Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1 issue

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VOLUME 12 |1

See Directory pp18-19

n Key Words: Responsible sourcing n Spotlight: Supply chain improvement n News: Standards Oyu Tolgoi Recycling n Rod tube and wire: Offshore Welding Optimisation n Plant History: Series of articles - an introduction n Smelting: Knowhow n Refining: Anode tech CCR is 90 BOB job n Managerial: 2021 reports n Events: WCC 2022 Mining Peru Wire Tube n Contracts: Big plans and smart moves n Supplier Directory Improve with CSC services ISSN 2046-9438


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Joint Due Diligence Standard; KGHM gets brains; Body appointments; Oyu Tolgoi positives; Lao Cai expansion; Companies report activities


Recycling in China; E-Scrap platform; River clean; ICSG Directory



Supply chain initiatives

Oyu Tolgoi is back on track with underground operations approval and a new power extension agreement. Photo: Rio Tinto (see Page 5)

Inside this issue KEY WORDS

3 McCol Metals has created a circular economy for MMO Anodes providing for sustainability to the global PGM markets. Photo: McCol Metals (see Page i6)



ICSG data to November; China import figures; Metal balance; ICSG Yearbook



Capstone and Mantos; Offshore wind; Equipment orders; Plant investments; M & A activity increases



IERC 2022 and the EU Green Deal; CRU World Copper Conference;

Mining events; wire and Tube 2022

Supplier Directory


Continuous improvement partners

Latest News


Revere Copper investment; MetSoc webinars; Mackay delivers


Day One of the CRU World Copper Conference in Santiago and Online



Offshore cabling; Welding guide; Reach stacker; Optimising supply



New set of articles on technological developments i2 21ST CENTURY SMELTING Smelter operation and refractory tips i3-5 SMELTER LISTING i6 ELECTROWINNING Anode PGM recovery; Olen’s BOB

Refining scrap;


Versatile recycling

CCR is 90; New textbook Edition





Views on that copper price; Determining which projects might

lead to M&A activities; Trends in the Semis & Downstream markets



Majors reflect on 2021; Recoveries and outputs;

Front Cover Which plant is where? For the 2022 Primary Wallmap, please see Pages i1 - i12 as above Photos: 1, 2 Anglo American

New projects updates

It’s great to be back together!


For EVENTS updates, please see Page 17


Codelco initiatives; Horne environmental plans; Alternatives to acid mist

suppressant; Addressing ESG associations Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

Photos: 6 Messe Duesseldorf/ctillmann; 7 ICM AG; 8 VUKA Group


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Volume No: 12 Date:






Issue No: 01 First Quarter 2022

Publisher: Chris K Holding BSc BEng

Nornickel...................................................... i7, 14

Anglo American................................. Cover 1, 13

Heath & Sherwood............................................. i2

Antofagasta........................................................ 13

Hellenic Cable..................................................... 8

Olympic Dam...........................................6, i7, 13

Aurubis......................................................4, i6, 15

Hudbay Minerals................................................ 4

Oyu Tolgoi....................................................... 1, 5

ICM (IERC 2022).................................... Cover 1

Phillip Mackey (Consultant)...................... i1, 20

Information Development.................... 5, 7, 12

ICMM................................................................... 4

BHP ........................................................i7, 13, 16

PT AMMAN Mineral Industry.......................... 5

IERC 2022.......................................................... 17

BHS-Sonthofen.............................................. 7, 10

International Copper Association............... 5, 17

Responsible Minerals Initiative........................ 6

Capstone Mining Corp..................................... 14

International Copper Study Group............. 7, 12

IT/www Contact:

CCR Refinery..................................................... i7

International Wrought Copper Council......... 17

China Nerin......................................................... 5

ISRI 2022........................................................... 20

Codelco..................................................... 6, 16, 21

Ivanhoe Mines............................................... 4, 16

Combilift........................................................ 8, 21

Jingxi Copper Corporation................................ 4

Continuus-Properzi.......................................... 10

JX Nippon Metals & Mining........................... 15

Copper Development Association..................... 4

Kamoa Copper S.A........................................... 16

SMM................................................................... 20

Copper Mark................................................... 4, 6

Kamoa-Kakula................................................... 16

SMS group......................................................... 14

Published by

Covid-19......................................... 4, 5, 13, 16, 20

Kaz Minerals..................................................... 16

Southern Copper Corporation......................... 13

CRU Events....................................................... 17

KGHM.................................................................. 4

Southwire Company........................................... 6

CRU Group.................................................... 6, 11

KME................................................................... 15

Squire Patton Boggs, LLP.............................. 6, 7

Daye Nonferrous Metals.................................... 4

La Farga............................................................... 8

Sumitomo Metal Mining.................................. 13

DRC Mining Week........................................... 17

Lao Cai Smelter.................................................. 5

Superior Essex..................................................... 8

Dundee Precious Metals.................................. 16

Lebronze alloys................................................. 15

Teck Resources.................................................. 16

Ebner Group........................................................ 5

LME................................................................ 4, i6

Tenke Fungurume............................................ 11

EERA.............................................................. 7, 17

LS-Nikko Copper............................................... i7

ERG.................................................................... 13

McCol Metals......................................Cover 1, i6

Distribution: free to managers involved in the various stages of the copper industry: Production of primary or secondary copper and associated refining; recycling, melting and casting operations; processing of copper by extrusion, rolling and tube/wire drawing for the manufacture of semi-finished products or fabrications; or involved in the manufacture of components and structures from copper alloys; and who are involved in the buying process for equipment and materials. All other categories of reader are invited to subscribe at £80.00 to UK, and Non-UK is: Surface £98.00, e125.00, $170 USD Airmail: £120.00, e150.00, $200 USD Single copy £28, e40, $55 incl. p&p.

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (6th Ed.)..... i7

Messe Duesseldorf (wire/Tube)............. Cover 1

Fastmarkets....................................................... 11

MetSoc................................................................ 20

The articles within Copper Worldwide are copyright and are the property of the publisher Metallic Media Limited and cannot be reproduced in any media form without permission of the publisher. Application should be made via the webform

Alex Stewart International......................................19

Heath & Sherwood (1964) ................................ i2, 19

Metalex................................................................18, 19

CA Group..................................................................18

Holton Crest.............................................................18

Mettop................................................. Cover 1, 18, 19

Combilift...........................................................8, 9, 18


Contributing Editors: Phillip Mackey Jonathan Barnes

Managing Director: Chris K Holding

Metallic Media Ltd Wimborne, UK Tel: +44(0)7731 784798

Reprints of articles and advertisements are available, allow 28 days for delivery. PDF pages available by e-mail. Prices on application to the publisher. Instead of Reader Reply cards, we are now including a contact website address with stories at the sole discretion of the Editor. You may submit your enquiries with the item titles, page and your full address, telephone, fax using the contact form on:

Magazine Production Toni Barrington, The Magazine Production Company Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, BN43 5EG, UK Tel: +44 (0)1273 467579

Beijing Antaike

Revere Copper................................................... 20 RFC Ambrian.................................................... 11 Rio Tinto.................................................... 1, 5, 16 S&P Global........................................................ 11 SIPS (Dr. Florian Kongoli).............................. 15 SK ecoplant........................................................ 15

TES..................................................................... 15 TMS 2022............................................................ i2 Upcast Oy............................................................. 5 Vale....................................................................... 5

FC-1100 Acid Mist Suppressant...................... 21

Metso Outotec...............................................i2, i6

FLOGEN Technologies.................................... 15

Mining Peru....................................................... 17

FLSmidth...................................................... i6, 14

MINO................................................................... 5

Freeport McMoRan (FCX).............................. 13

Mitsubishi Materials Corporation.................... 7

Glencore............................................. 7, 11, 13, 21

MMG.................................................................. 16

Wire/Tube 2022................................................ 17

Grupo Mexico...................................................... 6

Mopani Copper Mines...................................... 13

Wood Mackenzie............................................... 11

Halcor................................................................... 6

Newmont Corporation........................................ 5

World Bureau of Metal Statistics.................... 12

HarbisonWalker International......................... i2

Nexans............................................................ 8, 14

World Copper Conference (CRU Events)...... 17

Hazelett................................................................ 5

NFC...................................................................... 5

Zijin Mining.................................................... 5, 7



Vuka Group.............................................. Cover 1 Western Copper & Gold................................... 15 Wieland Group.............................................. 8, 15

Advertisers COMPANY NAME




MINO........................................................ Cover 2, 19 Primetals Technologies...........................................19

CRU Events (World Copper Conference)....Cover 4

Kumera Corporation...............................................18

Danieli Breda...........................................................18

Küttner GmbH...............................................9, 18, 19

Saint Gobain.............................................................19

HarbisonWalker International...............................19

McCol Metals............................................................i6

UrbanGold..........................................................18, 19

RHI Magnesita.........................................................19

Copper is green for the future – Discovering new technologies now! The next Vol 12 No 2 issue of Copper Worldwide print magazine is published in June 2022. Scheduled features include 21st Century Smelting, Plant Integration and Control, Operational Efficiency, Materials Handling, A Clean Green Revolution, Copper for the EV Age, Events Update, Profiles and Reviews, and more. The next CWDigital Issues are due out in 2022. Supporting website www.copperworldwide. com features additional content and event details. Thank you to all advertisers once again. All correspondence welcome. Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


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A fairer and cleaner world MAR 29 - CRU’s Robert Perlman welcomed around 500 delegates, both real-world and virtual, to the 20th World Copper Conference, the first in-person Edition since 2019. Firstly, Marcela Hernando Pérez, Minister of Mining of Chile, set out the Government’s hopes for ‘world class mining for the world.’ Key risks in global copper markets Octavio Araneda, CEO Codelco ‘Codelco is 50 but its mining assets are much older, e.g. El Teniente 1905-, Chuquicamata 1915-. Yet despite their longevity, they are still world class assets. As the world is moving to much more demanding standards for mining, so state-owned Codelco will continue at around 1.7 Mtpy output for Chile. The sustainability challenge includes huge structural transformation projects, e.g. Chuquicamata 1 km deep, with additional 1 km depth in construction. The last big expansion was in 1970. The management transformation plan includes a 30% reduction in carbon emissions by 2030, with water reduction to 60% of present levels by 2030. Four major tailing dams are to be upgraded to ICMM Standards by 2030, e.g. by Talabre tailings thickening project. Codelco has moved from a closed to an open innovation system, and presently is working to a strategic plan to 2027.’ Jorge Gómez, Executive President, Minera Collahuasi ‘Mining is a sector most exposed to ESG risks. Sustainability integrated to business strategy is the new normal. ESG needs goals in emissions, supply chain and water. Collahuasi has a 100% renewable electricity supply. Its social contribution program has been a success during lockdown. Part of a US$ 3.2 bn mine expansion approved in December 2021, the 1,050 l/s desalination project is just a few weeks from commencement. Company production and productivity have been rising steadily since 2015, and safety has reached exemplary levels.’ Clayton Walker, COO Copper, Rio Tinto ‘How can we deliver copper for the clean energy transition? In the next 25 years, it is estimated the world would need as much copper as has been mined in the last 600 yrs to achieve zero carbon. Oyu Tolgoi will bring 400 ktpy at full operation. The Newton heap leach process is due to be trialled in Nevada.’ Q&A: ‘There is over 100 Mt copper trapped in tailings globally. Chalcopyrite is a particular challenge.’ Ragnar Udd, President Minerals Americas, BHP ‘We are at an inflexion point for copper. Nickel is also future-facing for EV. Twice the copper is needed in the next 30 yrs as the world has used in the last 30 yrs. Escondida has invested US$ 4 bn in desalination. BHP is aiming for 100% renewable at Escondida and Spence by mid-2020s. Now it is 26% women in mining in Chile.’

Jorge Gómez is Executive President of Minera Collahuasi. Photo: CRU

Vanessa Davidson, Director of Base Metals Research & Strategy, CRU ‘CRU estimates demand was 1.5 Mt in 2021 for green energy transition uses. Forecast growth of 2.1% p.a. equates to 3.5 Mt by 2030, mainly outside China. Without the transition, refined demand levels off at around 24 Mt, and with the transition it is 28.4 Mt. The supply gap is not the biggest, but the hurdles to develop projects have never been higher. Around 46 mines reach end life by 2026, though some are able to be extended with investment. Q&A: ‘A 5 Mt supply gap can partly be closed by mine extensions, also recycled material from an increase in scrap generation and collection rate. The industry could see more projects in DRC and Zambia, as we may now be recalibrating risk to some extent. Majors developing smaller-sized (50 ktpy) projects might be more acceptable.’ Juan Merlini, Head of Sales & Marketing, Vale ‘The firm today is de-risking, reshaping and rerating on, e.g. safety, ESG. The aim is for 100% renewable by 2025. Vale’s emerging strategy is to grow in base metals. Copper mine projects include Salobo III (30-40 ktpy, 2022-), Alemao (60 ktpy, 2024/5-) and South Hub (40-60 ktpy, 2027-) in Brazil, whilst its Hu’u copper-gold (Onto) project on Sumbawa Island in Indonesia (>250 ktpy) is world-class.’ Technological pathways to lowering emissions Fleming Voetmann, Vice President Marketing, FLSmidth ‘It has never been a more exciting time to be in mining. The FLSmidth Mission Zero (2019-) concept is aligned with the ICMM iniitative and its yearly reporting. Further, the MissionZero Mine looks at the full flowsheet - regards water waste and recycling, for example. A lot of the technology is ready today and proven, and could save 30 - 60% electricity consumption. Ricardo Garib, President, Weir Minerals ‘Weir is implementing solutions via big data Motion Metrics is its AI and 3D developer. Net zero mining depends upon changes to economic systems beyond the mine.’ Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

J T Clark, Managing Director, Boston Consulting Group ‘Deeply passionate about AI. BCG is extensively involved in sustainability and mining. We need to manage a dual objective of production and sustainability.’ Robert Friedland, Chairman, Ivanhoe Mines MAR 30 - Robert Friedland gave an interview to Vanessa Davidson: ‘Power grids and systems are in need of upgrading, for example the U.S. grid needs huge investment to modernise. In Africa, a new Angolan railroad is under construction. The new Kamoa smelter will reduce cash costs to under $1/lb. The revenue from the associated 400 kt sulphuric acid is worth $150 M per year. For future needs, the milling process has to be reinvented.’ Roland Harings, CEO Aurubis Speaking about the circular economy, he said “We need to add primary to the cycle for many decades to come.” The circular economy is also a question of strategic source security. Aurubis has over 50 closing-the-loop partnerships. Exhibitor highlight World Copper Ltd “WCU will be building off a strong start to 2022. At Escalones we’re looking to expand the resource with our drill program that is currently underway, while starting concurrently on permitting. At Zonia our Arizona asset we’ll be carrying out a strategic assessment as we restart development on this fantastic asset. Both projects offer to the market compelling, capitally efficient projects in the SX-EW space,” says President & CEO Nolan Peterson.

Istanbul Ferrous and Non Ferrous Exporters Association (iDDMiB) Turkish Copper Industry exports were US$2.25 bn in 2021 (+63%), of which 38.6% was copper wire, and 28.8% copper stranded wire, with plates, sheet and strip making up 13.3%, bars and profiles 6% approximately.

Author: Chris K. Holding

4 | NEWS In brief… DEC 15 Hudbay Minerals Inc. mineral resource estimate for its Copper World project, comprising 7 deposits near its Rosemont project in Arizona, is 272 Mt at 0.36% copper with an additional 142 Mt inferred resources. The oxide and sulphide mineralogy resources are potentially amenable to heap leach and flotation processing respectively.

JAN 24 Ivanhoe Mines Co-Chairs Robert Friedland and Yufeng ‘Miles’ Sun announced that KamoaKakula’s Phase 2, 3.8 Mtpy concentrator plant is expected to be 93% complete by 31 January 2022, with hot commissioning of the concentrator on track to begin in April 2022, at the front end of the Q2 2022 previous guidance and ahead of the original schedule.

JAN 6 Appian Capital Advisory LLP has appointed the former President Operations, Minerals Americas at BHP, Danny Malchuk, as Senior Advisor USA. Danny will provide guidance during the sourcing, due diligence and execution process, with a focus on the Americas, and be based in Santiago, Chile.

JAN Jiangxi Copper Corporation Limited (JCCL)’s newly built 220,000 tonne continuous casting and rolling copper wirerod production line and 30,000 tons of new material project commenced operation in Shangrao Economic development zone, Jiangxi Province. The project was due to be implemented by the end of 2022.

DEC The China Daye Non-Ferrous Metals Mining Limited 400,000 tpy copper smelter launch date will be delayed to mid-2022 as imported equipment or parts are delayed due to COVID-19. The smelter adopts double flash copper smelting technology and is expected to produce 1.6 million tons of copper concentrate and 400,000 t of copper cathode annually.

NOV 15 Being the first phase of Amer Miluo Renewable Resources Industrial Base Project, the launching ceremony of 100,000 t precision copper wires and the completion ceremony of 250,000 t highquality copper rod line were held in Miluo Hightech Zone. Vice Governor Xie Weijiang announced the milestones and launched production.

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Joint Standard is recognised by LME DEC 16 - The Copper Mark, the International Lead Association (ILA), the International Zinc Association (IZA), the Nickel Institute and the Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI)’s Joint Due Diligence Standard for Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc (Joint Standard) has been recognised as a conditionally approved standard for Track A of Responsible Sourcing Requirements by the London Metal Exchange (LME). The Joint Standard - officially launched by the five organisations on 1 January 2021 - has now been confirmed through an independent standard alignment assessment to be 100% OECD-

Aligned. Using the Joint Standard enables producers of LME Brands to demonstrate compliance with the LME’s Responsible Sourcing requirements. The Joint Due Diligence Standard allows sites to be assessed by either the Copper Mark Assurance Process or the Responsible Minerals Assurance Process. It is accompanied by a due diligence tool helping Brands implement the LME responsible sourcing policy as well as shared training resources. The Standard is available in English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese and Russian.

New appointment at Copper Mark

Luke Balleny has been appointed Director of Standards

FEB 3 - Luke Balleny has been appointed Director of Standards and Partnerships at the Copper Mark. Luke was previously a Manager at the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) where he led their tax, transparency and governance KGHM implements work, helping to develop ICMM’s brainstormed smelter project Mining Principles. Prior to joining N O V 2 6 - G r e a t e r e n e r g y responsible for regulating heat loss. ICMM, Luke worked as a journalist efficiency of the flash furnace was The winners, called DATA DRIVERS, at Thomson Reuters. Luke is based envisaged in the project of young presented a plan including an in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. programmers - winners of the Cu accurate loss-producing model and Valley Hack hackathon organised an easy-to-implement optimisation by KGHM in June 2021 with a algorithm. The project consists of New CDA PLN 100,000 prize fund. Just five three parts: scripts that process months after the event, the copper source data, a total loss model of President appointed company began implementing an a flash furnace and a Flash Furnace NOV 16 - The Copper Development innovative solution at the Glogow Operation Stabiliser, and simulation Association, Inc. (CDA) appointed smelter. During the hackathon, and visualisation of its operation. Andrew G. Kireta, Jr. as its next KGHM was looking, among others, There were nearly 300 participants President & CEO, effective 1 for a solution to stabilise the flash in the hackathon. January 2022. He succeeds Thomas furnace and optimise the parameters S. Passek, who retired at the end of 2021 after nearly seven years with the organisation. Kireta has Progress of new Aurubis segments been with CDA since 1992, having FEB 7 - In the course of developing to 71,000 t from 79,000 t, due in previously served multiple roles in the Aurubis Group’s strategy, the part to the planned maintenance market development, strategy, segmentation was adjusted as of 1 shutdown in Lünen. Cathode output and organisational management. October 2021. With the new fiscal in the MMR segment increased y-o-y The CDA later announced the appointment of Adam Estelle as year 2021/22, the two segments by 4,000 t to 130,000 t. The Custom Smelting & Products its next Vice President effective 1 Multimetal Recycling and Custom Smelting & Products will form the (CSP) segment sites in Hamburg February 2022. structure and the foundation for (Germany) and Pirdop (Bulgaria) segment reporting in accordance manufacture copper cathodes, which are processed further into with IFRS 8. The Multimetal Recycling (MMR) wire rod and shapes at the Hamburg segment includes the recycling (Germany), Olen (Belgium), activities of the sites in Lünen E m m e r i c h ( G e r m a n y ) , a n d (Germany), Olen and Beerse (both Avellino (Italy) sites. The Buffalo in Belgium), and Berango (Spain). (US), Stolberg (Germany), and Throughput at recycling sites was at a Pori (Finland) sites produce flat stable level in the first three months of rolled products and specialty wire fiscal year 2021/22. Production sites products. Concentrate throughput in benefitted from a satisfactory supply the reporting period was 679,000 t of copper scrap, blister copper, (prior year 607,000 t). Copper and other recycling materials. cathode output in the CSP segment The input of other recycling materials fell 4,000 t to 149,000 t in such as industrial residues, slimes, Q1 2021/22. At 200,000 t, wire shredder materials, and electrical rod output was exactly at priorand electronic scrap was 125,000 t year level (200,000 t). High, stable during the reporting period (previous demand was evident from all year: 122,000 t). The input of copper customer segments. Andrew Kireta was 2020 ASTM International Board Chair. Photo: ASTM scrap and blister copper, fell y-o-y Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

NEWS | 5

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Breakthrough on Oyu Tolgoi Underground Project JAN 25 - Rio Tinto, Turquoise Hill Resources (TRQ) and the Government of Mongolia have reached an agreement that will move the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) project forward. The OT Board, comprised of representatives of Rio Tinto, TRQ and Erdenes Oyu Tolgoi (EOT) which is wholly owned by the Government of Mongolia, has unanimously approved commencement of

underground operations, with first sustainable production expected in the first half of 2023. The Parliament of Mongolia has approved a resolution (Resolution 103) that resolves the outstanding issues that have been subject to negotiations with the Government of Mongolia over the last two years in relation to addressing Parliament Resolution 92 (December 2019).

An updated funding plan has been agreed to address TRQ’s current estimated remaining funding requirement for the OT Underground Project. Until sustainable underground production is achieved, OT will be funded by cash on hand and rescheduling of existing debt repayments, together with a pre-paid copper concentrate sales agreement with TRQ. The

NFC Lao Cai Copper Smelter expansion project

capital forecast for the project is US$ 6.925 billion, including US$ 175 million of known COVID19 impacts to the end of 2021. Forecasted remaining undergound capital expenditure is approximately US$ 1.8 billion. A reforecast will be undertaken during H1 2022 to determine a revised cost and schedule estimate.

Power agreement for Oyu Tolgoi

Lao Cai province. The contract scope covers design, equipment supply JAN 25 - The Oyu Tolgoi Board has and installation, commissioning and approved the signing of an Electricity technical services. Supply Agreement to provide OT with Since the commissioning in March a long-term source of power from 2021, all the project personnel the Mongolian grid, under terms have overcome the difficulties already agreed with the Government caused by COVID-19, adopted of Mongolia. Rio Tinto will work with a series of measures to speed the Government to support longterm renewable energy generation up project construction, restored Casting production wheel at Lao Cai the channel of equipment delivery both COVID-19 prevention and in support of the Mongolian grid. The Government of Mongolia and and personnel despatch, and project implementation. OT are in constructive discussions managed to achieve successes in with the Inner Mongolia Power International Cooperation Company Capital projects progress for Zijin (IMPIC) for an extension of current JAN 6 - In 2021, Zijin Mining concentrator is on track to begin in flotation system (13.2 Mt/yr ore), is power import arrangements beyond expected to produce 46-48 kt copper the current agreement of July 2023. completed and put into operation April 2022. On 22 October, Cukaru Peki per year. several key copper projects at On 27 December, Julong Phase 1 home and abroad. On 25 May, the Copper-Gold Mine in Serbia started Phase 1, 3.8 Mtpy concentrator commercial production. The upper formally came into production. Julong Vale joins ICA plant of stage one of the Kamoa- zone is expected to produce 91,400 concentrator started commissioning Kakula Copper Mine Project t of copper and 2.5 tonnes of in October 2021. Including the at key moment in the Democratic Republic of gold annually, with an annual peak output of Zhibula Copper mine, JAN 1 - The International Copper the Congo started production output of 135,000 t of copper and Julong Copper Company is expected Association (ICA) announced the ramp-up to its 200 kt nameplate 6.1 tonnes of gold. In November, to produce 120,000-130,000 t of addition of Vale International S.A. capacity. The construction of Phase the 40,000 t/day concentration copper in 2022, and about 160,000 (Vale) as its newest member. Vale 2 is accelerating and is expected to plant of MS mine of Zijin Copper t of copper per year after reaching joins the ICA at a critical juncture be completed and put into operation in Serbia was officially put into full production of Julong Phase 1. for the Copper Industry as it strives to support global goals rooted in in the third quarter of 2022. FEB trial operation. The 40,000 t/d the Paris Climate Agreement and 5 - Hot commissioning of the grinding system and 20,000 t/d the UN Sustainable Development Goals. ICA’s President Anthony Lea Hazelett joins AMMAN selects EPC Contractors said: “We are working closely with EBNER GROUP our members to define the ways AUG 9 - PT Amman Mineral Industry Tenggara Province (NTB). The signing ceremony was held in which the Copper Industry can JAN 7 - Hazelett Strip-Casting (AMIN), a subsidiary of AMMAN, Corporation of Colchester, Vermont issued a Letter of Intent (LoI) on 22 virtually and attended by AMIN’s decarbonise its own processes, and USA has become a member of the July 2021 to the consortium of China President Director, Rachmat we are aiming for the delivery of a EBNER GROUP, headquartered Non-ferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Makkasau and NFC President, Qin roadmap to achieve this by early in Leonding, Austria, through Engineering and Construction Co., Junman. The consortium will work next year.” ICA has 31 members the acquisition by EBNER of a Ltd (NFC) as the Engineering, on the spectrum of works, from operating on six continents. majority interest in Hazelett. Mino Procurement, and Construction design, engineering, procurement, S.p.A, based in Alessandria, Italy (EPC) contractors and China Nerin structural fabrication and installation, will remain a shareholder along Engineering Co., Ltd. (NERIN) as civil construction, commissioning, with David Hazelett, who will also the technical provider to set up starting up, and finally ramping up New MD for Upcast remain as both a shareholder and AMMAN’s Smelter project in West to the plant’s design capacity. Janne Hosio has been appointed the President. The EBNER GROUP offers Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa new Managing Director of UPCAST a wide range of furnace facilities, OY as of 1 March 2022. Janne was upstream and downstream auxiliary previously Sales Director and he will Toth to join Newmont in July equipment, project management and work very closely with sales also in the services to the aluminum, steel and OCT 19 - Newmont Corporation is and Development with Rio Tinto. future. The former Managing Director copper base metals sectors. appointing Peter Toth as Executive Prior to this he was Chief Executive Jukka Lähteenmäki will retire in the Vice President, Strategic Development of OM Holdings and spent 15 years summer after 15 years’ excellent work with best wishes from Upcast. from 1 July 2022. Toth was most with BHP. Newmont is S&P 500. recently Group Executive, Strategy JUL 1 - On 26 June 2021, the first furnace of anode copper was produced successfully in the Lao Cai Copper Smelting Plant expansion project NFC - China Nonferrous Metal Industry - has been working on in Vietnam. This successful production serves as a tribute to the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC. The project of Expanding Lao Cai copper Smelting Plant is a key project of Vietnam. The project is located in

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


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Industry Mark gradually being adopted Migration to more responsible sourcing practices across the supply chain is gathering pace, as recent bulletins from the Copper Mark indicate: Semis-fabricator pilot scheme OCT 27 - The Copper Mark has welcomed the commitment of its semis-fabricator partners to participate in its 2021/2022 pilot scheme. The Copper Mark’s semis-fabricator partners (no. of sites) committed to participate in the pilot scheme include: HALCOR, Copper Tubes Division of ELVALHALCOR S.A. (1) KME (3) MM Kembla (1) Mueller Industries, Inc. (1) Nanotec S.A. Nexans (2) Revere Copper Products, Inc. (1) Superior Essex (with Essex Furukawa participating in the pilot) (3) Wieland Group (3) The scheme will pilot the implementation of the Copper Mark’s assurance framework for semis-fabricators, helping to ensure a smooth formal expansion in 2023, and further advance responsible sourcing practices in the supply chain. Emissions Analysis Tool partnering NOV 8 - The Copper Mark and CRU Group signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) which includes the integration of the Copper Mark assurance award status into CRU’s Emissions Analysis Tool, a digital platform that compares emissions across global value chains. The tool compares asset level sustainability data, which will now include acknowledgement that a copper site has received the Copper Mark and link to

the Summary Assessment Report on the Copper Mark’s website. New sites and participants DEC 6 - The Copper Mark has awarded the Copper Mark standard to a further three sites. Six new participating sites have also begun the process of assessment through the Copper Mark process, while Siemens Energy and Oddo BHF Metals have both joined as partner organisations. With these additions, the Copper Mark now has 16 industry partners and 31 participating sites. Siemens Energy and Oddo BHF Metals have joined as partner organisations. Siemens Energy stands at the cutting-edge of the clean energy transition, working to develop the technologies of the future that will help to tackle climate change and facilitate the development and deployment of low carbon energy sources. Oddo BHF Metals provides physical intermediation activity on the non-ferrous metal market, including covering copper, aluminium, zinc and pewter. The Copper Mark standard has also recently been awarded to three new BHP sites: Olympic Dam (Australia) Minera Escondida (Chile) Minera Spence (Chile) With the addition of Minera Escondida, the Copper Mark has now been awarded to the largest copper mine in the world. Additionally, the Copper Mark has recently welcomed six new participating sites: Los Bronces (Chile, Anglo American) El Soldado (Chile, Anglo American) Chagres (Chile, Anglo American) Minera Los Pelambres (Chile, Antofagasta) Minera Antucoya (Chile, Antofagasta) Highland Valley Copper (Canada, Teck)

Through these additions, the Copper Mark has achieved a milestone of securing over 30 participants, which is nearly double the number of participants in 2020. The addition of Siemens Energy and Oddo BHF Metals as new partners also means that the number of Copper Mark partners had nearly tripled since 2020, marking clear and sustained progress in the organisation’s mission to promote the importance of responsible production. Through these partnerships, the Copper Mark is providing an increasingly strong market signal for responsible production practices. JAN 17 - The Copper Mark welcomes new partner Southwire and two new participating sites from Grupo Mexico. Southwire is one of North America’s largest wire and cable producers. The new sites include: Mexicana de Cobre S.A. de C.V., Unidad Planta Metalúrgica (Mexico, Grupo Mexico, Mining Division) Mexicana de Cobre S.A. de C.V, Unidad la Caridad (Mexico, Grupo Mexico, Mining Division) FEB 10 - Codelco, the world’s largest copper producer, has committed to have all its sites participate in the Copper Mark framework by the end of 2023. The first Codelco site to participate will be the company’s El Teniente site in Chile. Codelco’s commitment to have all its sites participate in the Copper Mark framework within the next two years is further evidence of the growing momentum behind the Copper Mark and the increasing commitment of major copper producers to adopting and promoting responsible production practices across their operations.

Copper still associated with ESG issues MAR 23 - The Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI) was co-founded by and is governed by the Responsible Business Alliance (RBA), the world’s largest industry coalition focussing on corporate social responsibility in global supply chains. Occupying a role as an umbrella organisation, the RMI convenes stakeholders across multiple mineral supply chains to support responsible mineral production and sourcing more broadly, helping companies to address issues by providing tools and resources to enhance compliance with

regulations, align with international standards and support stakeholder expectations. Launched in September 2021, Material Insights is the result of more than three years of research and analysis undertaken by Tdi Sustainability in collaboration with the RMI. The aim is for Material Insights to serve as the leading resource for companies seeking to identify and assess the ESG issues associated with materials in their supply chains. The platform will grow over the course of 2022 to provide users with an expanding range

of datasets and analytical tools to provide insight at every stage of the supply chain for a widening range of components, metals, and raw materials. TDi Sustainability’s data rates copper’s association with the following issues as high or very high: • Child labour • Community rights violations • Company/community conflicts • Corruption • Pollution

Assessing use of blockchain in ESG mar 21 - To evaluate the sustainability level, ESG reporting is widely adopted especially for the listed companies. However, due to the lack of data authentication, consistency, and transparency, the ESG-based sustainability evaluation is still inadequate. As the importance of ESG metrics increases, so does the demand for reliable data measuring them. With no industry-wide set of standards, however, they can be difficult to come by and the lack of verified and standardised ESG data can be a significant problem. Blockchain, and distributed ledger technology has

the potential to provide a safe and transparent tool to overcome this obstacle. Blockchain works as an assurance of accuracy and transparency of data due to its tamper-resistant nature. It is a decentralised database of records, or ‘blocks’, which can only be updated once all the other blocks authenticate this change. This ensures the accuracy of the stored data. Notably, a blockchain is designed to facilitate raw data authentication issues. It plays the role of a light node to transfer the data of smart infrastructure/devices to the Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

blockchain network, which satisfies both privacy and transparency. Secondly, a smart contract mechanism is developed to verify the consistency between the raw data and the final ESG report. As mandatory corporate and sustainability reporting becomes more commonplace, accurate and verified documentation to support transparency will be key. Therefore, there are two key areas where blockchain can help with compliance with ESG standards: reporting of data, and supply chain transparency.

NEWS | 7

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A China-wide recycling system for waste materials According to Antaike Copper & Copper Fabrication Monthly February 2022 No. 301, China’s NDRC and Other Departments advocate that by 2025, a country-wide waste material recycling network system should be basically established, and more than 1,000 green sorting centres should be built. The recycling volume of nine major renewable resources, including

scrap iron and steel, scrap copper, scrap aluminium, scrap lead, scrap zinc, scrap paper, scrap plastic, scrap rubber, and scrap glass, should reach 450 Mtpy. About 60 large and medium-sized cities have taken the lead in building a basically perfect recycling system for waste materials. The Departments call for improving the waste material recycling network,

including rationally arranging waste material recycling sites, and promoting the specialisation of waste material recycling, strengthened industry supervision and management, among other things. For the Copper Industry, which relies on foreign materials by more than 80%, it is expected to receive greater policy support to strengthen the domestic self-

Recycling tech firms partner up JAN 31 - BHS-Sonthofen Group has held a 50% interest in RW Recycling World GmbH in Switzerland since September 2021. Founded in 2002, the company has technologies for crushing, separating, sorting, sifting, balling, screening and separating. For the BHS Recycling & Environment division in particular,

this represents an expansion of the depth of value added and process competence. The RW Recycling World GmbH technologies are based on the mechanical process principles of shredding and separation. The machine portfolio includes air separating tables, zigzag classifiers, circular screening

Zijin cleans up Bor River for garden mine FEB 16 - On 7 February, Serbia Zijin Copper launched a comprehensive environmental treatment project of the Bor River. Improvements are expected in the safe operation of both the tailings pond and open pit after the project is completed. The ecological environment of natural water system in the Bor River and the lower reaches of the Timok River will also be improved, which will bring great benefits to ecological environmental protection

and the society at large. The Krivelj River is an upper tributary of the Bor River which flows down into the Timok River. The project will build a sewage reservoir to collect, treat and recycle municipal sewage, and divert the relatively uncontaminated Krivelj River to the historically polluted Bor River. A new clear water reservoir and a sightseeing corridor in the lower reaches of Bor River will also be built to tailor-make a tourism and

New ICSG Directory of Global Copper First Use JAN 12 - The International Copper Study Group has released its 2021 edition of the ‘Directory of Copper and Copper Alloy Fabricators First Use’. This directory provides a systematic global overview of companies and plants involved in the use of refined copper, copper scrap and copper alloy scrap. For the year 2021 it is expected that over 1.7 Mt of new fabrication capacity will be commissioned in China, with at least five new

copper wire rod and other projects identified. In addition, at least nine new copper and alloy flat rolled plant capacities are expected to be commissioned in China as well as a record volume of new copper foil plant capacity. Outside China, details of new copper foil plants, flat rolled and tube plants, and some copper wire rod expansions and projects are reported. This new capacity is mainly located in Vietnam, with a smaller volume

Adviser aids MAC acquisition of CSA Mine MAR 18 - Squire Patton Boggs Australia has advised US-based Metals Acquisition Corporation (MAC) in relation to its acquisition of the CSA Copper Mine (the CSA Mine) for total consideration of US$ 1.1 billion (consisting of US$1.05 bn cash and US$ 50 M scrip consideration in MAC plus a 1.5% net smelter royalty on

machines, bead mills and cyclones as well as container and dosing technology. In an initial phase, BHS-Sonthofen has taken over 50% of the business shares and agreed to cooperate in partnership. BHS-Sonthofen Group is based in Sonthofen in Germany.

sufficiency rate of copper resources and promote the proportion of recycled copper to reach 35%. From January to November 2021, China imported 1.533 Mt of recycled copper (physical quantity), an 85.3% y-o-y rise. It is estimated that the annual import volume will reach 1.67 Mt, a 77% y-o-y increase.

Adams Executive secretary of EERA

DEC 20 - European Electronic Recyclers Association (EERA) Executive Secretariat Lida Dik, has departed after almost 9 years. The EERA Board are pleased to announce that Julie-Ann Adams, of Really Green Credentials, agreed to take over Lida’s job from the start of January 2022. Julie-Ann has a detailed knowledge and extensive experience of all matters leisure area, the ‘one river and WEEE and EU. two banks’ for Bor citizens and neighbouring villages, together branding Bor with an ecological reputation for ‘Green Mine, New MMC platform Beautiful City’. The afforestation DEC 20 - Mitsubishi Materials o f a l l t a i l i n g s p o n d s , o p e n Corporation has launched ‘MEX’ pits and some abandoned waste (Mitsubishi Materials E-Scrap dump slopes has involved planting EXchange), a new platform for the over 60,000 seedlings, adding E-Scrap business, and a website another 350,000 squere metres introducing MEX. With MEX, customers are provided with around of green space. the clock access to all information required for E-Scrap trading. It has an inquiry feature that accepts questions anytime. The platform also has enhanced security by adopting two-step authentication. MMC’s in Malaysia, the United States, the processing capacity of E-Scrap in Korean Republic, Hungary and fiscal 2019 was 160,000 tonnes. Luxemburg. A detailed review of the capacity commissioned over 2016- 2021 and projects in the pipeline is provided and the Directory Glencore boosts also includes a comprehensive database. The Directory costs e-scrap recovery EUR 500 to instutions based in DEC 16 - Glencore recovered member countries, else EUR 1,000, 27,000 tonnes of copper, 132,000 with a 20% discount to Copper ounces of gold, 1.3 million ounces Bulletin subscribers. of silver, 16,000 ounces of palladium and 5,000 ounces of platinum from e-scrap in 2020, according to the company’s 2021 sustainability report. Glencore has the issued share capital of Cobar e-scrap-focused sites in San Jose, Management Pty Ltd, the owner California; Osceola, Ark.; and and operator of the CSA Mine. East Providence, R.I. The Osceola The CSA Mine is an established, plant has the potential to be the high-grade producing copper mine largest e-scrap pre-processing that is expected to produce more plant of its kind on the continent. than 40 kt of copper in 2022 with Glencore became a founding an estimated current mine life of member of the Circular Electronics over 15 years. Partnership in 2021.

copper produced from the CSA Mine). On 17 March 2022, MAC’s wholly owned subsidiary Metals Acquisition Corp. (Australia) Pty Ltd entered into a definitive sale and purchase agreement with Glencore Operations Australia Pty Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Glencore International AG (Glencore), to purchase 100% of Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


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Rain Floods Trading train at La Farga Offshore successes copper rod plant near Barcelona, Spain. for Hellenic Cable In view of the startup of its new plant, supplied

Technical team training at La Farga. Photo: Danieli

FEB 14 - The patented La Farga FRHC (Fire-Refined, High-Conductivity) process is a very sustainable way to produce copper rod. Since July 2017, La Farga (process knowhow) and Danieli (technological equipment and installation), have offered valuable EPC plants for the successful production of FRHC copper rod from copper scrap. Within this framework, a key part to be successful in operating the FRHC process is the knowhow transfer and personnel training carried out at the La Farga

by La Farga and Danieli, and scheduled to be on stream in Spring 2022, Rain Floods Trading technical team is attending a specialised training course in Spain. Rain Floods Trading is a Kurdish copper cable producer that in 2019 invested in a new complete plant for the production of 25,000 tpy FRHC copper rod, to be used as starting material for its copper cable production lines. After being refined by means of a thermal process in the furnace, recycled copper scrap will be cast and continuously rolled into quality rod. The duo’s scope of solutions includes advanced scrap selection systems, melting units for ETP (Electrolytic Tough Pitch copper) and FRHC (Fire Refined High Conductivity), endless continuous casting rolling process.

FEB 16 - Hellenic Cables, the Athens-based cable segment of Cenergy Holdings, has been awarded a contract by Van Oord Offshore wind UK ltd for the supply of approx. 360 km 66 kV inter-array cables and accessories to RWE’s 593 km2 Sofia Offshore Wind Farm located on the Dogger Bank in the North Sea, 195 km from the nearest point of the North East coast. The total amount of power Sofia is likely to generate would be enough to potentially provide almost 1.2 M average UK homes with their annual electricity needs. Once operational, the project will save more than 2.5 million tons of carbon emissions per year when compared to the use of fossil fuels in the UK.

JAN 18 - Hellenic Cables is to supply 900 km of array cables for Dogger Bank A, B and C OWF thorugh a contract awrded by DEME Offshore, the renewables business unit of DEME Group. Located more than 130 km off the North East Coast, Dogger Bank Wind Farm is being developed in three phases - Dogger Bank A, B, and C - and each phase will have an installed generation capacity of up to 1.2 GW. Combined, the 3.6 GW project will be capable of powering up to 6 million homes.

Supply chain optimisation from Nexans FEB 10 - Nexans announces the launch of Nexans ULTRACKER, a suite of innovative supply chain solutions that streamline the order, delivery, and inventory management processes. The Group is providing a unique offer to address its customers’ supply chain challenges. Advanced AI and cloud-based software have been developed in conjunction with Microsoft Azure, which will allow continuous monitoring throughout the entire supply chain. Nexans ULTRACKER is made up of four main digital solutions. This global offer contains industry-leading technologies including software that allows customers to access live updates about their cable delivery status, drums geolocation and anti-theft alarms:

• ULTRACKER VENDOR-MANAGED INVENTORY (VMI) raises supply chain efficiency of customers by synchronising demand with product availability • ULTRACKER SMART INVENTORY MANAGEMENT (SIM) tracks the history of stock movements • ULTRACKER TRACK’N TRACE is a digital service developed with Nexans’ technology partner Shippeo • ULTRACKER DRUMS uses edge-computing technologies to enable real-time geolocation of cable drums.

Safer and more productive materials handling Hall 6, Stand C15 - Irish materials handling specialist Combilift is pleased to be back on the exhibition circuit. In line with growing demand for greener operation, the focus is on Combilift’s electric models such as the award winning CombiCBE counterbalance design, multidirectional forklift with electric drive on all of its three wheels. Its internationally patented traction enables independent control of each of the wheels and guarantees 100% traction control. Replacing ride-on forklifts with pedestrian models reduces risks in areas where other employees may be present. The compact dimensions and multidirectional capabilities of Combilift’s CombiWR4 reach stacker enable it to manoeuvre easily around machinery without hampering production schedules. It features Combilift’s patented unique multi-position tiller arm which enables push-button rotation of the rear wheel, allowing the operator to remain safely at the side of the unit when working in narrow aisles. The original Combilift multidirectional C-series models are favourites for

Welding of copper and copper alloy components JAN 21 - A new Wieland brochure provides information and a guideline on how to weld Wieland strip made of copper and copper alloys, referring to the most common welding processes. A supplement to the relevant technical literature, it provides compact information on commonly used welding processes (resistance welding, laser welding, etc.) and their particular challenges to be considered when welding copper or copper alloys. Also, metallurgical aspects of welding different copper materials (pure copper, HPA, bronze, brass, CuNi/CuNiZn) are coverd. Finally, process effects due to common metallic coatings (tin, nickel, silver) as well as BTA are explored.

Proof of embodied carbon reduction the space saving handling of the long products traditionally found in the tube and pipe sector. These robust workhorses are available with various power options and with lift capacities from 2t to over 25t, and can be customised to specific individual requirements.

NOV 8 - GreenCircle Certified has provided Life Cycle Assessment Optimized certification to Superior Essex Communications, a leading manufacturer and supplier of communications cables in North America. This third-party verification proves that 26 families of cables have reduced the company’s carbon impacts. From 2014 to 2019, Superior Essex Communications reduced embodied product carbon up to 15%.

A Combi-WR4 reach stacker in operation. Photo: Combilift

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


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The Properzi Cu Refining Technology A significant contribution by Continuus-Properzi to reduce the Carbon Footprint in the Copper Sector is made by its Cu Refining Technology, writes Alberto Ghisetti Copper (Cu), with its unique properties, is central for economic growth, quality of life and sustainability. The future challenges of the economy, in order to maintain its sustainability, minimise carbon and water footprint, and achieve sustainable growth, include aspects related to exploitation and access of new resources, research and innovation, and the reduction of energy and water requirements. Trade off The decreasing ore grades result in environmental concerns such as large waste/metal ratio and higher use of resources with respect to the use of energy, explosives, and water. The metal producing sector is, on the one hand, under growing public pressure, while on the other hand it needs to overcome several burdens such as, for example, increased demand for metals and the treatment of lower ore grades. Fortunately, Cu can be 100% recovered from the majority of its end-products and returned to the production process without loss of quality during recycling. The production of secondary Cu is based on the direct melt of ‘new scrap’ (waste resulting from either metals discarded in semis fabrication or generated during the initial manufacturing process) and/or the recycling of ‘old scrap’ (obsolete end-oflife products or structures). Old scrap is often contaminated to a certain degree, depending mainly on its origin and the efficiency of its collection systems. The main processes used for obtaining secondary Cu are disassembly, sorting (according to different levels of purity), transportation, chopping, melting, and refining to remove the necessary

quantities of impurities to reach the desired characteristics. The Properzi Refining Technology allows to melt and refine selected Cu scrap (old, new or a mix of these) with a production ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 t CO2-eq/t Cu and the average values for the upstream processes, mainly for Cu scrap transportation/preparation, vary from 0.25 to 0.35 t CO2-eq/t Cu. The data indicates that the variation depends on the quality of the source material, the metallurgical process used and the quality of copper scrap. Calculated footprint According to our studies and the available literature we calculated that the Carbon Footprint to obtain 1 t of Cu from an ore (0.45% Cu) can reach 7.65t CO2-eq. However, when Cu was obtained from a mix of 25% 1st quality scrap (>99% Cu), 37.5% of 2nd quality scrap (>96% Cu), and 37.5% of 3rd low quality scrap (>94% Cu), the Carbon Footprint was estimated to be reduced to 0.65 t CO2-eq. According to this data the production of FRHC Cu products from secondary Cu, that can replace with almost identical characteristics Cu products starting from primary Cu, thanks to the Properzi refining technology, can reduce the Carbon Footprint by as much as 7,000 Kg CO2-eq per ton of FRHC copper rod products processing 100% copper scrap (old and/or new).

Typical Properzi Continuous Casting & Rolling Cu Rod Line.

Types of scraps processed with Properzi Refining Technology.

Author: Alberto Ghisetti, Commercial Director, Continuus-Properzi S.p.A.

Properzi green rod. All images: Properzi

A recycling plant solution in Preston JAN 3 - British recycling specialist Recycling Lives has commissioned a BHS-Sonthofen recycling plant including an RS 3218 Rotorshredder and designed to handle a variety of materials such as automotive shredder residue (ASR), electric and electronic scrap (WEEE) as well as ‘meatballs’ (electric motors and motor armatures), then produce marketready end products. Plant requirements In the process of expanding capacities, Recycling Lives decided it required a plant that could

The Rotorshredder of type RS 3218 is the centerpiece of the plant. Photo: BHS-Sonthofen

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

process different materials simultaneously at its 15-acre Recycling Park in Preston. After BHS had drawn up an initial concept for a plant, extensive tests were carried out at the Sonthofen test center with about two to three tonnes of each material required by the customer. Data on throughput and material quality, among other parameters, was collected during the tests and analyses in the test centre. This information was then used to create a mass balance and profitability analysis.


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Changing times in the Copper Industry A necessary global energy transition is underway, which will require large tonnages of copper (and other critical metals) for full implementation. These changes will also encourage new developments in copper production technology.

Under Vale’s US$ 1 bn Clean AER project, two new smokestacks (in green here) replaced the Superstack at Copper Cliff Smelter Complex in 2020. Photo: Vale

Technological changes and the implementation of new technology have occurred throughout metallurgical history. In many cases, these technologies were developed typically by piloting at or associated with an operating plant, and subsequently implemented on a commercial

scale at the same plant. Given today’s energy transition and the significant global changes underway, Copper Worldwide has prepared a list of plants (see Table 1) where groundbreaking technologies were first developed and introduced. Usually outside forces, such as the need to reduce energy consumption, or the need for an improved environmental situation, led to the initial efforts and the changes that occurred. In every case, skilled metallurgists having a belief in metallurgical improvements were involved. Innovations that helped shape today’s industry In subsequent issues of the magazine, the chronology of development of these plant solutions will be described, including an analysis of the circumstances that led to particular developments. It is hoped that this series will help

The Caletones Smelter in Chile was the first to use the El Teniente converter process

provide new insight on how improvements and new technologies have occurred over the decades, and help us understand how twenty-first century copper production can further adapt to the future world. Ideas and input from readers are welcomed along this journey.

Table 1. Plants that made history and helped shaped the industry of today No.



Description of development




Mansfield, Germany

Site of copper and silver mining depicted in G. Agricola’s classic text, De Re Metallica


2 Pembrey Copper refinery Pembrey, Wales Site of the world’s first copper electrorefinery

1849 1869 1912

3 Hafod Copper smelter Swansea, Wales

1860 1924 1980


Perfection over decades then declines of the Welsh multi-furnace process for copper smelting. This process was initially implemented worldwide before replaced by new technology at plants outside of Wales. The Hafod plant was slow to change and eventually closed

Aurubis Hamburg, Germany First copper electrorefinery outside of the UK (formerly Nordeutsche Affinerie)




Vedene, France

First pneumatic copper converter



Baltimore Refining

Baltimore, USA

First Walker circular anode casting wheel



Montana Ore Purchasing

Butte, USA

First large Herreshoff roaster treating copper concentrates (3.3 m dia., 100 t/d)



Baltimore Copper Smelting and Rolling Company

Perth Amboy, NJ, USA First Peirce-Smith converter




Cananea, Mexico

First wet charge smelting in reverberatory furnace without roasting




Harjavalta, Finland

First copper flash furnace plant



Copper Cliff

Copper Cliff, Canada

First Inco flash furnace


12 Union Miniere

Katango, Belgian Congo now Zaire

First use of fluidised bed for roasting copper-cobalt concentrates




Murdochville, Canada

First Gaspe puncher




Huelva, Spain

Coastal site chosen for the relocation of the aging Rio Tinto facilities in Spain




Rouyn-Noranda, Canada

First Noranda Process reactor




Naoshima, Japan

First Mitsubishi process plant


17 Balkash

Balkash, USSR (Now Kazakhstan)

First commercial Vanyukov




Baiyin, China

Baiyin oxygen smelting process commercialized




El Teniente, Chile

First El Teniente converter process



Glogow 2

Glogow, Poland

First direct copper flash furnace (on low Fe concentrates)




Townsville, Australia

First use of stainless-steel blanks for copper electrorefining



Mt Isa

Mt Isa, Australia

First Isasmelt plant




Salt Lake City, USA

First flash converter furnace




Rouyn-Noranda, Canada

First Noranda Converter




Murdochville, Canada

Largest Peirce-Smith converter



Zhong Tiao Shan

Houma City, China

First commercial Ausmelt plant for processing copper concentrates




Shenquan, Vietnam

First commercial scale SKS process (12kt Cu/a)



Dongying Fangyuan

Dongying, China

First larger commercial scale SKS process (140 kt Cu/a)


Authors: Phillip Mackey, Chris K. Holding

Acknowledgments: Various

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


Metallurgical engineering in copper smelting JAN 12 - Some common questions arise when choosing a copper production flowsheet, namely: • What kind of raw material? • What do customers value? • How do different technology options reflect on business case? • How to operate in the most sustainable manner? • How to ensure licence to operate? Drivers for automation of future copper smelters include: • People and equipment cause over two thirds of the abnormal situations at the plant operations • Reducing these occurrences will have a great effect on the efficiency and safety of the plant • Human errors can be minimised with improved training and practice and by reducing work stress (by making the operations easier)

• Equipment failures can be minimised by using well-tested and maintained process equipment, instrumentation and controllers, and by running the equipment within the design limits • Process disturbances can be minimised by deep process and operational understanding. Lecturer (see below) Miikka Marjakoski is Product Manager, Anode furnaces for Metso Outotec since November 2021. He was commissioning consultant for the Sarchesmeh project in 2017, and spent over five years with Boliden Harjavalta, most recently as Manager of the Nickel Smelter. Acknowledgment Extracted from CHEM-E6160 Fundamentals of Pyrometallurgy Lecture, Aalto University - REFRACTORIES AND EXTRACTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COPPER LinkedIn Group post.

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Some refractory misconceptions Refractories are not a generic product. Refractories will wear over time - a good maintenance and inspection schedule will maximise refractory life. The wrong water quality or amount can damage the refractory and be detrimental to its performance, by affecting bulk density, strength, shrinkage and segregation. Similar materials from different suppliers are not compatible. The ‘similarity’ stops on paper. Weather condition precautions must be taken during mixing, installation and storage of refractories. Acknowledgment Extract from a LinkedIn post presentation by API 396 Refractory Inspector Barnie Enslin of PBE Projects pty ltd t/a BE Vuurvast.

Gaspe Tuyere Punchers In the mid-1960’s H&S began licensed manufacturing of the Gaspe Tuyere Puncher, which was invented by operators at the Gaspe Copper Smelter and patented by Noranda Mines and the Noranda Technology Centre (now Glencore). The machine was created to mechanise a labour-intensive task where operators had been forced to work in a noisy, dirty and dangerous environment. Since that time, 265 Gaspe Tuyere Punchers have been commissioned in virtually every copper and nickel smelter using Pierce-Smith and Teniente converters and Noranda Reactors. Working in conjunction with perfectly aligned tuyere lines, possible with use of the H&S Refractory Drill and H&S Tuyeres and Tuyere Silencer arrangements, modern Gaspe Tuyere

Schematic of a Heath & Sherwood Tuyere Puncher

Punchers provide a safe and efficient means of clearing tuyere accretions. Heath & Sherwood is also a leading designer of mineral processing

sampling systems, including for smelter concentrate reception.

Refractories for secondary scrap recycling furnaces

Furnace Tapping 2022

JAN 25 - The most severe wear occurs at the slagline on the burner wall adjacent to the tuyere line and above the tuyeres in a tilted refining furnce. HWI AUREX® 30SR mortared with SHAMROCK® 394 has been found to perform successfully in this area. At and adjacent to the main and auxiliary oxy-fuel burners, SHAMROCK® 493 is preferentially recommended. The AUREX® 30SR is a high purity thermal shock resistant alumina-chrome product with 30% chromic oxide. It is fired to develop a solid-solution bond. HWI supports customers in the primary and secondary copper industries across the globe.

The Furnace Tapping 2022 Symposium was co-located with TMS 2022. There is something magical in the combination of light, energy, and danger that simultaneously stirs the primal instincts to ‘run for your life’ and ‘go closer and have a look.’ Much engineering goes into the design of the tap-hole. Due to the aggressive nature of the process, material selection is as important as layout. The design process kicks off with a set of design criteria, which needs to be revised as the results of laboratory, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and time-and-motion studies become available. The tap-hole life-cyle is taken into account with designers addressing the requirements for installation and operability as well as for maintenance. Matters such as online monitoring of the taphole wear, handling of liquid products, and extraction of fumes are considered. Acknowledgment REFRACTORIES AND EXTRACTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COPPER LinkedIn Group post by Joe Rigby.

Installing Aurex® 30SR in high-wear areas can increase entire vessel campaign life by up to 300%. Photo: HWI

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

1 2 3 4 156 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 158 22 174 23 24 25 171 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 36 38 39 22 40 79 193 159 41 42 32 43 44 45 46

Albania rmenia Australia Australia Australia Austria Belgium Belgium Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Bulgaria Canada Canada Canada Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo Egypt Finland France Germany Germany Germany Germany Hungary India India India India India India India Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Iran Iran Iran Japan Japan Japan Japan

Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

(P)rimary and (S)econdary Smelters

Start year

Gujarat Copper Project (formerly Jhagadia) Hindalco Birla Copper Division Hindalco Birla Copper Division (Indo-Gulf) Hindalco Birla Copper Division Indian Copper Complex (ICC) Khetri Copper Complex Sterlite Industries Bontang Smelter PT Smelting PT Freeport Indonesia AMMAN Copper Smelter & PMR Maros Smelter Khatoon Abad Smelter Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex Sungun Smelter Dowa Eco-System Co. Ltd Naoshima Smelter Onahama Smelter Nikko Smelting & Refining Co. Ltd / PPC


Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

Albanian Government Armenian Copper Programme CJSC / Vallex Group Glencore plc Western Mining Corporation Furukawa (71.44%) UMCOR (90%) Metallo Group Umicore BCL Limited was liquidated in June 2017 Caraíba Metais Eliseina Ltd Aurubis Bulgaria Vale Inco Glencore plc Glencore plc Codelco AngloAmerican (50.1%) Codelco Glencore plc Codelco ENAMI Codelco Ivanhoe Mines Ltd (39.6%) La Générale des Carrières et des Mines Rubamin Lualaba Copper Smelting LLC (LCS) MRA Group La Générale des Carrières et des Mines El Sewedy Cables (74%) Boliden AB Ste. Francaise d’Affinage du Cuivre Siegfried Jacob Metallwerke GmbH & Co. KG Aurubis AG Mansfelder Kupfer und Messing GmbH Aurubis AG Hungarian Government Hindustan Copper Limited Hindalco Industries Ltd Hindalco Industries Ltd Hindalco Industries Ltd Hindustan Copper Limited Hindustan Copper Limited Vedanta Resources Plc (54%) PT Nusantara Smelting Corp Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (60.5%) Freeport McMoRan PT Amman Mineral Industri (AMIN) PT Indosmelt National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) Dowa Eco-System Co. Ltd Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation

Main Ownership

NFC / NERIN (OCT 2021 - ) Ausmelt; Planned Outotec Flash Flash Direct to Blister; Delayed startup Outotec 150 kt Flash; MMR since 2010 Mitsubishi Continuous 1974 Mitsubishi / Reverbatory Outotec Flash Smelter

Outotec Flash Smelter Reverbatory / Blast furnace 150 kt ISASMELT (2002) Unverified Boliden Process; Restarted Oct. 2016 Outotec Flash Smelter Ausmelt Mitsubishi Continuous Outotec Flash Smelter Outotec Flash; On C&M 1.2 Mt ISASMELT (2005) Ausmelt; Planned Mitsubishi Flash; 1.3 Mt Planned by 2023

Blast furnace; Closed 1997 Under threat of closure Oct ‘18 1 Mt ISASMELT (1992); Rebrick Mar ‘18 Outotec Dir. to Blister; 280 kt by 2022 Noranda Cont.; C&M Status since 2003 Blast furnace TBRC ISASMELT (1997) Outotec Flash Smelter; Closed 2016 Outotec Flash / 320 kt expansion plan Blast furnace; Idled in 2001 Outotec Flash Smelter Inco Flash Noranda; As - Converter / Anode Mods to 2024 Electric Teniente Conv 2; P-S Conv 3 Outotec Flash; 220 kt by 2016 Outotec Flash Smelter;Teniente 2; P-S Conv 5 Noranda; 1.2 Mt feed expansion Teniente Converter Teniente; 700 kt feed SKS-BB plan Teniente Conv 1; P-S Conv 4 Direct-to-Blister; Due 2025 Low Grade Blast furnace Planned for 2020 Low Grade A converted Roaster Project on hold Outotec Flash Smelter Blast furnace; Unverified

Projects (Year) / Status

ISSN 2046-9438


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The 2022 Directory of Copper Smelters, Refineries and Run-of-Mine Cathode Producing Installations

2005 1998 2003 2005 1967 1971 1996 2019 1996 2024 2024 2018 2004 1981 2017 2007 1991 1965 1972

SJM Ennepetal 1989 Aurubis Hamburg 1972 Mansfelder Kupfer und Messing GmbH Aurubis Lünen


P Lac Smelter 1964 P Alaverdi Copper Smelter 1997 P Mount Isa Mines 1979 P Olympic Dam 1999 P Port Kembla Smelter 2000 S Montanwerke Brixlegg S Metallo Belgium N.V. 1992 S Umicore Precious Metals Refining 1997 P BCL Nickel-Copper Smelter 1973 P Caraíba Metais 1982 P P Pirdop Smelter 1987 P Sudbury Smelter 1930 S Horne Smelter 1927 P Sudbury Operations 1930 P El Teniente Division Codelco 1991 P Chagres Smelter, Anglo Sur 1995 P Codelco Norte Division 1988 S Altonorte Smelter 1993 P Ventanas Division Codelco 1989 P Hernán Videla Lira Smelter 2001 P El Salvador Division Codelco 1940 P Kamoa Smelter 2021 P Likasi Smelter 1929 P Rubamin 2008 P Lualaba Copper Smelter 2020 P Kolwezi Smelter 1960 P l’Usine a Cuivre de Kolwezi (UCK) P Red Sea Copper P Harjavalta Smelter 1936

Current P/S Capacity (tpy)

Lac 10,000 Alaverdi 8,000 55,000 Mount Isa 1,100,000 250,000 300,000 Roxby Downs 150,000 250,000 Wollongong, Sydney 140,000 Brixlegg 160,000 55,000 110,000 Beerse 350,000 120,000 130,000 Hoboken 360,000 20,000 50,000 Selebi-Phikwe 850,000 8,000 30,000 Camacari, Bahia 150,000 300,000 Eliseina,Vratsa 14,000 Pirdop 1,400,000 345,000 360,000 Copper Cliff 1,100,000 135,000 135,000 Rouyn-Noranda 840,000 220,000 215,000 Sudbury 20,000 Caletones 1,336,000 380,000 435,000 Chagres 690,000 104,800 185,000 Chuquicamata 1,250,000 350,000 370,000 La Negra, Altonorte 1,200,000 280,000 380,000 Las Ventanas 470,000 105,000 189,000 Paipote, Copiapó 390,000 83,000 94,000 Potrerillos 671,000 61,000 210,000 Kamoa Smelter 1,000,000 500,000 Likasi (Shituru) 30,000 Likasi 20,000 Lualaba, Kolwezi 400,000 100,000 120,000 Luilu 30,000 Kolwezi 30,000 Ain Sokhna 300,000 Harjavalta 456,350 150,000 210,000 Poissy 10,000 Ennepetal Hamburg 1,250,000 340,000 450,000 Hettstedt 96,000 Lünen 178,000 210,000 Csepel 4,000 Bharuch, Jhagadia 50,000 Dahej, Gujarat 153,000 180,000 Dahej, Gujurat 350,000 46,000 70,000 Dahej, Gujarat 212,000 250,000 Ghatsila, Jharkhand 19,000 27,000 Khetrinagar, Rajasthan 31,000 35,000 Tuticorin (Ratnagiri) 1,360,000 100,000 400,000 Bontang, North Gresik 200,000 Gresik 1,060,000 260,000 300,000 East Java 1,700,000 600,000 West Sumbawa Regency 900,000 Maros, North Sulawesi 350,000 120,000 Khatoon Abad, Kerman 90,000 200,000 Sarcheshmeh, Kerman 170,000 300,000 Sungun 200,000 Akita, Kosaka Naoshima, Kagawa 228,000 350,000 Onahama, Fukushima 720,000 225,000 354,000 Saganoseki, Ooita 445,000 450,000

No. Country Location



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47 48 49 50 51 160 52 144 53 194 54 55 56 57 153 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 165 67 68 69 175 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 176 154 78 177 80 81 166 178 82 173 195 83 84 179 85 180 181 167 182 86 87 183 88 89 90 91 184 170 169 92 196 185 186 93 199 200 197

Japan Japan Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Mexico Mexico Mexico Mexico Mongolia Namibia North Korea North Korea Oman Pakistan Peru Peru Philippines Poland Poland Poland Poland PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China

Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

(P)rimary and (S)econdary Smelters

Start year

Main Ownership

P Sumitomo Toyo Smelter (Besshi) 1971 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd P Hibi Kyodo Smelting Co. Ltd/Pan Pacific Copper (PPC) 1972 JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation P Balkhash Smelter 1971 Kazakhmys Plc P Kazzinc 2002 Glencore plc (50.7%) P Zhezkazgan Smelter 1971 Kazakhmys Plc P Southern Copper Corporation 2017 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV P Southern Copper Corporation 1986 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) P Industrial Minera Mexico S.A. de C.V Industrial Minera Mexico S.A. de C.V P Cobre de Pastejé Grupo IUSA S.A. de C.V. P Sainshand Smelter National Development Corporation of Mongolia P Namibia Custom Smelters (NCS) 2008 Dundee Precious Metals Inc. P Hungnam Smelter North Korea Government P Nampo Smelter 1914 North Korea Government S Yankul Smelter 1983 Oman Mining Company (OMCO) P Saindak Smelter 1995 China Metallurgical Construction Corp. (50%) P Southern Peru Copper Corp 2007 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (99.29%) P Doe Run Peru - Renco Group (1997) 1922 The Doe Run Company P Philippine Assoc. Smelting and Refining Corp. (PASAR) 1983 Glencore plc (78.2%) P Glogow I Smelter 1970 KGHM Polska Miedz s.a. P Glogow II Smelter 1978 KGHM Polska Miedz s.a. P Legnica Smelter 1953 KGHM Polska Miedz s.a. S Hutmen S.A. Impexmetal S.A. P Baifang Copper Mine Smelter 1996 Hunan Shuikoushan Nonferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd S Baiyin Non-Ferrous Metals Co. 1959 Baiyin Non-ferrous Group Co. Ltd P Baiyin Non-Ferrous Metals Co. 2015 Baiyin Non-ferrous Group Co. Ltd P Changzhou Orinmet Copper Co. Ltd 1958 Changzhou Orinmet Copper Co. Ltd P Sichuan Copper Nickel Co. P Chifeng Jinjian Copper Co. Ltd Yunnan Copper Company P Yunnan Copper Chifeng Non-Ferrous Metals Co. Ltd 2006 Yunnan Copper Company S Chizhou Jingjing Smelting Chemical Co. Ltd Chizhou Jingjing Smelting Chemical Co. Ltd P Nanfeng Medecine Nanfeng Medecine P Yunnan Copper Corporation 2009 Chalco Yunnan Copper Co. Ltd P Guorun Copper 1997 Yantai Guorun Copper Co. Ltd S Tianjin Datong Smelter Tianjin Datong Copper Co. Ltd P Daye Nonferrous Metals 1997 Daye Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd P Huludao Non-ferrous Metal Metallurgical Corporation of China Ltd (64.18%) P Dongying Smelter 1998 Shandong Fangyuan P Dongying Smelter Phase II 2015 Shandong Fangyuan P Guangxi Jinchuan / Fangchenggang Smelter 2013 Jinchuan Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd P Feishang Group 2006 Feishang Group P 2011 Hengbang P Jiayi Copper Co. 2015 S Hangzhou Fuchunjiang Smelting Co. Ltd 2013 Hangzhou Construction Bureau P Zhejiang Jiangtong Fuye Heding Copper Co. Ltd 2013 Jiangxi Copper Corporation P Hangzhou Fuchunjiang Smelting Co. Ltd 2010 Fubang Metals S Yunnan Tin Corporation 2012 Yunnan Tin Corporation P Guangxi Nanguo Copper Smelter 2016 Guangxi Nanguo Copper Co. P Guixi Smelter 1985 Jiangxi Copper Corporation S Guixi Smelter 2001 Jiangxi Copper Corporation P Guangxi Guanghe Metals Co. Ltd HMZ Metals Inc. (92%) P Guangxi Hechi Nanfang Non-Ferrous Co. Ltd S Northern Copper Industry Co. Ltd 1999 Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd P Northern Copper Industry Co. Ltd 2018 Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd P 2012 Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd P Houtoushan Copper Mine 2012 P Fushun Hongtoushan Copper Smelting Plant 2012 China Non-Ferrous Metals; Huachang Antimony P Huludao Copper Group 2014 Huludao Zinc Smelting Co. P Jilin Nickel 2009 Jilin Nickel Group P Zijin Gold Co. Ltd S Jinchuan Non-Ferrous Co. 2011 Jinchuan Group Co. Ltd P Jinchuan Non-Ferrous Co. 2008 Jinchuan Group Co. Ltd P Jinchuan Non-Ferrous Co. 2006 Jinchuan Group Co. Ltd P Yunnan Copper Corporation Chalco Yunnan Copper Co. Ltd P Yunnan Yimen Smelter 2014 P Kunming Liliang Co. 1960 P Sichuan Kangxi Copper Industry Co. 2013 Jiangxi Copper Corporation P Liangshan Mining Co. Ltd / Huili Smelter 2008 Chalco Yunnan Copper Co. Ltd S Lihua Smelter 2010 Lihua International Inc. P Henan Yuguang Smelter 2014 Henan Yuguang Gold & Lead Co. Ltd P Lingbao Jincheng Metallurgical LLC 2019 Lingbao Gold Company Limited S Luoyang Copper Processing Factory Luoyang Copper Processing Factory S Jiangxi Tungsten Jiangxi Tungsten Industry Group Co. Ltd P Ningde Smelter 2018 Chinalco Southeast Copper P Guangxi Debao Copper 2004 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group

Current P/S Capacity (tpy)

Saijo City, Ehime 450,000 450,000 Tamano, Okayama 250,000 290,000 Balkhash 200,000 230,000 Ust-Kamenogorsk 290,000 67,000 70,000 Zhezkazgan 120,000 120,000 Empalme, Sonora 300,000 La Caridad 230,000 300,000 San Luis Potosi Toluca 60,000 Sainshand 200,000 Tsumeb 189,700 48,000 50,000 Hungnam 40,000 Nampo 40,000 Yankul (Sohar) 35,000 Saindak, Balochistan 20,000 Ilo, Moquegua 1,200,000 268,000 360,000 La Oroya 280,000 70,000 Leyte (Isabel) 720,000 160,000 250,000 Glogow I 220,000 240,000 Glogow II 165,000 310,000 Legnica 110,000 130,000 Wroclaw 9,000 Baifang, Hunan 200,000 Baiyin, Gansu 30,000 140,000 Baiyin, Gansu 140,000 200,000 Changzhou, Jiangsu 35,000 Chengdu, Sichuan 3,000 Chifeng, Inner Mongolia 480,000 130,000 120,000 Chifeng, Inner Mongolia 145,000 130,000 Chizhou, Anhui 50,000 Chongqing, Chongqing 20,000 Chuxiong,Yunnan 500,000 140,000 130,000 Yantai City, Shandong 200,000 Datong, Shanxi 200,000 Daye, Hubei 1,500,000 406,000 375,000 Dongfang, Liaoning 100,000 Dongying, Shandong 120,000 100,000 Dongying, Shandong 1,000,000 280,000 200,000 Fangchenggang, Guangxi 410,000 400,000 Feishang, Inner Mongolia 90,000 100,000 Linxi, Inner Mongolia 60,000 Fuxin, Shenyang 100,000 Fuyang, Zhejiang 50,000 Fuyang, Zhejiang 350,000 420,000 Fuyang, Zhejiang 150,000 Gejiu City,Yunnan 450,000 100,000 Guangxi 150,000 Guixi, Jiangxi 540,000 600,000 Guixi Phase 2, Jiangxi 225,000 300,000 Hechi, Guangxi Hechi, Guangxi 150,000 Houma, Shanxi 60,000 100,000 Houma, Shanxi 150,000 Yuanqu, Shanxi 125,000 130,000 Houtoushan, Hubei 50,000 50,000 Fushun, Liaoning 100,000 Huludao, Liaoning 500,000 100,000 100,000 Jilin City, Jilin 275,000 Hunchun, Jilin 100,000 Jinchang City, Gansu 250,000 Jinchang City, Gansu 1,000,000 100,000 Jinchang City, Gansu 200,000 Kunming,Yunnan 800,000 180,000 230,000 Kunming,Yunnan 100,000 100,000 Kunming,Yunnan 20,000 Kangxi, Sichuan 100,000 Liangshan, Sichuan 500,000 100,000 Danyang City, Zhenjiang 85,000 Jiyuan, Henan 130,000 100,000 Lingbao, Henan 180,000 40,000 100,000 Luoyang, Henan 35,000 Nanchang, Jiangxi 120,000 Ningde, Fujian 40,000 400,000 Rongda, Guangxi 20,000

No. Country Location

Cosmelt Commissioning Phase Blast furnace

Outotec Flash Smelter (2007) Blast furnace Jinfeng-SB Ausmelt SKS-BB; +300 kt by 2020 SKS-BB Blast furnace; Bottom blown SKS-BB Ausmelt Ausmelt Jinfeng-SB Kaldo+TRF Ausmelt Flash furnace ISASMELT (2002) SKS-BB Blast furnace; High As ores Jinfeng-SB; Closed 2017 ISASMELT (2009) 4 furnaces SKS-BB SKS-BB

ISASMELT (2011) 50kt initially; 200 kt by 2020 Electric Ausmelt (2010) / Noranda Ausmelt (2010) SKS-BB (2008) SKS-BB;Total 700 kt by 2017; 1.5 Mt feed Outotec Flash Blast furnace; Now bath smelting Jinfeng-SB Blast furnace; Restarting 2015 Blast furnace; Closed 2013 Flash Smelter Jinfeng-SB; +125 kt by 2020 Ausmelt (2010) Jinfeng-SB/JFCCT; +150 kt by 2020

2 Baiyin Furnaces Outotec Flash; +200 kt by 2020 Blast furnace, Reverbatory Reverbatory Ausmelt (2008); +400 kt replace by 2020 Jinfeng-SB/JFCCT; +500 kt replace by 2020 Jinfeng-SB

Outotec Flash Smelter Outotec Flash Smelter Reverbatory / Vanyukov ISASMELT (2011) Electric / Reverbatory Planned for 2021 Outotec Flash; Modernised Q4 2013 Blast furnace; Closed 2010 Reverbatory Flash furnace; Feasibility stage Mod. Ausmelt; 320 kt feed plan 2015 Blast furnace Blast furnace Electric; Closed 2016; Block 10 interest Reverbatory ISASMELT ISASMELT ; C&M, in PAMA final phase Outotec Flash; 400 kt by 2018 plan Outotec Flash (2016) Outotec Direct to Blister Blast furnace; 140 kt by 2017 Blast furnace

Projects (Year) / Status

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


198 187 201 94 155 202 95 96 168 97 188 98 104 99 100 189 101 190 172 102 103 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 161 162 126 127 128 129 191 130 131 132 133 134 163 135 136 138 139 140 141 142 143 164 192 144 145 147 148 149 150 151 152

Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

(P)rimary and (S)econdary Smelters

Start year

Main Ownership

P Baiyang Smelter 2017 Jiangxi Copper Corporation P Henan Zhongyuan Gold Smelter Co. Ltd 2015 Zhongjin Gold Corp. S Jinsheng Copper 2006 Jinsheng Copper Company P Shuikoushan Mining Co. 2017 Hunan Shuikoushan Nonferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd P Jinfeng Copper Company 2008 Jinfeng Copper Company S Tianjin Seamless Copper Tianjin Seamless Copper Co. Ltd P Jinlong Copper Co. Ltd 1997 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group (57.4%) S Jinchang Smelter 2012 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group (52%) P Jinguan Smelter 2013 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group P Xinjiang Wuxin Copper Co. Ltd 2013 Xinjiang Xinxin Mining Industry Co. Ltd (66%) P 2015 Xinjiang Xinhui Copper Company Limited P Wuhu Smelter Hengxin Copper Industry Group Co. S Guangxi Nonferrous 2011 Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group P Qinghai Copper Smelter 2014 Qinghai Western Mining Co. Ltd P Yanggu Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd 2007 Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd P Yanggu Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd 2011 Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd P Yantai Smelter 1972 Yantai Penghui Copper Industry Co., Ltd. P Jiangxi/Penghui 2016 Jiangxi Copper Corporation P Shandong Humon Smelting Co. Ltd P Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. Ltd Hunan Nonferrous Metals Corp. Ltd P Zijin Copper Co. Ltd 2011 Zijin Mining Group Co. Ltd P Baotou Huading Copper 2013 Baotou Huading Copper P Baotou Fengmeng Baotou Fengmeng S Korea Zinc Korea Zinc Co. Ltd P LS Nikko Company 1979 LS-Nikko Copper Inc. P LS Nikko 1997 LS-Nikko Copper Inc. S Global Resources and Materials 2011 S S. C. Cuprom S.A. 1956 Allied Deals Plc S 1968 Zlatna Metallurgical P Kyshtym Copper-Electrolytic Plant ZAO Russian Copper Company S Karabashmed ZAO 2004 Russkaya Mednaya Kompaniya (RMK) S JSC Uralelectromed 2001 Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company S JSC Kola Mining & Metallurgical Company 1998 MMC Norilsk (Severonikel) P Svyatogor Smelter 1931 Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company P Mednogorsk Smelter Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company P Nadezhda Metallurgical Plant (NPMK) 1984 MMC Norilsk P Norlis G-M 1945 MMC Norilsk S Novgorod Metallurgical Plant ZAO 2003 Russkaya Mednaya Kompaniya (RMK) P Pechanganikel 1944 MMC Norilsk S Sredneuralskiy Copper Smelter (SUMZ) 1940 Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company P JSC Uralelectromed 1934 Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company P Moscow Smelting & Refining P Tasnee Smelter National Industrialization Company (NIC,Tasnee) P Ma’aden Copper Smelter Ma’aden Aluminium Company P TIR Bor Smelter 1961 Rudarsko-Topionicarski Basen Bor (RTB Bor) P TIR Bor Smelter 1971 Rudarsko-Topionicarski Basen Bor (RTB Bor) S Kovohuty a.s. Montanwerke Brixlegg (66.6%) P Palabora Copper Pty) Limited 1960 Hebei Iron and Steel Group (35%) S Copalcor Copalcor P Rustenberg Smelter 2003 Anglo American Platinum Ltd P Impala Refining Services 1998 Impala Platinum Ltd S ELMET S.L.U. 1991 METALLUM Holding S.A. P Atlantic Copper 1996 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. P Rönnskär Smelter 1926 Boliden Mineral AB P Danformation Smelter 2012 Danformation (T) Ltd P 2004 Thai Copper Industries Public Co. Ltd P Sarkuysan 1975 Sarkuysan Elektrolitik Bakir P Formerly KBI 1973 Eti Bakir A.S. (Cengiz Holding) S Pancomm Smelter P Hayden Smelter 1983 ASARCO LLC (Grupo Mexico S.A. de C.V.) P Miami mine 1974 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. P Kennecott Utah Copper Garfield Smelter 1995 Rio Tinto P JSC Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Complex 1965 Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine P Vinacomin Smelter (Lao Cai Copper) 2006 Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Group P 2007 Vietnam Dragon P Chambishi Copper Smelter (CCS) 2009 China Non-Ferrous Metal Industry Co. (60%) P Kansanshi Mining Plc 2014 First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%) P Mopani Copper Mines Plc 2006 Glencore plc (73.1%) P Konkola Copper Mines Plc (KCM) 1994 Vedanta Resources Plc (79.4%) P Konkola Copper Mines Plc (KCM) 2007 Vedanta Resources Plc (79.4%) P Mhangura Copper Mines Ltd Zimbabwe Mining Development Corp. Ltd P Rio Zim Ltd P Corsyn Consolidated Mines Plc

Current P/S Capacity (tpy)

PR China Ruichang City, Jiangxi 200,000 PR China Sanmenxia, Henan 300,000 300,000 PR China Jinsheng, Shandong 79,269 160,000 PR China Shuikoushan, Hunan 600,000 100,000 200,000 PR China Jinfeng, Ningxia Hui 100,000 PR China Tianjin 80,000 PR China Tongling, Anhui 460,000 400,000 PR China Tongling, Anhui 330,000 200,000 PR China Tongling, Anhui 400,000 400,000 PR China Urumqi, Xinjiang 575,000 110,000 100,000 PR China Xinhui, Xinjiang 100,000 PR China Wuhu, Anhui 120,000 PR China Wuzhou, Guangxi 300,000 PR China Xining, Qinghaixa 20,000 100,000 PR China Yanggu, Shandong 200,000 200,000 PR China Yanggu, Shandong 220,000 200,000 PR China Yantai City, Shandong 200,000 PR China Yantai City, Shandong 100,000 180,000 PR China Yantai City, Shandong 180,000 250,000 PR China Zhuzhou, Hunan 10,000 PR China Zijin, Fujian 320,000 300,000 PR China Baotou, Inner Mongolia 100,000 100,000 PR China Baotou, Inner Mongolia 30,000 Republic of Korea Onsan 30,000 50,000 Republic of Korea Onsan I 220,000 250,000 Republic of Korea Onsan II 300,000 340,000 Republic of Korea 110,000 Romania Baia Mare 35,000 Romania Zlatna 40,000 Russia Chelyabinsk 550,000 120,000 Russia Karabashmed 116,000 120,000 Russia Kirovgrad 68,000 89,000 Russia Kola, Monchegorsk 72,000 90,000 Russia Krasnouralsk 84,000 85,000 Russia Mednogorsk, Urals 48,000 40,000 Russia Nadezhdinsky (Nadezhda) 100,000 Russia Norilsk (Nikelevy) 350,000 400,000 Russia Novgorod 75,000 Russia Pechenganikel 40,000 Russia Sredneuralsk (Revda) 138,000 160,000 Russia Verkhnyaya Pyshma 500,000 Russia 30,000 Saudi Arabia Yanbu 100,000 Saudi Arabia 150,000 Serbia Bor 1 Serbia Bor 2 75,000 80,000 Slovakia Krompachy 45,000 80,000 South Africa Ba-Phalaborwa 230,000 40,000 160,000 South Africa Wadeville, Germiston 5,000 South Africa Rustenberg 12,000 South Africa Springs 7,000 Spain Asúa-Bilbao 96,000 24,000 32,000 Spain Huelva 1,000,000 290,000 320,000 Sweden Skelleftehamn 826,000 220,000 250,000 Tanzania Dar es Salaam 18,000 Thailand Nikompattana, Rayong 165,000 Turkey Osmangazi, Gebze 145,572 200,000 Turkey Samsun 42,000 99,790 Ukraine Odessa 18,000 USA Hayden, Arizona 124,000 210,000 USA Miami (Globe), Arizona 700,000 225,000 180,000 USA Salt Lake City, Utah 200,000 320,000 Uzbekistan Almalyk 105,000 115,000 Vietnam Ban Qua, Bat Xat 13,000 20,000 Vietnam 10,000 Zambia Chingola / Kitwe 750,000 225,000 250,000 Zambia Kansanshi, Solwezi 1,200,000 345,000 300,000 Zambia Mufulira Smelter 870,000 110,000 240,000 Zambia Nkana Smelter 165,000 Zambia Nchanga/Chingola 150,000 311,000 Zimbabwe Alaska (Lomagundi) 25,000 Zimbabwe Empress (Eiffel Flats) 6,000 Zimbabwe Inyati 5,000

No. Country Location

Ausmelt (2004); Adopted TSL Outotec Flash Smelter Mitsubishi Continuous Ausmelt Outotec Flash; Closed 2004 Outotec Flash; Closed 2004 Ausmelt (2006) Ausmelt Reverbatory Electric Reverbatory; 110 kt by 2018 Blast furnace $1.3 bn Modernisation;Vanyukov Reverbatory / Electric / Vanyukov Outotec Flash Smelter Electric Reverbatory/Vanyukov 5 x 350t Anode Furnaces Reverbatory Expansion to 200 kt; Feasibility stage Feasibility 2012 Reverbatory; Closed Outotec Flash (2014); 70 kt by 2016 Reverbatory Reverbatory Induction Melting ACP Converter Electric Rotary Furnace Outotec Flash Smelter Outotec Flash Smelter Expansion possible Teniente; Closed 2007 Anode Casting Outotec Flash Blast furnace Inco Flash ISASMELT (1992) Outotec Flash Smelter/Converter Vanyukov 2017 Electric; 10 kt Expansion 2021 SKS-BB 350 kt ISASMELT (2009); 300 kt plan ISASMELT; 400 kt by 2017 650 kt ISASMELT (2006); 2014 rebuild Closed 2009 Outotec Flash Smelter (2007) Possible restart Unverified Unverified

Flash furnace; +200 kt by 2020 300 kt Flash / SKS-BB; + 50 kt planned Shaft + Reverb SKS-BB Jinfeng-SB Cosmelt Outotec Flash / Converter (2011) Outotec Flash / Converter (2012) Outotec Flash / Converter (2013) Ausmelt (2012); +100 kt by 2020 +100 kt by 2020 Blast furnace 200 kt tilting; 100 kt Kaldo SKS-BB (2014); +100kt by 2020 Outotec Flash / Converter (2007) Outotec Flash (2010) +200 kt by 2020 Blast furn.; Bath 2008; Closure Jan 2015 Outotec Flash SKS-BB (2010); +170 kt by 2020 Zinc Smelter - Hengyang move possible Outotec Flash; +100 kt planned SKS-BB (2011)

Projects (Year) / Status


www. c op p e r wor l d w i de. co m

Adding value to MMO anodes

Innovator McCol Metals has developed a process to recover Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) from the Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) Anodes used at Vale’s Long Harbour Processing Plant in Newfoundland, Canada. The process is currently commercialised and a 5-year contract secured with Vale. This innovation has provided McCol Metals with the platform to target global customers, who can similarly benefit from their proprietary recovery process. Effective recovery The unique McCol Metals process effectively facilitates the recovery and recycling of iridium and ruthenium from spent MMO Dimensionally Stable (DSA) electrodes. On the one hand, McCol Metals customers can derive benefits from the value of the precious metals at the recovery stage of the process. On the other, anodes can either be re-coated for re-use, or be scrapped for base metal value. The process, with its inherent potential for recycling, has created a circular economy for MMO Anodes and provides for sustainability to the global PGM markets. Market interest An early adopter, Cobre del Mayo has already sent more than 12,000 mesh anodes from its

Recapture of PGMs will extend the life of your investment in MMO Anodes. Photo: McCol Metals

copper mine in Sonora, Mexico to McCol Metals in Long Harbour, Newfoundland for processing and PGM recovery. With both cost- and timeefficient shipping arrangements built into the planning, this is proving to be a mutually beneficial business relationship. Based on its ongoing investment into the recapture of PGMs from MMO Anodes and the establishment of such successful working relationships, McCol Metals is looking to target more customers who are using anodes for: • Electrowinning of base metals (Nickel, Copper) • Chrome electroplating • Electro galvanizing of steel • Electro chlorinator cells for hypochlorite generation • Chlor Alkali for production of caustic soda and chlorine • Cathodic protection anodes • Hydrogen production using PEM Electrolysis. To find out more contact McCol Metals, Darrell Coombs VP, Global Sales (e: or visit their below website.

New flotation solutions from FLSmidth

The WEMCO II and the REFLUX™ Flotation Cell (RFC™) on display. Photo: FLSmidth

FEB 28 - FLSmidth launches two exciting developments in their flotation portfolio - the WEMCO II and the REFLUX™ Flotation Cell (RFC™) - at the MINEXCHANGE 2022 SME Annual Conference & Expo in Salt Lake City. The WEMCO II Flotation Cell builds upon the success of the industry standard, WEMCO, but with optimisations to the rotor and stator/hood that greatly improve power consumption, air flow and pumping. For decades WEMCO flotation cells (there are 40,000 machines globally) have consistently delivered at the highest level when it comes

to recovery. Now WEMCO II’s combination of efficient aeration and optimum solids suspension increases recovery and concentrate grade performance, as well as reducing reagent consumption. The WEMCO II design features full air control without blower and froth maintenance, which elevates kinetic performance and lowers operational costs. The result is better hydrodynamics and circulation, improved kinetics and performance, optimised energy efficiency and lower operating costs and the ability to control air without an external air supply. Also getting an official launch at SME is the REFLUX Flotation Cell. The smallest industrial scale version of the RFC, a ground-breaking technology that reduces plant footprint as well as water, air and energy requirements, was displayed. The RFC reduces CAPEX by 35% and with no direct power input to the RFC, this results in 60% less energy use in a flotation circuit. Results from pilot-scale studies indicate that RFC technology can help mines use up to 60% less energy in their flotation circuits. Improved kinetic efficiency also reduces the amount of water used in the recovery process. The RFC is a high efficiency flotation cell and can be applied as a rougher, scavenger and cleaner across all minerals.

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

INE approves 13 cathode brands FEB 9 - The Shanghai International Energy Exchange (INE) received (FEB 8) the application for brand registration from 13 producers of deliverable copper cathode. In accordance with rules including the Registration Rules for Deliverable Commodities of Bonded Copper Futures, INE: • Approves the registration of the 13 copper cathode brands, all of which are subject to standard delivery prices • The products are deliverable against INE copper cathode futures contracts as of the date of the Announcement. Producers (Brands) include Shanxi Northern Copper (Zhongtiaoshan), Dongying Fangyuan (Lufang), Minera Escondida (ESOX), and PT Smelting (Gresik). JAN 26 - The LME has listed HLJ ZIJIN brand under its Grade A Copper Contract. The producer is Heilongjiang Zijin Copper Co Ltd.

Olen to recycle more FEB 16 - Aurubis announced an investment of EUR 70 million in the construction of a state of the art and energy-efficient bleed treatment facility at its Olen site. In a hydrometallurgical process, BOB (Bleed treatment Olen Beerse) will recover nickel and copper contained in electrolyte streams that are generated in the tankhouses at the Aurubis sites in Beerse and Olen (both in Belgium). The installation comprises a complete tankhouse purification system that is known as bleed treatment. As a high-performance metal recycling site in the Aurubis smelter network, the plant in Olen processes, besides blister copper, up to 135,000 t of multimetal recycling materials annually and produces copper cathodes via electro refinery as well as Aurubis Rod, Foxrod, and Bars and Profiles. The plant in Beerse processes more than 250,000 tons of complex recycling materials and operates a copper tankhouse. BOB is an important addition to the Belgian production cluster to extract nickel and copper from material flows as well as to remove impurities from the bleed. Detailed engineering and approval processes for BOB are currently underway. The start of construction for the facility is planned for September 2022. Commissioning of BOB is planned for summer 2024.

Metso Outotec

JAN 17 - Finland’s Metso Outotec is transferring its Hydrometallurgy business from Metals to Minerals. The objective of the change is to accelerate profitable growth in the minerals processing industry by more efficiently leveraging the opportunities and synergies in the minerals and hydrometallurgical processes. A strategic review will be conducted in the remaining Metals business area.


w ww.copper worl dw ide. co m

CCR celebrates 90 years of operation NOV 29 - Known as l’affinerie CCR over its nine decades, the now Glencore-owned Montréal refinery has been purchased by many companies. However, the original CCR letters chosen when the company was created by Noranda are still used today, namely Canadian Copper Refiners Limited. The construction of the factory began in April 1930 and spanned a period of 9 months, with the official opening in May 1931. The cost of construction was US$ 2 million at the time. The first refining cycle began to operate in the electrolysis room and the first 250 lbs of wire rods were produced in March 1931. The CCR refinery has a production capacity of 325,000 tonnes of copper. In November 2018, the new furnace 8 dust extractor was put into service, making it possible to capture and filter fugitive fumes to improve environmental performance. As in Quebec society as a whole, the CCR refinery has been experiencing successive waves of baby boomer retirements for the past ten years and this trend will continue for several years to

The CCR Refinery has processes in place to proactively identify the environmental aspects of its operations. Photo: Glencore

come. They, like many, are now counting on the integration of younger employees with their talents, their imagination and their energy to pursue the vision of their predecessors and ensure the sustainability of the company in the industrial reality of tomorrow.

Onsan plant becomes smart factory SEP 22 - A top three electrolytic copper maker, LS-Nikko Copper Inc. is to spend 50 billion won (US$ 42.7 million) by 2024 on the ODS (Onsan Digital Smart factory) project to digitalise and automate the whole process at its Onsan plant in Ulsan from raw material warehousing to product shipments. The joint venture between LS Group and Japan Korea Joint Smelting (JKJS) last year adopted a manufacturing enterprise system (MES) and advanced planning & scheduling (APS), the first phase of the ODS project to collect about 40,000 data generated from thousands of equipments in the plant. It optimised parts of production process including raw material mixtures and output adjustments. The second and the third phases to be started in the first half of 2022 are processes to apply the data to production. The second phase is to derive

optimal solutions for each process, utilising artificial intelligence (AI) technology. In the final third phase, it is a goal to adopt digital twin technology that allows the company to make a digital replica of a real production process. It is the ideal of a smart factory that maximises productivity by attempting experiments that are difficult to do in reality through simulation in virtual space. The Onsan plant has an annual electrolytic copper capacity of 680,000 tonnes. Upon completion, the ODS project is expected to boost average operating profit by 4-6% annually. LS-Nikko is also reinforcing environmental, social and governance (ESG) management with a plan to invest 120 billion won in environmental and safety sectors. It has already spent 50 billion won on adding dust collecting facilities, reports the Korea Economic Daily.

Nornickel utilises digital twinning tools FEB 3 - Kola MMC (part of Nornickel Group) has completed the first phase of creating a virtual manufacturing process twin, which involved 3D modelling of all the site’s buildings and territory. Digitisation was done using state of the art geodesic surveying equipment and methods, including drones, electronic total stations and theodolites, GPS receivers, high-definition cameras, 3D scanners, and specialised software. Additionally, the use of laser scanning made it possible to achieve better detail on buildings and structures. The second phase will include mapping out the interior of all the buildings and premises in the digital space. This is highly complicated and painstaking work - all equipment, processes, engineering and technical infrastructure (underground cabling, pipelines, etc.) need to be digitised. Kola MMC makes an extensive use of 3D modelling in construction, having employed it when building a salt effluent disposal facility and as part of an investment project to implement the highly efficient technology of nickel electrowinning from chlorine solutions. Currently, Kola MMC is using 3D modelling in building a new copper refining facility in Monchegorsk. These models improve design accuracy and help avoid engineering errors when installing equipment and putting in place utility and process infrastructure. Once the facility is complete, its 3D model will be incorporated into the general digital process model of Kola MMC.

Refinery crane at Olympic Dam

New edition of key copper metallurgy text DEC 2 - Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, 6th Edition, is published by Authors Mark Schlesinger, Kathryn Sole, William Davenport, and Gerardo Alvear. This latest 590 page version expands on previous editions, including sections on orogenesis and copper mineralogy and new processes for efficiently recovering copper from ever-declining Cu-grade mineral deposits. The book describes copper mineralogy, mining and beneficiation techniques, compares a variety of mining, smelting and converting technologies, provides a complete description of hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processes, including process options and recent improvements, and includes comprehensive descriptions of secondary copper processing, including scrap collection and upgrading, melting and refining technologies.

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

BHP Olympic Dam Asset President, Jennifer Purdie, with the new crane. Photo: BHP.

MAY 18 - Olympic Dam has commenced operation of its new electro-refinery crane, further strengthening the asset’s stability and reliability. The 95-tonne crane with 32 metre span will be used to submerge 360 kilogram copper anodes into the refinery’s 768 individual electrolytic cells, which extract the purified final copper product that Olympic Dam exports to global customers. With dual lift capability and automatic laser positioning, the crane has the capacity to carry over 20 tonnes at a time, at a maximum travel speed of three metres per second. The multi-million dollar crane replacement project commenced engineering in 2016 and started construction in 2018.


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300 515 301 516 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 495 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 319 320 496 321 517 612 613 518 322 323 519 604 324 325 326 605 520 328 329 330 497 606 521 331 551 607 332 333 608 334 522 335 336 338 339 340 523 341 342 609 343 344 614 524


Argentina Argentina Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Austria Belgium Belgium Belgium Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Bulgaria Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile


Feedstock (tpy)

11,200 176,500

4,900 276,500


Copper Prodn (tpy)

Brixlegg Beerse Hoboken Olen Boca Mina 1,000 Phoenix Jaguarari, Bahia Area 118 (Sossego) Camacari, Salvador 222,550 Salobo I Pirdop 234,000 Carmacks,Yukon Territory Copper Cliff Montreal, Quebec 264,000 Gibraltar, B.C. Clarion-Clipperton Zone Bismarck Sea Amalia, Catemu Antucoya 66,200 Carmen de Andacollo 5,000 Berta Copper Project Camarones, Arica 7,000 Caserones (Regalito) Cerro Colorado 75,000 Cerro Dominador Cerro Dominador Cerro Negro Chuquicamata 549,000 Collahuasi 4,800 Coloso 113,000 Can Can, Atacama Coquimbo Dos Amigos El Abra, Calama 90,532 El Abra, Calama El Salado, Atacama El Soldado El Tesoro / Esperanza 85,300 El Tesoro Escondida 242,350 Franke, Altamara 20,000 Gabriela Mistral 107,000 Inca de Oro, Chañaral Las Ventanas 409,049 Lomas Bayas 80,000 Los Bronces 39,900 Mantos Blancos Mantos de la Luna Mantoverde 62,501 Copiapo Michilla 38,325 Potrerillos 61,000 Puquios, Copiapo Salvador

San Jorge, Mendoza Los Azules Lady Annie, Queensland White Range, Queensland Mount Cuthbert Port Pirie Townsville Whim Creek South Australia South Australia


400,000 75,000 42,000 35,000 20,000 60,000 7,200 38,000 160,000

100,000 50,000 270,000 20,000 150,000

5,000 9,000 225,000 125,000 10,000

9,000 380,000 4,000 50,000 80,000 14,000 85,000 20,000 5,000 8,400 16,440 80,000 6,000 10,000 6,000 600,000 61,000 137,000

15,000 250,000 10,000 110,000 35,000 28,000 345,000 4,000 20,000 5,000 10,000 280,000 100,000 240,000




Current Capacity (tpy) X X X X X X R X X R X R R R R X X X X R X R X X R X X R X X X X X X X X X X R X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X R X X X X X X X R X X


Start year

SCM El Abra 1996 Sulfolix Project (SCM El Abra) 2011 Osvaldo Martínez Carvajal 1929 El Soldado SX-EW Plant 1993 Centinela 1997 Encuentro Oxides 2016 Escondida Norte 2005 Franke Mine 2009 Codelco - Gaby Sur 2007 Inca de Oro 2014 Ventanas Division Codelco 1960 Lomas Bayas SX-EW Plant 1998 Los Bronces Mine 2000 Mantos Copper Mantos Blancos 1995 Mantos de la Luna 2006 Mantos Copper Mantoverde 1995 Manuel Antonio Matta 2009 Minera Michilla S.A. 1992 El Salvador Division Codelco Flor de Puquios Mine El Salvador Division Codelco 1994

Formerly Coro Mining Corp. project Los Azules Lady Annie 2007 White Range Project Mount Cuthbert Copper Mine Port Pirie Multimetals Plant 1984 Townsville Operations / Copper Refineries Ltd 1959 Whim Creek 1993 Olympic Dam 2005 Olympic Dam 1999 Browns Oxide Project (BOP) 2008 Montanwerke Brixlegg Metallo 2009 Umicore Precious Metals Refining 1997 Aurubis 1996 Empresa Minera Corocoro 2009 Tati Nickel Mining Co. 2010 Pilar 2007 Vale 2008 Dias D’Ávila Refinery 1982 Vale 2009 Aurubis 2008 Copper North Mining Corp. 2010 Sudbury 2000 Canadian Copper Refinery 1931 Taseko Mines Ltd 2014 DeepGreen Resources Inc. (offshore) 2020 Solwara 1 Project (offshore) 2018 Compania Minera Amalia Ltda 2007 Minera Antucoya 2015 Carmen de Andacollo 1996 SCM Berta S.A. 2014 Pampa Camarones S.p.A. 2014 Minera Lumina Copper Chile 2011 Cerro Colorado 1998 Minera Cerro Dominador S.A. - Callejas Zamora Plant 2004 Minera Cerro Dominador S.A. - Santa Margarita Plant 2007 1944 Codelco Norte Division 2002 Compañía Minera Doña Inés de Collahuasi 1998 Escondida 1998 Diego de Almagro 2018 Delta Plant 2010

(R)efinery and SX-EW (X) Plants

ENAMI Anglo American (50.1%) Antofagasta Plc (70%) Antofagasta Plc BHP (57.5%) KGHM International Ltd Codelco PanAust Limited Codelco Glencore plc Anglo American (50.1%) Mantos Copper (2015-) Izquierdo Menendez Group Mantos Copper (2015-) ENAMI Antofagasta Plc Codelco Cuprum Resources Codelco

Codelco Glencore plc (44%), AngloAmerican (44%) BHP Copec Group ENAMI and others Compania Explotadora de Minas (CEMIN) Freeport McMoran (51%)

Aterra Investments Ltd + Solway Industries Ltd (70%) McEwen Mining Inc. CST Mining Group Limited Queensland Mining Corporation Ltd Malaco Group Nyrstar Glencore plc Straits Resources BHP Billiton BHP Billiton Compass Resources (90%) UMCOR AG Aurubis Group Umicore N.V. Aurubis AG Corporación Minera de Boliviana (COMIBOL) (55%) Norilsk (85%) Mineração Caraiba SA Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (50%) Paranapanema Companhia Vale do Rio Doce Aurubis Bulgaria Granite Creek Copper Vale Inco Glencore plc Taseko Mines Ltd DeepGreen Resources Inc. Nautilus Minerals Inc. (processing by Tongling) Compania Explotadora de Minas (CEMIN) Antofagasta Minerals (70%) Teck Resources Limited (90%) Coro Mining Corp. Mineria Activa S.p.A. JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation BHP Callejas Mining Group Callejas Mining Group

Main Ownership

Heap Leach 15 kt planned 25 kt Leach; Closed 2014

Heap Leach; Extended to 2015

Leach Leach; 50 kt potential Leach; MBCDP - 50 kt by 2018 Leach; IsaKidd Heap Leach

Leach closed 2013 Heap Leach; IsaKidd 75 kt; +12 kt 2015 Heap Leach Sulphide leach; IsaKidd 180 kt Leach 170 kt by 2018; IsaKidd

Leach SX-EW Leach

Leach co-operative Kidd Leach Oxide Leach 11 kt by 2018; 22 kt potential


30 kt by 2016

Kidd Leach; Restarted 2014 Direct to metal; 50 kt potential Seafloor Massive Sulphides Leach; Restarted 2007 Startup 2015 Leach closed 2014. Heap Leach 10 kt; 5kt by 2018

15 kt Planned 2017

Leach Leach 40 kt ramping up 320 kt possible expansion 255 kt by 2015


Heap Leach 24 kt; Approval 2013 Heap and POX Planned; 255 - 171 kt Restarted 2010; Leach; IsaKidd 19 kt Leach 15-20 kt planned Heap Leach Leach byproduct; 7 kt by 2016 Extension to 2025 Closed 2009; IsaKidd 40 kt expansion deferred 515 kt expansion deferred Administration Nov 2011; C&M Expanded 2007.

Projects (Year) / Status

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1



Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Colombia DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo DR Congo Cyprus Egypt Finland Finland Germany Germany India India India India India Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Iran Israel Italy Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan


345 346 348 525 498 349 526 499 527 350 351 528 492 493 490 491 352 353 354 355 357 533 356 357 358 359 529 360 615 355 361 337 362 501 530 531 363 532 365 541 366 367 368 369 370 502 371 534 535 536 624 372 611 318 373 537 374 538 539 540 375 542 543 376 377


Feedstock (tpy)



50,000 10,000 180,000 31,000

24,000 230,000 12,000 234,000 75,000 80,000

300,000 100,000 20,000 220,000 50,000 77,000 40,000 80,000 195,000 25,000 6,000 300,000 155,000 10,000 416,000 160,000 500,000 19,000 50,000 31,000 400,000 200,000 400,000 200,000 120,000 25,000 5,000 200,000 5,000 50,000 15,000 240,000 73,000 5,000

10,000 63,000 110,000 100,000 25,000 35,000 65,000

10,000 48,017


24,000 16,000 10,000

10,000 130,000

45,000 14,000 250,000 6,000 29,000 180,000 5,000

Current Capacity (tpy)






Copper Prodn (tpy)

Tamasos (Skouriotissa) Ain Sokhna Harjavalta, Pori 120,000 Kokkola Hamburg 415,000 Osnabruck Dahej, Gujarat Ghatsila, Jharkhand Jhagadia Khetri, Rajasthan Tuticorin (Ratnagiri) 326,000 Bontang, Borneo Gresik, East Java 300,000 Indovasi, Gresik Maros, North Sulawesi Wetar Island 16,777 DarAloo 100,000 Khatoon Abad Miduk Babak Sarcheshmeh 14,000 Sarcheshmeh 210,000 Sungun Sungun Arava Mines Barga Lucca Hitachi Ibaragi Akita, Kosaka Naoshima, Kagawa Onahama No.1 Onahama No.2

Quebrada Blanca Quebrada de Sagasca Radomiro Tomic San Jose (Socavon) Sierra Gorda Spence Taltal Oxidos Tovaku Tres Valles Zaldívar Yumba Deziwa Etoile, Lubumbashi Etoile, Lubumbashi Huaxin Leach Project Kakanda Cu/Co Project Somika Kinsevere Phase II, Katanga KOV (Luilu) Kolwezi Kipoi, Lubumbashi West Kolwezi Likasi, Katanga Lubumbashi, Katanga Luilu Hydrometallurgical Luita, Katanga Mabende MUMI / Kansuki Musonoi, Kolwezi RTRP Phase 1, Kolwezi Ruashi II Somidez Tenke Fungurume




Start year

Hindalco Birla Copper Division Indian Copper Complex (ICC) Gujarat Copper Project (formerly Jhagadia) Khetri Copper Complex (KCC) Sterlite Industries PT Nusantara Smelting Corp PT Smelting PT Indovasi Mineral Indonesia PT Indosmelt Wetar Copper Project DarAloo Copper Mine Khatoon Abad Miduk Leaching Plant Iranian Babak Copper Co. (IBCCO) Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex Sungun Refinery Sungun Bioleach Plant AHMSA Steel Israel Ltd (Altos Hornos de Mexico) Fornaci di Barga Lucca Nikko Smelting & Refining Co. Ltd Dowa Eco-System Co. Ltd Naoshima Refinery Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd

1908 1902 1917 1966 1969

2019 1997 1983 2016 2016 2016


1998 1967 2004 1975 1996 2019 1996 2018 2018 2010

Quebrada Blanca SX-EW Plant 1994 La Cascada 2004 Radomiro Tomic 2000 Mina Venado Sur 1994 Sierra Gorda Project 2016 Spence 2007 Taltal Oxidos 2011 El Espino Project 2018 Tres Valles 2010 Companía Minera Zaldívar 1995 Yumba - Valle del Cauca Deziwa & Ecaille C Chemaf Resources Ltd 2007 Chemaf Resources Ltd 2014 Sino-Metals Leach Zambia Ltd 2012 Formerly Simberi Mining Somika Sprl 2010 MMG Kinsevere Sprl 2011 Katanga Mining Limited 2014 Kolwezi Copper Mine 2019 Kipoi Copper Project Stage 2 2011 West Kolwezi Hydrometallurgical Plant Shituru Electrolysis Plant 1928 Boss Mining Katanga Mining Limited 2007 Boss Mining (CRJV) 2007 Sino-Metals Leach Zambia Ltd 2014 Mutanda Mining Sprl 2011 Metorex (Pty) Ltd 2021 Roan Tailings and Reclamation Project 2014 Metorex (Pty) Ltd 2008 Somidez 2019 Tenke Fungurume Mining SARL 2009 Congo MKM Mining Co. Ltd 2012 Hellenic Copper Mines 1996 Red Sea Copper Harjavalta Refinery 1936 Freeport Cobalt Aurubis Hamburg 1972

(R)efinery and SX-EW (X) Plants

China Molybdenum (80%) China Railway Resource Group Hellenic Copper Mines El Sewedy Cables (74%) Boliden AB Freeport McMoran (56%) Aurubis AG KME Germany GmbH&Co.KG Hindalco Industries Ltd Hindustan Copper Limited Hindustan Copper Limited Hindustan Copper Limited Vedanta Resources Plc (54%) PT Nusantara Smelting Corp Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (60.5%) PT Indovasi Mineral Indonesia PT Indosmelt PT Merdeka Copper Gold National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) MIDHCO National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICo) AHMSA Steel Israel Ltd (Altos Hornos de Mexico) Europa Metalli SpA JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation Dowa Eco-System Co. Ltd Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (49.29%) Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (49.29%)

Teck Resources Limited (76.5%) Haldeman Mining Co. S.A. Codelco Sociedad Punta del Cobre (Pucobre) KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. (55%) BHP Cia. Minera La Cenizas S.A. Sociedad Punta del Cobre (Pucobre) (60%) Inversiones Porto San Giorgio S.A (Vecchiola S.A) Barrick Gold Corporation; Antofagasta Plc (50%) C.I. Cobres de Colombia Ltda La Générale des Carrières et des Mines Shalina Resources Ltd (95%) Shalina Resources Ltd (95%) China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Co. Ltd Greenrock Resources (51%) India Minmetals Resources Limited (95%) Glencore plc (75.15%) Zijin Mining Tiger Resources Sprl (60%) La Générale des Carrières et des Mines La Générale des Carrières et des Mines Eurasian Natural Resources Corp Plc Glencore plc (75.15%) Eurasian Natural Resources Corp Plc China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Co. Ltd Glencore plc (60%) Jinchaun Group International Resources Co. Ltd Eurasian Natural Resources Corp Plc (70%) Jinchuan Group (80%)

Main Ownership


Leach 50 kt by 2019 Leach 280 kt plans Startup delayed; 200 kt planned Startup 2016 22 kt by 2018 Fire refined anodes

Feasibility 2015 ISA Planned Build start due 2014 ROM Leach; 28 kt by 2017 Leach planned

ISA; Re-opened 2016 On C&M

Fire refined anodes


Re-opened 2006 Project on hold

Leaching Kamoto; Phase 5 Leach Leach Leach; IsaKidd 2011 31 kt potential; Due 2019 Former KMT; 70 kt by 2018 50 kt by 2017 80 kt due in 2019 400 kt potential; IsaKidd 175 kt

Leach; 50 kt by 2016 Planned Fire refined anodes; 100 kt by 2015

30 kt potential Some Direct EW. 116 cells. Leach; IsaKidd 2011 See 358 Luilu

Leach SX-EW Leach Planned project Leach; IsaKidd; Spence Growth Option 2021 Leach Leach; 40 kt by 2018 Leach Expansion PFS 2014 Unverified Leach 200 kt planned Leach SX/EW project Expansion + 10 kt by 2017

Leach, reducing output

Projects (Year) / Status


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378 379 380 381 544 382 494 616 545 383 384 625 386 622 623 387 388 389 390 391 617 503 546 392 393 394 547 395 396 618 398 399 400 505 506 548 549 401 550 504 397 402 327 552 610 403 553 554 405 406 407 555 408 556 507 409 410 411 581 412 413 582 414 583 415



Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

Japan Onahama No.3 Japan Saganoseki, Ooita 233,000 Japan Saijo City, Ehime 410,000 Japan Tamano Kazakhstan Aktogay 26,000 Kazakhstan Balkhash 210,000 Kazakhstan Benkara, Zhitigara Kazakhstan Karchiga Kazakhstan Kounrad Kazakhstan Ust-Kamenogorsk 53,000 Kazakhstan Zhezkazgan 200,000 Kyrgyzstan Bozymchak 7,000 Laos Sepon Macedonia Bucim, Kucar Macedonia Kazandol Mexico Alamos, Sonora 31,750 Mexico El Boleo Mexico Buenavista (Cananea)1 31,170 Mexico Buenavista 2 31,170 Mexico Buenavista 3 60,510 Mexico El Arco, Baja California Mexico El Pilar, Sonora Mexico Empalme Mexico La Balsa Mexico La Caridad 213,600 Mexico La Caridad 27,250 Mexico Luz del Cobre Mexico Milpillas 26,400 Mexico Minera Maria Mexico San Javier Mexico Mongolia Erdenetin Myanmar Monywa Myanmar Letpadung Namibia Tschudi North Korea Nampo North Korea Hungnam Norway Kristiansand Oman Yankul (Sohar) Peru Mina Justa Peru Tia Maria Peru Cerro Verde I, II, III 39,961 Peru Minas de Cobre Chapi 1,181 Peru Coroccohuayco Peru Huaral Peru Ilo Copper Refinery 281,175 Peru La Granja Peru La Oroya Peru Toquepala 24,217 Peru Toromocho Philippines Leyte Philippines King King Poland Glogow I Poland Glogow II Poland Glogow III Poland Legnica 100,000 PR China Anxin Baoding, Hebei PR China Baiyin, Gansu PR China Changzhou PR China Chifeng, Inner Mongolia PR China Chifeng, Inner Mongolia PR China Chizhou PR China Dongli,Tianjin PR China Tianjin PR China Duobaoshan, Heilongjiang


235,000 235,000 350,000 110,000 200,000 400,000 40,000 120,000 100,000 45,000 25,000 200,000 100,000

80,000 35,000 80,000 215,000

50,000 360,000

5,000 40,000 25,000 40,000 33,000 58,000 120,000 91,000 8,000

40,000 25,000 25,000

300,030 25,000 8,000 65,000 20,000

10,000 70,000 215,000 6,000 85,000 3,000 4,000 32,000 20,000 32,000 32,000 120,000 190,000 36,000 350,000

145,000 250,000 450,000 260,000 20,000 220,000 10,000

Current Capacity (tpy)

(R)efinery and SX-EW (X) Plants

Start year

Main Ownership

R Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd 1973 Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (49.29%) R Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd 1916 JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation R Sumitomo Toyo Refinery 1919 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd R Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd 1964 JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation X Kaz Minerals Plc 2015 Kaz Minerals Plc R Balkhash Refinery 1952 Kaz Minerals Plc X Benkara 2012 Frontier Mining Ltd X 2019 Orsu Metals Corp. (94.75%) X Kounrad Mine Refinery 2012 Central Asia Metals Plc (60%) R Kazzinc Copper Refinery 2010 Glencore plc (69.61%) R Zhezkazgan Refinery 1971 Kaz Minerals Plc X 2016 Kaz Minerals Plc X Lane Xang Minerals Limited (LXML) 2005 Minmetals Resources Limited (90%) X Solway Industries Ltd 2011 X Sardic MC 2016 X Piedras Verdes Mine / Cobre del Mayo 2006 Cobre del Mayo S.A. de C.V. X Minera y Metalurgica del Boleo 2009 Korea Resources Corporation (KORES) (46.9%) X Southern Copper Corporation 1980 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X Southern Copper Corporation 2012 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X Southern Copper Corporation 2014 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X El Arco Mine Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV X El Pilar Project 2023 Southern Copper Corporation R Southern Copper Corporation 2017 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV X 2008 Binhai Harbour Group HK Co. Ltd R Southern Copper Corporation 1997 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X Southern Copper Corporation 1995 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X Luz del Cobre 2012 Red Tiger Mining Inc. X Milpillas SX-EW Plant 2006 Industrias Peñoles, S.A.B. de C.V. X Minera Maria 2003 Empresas Frisco S.A. de C.V. X 2018 Benz Mining Corp. R Cobre de Pastejé Industrias Unidos (IUSA) X Erdenetin-Ovoo Samsung (51%) X Myanmar Yang Tse Copper Limited 1998 Norinco (60%) X Wanbao Mining Copper Co. 2016 Norinco (60%) X Tschudi Copper Project 2014 Weatherly International Plc R Nampo Refinery 1914 North Korean Government R Hungnam Refinery North Korean Government R Glencore Nikkelverk AS 1980 Glencore plc R Sohar Copper Refinery 1983 Oman Mining Company (OMCO) X Marcona Copper Project / Marcobre 2014 Minsur SA (70%) X Southern Copper Corporation 2017 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (80.9%) X Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde S.A.A. 1977 FreeportMcMoran (53.56%) X Minera Pampa de Cobre S.A. 2006 Compañia Minera Milpo X Antapaccay satellite/Tintaya infrastructure 2017 Glencore plc R Huaral Refinery 2016 Compañia de Minas Buenaventura SAA R Southern Peru Copper Corp 1975 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (99.29%) X 2019 Peruvian Government R Nueva La Oroya 1922 X Southern Peru Copper Corp 1995 Grupo Mexico S.A.B. de CV (99.29%) X Peru Copper Inc. 2010 Chinalco R Philippine Associated Smelting and Refining Corporation 1983 Glencore plc (78.2%) X King King 2018 St Augustine Gold & Copper Ltd R Glogow Refinery 1971 KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. R Glogow Refinery 1978 KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. R New Glogow Refinery KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. R Legnica Refinery 1959 KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. R Hebei Dawufeng Jiangchang Copper Co. Ltd 2009 R Baiyin Non-ferrous 1959 Baiyin Non-ferrous Group Co. Ltd R Changzhou Copper 1996 Local Government R Jinjian Copper Co. Ltd 2008 Jinjian Copper Co. Ltd R Chifeng Yutong Jinfeng 2007 Chifeng Jinfeng Copper Co. Ltd R Chizhou Refinery Local Government R Tianjin Copper Electrolysis Factory 1951 Tianjin Datong R 2011 Tianjin Non-ferrous Metals Group R Heilongjiang Duobaoshan Copper Co.,Ltd 2014 Zijin Mining Group Co. Ltd


Phase III: Refinery

Fire refined anodes

Expansion 2011 Fire refined anodes Expansion 2012

Planned 40 kt expansion plan

Leach; 300 kt planned C&M, in PAMA final phase Leach Potential ISA; 350 kt by 2018 Leach; Planned 70 kt by 2018 To be replaced

58 kt by 2021 40 kt by 2018; 120 kt capacity Leach SX-EW Leach Leach; Planned 50 kt by 2017 High-As sulphides; 50 kt by 2018

Expansion potential

Planned 40 kt by 2015 100 kt by 2018 17 kt by 2015

Leach 9 kt capacity

Leach Leach

Planned for 2017 10 kt Planned; Sold July 2013

190 kt mine / SX-EW

Leach Leach Developing Heap Leach; IsaKidd 32 kt 56 kt by 2016

Up to 25 kt proposed 13 kt potential Leach 87.5 kt potential

Leach; 15 kt by 2017

Projects (Year) / Status

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584 416 602 417 603 508 418 419 585 586 420 587 588 589 421 590 422 619 591 423 424 592 593 509 510 594 425 511 426 427 428 595 596 597 429 430 598 599 431 626 432 600 601 433 434 435 573 557 436 437 439 440 441 442 443 558 444 445 446 512 447


PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China PR China Republic of Korea Republic of Korea Republic of Korea Republic of Korea Republic of Korea Romania Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia


Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

Fuchunjiang Fukang City, Xinjiang Changji, Xinjiang 95,000 Laibin City, Guangxi Guangxi Honghe,Yunnan 80,000 Guixi, Jiangxi 370,000 Houma, Shanxi 20,000 Huludao, Liaoning Jinchang City, Gansu Jinchuan, Gansu Jinchuan (Fangchenggang) Jinguan Jintian Kunming,Yunnan Sanmenxia, Henan Luoyang, Henan Jiyuan, Henan Dongying, Shandong 650000 144,000 Linyi, Shandong Qingyuan, Guangdong Shanghai Shanghai Shifang, Sichuan Sichuan Taichang Taiyuan, Shanxi Tiandilong, Jiangxi Tongling City, Anhui Tongling City, Anhui Tongling City, Anhui Tongling, Anhui Wuhu, Anhui Wujin, Jiangsu Yanggu, Shandong Yantai, Shandong Yantai, Shandong Yubei, Sichuan Yulong, Qinghai Ningde, Fujian 80,000 Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu Zhongtiaoshan, Houma Zhongtiaoshan,Yuanqu Shanghang, Fujian Zijinshan, Fujian 48,400 Huangshi, Hubei Fuyang, Zhejiang Onsan Onsan I Onsan I Onsan II Onsan II Baia Mare Gumeshevskoye Kola, Murmansk Kola, Monchegorsk 62,000 Kyshtym 112,000 Monchegorsk Novgorod Udokan Verkhnyaya Pyshma


120,000 20,000 100,000 300,000 150,000 100,000 600,000 80,000 150,000 200,000 650,000 400,000 400,000 120,000 500,000 200,000 50,000 150,000 400,000 100,000 100,000 65,000 60,000 400,000 100,000 35,000 30,000 150,000 200,000 150,000 50,000 400,000 45,000 30,000 400,000 170,000 100,000 10,000 130,000 400,000 300,000 250,000 100,000 200,000 20,000 600,000 350,000 50,000 360,000 80,000 200,000 40,000 40,000 5,000 15,000 100,000 120,000 330,000 75,000 75,000 500,000

Current Capacity (tpy)

(R)efinery and SX-EW (X) Plants

Start year

Main Ownership

R Fuchunjiang Refinery Local Government X Fukang Refinery 2011 Xinjiang Xinxin Mining Industry Co. Ltd R Xinjiang Wuxin Copper Industry Co. Ltd 2013 Xinjiang Xinxin Mining Industry Co. Ltd (66%) R Guangxi Non-ferrous Metal Group 2011 Guangxi Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd R Guangxi Nanguo Copper Refinery 2016 Guangxi Nanguo Copper Co. R Yunnan Tin Refinery 2012 Yunnan Tin Corporation R Guixi Refinery 1985 Jiangxi Copper Corporation X Northern Copper Industry Co. Ltd 2000 Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd R Huludao Zinc Corp. 2013 R Jinchang (Tongling II) Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group R Jinchuan Non-Ferrous Co. Jinchuan Group Co. Ltd R Guangxi Jinchuan Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd 2014 Jinchuan Group Co. Ltd R Jinguan Refinery 2013 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group R Ningbo Jintian Copper Corp. R Yunnan Copper Industry Group Chalco Yunnan Copper Co. Ltd R Henan Zhongyuan Gold Smelter LLC R Luoyang Copper Processing Factory Chinalco Luoyang Copper Co. Ltd R Henan Yuguang Gold & Lead Co. Ltd R Shandong Fangyuan Refinery Dongying Fangyuan Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd R Linyi Tianyu copper industry Co. Ltd 2012 Shandong Jinsheng Non-ferrous Group Co. Ltd R Jiangxi Copper Corporation 2012 Jiangxi Copper Corporation R Shanghai Dachang Copper 1998 Shanghai Dachang Copper R Shanghai Xinye Copper Co. 1913 Shanghai Non-ferrous Metals Ltd R Sichuan Hongda Molybdenum and Copper Co. Ltd Sichuan Hongda Co. Ltd R Sichuan Kunpeng Copper Co. Ltd 2011 Liangshan Mining Co. Ltd (90%) R Taichang Copper Group Taichang Copper Group R Taiyuan Copper Industry Co. Taiyuan Copper Industry Co. R TianDiLong Copper Co. Ltd 2013 TianDiLong Group Co. Ltd R Jinlong Copper Co. Ltd 1950 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group (52%) R Jinlong Expansion 1 2008 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group (52%) R Jinlong Expansion 2 2009 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group (52%) R Tongling New Refinery 2014 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group R Wuhu Refinery 1958 Local Government R Wujin Refinery Local Township R Yanggu Xiangguang Copper 2007 Yanggu Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd R Shandong Humon Smelting Co. Ltd R Yantai Penghui Refinery 1975 Yantai Non-ferrous Metals Co. Ltd (49.8%) R Yubei Copper Fabricating Refinery X Yulong 2008 Quinghai Western Mining (41%) R Chalco Ningde Refinery 2018 Chalco R Zhangjiagang United Copper Co. Ltd 1996 R Zhongtiaoshan Refinery Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Company R Zhongtiaoshan Non-ferrous Metals Company 1970 Northern Copper Industry R Zijin Copper Industry Co. Ltd 2012 Zijin Mining Group Co. Ltd X Zijinshan Gold & Copper Mine 2005 Zijin Mining Group Co. Ltd R Daye Hubei Refinery Daye Nonferrous Metals Co Ltd R Zhejiang Jiangtong Fuye Heding Copper Co. Ltd 2010 Jiangxi Copper Corporation (40%) R Onsan Refinery Korea Zinc R LS-Nikko Refinery 1 2005 LS-Nikko Copper Inc. R LS-Nikko Refinery 1 Expansions 2007/2011 R LS-Nikko Refinery 2 1997 LS-Nikko Copper Inc. R LS-Nikko Refinery 2 Expansion 2001 LS-Nikko Copper Inc. R Cuprom Refinery 1965 S. C. Cuprom S.A. X Uralgidromed OAO 2005 Russkaya Mednaya Kompaniya (RMK) X JSC Kola Mining & Metallurgical Company 2003 Norilsk Nickel R JSC Kola Mining & Metallurgical Company 1944 Norilsk Nickel R JSC Kyshtym Electrolytic Copper Plant 1922 Russkaya Mednaya Kompaniya (RMK) R Norilsk Refinery 1951 Norilsk Nickel R Novgorod Metallurgical Plant ZAO 2003 Russkaya Mednaya Kompaniya (RMK) X Baikal Mining Company LLC 2021 Metalloinvest R JSC Uralelectromed 1934 Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company


179 kt potential; 75 kt by 2021 Expansion (2011)

Kidd LS-Nikko Copper Inc. Kidd Kidd Closed 2009 u/g leaching

Kidd Leach and Flotation 300 kt expansion 2013 Kidd

250 kt by 2014

100 kt expansion 200 kt initially;Trial phase

ISA, Kidd Trial operation 200 kt expansion planned

400 kt by 2015; Kidd Fire refined anodes


65 kt expansion planned

Kidd Expansion 2012; 600 kt planned Kidd

Expansion 2011; ISA Kidd; 150 kt expansion 2019


Expansion 2008; ISA 150 kt by 2018 New line 2013

100 kt expansion 2012 50 kt in 2015

80 kt expansion 2012

Projects (Year) / Status

Incl. 438


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559 448 449 560 561 562 563 450 451 564 452 565 566 453 567 568 569 570 571 454 455 456 457 458 513 620 459 572 460 461 462 621 463 464 465 574 575 466 576 467 468 469 514 470 577 578 471 579 487 473 580 413 475 476 477 478 479 480 484 481 482 485 488 489 483


Russia Serbia South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa Spain Spain Spain Sweden Thailand Thailand Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Ukraine Ukraine USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Uzbekistan Vietnam Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zambia Zimbabwe


Feedstock (tpy)

Copper Prodn (tpy)

Current Capacity (tpy)

Yuzhuralnikel 18,000 Bor 70,000 120,000 Ba-Phalaborwa 140,000 Impala Platinum 7,000 Metal Sales 7,000 Rustenburg/Amandelbult 13,000 Barcelona 70,000 Huelva 283,800 320,000 Las Cruces, Seville 73,643 72,000 Skelleftehamn 201,000 250,000 Rayong 50,000 Puthep Denizli (Ismir) 20,000 Osmangazi, Gebze 145,572 200,000 Kayseri 24,000 Samsun 10,000 Samsun 75,000 Artemov 35,000 Pancomm 30,000 Amarillo,Texas 150,000 450,000 Bagdad, Arizona 11,340 12,000 Sierrita 22,700 Chino, New Mexico 68,200 El Paso,Texas 185,000 415,000 Florence, Arizona Gunnison, Arizona 11,500 Kellogg, Idaho Indiana 18,000 Lisbon Valley, Utah 14,000 Mesabi, Minnesota Miami, Arizona 90,000 Milford Phase II, Utah 10,000 Morenci, Arizona 100,000 125,000 Morenci, Arizona 100,000 125,000 Morenci, Arizona 75,000 100,000 New Haven Refinery 70,000 Phoenix 10,000 Ray, Arizona 47,000 Reading 50,000 Safford, Arizona 106,820 110,000 Magna, Utah 296,000 300,000 Silver Bell 25,000 Nokomis / Twin Metals Tyrone, New Mexico 45,000 Warrenton 35,000 Zonia, Arizona Almalyk 145,000 Sin Quen 11,000 Chambishi Leach Plant 5,000 15,000 Chingola Refractory Ore 40,000 40,000 Ichimpe Kangaluwi-Chisawa Kansanshi 110,000 Mufulira Refinery 225,000 Mufulira 1 14,000 Mufulira 2 36,000 Muliashi 10,400 41,000 Nchanga TLP, Chingola 130,000 Nkana Unit A, Kitwe 300,000 Nkana 1 14,000 Nkana 2 40,000 Nkana, Kitwe 55,000 Sable Zinc, Kabwe 4,900 5,000 Trident/Sentinel, Solwezi Empress (Eiffel Flats) 5,760 8,400


(R)efinery and SX-EW (X) Plants

Start year

Main Ownership

R Yuzhuralnikel R TIR Bor Refinery 1969 RTB Bor R Palabora Refinery 1960 Palabora Mining Company Limited R Impala Platinum Ltd R Metal Sales Co. Pty (Lonmin Platinum) R Anglo American Platinum Corp. R La Farga R Atlantic Copper S.L.U. 1967 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. X Las Cruces SX-EW Plant 2009 First Quantum Minerals Ltd R Rönnskär Smelter Boliden Mineral AB R 2004 Thai Copper Industries Public Co. Ltd X Puthep PanAust Ltd (51%) R Er Bakir R Sarkuysan 1975 Sarkuysan Elektrolitik Bakir AS R HES Hacýlar Elektrik 1983 R Elektrosan 1977 Elektrosan AS R Eti Bakir 2011 Eti Bakir AS R Tracko Ltd (23%) R Pancomm 2001 R ASARCO Refinery ASARCO LLC (Grupo Mexico) X Bagdad Mine 1970 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. X Twin Buttes 2009 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. X Chino mine 1982 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. R El Paso Refinery Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. R Florence Copper Project 2018 Taseko Mines Ltd X Gunnison Copper Project 2018 Excelsior Mining Corp. X Big Creek Hydrometallurgical Complex 2013 eCobalt Solutions Inc. R Essex Group 1985 X Lisbon Valley Mining Company 2006 X NorthMet Project 2009 PolyMet Mining Corporation X Miami mine 1979 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. X Includes OK mine 2015 CS Mining X Morenci SX-EW 1 1995 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. (85%) X Morenci SX-EW 2 1998 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. (85%) X Morenci SX-EW 3 2001 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. (85%) R La Farga 2012 X Newmont Mining Corp. 2013 X ASARCO Ray 1911 ASARCO LLC (Grupo Mexico) R Reading Industries Inc. X Lone Star 2008 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. R Kennecott Utah Copper LLC 1950 Rio Tinto X Silver Bell 1997 ASARCO LLC (Grupo Mexico) X Twin Metals Minnesota LLC Antofagasta Plc X Burro Chief Copper Co. 1984 Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. R American Iron and Metal Inc. X Formerly Redstone Resources Corp. 2017 Cardero Resource Corp. R Almalyk Refinery 1968 JSC Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Complex (AMMC) R Vinacomin Refinery 2008 Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Group X Sino-Metals Leach Zambia Ltd 2006 China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Co. (85%) X Konkola Copper Mines Plc (KCM) 2007 Vedanta Resources Plc (79.4%) X Zhonghui Mining Group 2017 X Kangaluwi Copper Project 2016 Zambezi Resources Limited X Kansanshi Mining Plc 2004 First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%) R Mopani Copper Mines Plc 1952 Glencore plc (73%) X Mopani Copper Mines Plc 2000 Glencore plc (73%) X Mopani Copper Mines Plc 2008 Glencore plc (73%) X CNMC Luanshya Mines Co. Ltd 2012 China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Co. (85%) X Konkola Copper Mines Plc (KCM) 1971 Vedanta Resources Plc (79.4%) R Konkola Copper Mines Plc (KCM) 1935 Vedanta Resources Plc (79.4%) X Mopani Copper Mines Plc 2000 Glencore plc (73%) X Mopani Copper Mines Plc 2006 Glencore plc (73%) X Nkana Slags / Chambishi Cobalt byproduct 2001 Eurasian Natural Resources Corp Plc (90%) R Sable Zinc Kabwe Ltd 2009 Glencore plc X Kalumbila Minerals Limited 2014 First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%) R Eiffel Flats Rio Tinto Mining (Zimbabwe) Ltd


IsaKidd 40 kt Expansion 2012 Tolling services

Expansion 2012 Expansion 2008

Planned 20 kt Planned 50 kt by 2016 Leach; 15 kt by 2017; 35 kt capacity 35 kt by 2017 IsaKidd 90 kt Isaprocess; Modernised 2014

ISCR project; 39 kt by 2018 11.5 kt in 2019 In Progress Fire refined anodes Leach Pressure leach planned Leach 12 kt by 2017 Leach Leach Leach Fire refined anodes Leach Leach Fire refined anodes Leach New plant 1995 Leach 82 kt potential Leach Fire refined anodes Planned 16 kt by 2020

Leach ROM Leach Leach

Fire refined anodes

Leach Plant 2020 Closed 2007 Leach; 30 kt planned

Fire refined anodes ISA

Fire refined anodes

70 kt for 2016

Projects (Year) / Status


w ww.copper worl dw ide. co m

Review of 2021 copper prices The copper price began 2021 around the US$ 7,750 mark. After a steep climb, by late February it had spiked at around US$ 9,600. It reached its highest level of the year at US$ 10,750 in early May following a slightly less sharp rise. It fell gradually after that until mid-October, when the steepest incline of the year saw it peak at around US$ 10,700. It ended the year at US$ 9,700, around 25% higher than at year start. NOV 17 - Driven by a cobalt price rally and cost reduction, some copper-cobalt miners are actively assessing restart and expansion opportunities. An S&P Global Market Intelligence analysis by Shunyu Yao suggests that even if there is a potential cobalt price downgrade, led by a narrowing market deficit, large-scale

miners would still benefit from increased production. Cobalt revenues at all the African copper-cobalt mines exceeded 25% of the total mine revenue in 2020. Cobalt accounted for more than 40% of Metalkol RTR’s and Etoile’s revenue shares. Looking ahead, China Molybdenum Co. Ltd. has begun a planned expansion to add 17,000 tpy cobalt output by 2023 at Tenke Fungurume. Whilst Katanga Mining Ltd’ s Kamoto SX-EW operation has improved recovery efficiency, the Glencore Mutanda SXEW mine restarted in 2021 is expected to reach 20,000 tpy of cobalt production, namely 9.0% of global supply in 2025. FEB 9 - Glencore entered a strategic global marketing relationship for all products including

copper cathode and cobalt sulphates with United States Strategic Metals, LLC. Additionally, Glencore and US Strategic Metals are exploring a recycling and raw materials sourcing agreement to support the ramp-up of US Strategic Metals’ hydrometallurgical processing facility. DEC 17 - Alex Harrison of Fastmarkets said copper prices have climbed to record highs on resurgent demand, years of prior under-investment in new capacity and surging costs. Fastmarkets forecasts copper will be in a significant deficit both in 2021 and 2022.

A copper project M&A assessment NOV 29 - A Copper Projects Review 2021 report published by RFC Ambrian finds that only 23 of 65 development and exploration projects with more than 2 Mt of contained copper have the potential for third party M&A activity. The largest of those 23 exploration projects is Pebble (Alaska, USA) with 36.96 Mt copper reserves, followed by Tampakan (feasibility stage, Mindanao, Philippines) with 15.17 Mt, and Los Azules (San Juan, Argentina) with 13.42 Mt respectively. Generally, the amount of copper M&A activity in the market has been low over the past three years. The largest

copper company deal completed in the past two years was the acquisition of KAZ Minerals by Nova Resources for US$ 6.1bn completed in April 2021. It can take up to 15 years for a company to take a project from first discovery to production, depending on the size, rate of expenditure, and ease of permitting. This would typically be 2-4 years for initial exploration, 2-4 years advanced exploration including drilling and defining reserves, 2-3 years for economic evaluation and obtaining approvals and finance, and 2-4 years for construction. The top three active projects

studied in the Review were Pebble (above), Resolution (at pre-production, 27.27 Mt reserves, USA) and La Granja (22.06 Mt, Peru). N.B. Reko Diq (24.35 Mt, Pakistan) under litigation. MAR 17 - Glencore plc (Glencore) and Metals Acquisition Corp (MAC) have entered into a binding agreement for the sale and purchase of Glencore’s CSA copper mine in New South Wales, Australia.


The China renewables capacity boom Wire and FEB 17 - Wood Mackenzie projects in its latest as its manufacturers expand capacity and drive cable growth report Power Play, that China’s production capacity down costs.” for solar modules is rising faster than forecast - Research Director Alex Whitworth momentum global demand, while its wind turbine component “China’s massive expansion in clean energy and battery manufacturing capacities will grow manufacturing and ability to scale up output has to remain seen its manufacturing costs decrease relative to by 42% and 150% respectively over the next two years. “Many countries have announced more ambitious 2030 emissions targets on the promise of jobs and prosperity. Achieving this without greater dependence on China looks harder than ever

and scrap devices may enter the refurbishment and end-of-life streams. Mikako Kitagawa, research director at Gartner, said the worldwide 2021 PC market had the highest shipment volume since 2013 at 339.8 million units in 2021, a 9.9% increase from 2020, despite the fourth quarter marking the first yearover-year decline following six consecutive quarters of growth. Worldwide PC shipments totalled 88.4 million units in the fourth quarter of 2021, which was a 5% decrease from the fourth quarter of 2020, according to preliminary results by Gartner (EMEA, +7.4%, 26 M; APAC, +11.5% y-o-y).

DEC 22 - CRU’s Michael Finch expects global insulated metallic wire and cable consumption to grow by more than 5% y-o-y in 2021. However, the forecast for 2021 global cable demand has recently been downgraded by approximately 38 kt conductors, predominantly due to China. A slowdown in the country’s economic growth, such as in the construction sector, is the main reason behind the recent downgrades. Also, to note, global automotive cable demand has weakened in 2021 H2 due to a prolonged semiconductor shortage. For 2021-2026, CRU also downgraded China, as less investment-led projects to support cable demand are foreseen, e.g. lower investment in electricity grids. Furthermore, while the Chinese real estate sector will experience robust project completions in the near-term, CRU expects it will decelerate noticeably in the mid-term as the market restructures.

its global competitors. Chinese wind turbine prices fell by 24% on the year in 2021 and will drop by a further 20% in 2022.” - Principal analyst Xiaoyang Li

Pandemic PC shipments slowed in Q4 JAN 20 - Worldwide PC shipments declined in the final quarter of 2021, but overall the year saw nearly 10% growth. In the U.S., shipments of new PCs fell by 24.2% year over year in the fourth quarter, according to preliminary data from technology research and consulting company Gartner. The firm predicted the market will remain healthy and above pre-pandemic levels even as the end of pandemic-pushed growth approaches. As schools and businesses return to in-person, there has been a collapse in demand for Chromebooks, paired with supply chain struggles, that Gartner said caused the fourth-quarter drop. Shipments of new PCs can be an indicator of how many used

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


www. c op p e r wor l d w i de. co m

Chile and Peru 2021 production levels Import figures production has stagnated. Peru produced 2.3 FEB 16 - Chile’s National Statistics Institute for China in 2021 Mt copper in 2021 (+7% y-o-y), despite several (INE) reported copper output of 485,700 t in November, with YTD output of 5.18 Mt (-2% y-o-y). Cochilco estimates 2021 production will be 5.676 Mt (-1% y-o-y). With the decline in Chile’s mine grade in recent years and the lack of largescale mine projects, the growth of copper mine

protests that have paralysed some of the country’s major copper mining operations, according to the latest report from the Peruvian Ministry of Energy and Mines.

ICSG preliminary data for November 2021 FEB 21 - The International Copper Study Group (ICSG) released preliminary data for November world copper supply and demand in its February 2022 Copper Bulletin. This indicates that world copper mine production increased by about 2.5% over the first eleven months of 2021, with concentrate production increasing by around 3.9% and solvent extraction-electrowinning (SXEW) declining by about 3.6% respectively. Production in Chile was down by 2% over the period Jan-Nov 2021 with concentrate production falling by 1.3% and SX-EW output declining by 4% mainly at the Escondida mine. Output in Peru increased by 8.5% in the period, but its level was still 6.3% below that of the same period in 2019. Indonesian output increased by about 50% principally as a consequence of the continued ramp-up of underground production at the Grasberg mine. Strong increases were also seen in the D.R.Congo (+11%), Panama (+66%) and China (+9%) due to additional output from new/expanded operations or improved operational levels. Preliminary data indicates that world refined copper production increased by about 1.3% over the first eleven months of 2021 with primary production (electrolytic and electrowinning) up by 0.7% and secondary production (from scrap) up by 4.7%. Preliminary official Chinese refined production data indicates growth of 4% over JanNov 2021, with y-o-y 3rd quarter production up by 0.9%. Chilean total refined copper production (electrolytic and electrowinning) declined by 2.4% mostly impacted by a 4% reduction in electrowinning refined production. Refined production was up by 8.5% in the D.R. Congo due to the continued ramp-up of new or expanded SX-EW plants. Globally, secondary refined production (from scrap) grew by 4.7% with China being the most significant contributor to this growth. Preliminary data indicates that world apparent

refined copper usage grew by about 1% over the first eleven months of 2021. Although global demand started to recover in the 2nd half of 2020, refined usage in 2021 remained below pre-pandemic levels in most countries. World ex-China refined usage is estimated to have increased by about 9% in Jan-Nov 2021 compared to Jan-Nov 2020 but remained 2% below that of the same period of 2019. Due to a 29% decline (1.19 Mt) in net refined copper imports, Chinese apparent usage (excluding changes in bonded/unreported stocks) declined by 5.5%, partially offsetting usage growth in other regions of the world. The introduction in August 2021 of a temporary 15% tax on exports of refined copper appears to have influenced an increase in Russia’s refined copper usage. The preliminary world refined copper balance in the first eleven months of 2021 indicates an apparent deficit of about 340,000 t. In developing its global market balance, ICSG uses an apparent demand calculation for China that does not consider changes in unreported stocks . To facilitate global market analysis, an additional line item - Refined World Balance Adjusted for Chinese Bonded Stock Changes - is used that adjusts the world refined copper balance based on an average estimate of changes in bonded inventories provided by two consultants with expertise in China’s copper market. Over the first eleven months of 2021, the world refined copper balance, based on Chinese apparent usage (excluding changes in bonded/ unreported stocks), indicated a deficit of about 340,000 t. The world refined copper balance adjusted for changes in Chinese bonded stocks indicated a market deficit of about 517,000 t. The ICSG Copper Bulletin is available for sale (annual subscription EUR 550 / EUR 900 for orders originating from / outside institutions based in ICSG member countries).

FEB 16 - According to Antaike Copper & Copper Fabrication Monthly February 2022 No. 301, China Customs said China imported 3.627 Mt of refined copper (-22.34% y-o-y) in 2021, with December imports up 29.68% y-o-y to 418 kt. The 2021 imports of copper concentrate were 23.428 Mt (+7.53% y-o-y), with December imports of 2.06 Mt (+9.31% y-o-y). China imported 1.694 Mt of recycled copper (physical quantity) in 2021, a significant y-o-y increase of 79.52%. In December, the import volume of recycled copper was 162,000 t (+38.44% y-o-y).

ICSG 2021 Yearbook

DEC 15 - The International Copper Study Group released its 2021 Statistical Yearbook covering world copper supply and demand data for the 10-year period 2011-2020. The Yearbook is an excellent tool that provides an assessment of how the market has evolved over the last 10 years, including trends in global copper production, usage, stocks and trade matrixes. The Statistical Yearbook is included in annual subscription for the ICSG Monthly Bulletin and is also available for sale as a separate report in PDF/Excel (EUR 200 for orders originating from ICSG member countries and EUR 400 for others). World copper mine production rose from 16 Mt in 2011 to 20.6 Mt in 2020, with concentrate production rising by around 33% (4.1 Mt) and solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW) by 16% (0.5 Mt) respectively. World refined copper production rose from 19.6 Mt in 2011 to 24.5 Mt in 2020, with a CAGR of 2.5%. World apparent refined usage increased by 28% over the 10-year period, with a CAGR of 2.7%.

MAR 22 - ICSG Preliminary data to December 2021 indicates that world copper mine production increased by about 2.2% in 2021, with concentrate production increasing by around 3.7% and solvent extraction-electrowinning (SXEW) declining by about 3.9% respectively. World refined copper production increased by about 1.4% in 2021 with primary production (electrolytic and electrowinning) up by 0.6% and secondary production (from scrap) up by 6% respectively.

WBMS indicates 2021 copper metal balance deficit FEB 16 - The copper market recorded a deficit of 397 kt in January to December 2021 which follows a deficit of 690 kt in the whole of 2020. Reported stocks (including LME off warrant stocks) at the end of December 2021 were 180.4 kt lower than at the end of December 2020. Net deliveries out of Shanghai warehouses were 37.0 kt and Comex stocks decreased by 7.5 kt. Demand is measured on an apparent basis and it is likely that the full effects of national lockdowns will have

distorted the trade statistics. No allowance is made in the consumption calculation for unreported stock changes, particularly in the Chinese government stockpile. World mine production in January to December 2021 was 21.37 Mt which was 3.8 per cent higher than the whole of 2020. Global refined production for January to December 2021 was 24.66 Mt, up 2.1 per cent y-o-y with significant increases recorded in China (up 466 kt) and in Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

India (up 151 kt). Global demand in 2021 was 25.06 Mt, which was 0.9 per cent higher than the total recorded for the whole of 2020. Chinese apparent demand for 2021 was 13.89 Mt which was 4.4 per cent lower than the comparable period in 2020. Reported output of semi manufactures in China rose by 3.8 per cent. US refined copper production was 1022.7 kt, which was 105 kt higher than 2020.


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SCC continues organic growth track FEB 1 - Southern Copper Corporation 2021 production decreased 4.3% y-o-y to 958,200 t. However, this mark was 1.6% higher than the year plan of 943,000 t. Production fell 8.5% in 4Q21 q-o-q due to lower ore grades. Buenavista and Toquepala operations are purposely mining lower ore grades in 2021 and 2022 (922,000 t planned), whereas the targets are 1 Mt in 2023 and 1.8 Mt by 2030. The Southern Peru Copper Corporation (SPCC) Los Chancas greenfield project envisions an open-pit mine with a combined operation of concentrator and SX-EW processes to produce 130,000 t of copper and 7,500 t of

molybdenum annually. The estimated capital investment is US$ 2,600 million and the project is expected to begin operating in 2027. Elsewhere SPCC has been recognised for its assistance to the area around the Tia Maria site during the pandemic, so remains hopeful of securing Peruvian government support at some point. In Mexico, the Buenavista Zinc concentrator (20 kt copper) is due to enter operation in 2023. The El Pilar open pit project is due to start up in 2024 with 36 kt SX-EW cathode capacity.

BHP production performance JAN 19 - BHP Operational Review for half year to 31 December highlighted three years with no fatalities. Total copper production decreased by 12 per cent to 742 kt. Full year production is trending towards the low end of the guidance range. Escondida copper production decreased by 15 per cent to 488 kt due to concentrator feed grade decline despite a record performance for material mined. Pampa Norte copper production increased by 40 per cent to 136 kt, reflecting the continued ramp up of the Spence Growth Option (SGO). Olympic Dam copper production

decreased by 56 per cent to 44 kt as a result of the major smelter maintenance campaign in the period. The maintenance campaign was completed in January 2022 and ramp up to full capacity is now expected by April 2022. The full scope of the maintenance campaign was delivered, including the rebuild of the flash furnace and its ancillary equipment and refurbishment of the acid plant, which has resulted in significant plant improvements. Lastly, Antamina copper production increased by one per cent to 74 kt.

FCX seeks to increase recoveries JAN 26 - Freeport McMoRan capital expenditures totalled US$ 0.8 bn in Q4 2021 and US$ 2.1 bn (including $1.25 bn for major mining projects and $0.2 bn for the Indonesia smelter projects) for the year ended 2021. Capital expenditures for the year 2022 are expected to approximate US$ 4.7 bn (US$ 3.3 bn excluding the Indonesia smelter projects), including US$ 2.0 bn for major mining projects. Seven FCX sites already have Copper Mark assurance and four more are under assessment. The Lone Star copper leach project has exceeded its initial 200 Mlb design capacity and produced approximately 235 Mlb of copper in

2021. FCX is evaluating an expansion of the Bagdad operation in 2022, and continues to advance initiatives to recover additional copper from its large existing leach stockpiles. Milling rates at Cerro Verde’s concentrator facilities averaged 376,700 t of ore per day in Q4 2021 and 380,300 tpd for 2021. Subject to ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 protocols, Cerro Verde is targeting milling rates to increase to 400,000 tpd during 2022. Lastly, FCX continues to evaluate a large-scale expansion at El Abra to process additional sulphide material and to achieve higher copper recoveries.

the highest number of workers and was most affected by absenteeism, completion is now planned for the beginning of 2023. At Zaldívar construction of the Chloride Leach project was completed during January 2022 and it is now being commissioned. During 2022 negotiations are scheduled with the supervisors’ unions at Zaldívar (August), Los Pelambres (October) and Antucoya (November), and with the workers’ union at Antucoya (September).

SMM sets out business aims FEB 15 - FEB 15 - President & Representative Director Akira Nozaki announces the formulation of the Sumitomo Metal Mining (SMM) 2021 3-Year Business Plan - Renewed Challenge for Change - including its ‘4 Challenges’, from 3 of which the following are extracted: Increasing corporate value Production launch in the Quebrada Blanca 2 (QB2) project (Chile) is set for the second half of 2022. Annual copper production of 71,000 t (SMM’s interest) is planned in FY2024, and it is expected to reach 270,000 t in copper output interest thanks to the contribution to the QB2 project. Improving core businesses sustainability Ensuring stable operation for electrolytic copper production of 450,000 tpy, and strengthen production capacity through the improvement of various facilities with an eye on the establishment of an annual 460,000 t production system. Adapting to changes in the social environment Investments totalling 12 billion yen are planned to reduce GHG emissions during the 2021 3-Year Plan.

Anglo American is optimistic

cobalt production in 2021. I am especially proud of our Clean Cobalt and Copper Framework which ensures responsibly sourcing in line with OECD and RMAP guidance’.

JAN 27 - Copper production in Q4 decreased by 4% to 160,700 t. Production from Los Bronces decreased by 11% to 84,900 t in the quarter due to planned lower grades and recovery. At Collahuasi, Q4 attributable production increased by 11% to 66,000 t, and production from El Soldado decreased by 23% to 9,800 t. Chile ‘s central zone continues to face severe drought conditions. Production guidance for 2022 is 680,000 - 760,000 t.

Praise for Metalkol RTR team FEB 18 - Benedikt Sobotka, CEO of ERG, posted: ‘Another good day at Metalkol RTR - all credit to Paul Viljoen (General Manager), Wezi Banda (Head of Process: Operations), and their excellent team for achieving record copper and

FEB 2 - Glencore own-sourced copper production of 1,195,700 t was 62,400 t (5%) lower than 2020, mainly due to the Mopani disposal (23,800 t), expected lower copper grades at Antapaccay (14,800 t) and lower copper byproducts from our mature zinc and nickel mines (26,600 t). Own sourced cobalt production of 31,300 t was 3,900 t (14%) higher than 2020 due to the limited restart of production at Mutanda in 2021. The Ernest Henry copper mine disposal also completed in early January 2022. African copper operations produced 277.2 kt copper in 2021, the same amount as Collahuasi’s copper in concentrates output. Antamina reached the 150 kt Cu in conc. level.

Antofagasta output and projects JAN 19 - Group copper production for 2021 was 721,500 tonnes, with 178,900 t in Q4. As at the end of 2021 the Los Pelambres Expansion project was 68% complete (design, procurement and construction). The final estimated project costs are under review, considering the impact of COVID-19, higher input and logistics costs and project workers absenteeism. The completion schedule for the water supply system remains unchanged and is expected in H2 2022. For the concentrator plant expansion, which has

Glencore reports 2021 progress

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Nornickel Sulphur Programme update JAN 21 - Nornickel is implementing an unprecedented Sulphur Programme at the Nadezhda and Copper smelters in Norilsk. The programme will make sure sulphur dioxide emissions in Norilsk, Russia’s northernmost city, are down by 90% after 2025. The total cost is estimated at over RUB 300 bn. The programme is a part of the Clean Air federal project and includes emission capture facilities. The technology includes the intermediate production of sulphuric acid with a high degree of sulphur dioxide recovery. The technology captures 99% or more of the gas from the units on which it is installed. A total of 15 units are under construction at the same time. The largest equipment - massive heat exchangers - have reached the Arctic seaport of Dudinka. The disassembled heat exchangers, each weighing almost 200 tonnes, were transported to St. Petersburg, where they were assembled

NOV - Madeco by Nexans will provide 1,595 km of cables for the interconnection of solar panels to the photovoltaic project Finis Terrae Extension in Antofagasta in Chile, with annual output equivalent to the consumption of 190 thousand households. Enel Green Power and GES, the project’s main contractor, place their trust in the French group. Finis Terrae is a photovoltaic solar park divided into two stages. Through this second phase, the aim is to increase the installed capacity by 126 MW, to reach a total of 286 MW. An annual production of 389 GWh is estimated. A heat exchanger at Dudinka port. Photo: Nornickel

and tested at a special site. The 19 metre long units were delivered to Dudinka by an ice-class vessel. The unloading and transportation of the heat exchangers was handled by logistics company Mammut

Rus, which has unique experience. Two Liebherr cranes with a total lifting capacity of over a thousand tonnes were mobilised to unload the equipment at Dudinka port.

Polyus equipment orders for FLSmidth OCT 8 - FLSmidth has received an order to supply a large package of process equipment for the construction of a new concentrator as part of an expansion of Polyus Blagodatnoye gold mine. The DKK 350 M order was booked in Q4 2021 and has already become effective. FLSmidth will supply a range of key mineral processing equipment for the new concentrator, which will deliver a total capacity increase of 8 Mtpy. The order comprises solutions across the entire process flowsheet, including a ball mill,

flotation technology, thickening, gravity gold concentrators, CIL (carbon-in-leach) circuit, acid wash and detox, screens, pumps and cyclones. A digital automation package is also included. FLSmidth Moscow will provide site services as part of the agreement. Equipment delivery is expected to be complete in 2023.

This new order for IPCC equipment comprises a semi-mobile crushing station with the TSUV Gyratory Crusher, an apron feeder and a 1.6 km long overland conveyor, which will transport the material to the concentrator. The equipment has been customised for the project and includes a modular design with opposite truck ramps and enlarged DEC 20 - FLSmidth also chosen to supply discharge hopper. Components were In-Pit Crushing & Conveying (IPCC) selected due to their ability to perform equipment for the upstream section in harsh conditions. of Polyus’ Blagodatnoye gold mine.

Capstone and Mantos merge assets NOV 30 - Capstone Mining Corp. and Mantos Copper (Bermuda) Limited have entered into a definitive agreement to combine. Upon completion of the transaction, Mantos will be renamed Capstone Copper Corp. and will remain headquartered in Vancouver, B.C. Also upon completion, former Capstone and Mantos shareholders will collectively own 60.75% and 39.25% of

Madeco connects up Finis Terrae

Capstone Copper respectively. John MacKenzie, Executive Chairman and Founder of Mantos, will become the Chief Executive Officer of Capstone Copper. Darren Pylot, President & CEO and Director of Capstone, will become Executive Chair of Capstone Copper. The combined 2021 copper production base is over 175,000 t of copper from four mines.

The new firm will see over 45% production growth by 2024 to 260,000 tpy from fully-financed projects, with Mantos Blancos currently ramping up and construction underway at Mantoverde. Further transformational growth up to 380,000 tpy output is foreseen with the development of Santo Domingo.

MAR 17 - Nexans France is supplying offshore and onshore cabling for the Dieppe - Le Tréport wind farm, which has a capacity of 496 MW.

August welcome for new Hall of Fame inductees NOV 4 - The Canadian Mining Hall of Fame (CMHF) will welcome five new industry legends who have demonstrated leadership and outstanding achievement in the mining industry: F. Dale Corman, Maureen C. Jensen, Phillip John Mackey, Robert Quartermain and Peter Risby. Since its inception in 1989, the CMHF has recognized 195 exemplary leaders who were catalysts in establishing Canada’s mining industry as a global leader. Each of these men and women embody the important role mining plays in society and have inspired future generations in mining. The 2022 inductees are no different. The CMHF will welcome these five new members at the 2022 CMHF Gala Dinner & Induction Ceremony to be held on 18 August 2022 at the heritage Palais Royale Ballroom in Toronto. Limited tickets will be available for purchase in the spring of 2022 . Founded in 1988, the CMHF is a charitable organisation.

Large horizontal continuous caster DEC 17 - HME (Hailiang Metal Europe) has placed an order with SMS group for a four-strand, fully continuous horizontal caster for brass billets. The new caster will replace an existing vertical semi-continuous caster at the company’s Serravalle location in Italy. The manufacturer of brass profiles intends to achieve consistent product quality and boost its productivity significantly. The new caster produces brass extrusion billets with a diameter of 245 to 400 mm for the subsequent production of profiles using extrusion. The annual production

capacity is up to 150,000 t. The scope of supply includes a pressurecontrolled casting furnace with a capacity of approx. 35 tons, high-performance molds for efficient strand solidification, the withdrawal device with the highly advanced Softcast drawing cycle, a flying saw, the exit roller table with separating device, an automatic cooling water control system for constant process conditions, A horizontal caster for extrusion billets made from copper alloys. Photo: SMS group and the hydraulic unit. The basic digitalisation package consisting will assist the operators to increase process The new continuous caster is scheduled to of SMS-Metrics (process data acquisition) transparency, plant availability and help to go on stream in the second half of 2022. and Smart Alarm (plant fault monitoring) reduce maintenance costs to a minimum. Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1


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New semiconductor plants for JX Nippon D E C 8 - JX Nipp on M et als & Mining Corporation has decided to increase its capacity to produce sputtering targets for semiconductors and treated rolled copper foil, demand for which is expected to grow. The company will establish t wo new factories in Hitachi, Ibaraki Prefecture. It plans to invest a total of around 30.0 bn yen in the two factories. The company will spend around 14.0 bn

yen to establish a new factory to carry out melting and casting and rolling processes in the HITACHI HOKUBU Industrial Park, located in Hitachi. Start of operations could be by second half of its FY 2023. A total of 16.0 bn yen will be invested to establish a new factory at the Shirogane area in the Hitachi Works. To date the Hitachi Works has carried out surface treatment, the final process in treating rolled

copper foil, but only the Kurami Works (Koza-gun, Kanagawa Prefecture) currently carries out rolling processes. A production line for rolling processes will be installed in the new factory, which will reinforce business continuity planning systems and increase production capacity by approximately 25%. Start of operations could be by first half of its FY 2024.

Western Copper and Gold COO Western Copper and Gold Corporation has appointed Ken Engquist as Chief Operating Officer effective 15 January 2022. Mr. Engquist will oversee operations for Western Copper and Gold and its wholly owned Casino Copper-Gold Deposit in Yukon, Canada. He previously led the infrastructure engineering for the underground design of the Oyu Tolgoi mine in Mongolia for Rio Tinto.

East Alton upgrade for Wieland D E C 7 - To meet the increasing customer demand for sustainable flat-rolled products of copper and copper alloys, Wieland Rolled Products North America is to invest US$ 52 million into its casting operations in East Alton, IL. Investment plans include the construction of a new state of the ar t casting unit and further building expansion, creating a platform for future growth investments.

The long-term objective for its East Alton hub is to retain market leadership in quality, alloy portfolio, and to respond to customers’ growth expectations across all market segments se r ve d. T h e i nve s t m e n t project will begin in spring of 2022 with an expected completion date in 2024. Wieland’s origins date back to 1820 in Ulm, Germany. The improvement will include significant technical upgrades. Photo: Wieland

SK ecoplant acquires TES e-waste firm FEB 22 - The SK Group affiliate SK ecoplant has acquired TES, a Singapore-based global electronic waste recycling firm, as part of a longterm plan to establish itself as the leader in the green service market. SK ecoplant will be able to lead the E-waste market by helping to create a zero-waste, zero-pollution, circular

AUG 7 - Lebronze alloys appointed Alexandra Dumont as the first Chief Operating Officer of the Group from 1 June 2021. Her main mission is to improve the Group performance by focusing on investments, operational excellence and strategic projects. Alexandra joined LBA in 2013. She graduated in Management and Strategy at Université Panthéon Sorbonne. Michel Dumont remains President of Lebronze alloys and will focus on building the long-term strategy of the Company.

economy, mostly by recycling used materials and making use of them as energy sources. TES is the world’s leading IT sustainable lifecycle services provider, operating 43 facilities located in 21 countries. SK ecoplant will focus on IT asset disposition (ITAD) - recycling of digital devices in ways that remove risks

concerning compliance, data security and environmental responsibility, and battery recycling, which encompasses dismantling batteries from electronic devices and electric vehicles (EVs) and recovering metals and rarer elements.

gas industries. The current product of ferings of Busby are ex tensive and specially designed to meet the needs of their sophisticated global customer base. “Busby’s consistent and technically outstanding exper tise and ser vice have m ad e t h e m a tr u e gl o ba l

Science Academy welcomes SIPS founder

Dr. Florian Kongoli, FLOGEN President and President of SIPS 2022, with (right) Prof. Jean-Marie Dubois, President of the Lorraine Academy of Science

KME set to acquire Aurubis FRP assets

leader in cus tomer ser vice and par tner to customers in the aerospace specialty alloys business.” says Dr. Erwin Mayr, Chief Executive O f f icer of the W iela n d G roup. The transaction closed on 31 December 2021.

FEB 17 - Aurubis has signed a sales and purchase agreement with KME SE for a partial sale of its flat rolled products segment. According to the agreement, the Zutphen (Netherlands) site as well as the slitting centers in Birmingham (United Kingdom), Dolný Kubín (Slovakia), and Mortara (Italy) with a total of about 360 employees will be sold. As announced, the FRP plants in Stolberg, Pori, and Buffalo will remain in the Aurubis Group. KME SE is the operational subsidiary of INTEK Holding and, with plants in Germany, France, Italy, China, and the US, is one of the leading manufacturers of copper and copper alloy products. Transaction closure is due summer 2022 following relevant approvals.

OCT 14 - Dr. Florian Kongoli gave a presentation where he became an honorary member of the Lorraine Academy of Sciences. Prof. Jean MarieDubois announced Dr. Kongoli becoming an Honorary Member of the Lorraine Academy of Sciences in France due to his greatly beneficial work in the fields of sustainability, technology and applied sciences.

STARS Outreach, a not-for-profit international organisation focused on promoting science and sustainability through education, governance, technology, management and science, as well as in his role as CEO of FLOGEN technologies, a high-tech applied research institute focused on sustainability through developing sustainable technologies and making existing technologies more sustainable. The award was presented to him by the mayor of Nancy, France, Mr. Mathieu Klein.

Busby acquisition marks further Wieland growth JA N 5 - Wieland has acquired Busby Metals, an industry-leading service provider with a diverse instock inventory of specialised, highper formance copper-based alloys. Busby serves a wide range of markets around the world, with a focus on the aerospace as well as oil and

First COO for Lebronze alloys

OCT 13 - Dr. Florian Kongoli received the Gold Medal of Nancy. Dr. Kongoli was given this honour due to his work as President of FLOGEN

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Kamoa-Kakula going through its Phases JAN 10 - Ivanhoe Mines says Kamoa Copper produced 105,884 tonnes of copper in concentrate in 2021, with record monthly production of 18,853 t in December. The 2022 annual production guidance for the KamoaKakula Copper Complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is between 290,000 and 340,000 t of copper in concentrate. The Phase 2 expansion (3.8 Mtpy concentrator) is now 80% complete and expected to start operations in Q2 2022. Copper flotation recoveries also

achieved a record 88.5% in December. Phase 3 also includes the construction of a direct-to-blister smelter, with a production capacity of 500,000 tpy of blister copper. Basic engineering, led by China Nerin Engineering, is ongoing and expected to be completed in Q2 2022. The planned smelter is to be built adjacent to the Phase 1 and 2 concentrator plants, and is designed to meet the International Finance Corporation’s emissions standards.

Steady figures from Kaz Minerals NOV 16 - Copper production was 223.9 kt in the nine months to 30 September 2021, in line with the 295 kt target, but down 3% on the same period in 2020, as a 3% increase in ore processed was offset by lower grades processed. Aktogay copper production increased by 3% to 102.3 kt (9m 2020: 99.3 kt) as sulphide ore processed rose by 6% and the plant achieved an improved recovery rate. Bozshakol copper production fell by 10% to 81.6 kt (9m 2020: 90.7 kt) resulting from lower average grades and associated recovery rates, as expected.

East Region & Bozymchak copper production remained at 40.0 kt (9m 2020: 40.0 kt) as higher output from Bozymchak offset slightly lower grades at East Region. The Q3 2021 copper production decreased by 6% to 73.6 kt (Q2 2021: 77.9 kt) due to extended planned maintenance works at Aktogay. Its copper cathode production from oxide ore rose to 18.3 kt in the period (9m 2020: 16.7 kt) due to improved copper leaching rates and increased volumes of ore under irrigation.

Rio Tinto feels effects of Covid JAN 18 - Rio Tinto mined copper production of 494 kt in 2021 was 7% lower than 2020 due to lower recoveries and throughput at Escondida (279.5 kt; -17%) as a result of the prolonged impact of COVID-19, partly offset by higher recoveries and grades at Oyu Tolgoi in Mongolia (54.6 kt; +9%) and Kennecott in the US (159.4 kt; +14%). Oyu Tolgoi underground project has completed construction of Materials Handling System 1 with commissioning expected to be

completed in the coming weeks. Kennecott refined copper production was 143.3 kt (+69% y-o-y) as a result of improved performance through most of the year relative to 2020, despite the furnace failure in September 2021. The smelter was safely restarted in late October and has been stable since. In 2020, there was also significant downtime following an earthquake and major maintenance.

MMG keeps fair outlook JAN 24 - Mr Li Liangang has been appointed as the Interim CEO of MMG since 6 January. The fourth quarter of 2021 saw MMG reach total copper production (copper cathode plus copper in concentrate) of 339,682 tonnes for the full year 2021 (-12% y-o-y) due to lower ore grades and over 100 days of community roadblocks at Las Bambas as well as lower ore grades at Kinsevere as the site prepares to transition to the mining and processing of the sulphide ore body. Total zinc production of 249,767 t in 2021 was 2% above 2020.

Las Bambas’ annual production in 2021 was 290,097 tonnes (-7% y-o-y), whilst Kinsevere reached 48,017 t (-33%). Development of the Chalcobamba pit at Las Bambas is expected from mid-2022, followed by first production during the second half, allowing for 300 - 320 kt guidance. Copper cathode production at Kinsevere for 2022 is expected to be in the range of 45 50 kt. TRIF was 1.09 per milllion hours worked in 2021 (2020: 1.38). MMG is based in Melbourne in Australia.

The Tsumeb (Namibia) Custom Smelter

JAN 10 - Dundee Precious Metals (DPM) announced that its Tsumeb smelter processed approximately 52,000 tonnes of complex concentrate during the fourth quarter, reflecting an 8-day maintenance shutdown to repair a water leak in the offgas system. As a result, the smelter processed approximately 189,700 t of complex concentrate in 2021. The Tsumeb smelter was constructed in 1962. Its expansion from 240 ktpy to 370 ktpy feedstock has been proposed in recent times (2019). Chelopech mine produced 34.7 million lb copper in 2021, in line with annual guidance. In Q4 Ada Tepe recorded record gold production.

Teck QB2 soon to come onstream FEB 23 - Overall Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 project progress has reached 77% completion. Production is expected in the second half of 2022. The desalination plant construction and the tailings starter dam construction are more than 85% complete. Production guidance for 2022 is 273 290 kt copper. Teck is currently ranked #1 in the Metals and Mining industry on the S&P Corporate Sustainability Assessment.

Cerro Colorado adapts to water use ban

new primary crusher, one of the four largest in the world, from low winter temperatures. At an elevation of 3,500 m, the Aconcagua Valley is one of the largest copper deposits with the best grade in the world, containing 30% of Chile’s copper reserves. The Transfer System will extend the production of this operation for at least 30 years, to sustain the current levels of ore processing after the closure of the underground mine in 2023.

JAN 5 - BHP said it will adapt its Cerro Colorado copper mine in Chile to lessen the impact of a recent court ruling that prevents it from drawing water for its operations, while it waits for the latest decision from the First Environmental Court of Chile’s northern city of Antofagasta. The court decided to issue a new measure prohibiting it from extracting water from the Lagunillas aquifer for an additional 90 days, or until it determines that there is no risk of damage at Cerro Colorado, which produced 68,900 t of copper in 2020. At first, BHP will halt one of Cerro Colorado’s plants and operate the remaining facilities with some limitations. It will also bring forward vacations and implement home working. The adopted measures make it possible to face the contingency responsibly. The mine’s environmental licence runs to end 2023.

Codelco invests in Aconcagua infrastructure JAN 19 - The inauguration of the Codelco Traspaso Andina system has taken place. Company President Juan Benavides led the ceremony together with the President of the Republic, Sebastián Piñera. The has a total investment of US$ 1,455 million and whose construction lasted eight years, will mean that the more than 50 pieces of equipment currently used in the crushing and ore transport process will be replaced by a single system of 14 equipment. As part of its infrastructure a 52 m high dome in which the trucks unload (a cavern of 70,000 cubic metres) protects the

Good year for DPM

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Synergies cannot flourish without regulation

Future Energy Transition Panel

JAN 27 - January’s IERC - International Electronics Recycling Congress 2022 held from in Salzburg saw nearly 200 attendees and a further 50 virtually. The opening EU Green Deal Workshop presenters included: Federico Magalini, Director Sustainability Services Du Pont / Sofies UK Sustainability Consultancy; Paolo Falcioni, Director General of APPLiA, the Home Appliance Trade Association based in Brussels; and representing the EERA - European Electronics Recyclers Association was Kurt Kyck, CEO of KMK Metals Recycling in Ireland, which processes WEEE and metals. Inputs from the Workshop would feed a joint position paper on implementation of the Green Deal. As is often the case, the market moves ahead of the regulators:

MAR 29 - The International Copper Association (ICA) is hosting a Future Energy Transition panel workshop during the CRU World Copper Conference on 29 March 2022. ICA’s program will cover the latest intelligence on copper demand. This year’s new research explores select global trends including steady substitution impact, copper’s material advantage in vehicle systems and emerging demand in power cable.

JAN 19 - (EERA Press Release) A full recycling economy with market actors cooperating along the value chain, better collection processes, high quality recycling, appropriate regulatory framework, eradication of illegal practices and product design integrating a life-cycle approach is what EERA envisages. An independent Sofies survey for EERA found there is a need for sustainable rules, clear thresholds and a climate that stimulates investments in new recycling technologies, as well as an urgency to move away from a Directive and

DRC Mining Week Boliden has invested in its environmental initiatives. Photo: ICM

towards a Regulation to address the striking lack of harmonisation (and related negative impacts) between Member States WEEE management systems. Keynote speaker Nancy Gillis of the Global Electronics Council observed that the Basel Convention is designed to make the linear economy more sustainable not to make the economy circular.

CRU World Copper Conference MAR 29-30 - The CRU World Copper Conference 2022 will be held live on 29-30 March in Santiago, Chile as part of CESCO Week (28-31 March), in which around 2,000 delegates are usually present. Day 1 will cover: Key risks in global copper markets; Technological pathways to lowering emissions; and Scrap. Day 2 includes exChina smelting projects, new project development, green finance and decarbonisation policy, as well as a detailed financial and pricing session.

Mining Peru 2022 APR 6-7 - The 3rd International Congress and Exhibition Mining Peru 2022 takes place in Lima on 6-7 April, organised by Vostock Capital. The opening session is ‘Mining Prospects for the Next Decade in Peru and Latam’. Forty-six investment projects on construction, expansion, and modernisation of mines with the development timeframe 2022-2028 from Peru are being highlighted. There is also a dedicated renewable energy technology exhibition. Over 200 attendees are expected. Mining investment in Peru will reach US$ 11.2 bn between 2021 and 2022. The US$ 2.1 bn capex Yanacocha Sulfuros copper-gold project. An investment decision is expected in the second half of 2022 with a three-

Scheduled speakers include: Ragnar Udd, President Minerals Americas for BHP; Octavio Araneda, CEO of Codelco; Robert Friedland, Founder and Executive Co-Chairman of Ivanhoe Mines; Jorge Gomez, Exectuive President of Minera Collahuasi; Bold Bataar, Chief Executive Copper for Rio Tinto; and Daniel Peltonen, President of Boliden Smelters. A high quality exhibition area runs alongside the event, including ALS Global, Acradis, Bechtel, Boston Consulting Group, Finning, FLSmidth, Haver & Boecker Niagara, SRK Consulting, Weir Minerals, Worley and several producers.

JUN 1-3 - DRC Mining Week Expo & Conference is due to take place from 1-3 June 2022 in Lubumbashi, DR Congo. The Conference will cover commodities, technologies & innovation (e.g. in processing & beneficiation), trade & collaboration, and policies & regulation. Diamond sponsors include EGC, ERG Africa and Glencore. The organiser is VUKA Group.

IWCC Joint Meeting MAY 7-9 - The 2022 IWCC Joint Meeting between the IWCC and copper producers will take place in Rome from 7 - 9 May. The theme of the Joint Meeting is Sustainability and the Green Agenda. Registrations are due by 1st April. All IWCC members and all copper producers are invited to attend. Representatives of the metal exchanges, CME, LME & SHFE, representatives of organisations involved in the Copper Industry, e.g. ICSG, ICA and others, have also been invited to attend.

wire/Tube 2022

year development period. Open pit operations are expected to start in 2024 with low production. From 2025, production of 500,000 oz of gold equivalent is planned. SEP 4 - Mine Manager Edwin Colque told attendees of an Institute of Mining Engineers event that the planned methodology will enable obtaining copper cathodes, which will represent 40% of income. A flowsheet for heap leach and SX-EW production is envisaged. FEB 8 - Newmont Corporation is to acquire Compania de Minas Buenaventura’s 43.65% interest in Minera Yanacocha. By 2023, the US$ 1.26 bn Zafranal copper and gold open pit mine and concentrator project is due to start construction. Project operator Compania Minera Zafranal (CMZ) is 80% owned by Teck Resources at time of publication.

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

JUN 20-24 - The wire and Tube tradefairs are taking place from 20-24 June 2022 in Duesseldorf. The last wire 2018 saw 1,442 exhibitors and 42,248 visitors in total over a net space of 65,222 sqm. This year Tube Manufacturing will feature in Hall 1, with Halls 3,4,5,6 and 7a also Tube. The wire show is in Halls 9-15.

IMPC 2022 AUG 21-25 - The XXXI International Mineral Processing Congress (IMPC 2022) organised by AusIMM takes place as a hybrid event in both Melbourne and Online. Sessions will span Industry Challenges, Advances in Mineral Processing and Future Operations. There will be a small accompanying exhibition.


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Sepänkatu 2 FI-39700 Parkano Finland Tel: +358 3 440180 E-mail: Web:




10 Cowley Road, Poole, Dorset BH17 0UJ, UK Tel: +44 1202 681 501 Fax: +44 1202 681 502 Email: Web: Contact: Malcolm Ladd


Danieli & C Officine Meccaniche S.p.A. Danieli Breda – Extrusion and Forging technology since 1950

Hernando de Aguirre 162 Of. 806 Santiago, Chile Tel: 0056 2335 2217 Fax: 0056 2321 8280 E-mail: Web: Contact: Alejandro (Alex) R. Lillo

Via Galileo Galilei, 40 20092 Cinisello Balsamo (MI), Italy Tel: 00039 0432 1958111


Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web: Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi

Fax: 0049 2354 7082 200 Email: Web: Contact: Mr. Gabriele Macedonio

Mettop GmbH

Kumerankatu 2 FI-11100 Riihimäki Finland Tel: 00358 (0)20 755 4200 Fax: 00358 (0)20 755 4320 E-mail: Web: Contact: Hannu Mansikkaviita



Presezzi Extrusion Group

Peter-Tunner-Strasse 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)3842 81787 Fax: 0043 (0)3842 1787-8 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Andreas Filzwieser


Via Rovereto 1/D 20871 Vimercate (MB) ITALY E-mail:

FURNACES Kumera Corporation

UrbanGold GmbH

Peter-Tunner-Str. 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)664 88364080 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Stefan Konetschnik

Kumerankatu 2 FI-11100 Riihimäki Finland Tel: 00358 (0)20 755 4200

Gallinagh Monaghan Town Co. Monaghan Ireland Tel: 00353 (0)47 80500 Fax: 00353 (0)47 80501 E Mail: Web: Contact: Sales Office


Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web: Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi

Fax: 00358 (0)20 755 4320


Mettop GmbH

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Contact: Hannu Mansikkaviita


Küttner GmbH & Co. KG Peter-Tunner-Str. 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)3842 81787 Fax: 0043 (0)3842 1787-8 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Andreas Filzwieser


Hernando de Aguirre 162 Of. 806 Santiago, Chile Tel: 0056 2335 2217 Fax: 0056 2321 8280 E-mail: Web: Contact: Alejandro (Alex) R. Lillo

32 Industrial Avenue Thomastown 3074, Victoria Australia Tel: +61 3 8301 7100 Fax: +61 3 9359 4076 E-mail: Web: Contact: Sebastian Ortega Galli

Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web:


Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web: Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi

Mettop GmbH

Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi

Hernando de Aguirre 162 Of. 806 Santiago, Chile Tel: 0056 2335 2217 Fax: 0056 2321 8280 E-mail: Web: Contact: Alejandro (Alex) R. Lillo

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Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

Peter-Tunner-Strasse 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)3842 81787 Fax: 0043 (0)3842 1787-8 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Andreas Filzwieser


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Peter-Tunner-Str. 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)664 88364080 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Stefan Konetschnik

Why not come and join the rest of us now?


Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany


Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web: Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi

REFRACTORIES AND INSULATION HarbisonWalker International

1305 Cherrington Parkway, Suite 100, Moon Township, PA 15108 USA Tel: 001 905 977 7694 E-mail: Web: Contact: Joe Rigby

SMELTING – SECONDARY Peter-Tunner-Strasse 4 A-8700 Leoben Austria Tel: 0043 (0)3842 81787 Fax: 0043 (0)3842 1787-8 E-mail: Web: Contact: Dr. Andreas Filzwieser


Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics Limited

Mill Lane, Rainford St Helens, Merseyside WA11 8LP, UK Tel: 0044 (0)1744 887939 E-mail: Web: Contact: Craig Brennan

List your products and services here right now

Alfredstr. 28 D-45130 Essen Germany Tel: 0049 201 7293 0 Fax: 0049 201 7293 134 Email: Web:

RHI Magnesita GmbH

Kranichberggasse 6 A-1100 Vienna Austria Tel: 0043 (0) 50 213 – 6200 Fax: 0043 (0) 50 213 – 6391 E-mail: Web:

Küttner GmbH & Co. KG

Contact: Dr. Farzad Salehi Via Torino 1 15122 - San Michele (AL) P.O. Box 362 – 15121 Italy Tel: 0039 0131 363636 Fax: 0039 0131 361611 E-mail: Web: Contact: Geminiano Chiesa


Hernando de Aguirre 162 Of. 806

Primetals Technologies USA LLC

Santiago Chile Tel: 0056 2335 2217 Fax: 0056 2321 8280

40 Crescent Street Worcester, Massachusetts, USA 01605 Tel: 001 508 755 6111 Fax: 001 508 849 6573 E-mail: Web: Contact: David Gow

E-mail: Web: Contact: Alejandro (Alex) R. Lillo

TUYERES - PUNCHING, SILENCING, PYROMETRY Heath & Sherwood (1964) Limited

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS Alex Stewart (International) Corporation

Alex Stewart International 2b Sefton Business Park, Netherton Liverpool, Merseyside L30 1RD, UK Tel: 0044 (0)151 525 1499 Fax: 0044 (0) 151 523 3760 E-mail: Web: Contact: Stephen Russell

512 Government Road West P.O. Box 340 Kirkland Lake, Ontario, Canada, P2N 3J2 Tel: 001 705 567 5313 E-mail: Web: Contact: Michael Marinigh

Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

SAMPLE CATEGORIES Ageing Ovens Analytical Instruments Analytical Analysis Apparel Auto Firing Systems Automation & PLC Control Systems Bar Code Labelling Camera Detection System for Mills Casting Casting Equipment Castings Certified Reference Material Coil Storage Systems Combustion & Burners Computer Software Consumables Cranes & Hoists DC Extrusion Billet Casting Deburring Tools & Equipment Die Heaters Embossing Equipment Engineering Design Environmental Control Extrusion Equipment Extrusion Presses Extrusion Temperature Measurement Extrusion Tooling Fans, High Temperature Filters and Filter Materials Filtration Systems Foil & Strip Processing Foundry Alloys Foundry Equipment Furnaces, Billet Heating Furnaces, Heat Treatment Furnaces, High Temperature Insulation Materials Furnaces, Melting Furnaces, Melting, Dross & Scrap Furnaces, Melting, Tilting Rotary Furnaces, Open top & closed type for anodes & cathodes Induction Heating Industrial Gases Inspection Systems for Mills Lubricants Marking & Automatic Identification Materials Handling Measurement & Testing Mechanical Handling Metal Circulation Molten Metal Level Control Molten Metal Technology Non-Contact Temperature Measurement Packaging Processing Lines Production Management Systems Project Management Recycling Recycling Equipment Refractories Refractory Installation Roller Sleeves Rolling Mills Rolling Mill Automation & Process Consulting Rolling Mill Technology Rolling Technical Courses Sawing & Cutting Scrap Processing Slitting & Cut to length Lines Smelter Equipment Stockholder, Trader Service Centre Storage Systems Thermocouples Thermocouple Protection Sheaths Tool & Die Shop Transfer Belts Used Machinery


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New capacity to be introduced at Revere FEB 20 - “Revere’s business is the strongest it has been in over 20 years,” said Amy O’Shaughnessy, Vice President of Sales and Marketing, “Revere has been hiring employees for several months in a row, and we have orders on the books through most of 2022 already.” MAR 9 - Revere Copper Products, Inc. has been an important copper supplier for the last 221 years. It is moving forward with two large capital projects that will bring much needed added capacity to the supply chain in the United States. Revere’s initial investment will increase its copper bar output by 30 million pounds over the next couple years. The new conform technology bar lines will add to the cross-sectional range currently produced, and will provide redundancy with the sizes most in demand. This project’s anticipated completion date is at the end of 2022. Revere is also investing in new melting technology. A new Coreless furnace will result in 30 million pounds of additional casting capacity to feed its sheet, strip and plate lines. This project is scheduled to complete in late Q1, 2023.

View inside Revere Copper Products in East Rome, NY. Photo: Revere Copper

Both of these projects are designed to be scalable with future demand. As the market continues to grow, Revere will be positioned to grow with it. Revere Copper Products is a fully integrated copper mill producing over 100 million pounds of copper every year. With three furnaces, a cast shop, rolling mill, bar mill and more at their Revere Park location in east Rome, NY the company melts down copper and casts four different sized ingots or slabs.

ISRI 2022 Convention report MAR 22 - By the opening general session of ISRI 2022 on 22 March in Las Vegas, attendance had topped 5,000 and continued to grow, association leaders said. “Despite the lingering effects of COVID, and not to mention a disturbing conflict in Eastern Europe, we have delegates from more than 43 countries at ISRI 2022,” said Convention Chair Stephen Moss of Stephen A. Moss Inc. “Our estimates suggest we have more first time attendees than ever before. Our average attendee is getting younger as well.” ISRI Chair Gary Champlin delivered his State of the Association Address to the first in-person convention and exposition in three years. “We are ISRI strong!” he says. Champlin, of Champlin Tire Recycling, noted that in the interim between conventions, ISRI provided more than 500 virtual meetings to keep members informed about issues that affect their businesses. Champlin recognised Immediate Past Chair Brian Shine of Manitoba Corp. and the establishment of the ISRI Brands Leadership Council. “That provides an opportunity for leading consumer brands to connect with recyclers across the commodities, to solve issues and identify opportunities across the recycling value chain,” Champlin says. He noted that the Commerce Department declared recycling an essential industry at the start of the pandemic, and that

11 states passed resolutions recognising recycling as essential in 2021. Information Technology Asset Disposition (ITAD) has grown to the point it gets multiple mentions at ISRI 2022. Two sessions on 22 March, Data Destruction Trends for ITAD, and Spotlight on Electronics: Emerging Trends in Electronics Recycling and ITAD – Sponsored by Blancco, gave the latest on trends in electronics circularity. On 23 March, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced its determination to reinstate certain previously granted and extended product exclusions in the China Section 301 Investigation. The determination reinstates the tariff exclusion on shredder wear parts, retroactive to 12 October 2021, and extends the exclusion through 31 December 2022. Shredder wear parts imported from China will not be assessed the additional 25% tariff during this period. Since more than 85% of shredder wear parts are sourced from China, and those costs amount to 60 - 70% of the cost of operations in this sector, the 25% tariff would make a huge difference - especially to smaller operators. The above event reports are reproduced in part by kind permission from ISRI Scrap News.

Value chain series on copper MAR 18 - The next MetSoc Value Chain Series is on Copper on 19-20 May 2022, with the tagline ‘From Mine to Money - Value Chain Series on Copper’. This series offers a learning experience that others do not: worldwide expertise in a neutral and non-promotional format. This FREE webinar is intended for investors or industry participants interested to learn more about copper. Registration is required and will open in April. Presented by the Metallurgy and Materials Society of CIM (MetSoc) and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum (CIM), the webinar workshop series explores the value chain of a single commodity. The audience will learn from experts in their fields about key issues that are needed to navigate the metals markets. The webinars, facilitated by Crux Investors, discuss the intersection of deposit, technology, and the markets. The organisers are: • P hillip Mackey, Copper Event Organiser, PJMackey Technology Inc. • Gerardo Alvear, Industrial Lead, Rio Tinto •B oyd Davis, Series coordinator, Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc., MetSoc of CIM • Matthew Gordon, Facilitator, Crux Investors MAR 25 - The metals industry will play an indispensable role in the transition to a lowcarbon economy. The ‘The Importance of the Metals Industry in the Energy Transition: Canada’s Opportunity’ webinar, presented by Phillip Mackey, P.J. Mackey Technology Inc. will take place on 25 May 2022. Registration is required and also free.

Chinese smelter outlook MAR 28 - SMM reports inventories of copper concentrate at ports were pulled back from 700,000 t to around 650,000 t, mainly due to the centralised overhaul of domestic smelters in March and April. A smelter in Shandong was facing a potential shutdown. As a result, buyers basically held firm to prices at around $80/mt, and they were unwilling to lower the prices further. On 30 March, the CSPT group will hold the second quarter meeting online. The price coefficient of domestic spot Cu 20% copper concentrates remained unchanged at 89-91% on a delivery-tofactory basis.

Mackey delivers AIST John F. Elliott lectures The AIST John F. Elliott Lectureship was established in 1990. This honorary lectureship has now been awarded to Phillip Mackey and accordingly he is undertaking to deliver a series of lectures around the USA and internationally entitled: ‘The Importance of the Metals Industry in a LowCarbon Economy - A look at Future Technologies’ Climate change has emerged as a major topic

in today’s world with wide-ranging discussions underway on efforts to reduce greenhouse emissions. The metals industry will play a crucial role in this transition to a low-carbon world economy. Thus, nickel and cobalt are important battery materials for electric vehicles while due to copper’s unrivaled electrical properties, the red metal is key for achieving low carbon emissions. Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

On the other hand, new infrastructure projects worldwide all require steel. This lecture will provide an overview of world nickel, copper and steel industries covering production and demand, technology, present energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The entire metals industry is part of the solution to climate change.


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Codelco in 2021 safety initiatives JUN 1 - Smart cameras increase safety and production at the Radomiro Tomic Division. The initiative was developed by the Mine management, Codelco’s Vice Presidency of Technology and Automation in Business Processes and the company PSINET. The Mine Management of the Radomiro Tomic Division, after a successful industrial test, will evaluate, together with the Vice Presidency of Technology and Automation in Business Processes (VTAP), the application of the ‘Smart Cameras’ - This methodology uses advanced models of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. NOV 30 - Andina was recognised for reaching more than five million hours without accidents with lost time. The National Safety Council awarded this Codelco division, highlighting it for its safety strategy and its low accident frequency rates. In the

case of Andina, the recognition corresponded to six categories. DEC 21 - Codelco Division Ventanas executed its Partial Maintenance in search of Operational Continuity and Sustainability. Since December 1, the executive work of the 2021 Partial Maintenance began at Codelco, Ventanas Division, with the objective that the critical equipment is in optimal conditions for the General Maintenance that is carried out every 18 months. To do this, the different areas of the Division coordinated for months to plan the effective development of each of the tasks that must be done during the weeks that this Maintenance occurs. This Partial Maintenance was carried out until 16 December so that normal operations can be resumed the following day.

Charting Horne Smelter emissions control projects JUL 9 - On 15 December 2019, the Horne Foundry submitted an action plan to reduce atmospheric emissions to the interministerial committee. This action plan had been prepared at the request of the Ministry of the Environment and the Fight against Climate Change (MELCC), on the sidelines of the ongoing process to reduce atmospheric emissions provided for in the cleanup certificate for the Horne Foundry. The discourse on an environmental performance agreement between Glencore and the Government of Canada commenced in February 2018.

The US$ 170.7 M sector modernisation of converters and anodes is due for completion in 2024. The US$ 1.5 M Increased indoor concentrate storage space project and the US$ 3 M investment in paving of traffic lanes and concentrate unloading area are due to complete in 2022. The updated 9 July 2020 plan proposed capture and treatment of roof vents in the converter and anode alley sector Phase 2, and the capturing and treatment of certain reactor roof vents.

New multidirectional reachtruck

The new Combi-MR4 with Dynamic 360° ™ Steering. Photo: Combilift

MAR 10 - Launched virtually, the extremely agile Combi-MR4 model is a 4-wheel electric powered multidirectional reachtruck, incorporating Combilift’s new Dynamic 360° ™ steering, which provides rotation on each wheel, enabling seamless directional change of the truck while on the move. The Combi-MR4 is available in two unique models, with capacity ranges of 2,500 3,000 kg and 3,500 - 4,500 kg respectively, and can operate in aisles as narrow as 2,265 mm when guided (based on 1,200 mm deep material). To maximise all storage space in racking systems the wheel configuration of two drive wheels at the rear and two sets of smaller dual front wheels provides a platform height as low as 380mm, allowing otherwise redundant areas towards the floor to be used. The Combi-MR4 can handle long loads as well as palletised goods with ease, and can load and offload from delivery trucks. Driver comfort and safety are also major considerations.

Replacing FC-1100 acid mist suppressant MAR 23 - In copper electrowinning (CuEW), the most common engineering control to limit acid mist generation is a chemical, FC-1100. 3M has announced that it plans to discontinue FC-1100 production. This creates a significant need for CuEW tankhouses to find a suitable and sustainable replacement. Any FC-1100 replacement could cause operational risks by interacting with solvent extraction chemicals. The 3M™ Acid Mist Suppressant FC-1100 is a fluorochemical additive that provides outstanding sulphuric acid mist suppression in the copper electrowinning tankhouse without the formation of a stable foam blanket at the surface of the electrowinning cell. FC-1100 suppressant can significantly reduce tankhouse acid mist levels when used alone or in conjunction with mechanical barriers, such as polypropylene macrospheres, with no adverse effects to either the solvent extraction or electrowinning process. Under AMIRA Project Number P1251, Amira Program Manager Olga Verezub is actively evaluating sustainable acid mist suppressants to replace the 3M product FC-1100. This project will permit the CuEW industry to come together and conduct pre-competitive laboratory research to screen a large number of surfactants and identify potential candidates for further industrial trials.

MAR 17 - As part of the new agreement between Perth-based Amira Global and the Mining Innovation Hub of Peru, Members are eligible to participate in the open innovation program, PERUMIN Hub. The Hub, which was launched in early March 2022, has three stages: challenges, matchmaking, and a contest. The first stage is complete. PERUMIN Hub is an alliance between the Peruvian Institute of Mining Engineers and the Mining Innovation Hub of Peru, and consists of 18 mining companies and more than 40 national and international allies.

Alternative materials Key considerations in selection of an acid mist suppressant medium are compatibility with SX reagents, abatement efficiency, and risk of fire: MISTOP® This is a 100% Natural and Biodegradable (non-halogenated) surfactant: • Effective at Low Inclusion Rates (6-9 ppm in electrolyte) • Doesn’t Affect Solvent Extraction Parameters • May be Used in Conjuction with Mechanical Barriers • Non-Flammable and Non-Toxic Copper Worldwide Vol 12 No 1

Pack sizes 1,000 kg, 220 kg, 20 kg. In use 19 years. Owned by Desert King and distributed by Verne SpA, Santiago.

MAFCO DEC 3 - MAFCO, a global leader in natural licorice extracts, offers a cost-effective and ecofriendly ‘water-based’ solution for Acid Mist Suppression in Electrowinning. Its product has been highly effective at replacing poor-performing, over-priced reagents with natural, environmentallyfriendly licorice extract that reduces acid mist and improves working conditions for electrowinning producers. Licorice extract does not produce fluorocarbons, which are potentially toxic compounds and potent greenhouse gases that accumulate in the environment. EW with MAFCO licorice extract is more efficient and cost-effective because it replaces the need for expensive alternative products such as Saponin or Bevaloid (Rhodia) as well as less effective reagents for acid mist suppression such as Soy Meal and Dowfroth. High amounts of Saponins from the MAFCO product increase the electrolytes surface tension. In use 25 years.


World Copper Conference 2022 28-30 March 2022 • Santiago, Chile

The premier industry event in the copper calendar returns live and in person

It is great to hear first hand the main trends in the copper industry and what is each company doing to face the current and future challenges

Vicente Hinrichsen, Principal Technology Strategy, BHP



Why should you attend? Join the largest annual gathering of top mining executives Understand the strategies of leading industry CEOs Discuss the supply and demand outlooks for refined copper and concentrates Gain insight into the demand outlook for electromobility and related applications Discover the latest outlook for the copper recycling market



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