invariably results in a downward slide from a data availability and credibility perspective. In order to address this challenge, SIA offers various service level agreements (SLAs) to its mining clients, from basic ad hoc service and maintenance contracts all the way through to being fully responsible for all monitoring equipment and data management reports. In some cases, they own, operate and maintain the monitoring equipment on behalf of their clients, offering a complete outsourcing solution. Rowand goes on to say: “Data collection is not part of our clients’ core business; their expertise is in making the product they sell. SIA is an independent trusted service provider

with decades of experience and expertise in managing data and compliance issues on behalf of our clients, freeing them up to focus on their core business.” The way forward With a sharpened focus on ESG in Africa, mining companies must commit to minimising the adverse impact of their activities on the environment and strive towards net zero carbon by 2050. Essential to this is the implementation and maintenance of environmental management systems, such as the international standard ISO 14001. The “Africa we want” is one where we can all breathe more easily.

BE PART OF THE REVOLUTION AQMesh is a wireless, battery-powered monitor designed to offer a robust and easy-to-use air quality monitoring system. It delivers accurate, near real-time data of all major priority pollutants including dust and noise which in turn supports initiatives to reduce air pollution and its risk to human health. With over 65 successfully operating units throughout the sub-Sahara region, isn’t it time to join the revolution?

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 17

FEATURE Community Relations and Stakeholder

Community Relations and Stakeholder Engagement is key to unlocking the value in ESG compliance for mining, oil and gas sectors

EDS Community Engagement around Prospective Project.


s South African industries tackle the challenges of economic recovery in the aftermath of the 2020 national lockdown, the mining, oil and gas industries in particular are under increasing pressure to be more cognisant of their Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) compliance requirements. “When integrated into strategic business decision-making, ESG will generate long-term value in these industries by controlling risks, creating certainty where there was none before and capitalising on opportunities created by environmental and socio-economic factors,” explains Janine Espin, Managing Director at Economic Development Solutions (EDS).

A guiding framework with real benefits ESG brings together all environmental, social and governance compliance principles into a comprehensive framework that can help companies in the affected industries to successfully achieve a sustainable balance between people, planet and profit. Operational and financial performance can be positively influenced by solid sustainability initiatives. In a report that analysed more than 200 studies into the impact of sustainable corporate practices on investment returns, consistent commitment to ESG practices showed an enhancement in operational performance for 88% of companies.

Additionally, the cost of capital was lowered for 90% of companies, thanks to robust sustainability scores indicating reliable operational performance, thereby reducing investor risk. Scope of services: ESG is a big picture commitment One of the most important messages to come out of the Mining Indaba Virtual 2021 was a clear directive for mining, minerals and energy industries to stop treating compliance like a tickbox reporting or data gathering task. “Instead, businesses must work toward realising value in terms of ESG frameworks,” Espin notes. “This will require awareness and integration of ESG principles into corporate strategy which impacts every facet of every business. From organisational culture to risk management, stakeholder engagement and portfolio planning, commitment to ESG compliance can no longer be avoided,” Espin continues. Community Relations and Stakeholder Engagement is critical to address the breakdown of trust between industries, investors, workers and impacted communities, along with ensuring the responsible sourcing of metals and minerals from the earth.

Lingelethu Community Engagement

18 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

More than lip service to ESG compliance Offering a unique combination of economic development services to meet compliance

challenges in the Renewable Energy, Mining, Government and Corporate sectors, Economic Development Solutions (Pty) Ltd specialises in Economic Development (ED) compliance reporting for large scale renewable energy projects as well as Social and Labour Plans for the mining industry. “We are the partner of choice for enabling economic recovery and growth through the provision of sustainable transformation solutions in Southern Africa. We have a strong focus on programme implementation management, including monitoring and reporting, assessments and stakeholder engagement for both socioeconomic and enterprise development programmes, particularly within rural areas,” Espin says. • • •

EDS is a Level 1 B-BBEE Contributor 60% Black-Women Owned 100% Black Owned Entity

Risk Assessment and Sustainability: We undertake the risk assessment and sustainability of all the projects that we implement, based on the specific needs of the affected communities, and align this to the client’s overall corporate strategy and project budgets. The relevant stakeholders for each project are also identified and integrated into the project engagement process. We offer: • Project plan development and implementation • Monitoring, evaluation and reporting

SMME Engagement

• •

Facilitation of Public Meetings Communication through Bulk SMS/ WhatsApp messaging services

Enterprise and Supplier Development: We customise enterprise and supplier development programmes to facilitate interventions best suited to client and beneficiaries. Our implementation technology includes baseline assessments, monitoring and evaluation, measurement tools and success indicator reporting in line with return on investments.

Big picture visibility The EDS team has over 35 years of collective experience within the B-BBEE, Economic Transformation, Strategy, Business Development, Monitoring and Evaluation, Compliance Reporting and Project Management sphere. We support the principle of appointing local persons when required. This company principle has been demonstrated on numerous occasions when we have worked on long-term projects in the Western Cape, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape and the Free State. In these instances, EDS has implemented a rigorous upskilling programme to ensure that all the required competencies are met, whilst our head office team provides the overall support structures and regular onsite assessments.

Social and Labour Plans (SLPs): We develop and implement SLPs in line with the Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act for mining entities to obtain and/or maintain mining licenses. We offer: • Stakeholder Engagement • Community Participation and Facilitation • Community Needs Assessments • Project Management services • Compliance, Reporting and Implementation Management Stakeholder Engagement: We facilitate the link between businesses and the communities in which they operate, acknowledging that each community is unique and observing all culture-related protocols. We offer: • Identification of Stakeholders

Stakeholder Engagement

For more information, contact EDS on: | +27 (0) 11 447 4683.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 19

FEATURE Crusher wear parts

Robust Wear Parts, Longer Crusher Uptime “The quicker wear-part deriorates, the more frequent is the need for replacement, and the more often is the crusher downtime.”

Wear Parts (Credit: Mining Wear Parts)


he performance of crushers has to be up to it all the time as crushing is critical to mining and aggregate operations. This is most especially that, currently, production has peaked. Consequently, ensuring optimal crusher uptime as much as possible is fundamental. And one of the sure-fire ways is the use of suitable crusher wear-parts. Vital advice Information on mining-specific crusher wear parts from some of the leading crusher manufacturers and wear-part suppliers, rich with relevant points, makes for an interesting read. Collated together, it renders vital advice in the following areas: the urgency of timely interventions; crusher requirements; trends and what is behind them; and arriving at the ultimate decision.

parts. Ideally, a wear-parts should demonstrate increased toughness, specifically to withstand extreme temperatures and abrasion, and should have the longest possible usable wear life. iii. Advanced wear materials, tough wear parts Handily, innovative developments in the metallurgy of crusher wear-parts are helping operators reduce the impact of wear on crusher uptime enormously. Specific modifications to the metallurgical composition have resulted in wear-parts with improved resistance and toughness. For instance, alloying elements, such as manganese and chromium, are added to high carbon steel, which it is still being formed, to enhance toughness and hardness. The reinforced steel has proven to be corrosionresistant.

i. Timely intervention Predictive maintenance of crushers should be central to crusher management. And as part of their predictive maintenance, mine managers should include regular monitoring of the state of crusher wear parts, which should be replaced at the slightest hint of wear without failing. Otherwise, failure to do this could result in a significant loss of productivity due to downtime. ii. Scrupulous product selection Product selection has to be scrupulous, given that there is a myriad of applications for crushers and, naturally, the same should apply to wear

A wear part from Metso.

20 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

Optimising wear part performance Largely, crusher wear parts are not versatile enough to work in different applications. Onesize-fits-all is a myth concerning crusher wear parts. Crusher wear parts can only be effective when used in the right application. Key factors are the material being crushed, the quality of the wear parts being used, and, most importantly, the way the crushing chamber is set up. Here is the catch though – the quicker wear-part wears, the more frequent is the need for replacement, and the more often is the crusher downtime.

Contemporary Needs of Industry


EMS are striving to produce wear parts that meet the contemporary needs of mining and aggregate-specific crushers, and indeed the entire communition circuit. Mainly, this involves aspects such as: Increasing productivity (through minimising downtime by choosing stronger materials); Improving safety; Reducing costs; above and beyond, and contributing to the effort to ensure that the process of crushing (production) leaves a lower environmental footprint. It has to be stated too that, pertaining to crusher wear parts, ease of installation is requisite in mining machinery components. In crusher wear-parts, these elements are addressed through design.

Credits: Metso, Sandvik Mining, Rock Technologies

Mineware Software:

Syncromine Web for Barrick International


n conjunction with Barrick Gold Corporation, which has gold and copper mining operations in North and South America, Africa, Papua New Guinea and Saudi Arabia, MineWare has developed a cloud-based version of its popular Syncromine software module. This system is unique in that it is entirely web-based, hosted in the UK and servicing three Barrick operations in Mali, the DRC and soon Tanzania. This software has two important functions, namely Production monitoring and Machine Maintenance. The production functionality keeps track of daily production figures with reports being populated to global stakeholders making for improved information flow for proactive management. As with all MineWare software, this application is able to interface with other existing software systems, such as HR and CAD products, in order to capture relevant information needed to produce up to date reports, such as planned vs actual analysis per machine operator. The machine Maintenance functionality was developed in order to meet the unique needs of this client, and is used to capture and plan maintenance on fixed and mobile machinery within these specific mining operations. With full asset registers, operations can now link monthly planning to equipment used daily, enabling improved maintenance planning, resulting in fewer breakdowns.

Cloud based software keeps track of production and maintenance schedules

MineWare software modules are able to interface with legacy systems already in place, while drawing relevant data in order to populate reports.

Through consolidating various operational data

Reports can be viewed on one easy toread screen, showing data in real-time. This enables managers to make up to the minute decisions, thereby positively affecting the bottom line.

remote operational management easier, allowing

into one easy to use interface, MineWare’s Syncromine Online application is sure to make for better planning, implementation and less downtime.

Operational software for the mining industry

FEATURE Electronic cam limit switches for rotating equipment

Accurate Measurement of Speed and Positioning of Rotating Equipment Huebner Speed Monitoring (Pty) Ltd is a South African-based subsidiary of Johannes Hübner Giessen, a German-based globally-focused company that specialises in the provision robust and long-lasting encoders (electronic cam limit position switch solutions) for heavy duty applications in diverse industries. The company is adquately resourced to address the need for safe, efficient and cost effective solutions for speed measurement, speed monitoring, position measurement and position monitoring of mining-specific rotating equipment.


he Mining Health and Safety Regulations in different countries in Africa require mining companies to go all-out to invest in different techniques or means to ensure compliance with respective health and safety regulations. In South Africa’s context, this is the Department of Mineral Resources’ (DMR) Mine Health and Safety Act (MHSA). In extreme conditions in both open cast and underground mining environments, one of the critical safety measures mines have to comply with is the use of suitable devices (cam limit switches) for the accurate measurement of speed and positioning

of rotating equipment deployed for duty. The rotating equipment includes but is not isolated to bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators, stackers/reclaimers, conveyor belt systems, tippers or giant bucket wheel excavators. Limited knowledge of alternative solutions However, one of the challenges amongst mine operators is lack of (or limited) knowledge about suitable devices that can enable accurate measurement of speed and positioning of rotating equipment. As a result, they are forced

22 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

to cling to “conventional” mechanical cam limit switches. Unfortunately, more often than not, limitations are encountered in most of the mechanical cam limit switches which were developed more than thirty years ago. Thus, their continuous usage exposes mining personnel to increased safety risks, necessitating the adoption of alternative solutions. Compounding the problem is that, with a glut of products out there, seemingly with little differentiation, procurement decisions of such critical devices cannot be made on a whim.

Informed procurement decisions Huebner Speed Monitoring Managing Director, Derek Colyn, tells mine operators to ensure that they make informed decisions in the procurement of alternative speed and position monitoring solutions for rotating equipment. Colyn recommends the use of Johannes Hübner Giessen’s heavy-duty encoders (electronic position switches), which have proved effective in addressing limitations of mechanical cam limit switches. Huebner Speed Monitoring is a South African subsidiary of Johannes Hübner Giessen, a German based globally focused company specialises in robust and long-lasting encoders for heavy duty applications in diverse industries. The company’s portfolio includes a lot of safety certified encoder solutions for all important applications like speed measurement, speed monitoring, position measurement and position monitoring. Limitations of mechanical cam switches While mechanical cam switches may have served industry for a long time, they fall short of contemporary stringent safety standards and performance expectations. Mainly, this is because most mechanical switches were developed more than 30 years ago and have common inherent limitations. Unsurprisingly, mechanical cam switches are not able to fulfill modern safety regulations or safety certifications like SIL / PL, points out Colyn, drawing attention to their conspicuous shortcomings. “T have a much lower accuracy caused by mechanical play inside the device and sometimes in combination with additional gear boxes. Also, hysteresis is a limitation by using the same switching point from two different directions (clockwise and counter clockwise rotation).” “Mechanical cam switches have no internal self diagnostics and failure monitoring and therefore no active failure information in case of trouble. Last but not least, it is very complicated and time consuming to set the correct switching points again after maintenance like rope changes,” he adds. Heavy duty encoders (electronic position switches) Huebner Speed Monitoring’s heavy-duty encoders (electronic position switches) are specifically engineered to meet contemporary needs of industry, effectively addressing limitations of mechanical position switches. Specifically, Colyn asserts that a mine operator is certain of getting more value from the following

features in Johannes Hübner Giessen’s heavyduty encoders: Much higher accuracy; Internal self diagnostics and failure monitoring; Active failure information via error and status output; and Easy programming of switching points at commissioning and after maintenance via preset function. Safety certification in accordance with current norms and regulations is done by world renown Germany entity, TÜV Rheinland (SIL 2 / PL d). Another assurance is that Johannes Hübner Giessen’s encoders have up to date electronics and interface technology in combination with the most robust and reliable encoder housings on the market. Due to these aspects, mining customers like the company’s solutions because of the very long lifetime and the high reliability without unplanned downtimes. Customising explosion-proof solutions When needs be, Johannes Hübner Giessen is able to apply its engineering knowhow to customise encoders to ensure that they withstand the environmental conditions in respective open-cast and underground mining environments operate. For instance, this could be in an area like capability of coping in an explosion-prone area. If there are additional requirements concerning explosion proof certification, Johannes Hübner Giessen can provide some certified solutions for open-cast and mine-hoist applications like our FG 40 Ex, MAG Ex, MAGA Ex or U-ONE-SAFETY-LWL Ex. Immense benefits of retrofitting Johannes Hübner Giessen has established that there are immense opportunities to be had for companies from retrofit their equipment with modern electronic position switches. Feedback gathered from mine operators indicates that exchanging old mechanical can limit switches against modern electronic position switches. Additionally, increase in safety and accuracy in operation has been consistently recorded, which is a necessary requirement in the process of automating operations. Worth mentioning, long-lasting and highly reliable solutions with reduced device downtimes result in increase in productivity. Wherewithal to address requirements Colyn says has the wherewithal to handle complex retrofitting project requirements for mine operators in Africa. “We have many years’ experience with those exchange projects and can help with our engineering support service. Just send us a picture or drawing of

the mounting situation on site and we will come back with our proposal,“ he explains. In projects, the company did not only deliver encoders but supported with the necessary engineering support and a complete system solution package. In general, through the provision of a complete heavy-duty encoder solutions, Johannes Hübner Giessen addresses the requirements for safety, efficiency and cost efficiency in speed measurement, speed monitoring, position measurement and position monitoring of rotating equipment in deployed in mining environments. Colyn pronounces that the company is well-resourced to solve complex needs of prospective clients in Africa in 2022 and beyond.

Complete encoder system solutions for clients


ohannes Hübner Giessen offers not only encoders but also complete encoder system solutions. The company’s approach entails analysing every single application where an encoder is needed and prepare a full-service package with encoders and customised accessories like couplings, flanges, adapter shafts, torque brackets, cable protection systems or electronics for fiber optic signal transmission or signal multiplication. Should the client need, engineering service on site with complete mounting of the encoders is provided. “In a nutshell, the company adapst everything so that it fits to the individual customer situation with suitable mechanical and electronic interfaces, Colyn guarantees. Johannes Hübner Giessen’s portfolio includes a lot of safety certified encoder solutions for all important applications like speed measurement, speed monitoring, position measurement and position monitoring. For further details regarding Johannes Hübner Giessen encoder solutions, contact: The Director, Derek Colyn Huebner Speed Monitoring (Pty) Ltd 20 Park Road, Richmond 2092 South Africa Telephone: +27 11 482 0088 Email:

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 23

FEATURE Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys for Geological Mapping

Increased Knowledge, Informed Decisions Spectrem Air Ltd, using its flagship tool, SpectremPLUS system, effectively demonstrates the capability of Airborne electromagnetic surveys (airborne EMS) in acquiring more accurate as well as deeper data than it has been previously possible using ‘conventional’ techniques in geological mapping. The more information geologists have at their disposal, the more confidence in making informed decisions on the viability of potential mining projects.

Airborne EM surveys are being used in projects where conventional surveying techniques have been predominant in the past


urrently, the two main challenges that the mining industry is facing are high operating costs and increasing scarcity of mineral deposits. Thus, there is an urgent need for more reliable techniques in geological mapping that can gather as much relevant data as possible to inform decision making. Airborne EMS a growing niche One of the interesting trends in geological mapping is growth in the niche of airborne electromagnetic surveys (AEM). Increasingly, airborne EM surveys are being used in projects where conventional surveying techniques have been predominant in the past. Spectrem Air has built a reputation as a service provider of choice for airborne EM survyes by many exploration companies in Southern Africa and Australia. The company’s General Manager, Louis Polome, is keen to share his thoughts on the growing preference for AEM, based on information gathered from

numerous projects with clients in various parts in Southern Africa and Australia. He underscores increased scope of knowledge that AEM brings to exploration projects, citing a case study of a recent project where Spectrem Air’s flagship, SpectremPLUS system, was used. Increased scope of knowledge Undoubtedly, ‘conventional’ surveying techniques have served (and continue to serve) the needs of exploration companies for geological mapping. Overall, conventional techniques produce the required results, even though trying to see through the cover is proving a very difficult to the interpreter. These shortcomings necessitate the adoption of alternative techniques. Conveniently, modern methods used in geological surveys, like airborne AEM in particular, have proven to offer an increased layer of knowledge. When deployed appropriately, AEM increase the depth,

24 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

resolution and accuracy of geological mapping by providing reliable information at depth below the surface. SpectremPLUS system fits the bill for that purpose. “SpectremPLUS system is capable of providing the depth penetration required, whilst maintaining high resolution in both the near surface and spacial dimension. Equipped with the SpectremPLUS system, the company is able to provide geological mapping on a large scale,” Polome highlights the scope of the system’s capabilities. SpectremPLUS excels in geological mapping In a recent geological mapping project for a high-profile exploration company, SpectremPLUS system’s success underscored the efficacy of airborne EM surveys in addressing increased expectations in modern geological exploration projects. • Client Needs The client engaged Spectrem to provide airborne EM surveys in projects often totally buried beneath extensive cover. Typically, the deposits on the site are associated with rock units that have some conductive properties, making them good AEM targets. However, the challenge is that the cover sequences can also be electrically conductive - a situation which attenuates and sometimes obscures the signal associated with these mineralised sequences. • Why SpectremPLUS was Ideal Based on the area’s unique conditions, airborne EM surveys was recommended for the project. Specifically, SpectremPLUS system was just what the doctor ordered. Brad Pitts, who was part of the core crew that tirelessly worked on the project, highlights why SpectremPLUS system ticked all the boxes: “The client needed an electromagnetic system that could penetrate the thick, electrically conductive cover rocks and still see targets at depths of

400 to 600 metres. And as the SpectremPLUS system has one of the highest transmitter RMS dipole moment (i.e., transmitting power) of commercially available system, it was considered to be most suited to penetrating the conductive cover. “In addition, the 100% duty cycle square transmitter wave (meaning the transmitter never turns off and the receiver records continuously) enables the system to maintain high spatial resolution (which enables it to locate these units laterally as well as vertically),” Pitts recounts. The thick cover sequences, the weather conditions, and the remoteness of the area all contributed to the uniqueness of the project. Besides, the survey blocks were often located far from infrastructure. For the vastly experienced team, these conditions are not unfamiliar. Working in their favour was that the long range of Basler DC3 fixed-wing aircraft was well-equipped to handle the distance between the survey blocks and the infrastructure. Mainly, the aforesaid factors contributed to the decision to select Spectrem, as the preferred AEM services provider.

commitment to ensuring the integrity of data through acquisition, processing and processing, which is core to the success of geological mapping and exploration projects. This is over and above religious compliance with health safety and the environment.

Crew’s Commitment Also, Pitts believes Spectrem crew’s main strengths in these kind of projects is the

Positioned For Challenges With SpectremPLUS system, coupled with over 30 years of requisite knowhow, Spectrem Air

is keen to render geological mapping services where the objective is finding mineral deposits that are deeper. Polome assures exploration companies that Spectrem is uniquely positioned to provide the depth penetration required, whilst maintaining high resolution in both the near surface and a lateral dimension. “In addition to being able to provide geological mapping on a large scale, we identifying targets for follow up.”

“..most powerful system in the world” “..mapping shallow and deeper features with a very high level of resolution”

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Electromagnetic, Magnetic & Radiometrics +27 11 659 1518

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 25

FEATURE Airborne electromagnetic surveys for geological mapping

Consistency and Clarity of Purpose Acquires the Desired Data Using SpectremPLUS system to conduct airborne electromagnetic surveys for geological mapping projects, Spectrem Air’s crew have excelled in getting the much-desired outcomes. Consistently, the crew work on critical elements to ensure data integrity, improved safety and environmental compliance, and costeffectiveness in project delivery. Continuously, the company keeps abreast of new developments in technology that can enable its crew to meet the evolving needs of its geoscience clients

Spectrem Air recognises that the ultimate objective in geological mapping is collecting reliable information below the surface.


t is easy to be caught up in the hype of a service provider talking about being adequately resourced with the premier stateof-the-art technology deployed for geological mapping. Nevertheless, the fact that whether or not it meets the needs of clientele in terms of accurate results where it matters can easily be overlooked. “Having state-of-the-art technology is not an end in itself which guarantees accurate results in geological mapping. On the contrary, it is only a means to an end. At the end of the day, technology should be in the capable hands of a well-versed team. Have you heard about a bad carpenter blaming his tools?” explains Louis Polome, General Manager of Spectrem Air Ltd, referencing the approach that has made Spectrem Air excel as the reference point for airborne electromagnetic geophysical surveys since 1989. Currently, the company utilises its flagship SpectremPLUS system to conduct

airborne electromagnetic surveys (AEM) for geological mapping projects for clients.

in the delivery of results,” Polome explains, as he details what each of these constitutes.

Scrupulous Planning and Execution Spectrem Air recognises that the ultimate objective in geological mapping is collecting reliable information below the surface, which can then inform the client’s sound decision-making. Thus, the approach entails scrupulous planning and execution to ensure that results meet or exceed clientele expectations.

1. Enhancing Survey Data Integrity It is only natural that there are always questions or concerns about the integrity of data gathered in geological surveys. This should not be surprising as crucial decisions on whether or not to carry on the project are based on the reliability of the information. Wrong information could result into millions of dollars in capital being wasted in a project. Bearing this in mind, the Spectrem Air Team endeavours to give clientele assurance in the integrity of results from airborne electromagnetic survey through rigorous attention to detail in various phases of data acquisition, processing and interpretation. As standard practice, Spectrem Air identifies the following aspects as central to enhancing the credibility of the data gathered:

Combination of Selected Elements Spectrem Air’s experienced team employs a customised approach which combines a number of selected elements to successfully deploy its system to meet the clients’ geological mapping needs through increased depth, resolution and accuracy. “We have excelled through commitment to consistently ensuring data integrity, improved safety and cost-effectiveness

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High Standards in Technical Design & Electronic Specification and Maintenance Consistently, Spectrem Air sticks to highest standards possible in the technical design and electronic specification of the electromagnetic system, as well as strict maintenance of the systems that are in place. • Self-calibrating System In any airborne EM surveys, regular calibration is routine when work is done on the platform. This requires proper documentation of any modifications, with comparison to previous results and expected norms. Specifically, the opening of a test site is extremely valuable in routine calibration of the platform to ensure repeatability of the system over a period of time. As part of routine checks on the system, Spectrem conducts thorough high-level reference before any data acquisition is undertaken. Noteworthy, , the SpectremPLUS system and the processing of data is designed in such a way that the system is “self-calibrating”. “Minimum filtering is applied to the data to ensure that clients receive as pure data as possible. All processing parameters are clearly defined and provided to the clients. It is also becoming standard routine to provide raw data to the client for any further verification or in-house processing,” Polome shows. •

Qualified Experts in Data Acquisition Strictly, suitably qualified experts are involved in the design and maintenance of the Spectrem airborne electromagnetic system. Regularly, the company’s well-trained staff undergoes strict inhouse training to keep abreast of best practices in data acquisition. A team of experienced technical and geophysical staff conduct thorough quality control and quality assurance on the data. •

Collaboration with Recognised Expert Consultants The company utilises and collaborates with recognised expert consultants in airborne electromagnetic technology to assist in reviewing data and developing new processing routines. Thus, there is confidence that the best data is delivered to clients. Also, in order to constantly improve the level of technical assistance rendered to clients, Spectrem collaborates with leaders in relevant technologies to enhance techniques of data processing and interpretation. • ISO 9001 Quality Standard Spectrem Air’s inhouse quality control systems

are a combination of own developed wellcontrolled processes and ISO 9001 based standards. This ensures that data acquisition, quality control and processing are done in accordance with world industry standards. Over and above, there is a complete documentation of the processing chain, and any deviations from it, which detail reasons, parameters and results. This is then validated through regular internal audits to ensure that processes are strictly observed. 2.

Safety and Environmentally Compliance Practices Adherence to strict safety and environmental compliance practices is an essential requirement in geological mapping. On its part, Spectrem goes beyond the tick-box exercise, recognising that compliance is vital to a successful survey. Accordingly, a number of annual external audits on the operation are conducted. As a standard routine, detailed SHE risk assessments are done at the start of each job. This is in accordance with the International Airborne Geophysics Safety Association (IAGSA) recommendations of which Spectrem is a member. In addition, safety cases are generated by external auditors for sensitive areas or areas where Spectrem Air has not operated in the past. 3. Cost Effectiveness The wealth of experience gathered from being in airborne EM surveys since 1989, combined with the flexibility to adopt relevant novel technologies and constant innovation guarantee cost-effective delivery of vital data to clientele. Technology the Driver of Delivery As aforementioned, technology is the driver of each of Spectrem Air’s facets that are central to operations. For this reason, Spectrem always strives to stay current with advances in technology, exploring their potential to adding value to the quality of results in surveys. In the meantime, Spectrem Air is keenly observing developments in an area relevant to its niche. Fascinatingly, there is a growing interest in opportunities for the application of evolving software algorithms and new processing routines in airborne electromagnetic data for better 3-dimension interpretation and provision of additional products. Another field of interest is gathering shallow data to assist in geo-hydrological and geo-engineering requirements. In addition to software, Spectrem Air foresees continuous improvement in hardware technology and better control on geometrical information of the platforms will result in significantly better data interpretation.

The Crew’s Involvement in Ensuring Data Integrity With highly experienced pilots and an experienced operator on board, as well as an experienced aircraft engineer on the ground, every care is taken to ensure good quality data is collected safely and as and when required timeously. The data is partially processed in real time and the results sent daily back to the office where a strict quality control process is followed. All aspects of the survey - from data collection, processing and interpretation - are governed by an in-house Quality system which conforms to ISO standards. This, together with the crew’s experience and knowledge, ensures that data of the highest quality is collected, and that interpretation undertaken addresses client’s need. The data undergoing initial real-time processing in the field, together the reliability and performance of the system, ensures that minimal time is required for QC (Quality Control). This enables the geophysicist in the office is able to undertake preliminary interpretation on a daily basis, and provide feedback to the client as soon as possible. Upon completion of the survey, or at regular intervals during larger surveys, the data can be fully interpreted and reported on.


he Crew’s Involvement in Ensuring Data Integrity With highly experienced pilots and an experienced operator on board, as well as an experienced aircraft engineer on the ground, every care is taken to ensure good quality data is collected safely and as and when required timeously. The data is partially processed in real time and the results sent daily back to the office where a strict quality control process is followed. All aspects of the survey - from data collection, processing and interpretation - are governed by an in-house Quality system which conforms to ISO standards. This, together with the crew’s experience and knowledge, ensures that data of the highest quality is collected, and that interpretation undertaken addresses client’s need. The data undergoing initial real-time processing in the field, together the reliability and performance of the system, ensures that minimal time is required for QC (Quality Control). This enables the geophysicist in the office is able to undertake preliminary interpretation on a daily basis, and provide feedback to the client as soon as possible. Upon completion of the survey, or at regular intervals during larger surveys, the data can be fully interpreted and reported on.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 27

FEATURE Customised Diesel Particulate Filtration Technology for Mining Machinery

Reducing Tailpipe Emissions from the Source John Ratcliffe’s HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter with an efficiency of up to 99% in the reduction of ultrafine DPM particles emitted from the engine’s tailpipe. Characteristically, these filters reduce diesel equipment’s’ tailpipe DPM limits from as much as 16000ug/m3 to within the requirements set.


he secret to healthy crops and high yields lies in the soil. Therefore, managing the soil efficiently and with care ensures long-term economic success for farmers. In addition to efficiency and comfort, soil protection is Fendt’s top priority when developing tractors. A global leader in building high horsepower tracked tractors, with over 30 years’ experience, the Fendt 900 Vario and Fendt 1100 Vario are the latest additions to the track tractors range available locally from your nearest Fendt South African Dealer, reports Frans Cronje, Regional Sales Manager for Fendt, AGCO Africa. Legislation in different countries in Africa necessitates mining companies to implement measures aimed at limiting the levels of Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) emissions from machinery. In South Africa’s context, a circular which the Chamber of Mines sent out in 2012 set the goal of DPM exposure control value of 160ug/m3 (TC) by 2016. Thus, diesel filter technology is a necessity in any engine as diesel engine technology cannot reduce emission limits on its own over the lifespan of the engine. However, while mining companies may do their utmost to achieve the legislated threshold by using Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF’s), their well-intentioned efforts may fall short, as recent evidence has suggested. Limited availability of relevant products John Ratcliffe, a company that provides diesel particulate filtration solutions to diverse industries, has solved complex problems in emissions reduction for over forty years for clientele in the mining sector. The company’s Chief Executive Officer, André Robberts, observes that the biggest challenge which mine operators face is limited availability of relevant products, even though there are various types of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) out there. “Various types of DPFs – ranging from paper, ceramic to metal DPF’s - vary in efficiencies and lifespan. The DPM exposure control value of

160ug/m3 (TC) is a time-weighted average in ambient air. Although it was identified that diesel machinery was the major contributor to higher than accepted levels, the question was asked on what limits the machinery can be reduced to, so as to achieve the GEE’s recommendations.” Inherent limitations in conventional DPFs Evidently, there are inherent limitations in some, if not most, conventional DPF’s. In particular, although full flow (99% efficient) filters are the solution for healthy engines, it has been established that unhealthy engines or partial flow filters will not achieve these results. For instance, workers (operators) could still be exposed to high levels of DPM, under three conditions: If the engine or Tier Rating is outdated; the engine is not performing or maintained according to standard; and the incorrect filter is fitted to the machine. John Ratcliffe’s Chief Executive Officer, André Robberts

HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter

28 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

John Ratcliffe’s solution Recognising the urgency of the situation, John Ratcliffe decided to devise a solution. The objective was to find diesel filter technology that could reduce the tailpipe DPM emission to as close as possible to the limits at the source, so that appropriate ventilation should be able to cope with ambient exposures. After years of exhaustive research and development, the team at John Ratcliffe launched HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter in 2013. Compellingly, the HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter with an efficiency of up to 99% in the reduction of ultra-fine DPM particles proved to be the solution. Characteristically, these filters reduce diesel equipment’s’ tailpipe DPM limits from as much as 16000ug/m3 to within the requirements set. HJS Emission Technology fills the gap In several ways, HJS Emission Technology SMF®, which has a modular design, addresses

limitations of conventional Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) which are awash in the market. Mainly, these are reduced downtime and replacement costs. Also, the team at John Ratcliffe are able to offer predictive maintenance which ensures availability. 1.

Decreasing downtime, increasing availability Increasing equipment uptime (availability) and decreasing downtime is the main focus in contemporary mining. Mines need their equipment to be working with minimal disruption at all times. Yet frequent downtime is often registered with conventional filters, due to long hours of cleaning and frequent need for cleaning. The SMF® stainless steel filter is designed to minimise downtime mainly caused by cleaning, points out Robberts. “The SMF® stainless steel filter could either be swopped out on a rotating basis and cleaned with water within 30 minutes. The filter has a 2000 operating hour cleaning interval on properly maintained machines and is fully recyclable once it has reached it lifespan.” 2. Replacement costs While filter wear is inevitable, when it occurs frequently, it can become a huge liability in terms of replacement costs. And so, HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter is designed with managing this situation in mind. The relevance of HSJ Emission Technology becomes clearer when one considers increasing cost of DPFs as one goes up the Engine Tier Level, Robberts indicates. “As you move up the engine Tier level, filters are standard. The higher you move up the engine Tier Level the higher the costs. Typically, in the South African context, depending on the engine size and type of filter system, the cost of fitting a DPF can range from R50 000 to R200 000. This price range is not completely out of the range of what was spent on previous technologies in the last couple of decades such as Catalytic converters, NOₓ Diluters, Multi Gaps, Silencers etc.” However, replacement costs escalate when filters have to be replaced in short intervals. Thus, this is an area where the HJS Emission

The modular design of the system allows for only the component that has been damaged to be replaced

Technology SMF® Filter is very convenient, assures Robberts. “The modular design of the system allows for only the component that has been damaged to be replaced and the system could last the lifetime of the machine.” Timely predictive maintenance Going beyond supplying products and leaving clientele to their own devices, John Ratcliffe ensures that it offers a solution. Thus, it carries out scheduled testing on the performance of installed DPF’s for clients, which enables timely predictive maintenance. Robberts emphasises the significance of this approach: “Clogged up DPF’s or Catalytic converters are often indicative of engine issues upstream. Hence, we conduct regular engine opacity tests to diagnose engine health. These tests not only protect the DPF but planned maintenance can now be performed on the engine before major breakdowns occur.” Through John Ratcliffe scheduled testing, a client is able to closely track engine performance. The client’s maintenance teams now identify potential risk machines and track fleet “health” and emissions, whether a DPF is

fitted or not. Immense benefits in machinery On the whole, there is no question that there are immense benefits of using HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter in machinery. Generally, the major impact is noticeable in the following areas: How maintenance is done; Reduced engine downtime; Increased productivity, and Reduced DPM exposure. Furthermore, HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter has proved effective in reducing ear-damaging noise produced by underground equipment which does not have silencers fitted on them. For instance, fitting a DPF on a machine reduces decibels (dB’s). Robberts recommends HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter technology for machinery deployed in underground mines. Additionally, most importantly, he advises maintenance and Ventilation engineers to collaborate in fitting the correct solution with regards to the equipment they currently have.

OEM’s endorse HJS Emission Technology SMF® Filter


he application engineering team from John Ratcliffe have conducted numerous trial installations with mines in conjunction with OEM’s worldwide. The results have initiated a rollout of the system as OEM products on their machines in Africa and other regions. Currently, a trial is in process in Australia with one of the biggest OEM machine manufacturers to extend the HJS DPF’s to the rest of their fleet in the soft rock mining sector. These tests followed the success of the flameproofed EXd versions in South

Africa. John Ratcliffe’s Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was installed on mobile machinery at South32’s Wessels Manganese Mine in Hotazel, Northern Cape, South Africa in the month of February 2015. A testimonial from management at South32 confirms the efficacy of the DPF: “Regular testing confirms that John Ratcliffe’s DPF system reduces >99% of DPM’s from the exhaust fumes, both Elemental and Total Carbon. After six months of operational testing, the DPF system has proven to be reliable and is an effective means to

reduce diesel particulate matter with limited maintenance effort. The electronic control unit (ECU) installed with the system also assists with fault finding on the machines.” With the DPF system’s efficacy firmly established, the product is now seen as ready for uptake. At an advanced stage are plans to manufacture mining-specific solutions to bring huge benefits to the end-user. Furthermore, development for a wireless ECU solution, which would enable a client to monitor his fleet in real time, is in progress.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 29

FEATURE Project Finance Post-COVID

The Flexibility of Alternative Funding Royalty and streaming financing models have emerged as godsend to junior and mid-tier miners across Africa with limited access to options in the traditional financing domain. Now, the avenues are providing mining companies with much-needed capital. Indications are that in 2022 and beyond more transactions are likely to be witnessed.

Alternative methods of financing mining projects received renewed attention during 2020 as commodity prices rose


ne of the most fascinating developments that have risen to prominence in the mining sector amid the gloom of the COVID-19 pandemic is the practice of companies turning to alternative methods to finance their greenfield and brownfield projects in Africa. Palpably, there is a strong correlation between the rise in commodity prices and increase in companies seeking alternative financing methods. Four legal minds from UK Law firm, Gowling WLG - Nath Curtis, Andrew Newberry, Dan O’Donnell and Charles Bond - highlight this point in a review. “Alternative methods of financing mining projects received renewed attention during 2020 as commodity prices rose, with royalties and streams becoming ever more popular,” they state in the article, Mine Finance in Africa: Production-linked loans, Royalties, and Streams. It is hard to resist the temptation to establish why the mining companies involved are not exploring the ‘tried and tested’ plethora of

traditional sources of funding such as private equity, bank finance, state institutional funding and listings on stock exchanges. Why alternative funding is attractive To begin with, it is important to consider the profile of the mining companies that are mainly exploring streaming and royalty funding avenues, and their ability to access traditional funding methods. International financing institutions would not give a second thought funding transnational mining companies that own and operate mining project portfolios in Africa – a luxury many African-owned junior and mid-tier companies may not have. This is based on the rich track record the transnational entities have built for years. On the other hand, the self-same international financing institutions would not be keen to take a gamble on projects owned and run by mostly African-owned junior miner and mid-tier companies. Unfortunately, coming from

30 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

a region invariably associated with perceived high risks to capital investment, over and above lack of tangible project track record, work against them. Thus, with dearth of options in the traditional funding space, the last throw of the dice for junior and mid-tier companies becomes seeking an international strategic partnership to assist with finding willing financiers. Nonetheless, the process of finding the right partner, let alone sourcing funds, can be offputting and convoluted, delaying project launch and missing out on a market boom. Lenders with an appetite for risk Due to frustrating barriers they encounter, it is understandable why, for junior and mid-tier mining companies, resorting to alternative funding avenues has become an attractive proposition - essentially the only option. What is working to their favour is that there is an environment where there is a ‘willing lender with an appetite for calculated risk’.

The four analysts from Gowling WLG observe that production-linked loans (debtinstruments with repayment schedules linked to the mine’s production), royalty and streaming financing have proliferated as a result of growing interest from institutional investors. The investors are looking for investment instruments that can offer strong returns. Currently, with rising commodity prices – mainly in precious metals – in African mining, investors view an opportunity for bigger profit margins, lower exposure to risks and portfolio diversification. “These vehicles are contributing to the increased investment in African mining from investors without historic exposure to the metals and mining markets in Africa,” the analysts say. Just the thing for junior and mid-tier miners Conveniently, the emergence of alternative funding options is just the thing for Africanowned mining companies. Private royalty and streaming funds have come to their rescue through short-term loans and project finance facilities. This works to the advantage of both parties as the risk and reward is shared. “The new forms of funding offer flexibility and the inherent fairer distribution of risk and rewards among the stakeholders,” says Managing Partner and Partner in Charge of Energy, Resources & Infrastructure . Corpus Legal Practitioners in Zambia in his review. On the one hand, a mining company is able to get a production off-the-ground quicker than it would normally take with a normal equity or funding arrangement. On the other hand, there are huge benefits to be had for financiers, as aforementioned. Fascinatingly, some international mining companies have also joined the bandwagon, resorting to streaming, royalties and productionlinked loan funding options. Set for growth What is being witnessed is only the beginning. Looking ahead, the royalty and streaming niche is set to grow in 2022 and beyond. This is judging from a number of aspects, which in this context can be condensed into two. First, predominantly, the royalty and streaming niche is in the precious metals sector. However, the world embraces renewable energy, the alternative funding niche market is set to extend to base and battery metals beyond precious metals. From the way things stand, traditional funding methods won’t be easily accessible to junior miners anytime soon. And as a consequence, royalty and streaming funding will grow, as different lenders will invest in the African market.

Recent transactions in Africa The following transactions have been financed through alternative funding models: Zambia • Part of the acquisition costs of Mopani Copper Mines by the state-owned investment company ZCCM Investments Holdings were funded through a form of royalty financing. • Large multinational mining companies, which own Mimbula Copper Mine and Lubambe Copper Mines, have opted for innovative funding options

Understanding the basics in alternative funding methods Royalties In Royalties, a financier (“Royalty holder”) purchases a right to a percentage of the future revenues of a mine (the “Royalty”) from the miner (“Grantor”) in return for an upfront payment. It is noteworthy that this is not a new concept, having been applied for decades, and is not to be confused with the royalties (essentially taxes) collected by sovereign governments in return for mining rights.

South Africa • Local bank Pan African Resources accessed funding by receiving a loan of physical gold from a local bank over a 12-month period. The physical gold was used as the funding instrument. • Royal Bafokeng Platinum entered into a streaming agreement with Triple Flag Mining Finance Bermuda for gold delivery over the life of mine from its Styldrift operation. The company received an advance payment on the closing of the agreement. • A US$30M term loan facility for Bushveld Minerals was secured through a debt-instrument whose repayment is linked to a mine’s production. While, potentially, royalty and streaming funding options may offer African-owned miners much needed capital injection, the undeveloped state of the African mining sector may be a hindrance. As can be deduced above, it is not surprising that most South African-domiciled companies dominate the deals. Even the Zambian transactions involve transnational companies. Thus, it is most likely that most investments will involve Australian, Canadian mining and exploration and mining companies.

Streaming agreements In Streaming agreements, the streaming company (“the streamer”) agrees to purchase minerals from the mining company (“grantor”) in return for an upfront payment (“the deposit”) and future payments on delivery of the minerals. In terms of the long-term agreement, the price at which the streamer agrees to purchase minerals in the future will be set. In most cases, the price would be below the spot price for the mineral. The convenience about streaming is that the Grantor is able to monetise minerals in advance of production to gain access to much needed capital on deposit and have certainty of funds for future production. Furthermore, the Grantor gains a valuable partner in the streamer who shares in some of the production risk and, because streams often deal with the by-product of a mine’s core operation, a partner with expertise in that non-core mineral.

Sourced from LEX Africa and adopted for Mining Business Africa

Source: Gowling WLG

Production-linked payment An alternative to royalty and streaming finance are debt-instruments with repayment schedules linked to the mine’s production.

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 31

FEATURE Condition Monitoring

Effective Monitoring, Higher Equipment Uptime Effective wear liner monitoring can help mines reduce equipment downtime (increase uptime), as it facilitates timely interventions which may necessitate liner replacement.

Wear Lined components (Pics: Metso -Outotec)


ear liners, thrown in the line of duty to protect components of critical equipment like grinding mills, are subjected to incessant battering from abrasive material. Consequently, for all the durability of the material they are made of, at some point they give in. For instance, relating to grinding mills, Multotec describes a typical scenario: “While each mill liner profile is designed to provide the correct trajectory to achieve either impact grinding or attrition grinding, depending on the application, the liners inevitably wear over time and affect the grind efficiency of the mill”. And so, it is monitoring the condition of the liner profile taken between the liner’s installation and when they are replaced that is critical. And

the more effective the monitoring process, the better.

MultoScan, a product from Multotec, used in wear liner monitoring.

32 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021

Data to predict life of liner Through effective inspections (monitoring), which the liner supplier conducts regularly, plant engineers can be able to get reliable and representative results (historical data) on liner profiles which can help in predicting the life of a liner. The data gathered is critical to improving grinding mill operations. Coupled with critical mill parameters, the data can be used to estimate the point where a liner becomes inefficient, automatically, a mill becomes inefficient. In short, when equipped with the information, it would be up to plant operators to decide a

Abreco IoT, a new product from Canadian company, Abreco

point where liners can be changed to improve efficiency. Wear liner monitoring can help mines reduce downtime, as it facilitates timely interventions.

Company profile

The cost of poor liner wear monitoring Unfortunately, it is not always the case that liner inspection, well-intentioned as it may be, is carried out correctly. Thus, this explains why equipment failure resulting from poor liner monitoring is not uncommon. Typically, inspection (monitoring) is only as accurate as the method employed. For instance, Pin Gauge Systems poses a number of challenges, which result in more time spent in inspection and inaccurate results produced. This is because it involves inserting nails into the rubber places and a pin gauge to get the profile of the lifter and measuring the length of the pin by hand to gather data. Worse still, considering that measurement can only be done when the mill is shutdown, it causes downtime to mill, which results in loss of productivity. The ensuing loss of productivity can translate into a huge revenue loss.

Being a founding member of Europa Environmental gives us the expertise to supply and support advanced environmental monitoring technology. To meet your environmental monitoring needs, our aim is to bring you the world’s best instrumentation, spare parts, service, technical support and training at the most affordable prices.

Alternative liner monitoring Mine operators are spoilt for choice with a wide range of liner monitoring options, if claims that manufacturers of the devices make are anything to go by. The devices have the ability to eliminate physical inspections, as is evidence in two products - MultoScan, a product from Multotec, and Abreco IoT, a new product from Canadian company, Abreco. MultoScan, a product from Multotech, one of the manufacturers of equipment liners, uses laser light to automatically calculate the dimensions of the liner on the component and determine the degree of wear. Equipped with a WiFi device, it is able to transmit data regarding the profiles of the lifters and shell plates to a receiving tablet. Then, the data can be analysed and generate predictive replacement scheduling for a customer.

Originally formed in 1976, SI Analytics provides air monitoring solutions to industry, government and research organisations. Our analytical instrumentation offers continuous measurement of both surrounding air pollution and chimney emissions. We design, manufacture, supply, install, commission, train and provide after sales service for either individual monitors, or integrated systems in southern Africa.



Due to government regulatory requirements, our clients are under increasing pressure to collect emissions data. This is not part of their core business - their expertise lies in manufacturing the products they sell. Our expertise lies in assisting them to manage their data and compliance issues.

Stand alone products, integrated systems, spare parts, local factory repair, and on-site maintenance are all part of what SI Analytics has to offer, thus providing tailor-made solutions to client applications.

We offer a wide range of services such as ambient air quality and continuous emissions monitoring which include:

Instrumentation from the most popular products includes:


manufactures a range of ambient air quality instruments.


mobile and stationary ambient dust monitors.


extractive high sensitivity gas analyser systems.

Procal Analytics:

in-situ continuous stack gas analysers.


chlorine, hydrocarbon and sulphur speciation analysers.

• environmental monitoring, • certified USEPA, European EN and UK MCerts equipment sales, • data management and reporting, • service and maintenance contracts, • equipment rentals, • Indoor air quality assessments and, • short courses (For example: operator monitoring assessment training).

Clients SI Analytics has successfully installed and maintained various analysers and systems for a variety of clients such as:

We also provide data management and monthly reporting services for clients throughout South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, amongst others.

Contact information Telephone: + 27 (0)11 444 7808/9 Facsimile:

+ 27 (0)11 444 7806


+ 27 83 661 7072 + 27 82 554 8900



Physical address

Postal address

Unit 3 Olympia Gardens

P.O. Box 141

12 Olympia Street

Melrose Arch, 2076

Kelvin, 2090

South Africa

Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021 33

FEATURE Pump retrofitting

Giving Old Pumps a New Lease of Life As long as it is carried out properly, retrofitting can extend the service life of old pumps - saving a mine operator money that could have been spent on purchasing a new pump. • • • • •

Save maintenance costs Reduce power consumption Achieve longer service life Increase system availability Comply with legal requirements (e.g: TA-Luft, ATEX)

Side bar Core areas in Retrofitting The core focus areas in retrofitting are: hydraulic and mechanical modifications to the materials, above and beyond changes to the materials.

As powerful as new - a retrofitted pump from KSB Pumps


or all the commitment of a mine’s service team to the recommended best practice in pump management, someday, encountering cases of pump component wear and tear is inevitable - a matter of when and not if. And when it does occur, component wear inhibits pump performance. It is at that point where, timeously, mines may have to seriously consider retrofitting as a feasible option. A rational business decision In this environment, where prices of capital equipment prices are increasing, replacement may be a sensible business decision. In an advisory targeted at mines and other industries, pump OEM, KSB Pumps, recommends retrofitting as a rational business decision: “Retrofitting is

an excellent alternative to buying a new product and can be performed on pumps regardless of their intended use. It is equally suitable for industrial, water supply and waste water disposal applications as well as for the power supply industry.” It is only natural for mine operators to contemplate acquiring new pumps. New pump models meet contemporary requirements like improved energy efficiency, compliance with new legal requirements (relating to emissions and safety), extended service life and technology which produces operating data. But this may not necessitate replacing an old pump model, KSB Pumps says, as retrofitting could give an old pump a new lease of life, specifically in the following ways:

Hydraulic modifications Some of the hydraulic modifications may involve: • Remachining of existing impellers • Installation of new impellers for offdesign conditions • Optimisation of volute casing for offdesign conditions • Adjustment of the number of stages (on multistage pumps) Mechanical adjustments The following are some of the mechanical changes: • Closed bearing brackets improve the smoothness of operation and extend the bearing life • Installation of mechanical seal systems • Employment of cellular surface wear rings to improve efficiency, rotor dynamics and dry running properties Use of optimised materials The following are its some of the materials that some of the optimised materials that may be used: • Super duplex stainless steel grades or nickel alloys • Ceramic mineral castings for impellers, wear plates, cover and casing – for use with finely dispersed, highly abrasive solutions • Non-metallic rings and bushes • Ceramic plain bearings • Surface coatings Source: KSB Pumps on Pump Retrofitting

Retrofitted pumps (Credits: KSB Pumps)

34 Mining Business Africa | September - October 2021



Advertiser’s index African Reptile.....................................................................................................................................................................................15 CSA Global.........................................................................................................................................................................................05 Economic Development Solutions (EDS).........................................................................................................................................19 Freudenberg........................................................................................................................................................................................36 ITOO ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11 John Ratcliff.....................................................................................................................................................................................OBC Mineware.............................................................................................................................................................................................21 Resources 4 Africa...........................................................................................................................................................................IFC Santam.................................................................................................................................................................................................09 SI Analytics...................................................................................................................................................................................17 / 33 Spectrem.............................................................................................................................................................................................25 TFG global ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13 Mining Business Africa (MBA) is Pan-African bi-monthly publication that focuses on latest developments in mining and allied industries in Africa. The publication covers the scope of critical activities from pit to port – mineral exploration (prospecting), mine planning and development, extraction, mineral processing, storage transportation, as well as beneficiation. Mining Business Africa provides the desired mileage for companies looking to promote their products and services to a specific niche clientele in the African Mining Sector. Subscribers are located or at least involved in projects in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana and Nigeria. MBA is published by Media Icon, a company manned by personnel with a combined experience of 30 years in the publishing space.

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