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Environmental Report 2015

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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Contents 1. Climate..............................................................................................................................4 2. Energy: 277 kWh/m2........................................................................................................8 3. Water consumption........................................................................................................12 4. Waste management and separation.............................................................................13 5. Transport.........................................................................................................................16 6. Construction and maintenance projects.......................................................................18 7. Procurement: Environmental and social responsibility at UiO.....................................19 8. Environmental management..........................................................................................21 9. Other environmental aspects and conditions.............................................................. 22 10. Networks and collaborative fora related to operational environmental activities..... 23 11. References....................................................................................................................24 12. Key figures UiO 2015................................................................................................... 25

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015


PREFACE:

An outstanding, green university The University of Oslo shall lead the way in the environmental area. Our long-term strategy UiO 2020 and UiO’s Master Plan both confirm that UiO shall be a green university. In 2015, world leaders convened in Paris for the COP21 conference, where they agreed on the goal to reduce global warming to a maximum of 1.5°C. The fact that 196 countries were able to agree on this, and that the original target of a maximum of 2°C was further lowered, set the direction for further efforts across sectors and national boundaries. The agreement presents research and educational institutions worldwide with a challenge that reaches to the core of the social remit and responsibility associated with our activities. The agreement highlights the importance of our interfaculty programme UiO:Energy. The energy area is a university priority. This applies also on campus, where we are now approaching fossil-fuel independence in our buildings. The same applies to our investments; we are preparing a strategy for divestment of our entire portfolio in fossil-fuel companies in our UNIFOR investment enterprise. In 2015, it became ever clearer that mankind’s overall activities have reached a level at which they exert a considerable impact on the Earth’s geology and ecosystems. Estimates made in 2015 indicate that 60 per cent of the world’s ecosystems are vulnerable and overexploited. Biodiversity is now deteriorating so rapidly that reports from the EU Commission point out the risk of mass extinction of species and ecosystems, with grave consequences for people and societies. The Life Sciences Programme at UiO goes to the core of this topic. We want to highlight this on campus as well, and have UiO’s parks and grounds help increase the green diversity of our city. In 2015, UiO’s new Master Plan for campus development was also completed and adopted. Its title, Space for an Outstanding, Green University – and for Oslo, the City of Knowledge, reflects a long-term commitment. At the same time, it links excellence and future orientation with sustainability. Many of the challenges that the world is facing require local solutions. In many areas we have taken steps towards a more sustainable future, such as when the UiO renovates buildings with a view to compliance with the BREEAM Excellent environmental classification, and when students and employees help recycle waste for the reuse of resources. Concern for the environment among the students is essential to succeed with our environmental initiatives, and we give priority to a positive and long-term collaboration with the Student Parliament and various student organizations. The Environmental Report 2015 provides an impression of the way in which UiO is responding to the environmental and climate challenges on its own campus. In our Strategy 2020 we affirm that UiO will take responsibility for meeting environmental and climate challenges through research and education with environmental relevance, and by operating sustainably. By way of these reinforced and focused efforts in the environmental area, UiO will establish itself as a green university. We still have some way to go, but we are on the right track.

Ole Petter Ottersen Rector of the University of Oslo

Gunn-Elin Aa. Bjørneboe University Director

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Heading for a greener university The Estate Department of the University of Oslo is charged with creating space for an outstanding, green university. Our job is to ensure that the buildings support UiO’s core activities: research, education and dissemination. The Estate Department (EA) is responsible for energy use, water consumption and waste management. As a result, much of the responsibility for UiO’s environmental footprint rests with the EA. I am proud of the key changes that the EA has achieved over the last year, and further important environmental initiatives are underway. The ED shall be a champion in making the university even greener. The climate effect of UiO’s energy consumption has declined considerably in recent years. This is caused by a reduction in electricity consumption as well as changes in the input factors in the district heating system. If we had purchased electric power within a Nordic power mix, our greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation would have been 50 times higher than now. Instead, we are buying renewable power with certificates of origin. In 2010, the district heating that we bought from Hafslund contained a 25 per cent element of fossil fuels. In 2015, this had been reduced to 1.3 per cent, meaning a total of 98.7 per cent fossil-free energy. The Environmental Report 2015 shows that there are other sources of greenhouse gas emissions that do not display the same trend. UiO is a huge consumer of air travel. The climate footprint of this part of the university’s activities is many times larger than that of our total energy consumption. The University Board has great expectations for UiO’s environmental performance. This ambition was made abundantly clear during the deliberation of the Master Plan for UiO’s real estate, and not least in the decision that all new buildings shall comply with the requirements for the grade of Excellent in the BREEAM environmental certification scheme. Renovation of existing buildings should also aim to achieve the BREEAM Excellent grade. BREEAM requires a systematic approach as well as knowledge about products and solutions, and involves establishing environmental management of the entire construction process. In January 2017 we will reopen the Sophus Bugges Hus after a total renovation and environmental certification. This will provide important experience for future renovation projects. I wish to highlight what may be a small thing in itself, but one where we have seen a very positive and welcome development: the use of the car-pool scheme MoveAbout. After some very moderate initial years, the scheme was recast so that the use of these electric cars is invoiced to the Estate Department. Registration, use of the electric cars was made much simpler, and the scheme has become better known among users. As a result, the number of users nearly doubled in one year. The number of kilometres driven increased by a factor of nearly twelve! If we assume that most of these trips would otherwise have been undertaken by taxi or private cars running on fossil fuels, this is a major contribution to improving the Oslo air and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. If you are not already a user and need transport to attend meetings, all you have to do is to register. Moreover, the new electric cars are fun to drive! In 2015 a new project for recycling of the university’s waste was started. By the end of 2016, this practice will have been introduced in all of UiO’s buildings at Blindern, Tøyen and in central Oslo. Our goal is to have 80 per cent of the university’s waste sorted for recycling by the end of 2018. We are well on the way to this target: In December 2015, altogether 50 per cent of all our waste was separated at source. The Faculty of Social Sciences, which was the pilot faculty for this project, increased its proportion from 37 per cent in August 2015 to 65 per cent in December 2015. John Skogen Estate Director

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Did you know that ... unless UiO had bought guarantees of origin in its procurement of electric power, the CO2 accounts for 2015 would have been 58 times higher?

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015


1. Climate A green university is a climate-friendly university. Since our goal is to become a green university, we need to monitor our own climate impact and work to reduce it. 1.1. UiO’s greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions can be estimated in many ways, and it is a challenge for a large and complex organization to monitor its total and actual, direct and indirect, emissions of greenhouse gases. A number of factors have an effect on UiO’s greenhouse gas accounts, including its own activities, supply chains and external parameters. Environmental reports such as this one must simplify and select discrete areas to be able to meaningfully illustrate performance over time. This environmental report will focus on climate-related consequences associated with energy in the form of heating and electric power, as well as transport in the form of air travel. 1.1.1. Electricity: 225 tonnes of CO2 UiO purchases guarantees of origin, and the greenhouse gas emissions are estimated on this basis, see Table 1. For the sake of comparison, the table also shows how the figures would have looked on the basis of a Nordic power mix with no guarantees of origin. CO2 emissions from power generation depend on the source of energy (coal, gas, hydropower

etc.) and the degree of effectiveness. The degree of effectiveness means the proportion of the energy content of a source that can be used for power generation. Such factors will vary somewhat between different sources. According to Manual 7/2011 from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, the following CO2 factors are estimated for new, major power plants: • Coal: 920 g/kWh • Gas: 360 g/kWh • Hydro: 3 g/kWh • Nuclear: 0 g/kWh With the emission figures above, the CO2 factor for Norwegian power generation can be estimated at 10 g/kWh in 2012, 11 g/kWh in 2013 and 10 g/ kWh in 2014. Figures for 2015 were not available at the time of writing, but are assumed to be near the average for the preceding years. On the basis of the same emission figures, the CO2 factor for the Nordic power mix amounted to 175 g/kWh in 2011.

Guarantees of origin All electric power purchased for UiO’s activities in Norway is delivered with a certificate of origin. This ensures that 100 per cent of UiO’s consumption of electricity comes from guaranteed renewable sources. The guarantees of origin purchased by UiO are based on 100 per cent hydropower.

Table 1: Electric power and greenhouse gas emissions

Power consumption CO2 emissions with guarantee of origin (tonnes of CO2) In comparison: CO2 emissions with a Nordic power mix, without guarantee of origin (tonnes of CO2)

2012

2013

2014

2015

79388

79315

76671

74985

238

238

230

225

13893

13880

13417

13122

Previously, UiO prepared greenhouse-gas accounts in accordance with the international Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG) and the ISO 14064 standard and expanded these with analyses of selected financial data to present a broader picture of UiO’s total climate impact. Such analyses are best suited for in-depth studies to identify significant priorities, and less suited for measuring climate performance over time. Further development work in this respect is underway.

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For the delivery year 2015, UiO paid 0.2 øre/kWh for the supplied guarantees of origin encompassing UiO’s total consumption volume of 80.3 GWh, i.e. 80 300 000 kWh. Power generation is certified in accordance with the international EECS (European Energy Certificate System) standard and documented by issuance of guarantees of origin, undertaken by Statnett. Accounting of the guarantees is undertaken by ECOHZ AS in compliance with Norwegian legislation (The Energy Act with appurtenant regulations) and international statutes (EU Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Sources). 1.1.2. District heating: 968 tonnes of CO2 District heating is based on the idea of using unexploited surplus energy. In this way, the dis-

trict heating systems reduce society’s total use of energy resources. A district heating system distributes hot water from energy centres to users, and in theory most forms of energy can be used to generate district heating. Table 2 shows how greenhouse gas emissions associated with UiO’s use of district heating has been more than halved during the period 2012– 2015, while the actual use of district heating varies within the same area as previously. The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is due to a considerable reduction in the proportion of fossil fuels in the energy mix used for district heating, see Figure 3. In Figure 1, we can see the trend in the mix of various energy sources used for district heating. Incineration of waste (recycled heat), bioenergy, ambient heat and flexible electricity accounted for

Table 2: Supplied district heating and greenhouse gas emissions

2012

2013

2014

2015

Heat consumption (DDC) MWh

66424 MWh

73279 MWh

60263 MWh

64543 MWh

Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 equivalents (tonnes)

2059 tonnes

1612 tonnes

1205 tonnes

968 tonnes

Table 3: Fossil fuels as a proportion of the district heating energy mix 2010–2015

Fossil oil (%) Fossil gas (%) Sum proportion of fossil fuels

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

20.6

10.9

2.8

2.1

1.3

0.7

5.1

5.3

3.1

1.5

1.6

0.6

25.7

16.2

5.9

3.6

2.9

1.3

Figure 1: Declaration of district heating: Energy sources Hafslund 2010–2015

Figure 2: Energy sources, district heating 2015

Fossil oil 1 % Fossil gas 1 %

2 500 000

Flexible electricity 26 %

2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000

Recycled heat 59 %

500 000 0 2010

Ambient heat 9 % 2011 2012 2013 2014

Recycled heat Flexible electricity

8

Bioenergy 4 %

Ambient heat Fossil gas

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

2015

Bioenergy Fossil oil


Figure 3: CO2 per supplied kilowatt hour 2010–2015

Grams of CO2 equiv. per kWh supplied

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Table 4: CO2 equivalents per supplied kWh

Grams of CO2 equivalents per supplied kWh (Oslo)

the largest share in 2015. Fossil fuels (oil and gas) accounted for a total of 1.3 per cent in 2015. The share of fossil fuels has been reduced by 55 per cent since 2014 and by fully 95 per cent since 2010. Table 3 shows that the content of fossil fuels in the energy mix for the district heating supplied to UiO has been reduced from 25.7 per cent in 2010 to 1.3 per cent in 2015. From 2014 to 2015, the content of fossil fuels has been more than halved. The greenhouse gas emissions per kWh supplied to customers have been significantly reduced, as shown by Figure 3 and Table 4 (Source: Hafslund). For the sake of comparison, we can take a closer look at what the level of emissions would have been if UiO had chosen not to replace local oil-fuelled heating systems with district heating. We assume that every litre of oil burned emits 2.76 kilos of CO2, or that the CO2 emissions from oil-fuelled systems amount to 290 g/kWh (estimated for kerosene). In this case, the emissions for 2015 would have been fully 18 717 tonnes, and not the 986 tonnes that were the result for last year, i.e. a reduction of 95 per cent when compared to the previous energy solution.

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

99

78

31

22

20

15

1.2. Air travel: 5 463 tonnes of CO2 Modern internationally oriented universities are dependent on air travel for their employees. Publication of research at conferences and project development across borders require participation in international conferences and various other fora. Collaborative activities require frequent presence. Personal academic development often takes place in collaboration with others, including colleagues overseas. Moreover, international student exchange is a key part of the training for many candidates, as well as a clear goal for UiO. This notwithstanding, the volume of air travel in academia and UiO raises a number of dilemmas, especially with regard to the environmental impact of these journeys. In total, the air travel undertaken by UiO employees has a larger climate footTable 5: Air travel UiO

UiO’s use of air travel 2010–2015 Year

CO2 (tonnes)

Distance (km)

2010

43 818 284

4 129

2011

49 738 055

4 660

2012

54 570 484

5 129

2013

57 831 277

6 041

2014

57 471 937

5 846

2015

57 421 566

5 463

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Did you know that ... unless UiO had bought guarantees of origin in its procurement of electric power, the CO2 accounts for 2015 would have been 58 times higher?

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015


print than that of the university’s total energy consumption as estimated in the chapter on energy. Table 5 shows that the total distance travelled by air has remained stable over the last three years. There has been a small reduction in greenhouse gas emissions over the last two years. This reduction is due to more fuel-efficient aircraft as well as small changes in the travel pattern. In 2015, UiO employees flew a total distance of 57 421 566 km. This is equivalent to 1436 times around the equator. The direct greenhouse gas emissions correspond to 5 463 tonnes of CO2. While most other means of transport can be fuelled by renewable and sustainable energy carriers, the air transport industry remains reliant on fossil fuels. Since each flight causes direct greenhouse gas emissions, the choice of working modes and means of transport is crucial. In recent years, UiO has significantly expanded its various options for remote participation and telecommuting, such as facilities for video conferencing and video meetings, and numerous options for one-to-one video chat and electronic collaboration platforms. This has provided a content for UiO’s travel policy, while also considering that for some air travel there are no adequate alternatives available today. As stated in UiO’s travel policy: ‘The journey shall be cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Always consider whether travel can be substituted by a telephone meeting or a video conference.’ 1.3. Management of funds and indirect climate impact: Unifor UNIFOR – The Administrative Foundation for Funds and Endowments at the University of Oslo was established by UiO in the autumn of 1993. UNIFOR’s objective is to coordinate, manage and administer non-profit foundations, funds and endowments that do not undertake business activities. The board of UNIFOR is appointed by the University of Oslo. The board is responsible for monitoring that the administration, management, processing of applications and accounts of foundations under the administration of UNIFOR are undertaken appropriately and with proper facilitation. In 2015, the foundations allocated a total of NOK

38.1 million to their various objectives, while NOK 27 million was added from new and existing foundations over the year. Over the last ten years, the foundations have allocated a total of NOK 365 million. In 2015, UiO’s questions were raised regarding management of funds in foundations and endowments, including whether the specifications and the investment portfolio comply with UiO’s policies to help provide climate-friendly solutions. The questions were largely voiced by ongoing national and international divestment campaigns seeking to persuade universities to abstain from investments in fossil-based industries. UNIFOR’s portfolio shall be invested in accordance with the minimum requirements that ensue from the principles of the Government Pension Fund Global with regard to responsible investment, sustainability and ethical criteria. UNIFOR may extend these principles in accordance with its investment strategy, and is currently preparing a strategy to divest its entire portfolio from fossil-based enterprises by the end of 2021.

Figure 4: UNIFOR’s capital

NTNU

Nansen Andre

Andre UiO-fond

Anders Jahre Throne Holst Tøyen og og Freieafondet Observatoriefondet

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Did you know that ... The water in the fountain in Frederikkeplassen circulates through the fountain until it becomes polluted and needs to be changed.

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015


2. Energy: 277 kWh/m2 At UiO, energy is mainly used for heating or as electricity, either for residual heating or for operation of equipment and installations. For energy used for transport purposes, see Chapter 5. Most of UiO’s buildings are multifunctional structures, and obtaining an accurate impression of their energy consumption is a complicated undertaking. An average building may contain office space, teaching areas, a café or laboratories, and may sometimes even be linked to an outdoor snow-melting facility. All oil-fuelled boilers at UiO have been phased out, with the exception of a boiler at the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy. The buildings are linked to district heating systems directly from a street grid via heat exchangers. At the Viking Ship Museum, biofuel will be used until the new construction project has been completed. District heating is not available at Bygdøy. UiO’s annual consumption is measured in kilowatt hours per square metre per year (m2/year). In 2015, annual consumption amounted to 277 kWh/ m2 DDC. This is an increase of 0.6 per cent from 2014, when the consumption was 261 kWh/m2 DDC. UiO aims to reduce its energy consumption by 15 per cent by 2020, using 2012 as baseline year. 2.1. Measures for optimization and reduction of energy use 2.1.1. 2.1.1 Energy management In 2015, the Estate Department at UiO has been engaged in establishing an energy management system. Systems and routines have been designed according to the international standard for energy management, NS-EN ISO 50001:21, and include the following main elements: • Targets for energy performance over time • Organization of the work

DDC = Day-degree correction. When measuring energy consumption in UiO’s buildings, the numbers must be comparable from one year to the next. We thus need to add a factor that offsets the effects of cold and warm weather. This is called day-degree correction, abbreviated DDC. This correction factor is applied only to energy used for heating of buildings.

• Mapping of energy use and factors that swell consumption • Preparation of an action plan to control energy use and increase energy efficiency • Energy administration and key figures that enable monitoring of energy use and costs • Evaluation of measures and their results • Simple routines to optimize operations and reveal and handle discrepancies Efforts to simplify routines and harvest energy efficiency gains are now underway. Using a more fine-tuned energy measurement system, we can document energy use more precisely this year and in years to come. The action plan for energy management for 2016 highlights the following measures: • Energy savings shall be measured for each building. • Energy optimization of the energy-intensive technical installations. • Harvest low-hanging fruit first: measures that can be undertaken with advantage without any major interventions or costs. • Prepare action plans for maintenance and energy optimization of the energy-intensive technical installations. 2.1.2. Energy efficiency plan 2015: Measures implemented In 2012, ENOVA granted support for implementation of energy efficiency projects at UiO within a total budget of NOK 45 million. In 2015, a total of NOK 15 million was earmarked for measures under the Energy Efficiency Plan (ENØK). Two major projects were undertaken in 2015 at a total cost of NOK 13 755 000: Establishment of a heat recycling facility in the Kristine Bonnevies hus and replacement of window panes in BL15 the Sophus Bugges auditorium. Measures amounting to a total of NOK 8 950 000 were reported for 2015. The amount of support requested for 2015 totals NOK 2 125 000 (30 per cent of the maximum grant for the project). The reported theoretical energy savings amount to 1.7 GWh. This accounts for 18 per cent of the prescribed energy savings in the approval of the application.

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kWh accumulated

Figure 5: Savings target vs. documented savings, kWh

10 000 000 8 000 000 6 000 000 4 000 000 2 000 000 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Periods 1 Jan. – 31. Dec. 2017 (1 period = 6 months) Savings target

ENOVA has approved reported measures for a total of NOK 30 134 000. The project reports that accrued and reported costs are higher than the reported energy savings. Reported costs of NOK 30 234 000 and reported energy savings of 3.163 GWh amount to 67 per cent and 34 per cent of the application respectively. 2.2. Energy consumption Total specific energy consumption 2015: 277 kWh/ m2. The total specific energy consumption is the actual consumption per area unit, reported in kWh/ m2 for buildings that UiO owns or in which it is the primary tenant. In 2015, UiO incurred costs of NOK

108 847 837 for energy consumption through the year, for heating and electricity. In the period until 2012, energy consumption rose by approximately five per cent per year. This is consistent with what is considered a normal increase due to increasing equipment density and lack of follow-up when no energy management has been implemented. A temporary peak was observed in 2013. In the following years, this increase has been halted through a combination of measures. The causes of the increase are installation of more energy-intensive equipment and infrastructure in the buildings, such as cooling facilities, user equipment and snow-melting installations. The moderate reduction in consumption can be ascribed to generally mild winter temperatures. 2.2.1. Consumption costs In addition to the consumption pattern, the cost development for energy consumption depends on two external factors: mild or harsh winters and the general trend in cost development. After a number of years with rising energy prices, the prices started to decline in August 2014. There are clear expectations for better consumption and cost control since the decision was made in 2015 to introduce energy management according to NS-EN ISO 50001:2011 in all of UiO’s buildings. All general procedures and routines have now been prepared and approved. Energy management will be introduced first in the Operations Figur 7: Energy consumption cost 2010 – 2015 (NOK)

Figure 6: Energy consumption 2012–2015

15 000 000

Total electricity Total heating

12 000 000

60 000 000

6 000 000

30 000 000

3 000000

14

120 000 000 90 000 000

9 000 000

0 2012

150 000 000

0 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

2014

2015

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Electricity District heating


Table 6: Energy costs 2010–2015

Energy cost

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Electricity (NOK)

74 058 597

78 098 211

57 291 071

62 325 476

69 089 524

58 253 971

Distr. heating (NOK)

54 926 535

59 706 802

52 179 283

54 845 287

51 504 497

49 840 496

128 985 132

137 805 014

109 470 354

117 170 763

120 594 021

108 094 468

Total energy cost

and Maintenance Section of the Estate Department in 2016–2017. The goal is for the ED to monitor consumption on an ongoing basis and obtain knowledge about the relationship between activities and consumption in all buildings and facilities by the end of 2016. The maximum consumption is costly. Part of UiO’s total costs for electric power is the peak demand charge. This is a cost element linked to monthly maximum consumption. It has been impossible to provide total expenditure in the form of actual figures (NOK) and their proportion of total costs. 2.2.2. Electricity The consumption of electricity remains relatively stable through the year, but with a slight dip during the summer holidays when the students are away. This decrease associated with a reduced level of activity is compensated for by the more frequent Figure 8: Electricity consumption 2015 (kwh)

use of air conditioning during the summer season. The reason why the use of electricity appears independent of temperatures through the year is that the buildings do not use electricity for heating. 2.2.3. Heating: Consumption of district heating Heating accounted for approximately 50 per cent of the energy consumption in 2015. The general energy consumption for heating purposes is fairly high. The need for heating during the summer months could be solved by recycling heat from the ventilation systems. There is also an acknowledged need for coordination of heating systems to avoid situations in which parts of a building remain cold while other parts are overheated. Electricity is used for heating mainly in buildings outside the three campuses at Blindern, Tøyen and in central Oslo. This accounts for a minor proportion, and there are no plans to, or opportunities for, linking these to other sources of energy. The KrisFigure 9: Energy consumption for heating – district plus electric heating

12 000

6 000 000

Electricity for heating MWh

5

5

01

12

/2

5

01

11

/2

5

01

10

/2

5

01

/2

5

01

/2

09

5

01

/2

07

08

5

01

06

/2

5

01

05

/2

5

01

01 /2 01

/2

0 04

0

01

2 000

/2

1 000 000

5

4 000

01

2 000 000

03

6 000

5

8 000

3 000 000

01 / 02 201 /2 5 03 01 / 5 04 201 / 5 05 201 / 5 06 201 / 5 07 201 / 5 08 201 / 5 09 201 / 5 10 201 / 5 11 201 / 5 12 201 /2 5 01 5

Heating MWh

/2

4 000 000

10 000

02

5 000 000

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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tion to link the building to the grid was rejected for reasons of insufficient capacity. Plans for alternative heating solutions are being prepared. 2.2.4. Consumption of fossil fuels and diesel UiO has discontinued its use of fossil fuels in buildings that the university owns. Fossil fuels may still be used in some leased buildings. For example, the consumption of fossil fuels in the premises leased by UiO at St. Olavs gate 29 is reported to amount to 15 616 litres for an oil-fuelled boiler. Oil and gas are also in use in a number of UiO institutions abroad, such as in the Norwegian Institute in Rome, where natural gas is used for heating. Furthermore, in some locations diesel-fuelled generators have been installed as a backup solution in case of power outages, for example linked to the use of UiO’s ICT facilities.

The Norwegian Institute in Rome is heated by natural gas (Photo: UiO/Ståle Skogstad)

ten Nygaards hus is the only one of UiO’s larger buildings that is not linked to the district heating grid, and uses electricity for heating. UiO’s applica-

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

2.2.5. Consumption of biofuel In the Viking Ship Museum, the use of fossil oil has been replaced by biofuel. In 2015, its boiler consumed a total of 44 122 litres of bio-oil. This energy solution will be restructured in connection with the construction of the new Viking Age Museum.


3. Water consumption Water consumption in 2015 amounted to 334 029 m3. This is an increase of 27 per cent over 2014. The level of water consumption varies through the year. Ordinary water consumption follows the level of activity at the university. Large volumes of water are still in use for cooling of machinery and equipment. A considerable volume is also used for research-oriented indoor fish farming.

Figure 10: Water consumption 2010– 2015 (m3)

450 000 400 000 381 004.80 350 000

334 029.28

300 000 250 000

256 332.35

238 201.12 235 650.69

200 000

262 347.14

150 000 100 000 50 000 0 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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4. Waste management and recycling Waste management systems at UiO shall be further refined so that the university can comply with the expectations of society and reach its goals in the environmental area. We distinguish between waste generated by daily operations, including consumer waste, construction and project waste, and hazardous waste. 4.1. Waste recycling project On 1 January 2015, we started a project to establish and implement recycling of waste generated by daily operations at UiO. The local infrastructure for handling of waste will be expanded, new routines for waste recycling and management will be established, and measures to reduce the total volume of waste will be implemented. All plans and measures will be implemented in cooperation with users. The background for this project is that the country’s leading university is expected to have a future-oriented and resource-friendly waste management system. The rate of waste recycling at UiO was low, at approximately 32 per cent as of 1 January 2014. The solutions for recycling were characterized by low availability to students and employees, and insufficient information. Moreover, the operative solutions paid little attention to aesthetics. 4.1.1. Goals for the waste recycling project The project will introduce recycling of waste for UiO as a whole, indoors as well as outdoors, in the course of 2015 and 2016. This involves establishment of appropriate routines for reducing the total volume of consumer waste. By the end of 2016, the

The project ‘Implementation of new waste recycling systems at UiO’ was launched on 1 January 2015 on the basis of the following resolutions/decisions: • Environmental Strategy UiO 2013–2015 • Annual Plan UiO 2014–2016 • Strategy UiO 2020 • Report ‘Plan for waste management’, 15 December 2014 • Decisions in the Estate Department’s management group

Figure 11: Waste recycling rate, December 2015

Source separation 50%

Residual waste 50% increase in waste production per employee shall be halted, and waste production shall be reduced by five per cent per employee before the end of 2020 when compared to volumes in 2014. The rate of waste recycling shall be increased from 32 per cent in 2014 to 80 per cent by the end of 2018. The objective of a 50 per cent recycling rate for December 2015 was achieved. The recycling rate for 2015 as a whole amounted to 45 per cent. 4.1.2. New routines Various trial projects have been undertaken, involving different containers and their location, signs and information material, mechanical equipment and forms of collaboration with the refuse disposal services. A full roll-out of new waste recycling systems has been undertaken at the Faculty of Social Sciences. This was implemented as a pilot project with an emphasis on gaining experience. Prior to the implementation a number of waste composition analyses were undertaken to clarify the potential for increased separation and to assess

Principles and premises for waste management at UiO • Handling of waste at UiO shall reflect national goals • Reuse of materials is given priority over energy recycling • UiO shall make use of tested and well-functioning technical solutions • Waste recycling results in cleaner sorted waste and a higher recycling rate than centralized mechanical separation of mixed waste • Today, no facilities for centralized sorting of dry waste types are available • No significant changes in the technical opportunities for waste disposal are expected in this planning period

In the picture: Rector Ole Petter Ottersen and University Director GunnElin Aa. Bjørneboe welcome the start of waste recycling

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separation performance after the introduction of new equipment and routines. We have established a reporting tool for waste management that provides an opportunity to monitor and analyse separation rates and the cost structure. Daily operation of waste separation systems involves new routines for operation and cleaning of buildings, as well as for our refuse disposal partner Ragn-Sells. We have also established new routines for handling of the hazardous waste generated by the ED itself. The Operations Section is responsible for the waste collection points, while the Cleaning Section is charged with daily emptying of waste indoors. Efforts have been initiated to clarify the responsibility for general, long-term follow-up of results, quality and routines for all handing of waste. Inclusion of employees and students has been emphasized and is reflected in formal project participation by their representatives in the steering group, sub-project groups and local project facilities, as well as through active trials of new schemes in collaboration with students and employees. We are working to establish routines for recycling of waste at events, exhibitions, clean-outs and other needs in addition to daily operations.

4.1.3. Waste collection points To continue towards these goals we are also establishing and putting into operation waste collection points that can receive the sorted waste. The waste collection points have been developed in line with the stipulations in a design handbook for these. The waste collection points will be put into operation as they are finished, in parallel with the new waste recycling scheme. 4.1.4. Communication We have introduced a consistent labelling system for all of UiO and will label, deploy and operate sorting stations in common indoor and outdoor areas, in kitchens, catering facilities and other premises. To help the users separate as much waste as possible, we maintain close contact with the faculties, and we have established appropriate routines for communication prior to the roll-out. A consistent approach to communication is crucial for achieving results in the area of waste recycling. Waste management is a concern for all students, employees and visitors. Various communication initiatives are essential to ensure that everybody strives for a high recycling rate. Several hundred employees are directly involved in daily handling of waste. The web page www.uio.no/kildesortering provi-

Figure 12: Distribution of different waste types at UiO for 2015 as a whole (tonnes) Food waste Animal by-products (abp) Park and garden waste Mixed, treated wood Clean cardboard Office paper Shredded paper Mixed cardboard, paper, cartonboard Glass and metal packaging Mixed glass Mixed metals Large household appliances Small household appliances Mixed EE waste Clean soil masses Contaminated soil masses Plaster Roofing paper/tar paper Mixed plastic packaging Plastic foil, transparent Hard plastic, packaging Expanded and extruded plastics Mixed plastics, mixed fractions Infectious waste Hazardous waste Mixed industrial waste for separation Separated flammable waste

0

20

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

100

200

300

400

500


UiO will assume responsibility for meeting the environmental and climate challenges by providing research and education that are relevant to the environment – and through sustainable operations.

des a full description of waste management at UiO, frequently asked questions and resource pages for different units. In collaboration with the national LOOP scheme, UiO has initiated a pilot project to develop an online guide to waste recycling that shows both how and where to dispose of various types of waste, www.uio.no/sortere. 4.2. Waste from construction and renovation ­projects Waste from construction and renovation projects is handled for each construction project. Work is underway to ensure that the total waste recycling rate is reported for all major projects, thus to enable a concentrated follow-up of these. Construction and project waste is not included in the waste recycling project; this waste is handled by the individual projects in conformity with national guidelines and internal routines. With regard to construction waste, the routines for handling and reporting will be coordinated with the gene-

ral instructions for waste management at UiO at a later time. 4.3. Hazardous waste Legally speaking, hazardous waste includes the substances defined and listed in the Regulations on waste management. Hazardous waste is characterized by a content of material that poses a risk to health and the environment, and must be handled properly to prevent environmental toxins from spreading and accumulating in the natural environment. With its broad spectrum of activities related to research, education, patient treatment and daily operations, UiO generates a greater diversity of hazardous waste than most other enterprises. This includes organic waste, batteries, solvents and chemicals. UiO collaborates with the refuse disposal enterprise Ragn Sells AS on declaration, handling, transport, final disposal and reporting of hazardous waste.

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5. Transportation Transport gives rise to a number of environmental challenges associated with the production and operation of vehicles and the required infrastructure: accessibility, traffic and social planning. Transport is one of the key sectors with regard to historic and future climate change, globally as well as nationally. Globally, only the energy sector emits more CO2. The emissions from the transport sector are growing continuously, and this sector may therefore account for a larger proportion of future emissions. Road transport provides the largest contribution to global warming, now as well as in the future. The second largest contribution is provided by air transport, while the contribution from rail transport is negligible. The City of Oslo has already implemented significant measures to decrease environmental impacts by upgrading public transport and promoting the use of electric cars. The political leadership in the City of Oslo has identified environmentally friendly transport as one of its top priorities.

UiO has also taken the initiative to be included in this environmental and transport programme, for example by facilitating the establishment of city bikes on its own grounds as part of the new scheme for city bikes in Oslo. Employees and students who travel to and from the university use different means of transport. The high proportion of users of public transport, in the form of metro, tram, bus and train, accounts for the bulk of the transport to and from UiO. Many also cycle or walk, and some also use their private cars. This chapter describes the pattern of work-related travel among employees. 5.1. The electric car pool MoveAbout UiO’s collaboration partner MoveAbout has established parking facilities in different locations at UiO. Efforts have been undertaken to increase the availability of the scheme. In 2015, this helped achieve an eightfold increase in use, see the graphs. When compared to the use of taxis, rental

Environmentally friendly transport: The Mail Services and Printing section switched to electric cars in 2015

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015


cars and private cars, we can nevertheless identify a potential for a further increase in the use of the electric car-pool scheme. As shown by the figures, the number of users has grown from 148 in 2014 to 278 in 2015. The number of trips increased from 44 to 354, with a concomitant increase in total distance driven Figure 13 A: The electric car pool – number of users 2012–2015

300

278

200 150

UiO users

250

148 108

100 56 50

2012

2013

2014

2015

Figure 13 B: The electric car pool – distance driven 2012–2015

15 000 12019

9 000 6 000

Km driven

12 000

3 000

1294

0

2012

217 2013

5.2. Taxi There was a small decline in taxi expenses from 2013 to 2014. In 2015, the decline in costs for the use of taxi services amounted to approximately seven per cent. We have been unable to retrieve data on distances driven. We may assume that part of the reduction in the use of taxi services is due to the increased use of UiO’s electric car-pool scheme. UiO spent NOK 1.26 million on rental cars in 2015. If rental of transport vans is also included, the total sum amounts to NOK 2.3 million for 2015. The motivation for renting a car will often be the need to have a car available over time. A considerable proportion of the cost is probably associated with this, in addition to the transport itself. Estimating the environmental effect of UiO’s use of rental cars is therefore difficult. 5.3. Air travel UiO’s use of air travel is described in the chapter on climate, page 9 in this report.

1076 2014

from 1 076 km in 2014 to 12 019 km in 2015. This development has a number of positive effects for the environment: • Electric cars have a far lower climate impact than cars using fossil fuels. • Local air pollution is considerably reduced by the use of electric cars. • Car-pool schemes represent efficient ways to organize vehicle parks and reduce the need for a large number of cars.

2015

Figure 13 C: The electric car pool – number of trips 2012–2015

400 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

354 Number of trips

350

53

44 8

2012

2013

2014

2015

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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6. Construction and maintenance projects 6.1. General environmental provisions in all construction and maintenance projects General environmental provisions are included in the Technical Regulations (TEK 10): ‘Measures shall be planned, designed and implemented in such a way that the project complies with the technical requirements for environment and energy’. TEK 10 with appurtenant requirements thus define environmental provisions and are regarded as mandatory for the activities of all departments. The Master Plan for UiO’s properties, Space for an outstanding, green university – and for Oslo, the city of knowledge includes further environmental provisions. The plan affirms that UiO aims to become a greener university. This will involve new energy solutions and more efficient use of space. It also means that whenever a change is to be planned and implemented, the university shall assess any potential environmental effects, so as to take numerous small steps in the right direction and thus produce tangible results over time. Section 3.7 of the ‘Green UiO – Environment and Sustainability’ plan states that UiO shall choose cutting-edge, but not experimental environmental technology for new construction as well as renovation of existing buildings. The Master Plan also defines requirements for all new construction projects, and UiO will use BREEAM to document its own environmental approach to management of its properties. All new buildings shall conform to the BREEAM Excellent standard as a minimum. In renovation of existing buildings, we will assess whether the building is suitable for setting BREEAM Excellent as a goal. The use of BREEAM certification and methodology will be crucial to achieve UiO’s goals in the area of environment and energy. In 2015, a renovation

BREEAM is Norway’s first and the world’s leading project and audit tool for sustainable buildings. The criteria used for assessment include management, building layout and ecology, energy, materials, water, waste, transport, pollution, health and indoor climate.

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

project aiming for BREEAM Excellent certification was launched – the Sophus Bugges hus. The Estate Department’s project manual refers to UiO’s environmental strategy, which includes specific objectives for all major environmental aspects, especially in the areas of energy, water consumption, use of materials, waste management and general procurement. 6.2. Environmental concerns in completed projects Table 7 shows projects where sensors that regulate light and heat have been installed. In some of these projects, previous lighting installations have been replaced by systems that use LED technology. This has entailed a further reduction in the use of energy. Upgrading of the climate screen is an efficient measure to reduce energy consumption in a building. 6.2.1. Other construction-related measures: Ventilator cabinets In the Chemistry Building, somewhat less than a hundred old ventilator cabinets have been replaced by new ones. The new cabinets have automatic safety mechanisms and close the ventilation off automatically when the cabinets are not in use. This not only helps safeguard the health of the users, but also improves energy efficiency. 6.2.2. Reuse of construction materials The renovation and reconstruction projects apply general requirements for reuse of construction materials. Wall panels, furniture and lamps are reused. In the Estate Department’s project portfolio, three projects that have placed special emphasis on reuse of materials can be highlighted: • Georg Sverdrups hus – establishment of a learning centre in a library area • Sophus Bugges hus - total renovation • Georg Morgenstiernes hus – renovation of areas for the summer school, windbreak, delivery area


7. Procurement: Environmental and social responsibility at UiO UiO has an impact on the environment and social conditions in Norway as well as abroad – as a consumer, producer, builder and property manager. Appropriate use of procurement power is essential and has an effect on UiO’s environmental performance. Through its procurements, UiO shall contribute to public utility. This is largely done through placing emphasis on various elements of corporate social responsibility in procurement of goods and services. UiO’s social responsibility is an economic, environmental and ethical responsibility. This implies a commitment to sustainable economic development and cooperation with employees and students, NGOs, businesses, local communities and society as a whole to help achieve better welfare and quality of life. UiO is a major purchaser of goods and services. By applying environmental and social requirements in tender rounds, the university may help achieve positive change in society.

7.1. Procurement distribution With a total procurement volume of approximately NOK 2.5 billion in 2015, the environmental effect of the total procurement volume is considerable. Figure 16 shows the distribution of the procurement by area over the last three years, while Figure 17 shows the distribution for 2015 in more detail. A considerable proportion of the procurement volume is associated with operation and development of the premises, but scientific equipment and ICT also account for a large proportion. Further analyses are pending. 7.2. Examples of environmental standards for procurement Environmental standards are increasingly applied for procurement of goods and services by UiO. There is no total overview of the procurements for which environmental standards have been applied, nor any statistics of the total volume of the environmental standards. The type and scope of environmental impact will decide what environmental standards will be relevant for the procure-

Figure 15: Procurement distribution 2013–2015 (NOK)

Means of transport Miscellaneous Servicing and maintenance of equipment Freight, relocation and messenger services

Property management 500 Services 400 Lease of premises 300 200 100

HR

0

Office management

Buildings and investments Consumables and supplies

Machinery and tools Furniture and interior decoration Books and journals

ICT

Scientific equipment Travel

Goods for resale

2013 2014 2015

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

25


ment. It may be relevant to use environmental standards as a qualification criterion for suppliers or as a contract allocation criterion, and also include them as a contractual obligation. In addition to applying environmental standards in individual procurement decisions, it will be equally effective to include environmental concerns in framework agreements. The example below is taken from an actual procurement process at UiO (Supply agreement for audio-visual (A/V) equipment), showing the requirements that were applied. Similar requirements have been set for other products. In the procurement, documentation of the following aspects was requested: • EPD (Environmental Product Declaration) • Other certification, such as the Swan ecolabel or the EU Flower • Carbon accounts • Information on environmentally harmful chemicals

• Information on environmentally harmful materials • Information on materials with negative health effects • Information on noise • Information on energy consumption; electricity use when idle and when in operation is emphasized • Information on environmental conditions of vendors • Information on disposal of discarded products • Other relevant environmental documentation

Figure 15: Procurement distribution 2013–2015 (NOK)

Consumables and supplies 5% Buildings and investments in buildings 16 %

Scientific equipment 6% Goods for resale 7% Travel 4%

Books and journals 4%

Furniture and interior decoration 2%

HR 6%

Other 5%

Office management

Freight, relocation and messenger services Servicing and maintenance of equipment

ICT 8%

Lease of premises 12 %

26

Machinery and tools

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

Property management 15 % Services 11 %

Miscellaneous Means of transport


8. Environmental management Environmental management is concerned with improvements and systematization. Through environmental management, the enterprise improves and develops its own operations. Environmental management ensures that enterprises focus on the environment at all levels and in all planning processes: in plans and strategies, and all the way from procurement via energy use to transport and waste production and disposal. Wherever environmental management has been implemented in UiO’s units, it has been integrated in daily operations and development. Why environmental management? • To reduce environmental impacts • Because being ‘outstanding’ is closely linked to being ‘green’ • To save money • To reinforce H&S activities • To improve the availability of environmental information as required by the Environmental Information Act

In selected areas, measures have been implemented to establish partial elements of environmental management across the entire university. Efforts were initiated in 2015 to establish a system for energy management under the auspices of the Estate Department, and this will be a significant element of environmental management with regard to resource use. UiO has established procurement policies that aim to safeguard our environmental and social responsibilities; this is another significant area for environmental management. Moreover, when UiO’s leaders are trained in H&S issues, the systematic approach forms the basis for appropriate environmental management. Environmental management and environmental reporting are closely intertwined. Universities that have established coordinated systems for environmental management are reporting in accordance with the specific goals that have been defined. The main volume of reporting follows regular lines, and key results and main trends are reported on an annual basis. In addition, environmental audits are undertaken, occasionally accompanied by certification processes. The way in which UiO should relate to this in a long-term perspective is currently being discussed.

8.1. Energy management UiO’s Estate Department has prepared systems and engaged in organizational development to establish energy management by the end of 2015. Work is now underway to implement routines for energy follow-up as part of ongoing follow-up of operations. See also Chapter 2 on energy follow-up. 8.1.1. Eco-Lighthouse (Miljøfyrtårn): As of 31 December 2015, the following units at UiO have been certified as Eco-Lighthouses: • The Student Parliament/Villa Eika • Faculty of Educational Sciences • Centre for Development and the Environment The University Library has chosen to leave the certification scheme 8.1.2. Certification by the Nordic Swan ecolabel The printing activities of the Printing and Copying unit have been certified according to the standards of the Swan ecolabel. 8.1.3. BREEAM Nor – environmental management for construction of sustainable buildings The BREEAM methodology and standards define requirements for systematization and knowledge about products and solutions. This also involves establishment of environmental management of the entire construction process. The scheme provides checklists and detailed specifications, the degree of compliance with which will determine the classification level of the building, reaching from Pass via Good, Very Good and Excellent to Outstanding. The renovation project for the Sophus Bugges hus is being implemented with a view to achieving BREEAM Excellent. The new Life Sciences facility and a new building for the Faculty of Law at Tullinløkka will be constructed according to the standard for BREEAM Excellent. 8.1.4. Introduction of Xpand - a management and financial system for real estate In 2015, the Estate Department has been engaged in introducing the MOM system Xpand. This ICT tool for systematizing and enhancing the efficiency of planning and follow-up of management, ope-

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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rations and maintenance (MOM) of the buildings will also provide environmental gains in the long term. By providing an overview of key operational parameters, systematizing follow-up, analysing shared patterns and handling discrepancies, this may become a powerful tool for including operational conditions in ongoing environmental management.

9. Other environmental aspects and conditions 9.1. Radon and measures to control radon Radon concentrations have been measured in all of UiO’s buildings, both owned and leased. Interventions have been undertaken wherever required. Radon certificates have been issued for the buildings. www.uio.no/for-ansatte/arbeidsstotte/prosjekter/radon 9.2. Phasing out of cooling agents Synthetic cooling agents have been used in heat exchangers in cooling installations, refrigerators, freezers, air conditioning installations and other types of cooling and heat-pump facilities for decades. In recent years, UiO has taken steps to replace cooling agents that damage the ozone layer with less harmful substances. These measures are undertaken as a follow-up of the new requirements for phasing-out in the ‘Regulations on ozone-depleting substances’. The purpose of these regulations is to prevent emissions of substances that cause depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. To comply with the new requirements in the revised regulations on fluorinated gases, we need cooling agents with a low global warming potential (GWP). Leakage of non-natural cooling agents is harmful to the global environment and poses a risk in the local environment if found in high concentrations: • Depletion of the ozone layer (CFC and HCFC) • Contribution to global warming (all groups) • Asphyxiation due to oxygen displacement (all groups) From March 2014 to December 2015, a number

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ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

of directly expanding air-cooling aggregates have been reviewed for phasing-out of cooling agents. Altogether 22 installations have been replaced by new ones that use more environmentally friendly cooling agents, and three installations have been discontinued and removed. Scientific instruments and a number of laboratories in general. To reduce the number of leakage points and centralize operations and production of cold temperatures, a joint ice-water facility has been installed to replace small, local facilities. Five installations were replaced by new ones that use more environmentally friendly cooling agents, and four installations were discontinued and removed. In addition, the replacement and discontinuation of facilities achieved a reduction in water consumption of approximately 55 000 litres per day, previously used for condensation cooling. This may result in a cost reduction of NOK 270 000 per year (depending on time of operation). There are also environmental gains to be reaped by reducing the consumption of clean water and restricting the emissions of waste water to be sent to the cleaning facility.


10. Networks and collaborative fora ­related to operational environmental ­activities 10.1. Næring for klima Næring for klima (‘Business for climate’) is a meeting place for the City of Oslo and enterprises in the capital city. UiO has committed to achieving Oslo’s climate goals and submitting an annual report of initiatives and results in the climate area. By participating in a business forum, UiO has also committed to acting as an educational and research institution and contributing wherever appropriate. www.oslo.kommune.no/politikk-og-administrasjon/ prosjekter/naring-for-klima 10.2. Grønn Byggallianse Grønn Byggallianse (‘Green building alliance’) is a network for competence-building and exchange of experience for large property owners in Norway. UiO is a member of this network, contributing and participating wherever this is deemed interesting and useful. As a member of the Grønn Byggallianse, UiO has committed itself to active environmental efforts in its existing buildings and new projects. www.byggalliansen.no

support for establishment and projects by the Nordic Council of Ministers. NSCN is one of a number of groups in the Nordic Association of University Administrators as NUAS Sustainability. nordicsustainablecampusnetwork.wordpress.com/ about-nscn 10.5. UNICA Green UNICA is a network of 45 European capital-city universities (Universities in the Capitals of Europe) with a secretariat in Brussels. UNICA Green is its joint programme for the environment and sustainability, launched at UiO in 2011. green.unica-network.eu 10.6. The Nordic Swan ecolabel’s procurers’ club UiO has joined the Swan ecolabel’s procurers’ club to gain access to competence on environmental criteria for procurement and assessment of environmental documentation for contracts. This club counts 43 enterprises that have total procurement budgets of more than NOK 35 billion. The Procurement Section and the Estate Department have made use of this opportunity through UiO’s membership.

10.3. Nordic Green Building Council NGBC is a membership organization for the entire value chain in construction and property management. The council’s objective is to spur the Norwegian construction industry to improve quality and environmental standards by providing training and environmental classification tools. The Norwegian Green Building Council (NGBC) owns BREEAM-NOR, Norway’s first environmental certification system for sustainable buildings. http://ngbc.no 10.4. NUAS Sustainability/Nordic Sustainable Campus Network NSCN is a network of Nordic universities that promotes the environment and sustainability in institutions of higher education in the Nordic countries. NSCN has its own secretariat under the Aalto University in Helsinki. The network has been granted

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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11. References • Årsrapport Energi 2015: Project report Building Automation Advantage Navigator (Siemens) • Opprinnelsesgaranti 2015. (Ishavskraft/ECOHZ) • Rapport Unifors kapitalforvaltning 2015 (Unifor) • Rapport HRG flyreiser: km og klimagassutslipp (HRG) • Enøk Enova status og plan 2015 – 2016 (Venjum) • Innkjøpsanalyse 2015 (Seksjon for Innkjøp) • RENEWABLES 2015 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (Ren21) • World Energy Outlook 2015 (IEA) • Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity (Science for Environment Policy, European Commission) • NVE-håndbok 1/2011 (NVE) • www.klimagassregnskap.no Beregningsverktøy for klimagassutslipp fra byggeprosjekter (Statsbygg) • Transportytelser i Norge 1946–2008, (CICERO) • www.svanemerket.no (Miljømerket Svanen) • www.byggalliansen.no (Grønn Byggallianse) • Oslo kommune: Næring for klima • www.nuas.org (Nordic Sustainable Campus Network / NUAS Sustainability) • http://green.unica-network.eu/ (UNICA Green) • http://ngbc.no/ (Norwegian Green Building Council) • Hafslund - Utvikling ulike energikilder 2010 – 2015 (kilde: http://www.fjernkontrollen.no/facility. php?id=21 ) • UiOs politikk for miljø og samfunnsansvar ved innkjøp http://www.uio.no/for-ansatte/arbeidsstotte/innkjop/miljo-samfunnsansvar/ (UiO) • Transport og klima. Forskningspresentasjon: Funn og fakta om transportens klimapåvirkning FUNN OG FAKTA OM TRANSPORTENS KLIMAPÅVIRKNING (Cicero). • Radonmålinger i UiOs bygninger http://www. uio.no/for-ansatte/arbeidsstotte/prosjekter/radon/

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12. Key figures UiO 2015 Tabell 8: Key figures

Registered students

27 886

PhD candidates (enrolled in a PhD programme with contract)

3 018

Employees (man-years)

6 334

Academic employees (man-years)

3 529

Support positions for teaching, research and dissemination (man-years)

1 140

Administrative employees and operations (man-years)

1 665

Faculties

8

Museums

2

Libraries, number of books (in print and electronic form)

2 788 982

Libraries, number of current journal subscriptions (in print and electronic form)

32 963

Finances

7,1 mrd.

Nobel Prize laureates

5

Rankings, Shanghai

nummer 58 i verden

Area, buildings owned

472 000 kvm

Area, buildings leased

110 000 kvm

Park area

400 000kvm

Ref.: UiO.no

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2015

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07

A

UR

9

Ø M E RK E T ILJ

37

M

SK O G - 2 41

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