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GLOBALMATTERS

‘what matters where’


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GLOBALMATTERS A monthly newsletter

Issue No. 01 January 22 2011 reports Protests across the north africa and the middle east. From Algeria to Jordan riots and protests have rocked the region, just what is happening. Page 2

Private security firms pursue Pirates The situation in Somalia is dire there is no doubt about that. The EU is currently training about 2,000 Somali soldiers with U.S support and an African Union force of 8,000 Ugandan and Burundian peacekeepers are propping up the government, despite this piracy is apparently on the increase and the private contractors are ready to move in. This week Eric Prince, former head of the infamous American private contractor or mercenary group, ‘Blackwater’, has been linked to Somalia. Does Somalia need Prince? Former Navy Seal, Erik Prince has this week been linked to private contractors Saracen International.

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tech Apple and Assange, an editorial and Apple and Murdoch a report.

editorial Sudan and the complexities of war. We try to untangle the Sudanese web, and comprehend the complexities of war.

No longer part of Blackwater, now re-branded Xe Services, the company which became synonymous with all that had become dirty in private contractor work undertaken in both Iraq and Afghanistan, Prince has been named in an intelligence report as the Saracen contact responsible for overseeing anti-piracy training. Saracen International, a group led by Lafras Luitingh a founder of defunct Executive Outcomes (yet another infamous group this time involved in the failed coup in Equatorial Guinea which drew attention as a result of the involvement of Mark Thatcher) claims to have signed a contact with the former Somali government in March. However since signing a new Somali government has taken office and has appointed a panel to investigate Saracen’s deal.

Ethical approach Luitingh has, reassuringly, stated that he will ensure that Saracen does not recruit child soldiers, will pay recruits regularly and will be legally answerable to the Somali government. Saracen has declined to disclose the source of its funding however the intelligence report names the U.A.E as one of the key donors and Prince as a participant .

Xe Services - formerly the infamous private contractor Blackwater

Fighting ‘Piracy and Islamic rebels’ is said to be the remit of the 1-2,000 strong army being trained and recruited. It goes on to suggest the fight against Al-Shabab (Islamist group with links to AlQaida) and how private security contractors should be used in some of the worlds most dangerous areas. One reason Arab rulers may be supporting the Saracen project is that lack of cash accountability given by the Somali government. Despite this the continuing acceptance of the privatisation of war worries many owing to the contractor’s lack of accountability and allegiance only to the highest bidder. Ed. 21.01.11 GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11


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Korean commandos storm ship. Eight pirates have been killed and six captured during a rescue by south Korean commandos on board the 11,500-tonne Samho Jewelry cargo ship, which had been carrying chemical from the U.A.E.

G L O B A L M AT T E R S Why we cover what we cover.

The bodies of the pirates have not been found. The Gulf of Aden, between Yemen and Somalia, is one of the world's busiest shipping routes and has become a hot spot for pirate attacks. source: BBC Ed. 21.01.11

Every day of every year, 24/7 as some like to say, thousands of bits of information traverse the globe. Text, audio, images.  Typically most of the media coverage we receive comes from a handful of large news agencies. As a result these agencies often dominate our perception of the world. I am aware none of this is new to the reader. However, the world is changing fast. People want to know what and in particular why  things are is happening outside of their borders at an increasing rate. They want analysis and they want relative reporting with a truly global scope. Here we will, in the coming months, attempt to provide one source from which the reader can research further or not, as he or she so wishes. We shall trawl the major sources for the key items of the day, attempt to give a balanced background and analysis of events and also delve into the stories which are not being reported by the major distributors. In this age of transparency, and ‘scientific journalism’, the following areas will be given attention for the following reasons: Geopolitics- this zine is about what's happening in the world at the moment, this in relationship to major decisions being taken, or acts committed, which affect us all. Environment- it affects us, we're affecting it. Business- it's bigger than government. Art- it makes life worth living.

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PM names unity government to quell Tunisia unrest Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi brought opposition leaders into the coalition announced on Monday after the president fled to Saudi Arabia following weeks of violent street protests. But key 'old guard' figures kept their jobs, angering many. The wave of protests has hit stock and currency markets from Jordan to Morocco amid fears that the Tunisian unrest would spread abroad. source: Reuters Ed. 18.01.11

Everything is at Zero. South Sudan Lebanon no nearer to a resolution.. Following Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar have suspended efforts to broker a new government in Lebanon. Representatives from both countries have returned home to discuss the situation further with their leaders. Syrian delegates remain in Beirut. The collapse of the Lebanese government follows a UN investigation into the assassination in 2005 the then Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. Hezbollah, left the government in protest at the implication that members of its organisation were somehow involved. According to the BBC and other sources, if the tribunal does implicate its members the organisation has vowed to retaliate. Ed. 20.01.11

The end of draconian measures.

‘There has been no development in South Sudan. We have no roads, no bridges, no water, no power, nothing at all, no hospitals, and no schools – everything is at zero.’ President Salva Kiir, Juba, 3 November 2011 An in depth report by the: T H E B R E N T H U RST  F O U N DAT I O N   investigating: 'The ability of the South – where ‘everything’, in the words of its President, ‘is at zero’ – to develop and improve the lives of its ten million people.'

Nigerian sitting President wins primary- Goodluck Nigera's sitting President Goodluck Jonathan who rose to power after the death of former President Umaru Yar'Adua, has won the his party's primary election as leader on the road to Nigeria's general election in April. Goodluck Jonathan has risen to the to with surprising ease after having come from nowhere. Aside from the goodluck he has experienced on the career ladder his success so far is

source: Huffington Post Finally the UK has reconsidered its terror detention laws. A law that at one point was trying to be pushed through in 2008 as a 42 day detention without trial ended up as 28 days and now finally has been reduced to 14 days. Ministers questioned the real security advantages and civil liberty implications of such a law.

probably measured most by the fact that he has managed to negotiate with the militants in the delta who are largely of the same Ijaw ethnic group into which President Jonathan was born. President Goodluck Jonathan is the first Nigerian President from the oil-rich Niger Delta Ed. 14.01.11

Ed. 20.01.11

Antony Riley, 22, January 2011 GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11

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Brazil's new president indicates line against Britain in Argentine debate...

New iPad online paper soon to go live... Rupert Murdoch's latest "most exciting" project will soon go live. The Daily is a digital newspaper aimed at the iPad and next week will see Steve Job's alongside Murdoch to launch the product. The Huffington Post reported that Murdoch has devoted considerable resources to the product, hiring high-profile editors and reporters and reportedly committing $30 million to the paper's first year. For Jobs, the success of The Daily could cement the iPad as a serious player in the media world. Ed. 11.01.11

Basque separatists Eta declare a 'permanent' end to violence

HMS Clyde. Source VT Group Dilma Rousseff, Brazil new president has apparently refused HMS Clyde permission to stop in Rio. Miss Rousseff is due to visit Argentina at the end of this month, it will be her her first international trip and  closer trade relations between South American countries are due to be discussed. Reported in the Daily Telegraph the move is seen as a taking a stand with the government of  Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner in Buenos Aires. According to the Argentine newspaper Clarin the move has "satisfied" the Argentine government. Ed. 11.01.11

Sudan moves towards peace

The Basque region Peace reigns in the Sudan, for now. The peace envoys, Carter, Kerry et al, have arrived to make speeches, skirmishes have taken place and 30 have been killed in the fractious oil rich Abyei region where tensions still run high, however thus far peace is being kept in the Sudan.

The Basque separatist group ETA After 51 years of bloody resistance the terrorist group ETA, from the Basque region of Spain, has agreed on a permanent ceasefire with the Spanish government. 

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The country with the miserable honour of having been plagued by Africa's longest running civil war culminating in the horrors of Dafur could just be about to welcome in a new era of peace. The signs are beginning to showChina, for example, just has too much invested (oil) and too much to lose not to be strongly backing a peaceful transition and as a result has sent observers, the Carter Centre also has 10,000 volunteers working in the south and has sent 75 official observers. President Bashir of the north has stated that should the south vote for independence then the north will shoulder all previous financial debt. The south is one of the world's poorest regions with only 50km of paved road. Bashir's 'generosity' could be an effective proactive diplomatic and economic move given that the largest share of the country's oil and therefore wealth lies in the south, the southern Sudanese however, will have to negotiate carefully as the pipe line run through the north.

GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11


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A Global Matters editorial feature The complexities of civil war with particular focus on the conflict in Sudan. An SPLA soldier. The southern Sudanese army is, for the majority, of the Dinka tribe- this has put many other tribes in the south at unease. source: Al Jazeera. photo May Ying Welsh 21 Years, 2 million killed- no true victor. Plato said 'only the dead have seen the end of war', and perhaps Sudan is one of the countries which most exemplifies that. Perhaps, only now during these tentative days of peace, after years of bloody war which ravaged the country mercilessly, can an observer begin to try and comprehend just how such a multi-headed hydra as the Sudanese civil war came to be about.

has caused anxiety among other tribes, especially the Nuer with whom the Dinka have fought recently. Assuming Salva Kiir Mayardit becomes President of the south this will only increase their fears. As a result, since signing the peace agreement with the north in 2010 many former SPLA rebels have returned to their tribes with their weapons.

The many splits, ethnic, religious etc, which I have detailed in previous posts, have given rise to the many factions which cause anxiety in the minds of those just wishing for a peaceful referendum. Geographically, the Sudan is Africa's largest country and thus has a multitude of regions with distinct tribes and cultures. The southern Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA)* waged a long war with the north (the longest Civil war in African history), and should the south gain independence they shall become the official army, with their political arm (SMLM) forming the south's government and their leader Salva Kiir Mayardit becoming President. President Mayardit is of the Dinka tribe, the largest in the south (11%). During British colonialisation in the 19th century, missionaries  saw to it that Christianity predominated over Dinka religious practices and the tribe soon found

GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11

A former SPLA soldier now returned to his tribe. source: Al Jazeera Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of Southern Sudan and Vice President of Sudan. themselves alongside the British this later, typically, elevated them to positions of power (similarly to the situation which the Germans and then the Belgians created in Rwanda with the Tutsi population). The Dinka's hold on power

In addition to the possible tribal conflict in the south the fact is that the success of southern Sudan's independence is unnerving other regions and states. Should the south succeed it is possible that the region of Dafur destabilises as the local tribesmen again try to assert their independence

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Editorial continued. that the region of Dafur destabilises as the local tribesmen again try to assert their independence from the north whose Arabic dominance they fear. During the Dafur conflict the Justice and Equality Movement (Jem)* allied to the SPLA (despite being rival groups), and attacked north Sudanese government positions believing the north was oppressing Africans in favour of Arabs. In retaliation the north admitted to mobilising what it termed "self-defence militias" but denied supporting the infamous Arab Janjaweed* militia. Armed partisans drawn from Arab tribes the Janjaweed became notorious for massacre, rape, forced displacement and torture in 1990 and from 2001-2005. In the conflict that followed it is believed up to 300,000 people were killed and over 2million displaced. President Bashir of north Sudan places the figure closer to 10,000 deaths however, he is currently wanted genocide and is the first ever sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC. However the court's decision is opposed by the African Union, League of Arab States, NonAligned Movement, and the governments of Russia and the People's Republic of China.

Algerian According to El Watan (one of the most popular Algeria's daily paper) and Al Jazeera rioting has erupted across Algeria. The capital, Algiers, has seen shops torched, government buildings and a police station attacked.

Protests With a rarely seen, aging (74), President in Abdelaziz Bouteflika the government will have to speak directly to the people to assure them of the immediate economic future outside of the currently grandes projects being undertaken.

Having lived and worked in one of the suburbs where rioting has taken place, Bordj el Kiffan, I can safely say that the feeling of resentment with regards to unemployment and rising prices is real. Despite being a country with great oil reserves and prospects little wealth has trickled down to the street. Several corruption scandals have left people feeling despondent, but for the most part they have been content that there has been no violence since the horrors of the 'lost decade' a civil war during which more than 160,000 people were killed (17 January 1992 and June 2002.)

Several of Sudan's bordering country’s are currently unstable and the recent victory of the south's independence movement will worry their incumbent leaders. Ultimately the civil wars in Sudan between the north and south cost the lives of 1.5 million people. Fighting during the Dafur conflict between killed between 19,500 civilians (Sudanese authorities) and 300,000 (British Parliamentary Report), although figures differ wildly up to 400,000. Whether we will now witness a lasting peace remains to be seen, however it is certain that there are uneasy days ahead as conflict simmers behind Sudan's borders and beyond them. As to whether this is as a result of religion, oil, ethnicity or just, as one Christian cleric put it to me,- greed, is academic, the war has seen no true victors and the peace is fragile.

Infrastructure is being developed with major road projects and tram projects taking place however there remains resentment that work is going nonAlgerian migrant workers and companies. There have been clashes between Chinese workers and Algerians, in the past.

Algeria However, with so militarised a state (the shadow of terrorism hangs over Algiers from an apparent Al-Qaeda threat)  it is just as possible that they decide to use the iron heel instead. Ed. 07.01.11

QUICK UPDATE

© D.R El Watan Suburbs of Algiers

Recent reports suggest that the Algerian situation is quite unlike that of Tunisia. It appears that the situation is two fold, the first is the people attacking representations of consumerism which they feel are beyond them and are out of step with reality. Another is the apparent democratic noise coming from the elite and media classes which are quite disconnected from the people on the street. The self-immolation, it has been suggested from sources inside the country, will not have the same significance as that of the Tunisian. Ed. 17.01.11

Ed. 11.01.11

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GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11


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Forty -two years ago today a lone student set himself alight in Czechoslovakia. The lad Jan Palach, was, many believed, demonstrating against Soviet occupation. However, the nurse who was first to try in vain and treat his severe burns was later reported as saying he had told her he was, in fact, demonstrating at the 'demoralisation of Czech society'. The fact that not only had the Czechs given up but had given in to their fate with the Soviet Union. Yesterday a jobless 34 year old man set himself alight in Algeria after the mayor refused to meet him over Jobs and housing. Every one has been quick to link this incident with the self-immolation in December in Tunisia which led to protests, violent riots and the eventual fleeing of the president to Saudi Arabia. Today a third suicide. Witnesses in Egypt, reported having seen a man pour fuel over himself outside Cairo's parliament building before setting himself alight. Tensions are already running high in Egypt and this can only exasperate the situation. What links these macabre demonstrations of frustration, these desperate pleas for attention? Dominoes. Domino theories at least. When Palach awoke the Czech people to their apathy it was hoped, at least by some, that his demonstration would in turn initiate a spate of similar popular uprisings against Soviet Russias' strangle hold on other central and east European countries. Some did- a Hungarian student set himself ablaze on the steps of the National Museum in Budapest. Thousands marched on Soviet embassies in Western Europe to protest the occupation of Czechoslovakia. However the Russian were not thrown out of the occupied countries- not in a week, a year or a decade.

The Cold War enjoyed domino theories, more specifically the Americans enjoyed them. The belief was that that once one state fell, was 'freed' from occupation others would also fall. It also was the case the other way around, it was an inverse fear which drove the American in Southeast.Asia. The fear was if one state fell to communism all would, therefore none most be lost to the ideology. Now there are whispers again of dominoes, this time in North Africa. Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt? Self-styled African father of African nations and Muslim brother to all, President Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi in Libya fears the effect and has since shown his support for the exiled Tunisian

GLOBAL MATTERS 22.01.11

The death mask and plague memorialising Jan Palach on the front of the Charles University philosophy faculty President stating in a speech broadcast on state television "You have suffered a great loss... There is none better than Zine (Mr Ben Ali) to govern Tunisia,". He fears an reform in Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt just as much as he fears independence in southern Sudan his wish is still a 'United states of Africa'

It was not before another thirty years had passed that the countries of the Soviet block began to fall. The Czechs final revolution became known as the 'Velvet' Revolution and  few shots were fired. The Algerians are fearful of chaos returning to the streets as it is only a decade since the 'dark decade' to which no one wishes to return. A 'velvet revolution' would of course be preferred to all however, is it not just reform that is being fought

for? The civil unrest being seen in North Africa is, apparently one of frustration at the country’s lack of progression, lack of employment, soaring food prices and belligerent rulers. However do the people really have the stomach for for this kind of protest? Are they prepared to gamble on an uncertain future. "Perhaps it will awaken a kernel of strength in the nation." Palach was reported to have said of his act. I suspect that it will be in the coming weeks that we will see just how much selfimmolation will effect these N. African states, I suspect Tunisia will be watched carefully but I do not believe that the change will speed quite as fast as some would wish.

Ed. 16.01.11

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Imagine a dinner with Steve Jobs and Julian Assange.. On the day which Assange has agreed to a book deal and since Apple have decided to pull the Wikileaks app., promoting one commentator to remark "et tu Apple?", I have decided to sift through the entrails of these two apparent hollies.

Assange's star appears to continue to be in its ascendancy. This appears to be applauded by the same cultish supporters that Apple became known for, those same supporters which are now beginning to question some of that company's brilliant reputation. Assange like Jobs appears hyper driven, Jobs similarly to Assange enjoys his maverick title and is popularly quoted to having said "Why join the navy if you can be a pirate?" something I'm sure Assange would smile about. However, do the similarity's split here? Obviously Jobs is a major business player, not just some monastic style, zen-like comp. guru which his advocates love to paint him as. Assange is, it appears, a loner on a mission- similarly to a driven businessman, but with an apparently ethical point to prove. Wikileaks has been roundly lauded by the media and vilified by some right-wing politicians and plaudits and those petrified by 'security leaks', bearing in mind that someone has to be fairly worried by a situation to leak it, you

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would have thought all the really important security information is secure with careful, smart people, but who knows. Currently Apple is a little bruised, not only as the competition is improving but also because their halo is continuing to slip. Last May shocked Appe devotees learnt that a worker at an Apple plant in China managed commit suicide (after the stress of losing an iPhone prototype, and a beating) while a further 30 attempted to do so in the space of three weeks. Of course Apple products weren't the only things being made at the factory but the fact is not many other manufacturers push the squeaky clean image in quite the same way that Apple does. The many well-educated young migrant workers who staff the factories crack under the demands of 15hour workdays, 7 days a week, the Telegraph reported. In addition to this today Greenpeace revealed that of 20 company's it sent an environmental questionnaire only two, Apple and Phillips, refused to return data. Perhaps the others are just better at filling out questionnaires but the fact remains that many years ago I remember cool Nike and now we have the 'Swooshstika'. Is Jobs and his über designed mac concerned about the ethics of production? I'm sure he doesn't miss the dark irony of the fact that his workers are paid too poorly to be able to afford the products they build,

he's a smart man. Maybe he hasn't seen it for himself, just as Knight of Nike admitted he'd never seen the conditions of any of his product manufacturers himself. Denial hides a multitude of sins, not to put an app. on a product is not the end of the world but the ethics of denying the shame done on your watch or indeed an app. which allows your customer mearly to examine the work done by governments with their money and in their name surely that deserves some judgement. So to the dinner, not one of harmony, differences abound and not one of hell- similarities exist, but one of silence, one of purgatory as neither quite knows whom he's sitting with. Both are in judgement, however one thing is for sure, Mr Jobs, Assange is watching you, and Julian- we're watching you. Ed. 07.01.11

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E Contingency plans drawn up by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) suggest up to 50,000 southern Sudanese could be displaced to Egypt in 2011 if war breaks out should the South vote for independence. Libya's Muhammad Gaddafi warned in October that southern secession could spur separatist movements across Africa and scare off investors.

2011 Back to Africa- Sudan The largest country in Africa what happens in Sudan matters. Bordering seven separate African nations the current fear of conflict here is all too real, in addition to this the fear of violence spreading beyond borders has created high concern among the international community. In five days there will be an election during which the largely Christian oil rich southern Sudanese will in all probability vote for independence from the mainly Muslim north. Although tensions run high President Omar al-Bashir has said he would be the first to recognise an independent south. AlBashir is the first sitting head of state ever indicted by the ICC as well as the first to be charged with genocide. The court's decision is opposed by the African Union, League of Arab States, NonAligned Movement, and the governments of Russia and the People's Republic of China.

are known to be arming themselves with support from respective governments. Both North and South have accused each other of building up troops near 'Heglig' the regions' central oil field.

Nobody questions the complexity of the position the Sudanese are in. Everybody appears to quote every possible problem imaginable; academics, journalists, and bloggers all pick over its state concluding the source of its problems and divisions to be anything from African/Arabic, Musilim/Christian, Egyptian and British post colonial hangovers, endemic corruption and of course oil. Ultimately though whatever the source of the tension, next week it will be the responsibility of both Northern and Southern elites, in addition to those of the African and international communities further afield, to resolve peacefully. further information: BBC article: 'Oil Bonanza' on the southern oil wealth Nov. 2009 AlJazeera article:  'Sudan opposition 'to oust regime' information on the planned peaceful overthrow of Al Bashir immediately after the referendum sources: BBC news online, Al Jazeera online.A rash of terror alerts- UK, typically vague reports Ed. 04.01.11

A rash of terror alerts- UK, a typically vague report

The disputed Abyei region- an oil-rich flash point, and other problems. Laying on the North/South Sudanese boarder the oil producing Abyei region has always been contested. Now tribes on both sides of the border

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The international community is concerned that dispute a peace agreement reached by both North and South in January 2005, 20% of the border is still in dispute. This in a nation which has experienced one of the longest civil wars in African history culminating in the tragedy in Dafur (western Sudan) . Although President Al Bashir of the North is keen to underline his support for the South should they vote for secession his ruling National Congress Party (of the North) stands for unification this is in stark contrast to the South's separatist Sudan's People's Liberation Movement' (SPLM). Other unresolved issues remaining are; grazing rights for the nomadic tribes whom habitually traverse the border areas, how the national debt will be handled and the Southern tribes fear of hegemony as a result of the disproportionally high Dinka population.

7 January 2011 Last updated at 01:12 UK terrorism security threat level raised at airports The security threat level to the UK as a whole was raised to "severe" a year ago The terrorist threat level specific to major UK transport hubs has been raised from substantial to severe, the BBC understands. The move includes airports and London railway terminals, although there is no suggestion of any intelligence of an imminent attack.

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UK terror alerts

cont...

The threat to the UK overall remains where it has been for the past year at the second-highest level, "severe". Security officials are stressing the change is precautionary.

Visible presence The overall national threat level at severe means a terrorist attack is highly likely. But it is understood the threat level for major transport hubs, including airline terminals and major railway stations in London, has been increased from substantial to severe. Officials say if there was any intelligence of an imminent threat or a plot under way the threat level would be raised to its highest level, "critical". There have been concerns in recent months over the possibility of Mumbai-style gun attacks in Europe and the intelligence that led to this change is believed to cover Europe as a whole. In practice, the move means more police are likely to be visible at airports and railway stations from Friday. BBC security correspondent Gordon Corera said: "Officials are stressing that there is no intelligence of an imminent attack. This is more precautionary than anything else. Beneath are a series of threat levels for specific sectors of the national infrastructure which are not normally made public. UK terror threat levels: I. Critical - attack expected imminently II. Severe - attack highly likely III. Substantial - attack a strong possibility IV. Moderate - attack possible but not likely V. Low - an attack unlikely Source: Home Office "If there was some kind of intelligence of a plot under way, or that there was a threat to these locations tomorrow, then the threat level would go up to the highest level which is 'critical'. That's not happening. "These sector threat levels do change quite often. Normally the changes happen out of the public eye and officials don't comment on them. "But what we can expect to see is a greater police presence, particularly at airports and large railway stations." 'Remain vigilant' A Scotland Yard spokesman said: "The threat level to the UK is at severe, which means that an attack is highly likely, and has been since January 2010. "We will police accordingly and use a range of covert and overt tactics which remain under constant review." The Home Office said there was a "continuing need for everyone to remain vigilant and to report any suspicious activity to the police". A spokesman for airports operator BAA said: "Security at our airports remains at a high level and we remain vigilant at all times." source: BBC Ed. 07.01.11

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THE GLOBAL MATTERS GLOSSARY Organisations and factions in the news. How, why, where and when they were created: The International Criminal Court (ICC) The International Criminal Court (ICC), governed by the Rome Statute, is the first permanent, treaty based, international criminal court established to help end impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community. On 17 July 1998, the international community reached an historic milestone when 120 States adopted the Rome Statute, the legal basis for establishing the permanent International Criminal Court.

Resistance fighters fighting against the Soviet Union during the Afghan - Soviet war 27 December 1979 – 15 February 1989 (9 years 50 days). These fighters were Afghan Muslims heavily supported by the US during the Cold War 'hot war'. Taliban (students of Islam)

For further information click here- The International Criminal Court

Fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union and heavily rumored to have been supported by Pakistan's ISI (intelligence service), this support continued until September 11th and some claim that there are still strong links.

Genocide

Al Qaeda (the base)

Genocide, the deliberate and systematic destruction of a group of people because of their ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race. The term, derived from the Greek genos (“race,” “tribe,” or “nation”) and the Latin cide (“killing”), was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-born jurist who served as an adviser to the U.S. Department of War during World War II.

International Islamist terrorist network gained notoriety after Sept. 11th founded sometime around 1988. Al-Shabab (The Lads) Apparently linked to Al Qaeda, a secraive group controlling much of lawless central and southern Somalia.

Justice and Equality Movement (Jem) Madrassa A Darfuri rebel movement with an Islamist ideology the JEM which fought against the Sudenese govermnment during the Dafur conflict JEM came from the 'black book' which it's founder, Khalil Ibrahim, co-authorthed the book details the which documents the disproportionate power of three northern Arab tribes. JEM claims that the revenue from oil sold to China funds the Sudanese government and the Janjaweed militia. During the Dafur conflict the government of Sudan accused Chad of supporting Jem because the Chadian President Idriss Deby  is from the same Zaghawa ethnic group as Khalil Ibrahim.

An Islamic school. A school teaching the word of the Prophet. Often portrayed as extremist. However this is NOT a de facto state of a madrassa.

Sudan's People's Liberation Movement (SPLM). The south's rebel army which fought with the north during the 21 year civil war. Largely formed from the Dinka tribe people the SPLM is now the south's regular army and should the region gain independence it will become the official army, it's leader becoming president of the country. Janjaweed Armed partisans drawn from Arab tribes the Janjaweed became notorious for massacre, rape, forced displacement and torture in 1990 and from 2001-2005. Based in western Sudan, the Dafur and eastern Chad. Mujahadeen (freedom fighters)

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