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UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA

RAC/SPA

Marine Turtle and Monk Seal Conservation in Albania

Rapid Assessment Survey of important marine turtle and monk seal habitats in the coastal area of Albania October – November 2005

Prepared by Michael White (1) Idriz Haxhiu (2) Vassilis Kouroutos (3) Arian Gace (4) Andrian Vaso (5) Sajmir Beqiraj (6) Antonis Plytas (7) Zamir Dedej (8) (1)

University College Cork, Ireland (crwban681@yahoo.co.uk) (2) Tirana University, Natural History Museum, Tirana, Albania (idrizhaxhiu@yahoo.com) (3) MEDASSET (medasset@medasset.gr) (4) (arian.gace@undp.org) GEF/ Small Grants Programme (5) (a.vaso@ic-tirana.com) Freelance Consultant, Albania (6) (beqirajs@yahoo.com) University of Tirana, Albania (7) (medasset@medasset.gr) MEDASSET Ministry of Environment, Forest and Water Administration, Nature (8) Protection Policy, Tirana, Albania (zdedej@moe.gov.al) 1


Acknowledgements Within the framework of the Strategic Action Programme for the Conservation of Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean Region (SAP BIO) and the implementation of the Action Plans for the Management of the Mediterranean Monk Seal and for the Conservation of Mediterranean Marine Turtles under the United Nations Environment Programme Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP/MAP), a Rapid Assessment Survey of important Marine Turtle and Monk Seal habitats in the coastal area of Albania was carried out by MEDASSET, the Mediterranean Association to Save the Sea Turtles, with the financial support of UNEP/MAP Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas (RAC/SPA); MEDASSET; and the Global Environment Facility’s Small Grant Programme (GEF/SGP). The research aimed to identify areas rich in biodiversity, conserve endangered migratory species (marine turtles and monk seals) and their habitats by building knowledge and improving the protection and management of marine and coastal biodiversity in areas already proven to be of significant ecological importance (e.g. Karaburuni area, Patok Lagoon etc.). Through the demonstration of scientific methods and techniques to governmental and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the project also aimed to improve the capacity to study and conserve biodiversity at the abovementioned sites, in the hope of ensuring environmental sustainability. Awareness raising and training provided networking opportunities for different population groups and social and economic actors, which will in the future help to establish linkages between them and similar groups around the Mediterranean basin. We are grateful for the assistance and support of the students from the Biology Department at the University of Tirana, the port authorities along the Albanian coast, the Albanian Ministry of Environment and all fishermen and local people who listened to our talks and responded to our questionnaires. We would also like to thank Mr Denis Etienne, ex Scientific Director of RAC/SPA (UNEP/MAP), Mr Atef Ouerghi, Expert in Marine Biology at RAC/SPA (UNEP/MAP), Mrs Lobna Ben Nakhla, Programme Officer at RAC/SPA (UNEP/MAP) and Mr Zamir Dedei, Albania’s Focal Point for RAC/SPA, for their support throughout the project. Special thanks go to Mr Vangelis Petrou for providing the expedition’s dinghy and outboard engine, Mr Aggelos Papadopoulos from COSMOS Marine Management SA for donating two mobile radio communication devices and to Mrs Maria Sfakianakis from SFAKIANAKIS S.A. for providing a generator. Grateful thanks also go to Mr. Giorgos Vernicos who made this expedition possible by generously donating the use of the 46-foot sailing boat; and to the staff at VERNICOS YACHTS S.A for their special attention and support. Thanks to Stella Bell for help with the report text and design. 2


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 5 2. The Albanian coastline ......................................................................................................... 5 3. International Conventions ................................................................................................... 6 4. Survey Methodology & Tools.............................................................................................. 7 i. Transect Line ..........................................................................................................................8 ii. GIS Techniques .....................................................................................................................9 iii. Underwater surveys and transects ....................................................................................9 5. Status of Monk Seals ............................................................................................................ 9 i. In the Mediterranean & North Western African Atlantic coast.........................................9 ii. In Albania..............................................................................................................................10 6. Survey of the South Albanian Coast Monk Seal Shelters ......................................... 10 6a. Methodology ......................................................................................................................10 6b. Location of the monk seal shelter study area...............................................................11 6c. Results ................................................................................................................................11 6d. Discussion – Conclusions................................................................................................12 7. Data on Dolphin sightings ................................................................................................ 13 8. Status of Sea Turtles........................................................................................................... 13 i. In the Mediterranean............................................................................................................13 ii. In Albania..............................................................................................................................14 9. Survey on Sea Turtle Abundance along the Albanian Coast ................................... 15 9a. Methodology ......................................................................................................................15 9b. Location of Sea Turtle Study Area .................................................................................15 i. “Stavnike” Fishing ............................................................................................................16 ii. Trawling ............................................................................................................................17 iii. Coastal nets ....................................................................................................................17 iv. Longlines .........................................................................................................................17 v. Dynamite fishing..............................................................................................................17 9c. Results ................................................................................................................................17 i. Stavnike fish traps............................................................................................................17 ii. Bycatch from other fishing gear ....................................................................................18 iii. Underwater surveys .......................................................................................................18 iv. Transects.........................................................................................................................18 v. Foraging grounds............................................................................................................18 vi. Overwintering..................................................................................................................19 vii. Migration routes.............................................................................................................19 viii. Nesting beach surveys ................................................................................................19 9d. Discussion – Conclusion..................................................................................................19 i. Stavnike fish traps............................................................................................................19 ii. Trawling ............................................................................................................................20 iii. Longlines .........................................................................................................................20 iv. Distribution of sea turtles in Albania............................................................................20 v. Species of sea turtles in Albania ..................................................................................21 vi. Overwintering..................................................................................................................21 vii. Diving surveys ...............................................................................................................21 viii. Nesting beach surveys ................................................................................................22 ix. Conservation of sea turtles...........................................................................................23 x. Tagging programme awareness...................................................................................23 xi. Flipper-tags .....................................................................................................................23 3


10. Sociological Study............................................................................................................. 24 11.Tourism as a Potential Alternative to Fishing?........................................................... 24 12. Public awareness............................................................................................................... 25 13. Capacity building / training ............................................................................................. 25 14. Comments on fisheries, monk seals and sea turtles ............................................... 26 15. Conservation Recommendations for Albania ............................................................ 27 a. Long term: ............................................................................................................................27 b. Short term.............................................................................................................................28 16. References........................................................................................................................... 29 18. Annexes................................................................................................................................ 36 i. Data sheets prepared for the project.................................................................................36 ii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) samples.....................................36 iii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) samples ....................................36 IV. Tourist Questionnaire Sample .........................................................................................36 V. Site Survey for Monk Seals...............................................................................................36 VI: Overview of Site details and Cave Location Maps.......................................................36 VII: Photos of Caves (Surveyed)...........................................................................................36 VIII. Line Transect Data sheets & Maps ..............................................................................36 IX: Sea Turtle Observation Data Sheet Sample & Maps ..................................................36 X: Dolphin Sightings Data Sheet & Maps ............................................................................36 XI: Location of Fish Traps in the Patok Area.......................................................................36 XII. GIS techniques .................................................................................................................36

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1. Introduction This document reports on fieldwork conducted under MEDASSET’s Sea Turtle Conservation programme in the Mediterranean region by MEDASSET, along the Albanian coast (Figure 1: Map of Albania) between the 19th October and 14th November 2005. During this rapid assessment survey, qualitative data were gathered on the geomorphology, flora and fauna of the benthos in selected areas (Karaburuni, Patok) along the coast; Quantitative data were collected on the status of marine turtles at sea (feeding grounds); and potential monk seal shelters along the southern coastline were identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). With the participation of local scientists and university students and through demonstration and training activities, scientific expertise was transferred. The fieldwork was based on the information gathered from surveys (questionnaires and interviews with local fishermen) and existing scientific data, also a series of dives was conducted in selected areas (e.g. Karaburuni and Patok), but at randomly selected times and locations. A new method was tested on how to determine marine turtle population size at sea, based on the Line Transect method (Buckland et al 1993). Public awarenessraising activities were conducted throughout the documented period, distributing informative materials and informing fishermen and locals of the importance of the sea turtles and biodiversity conservation to themselves, their country, the Mediterranean and to the world.

2. The Albanian coastline The Albanian coastline has a total length of 476 km facing both the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. Along its length there are 4 small islands and one big, Sazan. The coastline is approximately 60% sand and 40% rock. The Adriatic coastline with its sandy shores covers the area between Vlore and Shengjin with 10m isobaths extending, in most areas, more than 3 miles from the shore. Owing to a high concentration of river estuaries along this coastline the seabed is composed mostly of silt and mud washed down from the rivers, making visibility very poor. The Ionian coastline stretches from the Greek border to Vlore and is mostly rocky with a few pebbly or sandy beaches. The Karaburuni peninsula coastline has steep cliffs with deep water close to the shoreline and several caves with open or underwater entrances.

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Figure 1: Map of Albania

3. International Conventions Several International Conventions contain provisions for the protection of marine turtles. The most important are: The Convention on International trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) The Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). 6


The Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution (Barcelona Convention). The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) (Bonn Convention). In 1975 at a meeting of representatives of 16 Mediterranean states in Barcelona the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) was created. The Barcelona Convention was adopted a year later. It is the only convention to which all the riparian Mediterranean nations are signatories. Parties to the Barcelona Convention included among their priority targets for the period 1985-1995 the protection of Mediterranean marine turtles and monk seals (Genoa Declaration, September 1985). To this purpose, they adopted in 1989 the Action Plan for the Conservation of Mediterranean Marine Turtles and the Action Plan for the Management of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Albania acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1994 and to the Convention on International trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 2003; ratified the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (Bonn Convention) in 2001; ratified the Bern Convention in 1999; signed and ratified the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP/MAP) in 1975, the Barcelona Convention and protocols and the revised Action Plans for marine turtles and monk seals in 1999. Within the MAP, recommended actions at National level were listed for each country (UNEP-MAP/ RAC/SPA, Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas 1999). The recommended actions for Albania mentioned the presence of both monk seals and sea turtles in the seas off the Albanian coast.

4. Survey Methodology & Tools The rapid assessment survey for identification and monitoring of sea turtle foraging grounds in the Karaburuni and Patok areas and of monk seal status along the Albanian Ionian coastline, took place between 20/10/05 and 14/11/05, using a boat (Alonnisos) (photo 2) with the capacity to house 10 (ten) people. During the course of the project, the 14m sailing boat was used for accommodation and as the field study base. The research team consisted of two marine biologists (sea turtle and monk seal specialists), Albanian-speaking scientists and an experienced sailor. Using scientific data from a study conducted in 1999 (Antolović, 2005) and information gathered from the survey of fishermen (questionnaires and interviews) (see Annex i: Data sheets prepared for the project) a small team went by dinghy (photo 16) to visit and study the potential monk seal shelters that had been identified. The sea turtle fieldwork was focused on Rapid Underwater Site Assessments (RUSA) at various locations. A new method was used for underwater sea turtle research: A 100-metre transect line was deployed underwater (see photos: 11, 14, 15 and figure 2), so that the number of turtles encountered during SCUBA dives could be used to provide population estimates (Distance 6 software). A photographic and video record was kept 7


and other biotic (benthic fauna and flora) and abiotic (sea temperature) parameters were also recorded. During the course of the survey public awareness was raised through distribution of educational leaflets and discussions with stakeholders (fishermen, local authorities, students, etc.). Training of local scientists and students was achieved through scientific demonstration and exchange of expertise (photos 6, 7, 8). Through the creation of a computerised database and using data sheets modified from previous studies, the information gathered was electronically recorded and the potential monk seal shelters and sea turtle foraging grounds were mapped using GIS techniques (Annex XII).

i. Transect Line During the course of the project a 100-metre transect line, to be used for sea turtle population estimates at sea, was tested and modified. The objectives of using this method were: to estimate the coordinates of observed species at any time; to follow a direct line during dives; to allow the diver to swim at the same distance from the seabed during different surveys. This transect line method can be used during scuba dives within 4m-25m deep water. The main body of the transect line comprised of 100 metres of neutrally buoyant yellow rope (8mm diameter) that was marked at 5-metre intervals with square plastic markers (10cmX10cm), numbered from 1-20. These were attached to the line and indicated the distance from the start of the transect line. Anchorage was achieved by attaching a 15m rope to one end of the bodyline, which was linked to a 10m chain with a small anchor at the end. Three ropes ran from marker buoys at the surface to the mainline: one at each end and the third marking the 50m midpoint; these vertical lines were adjustable for water depths up to 25m. Every 25m metres along the mainline two small ropes were fastened: one led to a buoy to provide lift, whilst underneath was a 3m rope attached to a 2kg weight. This arrangement kept the mainline constantly at 3m above the seabed. (see photos: 11, 14, 15 and figure 2). The line was stored in a large plastic basket (like those the fishermen use to keep their longlines) and was deployed from the boat. Buoys

25m adjustable lines

5-metre markers Anchor line

Bodyline or Mainline

Weighted lines

Figure 2 shows a 100-metre transect line deployed on the seabed; the mainline is anchored at one end. Three rising lines lead to surface marker buoys: these lines are adjustable from 425 m water depth. At 25-metre intervals a weighted line and small buoy were fixed to the mainline, these keep it 3 m above the seafloor. Numbered markers were secured to the 8 mainline at 5-metre intervals to show divers their distance from the transect start point.


ii. GIS Techniques Prior to and during the rapid assessment survey GIS software products were used to compile, analyse, map, and publish geographic information and collected data. A Microsoft Access database was created and linked with the GIS software in order to record the information gathered regarding the monk seal shelter surveys, sea turtle transect lines, fish traps and marine wildlife observations. Marine charts were geo-referenced using GIS techniques and software. With the use of a GPS (GARMIN GPSMAP 60C) and the GARMIN BlueChart software geographical information (coordinates) was electronically recorded and transferred to GIS software. Field data sheet records were transferred to the database and linked through the GIS software to geographical information (Annex XII).

iii. Underwater surveys and transects Random dive sites were selected within areas identified during interviews with fishermen as having frequent turtle sightings. SCUBA dives took two forms: free-swimming surveys of a wide area or a fixed-line transect (length 100m) (Annex VIII. Line Transect Data sheets & Maps). Surveys were conducted at Lumi i Vjosës, Karaburuni, Kepi i Rodonit, Lumi i Bunës, and at Sarande.

5. Status of Monk Seals i. In the Mediterranean & North Western African Atlantic coast The Mediterranean monk seal is one of the most threatened species in the world and according to the IUCN Red List is “Critically Endangered (CR)” (IUCN 2000, UNEP-WCMC). Its worldwide population is estimated as between 400 and 500 individuals with the main surviving groups found in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece and Turkey), Western Mediterranean (Algeria, Morocco) and North West African Atlantic coast (Western Sahara, Madeira). According to available information on population estimates (W. Johnson, 2005) monk seals have become extinct along the Adriatic coasts of Croatia and Albania. A recent scientific report however, suggested the possible presence of at least one monk seal along the Croatian coastline. During 2005, a monk seal was observed several times, photographed and filmed on the Croatian coast (J. Antolović, 2005). In the Mediterranean, several projects implemented (in the Mediterranean) have been coordinated through UNEP – RAC/SPA and the population in the Atlantic has been similarly targeted within the framework of the CMS. According to the “Declaration on the monk seal risk of extinction in the Mediterranean” which was adopted during the 14th Meeting of the Barcelona Convention Contracting Parties (Slovenia, November 2005) “The species is threatened by many factors, however the major causes of its decline are deliberate killing combined with habitat loss”. It also states that “identification of new potential critical habitats and capacity building for effective management are necessary additional steps”. This survey was implemented within the framework 9


of the Albania National Action Plan of the SAP-BIO and the recommendations of the above-mentioned Declaration.

ii. In Albania According to various reports, the Albanian coast does not appear to be frequented by Monachus monachus. Nevertheless, there have been unconfirmed reports of the possible presence of seals in the region of Sazan. It has been suggested that this area, may serve as a kind of bridge between monk seal populations in the countries of the former Yugoslavia and the Ionian Sea (UNEP/MAP, 1994). In the summer of 1999, Albania’s Ionian coastline was surveyed for the presence of monk seals, and the habitat was monitored. During the investigation, in the Rreza e Kanalit area, 19 monk seal habitats were surveyed and in one of them traces of monk seal urine were found (Antolović et al. 2005). In summer 2004, a survey was carried out, based on interviews with local fisherman, during which the aim was to gather information on the status of the monk seal and sea turtle populations along the Ionian coastline, from the Greek border to Vlore (Dedei et al. 2005). In the report it was suggested that monk seal habitats exist along the southern Albania coast stretching from Karaburuni and Rreza e Kanalit to the area around Butrint. Fishermen reported two monk seal sightings during the summer of 2004, one in the Rreza e Kanalit-Karaburuni peninsula and the other close to Sarande port.

6. Survey of the South Albanian Coast Monk Seal Shelters The project aimed to map monk seal shelters, identify potential habitats, and contribute to the sensitisation of the local population of the need to protect the species. It also aimed to collect data regarding the presence of other important megafauna (dolphins and whales) during the research period.

6a. Methodology The survey was carried out onboard a 14m sailing boat, which acted as the project headquarters; a 3m inflatable dinghy with a 15hp outboard engine was used for visiting caves. The Rapid Assessment of the Monk Seal shelters built on previous information gathered from local fishermen surveys (Dedei et al. 2005) and previous monk seal site surveys carried out in 1999 (Antolović, 2005). A member of the team that conducted the site survey in 1999 accompanied the current trip as a member of the research group. Information was updated by completing questionnaires during interviews conducted with local fishermen (Annex ii. Samples of Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals)). According to information gathered from respondents, areas of interest (open water caves) were marked on the map. Using the dinghy, two researchers visited the caves while the project boat followed at a close distance, providing security and support 10


to the researchers. Survey data sheets from the report: “Functioning of the Greek Base of the Monk seal Register’, Elliniki Etairia (1995)”, were slightly modified and used to record data relating to potential monk seal shelters (Annex V: Site Survey for Monk Seals and Annex VI: Overview of Site details and Cave Location Maps), which were then photographed and mapped using GIS techniques (see Annex XII).

6b. Location of the monk seal shelter study area The survey covered Albania’s Ionian coastline from Cape Stilo (N 39o 41’ 09”, E 19o 59’ 19”) near the Greek border, to the northern end of the Karaburuni Peninsula (N 40o 25’ 17”, E 19o 17’ 21”) close to the port of Vlore. An area of approximately 150 km was surveyed (see Figure 1). Two main ports were visited Sarande and Vlore, where monk seal, sea turtle and socio-economic information was gathered through interviewing local fishermen. In the broader Sarande area there are two small fishing communities. There are presently some 22 artisanal fishing boats (using mainly long lines and nets), based out of a small port next to the modern port of Sarande, which depart daily to fish in the near-shore coastal zone. A few of these fishermen fish in the area, extending from Cape Stilo to the southern part of the Karaburuni Peninsula. A community of 8 fishermen is based inside the Butrint Lagoon and they fish daily in the lagoon’s shallow waters (using nets). During winter both communities barely support themselves and their families, despite unregulated and often illegal fishing practices. During the summer period, since Albania has opened its borders to tourism, potential opportunities exist for possible improvements in income for local small-scale fisheries. In the broader Vlore area (Himara – Palermo) there are both small- and mediumsized industrial fishing boats (trawlers) and artisanal boats (long line and nets). There are about 350 boats, only 130 of which are motorised, and only 40 exceed 7 metres in length. Some trawlers cover almost the entire Albanian coastline. Few artisanal fishing boats (long lines and gillnets) fish off the west coast of the Karaburuni Peninsula. Most fishing boats in the Vlore area are based in the harbour located about 5km north of Vlore’s commercial port. This small fishing harbour remains unfinished, with poor infrastructure and facilities and inadequate road communication with Vlore city. There are about 20 small fishing boats, mainly non-motorised, that are used inside the nearby lagoon (Narte) or work outside the lagoon using a fish trapping method known as the stavnike (photo 10, Figure 3 and Annex XI).

6c. Results The main aim of the site survey was to identify caves and, if possible, a network of shelters with open-water or underwater entrances suitable for monk seal resting and breeding; to record direct observation data on monk seal sightings and/or possible recent use of the caves by seals through identifying tracks, urine and scats. 11


During the rapid assessment 24 caves were surveyed from Sarande to the northern tip of the Karaburuni peninsula (Annexes: V. Site Survey for Monk Seals, VI: Overview of Site details and Cave Location Maps, VII: Photos of Caves (Surveyed)). 17 caves that seemed to be of some importance as monk seal shelters were located between the small gulf of Grames and the northern tip of Karaburuni. All caves identified as potential monk seal shelters during the 1999 survey (Antolović et al, 2005) were re-examined. Based on the researchers’ experience of several similar surveys carried out in the Greek islands, only one cave located in the west coast of Karaburuni peninsula could be characterised as an important monk seal shelter (Annex VI, site ID 017). No network of suitable monk seal breeding shelters was identified. Owing to the lack of information about the existence of suitable caves with underwater entrances, only caves with open water entrances were examined. There was no direct observation either of monk seal sightings or possible seal cave use (from tracks, scats etc. observation). Owing to the geomorphology of the coastline, most of the sea caves from Cape Stilo (at the Greek border) to the start of the west coast of the Karaburuni peninsula, were generally small to medium sized, sometimes with small pebbly or sandy beaches, open to daylight and accessible from land or the nearby beach, and thus not adequately protected from human disturbance (fishermen, pleasure boats etc). All these caves could be characterised as potential occasional monk seal resting shelters. The western coast and north tip of the Karaburuni peninsula was thoroughly surveyed and all caves were entered and mapped. Owing to the geomorphology of the Karaburuni coastline there were many caves with small to large openwater entrances, but, with the exception of one (Annex VI, site ID 017), had no beach inside. They were mostly open to strong northerly, westerly or southerly winds. The whole Karaburuni coastline is hostile to human presence owing to the almost consistently rough sea conditions. There are two S shaped “fjords” which end in small pebble beaches that are protected from human disturbance as well as all winds, which could potentially be used as resting monk seal sites. Detailed information on the surveyed caves can be found in Annexes V, VI, and VII.

6d. Discussion – Conclusions Through evaluating the results from the fishermen interviews and the site surveys it can be assumed that the Ionian coastline of Albania does not have a “resident” monk seal population, but may have occasional monk seal visitors, especially along the south Albania coast. Bearing in mind that several scientists have suggested that monk seals could travel 300-400 km in search of food and a mate, we can assume that monk seals from the known population of the Greek Ionian islands, could travel along the Albanian coast even as far as the Vis Archipelago in Croatia. This assumption 12


could explain recent reports of monk seal sightings in the Adriatic Sea (Antolović, 2005 and Dedei, 2005). Previous studies have shown that fisheries interaction with monk seals is mainly with those using gillnets and longlines (Kouroutos, 1987). However, those fishing with these methods originating from Vlore did not report any monk seal sightings either recently or historically, but those from Sarande reported occasional monk seal sightings in the shores near Sarande port. It would seem that the caves along the Albanian coastline, especially those of the Western coast of the Karaburuni peninsula, could serve as a bridge for possible future monk seal repopulation of the shores of the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea, rather than important shelters for “local” monk seal breeding populations. Because of this, and considering its unique beauty and rich biodiversity the Karaburuni peninsula should be declared as the first Albanian National Marine Park, according to the recommendations of the Albanian National Action Plan (NAP) in the framework of the SAP BIO.

7. Data on Dolphin sightings During the survey period there were 6 direct dolphin sightings. All sightings were made during calm sea conditions and both common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) were observed (see Annex X: Dolphin Sightings Data Sheet & Maps). Bearing in mind the mostly calm sea conditions and the distance that the boat travelled (900 nautical miles) these six sightings were considered a small number. Most of the fishermen interviewed reported regular encounters with dolphins during their fishing trips. There was little evidence that dolphins caused damage to fishing nets – most damage and loss of catch was attributed to ‘Sirra’ Lichia ammia; and fishermen had a mainly respectful attitude towards dolphins.

8. Status of Sea Turtles i. In the Mediterranean Marine turtles are long-lived slow-maturing reptiles adapted to life in the aquatic environment. Apart from egg-laying, which requires a suitable beach environment, most of their life cycle occurs at sea. Comprehensive studies of the nesting environment have been conducted globally, but marine habitat use remains poorly understood (Lutz and Musick, 1997). Adult females migrate from a foraging ground to a nesting beach. Mating occurs during the migration, although mating areas are poorly defined. Nesting tends to occur on sandy beaches, when clutches of eggs (average about 100 eggs) are deposited in the sand, usually at night, and left to incubate for about two months. Hatchlings emerge from the egg chamber, perhaps taking 3-7 days to reach the beach surface. Entering the water they swim rapidly offshore (swimming frenzy). Loggerheads have been found using convergence zones and drift lines in oceanic gyres (large circular currents) in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; small juveniles from all other species have not yet been located and so their early development (“the lost years” Carr, 1987) remains unclear. In 13


the Mediterranean these juvenile developmental habitats and denatant migratory routes are completely unknown. Three sea turtle species are found in the Mediterranean, two of which nest there, and once boasted abundant populations: the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). The leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) is an occasional visitor. Mediterranean sea turtles are increasingly threatened by nesting habitat degradation, due to coastal development that is mainly tourist-oriented, and fisheries bycatch. The species, perhaps, most affected by these factors is the green turtle, which is estimated to nest mainly in Turkey, Cyprus and, according to recent reports, in Lebanon. Loggerheads used to nest on many Mediterranean shores, but today only Greece, Turkey, Cyprus and Libya retain sizeable concentrations of nesting females (Venizelos L., 2002). In the Mediterranean region the beaches where nesting occurs are fairly well known. In contrast, the feeding and over-wintering habitats have been proposed mainly from the interaction of turtles with fishing gear (Margaritoulis et al. 2003). However, this approach may suffer profound bias due to the uneven distribution of fishing effort (Casale et al. 2005). A six-year study of marine habitat use by loggerheads in the Ionian Sea has just been completed (White in submission, 2006); this was based on direct observations of turtles at sea. The two options for turtles in winter are to migrate into an area of warmer water, such as the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia, where active foraging can continue (Groombridge, 1990; Laurent et al. (WWF Project 3937); or to remain in an area of reducing water temperature and face hibernation (or cold-stunning and perhaps death, Witherington and Ehrhart, 1989). Turtles have been reported from Croatia during the winter months (Lazar, 1995; Lazar and Tvrtkovic, 1995 & 1998). A north-bound current passes along the Adriatic’s eastern coastline, which could bring post-nesting turtles from Greece into Albanian and Croatian sea areas (Lazar et al. 2000 & 2004).

ii. In Albania Some of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean are on the Ionian coast and the islands of Greece (Margaritoulis et al. 2003). In recent reports based on sea turtle strandings and catches in the waters around Italy, it has been suggested that the Ionian / South Adriatic Sea area may be an important developmental oceanic habitat for the turtle population nesting on Greek beaches (Casale et al. 2005) Prof. Idriz Haxhiu (personal communication) has reported extensive fisheries bycatch in Northern Albanian waters near the borders with Serbia – Montenegro. Over the last few years (July 2002 – July 2005) he has taken carapace measurements and/or tagged around 400 sea turtles, captured mostly in fish traps called stavnike (photo 10, Figure 3 and Annex XI). The current status of nesting in Albania is unclear and remains to be quantified.

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9. Survey on Sea Turtle Abundance along the Albanian Coast The project aimed to survey and clarify the status of turtles at sea in the feeding grounds along the Albanian coast, placing particular emphasis on the Patok and Karaburuni areas with the aim of improving the protection of marine turtles and their habitats.

9a. Methodology Through specially designed questionnaires for fishermen, information was gathered regarding accidental sea turtle catch by fisheries, in all major Albanian ports (Sarande, Vlore, Durres and Shengjin) (Annex IX: Sea Turtle Observation Data Sheet Sample & Maps). Based upon information gathered and previous scientific data (Haxhiu I., personal communication) a series of random dives were conducted at different locations (Annex VIII. Line Transect Data sheets & Maps). In selected areas a new method for sea turtle population estimation (Line Transect) was tested, modified and improved (photos: 11, 14, 15 and figure 2). A computer database and a set of data sheets were developed for data recording (see Annex i: Data sheets prepared for the project). Whilst sailing, observations were made regarding sea turtle sightings at the sea surface and of other important megafauna (dolphins and whales). Researchers walked along three sandy beaches to determine whether these could be potential turtle nesting sites

9b. Location of Sea Turtle Study Area The survey covered the entire Albanian coastline from Cape Stilo (N 39o 41’ 09”, E 19o 59’ 19”) near the Greek borders, to the borders of Serbia - Montenegro (N 41o 50’ 54”, E 19o 22’ 49”). A distance of approximately 350 km was surveyed twice (figure 1: Map of Albania). As well as Sarande and Vlore, the ports of Durres and Shengjin were visited, data on sea turtles were gathered and further interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Durres port is Albania’s main commercial port with good infrastructure and facilities (including a dry dock) for commercial, passenger and fishing boats. However there is no provision for private pleasure boats (yachting etc.). The Durres fishing fleet, the largest in Albania, is based in the main port and consists of industrial and artisanal boats. The large (15-20m in length) trawlers fish daily, working the entire Albanian coast. Most of the high quality fishing catch is exported to Italy and fishes with low market value are sold locally. Shengjin port is the most northerly Albanian port, located close to the border with Serbia-Montenegro. It is a commercial and overcrowded fishing port with medium-sized trawlers and a few artisanal fishing boats. They fish daily, mainly between the Serbia-Montenegrin borders and Cape Rodonit. Tourism in Shengjin town has grown considerably over the last few years.

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i. “Stavnike” Fishing Around Shengjin, and particularly close to the Patok Lagoon, is the area where most of the Stavnike fish traps are located. Fishermen living in the villages around the Patok lagoon are involved with this kind of fishing. “Stavnike” is a fish trapping method that was introduced from Russia many years ago. A ‘wall’ of netting is constructed stretching from the seashore out to a point in the bay where the sea has a depth of 6-9 metres (between 200m and 600m distant from the shore) where two box nets (about 40m2)are situated (see figure 3 and photo 10). The netting wall acts as a barrier to the fish swimming near the shore. When they encounter this net, in an attempt to escape they swim towards the open sea, where they come across the box nets and enter the small net opening. Here they swim around until nightfall when the fishermen come to gather their catch. Nets are emptied daily about an hour before sunset. This fishing method is used mostly from April to June. During May the catch is at its best (80-150 kg per day). During the low season (the rest of the year) fishermen can expect to catch between 25 and 30kg per day. Inexperienced fishermen were still fishing at the time of the present study and their catch was very low. Naturally, it is not only fish that are entrapped: sea turtle bycatch is also very high.

Figure 3 shows two stavnike traps back-to-back. The sides are constructed from fishing nets. A long net leads to the beach and directs any marine animals that encounter it towards the trap. (© 2006 Idriz Haxhiu)

16


ii. Trawling Trawlermen were present in all fishing ports visited. In most areas fishermen worked locally; a small number had fished along the entire Albanian coast. Usually fishermen had one or two favourite areas, perhaps using each fishing ground at a different time of the year. At Vlorë many of the shallow water trawls (>8 m) were made near the mouth of Lumi i Vjosës (close to Nartës lagoon). Unusually, at Shengjin almost all trawls were carried out along a line connecting Kepi i Rodonit and Lumi i Bunës (The AlbaniaMontenegro border). Turtles are part of the bycatch, particularly in Gjiri i Drinit and near to Lumi i Vjosës.

iii. Coastal nets Small nets were deployed from, often unpowered, boats and were left for hours or even days. These nets were usually placed close to cliffs (e.g. Karaburuni), or in coves. Turtles were often caught (Haxhiu pers. com. 2006).

iv. Longlines Longlines were used offshore from moving boats, and also as static lines left overnight (e.g. at Kepi i Rodonit). Turtles were caught in both types of set (2-3 per month in September-October at Sarande).

v. Dynamite fishing None of the fishermen interviewed used dynamite themselves, but most of them said that it was widespread (“some nights it sounds like a war zone”, anecdotal report). Most fishermen disliked the practice because of the harm that it causes to the marine environment. Fish that were probably killed by explosions were observed during this survey, washed up along the beaches.

9c. Results i. Stavnike fish traps Traps were located in Gjiri i Drinit (Shengjin) at the following locations (Annex XI: Location of Fish Traps in the Patok Area): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

[N 41º 49′ 25.3″, E 19º 32′ 59.2″] [N 41º 48′ 40.6″, E 19º 34′ 14.9″] [N 41º 46′ 12.5″, E 19º 34′ 52.4″] [N 41º 38′ 38.5″, E 19º 34′ 48.4″] [N 41º 36′ 39.8″, E 19º 35′ 15.6″] [N 41º 35′ 24.0″, E 19º 34′ 16.8″] [N 41º 34′ 39.4″, E 19º 32′ 32.7″] [N 41º 34′ 28.2″, E 19º 31′ 43.9″] [N 41º 34′ 28.2″, E 19º 31′ 04.0″] [N 41º 34′ 30.3″, E 19º 30′ 10.9″] [N 41º 34′ 44.0″, E 19º 28′ 54.6″] [N 41º 34′ 59.7″, E 19º 28′ 13.5″]

This survey witnessed two traps being harvested (no turtles were in the catch); the fishermen were also interviewed onboard Alonnisos. 17


Bycatch reported by different stavnike fishermen included mostly small juveniles: 1) 1015 kgs in May-June), 2) 30-40 kgs in April-June. Larger loggerheads (80 kg) were captured in August. Idriz Haxhiu (pers. com. 2006) said that large turtles were also present at other times of the year. The longest-established stavnike fishermen do not use their traps after June. Peak catch in 2005 was more than 350 loggerheads over April-June (250 from one source, 100 from another).

ii. Bycatch from other fishing gear Longline fishermen were seeing turtles at Vjosës during October-November 2005. Shallow trawls (30-50 m) captured turtles at: 1) Patok (March) and Gjiri i Drinit (OctoberNovember) - most of these turtles are 20-40 kgs, and occasionally 80 kg; 2) 180 loggerheads in March (10-15 kg) and 180 in October (10-15 kgs); 3) 1 or 2 turtles per ‘soak’ between Lumi i Bunës and Kepi i Rodonit Deep trawls (300-400 m) near Durres captured 5-6 per year (1 in March 2005). 1-2 turtles per month were captured in nets within Butrintit lagoon between NovemberMarch.

iii. Underwater surveys SCUBA diving surveys were conducted at: 1) Western Karaburuni (Gjiri i Gramës) 2) Lumi i Vjosës, 3) North of Kepi i Rodonit [N 41º 35′ 42.4″, E 19º 26′ 8.3″] 5) South of Kepi i Rodonit [N 41º 35′ 38.0″, E 19º 26′ 80.0″] 6) Thrown-sand beach, Shengjin [N 41º 49′ 47.7″, E 19º 32′ 94.6″] 7) One stavnik near Lumi i Ishmit [N 41º 38′ 13.8″, E 19º 32′ 67.9″] 8) Porto - Palermos bay 9) South of Sarande [N 39º 48′ 09.2″, 19º 59′ 93.3″]

iv. Transects Four transects were made underwater: 1) East of the mouth of Lumi i Bunës, [N 41º 51′ 16.3″, E 19º 24′ 68.4″] 2) Thrown-sand beach, Shengjin, [N 41º 50′ 71.8″, E 19º 27′ 06.5″] 3) On the north side of Kepi i Rodonit, [N 41º 38′ 13.8″, E 19º 32′ 67.9″] 4) South of Sarande, [N 39º 48′ 09.2″, E 19º 59′ 93.3″] Underwater visibility was usually poor.

v. Foraging grounds Turtles were not observed directly on foraging grounds; possibly because they may only use Albanian waters at certain times of the year. However, substantial evidence was collected during interviews with fishermen, which showed the peak periods of turtle bycatch for different sea areas and fishing methods. Fishermen frequently reported that sightings were offshore from all of the northern capes.

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vi. Overwintering One turtle was observed whilst at sea [N 41º 42′ 83.9″, E 19º 32′ 61.7″], heading south from Shengjin on 6th November 2005 (sea depth 20 m, SST 20ºC). Anecdotal evidence indicated that one loggerhead had been captured at Vlore and kept in a restaurant – apparently while we were there; although the survey was in Durres when the news arrived (Andrian Vaso, pers. com.). A dead loggerhead was retrieved from the reef at Kepi i Rodonit (by one of the survey team MW) on 7th November [N 41º 35′ 25.7″, E 19º 26′ 83.2″]. It had a blue ‘Roto-tag’ on its front flipper [RAC/SPA, Tunis. Tag number: W1012] Anecdotal reports from coastal-zone workers and managers indicated that loggerheads had been encountered in late-autumn within the lagoon systems: notably at Butrintit and Patok.

vii. Migration routes Possible migratory pathways may pass through Albania’s coastal waters. Little direct evidence was collected during this 3-week survey, but the presence of very large turtles in the reported bycatch suggests that some loggerheads may move between the Ionian and Adriatic Seas. The reports of large turtles were mainly from deeper offshore waters (October-November)

viii. Nesting beach surveys There were no signs of turtle emergence on any of the beaches investigated.

9d. Discussion – Conclusion i. Stavnike fish traps Small groups of fishermen, perhaps families, operated the stavnike traps, mostly operating between 2-6 traps. Turtle bycatch was unevenly distributed with just one or two traps in each group catching the most turtles; however, the rate of capture could be considerable (sometimes 30-40 turtles per day). Note: Haxhiu (pers. com. 2006) estimated daily catch as 0-7 loggerheads per stavnike, so accurate daily assessments are required to quantify bycatch. The present survey was too short to determine why only certain traps attracted the most turtles. A dive was made at a stavnike north of Kepi i Rodonit to survey the seabed. The benthos was fine silt (mud), probably deposited from nearby rivers and lagoons (Lumi i Ishmit, Lumi i Matit, Lumi i Drinit, and Patok Lagoon); underwater visibility was zero and vegetation was absent. Further research should be conducted during the period of peak captures (spring months); a suggested guideline is as follows: • • • • • •

Monitor the stavnike harvest every day. Record which traps capture turtles most frequently. Measure, tag and photograph all turtles (dorsal images of head and carapace). Determine the period of peak capture. Measure the daily sea surface temperature (SST). Record the abundance of each marine species in the daily catch (fish, crabs, medusae etc.). This may provide the answer as to why turtles congregate at certain times, e.g. an abundant food supply. 19


•

•

Continue this process for 2-3 years in case the first year was atypical. It may be possible later to only observe the traps with the greatest turtle bycatch. In which case an educational programme should be implemented for fishermen, so that their incidental turtle catch is also included and reported. Determine the recapture frequency of tagged turtles and record any incremental growth data.

The presence of so many traps (12) in Gjiri i Drinit means that the bycatch level for turtles is likely to be high. If peak capture in a trap is 30-40 turtles per day, even in just two or three traps, that represents about 100 turtles per day. When the extensive trawling in Gjiri i Drinit is also considered, and any bycatch from coastal nets, the impact of fisheries on endangered turtles in this small sea area is going to be substantial. There is however, one mitigating factor: turtles trapped in stavnike are not usually dead. There is room for turtles to swim around in the traps and, most importantly, they can surface to breathe. In contrast, if a trawl soak lasts for longer than about 50 minutes, many turtles in the net may drown.

ii. Trawling Shallow water trawls captured a substantial number of loggerheads in Gjiri i Drinit (520 were reported from just three fishermen in 2005). One trawlerman stated that he was catching 1-2 per soak (a 3-4 hour trawl) in November and December i.e. about 160 per month (assuming he fishes for 15 days per month).

iii. Longlines The dead loggerhead at Kepi i Rodonit had drowned following its capture on a static longline. The line was set at a depth of >30m and the turtle was hooked eating the bait. Unfortunately the lines were left for a week, because bad weather prevented their recovery; the fisherman cut the line and let the carcass go. Some important data were determined: The turtle had been tagged by Idriz Haxhiu at Patok (13th July 2004). At tagging its Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was 54 cm; its Curved Carapace Width (CCW) was 51 cm. At death the CCL= 58.5 cm (a growth increment of 4.5 cm in 16 months); CCW = 55 cm (the growth was 4 cm over the 16 months). This juvenile turtle had been present in the same area of Albania at least twice: once at tagging (July 2004) and once at death (November 2005). It is not possible to say whether the animal was resident at Gjiri i Drinit in the intervening period; however, this is the sort of information that can be collected during a year-round study of fishery bycatch. For instance, if a turtle is found in a stavnike on several occasions that would imply some level of fidelity to a foraging ground, even if only for a few months. It may also be possible to determine a migratory pattern from such ongoing data.

iv. Distribution of sea turtles in Albania There was a distinct difference in the reported distribution of sea turtles between the northern and southern parts of Albania. During interviews with fishermen, and other coastal workers, the data collected included their sightings of turtles as well as any bycatch. From the southern port of Sarande to Durres sightings and captures of turtles were rare: typically 1 or 2 a year (occasionally 3-4 a year).

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Fishermen from Shengjin and Durres that fished in northern Albanian waters reported regular sightings and catches of turtles (100’s per year). In Gjiri i Durrësit turtles were caught at Talbot Shoal and just off Kepi i Durrësit (very near to Durres port). Regular sightings and captures were made between Kepi i Durrësit and Kepi i Bishti i Pallës, also in Gjiri i Lalezit, but the largest number were from Gjiri i Drinit (reported above). Adults and juveniles are mainly caught at different times of the year: juveniles during April-May-June, mostly in shallow waters <10 m (in stavnike at Patok and trawls at Vjosës); adults were more often from deeper water trawls in October-November, but also in the summer (Haxhiu pers. com. 2006). One very interesting point was that one trawlerman who catches over 300 small turtles per year at Shengjin told us they were all tagged, “although sometimes untagged ones are caught”. In most parts of the world very few tagged turtles are captured; in the Mediterranean less than 2% (White pers obs; Margaritoulis pers. com). This could imply foraging site fidelity by juveniles at Patok, as suggested by Idriz Haxhiu, but needs to be properly quantified.

v. Species of sea turtles in Albania The majority of turtles captured are loggerheads Caretta caretta, but occasionally Green turtles Chelonia mydas had been caught. Green turtles were described by fishermen as “being gentle-natured, unlike Breshkë (Caretta)”. None of the fishermen that were interviewed had seen leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea, but one fisherman knew that it was usually an oceanic animal.

vi. Overwintering Only 2 turtles were directly observed during this survey in November: (1 at sea and the dead one). Much more important though was the fact that workers at Butrintit and Patok lagoons had recently encountered loggerheads in the shallow waterways leading from the lagoon system to the sea. During questioning we determined that for a few weeks each spring, the lagoons were opened to the sea to allow small fish to enter the wetland areas; turtles obviously entered at the same time. Then the channels were blocked off, so that fishermen could harvest the fish later in the year; perhaps when weather conditions at sea were poor. At both locations (Butrintit and Patok) it seems that loggerheads were attempting to leave the lagoons – probably in response to decreasing water temperatures – as they were found in the blocked-off exit channels close to the sea. This is best described as “involuntary overwintering” and is a new finding. Note: The turtles were released into the sea by the people that found them. It is assumed that turtles were using the lagoon systems as a foraging habitat.

vii. Diving surveys SCUBA dives were conducted at several sites using free-swimming habitat surveys and fixed transect-lines. Water depths ranged between 2-30 metres. Sea temperature underwater was 18-22ºC. Underwater visibility was invariably poor, and often zero. This meant that the seafloor could not be seen when swimming along the transect-line (3 m above the seabed). The transect-line was modified so that it remained at 2 metres above the benthos. The poorvisibility problem remained and so the divers swam below the transect bodyline; 21


occasionally the benthos was visible from 10-30 cm (Annex VIII: Line transect data sheets & Maps). Only two fixed transects had any level of visibility (T1 at Bunës was 3-5 metres over sand substratum; T4 at Sarande was 10-20 metres over seagrass on a mainly pebble substratum). The poor visibility seemed to be caused by large amounts of fine mud and silt being washed into the sea from rivers and coastal lagoons. Also a rapid decrease in subsurface visibility occurred where clay-based boulders were present underwater. The most notable example was at Kepi i Rodonit where the end of the cape had collapsed into the sea, most of the large ‘rocks’ were clay. A dive on the southern side (Gjiri i Lalezit) had limited visibility (4-6 m) so that biodiversity could be assessed; 400 metres away on the north side of the cape visibility was zero. The current was moving northwards and washing tiny particles of clay from the boulders into Gjiri i Drinit. A dive at Lumi i Vjosës that covered 100s m2 had visibility of 2-3 m, but as we passed the river outflow (a milky curtain of water) visibility reduced to only 1 m. This was a shallow water habitat where turtles are frequently trawled, and comprised fine flat sand, no vegetation, and many bivalves and hermit crabs (Paguridae) were present. Dives at Thrown-sand beach, west of Shengjin, were also over sand, but this sloped steeply (similar to the distribution of sand on the beach) and vegetation was absent. Visibility at 30 m was reasonable, but the shallowest 12 metres had zero visibility, which included the level of the nearby stavnike. As a consequence no turtles were observed underwater at any site. This meant that the Distance 6 software was not used during the present survey. The software had a minimum requirement that >60 individual turtles were observed. We had prepared a method of photo-recognition so that individual turtles could be uniquely identified underwater (White in submission. 2006).

viii. Nesting beach surveys There was no evidence of turtle emergences (tracks, nest excavation, body-pits, dead hatchlings, egg-shells etc.) on the three beaches that were investigated. However, this result was expected because nesting in the Ionian Sea occurs mostly between June and August. To determine whether loggerhead nesting does occur in Albania, it is recommended that all sandy beaches are walked once or twice each week between June and August (tracks are usually visible for 4-5 days, depending on the level of beach use). People that live or work on the beaches (e.g. bars and cafes, shepherds etc.) should be encouraged to report evidence of turtle emergences: adult tracks or hatchlings (Frazier, 1999). If turtle nesting does occur in Albania the key conservation task should be to minimise coastal zone lighting. This causes disorientation to both adults and hatchlings making it difficult for them to find the sea. The best approaches for nesting beach lighting are also the most simple. • • • •

Turn off beach-facing lights at night (or close curtains, blinds etc.) so that the nesting area remains dark. Turn lights to face away from the sea (very useful for restaurants etc.) Lower fixed lighting to waist-height, rather than high level (standard-lamp gantries). Enclose light fixtures in shrouds or cut-offs; this not only illuminates the intended area better, but reduces electricity consumption and minimises atmospheric light pollution. 22


• •

Plant screening trees or bushes between lit buildings and the nesting areas Change white-light lamps to low-pressure sodium, which causes the least disruption to turtles on the beaches.

For full guidance on lighting see Witherington and Martin (1996), or Witherington (1999).

ix. Conservation of sea turtles An important finding from the interviews was that most fishermen believed it was bad luck to kill a turtle (or dolphin). If turtles were released alive they ‘Blessed’ the fisherman in gratitude (by breathing and gesturing with their flippers). Occasionally fishermen had eaten turtles and then attributed a ‘run of bad luck’ (e.g. nets breaking, loss of catch, and engine failure etc.) to killing the turtle. Haxhiu and Uruci (1998) reported similar examples. This belief was widespread throughout Albania, apart from at Shengjin*, and could easily be encouraged as a positive conservation message. *Note: It is unclear why Shengjin should be so different; two possible suggestions are that mariners in the south may face more intense weather conditions at sea (e.g. west of Karaburuni) and they use all of the good luck they can get; whereas fishermen at Shengjin make large catches locally in Gjiri i Drinit. Shengjin’s proximity to Serbia-Montenegro (9 km) may mean that a different set of beliefs are traditional along the northern coast, and perhaps an association between bad luck and marine megafauna is absent.

Two examples were recorded of sea turtles being used in traditional medicine: 1) eating the liver alleviated epilepsy; 2) eating turtle meat enhanced male sexual performance (i.e. an aphrodisiac). Both of these came from an elderly fisherman, and are perhaps now fading from folk-memory.

x. Tagging programme awareness An educational awareness programme needs to be implemented, using, where appropriate, the Sea Turtle Handling Guidebook for Fishermen, so that coastal communities are aware of Albania’s efforts to protect endangered sea turtles. The dead turtle we recovered at Kepi i Rodonit had been tagged (July 2004, Patok), but its carcass was just thrown into the sea by a fisherman. If our researchers had not spoken to the fishermen that day, there would have been no record of this event. (If similar events are commonplace then turtle abundance derived from tag records will be an overestimate). Many of the ports had fishermen’s associations and these can provide a useful focal point to reach large numbers of fishermen. During this study leaflets, posters and stickers were distributed to fishermen and fishing associations. It should be possible to establish a contact point at each port to report turtle bycatch levels in their area to an appropriate central authority (perhaps Tirana’s Museum of Natural Sciences).

xi. Flipper-tags It is recommended that metal self-sealing tags such as ‘Stockbrands’ tags are used instead of plastic Roto-tags, following the recommendations of the Tagging Workshop held during the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Sea Turtles (Kemer Turkey, 2005). The large two-part plastic tags seem to be a frequent cause of turtles becoming entangled in gill-nets, and then drowning. This was pointed out to us by different fishermen – we did not ask them – and they were very angry about it. If Albania establishes a central tagging database, then using tags with an Albanian address, instead of a Tunisian one, would reinforce the conservation message that Albania is trying to promote: i.e. to conserve endangered species. 23


10. Sociological Study Conservation of marine life and habitats cannot be viewed in isolation from the people who have the most contact with these animals in their natural environment. Fishermen along the Albanian shore regularly encounter marine turtles, so their knowledge and opinions are very important. Many social factors can influence their approach to these issues, so it is important to have a full sociological picture of the industry, not simply ask them where and when wildlife is encountered. This need was reflected in the nature of questions asked in the questionnaire (Annex IV. Tourist Questionnaire Sample & Annex iii. Samples of Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles)). The educational level of respondents was high â&#x20AC;&#x201C; many had post-high school qualifications in related subjects such as mechanics, or had attended a fisheries college. Interestingly, between 80% and 90% of fishermen did not want their children to follow in their footsteps. The income was perceived to be very low, with many finding it extremely difficult to support themselves and their families throughout the year. Their boats were in a very bad state of repair and they felt manipulated by intermediate traders. Poor infrastructure and transportation linkages between ports and markets made selling directly to the public very difficult. Fishing boats were dry-docked every 2-3 years and generally poorly maintained and ill-equipped with old engines and fishing gear. The facilities within the fishing ports were very poor, lacking adequate pollution control and environmental protection measures, which also made things difficult (Durres being the exception). The current fuel crisis was also exacerbating the problems associated with already high fuel costs; as a result artisanal fishermen were fishing closer and closer to the shore in an attempt to reduce fuel consumption.

11.Tourism as a Potential Alternative to Fishing? Fishermen were asked about Tourism as a possible alternative to fishing. It was thought to be a viable alternative by those in Sarande and Shengjin (where some tourism infrastructure was already in place). This could potentially act as an alternative or complement to the fishing industry, as the high tourist season does not correspond with the main fishing season. Some respondents welcomed suggestions of tourism development as they felt that it would increase the market for fish, thus improving prices. They also felt that tourism would provide them with the opportunity to sell fish in the local market, thus cutting out middlemen who bought in bulk (cheaply) for the export market. Throughout the duration of the trip, it became clear that tourist infrastructure (particularly for sea-based tourism) was simply not in place, with the exception of Sarande, where basic facilities have been developed over the last 2-3 years and Vlore where a privately-owned (Italian) marina provided the necessary facilities. 24


For yacht-based tourism these are simply too far apart to make it a viable sailing route. There is a massive potential market for yachts, which could act as a bridge between island hoppers in the Greek islands and those visiting the islands of the Dalmatian coast (Croatia), to the North of Albania. Visiting most of Albaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ports was found to be an extremely bureaucratic experience and inconsistent (different things were required at each port). Sarande, which was the only port really geared towards tourism was extremely expensive â&#x20AC;&#x201C; costing much more than a corresponding port would do in Greece, for example.

12. Public awareness A leaflet was produced giving brief details of the biology and lifecycle of Mediterranean sea turtles, and the threats that they face from tourism development and fisheries interaction. The leaflet highlights the importance of collaboration between fishermen and scientists in order to conserve the Mediterranean species of turtle and their habitats. It also gives brief instructions as to what to do on encountering a turtle. The leaflet was translated into Albanian and distributed to fishermen and other individuals encountered during the trip. Stickers and posters were also produced and distributed along the route. Following the study trip, the remaining leaflets were left at the GEF Small Grants Project Office for further distribution throughout the country.

13. Capacity building / training One of the central aims of the survey was to build capacity within Albania in order to develop and sustain a study and conservation programme for biodiversity and habitats along the Albanian coast. Through demonstration of scientific techniques and academic presentations on the study-boat capacity was built in four areas: 1. 2. 3. 4.

How to conduct a rapid assessment survey How to conduct an on-site survey How to manipulate, develop and process data Exchange of knowledge of the flora and fauna under study

Small groups of final year students from Tirana Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Biology Department were invited onboard for a day at a time over a period of four days. Through presentations on the biology, ecology and distribution patterns of monk seals and turtles, knowledge was transferred and interest raised in the issues concerned. One major issue is the lack of NGO and civil society organisations in Albania concerned with conservation and marine biodiversity, which could serve to monitor the situation along the coast. Efforts to address this issue were regularly made through discussions with visitors to the boat with the intention of motivating and empowering through knowledge exchange about potential funding sources and developing networks and linkages with similar organisations throughout the 25


Mediterranean. If these were realised there would be enormous potential for good linkages with other such organisations around the Mediterranean through international organisations already present in the country (GEF, RAC/SPA, MedWet, MIO-ECSDE) as well as through this strong link with MEDASSET. It is hoped that the continuation of the study programme in the future will help raise awareness and build capacity further.

14. Comments on fisheries, monk seals and sea turtles Fishing in Albania can be divided into three types depending on fishing method, gear and/or fishing area: Industrial fishing is referred to mostly as the trawlers which are usually medium to large fishing boats (12-22m long) which fish in waters deeper than 30m. Artisanal fishing: mostly small fishing boats (motorised or rowing), that work near the shore or inside the lagoons. Stavnike: using fishing traps located near the shore. Fishermen use small fishing boats (motorised or rowing) and fish mainly from April to mid July, although in some cases until November. Most Albanian fishermen fish daily and year around. Trawlers export their good quality catch to Italy through trading companies who usually provide them with ice and fish storage boxes. Fish with a lower market value caught by the trawlers, and fish from all other fishermen are sold locally. Owing to the lack of fishing regulation and enforcement a high level of illegal fishing and in some areas the use of dynamite was on the increase. Most of the fishermen pointed out that their annual catch was decreasing. Of all the fishermen questioned in our survey, only 7 respondents, all of whom used two Stavnike traps to fish just outside the mouth of Patok lagoon, seemed satisfied with the level of their catch and earnings. They used the traps during April-June and their daily catch weighted in at more than 300kg. Outside the trapping season they fished with small nets in the lagoon and occasionally at sea. They reported a high use of dynamite in the area and the illegal use of fishing traps. Between Cape Rodonit and the Serbia-Montenegrin border 12 fish traps were encountered with 5 still in use during the survey period. Most of the fishermen seemed to respect sea turtles and had no desire to kill them. They believed that harming a sea turtle would bring bad luck. This widely held belief must have provided protection for the species from high bycatch mortality. It became obvious during the survey that there is a high interaction between Stavnike fishermen and sea turtles particularly around the Patok lagoon. Two fishermen stated that in the region of 250 animals could be captured in just two traps throughout the Stavnike season. A clear advantage with traps, in contrast with other fishing gear (trawler, nets, longlines), is that turtles have room to swim around the trap without causing any damage to themselves or the nets and can be released unharmed at the end of the day when the nets are emptied. This in combination with the folklore belief that killing a turtle would bring bad luck brings the mortality rate surprisingly low for a fishing method with such high interaction between turtles and fishermen. North of Vlore no fishermen reported recent monk seal sightings. A few mentioned the presence of a sea lion 10 years before, which proved to have escaped from a travelling 26


circus. There was also another report of the presence of a monk seal sighted on the shores of Patok Lagoon about 20 years ago. Generally there was very low reported interaction between fishermen and monk seals along the entire Albanian coast in contrast to the high presence of dolphins.

15. Conservation Recommendations for Albania Taking into consideration the results of this rapid assessment it would seem that: • The broader Patok area is an important feeding and maybe over-wintering ground for sea turtles. • It is possible that the caves of the Western coast of the Karaburuni peninsula, could serve occasionally as resting monk seal shelters and as a bridge for possible future monk seal repopulation of the Dalmatian islands. • The Karaburuni peninsula enjoys rich biodiversity and landscape of historical value. Albania is badly in need of investment in conservation, which is evident from the lack of basic infrastructure. In terms of managing the environment in a sustainable manner, the country is in need of considerable financial assistance while educational programmes need to provide the population with some kind of incentive to preserve its rich biodiversity. The future of sea turtle and biodiversity conservation in Albania is no exception. Sea turtle data collection in the broader Patok area must continue as future conservation and management plans rely upon this data to influence local authorities, municipalities and fishermen. It is important to underline that Albania has been under considerable socioeconomic strain since the fall of Communism in 1991. Conservation is not a priority in an area of such severe poverty. Any future conservation success will be linked to peoples’ livelihoods and the education of future generations. There is a strong need to enhance national cooperation by involving governmental and non-governmental bodies, environmental and volunteer groups. The best strategy would appear to be, giving full support to existing international and regional agreements and conventions to ensure biodiversity conservation. This should be applied throughout the region, whilst improving linkages between all communities, researchers, universities and NGOs involved in environmental protection around the Mediterranean Sea. In light of these suggestions and conclusions we propose the following short and long term actions:

a. Long term: • •

Support financially and institutionally the effort for the establishment of the Karaburuni National Marine Park, as outlined in the Albanian National Action Plan (SAP BIO). Develop and implement sustainable tourism development plans and further support existing projects (e.g. World Bank). 27


• •

Plan and introduce public awareness campaigns according to the principles of sustainable development, especially for fishermen and coastal population groups. Build and strengthen the capacity of governmental and non-governmental organisations to carry out marine biodiversity research and education on sustainable development programmes through demonstration activities, awareness-raising, training and networking. Support, assist and consult the Albanian authorities and local stakeholders on their efforts to develop and improve infrastructure; reduce social disparities; improve governance; and to manage water, sea and natural resources in sustainable ways.

b. Short term •

Develop and implement a 2-3 year marine turtle research programme (population estimates, tagging, carapace measuring) and public awareness programme in the broader Patok area aiming to highlight the importance of the sea turtle feeding grounds in the area; improve the marine turtle and biodiversity conservation; and better manage the areas’ marine natural resources at the same time as improving knowledge of sea turtle foraging habitats. On a daily basis (April-June), monitor fishing traps (stavnike) in order to collect data on sea turtle bycatch (see chapter 9c.i above). In Shengjin port, fishermen surveys should be conducted and data recorded throughout the year on fisheries bycatch and interaction. Conduct assessments of potential nesting sites throughout Albania during June-August for 3-4 years. This should determine if nesting currently occurs in Albania.

28


16. References Antolović, Jasna. (1998). Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) habitat in Vis Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea. Monachus Science. The Monachus Guardian, Vol.1 No.2, December 1998. Antolović, J., Vaso A., Kashta L., Shutina V., Anagnosti S., Bogdanović S., Adamić L., Antolović N., (2005). Protection of the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) and its Habitats. EURASLIC 11. 11th Biennial Conference of the European Association of Aquatic Sciences Libraries and Information Centres, 4-6th May 2005, Split, Croatia Antolović, J., (2005). Mediterranean News. The Monachus Guardian. Vol. 8 (2), December 2005 Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Laake, J.L. (1993). Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, London. 446pp. Casale P., Freggi D., Basso R. & Argano R., (2005). Oceanic Habitats for Loggerhead Turtles in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Turtle Newsletter 107:10-11 Dedei Z., Bego F., Marika K., Kapedani R. (2005), Unpublished report for an IFAW project. Elliniki Etairia (1995). Functioning of the Greek Base of the Monk seal Register, EU Contract 4-3010(92)7829 Frazier, J. G. (1999). Community-based conservation. Pp. 15-18. In: Eckert, K. L., K. A. Bjorndal, F. A. Abreu-Grobois and M. Donelly (Eds), 1999. Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group publication no. 4. Gerosa, G. and P. Casale (1999). Interaction of Marine Turtles with Fisheries in the Mediterranean. UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas (RAC/SPA), Tunis. González L. M. & De Larrinoa P. F., (2005). Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus): Update of the Status and Conservation Progress in the Atlantic Populations. Thirteenth Meeting of the CMS Scientific Council, Nairobi, Kenya, 16-18 November 2005. Groombridge, B. (1990). Marine turtles in the Mediterranean: Distribution, population status, conservation. A report to the Council of Europe, Environment and Management Division. Nature and Environment Series, Number 48. Strasbourg 1990. Haxhiu, I. & Uruci, S. (1998). Some data on marine turtles in Albania. UNEP(OCA) /MED WG.145/4 Annex IV:1-5. IUCN (2004). 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.redlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 November 2005.

29


Johnson W. & Lavigne D., (1999). MASS TOURISM and the MEDITERRANEAN MONK SEAL, The Monachus Guardian 2 (2) November 1999. Johnson W. & Lavigne D., (1997). The Mediterranean Monk Seal Conservation Guidelines, IMMA Inc. 1997 Johnson, W. (2005). International news. The Monachus Guardian. Vol. 8 (1), May 2005 Kouroutos V., Papapanagiotou D., et Kokkinia P., (1986). Observations on the behaviour of the Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) in the N.Sporades, Greece, Biol. Gallo Hell. 12:249. Kouroutos V., Papanagiotou D., Matsakis J (1985). Elaboration of special measures for the conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Sea Mammal Research Unit, Contract V/82/426.1983. Programme de reserches des Sporades du Nord-III: Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Etat de la population du phoque moine, p. 45-73, Univ. d' Athenes, Biologia 1985. Kouroutos V., (1987). The Mediterranean Monk Seal in the National Marine Park of N.Sporades 1982-1987. Thesis for the Univ. of Athens, section of Biology, Dept. of Ecology and Taxonomy. Kouroutos V. et al (1987). Study and registration of Monk Seal abundance and biotopes in Ag. Efstratios. Univ. of Athens, Athens 1987 (Unpublished) Monitoring of the Monk Seal population in the Cyclades region. Univ. of Thessaly, HSSPMS, Athens 1991. Kouroutos, V. (1991). Distribution, monitoring & conservation projects for monk seal in Greece. pp. 36-37 in Seminar on Conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Technical and Scientific Aspects, Antalya, Turkey, 1-4 May 1991. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France. T-PVS (91) 25. Laurent, L. (1998). Review and analysis of the available knowledge of marine turtle nesting and population dynamics in the Mediterranean. UNEP (OCA) MED WG. 145/Inf 3, Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas RAC/SPA, Tunis, 28pp. Laurent, L., S. Nouira, M. N. Bradai and J. Lescure. (WWF Project 3937). Marine turtles in Tunisia, Algeria and Mediterranean Morocco. Lazar, B. (1995). Analysis of incidental catch of marine turtles (Reptilia, Cheloniidae) in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea: Existence of over winter areas? Ekologija. Pp. 9697. In: Proceedings of Abstracts of a Symposium in Honour of Zdravko Lorkovic. N. Ljubesic (Editor), Zagreb. Lazar B., Casale P., Tvrtkovic N., Kozul V., Tutman P., Glavic N., (2004). The Presence of the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Adriatic Sea. Herpetological Journal, Vol. 14, pp. 143-147 (2004) Lazar, B., D. Margaritoulis and N. Tvrtkovic. (2000). Migrations of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta into the Adriatic Sea. Pp 101-102. In: Abreu-Grobois, F. A., R. Briseno-Duenas, R. Marquez and L. Sarti, compilers. (2000). Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-436

30


Lazar, B., D. Margaritoulis and N. Tvrtkovic. (2004). Tag recoveries of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the eastern Adriatic Sea: implications for conservation. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (2004) 84: 475-480. Lazar, B. and N. Tvrtkovic. (1995). Marine turtles in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea: preliminary research. Natura Croatica 4(1): 59-74. Lazar, B. and N. Tvrtkovic. (1998). Status of marine turtles in Croatia. Report on the implementation of the action plan for the conservation of Mediterranean marine turtles. UNEP(OCA)/MED WG.145/4. Lutz, P.L. and J.A. Musick (Eds) (1997). The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press. 432 pp. Margaritoulis, D., Argano, R., Baran, I., Bentivegna, F., Bradai, M.N., Caminas, J.A., Casale, P., De Metrio, G., Demetropoulus, A., Gerosa, G., Godley, B.J., Haddoud, D.A., Houghton, J., Laurent, L., and Lazar, B. (2003). Loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: present knowledge and conservation perspectives. In, A.B. Bolten, B.E. Witherington (eds). Loggerhead Marine turtles. Ouerghi, A., G. Mo, F. Di Domenico, H. Majhoub. Assessment of Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) habitat at La Galite, Tunisia: towards a monk seal conservation strategy in northern Tunisia and nearby waters. RAC/SPA, Tunis; ICRAM, Rome; ANPE, Tunisia: 1-3. Spotila J. R. (2004). Sea Turtles. A complete Guide to their biology, behaviour and conservation. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 227pp. TroĂŤng, S. and C. Drews (2004). Money Talks: Economic Aspects of Marine Turtle Use and Conservation. WWF-International, Gland Switzerland www.panda.org RAC/SPA. (2005). Information report on the status of the monk seal in the Mediterranean. Seventh Meeting of National Focal Points for SPAs, Seville, 31 May - 3 June 2005. UNEP/MAP, UNEP(DEC)/MED WG.268/Inf.3: 1-45. RAC/SPA. (2005). Evaluation of the Mediterranean monk seal status. Meeting of MAP Focal Points, Athens (Greece), 21-24 September 2005. UNEP/MAP, UNEP(DEC)/MED WG.270/Inf.22: 1-7. RAC/SPA. (2005). Declaration on the monk seal risk of extinction in the Mediterranean. Meeting of MAP Focal Points, Athens (Greece), 21-24 September 2005. UNEP/MAP, UNEP(DEC)/MED WG.270/17: 1-3. UNEP/MAP. (1987). Action plan for the management of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). United Nations Environment Programme, Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP/MAP). Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, Tunis, Tunis & Athens. UNEP/MAP. (1994). Present Status and Trend of the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) Populations. pp. 44, 15 figs., refs. UNEP/MAP Meeting of Experts on the Evaluation of the Implementation of the Action Plan for the Management of the Mediterranean Monk Seal, Rabat, Morocco, 7-9 October 1994. RAC/SPA (UNEP), Tunis, UNEP(OCA)/MED WG. 87/3. 31


(UNEPMAP) RAC/SPA (1999). Revised Action Plan for the Conservation of Marine Turtles. In, Report of the 11th Ordinary Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution and its protocols UNEP(OCA)/MED IG 12/9. Annex IV, Appendix VIII 51pp. Venizelos, L. and M. Smith (1998). The impact of â&#x20AC;&#x153;small garbageâ&#x20AC;? on the marine environment with emphasis on the Mediterranean marine turtle population. Testudo, the Journal of the British Chelonia Group 4(4):41-49 Venizelos L., (2002). Mediterranean Sea Turtles. Testudo, The Journal of the British Chelonia Group, 5(4):31-36 Veriopoulos G., Kouroutos V., Papapanagiotou D., Anderson SS, Prime JH (Eds) (1984).Survey of Northern Sporades for Mediterranean monk seals - EEC EUR 9228EN 1984 White, M. G. (in submission, 2006). Marine ecology of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Ionian Sea: Observations from Kefalonia and Lampedusa. University College Cork, Ireland. Witherington, B. E. (1999). Reducing threats to nesting habitat. Pp. 179-183. In: Eckert, K. L., K. A. Bjorndal, F. A. Abreu-Grobois and M. Donelly (Eds), 1999. Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group publication no. 4. Witherington, B. E. and L. Ehrhart. (1989). Hypothermic stunning and mortality of marine turtles in the Indian River lagoon system, Florida. Copeia 1989: 696-703. Witherington, B. E. and R. E. Martin. (1996). Understanding, assessing, and resolving light-pollution problems on sea turtle nesting beaches. Florida Marine Research Institute Technical Report TR-2. 73 p.

32


17. Photo Gallery

Photo 1: Arrival at the newly developed port of Sarande

Photo 2: The boat moored at Palermo port during stormy weather

Photo 3: Members of the Scientific team

Photo 4: Interviewing fishermen at a coffee shop in Vlore

Photo 5: Disseminating flyers, posters and stickers at D端rres port

Photo 6: Michael White talking to biology students from Tirana University

33


Photo 7: Prof. Idriz Haxhiu (Tirana University) onboard the boat with his students

Photo 8: Prof. Idriz Haxhiu explaining the use of field guides

Photo 9: Discussion with fishermen at Patok lagoon

Photo 10: Fishermen collecting the net from a fish trap

Photo 11: Deploying the Transect Line

Photo 12: Diver preparing for another underwater survey


Photo 13: Arian Gace (GEF/SGP) hands over the underwater video-camera

Photo 14: The 100m mark (end) of the Transect Line

Photo 15: M. White defines his position underwater

Photo 16: Returning from a monk seal cave survey

Photo 17: A fisherman at Shengjin shows his catch

Photo 18: Recording data from a dead turtle's tag

35


18. Annexes i. Data sheets prepared for the project ii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) samples iii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) samples IV. Tourist Questionnaire Sample V. Site Survey for Monk Seals VI: Overview of Site details and Cave Location Maps VII: Photos of Caves (Surveyed) VIII. Line Transect Data sheets & Maps IX: Sea Turtle Observation Data Sheet Sample & Maps X: Dolphin Sightings Data Sheet & Maps XI: Location of Fish Traps in the Patok Area XII. GIS techniques

36


18. Annexes i. Data sheets prepared for the project

Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) Code: MS/Q/

1. Survey details: Date of Survey

start time:

end time

Name of Interviewer: 2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name: Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group? i. environmental.

ii. Fishing association

iii. Community group

iv. Other (specify)

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity? b. How many times per week do you go fishing? c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant? e. Where do you usually go fishing? f. How long do you normally stay out? g. During which months do you usually fish? h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. Turtles

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/seals/dolphins)

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

iv. other (specify)


6. Sea Turtle information a. In what season are the sea turtles most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter sea turtles? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly

iii. weekly

iv. daily

d. When was your last encounter with a sea turtle? e. What type of turtles do you see in this area? English name: English name:

Local name: Local name:

f. How do you identify different species of turtle? g. Describe the flora/fauna of the area where you most often encounter sea turtles. h. Have turtles been seen nesting? If yes species / abundance/ area/ day? i. Please give details of beach – name/length in km/description j. Do you feel that there were more sea turtles in years gone by? k. Does the sea turtle population appear to be: increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

l. Explain your answer to k (above) m. Approximate location of sea turtles encountered (GPS if available) Map sheet no: n. In which fishing gear are sea turtles most commonly found? o. How would you describe the level (and cost) of damage caused to your nets by sea turtles?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

p. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of turtle by-catch?

q. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through sea turtle by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know r. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? s. How do you perceive sea turtles? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

Contact person:

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments:

iii. don’t know


Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) Code: MS/Q/ 1. Survey details: Date of Survey

start time:

end time

Name of Interviewer: 2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name: Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group? i. environmental.

ii. Fishing association

iii. Community group

iv. Other (specify)

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity? b. How many times per week do you go fishing? c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant? e. Where do you usually go fishing? f. How long do you normally stay out? g. During which months do you usually fish? h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. Besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. monk seals

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/turtles/dolphins)

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

iv. other (specify)


6. Monk seal information a. In what season are the monk seals most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter monk seals? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly

iii. weekly

iv. daily

d. When was your last encounter with a monk seal? If encountered complete “monk seal encounter form”. code: e. Do you feel that there were more monk seals in years gone by? f. Does the monk seal population appear to be: increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

g. Explain your answer to f (above) h. Approximate location of monk seal caves found (GPS if available) ‘Map sheet’ code: ‘Site details form’ code: i. In which fishing gear are monk seals most commonly found? j. How would you describe the level (and cost) of of damage caused to your nets by monk seals?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

k. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of by-catch?

l. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through monk seal by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know m. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? n. How do you perceive monk seals? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

Contact person:

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments:

iii. don’t know


Tourism Questionnaire 1.

Personal details: a. Age: 20-30 30-40 b. Occupation i. agriculture vi. marketing

*

*

40-50

50-60

ii. environment iii. education vii. natural sciences viii. social/cultural

60+ iv. fishing ix tourism

2.

Is there tourism in your town/village? yes/ no* *If no please ask asterisked questions only

3.

If no, would you like to see development of tourism in your town / village?

4.

Is it mainly domestic tourism or international tourism?

5.

How do tourists come to your town/village? i. public transport â&#x20AC;&#x201C; train/bus/taxi ii. plane iv. boat v. organised coach tour

v. financial x. other (specify)

iii. car vi. other

6.

How far is the town/village from the nearest airport?

7.

What kind of accommodation do the tourists stay in: - Small locally-owned rooms - Small locally-owned hotels - Big locally-owned hotels - Big non-locally-owned hotels

8.

Do tourists use local facilities (shops, restaurants etc) or do they shop/eat inside their hotel?

9.

What do you think is the main reason that tourists come to your town/village? - The Sea and beaches - The local facilities (restaurants, bars, clubs etc.) - The local environment and wildlife - Local sites of interests (archaeological, cultural etc.) - Other (please specify)

10. Would you like to see further development of the tourist industry in your area? *

11. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the local economy? Give details

*

12. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the local environment? Give details

*

13. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the town/village socially? Give details 14. If you could change anything about the tourism industry in your locality, what would you do?

*

15. If you had to choose between uncontrolled tourism development and protecting the environment, which would you choose? - tourism - environment


SITE SURVEY FOR MONK SEALS SURVEY #

MS/A____________ Day

Month

Year

Start Date

Researchers

End Date

AREAS COVERED LOCATION Code

Name

Coastline sections surveyed

Method 1 2 3

1 = Coastline searched without entering caves 2 = All caves entered (except where sub-aqua equipment required) 3 = All caves entered Map/Document idâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

Comments


SITE DETAILS Location name

Code

Site id

MS/B_____ Latitude

Longitude N

Access from land? Yes No Unknown

Access from sea? 2 3 4 0

By inflatable Swim or snorkel Sub-Aqua only Unknown

Substrate

Site usage 4 Direct evidence

1 Fine – shows tracks

3 Current reports

2 Coarse – possible tracks 3 Rock – no tracks 0 Unknown

E

Visibility from sea 1 Visible to boat traffic 2 Not visible to boat traffic 0 Unknown

Vulnerability to washout 1 Beach not washed out

2 Historical reports

2 Beach washed out, cave not

1 Potential site only

3 Whole cave washed out

0 Unknown

0 Unknown

Photographs Film id

Frame # range

Film id

Frame # range

Beach area m2

Map/Document ids

Comments

Completed by


VISIT TO SITE Day

Month

Year

Time

Location name

Site id

Survey #

MS/B_____

MS/D__________

code

Tracks present? Yes No Unknown

First visit only

Complete this section if tracks are present Number of tracks ___________

Enter 99 if number unknown

Wet zone

Position of seal tracks Mid zone Dry zone

Yes No Unknown

Yes No Unknown

Yes No Unknown

Measurements of distinguishable tracks/sleeping hollows Track width (cm)

Hollow width (cm)

Track width (cm)

Hollow length (cm)

Tracks swept? Yes No Unknown

Artificial tracks present? Wet zone Mid zone Dry zone Yes No Unknown

Yes No Unknown

New AT made? Yes No Unknown

Yes No Unknown

1 6 5 4 3 2 0

Other signs of occupation None Seal present Smell Scats & fur Fur Scats Unknown

Comments

First visit only Time since cave last washed out 1 Less than 24 hours 2 24 hours to 1 week 3 1 week to 1 month 4 More than 1 month 0 Unknown

Cave â&#x20AC;&#x201C; camera coverage On arrival 0 Cave was covered 1 Cave was not covered 99 Unknown

Completed by

On leaving 0 Cave was covered 1 Cave was not covered 99 Unknown

Please record installation & checking of cave-camera equipment overleaf


DD

DOLPHINS

MM

YY

SHEET NUM.

DATE

POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude

SPECIES ________________________________

CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES

TIME FIRST SEEN TIME LAST SEEN HEADING F.S. WIND FORCE

BT. HD. F.S.

WIND DIRN

BT SPD

SEA STATE

ENGINE

MAX GROUP SIZE GROUP COMPOSITION ON

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

OFF

VIZ SEA TEMP. WATER DEPTH SCATTERING FROM TO

BIRDS GRADE

Species

None

0-10

Flying/

FILM

10-100 Diving/

100+ Swimming

RECORDING

FILM

BEHAVIOUR

FRAMES

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET


DATA SHEET FOR LINE TRANSECT FOR A SAMPLE SITE

Date

Researcher Name

Transect Code

Start Time End Time

Latitude

Longitude

Depth

Start

N

E

Start

Middle

N

E

Middle

End

N

E

End

Weather conditions Dive Duration

Water Temperature Surface Bottom


Surface Observations datasheet Day

Month

Year

Date

Location name

Code

Site id

Latitude

Longitude N

Wind Direction Wind Speed Sea State Wave Direction Cloud cover (Octas) Air temperature Sea surface temerature Salinity Current Direction Current Strength

Vertical turbidity Presence of other boating activities (ferries, fishing etc.) and number of boats observed Unusual features or impacts (oil rigs, oils slicks, navigation buoys, shipwrecks, debris) Megafauna observed (particularly cetaceans and elasmobranchs)

E


CARAPACE MAPPING DATASHEET

Encounter Info

Turtle Code

Transect Code

Encounter Number

T____

Time (e.g. L1, G1, L2)

Latitude Longitude Number Observed

TURTLE Species

Zone Type

LOGGERHEAD - Caretta caretta GREEN - Chelonia mydas

Day

Month

Distance from Transect

Year

Colour

Sex Male Female

Date

Location & Activity:

Key features (scars, damage, injuries etc):

Left

Right

TAGS Left

Right

Comments: (Tag colour/material , Electronic instruments present (UHF, VHF, TDR etc.)

Photographs

Carapace measurements S.C. Length

cm

N E


S.C. Width

cm

C.C. Length

cm

C.C. Width

cm

Left

Marginal Right

Epibiont distribution on carapace scutes Notes: Costa Vertebral Nuchal Left Right

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

= Available only for Caretta carreta

Depth at which turtle is encountered

m

Water temperature

ยบC

Approximate current flow Yes

Interactions with other turtles or species

No

Do turtles tolerate humans or leave the area as soon as humans are present?

Yes No

Activity levels of sea turtles (active or dormant) IF active:

Su Ru Cu Bu Eu

Underwater swimming resting Crawling on seabed browsing/foraging eating

Surface Ss Bs Rs

swimming resting crawling on seabed

Overwintering mode dormancy reduced-activity actively foraging hibernating buried


Green Turtle Code: G__

Green Turtle Code: G__


Loggerhead Turtle Code: L__

Loggerhead Turtle Code: L__


ii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) samples.

Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) Code: MS/Q/ 02 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 20/10/05

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

19:20

end time

20:30

ANDRIAN VASO

2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name:

LUAN ZENELI

Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

ELEMENTARY

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group?

Fishing association

i. environmental.

iii. Community group

ii. Fishing association

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

1985

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity? b. How many times per week do you go fishing?

iv. Other (specify)

SARANDA

23,000

YES 3 – 4 years

c. Does the frequency change according to season? YES (xiphias/lithrini) d. Is your catch often abundant? e. Where do you usually go fishing? f. How long do you normally stay out?

One day (24h on 2-3h)

g. During which months do you usually fish? h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. Besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. monk seals

Heard

quantity?

Alive/injured/dead? During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/turtles/dolphins)

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

iv. other (specify)


6. Monk seal information a. In what season are the monk seals most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter monk seals? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly

iii. weekly

d. When was your last encounter with a monk seal?

HEARD MAY A YEAR AGO (Anecdotol)

iv. daily

If encountered complete “monk seal encounter form”. code: e. Do you feel that there were more monk seals in years gone by? f. Does the monk seal population appear to be: increasing decreasing g. Explain your answer to f (above)

stable

don't know

9

N/A

h. Approximate location of monk seal caves found (GPS if available) ‘Map sheet’ code: 01 ‘Site details form’ code: i. In which fishing gear are monk seals most commonly found? j. How would you describe the level (and cost) of of damage caused to your nets by monk seals?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

k. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of by-catch?

l. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through monk seal by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know m. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? n. How do you perceive monk seals? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

Contact person:

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments: Tuna(Big : April – May and October) Heard stories on Monk seal Caves: a. Manostui (open and underwater) b. Rodonit c. Piratel d. Ranali Sukei e. Near Grammes

iii. don’t know


Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) Code: MS/Q/ 3 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 21/10/2005

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

10:00

end time

11:00

V. KOUROUTOS

2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name:

HASAN ALIAT

Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

HIGH SCHOOL-TECH SCHOOL FRO FISHERMEN

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group? i. environmental.

ii. Fishing association

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

ALL ALBANIA

iii. Community group

iv. Other (specify)

SINCE 1966/TRAWLING SINCE 1974

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity?

YES

b. How many times per week do you go fishing?

(200 DAYS A YEAR) 17/18 DAYS PER MONTH

c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant?

GENERALLY DECREASING

e. Where do you usually go fishing? f. How long do you normally stay out?

24 HOURS (ICE AVAILABLE IN SARANDA)

g. During which months do you usually fish?

ALL YEAR

h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

Trawler iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. Besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. monk seals

NO

quantity?

Alive/injured/dead? During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/turtles/dolphins)

NO Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

quantity?

iv. other (specify)


6. Monk seal information a. In what season are the monk seals most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter monk seals? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly

iii. weekly

d. When was your last encounter with a monk seal?

1966 WHILE SARDINE FISHING

iv. daily

If encountered complete “monk seal encounter form”. code: e. Do you feel that there were more monk seals in years gone by? f. Does the monk seal population appear to be: Increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

g. Explain your answer to f (above) h. Approximate location of monk seal caves found (GPS if available) ‘Map sheet’ code: 03 ‘Site details form’ code: i. In which fishing gear are monk seals most commonly found? j. How would you describe the level (and cost) of of damage caused to your nets by monk seals?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

k. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of by-catch?

l. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through monk seal by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know m. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? n. How do you perceive monk seals? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

YES i. yes (go to a) 2003

ii. no (go to b)

Contact person: FATHMIR RUCI (Pr)

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments:

iii. don’t know


Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Monk Seals) Code: MS/Q/ 04 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 24/10/2005

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

08:50

end time

13:00

AV (Adrian Vaso)

2. Respondent’s details: 17 DIFFERENT FISHERMEN Respondent’s name: 4 IN VLORE TRAWLS, 6 IN FISHERMENS PORT-TRAWLS, 3 COAST NETS, 3 NARTES LAGOON Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group? i. environmental.

ii. Fishing association

iii. Community group

iv. Other (specify)

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

VLORE + NARTES

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity? b. How many times per week do you go fishing? c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant? e. Where do you usually go fishing? f. How long do you normally stay out? g. During which months do you usually fish? h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. Besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. monk seals

NO

quantity?

Alive/injured/dead? During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/turtles/dolphins)

NO Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

quantity?

iv. other (specify)


6. Monk seal information a. In what season are the monk seals most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter monk seals? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly

iii. weekly

iv. daily

d. When was your last encounter with a monk seal? If encountered complete “monk seal encounter form”. code: e. Do you feel that there were more monk seals in years gone by? f. Does the monk seal population appear to be: increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

g. Explain your answer to f (above) h. Approximate location of monk seal caves found (GPS if available) ‘Map sheet’ code: ‘Site details form’ code: i. In which fishing gear are monk seals most commonly found? j. How would you describe the level (and cost) of of damage caused to your nets by monk seals?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

k. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of by-catch?

l. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through monk seal by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know m. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? n. How do you perceive monk seals? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

iii. don’t know

Contact person:

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments: All fishermen had no knowledge of monk seal presence either recently or historically. Only one (1) fisherman-fishing with his farther 20 years ago – caught a sea l near Sarande. No evidence direct or anecdotal of seals north of Dhemi


iii. Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) Samples

Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) Code: ST/Q/09 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 25/10/2005

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

end time

1200

1300

AV (Adrian Vaso)

2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name:

Pullumb Gorici

Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group? i. environmental.

ii. Fishing association

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

Vlore

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity?

iii. Community group

iv. Other (specify)

13 years (Army before)

b. town/village 80,000

Yes

b. How many times per week do you go fishing? c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant? e. Where do you usually go fishing?

Fish stocks reduced. Solea solea, shrimp, lobster - big investment for nets etc. Karaburuni & Vjoses River. Apr-Jun in bay – shrimps

f. How long do you normally stay out?

Daily or 2-3 day trips sheltering in bays

g. During which months do you usually fish?

All

h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

iii. trawler

5. By-catch a. besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. Turtles

Rarely, 2-3 year. Release all

quantity?

Alive/injured/dead? During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/seals/dolphins)

quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

iv. other (specify)

1 hooked in rear flipper 1 caught east of Sazanit 1 very big – 3 people couldn’t lift it Barnacles, probably old animal


6. Sea Turtle information a. In what season are the sea turtles most often seen, is there a peak season?

Summer Jul – Sept See + catch

b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter sea turtles? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly ii. monthly d. When was your last encounter with a sea turtle? e. What type of turtles do you see in this area? English name: Loggerhead English name:

iii. weekly

iv. daily

18 months ago (mid 2004)

Local name: Local name:

Breske

f. How do you identify different species of turtle? g. Describe the flora/fauna of the area where you most often encounter sea turtles. h. Have turtles been seen nesting? If yes species / abundance/ area/ day?

No

i. Please give details of beach – name/length in km/description j. Do you feel that there were more sea turtles in years gone by? k. Does the sea turtle population appear to be: increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

l. Explain your answer to k (above) m. Approximate location of sea turtles encountered (GPS if available) Map sheet no: 06

Karaburuni WEST in deeper waters. Vlore bay

n. In which fishing gear are sea turtles most commonly found? o. How would you describe the level (and cost) of damage caused to your nets by sea turtles?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

p. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of turtle by-catch?

q. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through sea turtle by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know r. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? s. How do you perceive sea turtles? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a) 2004

ii. no (go to b)

Contact person:

iii. don’t know Mezan Mezan

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments: This man was different from others. He asked why Caretta caretta were endangered. His reply to if he ate them was ‘why would I release them if I ate them’. Turtles very rare. Didn’t think they ate fish. He uses 3-4 Km of nets. He knew of dynamite fishing in past – more controlled now – it damages stock.


Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) Code: MS/Q/ 11 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 29/10/2005

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

12:45

end time

13:45

VK (V. Kouroutos) + Leonardo (Biology student)

2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name:

VLASHI BERBERI

Respondent’s educational background: i. elementary

University Construction

ii. high school

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group?

Fishing Association(6 boats,4 of Vlashi’s+2 other

i. environmental.

iii. Community group

ii. Fishing association

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

DURRES

iv. Other (specify)

Since a boy

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity? b. How many times per week do you go fishing?

Yes Every day-unless very bad weather

c. Does the frequency change according to season? No d. Is your catch often abundant?

Yes. Boops sp., lavraki, lobster, shrimp(Apr-Jun), Cernia sp.(speargun)

e. Where do you usually go fishing?

Karaburumi to Shenjini (at least Rodonit)

f. How long do you normally stay out?

1 day, but 2 – 3 maximum

g. During which months do you usually fish?

All

h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

Longlines, Nets and other (speargun) iii. trawler iv. other (specify)

5. By-catch a. besides fish do you frequently catch the following? i. Turtles

Very rare (2-3 per year)

quantity?

Alive/injured/dead?

Alive

During which month (s) do you catch the most?

Winter

At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/seals/dolphins)

Dolphins: regularly Birds: occasionally Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

quantity?

Birds: 2 sorts: 1 dives (poss. Shearwaters)


6. Sea Turtle information a. In what season are the sea turtles most often seen, is there a peak season? b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter sea turtles? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly 3 per year ii. monthly d. When was your last encounter with a sea turtle?

iii. weekly

iv. daily

3 days ago (26th Oct) at 50-60cm

e. What type of turtles do you see in this area? English name: Loggerhead English name:

Local name: Local name:

f. How do you identify different species of turtle?

Never seen Derm. C., But knew its oceanic

Breske

g. Describe the flora/fauna of the area where you most often encounter sea turtles. h. Have turtles been seen nesting? If yes species / abundance/ area/ day? i. Please give details of beach – name/length in km/description j. Do you feel that there were more sea turtles in years gone by? k. Does the sea turtle population appear to be: increasing decreasing

stable

don't know

l. Explain your answer to k (above) m. Approximate location of sea turtles encountered (GPS if available) Map sheet no: Gjiri i Durresit n. In which fishing gear are sea turtles most commonly found?

Longlines (sepia and calamari)

o. How would you describe the level (and cost) of i. high damage caused to your nets by sea turtles? N/A

ii. medium

iii. low

p. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of turtle by-catch?

q. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through sea turtle by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know Respectful r. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? s. How do you perceive sea turtles? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them 7. Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

KNAUF i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

iii. don’t know

Date of establishment:

Contact person: THOMA BERBERI Durres 22178 b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify 8. Interviewer’s comments: Some turtles tagged by Tirana University. Others released directly. Most turtles south of Naithes/Vlores. Bad luck to kill turtles an dolphins. Fish traps: illegal, but one at Pallas, one at Rodonit. 1987: Seal on beach at Patok. Has been small turtles near Kepi: Lagumit (Jun-Jul)


Interview Questionnaire for fishermen (Sea Turtles) Code: ST/Q/12 1. Survey details: Date of Survey 29/10/2005

start time:

Name of Interviewer:

end time

1400 VK + Leonardo

2. Respondent’s details: Respondent’s name:

HAMDI KUMARAKU

Respondent’s educational background:

Finished Fish school – 1966

ii. high school

i. elementary

iii. university

Are you a member of an association/group?

NO

i. environmental.

iii. Community group

ii. Fishing association

How long have you been working as a fisherman? 3. Location: a. region

1500

Durres

iv. Other (specify)

1966 - @ 40m large boats (500hp)

b. town/village

c. approximate population of town/village: 4. Fishing: a. Is fishing your primary activity?

Yes – since 1966

b. How many times per week do you go fishing? c. Does the frequency change according to season? d. Is your catch often abundant?

No

e. Where do you usually go fishing?

Karaburuni to Croatia

f. How long do you normally stay out? 2-3 days (then 2-3 in harbour). Before 1990’s fished 12-15 days g. During which months do you usually fish?

All

h. What type of fishing equipment do you use? i. longlines ii. nets

300-400 depth net 50-60m/ towed 30-40 miles iv. other (specify) iii. trawler TRATTA

5. By-catch a. besides fish do you frequently catch the following? 2 years ago caught large tagged turtle i. Turtles

Rare 5-6 per year, usually 50-60kg quantity? Alive/injured/dead?

During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

ii. other (birds/seals/dolphins) Sees, not caught – too smart Alive/injured/dead? During which month (s) do you catch the most? At what time of day?

quantity?


6. Sea Turtle information a. In what season are the sea turtles most often seen, is there a peak season?

Very rare

b. At what time of the day do you usually encounter sea turtles? c. With what frequency do you encounter them? i. yearly 5-6 ii. monthly

iii. weekly

d. When was your last encounter with a sea turtle?

iv. daily

7 months ago (April 2005)

e. What type of turtles do you see in this area? English name: Loggerhead English name:

Local name: Local name:

f. How do you identify different species of turtle?

Never seen Derm.c.

Breske

g. Describe the flora/fauna of the area where you most often encounter sea turtles. h. Have turtles been seen nesting? If yes species / abundance/ area/ day? i. Please give details of beach – name/length in km/description j. Do you feel that there were more sea turtles in years gone by? k. Does the sea turtle population appear to be: increasing decreasing

Yes

stable

don't know

l. Explain your answer to k (above)

Seemed to be more before, but used to trawl <30m deep, now only legal >40m m. Approximate location of sea turtles encountered (GPS if available) Map sheet no: Most sightings west of Durres/Pallas. Rocks extend off the capes: i) near Nartes, ii) Lagnit, iii) Pallas, iv) Rodonit n. In which fishing gear are sea turtles most commonly found? o. How would you describe the level (and cost) of damage caused to your nets by sea turtles?

i. high

ii. medium

iii. low

p. Do you think any specific type of fishing gear increases the likelihood of turtle by-catch?

q. Do you believe that there should be compensation for damage suffered through sea turtle by-catch? i. yes ii. no iii. don’t know r. Would it be possible to prove the source of damage to nets? How? s. How do you perceive sea turtles? beneficial / harmful / irrelevant / never thought about them Respectful 7.

Fishing Association Is there a fishing association in your area? a) If yes:

Date of establishment:

i. yes (go to a)

ii. no (go to b)

iii. don’t know

Contact person:

b) If no, are there any fishermen’s association in areas nearby? Please specify

Seemed to dislike cooperatives, (MW)

8. Interviewer’s comments: Bad omen to kill. He releases, but knows others have eaten. Many problems with fishing esp. from government.


IV. Tourist Questionnaire Sample

Tourism Questionnaire 1.

Personal details: a. Age: 50 - 60 20-30 30-40 b. Occupation i. agriculture vi. marketing

*

*

40-50

50-60

60+

FISHING ii. environment iii. education vii. natural sciences viii. social/cultural

iv. fishing ix tourism

v. financial x. other (specify)

2.

Is there tourism in your town/village? yes/ no* *If no please ask asterisked questions only

3.

If no, would you like to see development of tourism in your town / village?

4.

Is it mainly domestic tourism or international tourism? International tourism

5.

How do tourists come to your town/village? BUS, BOAT (2 hrs BOAT FROM CORFU) iii. car i. public transport â&#x20AC;&#x201C; train/bus/tax ii. plane iv. boat v. organised coach tour vi. other

6.

How far is the town/village from the nearest airport?

7.

What kind of accommodation do the tourists stay in: - Small locally-owned rooms - Small locally-owned hotels - Big locally-owned hotels - Big non-locally-owned hotels

8.

Do tourists use local facilities (shops, restaurants etc) or do they shop/eat inside their hotel? LOCAL FACILITIES What do you think is the main reason that tourists come to your town/village? - The Sea and beaches - The local facilities (restaurants, bars, clubs etc.) - The local environment and wildlife - Local sites of interests (archaeological, cultural etc.) 9 - Other (please specify)

9.

YES

400 km TIRANA N/A

10. Would you like to see further development of the tourist industry in your area? N/A *

11. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the local economy? Give details N/A

*

12. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the local environment? Give details N/A

*

13. Do you think that tourism has/could have* a positive/negative impact on the town/village socially? Give details N/A 14. If you could change anything about the tourism industry in your locality, what would you do? N/A

*

15. If you had to choose between uncontrolled tourism development and protecting the environment, which would you choose? - tourism - environment


V. Site Survey for Monk Seals SITE SURVEY FOR MONK SEALS SURVEY #

MS/A_____1_______ Day

Month

Year

Start Date

21

10

2005

End Date

22

10

2005

Researchers MW

VK

AG

AV

AREAS COVERED LOCATION Code

Name SARANDEPALERMO PALERMO BAY

Coastline sections surveyed

Method 1 2 3

01

9

02

9

1 = Coastline searched without entering caves 2 = All caves entered (except where sub-aqua equipment required) 3 = All caves entered Map/Document idâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MS/ 01

Sarande - Palermo

Comments In Palermo Bay little caves suitable only for occasional monk seal shelters.

MW: Michael White VK: Vassilis Koutoutos AG: Arian Gace AV: Adrian Vaso


SITE SURVEY FOR MONK SEALS SURVEY #

MS/A_____2_______ Day

Month

Year

Start Date

24

10

2005

End Date

24

10

2005

Researchers MW

VK

AG

AV

AREAS COVERED LOCATION Code

Name PALERMO-VLORE SUBLOCATION GJIRI JAL (From 40o 06’ 887N to 40o 07’ 543N)

Coastline sections surveyed

Method 1 2 3

03

Mapsource Palermo - Vlore

9

04

Potential + Potential1 are On Sarande - Palermo

9

9

1 = Coastline searched without entering caves 2 = All caves entered (except where sub-aqua equipment required) 3 = All caves entered Map/Document id’s MS/ 02

Mapsource Palermo - Vlore

MS/ 01

Mapsource Sarande - Palermo

Comments

Code 03 Some caves entered-sea conditions permitting-. Nothing found (no tracks)

Code 04 Potential sites: Gjipi Jal. 10 small caves, in steep limestone cliffs. Openwater Entrances.


SITE SURVEY FOR MONK SEALS SURVEY #

MS/A_____3_______ Day

Month

Year

Start Date

26

10

2005

End Date

26

10

2005

Researchers MW

VK

AG

AV

AREAS COVERED LOCATION Code

Coastline sections surveyed

Method 1 2 3

Name RER’E GRAMES – KEPI I KENGJORUFES

05

9

1 = Coastline searched without entering caves 2 = All caves entered (except where sub-aqua equipment required) 3 = All caves entered Map/Document id’s MS/ 03

Comments Caves were entered and examined all those surveyed on the 24/10/2005 (Cape Rer’e Grames – Kepi i Kengjorufes)


VI: Overview of Site details and Cave Location Maps

Overview of Site Details Site ID

Latitude

Longitude

Comments

001

N39 56.842

E19 55.897

Open water entance - but unknown shaped beach inside(probably pebble). Could not enter due to swell.

002

N39 53.154

E19 57.360

Open water entrance beach - Î&#x201C; shape - small rocky beach - unsuitable from monk seal nesting

003

N40 04.091

E19 47.435

Open water entrance: width 2m /height 2m, 3m tunnel ending to pebble beach - unknown shape and area. Open to south winds

004

N40 05.168

E19 45.013

Open to south winds

005

N40 11.090

E19 31.610

Hole above sea / No open water entrance. Potential underwater entrance. NOT SURVEYED DUE TO SWELL

006

N40 11.979

E19 29.920

Open water entrance - 5m high/4m wide NOT SURVEYED DUE TO SWELL

007

N40 12.349

E19 29.022

NOT SURVEYED 2 Entrance portals. Large outer entrance, then downwards sloping ceiling creates small entrance into cave

008

N40 13.167

E19 27.496

SURVEYED-SWELL. 2 CAVES. First 2m high/4m wide. Second 4m wide/3m high. Both open water entrances. At 25m apart

009

N40 13.911

E19 27.104

SURVEYED. Open to west winds. 2 caves adjacent in small inlet. First cave: width 20m, height 15m, pebble beach. Second cave: width 15m, height 4m.

010

N40 14.387

E19 26.681

Not suitable for nesting. SURVEYED. Height 10m, Width 2-5m.Tunnel 20m. Beach has big rocks.

011

N40 14.387

E19 26.681

Open entrance. Suitable as shelter.Next to smal sandy beach. 2 Beaches in V shape with 2-3m branches. Width 2m / Height 2m.Small tunnel 3m. Beach has big smooth boulders

012

N40 14.522

E19 26.082

Not entered. Adrian Vaso informed us that there is no beach inside. Open water entrance Width 15m / Height 8m

013

N40 17.146

E19 23.451

SURVEYED. 20m high / 5m width

014

N40 18.033

E19 22.451

SURVEYED.Open water entrance. 8m high/15m Large enter portal then inner rock collapsed. Smaller entrance into cave.

015

N40 19.411

E19 22.201

SURVEYED. Open water entrances. 2 caves. Shipwreck. Cave 1 almost circular, blocked by ship. Cave 2 smaller tunnel off to left

Page 1 of 2


Site ID

Latitude

Longitude

Comments

016

N40 20.400

E19 21.863

SURVEYED. Open water entrance. Π shape.

017

N40 20.860

E19 21.583

SURVEYED. Open water entrance. Π shape.Next to small beach. Cave with pebble beach suitable for monk seal shelter, sheltered from S and SE winds. The only potential monk seal site along the W side of Karaburuni.

018

N40 23.892

E19 19.049

SURVEYED. Open water entrance. 2 caves. Hole above entrance and small hole.

019

N40 24.910

1E9 17.774

SURVEYED. V Shape.

020

N40 24.840

E19 21.905

Very little beach on the left side of the cave not suitable for monk seal shelter. 5m wide / 2m high.

021

N40 25.817

E19 18.433

Large Cave with no beach, stalagmites. 20m wide / 40m high. U Shape.

022

N40 22.717

E19 20.488

Overhanging rock sealing with no beach. Possible underwater entrance Width 3m Height 2,5m V Shape.

023

N40 15.633

E19 25.232

A lagoon (Canion) with no cave but ends up to a small beach protected from all winds. S Shape.

024

N40 14.663

E19 26.213

A lagoon with (S) shape with no cave. Ends up to pebble beach protected from all winds. Beach 8m wide.

Page 2 of 2


VII: Photos of Caves (Surveyed)

SD9_cave1.jpg

SD9_cave2.jpg

SD11.jpg SD10.jpg

SD12.jpg

SD13.jpg


SD14.jpg

SD17_a.jpg

SD17_b.jpg

SD17_c.jpg

SD17_d.jpg

SD17_e.jpg


SD18.jpg

SD19.jpg

SD20.jpg

SD21_a.jpg

SD21_b.jpg

SD21_c.jpg


SD23.jpg

SD24_b.jpg

SD24_a.jpg


VIII. Line Transect Data sheets & Maps DATA SHEET FOR LINE TRANSECT FOR A SAMPLE SITE Date th

5 Nov 2005 Start Time

12:31

End Time

12:40

Latitude

Researcher Name

Transect Code

MW/VK

T1

Longitude

Depth

Start

41 51.159 N

19 24.688 E

Start

10.0

Middle

N

E

Middle

10.0

End

41 51.158 N

19 24.763 E

End

10.0

Fair / light winds/ Flat sea

Weather conditions Dive Duration

Surface Bottom

48 minutes

Water Temperature 20.5 17

Notes: 1. Visibility between 5-12 metres. 2. Sand and new growth zostera. 3. Sardella, pagurus and tellins (venusidae spp) 4. Spent 30 minutes adjusting transect line. Removing weights from 5-m marks. Transect swum 4 times, but only last one was assessed.


DATA SHEET FOR LINE TRANSECT FOR A SAMPLE SITE

Date

Researcher Name

Transect Code

5 Nov 2005

MW/VK

T2

th

Start Time

15:49

End Time

16:10

Latitude

Longitude

Depth

Start

41 50.704 N

19 27.053 E

Start

Middle

N

E

Middle

End

41 50.703 N

19 27.131 E

End

Fair / light winds / sea flat

Weather conditions Dive Duration

Surface Bottom

25 minutes

Water Temperature 19.5 17

Notes: Visibility Zero MUD 1. Transect line followed to assess the layout 2. Center section at 50m OK. 3. Start – plus not dug in – line tangled – S1 bodyline was too short. 4. S2 was OK. 5. No fauna or flora visible.

27.5

27.5


IX: Sea Turtle Observation Data Sheet Sample & Maps CARAPACE MAPPING DATASHEET Turtle Code

Encounter Info

Transect Code

Encounter Number T__1__ Time

(e.g. L1, G1, L2)

Latitude

41o 42’ 839 N

Longitude

19o 32’ 617 E

Number Observed

TURTLE Species

LOGGERHEAD - Caretta caretta GREEN - Chelonia mydas

Date

Month

Year

06

11

2005

20 metres depth

Distance from Transect

10 m from boat

Sex Male Female

Colour

Location & Activity: Alonnisos was heading south from Sheingjin. Caretta-Caretta took single breath to starboard side of bow about 10m ahead. Water visibility was crap so no further sighting. Sea surface flat. No wind.

Key features (scars, damage, injuries etc):

Right

TAGS Left

Right

Comments: (Tag colour/material , Electronic instruments present (UHF, VHF, TDR etc.)

Photographs

Carapace measurements S.C. Length

cm

S.C. Width

cm

C.C. Length

cm

1

Zone Type

9

Day

Left

12:10


IX: Sea Turtle Observation Data Sheet Sample C.C. Width

Marginal Left Right

cm

Epibiont distribution on carapace scutes Costa Notes: Vertebral Nuchal Left Right

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

= Available only for Caretta carreta

Depth at which turtle is encountered

Surface

Water temperature

20 ยบC

Approximate current flow

None Yes

Interactions with other turtles or species

No

Do turtles tolerate humans or leave the area as soon as humans are present?

Yes No

Activity levels of sea turtles (active or dormant) IF active:

Underwater Su Ru Cu Bu Eu

swimming resting Crawling on seabed browsing/foraging eating

9

Overwintering mode

Surface Ss Bs Rs

swimming Resting/basking breathing

9

dormancy reduced-activity actively foraging hibernating buried


X: Dolphin Sightings Data Sheet & Maps DOLPHINS POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude N 40 11' 090 E 19 31' 610

DATE

DD MM 24/10/2005

YY

SHEET NUM.

1

SPECIES ___Possibly Delphis delphis (maybe Tursiops trumcatus)______ TIME FIRST SEEN

12:00:00

TIME LAST SEEN

12:03:00

HEADING F.S.

315 Degrees

CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES Medium : either Dd or Tt. Behaviour seemed heavier them for common's in Aegean.

WIND FORCE

4

BT. HD. F.S.

300

MAX GROUP SIZE

WIND DIRN

NE

BT SPD

6 kts

GROUP COMPOSITION

SEA STATE

4

ENGINE

VIZ

GOOD

SEA TEMP.

24

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

YES

WATER DEPTH 100 m SCATTERING FROM TO GRADE

BIRDS

Species

None Flying/

FILM

0-10

10-100

100+

Diving/

Swimming

RECORDING

FILM

FRAMES

BEHAVIOUR

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. Probably Feeding . Approached boat but didn't stay. Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET 3 large X X X 1 Large + 1 Small


DOLPHINS

DD MM 28/10/2005

DATE

POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude N 40 57' 770 E 19 21'445

TIME FIRST SEEN

14:10:00

TIME LAST SEEN

14:12:

HEADING F.S.

270 Degrees

YY

SHEET NUM.

SPECIES ___Possibly Tursiops trumcatus______ CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES Large animals. Medium confidence. Tail and head not seen. Flanks not seen.

WIND FORCE

4-5

BT. HD. F.S.

008 Degrees

MAX GROUP SIZE

WIND DIRN

North

BT SPD

6.5 kts

GROUP COMPOSITION

SEA STATE

4-5

ENGINE

VIZ

GOOD

SEA TEMP.

22.9 BIRDS

Species

None Flying/

FILM

BEHAVIOUR

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

YES

WATER DEPTH 36 m SCATTERING FROM TO GRADE

FILM

2

0-10

10-100

100+

Diving/

Swimming

RECORDING FRAMES

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. Feeding probably. No approach to boat. Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET 1 - 2 Adults 1 Adult Mother+ Calf Typically mother + calf. Care mam close togerther. Seen at 14:10 on stbd side of bow. Heading towards yacht, but then dived. Shortly afterwards (14:12) they were in their iriginal location at 50 astern of us.


DOLPHINS

DD MM 06/11/2005

DATE

YY

SHEET NUM.

POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude N 41 44' 674 E 19 32' 005

SPECIES ___Tursiops trumcatus or Delphis delphis______

TIME FIRST SEEN

11:50:00

CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES Delphis delphis fairly small

TIME LAST SEEN

11:55:00

3

HEADING F.S.

WIND FORCE

1

BT. HD. F.S.

176 Degrees

MAX GROUP SIZE

WIND DIRN

-

BT SPD

7 kts

GROUP COMPOSITION

SEA STATE

1

ENGINE

VIZ

22 KM

SEA TEMP.

20.5

YES

WATER DEPTH 20 m SCATTERING FROM TO GRADE

BIRDS

Species Gulls

None

0-10

Flying/

FILM FILM

BEHAVIOUR

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

10-100 Diving/

100+ Swimming

RECORDING FRAMES

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. None Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET Two (2) Dolphins feeding - beaks submerged - no id. When boat was near- they dived - but then could be seen astern in a original location. Two patterns: 1. Side-by-side in same direction 2. Opposite directions - moving towards each other (fish-pushing ?) A Trawler was fishing - heading north. Dolphins were near the net when first seen.


DOLPHINS

DD MM 06/11/2005

DATE

YY

SHEET NUM.

POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude N 41 39' 568 E 19 27' 636

SPECIES ___?______

TIME FIRST SEEN

12:10:00

CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES No id - animals were about 1.5 - 2 km away.

TIME LAST SEEN

12:12:00

4

HEADING F.S.

WIND FORCE

1

WIND DIRN SEA STATE

1

VIZ

22 km

SEA TEMP.

20.5

BT. HD. F.S.

176 Degrees

MAX GROUP SIZE

BT SPD

7 kts

GROUP COMPOSITION

ENGINE

YES

WATER DEPTH 25-30 m SCATTERING FROM TO GRADE

BIRDS

Species Gulls

None Flying/

FILM FILM

BEHAVIOUR

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

0-10

10-100

100+

Diving/

Swimming

RECORDING FRAMES

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET


DOLPHINS

DD MM 07/11/2005

DATE

YY

POSITION F.S. Latitude Longitude N 41 28' 640 E 19 25' 614

SPECIES ___?______

TIME FIRST SEEN

12:12:00

CONFIDENCE AND ID FEATURES To far away to tell.

TIME LAST SEEN

12:14:00

HEADING F.S.

350 Degrees

WIND FORCE

1

WIND DIRN SEA STATE

2

VIZ

20 km

SEA TEMP.

21.3

BT. HD. F.S.

201 Degrees

MAX GROUP SIZE

BT SPD

6.5 kts

GROUP COMPOSITION

ENGINE

BIRDS

Adults, Calves, sub-groupings

Species Ducks

None Flying/

FILM

BEHAVIOUR

5

YES

WATER DEPTH 13 m SCATTERING FROM TO GRADE

FILM

SHEET NUM.

0-10

10-100

100+

Diving/

Swimming

RECORDING FRAMES

WHAT + WHO

MILLING/ (Non-directn)

TAPE

FEEDING/

BOW RIDING/

COUNTER

TRAVELLING (directional)

Leaping and Breaching Rates. None Number seen………… from ………… in …………mins SKETCH SCHOOL STRUCTURE, GIVE TIME. RECORD ACTIVITY ON ACT. SHEET Two (2) Dolphins heading northwards - regular breaths. No obvions feeding behavions.


XI: Location of Fish Traps in the Patok Area


XII. GIS techniques



Rapid Assessment Survey of important marine tu