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Melbourne Symphony Orchestra Benjamin Northey conductor Andrea Lam piano Stravinsky Pulcinella: Suite Mendelssohn Piano Concerto No.1 INTERVAL Tchaikovsky (orch. Stravinsky) The Sleeping Beauty: ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux Mozart Symphony No.41 Jupiter

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Established in 1906, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra (MSO) is an arts leader and Australia’s oldest professional orchestra. Chief Conductor Sir Andrew Davis has been at the helm of MSO since 2013. Engaging more than 4 million people each year, the MSO reaches diverse audiences through live performances, recordings, TV and radio broadcasts and live streaming. Its international audiences include China, where MSO has performed in 2012, 2016 and most recently in May 2018, Europe (2014) and Indonesia, where in 2017 it performed at the UNESCO World Heritage Site, Prambanan Temple.

Benjamin Northey is Chief Conductor of the Christchurch Symphony Orchestra and Associate Conductor of the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra.

The MSO performs a variety of concerts ranging from symphonic performances at its home, Hamer Hall at Arts Centre Melbourne, to its annual free concerts at Melbourne’s largest outdoor venue, the Sidney Myer Music Bowl. The MSO also delivers innovative and engaging programs and digital tools to audiences of all ages through its Education and Outreach initiatives.

Benjamin appears regularly as guest conductor with all major Australian symphony orchestras, Opera Australia (Turandot, L’elisir d’amore, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, Carmen), New Zealand Opera (Sweeney Todd) and State Opera South Australia (La sonnambula, Les contes d’Hoffmann). His international appearances include concerts with London Philharmonic Orchestra, Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra and Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg. With a progressive and diverse approach to repertoire, he has collaborated with a broad range of artists including Maxim Vengerov and Slava Grigoryan, as well as popular artists Tim Minchin and James Morrison. An Honorary Fellow at the University of Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, his awards include the prestigious 2010 Melbourne Prize Outstanding Musician’s Award as well as multiple awards for his numerous recordings with ABC Classics.





Pulcinella: Suite Sinfonia Serenata Scherzino – Allegro – Andantino Tarantella Toccata Pronounced a “real talent” by the Wall Street Journal, pianist Andrea Lam is earning consistent acclaim as a soloist, recitalist, and chamber musician for her “great style and thrilling virtuosity” (Sydney Morning Herald). A frequent guest at US venues such as New York’s Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center to the Sydney Opera House, Andrea’s performances are noted internationally for her “melting lyricism, filigree touch and spirited eloquence” (The Australian). Andrea Lam made her orchestral debut at age 13 with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, and since then she has given over 80 performances with orchestras in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Japan, and Hong Kong. ABC Classics recently released her soloist recordings of two Mozart Concertos with the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra and Nicholas Milton.


Gavotta con due variazioni Duetto Menuetto – Finale This suite is derived from Stravinsky’s score for Pulcinella – Ballet with Song in one act (after Pergolesi), commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev, the impresario of the Ballets Russes. Pulcinella was first presented at the Paris Opera in 1920, with designs by Picasso and choreography by Massine. During the years 1917-20, Diaghilev produced a series of new ballets based on music by old Italian masters; Tommasini arranged and transcribed music by Domenico Scarlatti to create The Good-Humoured Ladies, while Respighi did the same for Rossini’s music in La Boutique fantasque. Pergolesi was one of Diaghilev’s favourite composers. What he got from Stravinsky, however, was not quite what he had bargained for. Stravinsky in effect re-composed the suggested pieces by the 18th-century Italian, and the result is a tribute by one composer to another, and, through Pergolesi, to the commedia dell’arte which is the subject of the ballet. (Pulcinella is another name for Harlequin, or Punch.)

The originality of Stravinsky’s treatment should be stressed – many histories of music date the beginnings of ‘neoclassicism’ prevalent in music of the 1920s from Pulcinella. Since those days when Stravinsky played so freely with the music by ‘Pergolesi’ Diaghilev had given him, much of it has been shown to have been falsely attributed to this celebrated but short-lived composer. The author of the Stabat Mater and La serva padrona, works which took Europe by storm, has had many compositions stripped from him by musicology. Perhaps Stravinsky had a premonition: when asked, many years after writing the ballet, which music by Pergolesi he liked best, he replied, ‘My Pulcinella.’ The score for the ballet consists of 19 numbers. For the concert suite Stravinsky selected 11 of these and made eight movements out of them. The singers who joined the orchestra in the pit for the full ballet were omitted, but some of their part, as in the Serenata, was redistributed to instruments. The scoring remained intimate: a chamber orchestra of 30 players, featuring a solo string quintet. The suite has been well described as a provocative combination of old and new, in which the square rhythms of the 18th century and its simple harmonic progressions are projected, as it were, upon a new and complex screen. This is not Pergolesi arranged by Stravinsky, but rather Pergolesi seen through the medium of Stravinsky. Many composers have followed Stravinsky down this road – few if any have managed to put their unmistakeable stamp on every bar of music which nevertheless retains the freshness of its models.

© David Garrett The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra first performed the Suite from Pulcinella on 29 November 1961 under Robert Craft, a conductor well-known for his friendship with Stravinsky himself. The Orchestra most recently performed it in June 2010 with Sir Andrew Davis.



Piano Concerto No.1 in G minor, Op.25 Molto allegro con fuoco Andante Presto – Molto allegro e vivace – Tempo I This concerto dates from the period of what we may call Mendelssohn’s ‘Grand Tour’ – a period of roughly four years during which Mendelssohn, entering his twenties, toured the British Isles and Europe. In Munich in 1830 Mendelssohn met Delphine von Schauroth, who was to be the inspiration for his first piano concerto. Mendelssohn, who was in demand at soirées, records that he followed Delphine around ‘like a pet lamb’. He persuaded her to play Hummel’s Sonata for four hands with him and gallantly held an A flat for her because her tiny hands could not reach it. ‘We flirted dreadfully,’ he wrote to his sister Fanny, ‘but there is no danger because I am already in love with a young Scottish girl whose name I don’t know.’ The Concerto in G minor was actually committed to paper in the space of three days during Mendelssohn’s return journey to Munich the following year. It was first performed in Munich on 17 October 1831, with Mendelssohn as soloist, before the King and Queen of Bavaria. The concert program also included his Symphony 5

No.1 (with the newly-orchestrated scherzo from the Octet replacing the symphony’s original scherzo) and the overture A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The concerto’s first movement dispenses with the extended orchestral opening of Classical tradition. Its turbulent G minor calls to mind Carl Zelter’s question when the 12-year-old Mendelssohn had improvised for Goethe: ‘What goblins and dragons have you been dreaming about to drive you along so wildly?’ The movement’s biggest surprise comes at the end, where a trumpet fanfare interrupts, and the piano’s musing reply leads directly into the second movement, a warm, tenderly scored Andante. Mendelssohn as pianist liked to play the final movement ‘as fast as possible, providing that the notes can be heard’. The movement contains passing references to the first movement in order to clinch the concerto’s unity. Some writers have claimed that this work is more virtuosic than profound. As an English witness, John Edmund Cox, wrote, Mendelssohn’s own playing was certainly impressive: ‘Whilst in all the delicate nuances his fingers seemed to be like feathers, in those of more forcible and impetuous character there was a grasp and an élan which almost took away one’s breath.’ But while the First Piano Concerto overflows with the impetuousness of youth, it also provides an early example of Mendelssohn’s lifelong quest for structural unity and continuity. Many of Mendelssohn’s works during the period bore the sign of literary or pictorial inspiration, yet here is a piece which works in the realm of structural as well as pianistic interest.


This concerto subsequently became one of Mendelssohn’s most popular pieces. Berlioz tells the story of an Erard piano at the Paris Conservatoire which began to play the piece of its own accord after 29 contestants in a row had played it in a competition. Erard, the maker, was hastily summoned and sprinkled holy water on the piano to no avail. Nor did dismantling the piano or chopping it up have any effect; the only thing that worked was burning it. G.K. Williams © Symphony Australia The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra first performed this concerto on 30 October 1941 with conductor Sir Bernard Heinze and soloist Lucy Secker, and most recently in May 2014 with Mark Wigglesworth and Saleem Ashkar.



orch. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) The Sleeping Beauty, Act III: ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux Adagio Variation I – Tempo di valse Variation II – Andantino Coda – Con moto In Act III of Tchaikovsky’s ballet The Sleeping Beauty, characters from Perrault’s fairytales take turns to entertain the heroine Princess Aurora and her prince prior to their marriage. The ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux was originally a pas de quatre danced by Cinderella and Prince Fortuné and the Bluebird and Princess Florine, but a pas de deux version can be performed by just the Bluebird and a female character. The ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux is not be confused with earlier orchestrations

for Sleeping Beauty made by Stravinsky for the remounting of the ballet by Diaghilev in London in 1921. There, Diaghilev wanted to restore two numbers cut by Tchaikovsky (‘Aurora’s Variation’ and the ‘Entr’acte symphonique’, both from Act II), and Stravinsky had to orchestrate them from the piano score, as well as making changes to Act III’s ‘Russian Dance’. The ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux was written in response to a commission for Ballet Theatre in New York in 1941. Once again Stravinsky had to work from a piano score – the full score was not available in America at the time, and war-time exigencies necessitated a reduced orchestra (Stravinsky recommended a string strength of 5 violins, 4 violas, 3 cellos and 2 double basses). ‘The one novelty,’ said Stravinsky, ‘is the prominent piano part which conceals the small number of strings. The interest in the arrangement, so far as my own music is concerned, is that the instrumental body is almost the same in my next opus, Danses concertantes.’ One may wonder about the supposed Tchaikovsky references in Danses concertantes, a typically Bachian neoclassical work, written by Stravinsky in memory of the Mariinsky Theatre, and premiered under his direction in Los Angeles, February 1942; but in the 1920s Stravinsky had described his work on Tchaikovsky’s Sleeping Beauty as ‘a demonstration of my love of Tchaikovsky’s art’. We can imagine him making the same declaration in 1941, notwithstanding the fact that ‘Bluebird’ Pas de deux was a commission. Tchaikovsky’s music was ‘quite as Russian as Pushkin’s verse or

Glinka’s song’, said Stravinsky, allying himself with the more cosmopolitan strand of Russian art, but we can imagine the consolation he found in working on a familiar and much-loved score, redolent of his homeland, not long after arriving to settle in the US. One could almost think there is nothing of Stravinsky in this arrangement. It is only coincidence that Tchaikovsky’s flute and clarinet arabesques in the opening section remind us of Stravinsky’s own Firebird or Nightingale, and the instrumentation owes as much to wartime shortages as to aesthetic decisionmaking. But perhaps Stravinsky didn’t mind that this version was deprived of a certain lushness or that his ‘Tempo di valse’ couldn’t quite throw around quite so much orchestral weight. Stravinsky’s skilful reduction could be thought to awaken us to those qualities of Tchaikovsky’s art most likely to appeal to Stravinsky: the strikingly immediate and apt delineation of musical character and gesture in four economical dances. Gordon Kalton Williams © 2000 Symphony Australia The only previous performance of this work by the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra took place in July 2000 under the direction of Hiroyuki Iwaki.




Symphony No.41 in C, K551 Jupiter Allegro vivace Andante cantabile Menuetto (Allegretto) – Trio – Menuetto Molto allegro Producing over 50 symphonies (the official number 41 notwithstanding) in the space of 23 years, Mozart can truly be said to have enjoyed a ‘symphonic career’, much as did his older friend Joseph Haydn (over 100 symphonies in 38 years). And as symphonic careers go, it was, like Haydn’s, successful from first to last. After relocating from Salzburg to Vienna in 1781, however, piano concertos took over as Mozart’s preferred orchestral vehicle, better for charming fickle metropolitan audiences than the more esoteric symphony. New symphonies were not entirely absent from his Vienna concerts, but all of them from these years were, in the first instance, out-of-town commissions: No.35 for the Haffner family in Salzburg in 1782; No.36 and the so-called No.37 (most of it actually by Michael Haydn) for a concert in Linz in 1783; and No.38 for Prague in 1787, during the season there of his opera The Marriage of Figaro. In May 1788, the imperial theatre in Vienna unveiled for hometown audiences his latest Italian opera, Don Giovanni (or the Libertine Punished), premiered in Prague the previous October. The tepid reception it received perhaps explains why Mozart devoted much of the sultry Viennese summer that year to composing three new symphonies,

Nos 39-41, works that, like their immediate predecessors, were unlikely to appeal greatly to the Viennese. By then, Austria was at war with Ottoman Turkey. Accordingly, most of his patrons were also feeling the economic pinch, and Mozart’s plans to give another concert series, at which the new symphonies might have been performed, came to nothing. However, it may well have been with one eye to possible publication and performances in England, France and Germany that he completed the trilogy in quick succession between June and August. In doing this, Mozart was probably emulating Joseph Haydn. In December 1787, the Vienna firm Artaria published Haydn’s new set of six ‘Paris’ Symphonies, issued in two sets of three. The first set contained symphonies in C major (No.82), G minor (No.83) and E flat (No.84). Given the rarity of G minor symphonies, it can hardly be mere coincidence that Mozart chose exactly the same three keys for his new trilogy. Clearly, if Haydn could publish symphonies, presumably with hope of financial return, Mozart too, then saddled with debts, might as well try. He had, after all, successfully undertaken a similar copycat project a few years earlier when, following on from Artaria’s 1782 first edition of Haydn’s Op.33 string quartets, he composed a set of his own (since referred to, fittingly, as Mozart’s ‘Haydn’ quartets). In concerts in Mozart’s day, the first movement of a symphony typically served as the overture to the whole evening’s entertainment, so it is hardly surprising that the first movement of

his final symphony is stylistically almost identical with his late opera overtures. Moreover, close to the end of the first movement’s statement of themes, Mozart actually borrows a phrase from a catchy little opera song, Un bacio di mano (‘A hand-kiss’), K541 that he composed a few months earlier. Less subtle, but far more effective, is the contribution of the brass and drums. Taken out of context and played alone, the bluster of their simple, militaristic fanfares sounds more suited to a parade-ground than a concert room. Yet, added to the rest of the orchestra, these primitive gestures generate palpable excitement and grandeur. Since his valveless horns and trumpets could only play a few notes in the keys of C and G, Mozart has the woodwinds take over their fanfare figures when he needs to explore more distant keys. Also suggestive of opera is the arialike second movement in which the woodwinds ‘sing’ in seemingly effortless counterpoint with muted violins. Mozart’s valveless horns were able to participate in this F major movement by changing crooks, but the trumpets and drums are banished until the return of C major in the third movement, a fast and breezy minuet. Mozart’s symphony finales also bear a close resemblance to their operatic finale counterparts, consisting of busy, motoric music inclined to virtuosic sleight-of-hand. This finale is a contrapuntal extravaganza that climaxes in the coda. There, the movement’s unforgettable four-note main theme and its four countermelodies are combined simultaneously in what musical technicians describe as ‘five-part invertible counterpoint’ 10

(which simply means that the five snatches of melody make musical sense together, vertically, whichever one is on top, bottom, or in the middle). This contrapuntal feat earned the piece its German nickname, ‘Symphony with a fugal ending’, which perhaps sounds a little stern for music which, though ingenious and uplifting, is nevertheless couched in the same light-hearted, rollicking manner as Rossini’s operatic finales of 15 years later. Among the projects Mozart contemplated for 1789 was a potentially profitable visit to England. Had the visit gone ahead, he would have introduced this symphony to British audiences personally, and heard first-hand the nickname which one of his London admirers (Haydn’s friend, John Peter Salomon) gave it, ‘Jupiter’, fittingly elevating it to the pinnacle of the musical pantheon. Abridged from a note by Graeme Skinner © 2013 The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra first performed Mozart’s Symphony No.41 on 27 June 1940 under Sir Thomas Beecham, and most recently in May 2013 with Douglas Boyd.

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Sir Andrew Davis Chief Conductor

Benjamin Northey Associate Conductor Anthony Pratt#

Tianyi Lu

Cybec Assistant Conductor

Hiroyuki Iwaki

Conductor Laureate (1974–2006)

FIRST VIOLINS Dale Barltrop Concertmaster

Sophie Rowell

Concertmaster The Ullmer Family Foundation#

Laurence Jackson†* Guest Concertmaster

Peter Edwards

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Michael Aquilina#

Peter Fellin Deborah Goodall Lorraine Hook Anne-Marie Johnson Kirstin Kenny Ji Won Kim Eleanor Mancini Chisholm & Gamon#

Mark Mogilevski Michelle Ruffolo Kathryn Taylor Michael Aquilina#

Monica Naselow* Nicholas Waters*




Matthew Tomkins

David Berlin

Robert Macindoe

Rachael Tobin

Monica Curro

Nicholas Bochner

Principal The Gross Foundation# Associate Principal

Assistant Principal Danny Gorog and Lindy Susskind#

Mary Allison Isin Cakmakcioglu Tiffany Cheng Freya Franzen Cong Gu Andrew Hall Isy Wasserman Philippa West Patrick Wong Roger Young Jacqueline Edwards* VIOLAS Christopher Moore Principal Di Jameson#

Fiona Sargeant

Associate Principal

Lauren Brigden

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Katharine Brockman Christopher Cartlidge Michael Aquilina#

Anthony Chataway

Principal MS Newman Family# Associate Principal Assistant Principal

Miranda Brockman

Geelong Friends of the MSO#

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DOUBLE BASSES Steve Reeves Principal

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Assistant Principal

Damien Eckersley Benjamin Hanlon Suzanne Lee Stephen Newton

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FLUTES Prudence Davis

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Principal Anonymous#

Gabrielle Halloran

Wendy Clarke

Trevor Jones Cindy Watkin Elizabeth Woolnough Caleb Wright Simon Collins* Sophie Kesoglidis*

Sarah Beggs

Maria Solà#

Associate Principal

PICCOLO Andrew Macleod Principal




Jeffrey Crellin

Shane Hooton

Thomas Hutchinson

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Chairman Michael Ullmer


Associate Principal

Ann Blackburn

The Rosemary Norman Foundation#

Associate Principal

John and Diana Frew#



Brett Kelly

Michael Pisani

Ben Lovell-Greene*


CLARINETS David Thomas


Philip Arkinstall

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Craig Hill


Guest Associate Principal

Richard Shirley

Tim and Lyn Edward#

Mike Szabo

Principal Bass Trombone

TUBA Timothy Buzbee



Jon Craven



Tim and Lyn Edward#

Jack Schiller


Elise Millman

Associate Principal

Natasha Thomas CONTRABASSOON Brock Imison Principal

HORNS Saul Lewis

Board Members Andrew Dyer Danny Gorog Margaret Jackson AC Di Jameson David Krasnostein David Li Hyon-Ju Newman Glenn Sedgwick Helen Silver AO Company Secretary Oliver Carton

John Arcaro

BASSOONS Principal

Managing Director Sophie Galaise

Robert Clarke Principal

Robert Cossom HARP Yinuo Mu Principal

PIANO Jacob Abela*

Acting Associate Principal

Ian Wildsmith*

Guest Principal Third

Abbey Edlin

Nereda Hanlon and Michael Hanlon AM#

Trinette McClimont Alexander Morton*

# Position supported by * Guest Musician ** Timpani Chair position supported by Lady Potter AC CMRI †Courtesy of West Australian Symphony Orchestra 13



The Honourable Linda Dessau AC, Governor of Victoria

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Sidney Myer MSO Trust Fund, The Gross Foundation, MS Newman Family Foundation, The Ullmer Family Foundation, Erica Foundation Pty Ltd

Media And Broadcast Partners

Mozart's Jupiter and more Concert Program  
Mozart's Jupiter and more Concert Program