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THE MAGAZINE FOR THE PROFESSIONAL BREWING INDUSTRY

BREWERS

J O U R N A L

JULY~AUGUST 2021 | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 4 ISSN 2059-6669

NORTH BREWING CO A new home in Springwell

09 | BREWERS CHOICE 2021: CLOSING DATE APPROACHES

31 | HARD SELTZERS: EMBRACE THE OPPORTUNITY

58 | THE STORY OF BREWERY D’OUDE MAALDERIJ


GOOD TO BE BACK

T

his issue is heading to press

gress will take place in The Porter Tun on

on the eve of us visiting the

the 8th December.

venue for this year’s Brewers Congress event.

The Porter Tun room has a 170-foot king

And is increasingly com-

post timber roof, with an unsupported

mon for so many of us, it’s a particularly

span of 65 feet giving an uninterrupted

strange feeling to restart parts of your

view across the room.

professional life that have been on hold for so long.

The vaults beneath the Porter Tun room were filled to the ceiling with porter after

But we’re incredibly excited for the Brew-

Whitbread had the idea of bulk storage

ers Congress to return this winter. Taking

without using casks. At first the liquid ran

place on the 7th and 8th December,

through the walls ‘as through a sieve’. It

we kick off with our annual awards and

took advice from John Smeaton designer

industry dinner on the evening of the 7th

of the third Eddystone Lighthouse, and

followed by the Brewers Congress itself

Josiah Wedgewood, to help make them

on the 8th.

water-tight.

And following three years at The Institute

Following an enforced absence in 2020 I

of Civil Engineers, we are moving to a

hope you can join us The Brewers Con-

new home. Fittingly, the new home of our

gress later this year. And as we mention

flagship event is The Brewery in London.

elsewhere in this issue, the deadline for the Brewers Choice Awards is 31st

The Brewery occupies the site of the

August.

LEADER

former Whitbread brewery in East Lon-

brewersjournal.info

don. In 1750 Samuel Whitbread, having

That means you still have time to enter,

bought property in the area, transplanted

or nominate industry leading lights in, the

his operations to Chiswell Street from two

following categories. New Brewery of the

smaller breweries in Old Street and Brick

Year, Brewery of the Year, New Beer of

Lane.

the Year. Beer of the Year, Young Brewer of the Year, Brewer of the Year, Branding

Within a few years Whitbread’s brewery

of the Year and Lifetime Achievement.

had become a vast operation, its sheer size making it an attraction worthy of

For more information, turn to page nine

royal visits. George III, Queen Charlotte,

of this issue for the latest updates on this

Queen Elizabeth II and Elizabeth the

year’s event.

Queen Mother all visited the site. Best of luck in all that you do in these Brewing on the site continued until 1976,

upcoming summer months.

the last tanker pulling out of the South Yard on April 13, bringing to an end a 225-

Tim Sheahan

year era.

Editor

Our awards dinner on the 7th takes place in the King George Room, and the Con-

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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20 21 Brewers Choice

Deadline: 31st August 2021 Winners announced 7 December 2021 Full terms and conditions available at:

awards.brewersjournal.info

BREWERS CHOICE AWARDS THE CLOCK IS TICKING Time is running out to get your entries in for the Brewers Choice Awards 2021. So whether you’re a young brewer or have a beer you want to shout about, your time is now. We also want to recognise the role you’re playing in the industry as part of an exciting new brewery and, of course, we want to acknowledge the best brewery in the UK & Ireland.


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JULY~AUGUST 2021

CONTENTS

Dear John Why John Keeling is looking forward to a return of in-person beer judging Comments - Why breweries are turning to on-site CO2 storage - Behind the scenes of the supply chain - Advice for growing your brewery profitably - Staff training advice for optimum bar hygiene

18

21 24 26 28

Trending | Hard Seltzers Hard Seltzers are here and the only question is, will you be making money or watching on?

31

Brewery Tour | North Brewing Co Nearly 25 years since starting out, North has just opened the doors on a new brewery of its own.

34

Focus | The Environment - A journey towards a “Carbon Zero” future - The benefits of solar power to your brewery - North Brewing’s green approach to Springwell

43 46 49

Meet The Brewer | McColl’s Brewery With a new head brewer in tow and producing beers to help good causes, McColl’s Brewery is looking ahead to its next chapter.

52

Focus | Funding How to leverage your brand to secure funding

55

Crossing Continents | Belgium Paul Davies tells the story of Brewery D’oude Maalderij in Izegem, Belgium

58

Focus | Branding Why it coule be time for a rebrand of your beer

62

Science | Yeast Take a journey through carbohydrate metabolism

71

34 Brewery Tour | North Brewing Co

Nearly 25 years on since opening the legendary North Bar, North Brewing Co has a new home in Springwell

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

BREWERS JOURNAL


CONTACTS Tim Sheahan Editor tim@rebymedia.com +44 (0)1442 780 592 Velo Mitrovich Deputy Editor velo@rebymedia.com +44 (0)1442 780 591

52

Tim O’Rourke Technical Editor tim.orourke@rebymedia.com Josh Henderson Head of sales josh@rebymedia.com +44 (0)1442 780 594

Meet The Brewer | McColl’s

How McColl’s Brewery in Bishop Auckland are making great beer that’s for a great cause, too.

Jon Young Publisher jon@rebymedia.com Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

46 Focus | The Environment

The commercial and cultural factors that make solar power such a good fit for UK breweries.

12

Trending | Hard Seltzers

Why the time is still right to capitalise on the hard seltzer opportunity

brewersjournal.info

SUBSCRIPTIONS The Brewers Journal is a published 10 times a year and mailed every February, March, April, May, June, July, September, October, November and December. Subscriptions can be purchased for 10 issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing: subscribe@ rebymedia.com

UK & IRELAND £29 INTERNATIONAL £49 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Manson Group, St Albans, UK.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal ISSN 2059-6650 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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NEWS

BREWERS CONGRESS FIRST SPEAKERS ANNOUNCED

T

BREWERS CHOICE AWARDS LAST CHANCE TO ENTER

he first speakers and panellists for this year’s Brewers Congress in London have been announced. The event returns for its fourth year in 2021 and with it, a more expansive and feature-packed programme than ever before. Delivering the keynote at this year’s Brewers Congress is Greg

Zeschuk. Originally trained as a medical doctor, Zeschuk started the videogame company BioWare in 1995 in his hometown of Edmonton. While a part of EA BioWare grew to employ over 1500 employees at seven studios across the world. Greg left BioWare in 2012 and after a short hiatus started working

The closing date for entries to the Brew-

in beer.

ers Choice Awards 2021 is fast approach-

The founder of YouTube channel The Beer Diaries, he now owns Blind Enthusiasm,

ing. To be in with a chance of winning

a brewery that excels in beers such as lagers to mixed fermentation and spontane-

any of the eight categories at this year’s

ous beer.

event, you must submit your entries by the 31st August.

We are also delighted to be joined by Rudi Ghequire. Born in the shadow of the historic Rodenbach Brewery in Roeselare, Belgium, Ghequire has spent the last

We’ve been incredibly impressed by the

39 years advancing the legacy of the region’s distinctive sour beer, brewing with a

quality of submissions so far and look for-

combination of old-world and new-world technologies.

ward to seeing even more quality entries in the coming months.

The Brewers Congress is also thrilled to welcome brewing professional Charlotte

We launched the Brewers Choice Awards

Cook, Matt Clarke and Michelle Gay, the co-founders of Lakes Brew Co, Dan

in 2019; designed to recognise the pinna-

Hojdar, the founder of Vinohradský Pivovar in the Czech Republic, Sharp’s head

cle of UK brewing, and to put the best of

brewer Aaron McClure, Vik Stronge, brand & marketing manager at Magic Rock

the best in the spotlight.

Brewing, Danny Tapper and Robin Head-Fourman, the founder and head brewer of Beak Brewery respectively, and John Taylor, the head brewer at Drop Project.

You can enter one, or all of the categories. Or nominate a brewer for the

Owing to the global pandemic, the speaker programme is subject to change. But

Lifetime Achievement Award.

keep up to date with the latest additions to the programme at congress.brewers-

These awards will be presented during

journal.info

the industry party taking place at The

Following three sold-out years at The Institution of Civil Engineers, this December

Brewery on 7th December and also an-

The Brewers Congress moves to a new home at The Brewery in the City of London.

nounced online and in the print edition of The Brewers Journal.

Taking place on the 7th and 8th December, The Brewers Congress 2021 kicks off with an industry wide Christmas Party and Brewers Choice Awards celebrations.

Here’s a reminder of the categories you can enter:

Education and team development is at the heart of the Brewers Congress mission.

u New Brewery of the Year

Day two is the largest gathering of breweries in the UK brewing Calendar. More

u Brewery of the Year

than 300 breweries come together to share their knowledge of brewing, industry

u New Beer of the Year

trends, developments in methodology, technology and ingredients. The trade hall

u Beer of the Year

has been one of the most popular aspects of the event amongst attendees. This

u Young Brewer of the Year

year we are increasing the number of exhibitor spots to 40.

u Brewer of the Year u Branding of the Year

We are creating four beer tasting spots, all trialling different beers, to keep attend-

u Lifetime Achievement

ees moving around the hall. And for the first time we are live streaming the lectures into the exhibition space so attendees can spend more time in the trade hall with-

For full details on each category and to

out missing out on the talks.

submit your entry to any of the awards, please visit: awards.brewersjournal.info

brewersjournal.info

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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9


Big Smoke Brew Co, the Surrey-based brewery, has opened the Big Smoke Taphouse & Kitchen at London Heathrow Airport. The airside destination is a partnership with Airport Retail Enterprises (ARE) and will be located at Heathrow, Terminal 2. Big Smoke have produced a beer and a gin to be sold exclusively at Heathrow; Flight Mode. It’s a crisp and refreshing 4% pilsner and Taphouse London Dry Gin which will be available with personalised labels that can be created while you wait. Big Smoke Brew Co’s own range of locally produced beers, cider and gins will also be available – including six draught

BIG SMOKE BREW CO TO OPEN HEATHROW AIRPORT LOCATION NEW TECHNICAL EDITOR JOINS BREWERS JOURNAL TEAM

options, cans in the fridge and 3 gins on the bar. This range is backed up by a large selection of other beers, wines, spirits, cocktails and soft drinks.

the website www.brilliantbeer.com. For the past 25 years, he has run The Brilliant Beer Company, a Training & Brewing Consultancy, providing technical support and training for breweries all over the world, particularly supporting Institute of Brewing candidates preparing for exams

The Brewers Journal is delighted to have

at introductory, foundation, certificate and

appointed Tim O’Rourke as technical edi-

diploma levels.

tor. O’Rourke is a Master Brewer with over 45 years’ experience in both multinational

O’ Rourke was one of the four founders

and craft breweries.

of the Beer Academy and wrote much of the original content presenting many of

He has been involved in the international

the courses. He is a beer sommelier and

brewing industry in a wide range of ca-

Certified Cicerone and give talks on beer

pacities; his expertise covers production,

styles, beer and food pairing and tutored

innovation and business development,

“I am also committed to deal with current

tasting. He is also an international beer

marketing and promotion.

“ hot topics” with a regular column “Talk-

judge.

Commenting on his appointment, O’Ro-

ing Points”. In this edition I have covered

urke said: “I am honoured and delighted

Climate Change and Global Warming,

Tim Sheahan, editor of The Brewers Jour-

to join the team at the Brewers Journal as

there is no hotter topic than that!”

nal said: “It’s a genuine privilege to have

technical editor.

Tim join our team. Before joining the Brewers Journal he

“As well as writing a regular article in the

was technical editor for the Grist Interna-

“His wealth of knowledge and expertise is

series Back to Basics II which is aimed at

tional and the Brewers Guardian having

a true asset to our magazine, events and

providing scientific knowledge for brew-

published over 200 technical articles, a

podcast going forward, as we celebrate

ing Students,

number of which are available online at

our sixth anniversary this September.”

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

BREWERS JOURNAL


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NEWS

NEW YAKIMA CHIEF HOP BLEND “BRIDGES GAP”

Y

HARBOUR INVESTS IN NEW PACKAGING KIT

akima Chief Hops has launched a new hop blend that allows brewers to showcase “raw hop aroma” in finished beers.

Harbour Brewing Co has made a com-

Cyro Pop Original Blend arrives four years after YCH released its

mitment to using recycled packaging

advanced product line, Cryo Hops.

with the addition of a new cardboard

These used a cryogenic hop-processing technology that separates

packaging machine.

whole cones into two components—concentrated lupulin and bract.

The Cornwall-based brewery established in 2012 has taken delivery of a beverage

These concentrated lupulin pellets provide brewers with maximum aroma impact

multipack machine from T. Freemantle.

while reducing the negative effects experienced with brewing hoppy beers.

Since 2012, Harbour Brewing Co has

YCH has combined this novel process with cutting-edge hop lab analysis tech-

grown from strength to strength and

niques to create Cryo Pop Original Blend, formerly known as trial blend TRI

now exports craft beer all over the world

2304CR.

including to countries such as Australia and America.

The YCH R&D facility houses one of the only labs in the world with the capability to

Whilst the core focus for Harbour Brew-

analyze hops via GC-QTOF and GC-SCD technology and study previously unde-

ing is supplying their Cornish beer to res-

tectable aromatic components.

taurants, they now supply to well-known

The data is utilized to engineer a hop pellet that contains high concentrations

supermarkets such as Marks & Spencer,

of the most beer-soluble compounds, or compounds that survive the brewing

Asda and Morrisons.

process.

Eddie Lofthouse, chief at Harbour explained: “One of my main goals for the business is to become a B Corporation and we want to be as ethical as possible by reducing plastic and replacing it with fully recyclable alternatives such as cardboard, as a result we opted for the T. Freemantle Ltd machine to help us achieve this.” The new machine supplied by T. Freemantle Ltd, the UK manufacturer of beverage multipack machines, is all geared around cardboard packaging. The range on offer is designed specifically for the small to medium sized beverage producer so suit the needs of a craft brewer perfectly. The machine is understood to be the most flexible machine of its type, manufactured in the UK, and can pack cans and bottles in a variety of counts and sizes, within a huge range of different

The result is a supercharged pellet that provides brewers with a dynamic solution

cardboard pack designs.

for juicy, fruit-forward, highly aromatic applications, showing massive tropical,

Lofthouse went on to say: “We were able

stone fruit, and citrus aromas.

to work together with T. Freemantle Ltd to create a machine that would cut out

“The research behind Cryo Pop is revolutionary,” said Spencer Tielkemeier, YCH’s

plastic and also provide a multi pack

East Division sales lead and a member of the brewing innovations team. “It helps

solution for all our products.”

brewers harness a practical understanding of how beer-soluble compounds make an impact in the finished product.”

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

BREWERS JOURNAL


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NEWS

MUNTONS LAUNCHES ALCOHOL FREE MALT EXTRACT Muntons has launched a premium alcohol free malt extract available to commercial brewers both in the UK and abroad. The maltster, which is based in Stowmarket and has sites in Bridlington, the

of the wort sug-ars, the typical character-

Consumers expect more choices and

USA and Thailand, has been developing

istics of beer are replicated.

therefore we want to remove barriers for

the malt extract for two years, with the

This then creates a malt extract with low

breweries that want to add alcohol free

mindset of creating great tasting alco-

sweetness and a mild fermentation aro-

to their range.

hol-free beer that is more accessible to

ma, which is an ide-al versatile base that

“Muntons Premium Alcohol Free Malt

all brewers.

brewers can use to build on and create

Extract makes the brewing of low or no

Versatile and easy to use, the extract

an alcohol-free version of their trade-

alcohol beers simple and fuss-free, and

is designed to give body, mouthfeel,

mark brewing styles, ranging from hop

we’re delighted to bring our product to

and taste. Muntons’ lat-est innovation

forward IPAs to a hearty stout.

fruition.”

allows the brewer to include alcohol-free

Vanessa Makings, marketing manager at

Famous for being one of the greenest

options in their range without the need to

Muntons, said: “With a quarter of adults

maltsters in the country, Muntons’ Pre-

invest in expensive equipment.

saying they’re semi-regular drinkers

mium Alcohol Free Malt Extract is made

Made by the maltster’s signature process

of no or low alcohol,[1] we know that

from 100% sustainable malt, sourced

of combining the heating and modifying

alcohol free is no longer a niche market.

from local farms.

HVO, or hydrotreated vegetable oil, is a

truck – have gradually transitioned over

vehicles become viable, which is still a

synthetic, paraffinic fuel made from 100%

to HVO, with additional haulage partners

few years away.

renewable raw materials. It is stable,

al-so using the fossil-free fuel for their

To showcase that the wagons are running

sustainable and high quality, offering

malt deliveries with the company.

more sustainably, an HVO logo – de-

better combustion, filterability and cold

As well as reducing net CO2 emissions

signed by Courage Creative Ltd in Coun-

temperature resistance than other diesel

by up to 90% – which equates to more

ty Durham – has been applied to the rear

products.

than 4,000 tonnes based on litres the

of the trailer of each truck.

In January 2021, Simpsons Malt took

company’s fleet consumes in a regular

The switch to HVO marks the completion

delivery of a 140,000-litre steel bunded

year – HVO is also found to reduce NOx

of another of Simpsons Malt’s sustain-

HVO fuel storage tank from provider

(nitrogen oxide) emissions by up to 27%

ability objectives and comes hot on

Crown Oil and, in the weeks that fol-

and PM (particulate matter) by up to 84%,

the heels of the company assisting all

lowed, 28 trucks in the company’s fleet

with all these key components towards

its farming partners who grow malting

based out of its Berwick-upon-Tweed

achieving improved air quality. It is the

bar-ley on contract in becoming verified

headquarters – comprising 21 DAF

best available technology to do this until

to the SAI Platform’s Farm Sustainability

trucks, six Scania trucks and one MAN

electric or hydrogen powered haulage

Assessment (FSA) to Gold level.

SIMPSONS MALT FLEET GOES SUSTAINABLE Simpsons Malt, the fifth-generation family malting and merchanting business, has reduced net CO2 emissions from its wagons by up to 90% after switching its fleet from diesel to HVO fuel.

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

BREWERS JOURNAL


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BREWERS L E C T U R E S

NORWICH 24 AUGUST 2021, 12.30PM Dragon Hall, 115-123 King Street, Norwich, NR1 1QE CONFIRMED SPEAKERS FERGUS FITZGERALD ADNAMS MIRANDA HUDSON DURATION BREWING JOHN KEELING FULLER’S CHARLES O’REILLY BURNT MILL BREWERY LOTTE PEPLOW BREWERS ASSOCIATION

LECTURES.BREWERSJOURNAL.INFO


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A RETURN TO NORMALITY WHILE JUDGING BEER ONLINE HAS BEEN A GOOD WAY TO CATCH UP WITH FRIENDS AND TRY SOME GREAT BEVERAGES JOHN KEELING, THE FORMER HEAD BREWER AT FULLER’S, IS VERY MUCH LOOKING FORWARD TO SUCH EVENTS RETURNING IN PERSON, ALONG WITH THE SOCIALISING THAT COMES WITH IT.

W

ell, I’ve been in

invitations from overseas and provided

several pubs

my lords and masters were ok with my

and enjoyed the

expenses then off I would go and be the

cask beer and

beer ambassador for Fuller’s. A good job

the company

it was too.

DEAR JOHN

enormously. I have even been to some

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

local restaurants and enjoyed some great

Sadly, those days are behind me so

food. Everywhere I have been has looked

I have to be more selective over my

busy so some semblance of normality

commitments. I am really enjoying my

has returned.

retirement but I do miss some things about working and travelling around.

However, I write this before Boris has

Being Fuller’s Beer Ambassador is one.

made his mind up regarding June 21st. It does feel like the finishing line is getting

My two favourites were the Australian

further away but I am forever hopeful.

International Beer awards and the Beer

I have never really enjoyed propping

World Cup, which is always held in the

the bar up, instead preferring to sit

USA. Travelling to those events meant I

down. Well, it is my age, comfort before

could really plan a holiday alongside as

everything.

well. My holidays tend to be “busman’s holidays” i.e., visiting breweries etc.

Which reminds me I need some new slippers and a pair of trousers with an

I would also do some work and meet up

elasticated waistband. I do know that

with the local distributors for Fuller’s and

for a lot of pubs this last stage is vital for

do some beer events. All great fun and

them and if it is vital for pubs it is vital for

I keep in touch with those distributors

breweries too.

today. As you can imagine I really enjoyed this aspect of my job

I am even thinking about travelling again and have booked a little trip to

I also loved any that were judged in

Cambridge in July. It will be good to get

this country and especially London but

away from the house for a few days.

they tended to be overnight stop-outs

When I was an employed brewer, I used

or back home in the evening. These are

to plan my holidays around my beer

easier to do but there is less socialising,

judging commitments.

but hooking up with friends is always enjoyable.

In those days I used to get lots of

BREWERS JOURNAL


The main reason I enjoyed judging was

International Beer Challenge and Adrian

the people, it was so good meeting up

Tierney-Jones who runs the World Beer

with my beery mates and having a good

Awards. In my early days, brewers did not

chinwag however, it was equally good to

really mix with journalists.

meet new friends as well. To be in a room with hundreds of beer judges is quite

Thank goodness those days are long

a thing. Unfortunately, under current

gone and even brewers say that it is very

restrictions I know of no beer competition

useful to admit journalists into the fold. In

doing “live“ judging.

fact, some of my best ideas were stolen from them.

However, a number of competitions have decided to run them using Zoom.

Whilst I do miss some aspects of my old

Two competitions have just asked me

job other aspects I do not. Management

to participate and this is how they work.

training courses were particularly

They send you the beer through the post

loathsome. I never went on one I

and then hook you up with your table of

particularly enjoyed.

judges using Zoom and then you judge the beers together at the same time.

I remember one where the course instructor asked the room what each

Well, this seemed like fun so I signed

individual got out of the course.

Whilst I do miss some aspects of my old job other aspects I do not. Management training courses were particularly loathsome,” John Keeling

up this year. Last year unfortunately I couldn’t because my house was being

I was sat at the back of course and after

upgraded and I couldn’t trust my Wi-Fi or

listening to the complimentary bull from

the builders. Apparently, you get to keep

my fellow students when asked I merely

any unused samples too.

stated, “a pen and a folder”. I always was a difficult bugger to teach.

The two competitions are both run by friends, Jeff Evans who runs the

brewersjournal.info

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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19


NEW ERA OF GAS STORAGE

COMMENT

AN INCREASING NUMBER OF BREWERIES ARE TURNING TO ON-SITE CO2 STORAGE. HERE CHRIS HAMLETT, THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF IGC ENGINEERING, EXPLAINS THE BENEFITS OF SUCH AN INVESTMENT.

brewersjournal.info

B

ased in the North-West

So how has such growth and change in

of England, we are

the market been realised?

experiencing new levels

The IGC legacy began through utilising

of growth as increasing

our acclaimed 25-year industry

numbers of companies

knowledge. We have pushed boundaries,

consider their options when it comes to

brought change to the industry and, as

their storage supply.

a result, now provide gas tank contract rentals to clients previously bound to one

IGC started as a small company with

company for their gas and tank business.

the vision to bring competition for the

Now, it is this simple switch not unlike

nationally based industrial gas providers.

those we make as consumers in our

A now-established company, we offer

everyday purchases that has welcomed

gas storage solutions UK-wide and Eu-

a new era of independence within the

rope.

industrial gas sector.

The services span across multiple

The sufferings of CO2 shortages that

industrial sectors, the likes of which

reverberated through the market several

include brewing and soft drinks and

years ago meant that many companies

extend to cover food manufacturing and

are being incited to re-evaluate their

greenhouses.

current storage contracts.

Those who have seen the attraction of

The repercussions of this shortage mean

the IGC package include the likes of

‘companies have been dissatisfied with

Beavertown, North Brewing Co, Wells &

the status quo, and are considering us as

Co and Heineken.

an alternative.’

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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21


COMMENT GAS STORAGE

We pride ourselves on our personal and

Today we supply a range of single skin or

tailored approach towards companies,

vacuum insulated vessels in accordance

even offering periodic reviews into their

to Pressure Equipment Directive

usage to supplement changing supply

(Directive 97/23/EC) (PED). What would

needs or expansion programmes. The

be better for your business than CO2

comprehensive website for IGC outlines

storage tanks that are recognised

the range of services available and

nationally and nationally supported with

sectors covered. If you too, like many

service engineers all around the UK.

companies, are looking at measures to streamline your processes and outgo-

If you’re in the business of manufacturing

ings then IGC could just make a real

food goods, chilled food, growing

difference to you.

tomatoes, soft drinks, brewing or even mixed gas, you need a pressure vessel

PRODUCT OFFERING

you can trust. IGC Engineering fulfills that task safely.

Customers are aware a pressure vessel is a container that holds a source of

Our CO2 storage tanks are made from

liquefied gas such as, oxygen, and

either low temperature carbon steel or

nitrogen, carbon dioxide CO2. These

stainless steel with a weather proof jacket

can range in pressure from 0 – 30 bar

surrounding them.

and temperatures ranging from -197 to ambient.

Our pressure vessels are tested by our in-house quality and welding inspectors

The switch of course, as well as granting

Choosing the right CO2 storage tanks is

before they even leave our facility. Fully

money-savings down the line, also

important to your business.

designed to meet PD5500 and Pressure Equipment Directive (CE Marking)

facilitates the ability to source alternatives should supply issues arise.

Our pressure vessels, especially our

standards, you will have total confidence

IGC can supply storage vessels in varying

CO2 storage tanks, are compliant to

with the supply and installation of your

size, refurb and even offer engineering

all known regulatory bodies with in the

CO2 storage tanks.

services that set the bench mark in the

UK, Europe and USA. Before 1980, you

industry.

had the choice of weather proofing by using mastic or fiberglass outer jackets.

This comprehensive package comes

Of course, many of these tanks are still

tailored to company size, gas usage

used today, but white aluminum jackets

and industry through a technical review

were introduced in the early 1980s. These

carried out by the company directly.

pressure vessels were more durable and long-lasting.

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Left: IGC Engineering has supplied on-site gas storage solutions to a wealth of breweries such as North Brewing Co, Heineken and Vocation Brewery

BREWERS JOURNAL


COMMENT SUPPLY CHAIN

BEHIND THE SCENES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN DURING A CHALLENGING TIME FOR UK BREWING, WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THOSE ACROSS THE INDUSTRY HAS BEEN IMPERATIVE. HERE, CHRIS ROGGEBAND, NEWLY APPOINTED CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER OF ONECIRCLE PRODUCER OF KEYKEG AND UNIKEG, OUTLINES THE APPROACH THEY’VE TAKEN TO HELP KEEP THE BREWING INDUSTRY MOVING.

W

ith the UK market

The supply chain was set up to be robust

feeling the strain

and reactive to confidently meet peaks

after lockdown

in demand. When we expanded our

and Brexit, we

salesforce in the UK, we also created

paused but did not

more new jobs at our purpose-built UK

stand still. We took some time to connect

production facility in Seaham.

with our partners and customers to really look at the best way to support them until

This was opened to support our

their demand per keg returned.

customers reactively and offer reliability after such a turbulent year. Crucially, we

Our teams at local level listened to

were recruiting from within the British

their frustrations and took on board the

hospitality industry, where the job losses

various challenges of adapting to smaller

had been so heavy. We have been

packaging formats, like can and bottle.

preparing for Brexit from 2018, we did

While we couldn’t sell kegs at usual

not expect the pandemic and it certainly

volumes, what we could do was work

hit us hard. We felt it was essential to be

on expanding our UK team. With this

physically present in the UK with local

strategic forward planning, it was

teams.

possible to ensure the right style of Keg was in the right place at the right time

The UK is traditionally our largest market

when the hospitality sector reopened.

for KeyKeg, and we see service as a crucial element of our success. We aim

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BREWERS JOURNAL


SUPPLY CHAIN COMMENT to provide the best service, keeping

forward-thinking team back in Holland

Our long-term goal is to equip every

stock as close to our customers as

adapted and pushed harder to come

stakeholder in the supply-chain with

possible, reducing transport costs and

up with OnePET®, a material that will

the optimum storage and dispensing

the environmental footprint. We are

improve our overall circularity.

equipment, with a considerable overall reduction in transport costs, CO2

now perfectly positioned to offer rapid,

emissions, and water consumption.

cost-effective solutions across the United

The first OnePET® containing KeyKegs

Kingdom and Ireland, and can continue

were manufactured. It consists of 85%

to strategically support our partners

recycled PET - of which 50% originates

Natalie Maestri, UK Account Manager,

growth as restrictions recede.

from our own post-industrial and

concludes: “Thanks to our partners,

community connected (post-consumer)

OneCircle was able to make ambitious

WELL-ROUNDED AMBITIONS

KeyKeg PET.

leaps forward, increasing the recycled

The last twelve months have really

Regular production will see the

shown the resilience of those working

KeyKeg circular material content rise to

in our industry. It made us even prouder

approximately 45%, surpassing the EU

“OneCircle takes responsibility for the

to be part of the supply chain behind

legislative demands for 2030.

end-life of its kegs and continues to

material content of the KeyKeg from 30% to 45%.

add new collection partners in new

the United Kingdom and Ireland’s 3000+ The thirst for change is everywhere,

areas to drive our mission forward. Each

and OneCircle is creating a ripple effect

new partner is another step in the right

We are more determined than ever

of efficiencies across the UK beverage

direction, with our message and products

to support these suppliers and their

industry with its high-quality, lightweight

increasingly circling the globe.”

hospitality customers over a period

product range.

breweries.

that will be vitally important for them to recoup the last year’s financial losses.

Collectively we are focused on redefining the sustainability expectations within the

For us, the challenges of the pandemic

sector by connecting the dots between

also brought new opportunities, and our

people and product.

BRING YOUR BRAND TO LIFE THROUGH TEXTILES www.thecottontextilecompany.co.uk sales@thecottontextilecompany.co.uk 020 3633 2699

brewersjournal.info

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25


COMMENT FUNDING

GROWING PROFITABLY REGARDLESS OF THE AIMS OF THE BUSINESS AND GOALS YOU ARE TRYING TO ACHIEVE, MAKING A PROFIT UNDERPINS THE FINANCIAL STABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE BREWERY, EXPLAINS NEIL STEVENS, DIRECTOR AT BROMHEAD CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS AND A BREWERY AND DISTILLERY SPECIALIST.

G

rowing any business

FUNDING INVESTMENT

can mean many things – increasing turnover,

Your plan should include a cashflow

market share, owner’s

forecast to help you view what funding

lifestyle, employee

you will need, if any, and when you will

numbers, reputation or profit.

need it.

Understanding how the owners, investors

As you grow you will need to fund new

and management team measure “growth”

equipment, marketing costs and new

will ensure operations are aligned and

employees to enable you to meet the

the whole team is pulling in the same

increased demand.

direction. This shouldn’t be just financial but include lifestyle and other factors,

Being prepared for this and having

such as environmental sustainability.

facilities in place beforehand will ease the pressures on the business.

You may call this a budget, a forecast,

You should also be aware of grant

a projection or a financial model, the

funding may be available and

name is less relevant but it should be a

opportunities such as research and

roadmap of where you want to be and

development tax incentives.

how the numbers need to look in order to

Some key financial information is needed

achieve this.

to feed in to your plan. Importantly you need to know how much it costs to make

These valuable documents will ensure

your beer.

your target is achievable and your plans

This should be on two levels, the

will actually make the profit you require.

ingredients, packaging and labour that go into producing each pint (your direct

Once you know where you are and where

costs) and a contribution towards the

you want to be you can work on how

overheads of the brewery, including the

to get there and performance can be

premise costs, sales team and office

monitored against the milestones.

costs (your indirect costs).

Running a business without this key

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information is like driving a car without

This information will tell you how much

a dashboard. Are you driving too fast or

profit you should make on each pint and

overheating?

allow you to monitor whether this is being

BREWERS JOURNAL


FUNDING COMMENT achieved. You can use this information

market for you to consider. These routes

systems capture the source data

to help set your pricing and assess

to market will often achieve very different

accurately and efficiently.

opportunities as they arise.

profit margins.

PLAN YOUR MARKETING

For instance, supermarkets could

You really don’t want to be spending too

achieve a high volume of sales but at a

much time gathering this information or

low margin.

doubting it’s reliability as analysis needs to be timely in order to be most useful.

To grow your brewery, you will need to raise the profile and market your product,

Direct to consumer sales through your

which will of course have a cost.

website will likely achieve much lower

Software can be used to effectively

Choosing where or how to spend on

volumes but at a higher margin.

gather much of the financial and non-

marketing and advertising is difficult, but

Interestingly £150,000 of sales at a 20%

financial data if the systems are designed

plan it and set a budget for this area.

profit margin and £50,000 of sales at a

and configured correctly.

This budget shouldn’t be set in stone

60% margin will achieve the same profit.

as you will need to adapt and identify

Which works best for reaching your

Last but certainly not least is your beer.

the activity producing the best results.

goals?

Producing great beer is fundamental, but great beer by itself will not make a

Monitoring the results alongside your

TRACK YOUR DATA

sustainable brewery.

Successful businesses use the data

The quality of your beer is only

When focusing on growth and ramping

from recent periods to make changes

recognised when people are drinking

up operations, overheads can potentially

and sculpt the future of the business. It

it. Establishing your brand identity and

spiral. Regular monitoring alongside your

enables you to identify successes and

unique selling point will help ensure

forecast or budget will help pick this up

importantly where improvements can be

you reach as many potential customers

at the earliest opportunity.

made.

as possible and hopefully they can tell

Depending on the beer you are

Fundamental to using this key

producing, there are many routes to

information well is to ensure your

financial budget or forecast will help keep you on the right track.

others how great it is!

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FIVE STAFF TRAINING TIPS FOR BAR HYGIENE KEEPING ON TOP OF NEW TECHNOLOGY, AND HAVING A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF NEW GUIDELINES, NEW PRODUCTS AND CLEANING TECHNIQUES IS ALSO CRUCIAL - AS SOME OF IT WILL SAVE YOU MONEY, SAVE YOU TIME, CUT WASTE AND INCREASE PROFITS, EXPLAINS HANCE MCGHIE OF CHEMISPHERE UK

A

s the UK’s hospitality industry fires up again after many months of closures, refreshing your cleaning schedules and ensuring

your team is well versed in hygiene practices has never been so critical. Engaged staff members, visible cleanliness and the use of the correct sanitising and cleaning products are key to instilling customer confidence after such a tumultuous year, so recapping on your policies is key. We have been at the forefront of bar hygiene for three decades. As well as offering a full range of tried and tested hygiene products that will ensure all on trade sites are fully cleaned and C19 free, we also offer free advice on the best methods to use to be totally compliant with any new regulations or cleaning schedules. It’s more important than ever that the industry sticks together to ensure the rejuvenation of the UK on trade, so with this in mind, here are five tips on staff

You don’t need to blind the team with

training to ensure strict bar hygiene

science, but letting them know how

standards are maintained;

bacteria can grow, what bacterias and organisms can affect product quality and

EXPLAIN WHY

customer health and the importance of excellent sanitation for customer

As you welcome new members of staff

retention and confidence can help them

to your team, it’s prudent to have a tried

to understand on a deeper level why

and tested training session with recruits,

you are strict about the processes you

to instill excellent hygiene practices from

implement.

the off. And, after the Covid19 pandemic, it Providing a manual or a lesson on your

has never been so crucial to run a tight

cleanliness processes are, of course,

ship when it comes to cleanliness and

useful, but it’s even better to explain to

hygiene.

staff why these things are critical, and equip them with the knowledge and a

This initial session is also a good time

wider understanding of cleanliness and

to show staff where to find all the

its importance.

equipment and cleaning supplies, and what products work with which area

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BAR HYGIENE COMMENT

- and, of course, why! Any chemical

policy, having strict systems for other

Remember to re-allocate the tasks to a

hazards and other safety issues should

areas of cleaning is a great idea.

new member of staff if a team member leaves the business.

be clearly explained. For extra peace of mind, you could draft up a one-pager

You can draw up easy to follow, clear

with key points highlighted, for staff

how-to guides for beer line cleaning

members to take home, take a picture of

(even if you use a high tech system),

and keep for reference.

closing the bar down, sanitising sparklers,

Having high standards when it comes

washing glassware, cleaning the toilets,

to personal hygiene is crucial, but these

There are lots of online courses that

keeping the cellar immaculate, cleaning

tasks do fall to individuals - so training

you can use for training sessions too,

floors and front of house will help you -

them in areas such as hand washing and

so it’s worth researching into options

and your staff - be more confident when

sanitising, cleaning uniforms, avoiding

and investing into the right ones for

it comes to ensuring everything is done

touching their faces, keeping their hair

your business and team - especially if

correctly and to a high standard.

tidy and avoiding wearing certain pieces

you sell or handle food or even cocktail ingredients etc.

CLEAN AS YOU GO

STRICT PERSONAL HYGIENE

of jewellery is very important. The guides can also include details of the products that should be used for each

These standards can be covered in the

area of cleaning and any guidelines for

initial training sessions, but it is important

using them safely.

to keep an eye on these aspects every day so customer confidence can be

You will no doubt employ the services of a professional cleaner to thoroughly

Having the systems clearly visible in the

maintained. After all, your team members

clean the front of house and bar areas

venue - and providing digital copies for

are on centre stage for customers, so

before opening each day, and starting

staff members - can help employees to

their habits and appearance will have

off every morning with a clean venue is

stick to the checklists clearly until they

an impact on customer perception and

critical.

are well versed in your methods. This will

retention.

also help staff members to crack on with However, it’s very important to instill

tasks without having to ask for recaps or

It goes without saying that bar managers,

a “clean as you go” policy with staff

help - something that will help them feel

owners and landlords have a part to

members, to ensure that your premises

more confident in the long run.

play, too. Keeping up to speed on new ideas and processes is important, as

always look perfect. Having an effective clean as you go policy will minimise

ALLOCATE RESPONSIBILITY

getting stuck in your ways won’t do your business any good.

hygiene risks and any other risks to health or safety for staff members and

It’s important that younger or less

customers.

experienced members of the team feel

Keeping abreast of new technology, and

like they’re contributing to the overall

having a working knowledge of new

In essence, it ensures staff members

running of the bar, so allocating areas

guidelines, new products and cleaning

tackle any spills or other issues straight

of cleaning to certain members of staff

techniques is also crucial - as some of it

away, and ensures that they take the

can help them to take responsibility and

will save you money, save you time, save

time to continually clean throughout the

become an “expert” in that area!

waste and increase profits!

day, wiping surfaces, and equipment, removing waste and tidying up after

Play up to skill sets; if someone is a

themselves immediately and at all times

tech whizz, let them be in charge of the

to make sure the bar, cellar, surfaces and

beer line cleans using high tech apps

all walkways are always clutter free and

and systems, and if someone is great at

clean.

customer service, give them the front of house cleaning job so they can chat to

HOW -TO HYGIENE GUIDES

customers and represent the venue in a positive, friendly manner.

As well as operating a clean as you go

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29


TRENDING

THE HARD SELTZER OPPORTUNITY THIS MUST BE SOUNDING LIKE AN OLD VINYL RECORD WITH A SCRATCH ON IT, REPLAYING A SECTION OVER AND OVER AGAIN. BUT HARD SELTZER IS HERE AND THE ONLY QUESTION IS, WILL YOU BE MAKING MONEY WITH IT OR WATCHING FROM THE SIDE LINES? VELO MITROVICH REPORTS. brewersjournal.info

Y

ou mention hard seltzer to

its muscles in 2016, last year the market

some craft brewers here

grew to $4 billion.

and you’ll hear reasons why it will never catch on

White Claw and Truly (owned by Boston

with the major one being,

Beer) are seen by many as the Coca-

nobody here knows what seltzer is.

Cola and Pepsi of the hard seltzer world, battling it out for the top spot with the

Yeah…that makes perfect sense.

two having a combined US market of 70

Following the same logic, KFC and all it

percent, with the majority belonging to

knock-offs should have never become

White Claw.

one of the UK’s favourite fast foods.

While that might be fine if they were

McDonald’s ‘Big Mac’ – no, that won’t

staying over there, they’re not. White

fly here. Dried beans that are baked in

Claw, owned by Ireland’s Mark Anthony

tomato sauce and served for breakfast?

Brands International, announced in April

Now you’re really talking crazy.

2021 its first global marketing campaign, targeting Canada, Ireland, Belgium, the

According to Nielsen IQ, in the States

Netherlands and the UK. When it was

hard seltzers racked up sales of around

launched in Australia last year, White

$500 million in 2018. While that’s not too

Claw sold one million cans in its first

shabby for a drink that first started flexing

week.

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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31


TRENDING HARD SELTZER Ryan and Dean Ginsberg, through mutual

already have? Simple answer – yes.

friends. She was impressed with Served and with

According to Craft Beer & Brewing, as a

the company’s eco-minded approach.

brewer you have the skills necessary to

The 4% ABV hard seltzer is made in

get sugar into a liquid, ferment it, flavour

Herefordshire using spring water, wonky

it, package it, and carbonate it.

fruit and the brand’s own ‘ServedPure’

There are few ingredients and a lot less

spirit.

hassle in making it when compared to beer. Plus, we’re talking about a relatively

There are now an increasing number of Hard Seltzer brands to choose from in the UK

Served is by far not the only UK hard

low-ABV product with few ingredients—

seltzer company. East London Liquor Co,

two factors that tend to reduce the

Keepr’s, High Water, Dalston’s, and others

degree of difficulty.

are making it here, although with some there seems to be a lack of transparency

But, cautions CB&B, hard seltzer’s

as to exactly where in the UK or EU their

defining attribute is its crisp, clean

hard seltzers are being made.

character, and that can be challenging to create.

With White Claw and Truly having so much of the US market locked-up, other

MAKING HARD SELTZER According to yeast company Lallemand,

players are probably looking for new markets to expand into.

How and why hard seltzers erupted like

there are many different strategies for

These include Bud Light Seltzer and

they did will someday be the subject of a

producing hard seltzer depending on the

Bon & Viv – both owned by AB InBev –

book. You create a drink that is a basically

priorities of the brewer.

Diageo’s Smirnoff Seltzer; MillerCoors’

clear, colourless alcoholic beverage with

Henry’s Hard Sparkling Water;

a 4 to 5% ABV, with some strong versions

For example, some brewers might

Constellation Brands’ Corona Seltzer; and

as well.

favour higher alcohol yields or faster fermentation times, while others might

Molson Coors’ Vizzy Hard Seltzer. To the sugar-solution alcohol base, add

focus on a cleaner flavour profile with

Interesting partnerships are shocking the

in 95 percent water, some flavouring and

fewer off flavours. Priorities of the brewer

market. Coca-Cola and Molson Coors

fizzy it up with carbon dioxide and there

will determine the choice of yeast strain

have created Topo Chico Hard Seltzer,

you go.

and nutrient strategy.

while hip-hop star Travis Scott and

Lower calorie than most beers and

Anheuser-Busch have released Cacti,

almost 100 percent gluten free, the

In principle, many different sources of

a seltzer made with blue agave syrup.

public grabbed onto the idea that hard

sugar may be used to produce hard

Good luck finding either of these two in

seltzers were the healthy alternative to

seltzer including dextrose, sucrose, cane

the States, they sell-out fast.

beer or spirits, and one that you could

sugar, liquid invert sugar, agave syrup

easily drink three to four cans without

and honey, to name a few. Lallemand

getting drunk or lethargic.

and others see an advantage in using

Here, singer/model Ellie Goulding has

cane sugar since it is widely available,

just acquired what is being called a “significant” stake in hard seltzer brand

Some get around making their own

often organic certified, and is generally

Served. According to reports, Goulding

alcohol base by just using vodka – there

perceived as a high quality ingredient

was introduced to the brand’s founders,

is no Hard Seltzer Guild dictating as to

when listed on a label.

what defines hard seltzer. Served Hard Seltzers are produced using “wonky fruit”

Unlike a beer, wine or cider fermentation, According to brewing consultants First

sugar-based fermentations have almost

Key, running an ordered fermentation is

zero buffering capacity. As a result, the

the most challenging aspect of making a

CO2 produced by the fermenting yeast

hard seltzer.

will react with water to form carbonic acid

“Finding the correct concentration of

(H2 CO3 ) resulting in a rapid drop in pH in

yeast nutrients for your yeast strain,

the absence of any buffer.

substrate concentration, pitching rate, and oxygenation level is the biggest

To maintain optimal yeast health during

hurdle facing most brewers. These

fermentation, Lallemand says that the

variables may have to be tweaked even

pH should be maintained above 3.5-4.0.

after several production batches.”

This is best achieved by the addition of potassium bicarbonate (K2HCO3 ) as a

If you can brew beer, can you make

buffer.

hard seltzer and with the equipment you

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HARD SELTZER TRENDING

MICHELADAS MADNESS In Mexico, a drink popular for years is a beer cocktail made with dark Mexican beer, hot sauce, tomato juice and lime – basically a beer-based Bloody Mary. Called micheladas or shortened to cheladas, it’s one of those drinks you have try before passing judgement. Canned versions are now being produced in the US, primarily in cities with a large Mexican population such as Los Angeles and San Diego, and Bud Light has entered the Michelada arena in the USA

The exact amount required will vary depending on the mineral and salt

made by either Mexican or southern Californian breweries. The US versions use a light lager, lime, tomato juice, hot sauce, and

composition of the water as well as the fermentation volume (larger fermenters

Sanjiv Gajiwala, senior VP of marketing

other flavourings such as ‘Clamato’ –

have higher hydrostatic pressure in

at White Claw, says that on social media,

a tomato and clam juice concentrate

the fermenting liquid leading to higher

there was “a snowball effect” which kept

– tamarind, chipotle peppers, pickled

CO2 and carbonic acid concentrations

growing and growing.

fruit sauce or mango.

and therefore requiring more buffer).

White Claw responded by cutting its

While it is hard seeing micheladas

Generally, 10-15g/hL of potassium

marketing budget by 30 percent and just

taking off in the UK, stranger things

bicarbonate is a good starting point.

let its fans take over, giving it advertising

have happened and thanks to Old

for free.

El Paso’s marketing, Mexican food is becoming popular.

Lallemand says that a high quality, highly viable yeast strain such as its

While some social media took the micky

LalBrew CBC-1 is “ideal” for hard seltzer

out of White Claw and its fans, even

fermentation.

these videos brought in new drinkers,

This strain is tolerant to high levels of

curious to try the drink.

alcohol, high osmotic pressure and low

In one of the most famous of these,

pH and produces a neutral flavour profile.

Millennial comedian and actor, Trevor

The high purity of a premium brewing

CANNED SPIRITS

Wallace, coined the phrase: “Ain’t no laws

According to the Distilled Spirits

when you’re drinking the claw.”

Council of the US, the rise of hard

yeast strain such as LalBrew CBC-

seltzers is fuelling the growing popu-

1 reduces the bacterial count in the

White Claw could not keep up with

larity of canned cocktails.

finished product. Yeast should be

demand, creating a new phrase for when

In 2019 AB InBev, owner of Budweis-

rehydrated in the presence of GoFerm

a bar/pub ran out of White Claw – it’s

er, bought out San Diego-based craft

Protect Evolution.

been “De-clawed”.

distillery Cutwater in order to get an

The high sterol and unsaturated fatty

easy entry into the canned cocktail

acid content of GoFerm Protect Evolution

What Gajiwala finds interesting is as

market. Cutwater is the second-best

provides additional protection to the

competition goes up – there are now

selling canned cocktail brand and

cell well against stress caused by high

around 80 hard seltzer makes in the USA

its growth motivated AB InBev to get

osmotic pressure, low pH and high levels

– White Claws’ market share goes up.

involved, especially since it had seen

of alcohol.

AIN’T NO LAWS

a trending downward trend in beer Unlike with beer which is seen more

consumption.

of a male’s drink, hard seltzers defy

AB InBev has also partnered with a

demographics with an even 50/50 split

Canadian distiller to bring out Nutrl,

What changed hard seltzer in the States

between female and male drinkers. With

a line of vodka drinks which are very

from being a marginal drink to going

age, however, the majority of fans are

similar to hard seltzers.

mainstay was White Claw’s introduction

under 40-years-old.

in 2016.

brewersjournal.info

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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33


LEADERS OF THEIR CRAFT HOW DID A SMALL BAR IN LEEDS SERVING BEAMISH RED AND KRONENBOURG BECOME A DRIVING FORCE IN THE CRAFT BEER REVOLUTION? FOUNDED BY JOHN GYNGELL AND CHRISTIAN TOWNSLEY BACK IN 1997, NORTH BAR IS AN INSTITUTION WHEN IT COMES TO GREAT, MODERN BEER. AND NEARLY 25 YEARS ON, THE TEAM HAS JUST OPENED THE DOORS ON A NEW BREWERY OF ITS OWN.

W

hat do The Stone

sawdust Irish pubs, some rough boozers

Roses, Deftones,

and that was pretty much it. The city

Slayer and ... East 17

centre wasn’t a very welcoming place to

have in common?

be student.”

Correct! They

have all played at the birthplace of North

Both Gyngell and Townsley knew this

Brewing Co, of course.

needed to change…

Well, yes and no…

They wanted somewhere that would offer table service, that offered up a

Because before North Brewing there was

continental vibe and was welcoming to

North Bar. Located on New Briggate in

each and every customer.

Leeds City Centre, the seminal craft beer

He recalls: “The intention was to create

bar would open its doors in 1997. And in

an open, friendly space for the liberally-

the years that followed, it too would open

minded people. A venue for people like

up people’s eyes and palates to a world

us. I think most businesses are founded

of modern, exciting beer.

upon the needs of the founders. “They identify a need in their life and

A launchpad for countless local

solve it by opening a business to do that,

breweries and a gateway to a wealth

and that was ultimately what we did.”

of world-famous brands like Brooklyn Brewery, Erdinger and Sierra Nevada to

They found their location at New

enter the UK market.

Briggate, and with a “modest” loan from John Smith’s went on their way opening

The impact the bar, founded by John

with beers, necessitated by the loan,

Gyngell and Christian Townsley, has

such as Beamish Red, Fosters, Guinness

had on the craft beer sector cannot be

and Kronenbourg.

understated. “A pretty poor selection, let’s be honest,” But before the duo were to open that

he laughs.

much-loved bar, they would meet during

Following months of hard graft to get

their role as glass collectors at the Town

the place open, a period of the bar being

and Country Club in Leeds. Originally

“deathly quiet” followed.

opened way back in 1885 as the Leeds

“It makes you question if you’ve made the

Coliseum, the grade II listed Gothic

right decision. There’s times where you’re

building would host a variety of circus

incredibly tired, the place is empty and

shows and political events.

you go into a dark place,” he says. “But we held our nerve and thankfully things

Come 1992 it reopened as the Town

started to pick up.”

and Country Club, it too hosting a raft of events but this time of a musical nature.

And this time, it was the turn of another of

If you’re passing the venue, located at

the city’s entertainment venues to have

55 Cookridge St, is now known as the O2

its say in the story of North Bar.

Academy Leeds.

Townsley explains: “We got really lucky being right next to the Leeds Grand

“John is from Stockport so he used to

Theatre. And the crew effectively started

spent a lot of time in Manchester. From a

to use the bar as their greenroom. We

young age, he always had an aspiration

ended up attracting some really creative

to open his own bar one day,” says

individuals that were working in a range

Townsley. “When we met, he told me that

of roles at the venue.

he wanted to open somewhere in Leeds. Back then, there were a few spit and

34

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

“They were well-travelled and loved

BREWERS JOURNAL


(L-R) John Gyngell, Sarah Hardy, Christian Townsley, Seb Brink and Fiona Potts - May 2021

BREWERY TOUR

The intention was to create an open, friendly space for the liberally-minded people” Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co


the fact that we started to stock more

The success of these draught products

interesting beers that they recognised

meant North Bar was able to pay off its

from those trips.”

loan sooner than expected and before

Members of team North with the newly-installed brewhouse from Gravity Systems

long, the duo would meet the team at To celebrate the upcoming Euro 1998

specialist beer importer James Clay &

football tournament, Gyngell and

Sons.

beers from the revered US brewery. Townsley will also never forget his first

Townsley wanted to offer beers from all of the participating nations. So in came

The relationship swiftly blossomed and

time enjoying a bottle of Anchor Liberty

beers from Hoegaarden Brewery, Duvel

North Bar would become something of

Ale from Anchor Brewing.

and TAP7 Mein Original from Schneider

a shop window for the breweries such as

Weisse.

the aforementioned Brooklyn Brewery

“People from the theatre knew these

and Erdinger as well as Goose Island,

beers and the flavours and aromas

among others.

“It blew my mind!” he recalls. North’s love affair with US beers grew by the day but visits to expos across Europe

really excited John and I. It really got us interested in beer and we then knew we

“It worked brilliantly for us,” says

ensured they stayed on top of world-

wanted to do more,” says Townsley.

Townsley.

beating Belgian and German produce,

But while North Bar would start to stock

“We became known for these exclusives

find themselves at a trade expo in Ghent.

a raft of beers from across Europe, its

and as a result, other companies would

“I tried a beer and thought ‘Oh my god,

sales of Kronenbourg and Guinness

bring their customers to North Bar to

this is amazing’ so I asked Ian at James

were absolutely flying, with the venue

show how well these brands could

Clay who went on to supply us with it,”

becoming a major account for both

perform. I feel that James Clay helped us

says Townsley.

brands in the North of England.

grow and we helped them, too.”

“I remember having to repeat myself a

The venue would also be the first to pour

few times on the phone when asking for

Sierra Nevada in the UK. Working with

twenty 50l kegs of

Steve Holt of Vertical Drinks, and more

“We have always been very lucky with

Kronenbourg as the lady on the end of

recently the founder of Kirkstall Brewery,

the type of customer North Bar attracts.

the line didn’t believe us!” he smiles.

the duo work work closely to showcase

They are open-minded, inquisitive and

too. Gyngell and Townsley would soon

That particular beer was Duchesse de

36

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

Bourgogne by Brouwerij Verhaeghe.

BREWERS JOURNAL


NORTH BREWING BREWERY TOUR willing to try new things. We learn from

having fun’. And some ten years after that

them, too, and continue to do so.”

visit to Copenhagen the team’s designer,

The success of North Bar led the duo\

James Ockelford, had a proposal.

to open their second venue in 2005, a

“He told us that North Bar needed a

number that currently stands at eight in 2021. But rewind back to 2004, and a research trip to Copenhagen would light that fire of doing something more handson with beer. Nørrebro Bryghus can stake its claim to be first real micro brewery in Denmark. Founded in 2003 by Anders Kissmeyer, a former Carlsberg brewmaster, the aim was to open peoples’ eyes to a world of great beer. “We walked in and thought wow, this is

We have always been very lucky with the type of customer North Bar attracts, Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co

rebrand,” recalls Townsley. “Ok, we thought. So he came to us with this weighty brochure of the new logo and the work behind it. “He then turned to the back and showed us how had adapted this new North Bar logo for North Brewing Co. We looked at him and said ‘Ah shit, we’re going to have to do a brewery, aren’t we?’” Gyngell and Townsley knew it was now or never. They could discuss it and put it on the back burner, or act upon it and make their move.

class, this is class,” muses Townsley. “You could see the brewhouse, the branding was smart, clean, and the layout of the

River Aire. “It was an amazing site. We

place was spot on.”

started to join the dots but the money

They chose the latter.

that was required, along with the us

Around that time Seb Brink was plying his

He adds: “We went on to visit some

getting distracted opening new bars

trade as ukulele teacher. He also enjoyed

other smaller brewpubs and were just so

meant it escaped us,” he recalls.

cuckoo brewing for his own business Golden Owl, too. A regular of North’s

impressed with what we saw. We even asked the head brewer at one place that

Venues such as Further North in Chapel

Alfred bar, word reached him that North

if she ever wanted to move to Leeds, she

Allerton and Alfred in Meanwood

were looking to expand into brewing their

could start a brewery for us!”

followed. With it, North was bringing

own beer. Gyngell and Townsley had

over more and more great beer from

also heard positive things about his beer.

Returning to Leeds, Gyngell and

breweries across the globe. Leeds had

And one day, Brink turned up to politely

Townsley would happen upon a Victorian

become a hot bed for excellent beer.

inform the duo that he had quit his job.

As the saying goes, ‘Time flies when you’re

“Ok, I said,” says Townsley.

engine house which formed part of an industrial estate on Water Lane near the

brewersjournal.info

JULY~AUGUST 2021

|

37


BREWERY TOUR NORTH BREWING Christian Townsley and John Gyngell, June 2020

Beers that are still part of North’s offering today. One that didn’t make the cut was Bulkhead, a brown ale that resonated with Townsley. “I was really excited about it because I grew up on Double Maxim ale. But it was a tough sell and it just didn’t really happen. But I loved it!” From the off, North knew they wanted a reliable core range to hang their hat on. Another addition, tropical pale ale Piñata, soon joined the group. “I’m dead proud of the beers that Seb has produced in the core range,” he says. “From the bar point of view, we also needed some consistency, so we needed a pale ale, and a IPA. It gave us reliability in supplying our own bars.”

“He replied that ‘We’re doing a brewery, aren’t we?’ So we thought we better crack

While the team invested in capacity

on!”

We believed in the team, in the beer and in the brand, Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co

that, they assumed, would be more than

pretty nervous. He opted for a beer that

values. That taking a leap of faith can be

Shortly into their tenure at Sheepscar,

had characteristics of both East and West

a positive thing.

the team from Fourpure Brewing Co in

As the bar that launched Magic Rock, Cannonball was always a favourite of the team at North Bar. Townsley suggested Brink create something along those lines, paying homage to excellent West Coast beers. So off he went.

they’d require, it would soon become apparent that the brewery would outstrip that capacity pretty quickly. Especially with the brewery’s ability to directly sell from the taproom and through the North bars, all driven by a hospitable environment to drink those beers in, too.

“He came to meet us, and I think he was

London were in town. North Bar would

Coast styles,” says Townsley. “John was there but he was full of cold and couldn’t

“But when Seb tells us that he’s tinkering

host an annual Fourpure event around

smell or taste anything.

with the recipe for Transmission, we’re

the time of Leeds International Beer

“But the second Seb opened the beer I

like ‘No, no, no’. But you have to trust him

Festival. “They remarked on the empty

knew he had hit it out of the park with his

and he always gets it right.”

unit next-door and if we had enquired,” says Townsley. “We hadn’t, and they told

first go. It brought a tear to my eye. It was On 9th September 2015, the team

us we better get our skates on as we’d

would get the keys to their brewery

need it. We took their advice and secured

That beer would become Transmission.

site in Sheepscar. Armed with a 25HL

it. Then shortly after we secured another

A 6.9% IPA boasting a hazy orange

brewhouse from Malrex and four 25HL

unit on the same estate.

appearance and soft, juicy mouthfeel.

FVs, the on-site taproom would open

One that has gone on to win awards and

that November serving beer to thirsty

“By 2018 it became apparent that even

become a flagship beer for the brewery.

patrons.

with that space, capacity was becoming

“It’s quite amusing,” says Townsley.

North launched with Transmission and

“When we introduce the company to

also Sputnik, a 5.0% American Pale Ale. A

new team members, we always promote

Kölsch, Herzog, would follow, along with

Towards the end of following year, North

continuous improvement as one of our

Full Fathom 5, a Coffee Coconut Porter.

would collaborate with Leeds-based

unreal.”

an issue and we would soon have to

38

|

JULY~AUGUST 2021

consider our options.”

BREWERS JOURNAL


NORTH BREWING BREWERY TOUR

ice cream company Northern Bloc on a

the team had some knew there were

Raspberry and Rhubarb Sorbert Sour.

some challenging decisions to be made.

Construction on the site started in

Brewed with organic raspberry puree

So in late March 2020, they met with

earnest shortly after. An architectural

and forced Yorkshire rhubarb from the

Mischendahl to work out where they

survey swiftly revealed that the floor

famed E. Olroyd & Sons, Sorbet Sour

stood.

of the building was in no fit shape to support four 150HL FVs down the

would prove to be more than just a “Dirk had just spent a lot of money on this

middle of the facility. This resulted in

building and needed to know our plans.

the unexpected investment in all-new

“Northern Bloc’s founder Dirk

It was an anxious time but it didn’t take

reinforced flooring. The building’s former

(Mischendahl) looked around the brewery

long for John and I to agree we had to

role as a tannery also required some

and could see we were running out of

crack on,” says Townsley.

deep site investigations to get the all

collaboration.

clear on contaminants. All of this while

space,” recalls Townsley. “He told us he had an offer out on a building we might

He adds: “We believed in the team, in the

the global pandemic threatened the

like, but was having second thoughts.”

beer and in the brand. We knew it was

longterm existence of the bars that had

time to crack on and sign the lease.

led the team to this point in the first place.

Located at Springwell Works on Buslingthorpe Lane, the site was less

“We’ve spent five years without a

than a mile north of the brewery’s existing

full-time salesperson and we’ve been

“On our bar side we were fighting for

facility. “We went to look at it and it was

constantly short of beer. Starting with four

our lives, it was horrendous,” Townsley

perfect. He said if we were happy to rent

25HL tanks and always needing to add

explains. “It has been really difficult and

it then he’d buy the building and lease it

more and more 50HL vessels each and

you find yourself firefighting on a daily

to us. Perfect!”

every year.

basis.” We managed to convert many of

Then the global Covid pandemic struck

“We told ourselves we had been chasing

us. But the changing restrictions, and the

and the lease had yet to be signed.

our tail for too long and it was time to

addition of the 10pm curfew was a real

And at that point, Gyngell, Townsley and

make that move.”

killer for a lot of hospitality.

the bars to bottleshops, which helped

brewersjournal.info

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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39


BREWERY TOUR NORTH BREWING

“There was zero help and it was a real

with the eponymous Springwell Pils.

hospitality in England on April 12th was

stranglehold for businesses like ours.

Springwell Pils is a crisp and refreshing

the green light for Springwell to open its

So to see the support come through,

Pilsner, brewed using German Pilsner

doors. For outdoor drinking, of course.

be it online or click and collect, has had

Malt and Cara Gold, it has a light, clean

The brewery tap has, predictably, been

John and I in tears. It meant the world to

and fresh profile whilst a light dry hop

a hit in with visitors in those early months

know you have that connection with the

of modern German Callista and noble

since.

community. It was very humbling.”

Mittelfruh finishes the beer with delicate tart gooseberry, fresh herb and floral

And despite the busiest period in his

But thankfully, they pulled through.

characteristics.

career, Townsley is grateful for the size of

The centrepiece of the new Springwell

While visitors to the new brewery can

brewery is a 50HL brewhouse from

enjoy a beer in its 500-seater taproom,

“I look back at the last year and, in

Gravity Systems, supported by a wealth

Townsley is also proud of the improved

some ways, the pandemic gave us the

of much-needed tank capacity. The

facilities the Spingwell site offers the

opportunity to make Springwell a reality,”

first beers were brewed on this kit last

ever-growing team.

he says.

the project he and the team took on.

December. He says: “We’ve been incredibly fortunate

“There’s no way we would have been

Townsley explains: “The potential for us

with how everyone has pulled through

able to manage a project like this in

to brew more and in bigger batches is

during this last year. They’ve been hard-

normal times. John and I are travelling for

massive for us. Our colleague Fay, who

working and flexible and they’ve got us

work so often that this brewery wouldn’t

is responsible for the distribution and

through this. In some ways, I feel like this

have happened with that being the case.

allocation of stock, has a really hard time

new place is something of a reward to

over the years. She’s got a tough job.

them.

“I’m always grateful for having that focus, too. It’s been hard work but, to be honest,

“Working out what goes where, be it to

“It’s a nice environment. We’ve got on-site

I think it’s helped save my sanity. Now we

our bars, export, local delivery, webshop,

showers and will be adding a gym, team

have the team under one roof, and can

the lot. She’s constantly trying to keep

garden and space for people to relax.

make more beer too.

everybody happy. Thankfully now, if

“Already it’s so much more than I

we’re to brew say 100HL of a new special,

dreamed it would ever be. I want it

“I hope that, by showing a company like

it gives her a bit of comfort knowing she

to become a space for the brewing

ours can grow, we can show everyone

has that volume to work with.”

community to collaborate and work

there’s still much to be positive about,

together at for a long time to come.”

that there’s always light at the end of the tunnel.”

In addition to larger batches sizes, North marked the opening of its new facility

40

|

JULY~AUGUST 2021

The lifting of restrictions on outdoor

BREWERS JOURNAL


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ENVIRONMENT MATTERS

ENVIRONMENT

TIM O’ROURKE, TECHNICAL EDITOR AT THE BREWERS JOURNAL, LOOKS AT A JOURNEY TOWARDS A “CARBON ZERO” FUTURE FOR THE BREWING INDUSTRY.

T

he brewing industry has

make affect the size of our Carbon

been through a really

Footprint. Below are some examples

difficult time surviving the

of the carbon footprint associated with

pandemic. As we emerge

different food and beverages.

from lockdown, we are

It is not just CO2 which contribute to

facing another, less obvious, existential

greenhouse gases but other gases such

threat to our livelihood from the

as methane and ammonia which have

deteriorating environment and climate

an even greater insulation effect and are

change.

added to the carbon dioxide value to give a CO2e (equivalent).

We all interact with the environment consuming resources, creating waste,

As we work to reduce our carbon

and emitting greenhouse gases, referred

footprint, each producer will be expected

to as carbon footprint. Individual carbon

to improve their production efficiency

footprints vary around the world with

towards the global objective a carbon

the average North America citizen

zero future on or before 2050.

producing 16.5 tonnes of CO2e pa, in the UK it equates to 6.5 tonnes per person,

To calculate the carbon footprint of a

whereas in India it is around 1.7 tonnes of

beer it is necessary to consider the whole

CO2e per person.

supply chain, from barley growing to drinking the beer in the pub.

The rise in greenhouse gases is thought

Around 15 to 20% of the carbon footprint

to result in net increase in average

is due to the Brewing Process itself,

temperature from 13.70C in 1900 to 15.00C

the rest comes from the raw materials,

in 2020, a net increase of 1.30C; any

packaging, and trade.

increase above 1.50C (Paris Agreement 2016) results irreversible damage to the

While a lot of breweries want to work

planet.

out the carbon footprint of their beer, it is important that they all cover the same

The lifestyle we lead and choices we

Carbon footprint for a variety of food & beverages CO2e per 100 grams of food or beverage Bottle of wine cheddar cheese Bottled Beer Pint of milk Imported bananas black coffee Bottle of mineral water

brewersjournal.info

Locally grown apple Boiled water in a kettle 0

50

100

150

200

The CO2e values are calculated from “How Bad are Bananas by Mike Berners-Lee 1

JULY~AUGUST 2021

|

43


FOCUS ENVIRONMENT

Comparing CO2e studies needs common methods

Above: The CO2e values are summarised in the presentation give to the Brewers Company by William Calvert4

factors. If a carbon footprint is to have any value it is necessary to use the same criteria so that they are meaningful and the results comparable. Stroud Brewery in Gloucestershire UK in partnership with specialist environmental consultants are preparing a Carbon Footprint Calculator which will be available to all breweries and hopefully will receive the support and endorsement of the Industry associations to make working out your carbon footprint much cheaper and simpler. The chart above shows published carbon footprint data from different brewers, and

There is a varying carbon footprint of draft beer, in can and in bottle

although it is not expect to be identical, it would expected to have a high degree of correlation between the results.

REFERENCES & CITATIONS

Calculating the beer’s carbon footprint

1. “How Bad are Bananas” by Mike

Reflections on the journey to a ‘Net Zero’

is just the beginning of the journey. As

Berners-Lee 1Mike Berners-Lee

Gin”- https://youtu.be/x9JAK2ZNurY

well as targeting the reduction of carbon

published by Profile Book Rev 2020

3. Tim O’Rourke “Towards zero carbon

emissions it will drive down production

2. Environmental Conference 22nd March

– saving the planet one grain at a time”

costs and drive investment decisions.

2021 jointly organised by the (BFBi)

Brewers Journal June 2020

Doing nothing is not an option; our

Brewing & Beverage Industries Business

4. William Calvert “Sustainability issues for

customers and investors will expect us

& the Southern Section of Institute of

smaller breweries” May 2021 presented to

to take a responsible approach to the

Brewing and Distilling.

the Brewers Company

environment and we expect to see the

➢Malt: Embedded sustainability to

carbon footprint information appearing

protect your brand- https://youtu.be/

on the package, which will drive

cvDPY5FO3Mw

consumers purchasing decisions.

➢Brilliant Beer Company: Road to Zero

Carbon- https://youtu.be/4eeuRLoVg2g ➢Good Business- “Hero to Zero’ –

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BREWERS JOURNAL


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12/02/2021 16:32:08


SOLAR POWERED BEER BREWERS ARE INCREASINGLY LOOKING TO RENEWABLE ENERGY TO POWER THEIR OPERATIONS AND MEET THEIR SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS. HERE ED LENNON, THE COMMERCIAL MANAGER OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPANY CLEANEARTH, OUTLINES THE COMMERCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS THAT MAKE SOLAR POWER SUCH A GOOD FIT FOR UK BREWERIES.

T

The UK emitted around

past 12 months, previous years were a

400 million tonnes of

lot more volatile and the trend has been

greenhouse gases last year.

steadily upwards – rising by 30% over the

While that was down by a

last five years and more than 50% over

half from 1990, we still have

the last decade.

a long way to go before we reach net zero.

SHARED VALUES

The good news is that what’s good for the climate can also be good for your

The move to renewables in the brewing

bottom line. “Solar and wind are by far

industry is not, however, driven only

the cheapest sources of power today,”

by the commercial argument or the

says Ed Lennon. “And the gap between

government’s emissions targets.

renewables and fossil fuels just keeps

It’s also motivated by the respect that

getting wider.”

brewers hold for the natural environment that provides their essential ingredients,

That means that businesses can, at the

and by the recognition that a sustainable

very least, buy their electricity from a

future relies on our responsible

low-carbon supplier without the kind of

stewardship of the environment.

premiums that sustainability pioneers used to have to pay.

Ed Lennon’s take on this is: “Most

It also means that self-generation is a

breweries take pride in the provenance

viable option for far more businesses,

of their ingredients and the naturalness

with payback periods down to as little

of their products. And that’s certainly

as three years and massive cost savings

a factor in the beers I choose to drink.

over the 25-year life of the system.

Knowing the ‘craft’ that goes into making

“The cost of solar generation has come

a craft beer just adds to the pleasure.”

down 80% in the last decade,” says Ed. “As a result, our clients are now paying

If you work with a product that’s so tied

as little as one third of what their power

to the land and to nature, you’re unlikely

company was charging them.”

to be indifferent to how they are treated.

Lower cost, lower risk

And climate change is already affecting how we grow and harvest those natural

According to the Department for

resources.

Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy*, UK manufacturers pay an average of 10p

As Ed reminds us, “it may feel like we’ve

per kilowatt hour (kWh) for their electricity

been talking about it forever, but the

– with all but the very largest paying 11p

reality is that the climate emergency has

to 14p.

barely started. So it’s great to see UK

By contrast, CleanEarth have installed

breweries of all sizes stepping up and

solar PV systems in recent months that

investing in renewables.”

are generating for as little as 3.6p per kWh. Ludlow Brewing Company is one

DIRECT TO CONSUMER

such example. With the onset of the covid pandemic,

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But the headline unit cost is not the most

many breweries had to adapt their

important thing. As Ed points out, “the key

business model to survive. For the likes

is that the price is effectively fixed at this

of Verdant Brewery (see below), this

low rate for the next 25 years! That takes

meant moving away from cask beer – at

a big chunk of risk out of your financial

least for the short to medium term – and

planning, because you don’t have to

focusing on canning beers that could be

factor in price inflation and volatility.”

sold direct to consumers, or via bottle

While prices have been fairly flat for the

shops and online suppliers.

BREWERS JOURNAL


CASE STUDY: VERDANT BREWING u System size: 67 kWp u Number of panels: 200 The installation of canning lines,

u Annual output: 70,000 kWh

while crucial to keeping the business

u Annual carbon saving: 18 tonnes

running, has increased the electricity

Founded in 2014 by directors James Heffron and Adam Robertson, Verdant have

consumption of the breweries, placing

gone on to establish themselves as one of the UKs leading craft breweries with

more importance on self-generation

their distinctly “hop” focused, hazy IPA style and distinctive branding.

through on-site renewables.

From humble beginnings in James’s kitchen, via a £200 a month shipping container, Verdant now find themselves proud occupants of a 1,500m2 premises in

KEY QUESTIONS

Penryn, just down the road from their previous base.

For any business that’s considering solar,

Solar power would form a key aspect of the brief when Verdant were specifying

or wind power (CleanEarth do both) there

the re-fit, and it gave the Falmouth-based brewers a fantastic opportunity to har-

are a few key factors that need to be

ness abundant solar resources from their southernly location.

considered.

Having identified the new brewery’s location, Verdant embarked on a complete refurbishment of the site, including a completely bespoke 35 hectolitre brew kit. At

Geographical location and the size and

the same time, they issued a tender for the installation of a solar PV system on the

type of building are fundamental. As Ed

building’s roof.

Lennon explains, “Probably 90 per cent of UK breweries are of a size that works

CleanEarth’s Ed Lennon recalls, “It was a great project to pitch for, as the refurb

for roof-mounted solar. Only the very

called for a strong visual style that the solar PV needed to complement.”

biggest need to look at wind turbines as

The logistics were also demanding, as the solar installation needed to dovetail

an option. And for solar, the further south

with the main refurbishment project plan. This required detailed liaison with the

you are, the more sunshine you get.”

various on-site contractors, and a very tight timeframe – operational demands that CleanEarth were very familiar with.

Another consideration is the electricity usage profile. “You want to size the

“Ed and the rest of the CleanEarth team clearly grasped the logistical complexities

solar array to maximise the amount of

of the project,” says James. “It was reassuring for us to know they had the experi-

generation that’s consumed on-site,”

ence and the can-do attitude that the job demanded.”

says Ed. “So we analyse the consumption profile over time and size the system to

Even once the installation is finished the job is never complete. CleanEarth have

optimise the commercial returns.”

taken on the daily monitoring and maintenance of the system to maximise output and minimise any system downtime. And in order to make the most of every single

Ownership of the brewery building can

“drop” of electricity, CleanEarth are now working with Verdant to incorporate a solar

also be an issue, as a freeholder won’t

diverter that will use excess solar generation at the weekend to heat water for

need to negotiate with their landlord to

brewing.

get the installation approved. But this doesn’t have to be a stumbling block for leaseholders, as more commercial landlords wake up to the advantages of renewable generation for their tenants. Ed Lennon sums things up: “There are a number of variables that make a project feasible or not, but we can arrive pretty quickly at a confident projection. We’ve done several hundred commercial installations, so we’re familiar with all the issues – and we’ve learned how to overcome some interesting challenges!” * Source: BEIS 25 March 2021: Prices of fuels purchased by manufacturing industry in Great Britain

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47


P R E M I U M

ALCOHOL FREE MALT EXTRACT Brewing Innovation from Muntons


GOING GREEN AT SPRINGWELL IN OPENING ITS IMPRESSIVE NEW SPRINGWELL FACILITY, NORTH BREWING CO HAS ENSURED IT REDUCES ITS CARBON FOOTPRINT AND ENERGY BILLS WITH THE INSTALLATION OF A FLEET OF SOLAR PANELS AND ALSO A RAPID CHARGER FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES.

L

eeds-based brewery North

which will generate an estimated 36,700

Brewing Co has partnered

KW annually. This equates to an average

with Planet-U Energy to help

annual saving of around £6,653 per year,

reduce its carbon footprint

or a ROI of less than 5 years.

and energy bills at its brand

new Springwell headquarters.

The renewables firm also provided a 22kW EV rapid charger installation which

To ensure its new headquarters operates

will charge vehicles on site in around one

as sustainably as possible, North

to two hours.

Brewing Co commissioned renewable energy specialist Planet-U Energy,

During the lifespan of the renewable

based at Leeds’s East Parade, to provide

technology, it is estimated it will generate

a range of sustainable technology

total savings of more than £160,000

services, including renewable energy

compared to traditional energy sources.

procurement, EV Charger and Solar PV installations.

Tom Thurling, Head of Renewable Engineering at Planet-U Energy, explains:

brewersjournal.info

These solutions form part of North

“It has been great to deliver this project

Brewing Co’s wider sustainability strategy

at Springwell for North Brewing Co and

at Springwell, with other initiatives

our partnership is a fantastic example of

implemented including sustainable

how renewable energy procurement and

sourcing of merchandise and workwear,

energy saving technology can benefit

new operating procedures placing

breweries.

recycling at the heart of the brewery’s

“By moving away from traditional sources

operations and encouraging green

of energy, North Brewing Co will save

modes of transport through the firm’s

money on their electricity bills, whilst also

cycle to work scheme.

becoming more energy efficient.”

Following a full site energy audit, Planet-

He adds: “Despite the additional

U’s engineers provided the installation of

challenges of completing the

104 solar panels to the site’s roof space,

installations during Covid restrictions, we

JULY~AUGUST 2021

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49


were able to complete all of our works on time whilst the brewery remained operational in anticipation of its opening. “This has been a flagship project for us and we hope it will be the first of many for us in the brewing industry.” Comment, John Gyngell, co-founder of North Brewing Co, says: “Adding a renewable energy solution at Springwell was an easy decision for us to make, since we were looking to become more sustainable in our operations as well as reducing our energy costs. “It has been an exciting time for us, with so much activity taking place despite the pandemic and we’ve adapted to not only keep the business running but growing as well. With our move to Springwell,

move the business forward in line with

For businesses interested in making the

we also wanted to step back and look at

the Government’s 2030 decarbonisation

transition to renewable energy, Planet-U

how we could do things more sustainably

targets.

Energy has strategic partnerships with

while still making progress.”

“Planet-U Energy has helped make this

multiple large investment organisations

a seamless process, providing fantastic

and lenders which can provide

He adds: “The transition to Solar PV and

consultation and customer service

customers with funding options.

EV charging is a great move for us, it will

throughout both the energy audit and

help reduce our carbon footprint and

installation process.”

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BREWERS JOURNAL


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BREWING BEER WITH PURPOSE WE FIRST FEATURED MCCOLL’S BREWERY, A THEN FLEDGLING OUTFIT, BACK AT THE START OF 2017. FOUR YEARS ON, WE SPEAK TO DANNY MCCOLL, THE FOUNDER OF MCCOLL’S BREWERY IN BISHOP AUCKLAND ABOUT NAVIGATING THE CHALLENGES OF THE PANDEMIC, EXPANDING THE TEAM WITH A NEW HEAD BREWER AND HOW RECENT RELEASES SUCH AS ‘LET’S EAT PIES AND TALK ABOUT MEN’S MENTAL HEALTH’ HELP RAISE MONEY FOR LOCAL CAUSES AS WELL.

M

aking great beer that

Not only that, they’ve managed

people enjoy is the

to navigate the challenges of the

goal of any brewer.

pandemic, expand the team with a new

Whether that’s a

head brewer and with recent releases

clean, crisp lager or a

such as ‘Let’s eat pies and talk about

rich, decadent stout. Producing beers

men’s mental health’, they’re making

that make people happy is what it’s all

beers that helps raise money for local

about, isn’t it?

causes as well.

But not every brewer follows the tried and tested path when it comes to the

But before moving on to the buoyant,

beers they create.

positive start they’ve made to 2021, let’s take a step back and look at the anxious,

So if you’re interested in a Beetroot

nervous times that greeted so many

Biere de Garde, a Rhubarb Hefeweizen

breweries little more than a year ago.

or a Bitter with the addition of white and black pepper, then come right this way.

For Danny, the pandemic was a shock to

Not only that but the bitter in question

the system but one that they overcame

supports a fantastic cause, too.

and in doing so, improved as a brewery, too.

Way back at the beginning of 2017 we

“Initially, we were just in a blind panic,”

featured an article in this very magazine

he recalls.

designed to share words of wisdom with those planning to open up their own

“So we took a step back to reassess

brewery.

things. It’s basically an overused word

Unlike other entries in the series, this

but we pivoted, literally overnight, to

time we spoke to a brewer that was

online sales. But we were lucky, in that

going through the imminent opening of

we had multiple canning runs booked in

their own operation.

before the pandemic struck.” Like many of their peers, that meant

Following a good few years rising

working more frequently with couriers,

through the ranks of a brewery in nearby

dealing with online interactions and

Cumbria, Danny McColl would set

doing what was needed to stay afloat.

out on his own with the launch of the eponymous McColl’s Brewery.

And through the various changes in lockdown restrictions we’ve all

Located in Bishop Auckland, a market

experienced in the last year, McColl has

town in County Durham, Danny told us

seen his brewery mature. In doing so,

how he was enamoured by a dreamy,

he knew the time had come to push on

idyllic mindset of hops, brand design

further by bringing in and out-and-out

and happy punters supping the

head brewer to take it to the next level.

brewery’s wares. And more than four years on, McColl’s

“For me, the final piece of the jigsaw

Brewery has made a name for itself by

was bringing Si (Whittington) to ease my

brewing beers defined by drinkability,

physical burden,” he says. “The flip side

balance and nuance.

of that coin is that the quality of beer has gone through the roof as well.”

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MEET THE BREWER brewersjournal.info

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MEET THE BREWER McCOLL’S BREWERY Simon Whittington joined McColl’s after a

been something McColl describes as a

It’s a beer designed to raise funds for

spell as head brewer at Durham Brewery,

“breath of fresh air”.

Men’s Pie Club, who describe themselves as a group all about local guys, making

with the majority of his career prior to this

pies in Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

at Camerons Brewery in Hartlepool.

He explains: “He’s not just a great

He started as a lab technician at

sounding board, but he has experience

Camerons, before moving into

working at bigger businesses. He

McColl explains: ”They are a social

production and packaging, and then

understands the whole mechanics of

enterprise that basically provides a space

leading the development of nano-

beer production, tank management and

for blokes from Newcastle, who find

brewery Tooth & Claw Brewing.

also a level head with the financial side of

themselves either socially isolated, or just

the business, too.

losing that sense of belonging within that community.

In joining McColl’s, he plans break down the current core and seasonal ranges and

“So when it comes to formulating new

dive into the technical side of each beer.

recipes, we can run through ideas

“The space doesn’t offer therapy, or

knowing they’ve already been costed

anything. They simply just bake pies,

up. Honestly, I cannot speak highly

and have a bit of banter and craic. And

Speaking at the time, he said: “With QA at the forefront, we are looking at the way

if they want to open up and discuss

we brew and ferment depending on the

personal matters, they can, but there’s no

final packaging method.

pressure.

“We’re focusing on water, grist bills,

“Beyond that, they hopefully a nice time,

hop usage and yeasts, not only as raw

meet some friends, learn a skill, and start

ingredients but how we use and process

to find themselves part of the community

them. “There are lots of controls and background stuff that has already been identified and once in place will elevate our beer to the next level. “We’re fortunate to have really good equipment and a shared passion for beer, now it’s time to work on the amazing foundations that Danny has laid and get stuck into the nitty-gritty.” For McColl, the addition of someone like Whttington was “probably on the cards

We put our heads together and thought, you know, what if we don’t do something now, we will regret it,” Danny McColl, McColl’s Brewery

that can help with any problems that they have. It’s as simple as that.” McColl’s Brewery has been working with the enterprise, which is part of Food Nation, for some time but the ongoing impact of the pandemic made McColl want to do more to help their cause. And thankfully, support that was also on hand from a wealth of brewing industry partners, too. “We’ve supplied their restaurants over the previous three years and had been working out ways to develop the relationship, then the pandemic stuck,”

for too long”.

he recalls. “I knew before the the pandemic that I With that, the brewery founder began to

had hit my limit. The working day wasn’t long enough for me to do everything,”

enough of his his brewing experience. His

discuss and dwell on the ways the winter

he says. “And with that, problems would

maturity, his level of dedication and kinda

of 2020, and the sense of social isolation

happen, and quality would kind of reach

work ethic is brilliant.”

that many people might feel as a result.

While there are a wealth of professional

He explains: “We put our heads together

synergies between Danny and Simon,

and thought, you know, what if we don’t

Conversations with Whittington would

another important shared bond is the

do something now, we will regret it. So

start a little before Christmas 2020.

type of beers they both enjoy drinking

we knew something positive needed to

McColl would lean on him for some

and brewing, too. This means beers that

come from this.”

advice and to outline his plans to bring

are often influenced by Belgian brewing,

someone on board. Several months

beers that are nuanced, delicate and

And that manifested itself in ‘Let’s eat pies

down the line, it just so happened that

respectful to style.

and talk about men’s mental health’, a

a plateau. My knowledge was maxed out.”

3.6% black and white pepper Bitter.

Whittington was looking for a fresh start and as a result, the “timing was perfect”. Now, several months into the role, he’s

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

And a beer McColl’s Brewery has recent produced is ‘Let’s eat pies and talk about

“It literally got turned around in about

men’s mental health’.

four weeks. But it wouldn’t have been

BREWERS JOURNAL


McCOLL’S BREWERY MEET THE BREWER possible without the help of Them

to pieces within the brewery. This ranged

And for someone we featured for the first

That Can, Oasthouse, CS Labels, Crisp

beer design and recipe development

time when they were just starting out,

Maltings and Durham Box,” he says. “They

to costings, the direction we’re going,

it’s only right we end by finding out what

pulled out all the stops, with £1 of each

quality assurance, cleaning regimes, and

advice they now have for others.

can going to support Men’s Pie Club.”

everything in between,” he says. “This sounds genuinely obvious but do

The beer has just raised £2,500 from can sales online and the beer has recently

Initial temptation to use a grant from

things right. From the go you’re going to

launched on cask, too.

Durham County Council on a canning

make mistakes and it’s important to learn

line has instead been invested in the

from them. I know I do,” he explains.

McColl adds: “It’s a 3.6%. Bitter but with a

“fundamentals” of the brewery. McColl adds: “Don’t try and force things

sprinkling of black and white pepper in it. It’s such a simple beer. But that little

He says: “We thought what’s the point of

to happen because silly errors will be

elevation of flavour with black and white

getting a canning machine, and chucking

made. I think I’ve learned the hard way on

pepper acts as a sprinkling of magic on

loads of beer out there if even more

occasions but what’s so important is you

there.”

fundamental stuff isn’t in place. So we’ve

do all you can to ensure you put out a

replaced all our glycol chilling unit.

reliable, consistent product.”

In addition to producing important beers such as those, his focus going forward

“We’re also getting a brand-new system

is to work with his new head brewer

that can control all the FVs within an

to ensure the beers McColl’s Brewery

inch of their life. That and much more

create are the best they can be.

will mean we’re in control of our process more than ever before. It will take time

“From a business perspective, with Si

but we want to do things properly.”

joining, everything is being critically torn

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55


INSIGHT FUNDING

HOW TO LEVERAGE YOUR BRAND TO SECURE FUNDING THE END GOAL WITH IP DUE DILIGENCE IS TO INSTIL CONFIDENCE AND BUILD TRUST WITH A POTENTIAL INVESTOR. WHILE INVESTORS ARE PREPARED TO TAKE ON VARYING DEGREES OF RISK, SMES ACROSS THE BREWING INDUSTRY AND BEYOND WILL ALWAYS NEED TO SHOW AN IP APPROACH THAT DOESN’T SIGNAL ALARM BELLS, EXPLAINS CHRIS BAUME, TRADE MARK SPECIALIST AT LEADING EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FIRM, POTTER CLARKSON.

I

n the face of the economic fall-out

guide, outlining the five key essential

from the pandemic, innovation is

IP ingredients they will need to put

vital. Being able to turn good ideas

themselves in the strongest IP position to

into a commercial success - at

attract and secure funding.

scale - can have a transformational

impact on the wider economy.

Clear Ownership: This is the number one deal breaker. Clarity is everything.

Innovators have been front and centre

Make sure there are no grey areas

in finding alternative ways to do things

on ownership of IP. Any grey areas

during the pandemic, including the way

surrounding who ‘owns’ IP will signal

we purchase, consume and receive

alarm bells for a potential investor.

goods. The brewing sector has been no

Innovation, especially in start-ups, can

exception to the businesses forced to

occur before commercial relationships

‘pivot’ and find new ways to get their

and business processes have been

products to market.

formally defined, which can make determining IP ownership less clear-cut.

Ambitious companies with new ideas

This can be prevented by identifying

will also play an essential role in the

and documenting ownership from the

economic recovery. However, even the

outset. Where appropriate, the necessary

most ground-breaking of innovation

assignments should be signed and

requires investment to become a viable

registered.

market proposition. Effective Innovation Capture: Establishing a successful brand requires

Understanding what IP your business

resources and the road to securing

may have and what you might be able to

funding is not always straightforward or

protect is not always obvious. It is always

clear, with various hurdles to overcome

worth seeking professional advice early

before winning the trust and backing of

on to determine which IP rights you might

investors.

be able to secure.

It’s also a competitive arena and in these uncertain times, investors will apply

Robust procedures also play a big part

an even more rigorous approach to

in creating the right culture for effective

identifying the risks and opportunities

innovation capture. Create an IP register

with each investment target.

and keep it up to date monthly so that opportunities are not overlooked. Do not

Intellectual property alone will not likely

underestimate the importance of robust

secure funding, but a weak IP position

processes and procedures.

could significantly impact on valuation

56

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

- by as much as 70% - or even see an

Sound Strategy: IP is not a tick box static

investor walk away altogether. What’s

exercise. It should evolve in line with your

more, for return-hungry investors,

commercial priorities - and help you to

new research shows that SMEs with

deliver against them.

intellectual property rights generate

Put yourself in an investor’s shoes - they

68% higher revenues per employee than

are focused on whether you can provide

those who don’t.

them with a return on their investment.

To help ambitious, high growth SMEs

They are looking for clarity in your

tackle the challenge, Potter Clarkson

approach - a strategically sound business

has produced the IP Blueprint for Growth

plan, where it is easy to see how the IP

BREWERS JOURNAL


rights will help to achieve the commercial

Good Timing: Knowing when to act is

objectives. These objectives will evolve,

critical to a sound IP approach. Knowing

and the IP strategy requires regular

what steps to take and when to take

review to remain fit for purpose.

them can have a critical impact on the strength of your IP position.

Market Awareness: A growing business can be all-consuming, but a sound

For example, the rules for registered

IP approach takes into consideration

designs can differ from country to

the wider marketplace in which your

country and therefore understanding

business is operating and any potential

where your markets and competitors are

third-party rights.

located can influence the timings in your

Investors will ask you what trade mark

registered design filing strategy.

availability searching you have done, and the most important thing is to

Put simply, those businesses who are

demonstrate that you’ve given this due

clear on these five areas will reduce

consideration and have a sound strategy

the chances of IP being the reason an

in place.

investor walks away.

Extensive searches and legal opinions

Ultimately, the end goal with IP due

are usually not appropriate for early-

diligence is to instil confidence and build

stage companies. Instead, consider what

trust with a potential investor. While

you can do to mitigate future risk, for

investors are prepared to take on varying

example, maintaining a watch for the

degrees of risk, SMEs across the brewing

publication of competitors’ patents and

industry and beyond will always need to

trade marks, as well as undertaking the

show an IP approach that doesn’t signal

necessary clearance searches for any

alarm bells.

proposed brands and trade marks.

FUNDING

FUNDING INSIGHT

PakTech has Repurposed over a Half Billion Containers into Packaging Handles

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CROSSING CONTINENTS D’OUDE MAALDERIJ

THE STORY OF BREWERY D’OUDE MAALDERIJ THE D’OUDE MAALDERIJ BREWERY WAS FOUNDED IN 2011 IN KOOLSKAMP AND IT HAS ACHIEVED A GREAT DEAL IN THE YEARS SINCE. HERE, PAUL DAVIES, THE FOUNDER OF ALEHUNTERS BREWERY TOURS, CHARTS THE STORY OF ITS FOUNDER JEF PIRENS.

B

rouwer met een bizar

An unfiltered 8% bier bruin with wheat

kantje, brouwer ‘met een

malt and candi sugar for a sturdy body,

hoek af’. Brewer with a

the beer remains a top seller for the

bizarre side, a brewer

brewery.

‘on the edge’. So said an

Jef continued to brew further batches

article in De Zytholoog magazine about

of the beer at Brouwerij Maenhout in

D’Oude Maalderij in Izegem recently.

Meulebeke and was rewarded with 8th place in the consumer trophy at Zythos

The article in question recognises the

Bier Festival.

achievement of brewer Jef ‘Hiq’ Pirens being made a knight of the mashing

Now, the nickname ‘Hiq’. No, it doesn’t

paddle at last year’s Belgian Beer

relate to an insatiable thirst for dark beer,

Weekend, the feast of Gambrinus and

although this isn’t too far from the truth.

Sint-Arnoldus.

Apparently this is an old nickname

What is amazing is that this accolade

given when he was younger and

was awarded a mere eight years after

has its foundations in Pinball and the

releasing his first beer Qantelaar in

Transformers comic series. D.O.M.

September 2012.

Brewery continued to develop slowly but steadily and ‘Hiq’ hosted numerous beer

So the rise of this wonderful craft

tasting evenings, pushing the reputation

brewery has been rapid indeed, but its

of his beer.

beginnings go back even further to 2001 when a 18-years-old Jef Pirens brewed a

He also developed a slogan for his beer

beer at KIHO College in Gent for his end

‘Leer Proeven, Durf Genieten or Learn to

of school project.

Taste, Dare to Enjoy’.

Displaying his ‘edgy’ credentials, his

Possibly a swipe at the Jupiler generation

Geslacht beer was financed by selling

perhaps? The English version is ‘Dare to

it through his local youth club, Andere

Taste, Learn to Enjoy’, an unintentional

Geslacht – of which he was also

volte-face but one that works as the

President!

interplay can be switched around.

Born in Hasselt, young Jef grew up in and

D.O.M. Brewery were also participating

around Brugge. His dedication to fine

in beer festivals, Zythos, Poperinge,

beer owes itself in parts to discovering

Koekelare but the first big festival

new beers at Daisy Claeys’ Brugs Beertje

featured a stand at the 2013 edition of

with friends. From there his interest in

BAB in Brugge due to a last minute

beer became much more serious, a

cancellation by Domis Ignis.

passion in fact.

Around this time, two further beers were launched – Redenaar at the 7th Brugs

Following a period of home brewing Jef

Bierfestival, a 6.5% bier blond and Hop

finally released his first batch of Qantelaar

The Brewer, another 6.5% beer but this

(based on Kantelen the word for tilting,

one being an IPA.

how one gets after a couple of drinks)

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

beer in 2012 and took on the name

Beers were being produced by Jef at

D’Oude Maalderij (D.O.M. Brouwerij) from

friends’ breweries, namely ‘t Gaverhopke,

the former old millhouse in Koolskamp

Gulden Spoor, Alvinne, De Leite plus

where the home brewed beer was

he undertook a short brewing course at

produced.

Glenn Alvinne’s brewery.

BREWERS JOURNAL


The next development would be the trio of dark beers, Deo a 4.8% porter, Optimo an 8% smoked stout and Maximo an 11.5% imperial stout. Borne out by Jef’s love for dark beers, the message was to educate drinkers that not all dark beers taste like Guinness (a Hiq guilty pleasure). This trio of beers, whose initials spelled out the D.O.M. Brewrey were sold in unique triangle packs so that all 3 could be tasted, compared and appreciated. It was 2015 and D.O.M. Brewery was gaining momentum. A former flower shop became available in Izegem and Jef worked day and night from August of that year to install

area and lower pressure. All bottles are

It’s little wonder that Ratebeer has voted

water and waste supplies and open his

filled under Jef’s expert eye and the

the café Belgian’s best brewpub for three

taproom.

brewhouse conditions are perfect for

consecutive years! I can personally vouch

Opening just before his 34th birthday,

bottle conditioning with no added sugar

for Liesbet’s cookies made with spent

the taproom was furnished like those

required.

grain – hot from the oven and delicious. Another new direction brought a barrel-

cafes from a bygone era with plenty of memorabilia, both beer-related and

The brewhouse launched in September

aged series of beers with an oak aged

otherwise from Jef’s collection of antique

2016, a year after the bier café opened,

Qantelaar with Makers Mark and Wild

curiosities.

continuing a long-standing brewing

Turkey bourbon barrels.

Both D.O.M. beers and guests were

heritage in Izegem.

Putting the same focus on quality as with

offered alongside Jef’s collection of

Local fresh tapwater is used for all the

his other beers, Jef treats the addition of

approximately 2.800 different vintage

beers, Belgian hops and sometimes

oak as a 5th ingredient in these beers.

beers.

herbs are added when necessary. On

Local snacks were showcased alongside

average D.O.M. Brewery produces 40

At the end of the year sees the annual

brews a year.

release of Dominator’s Potion with Martinique rum and Blair Athol whisky

Thai food from Kai Fa and a new beer,

flavouring a 12% Maximo over a year.

Farang (stranger) was produced in

With a new brewery began a period of

collaboration with them – an 8% Belgian

experimentation. The Homo Beerectus

Tripel made with galanga.

project with Brecht Kindt aimed to launch

However, Jef regards his Sea Monster

The bar is a delight with plenty of beer-

a new beer every 10 weeks, with 30 new

series of beers as his showpiece. Inspired

related heritage including old signs,

beers produced over 6 years. However,

over games of Magic, The Gathering,

religious artifacts, antique furniture while

the project came to a sudden end with

these beers take their time to develop

outside old dodgem cars and bikes

the untimely passing of Brecht in April

and are only released into bottle when

compete with a (very) old campervan.

2019.

they are ready. At 14% abv Leviathan,

The next project was to remove the old

The beers were very popular and Eager

Kraken, Chtulhu, Scylla, Lorelei and

greenhouses and build a new building to

Eagle became a regular beer, renamed

Charybdis are beers to be both

house the new D.O.M. brewery, pieced

Stoffoasje Tripel, 8% abv.

respected and appreciated on special

together by Jef from many different

Jef had decided that he needed a Tripel

occasions.

parts of brewing kit – a true Frankenstein

in his range and this sturdy beer has

creation and inspiring the brewhouse

become his second best seller.

Which brings us to the present. Being knighted is an honour not lost on ‘Hiq’

name ‘Frankie’. The only new piece of kit In May of the same year saw the opening

Pirens. Nominated as deserving brewers

of The Mash eetcafe on the site with Jef’s

who make an important contribution to

Four of the lager tanks and the bottling

girlfriend Liesbet Schoonvliet.

Belgian beer its a reward for him being

plant are from Alvinne, the pump from

Focussing on tasty Belgian

creative and progressive with his beers,

Van Honsebrouck, the yeast tanks are

homecooking, you can create your

and not being afraid to experiment.

old farmers’ milk tanks and the labelling

own meal from choosing a Stoemp

He feels that there is ‘no greater honour

machine is from Fort Lapin.

and a meat dish or go for a Mini Mash

in the brewing world’ and you can see

The fermenters are horizontal which

or Monster Mash, depending on how

his medallion and framed charter on

is preferred due to the larger surface

hungry you are.

the wall in The Mash. So this honour

was the malt mill.


CROSSING CONTINENTS D’OUDE MAALDERIJ Finally – a date for the diary. On the 9th October 2021 D’Oude Maalderij will turn 10 years old and to celebrate The Mash will be hosting a party with a new D.O.M. beer launched every hour. This promises to be a major event with many guests on hand to assist in hosting the beers with stories, etc. Liesbet will be on hand to supply tasty beer food throughout the party of course – just in case. As a footnote Jef feels that his story has been one of steady momentum, not rushing ahead too quickly but making steady progress from small, local festivals up to the bigger ones and on to international events, spreading the name of this unique part of West Flanders.

has opened new doors. D.O.M. Brewery

important that everyone has fun making

was selected as one of eight brewers

the beers and has the opportunity

for the Barrel Boutique of Brouwerij Het

to learn from one another. Equally

To get a taste for what is happening in

Anker in Mechelen and launched at the

important is that the beers are financially

Izegem go and take a look for yourself

Molenberg Fest.

successful as this has been a very hard

and have a chat with Jef, sample his

year for local breweries.

beers and enjoy Liesbet’s cooking. You won’t be disappointed.

Fortunately five further barrels of beer remain at the brewery for an additional

The project is also a statement to

year’s ageing.

advertise the fact that these producers

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

are still around and continuing to make D.O.M. beers were also entered into

excellent beers. Half of these beers will

Paul Davies is the founder of AleHunters

their first international beer competition

be available as a 1,000-only limited-

and hosts beer tours and events in London

and picked up an impressive nine silver

edition 6 pack. To whet the appetite even

and Belgium. For more info, visit www.

and bronze medals at the London Beer

further, the remainder of the beer will be

alehunters.co.uk

Competition.

barrel aged and available at a later date.

In typical Hiq style a lockdown beer

On another note the old campervan has

‘Antibirus’ was also launched this year

gone – sold – but Jef has added some

plus a butternut squash Hallow’een beer.

classic cars to adorn the outside of the

Further projects include a low alcohol

brewery.

tafelbier though an even more exciting development is underway. Part of Jef’s Brewmance series of collaborations, the Mash of the Titans promises to be one of the most exciting project yet. A series of six barley wines will be produced in collaboration with six equally creative Belgium brewers. These breweries are Brasserie Minne in Wallonie, Brouwerij ‘t Verzet in Anzegem, ‘t Hofbrouwerijke in Beerzel, Brouwerij Alvinne in Zwevegem, Brouwerij Totem in Evergem and Brasserie Atrium, also in Wallonie. Apart from being such a creative exercise, Jef feels that it is

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BREWERS JOURNAL


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WAKE YOUR CUSTOMERS UP TO A NEW DAY EVOLUTION OR REVOLUTION, IT’S TIME TO REFRESH AND RECOVER YOUR BEER THROUGH REBRANDING. VELO MITROVICH REPORTS

I

t was the question everyone was afraid to ask last year: how many breweries were going to close? In the States, 45 percent was the believed number, which was

close to the same number being mooted around here. While some did sadly shut, the number was nowhere near as high as was expected and many that did closed were already suffering before Covid. The opportunities you took advantage of during last year’s survival-mode shouldn’t be abandoned but instead, now

Richard Horwell of Brand Relations

incorporated into your business plan. It’s not a time to be safe, but to take a risk, to not produce six styles of beer that

While many of us were positive the

everyone is producing, but something

corona virus would disappear by summer

instead that will make you stand out.

and there would be a quick return to

BRANDING

normal, that never happened, and a

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To expand on this forward thinking,

Covid summer, led into a Covid autumn,

consider your branding. As CODO Design

winter and spring.

asks, is it time for a refresh or a rebrand;

But, finally a light can be seen at the

an evolution or a revolution?

end of the tunnel. One of the coldest springs in decades has ended, pubs have

Do you need just a little tweak to get rid

reopened, and breweries are ramping-up

of a perception of brand staleness, or

production.

do you need a rebrand due to outdated thinking, e.g. New Orleans’ Dixie Brewing

As this issue goes to print, it appears

Company changing its name last year to

that tough travel restrictions will be

Faubourg, or to reflect new ownership, or

remaining in place through summer.

some other major change?

People who would have been doing their beer drinking in Spain, Greece or

The Covid-19 pandemic was worldwide

France, will be doing it here in the UK.

event that none of us were expecting,

It is back to being a good time to being

like looking up and seeing a black swan

a local brewer. But, if there has been

flying across the sky.

one thing we have all learned, from

When lockdown started last April, people

the biggest to the smallest brewer, the

started panic-buying toilet paper, pasta

days of centering sales along only one

and flour – an odd combination in the

distribution method are over.

best of times. Like how you’re changed how you’re Some countries like South Africa flat-out

doing business, consumers have

banned alcohol sales – prompting a

changed how they enjoy beer.

massive buy of pineapples used to make

With pubs and taprooms closed, beer

homemade hooch – others limited the

fans didn’t switch beverage, they just

hours alcohol could be sold, while here

switched how they consumed it. Instead

in the UK pubs, taprooms, tasting rooms,

of going to pubs, they drank at home.

restaurants and clubs were all closed.

Considering the state of many pubs and

BREWERS JOURNAL


BRANDING INSIGHT

prices they charge, after consumers

Consignia. What does the Royal Mail do?

have become used to just adding beer to

It handles mail. What does Consignia

their online food shopping list, will they

do? Nobody knew and after a year, it

want to go back? How will your branding

rebranded its rebrand back to Royal Mail.

purchase is based on the branding; it’s why a consumer will pick your

reflect this?

REBRAND FOR NEW TIMES

Camden Town Brewery’s rebrand in 2016 was considered a success

Camden Town Brewery’s new identity

product over their regular choice or your

in 2016 was a huge success; San

competition.”

Francisco’s Anchor Brewing’s major Let’s first go over a few definitions so we

rebrand this year has been seen by most

What Horwell cautions is that you do not

are all singing off the same hymn sheet.

as a huge failure.

confuse design with branding. “Design is

Your brand is your customer’s perception

When your PR and marketing team have

what goes on your can’s label, branding

of your brewery, including your products

to go into overdrive to explain and justify

is the message you want to give your

and your culture. It’s your total package,

your rebranding, you know you’ve taken

target consumer – and that message

defining who you are and what makes

the wrong approach.

should be ‘BUY ME’,” he says.

you different from all your competitors. What most of you do from time to

So how do you communicate your

Your brand identity is the visual language

time is a brand refresh. Think of this as

message to your target audience?

you use to tell this story. This includes

an update, like painting your house.

Education and that starts with yourself.

your logo, your bottle shape, can label,

Same core values, just adding a bit of

and image. Brand essence is a distillation

excitement to something that seems a bit

It is hard thinking of another industry

of the most compelling idea behind your

dated. Another term we need to define

where the founder sees themselves as

brewery. When you’re having a meeting

for you is positioning, which is also called

the product, as much as in craft beer

and someone says: ‘This is who we are’,

a point of difference. A point of difference

industry. If it is impossible for you to take

and you all nod in agreement, that is

is a something about the brand that

a step back and see your beer as your

brand essence – though most times

makes it different from other competing

customer sees it and how it reflects on

someone says: “This isn’t who we are….”

brands.

them – not you – then you’re wasting

Rebranding is a shift in your core

What brings these terms together is

message. Coors realized that by far its

educating the consumer, according

When you first start developing your

biggest seller was Coors Light – they

to Richard Horwell of Brand Relations.

product you will need to ask yourself a

dropped the ‘light’ and now it’s just

Since 2007, Brand Relations has helped

lot of questions, those questions will be

‘Coors’. Kids’ cereals dropped ‘Sugar’

over 100 brands with product and brand

much the same as the ones your target

in their names, ‘Sugar Frosted Flakes’

development, along with marketing

audience will ask. For example: ‘what

became ‘Frosties’. Core logo, website,

campaigns.

is unique about this product?’; ‘why is it

your time in rebranding.

better than the competition’; ‘should I risk

and brand identity can all be changed. “You can have the best tasting product

spending money on this untried brand?’;

Sometimes these rebrands work and

on the market, but if no one picks it up

’does this product offer value for money?’

sometimes they’re total disasters.

and tries it, no one will ever know,” says

Your branding needs to answer all these

Remember Royal Mail’s change to

Horwell. “Ninety percent of a first-time

questions.

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INSIGHT BRANDING

DIRECT-TOCONSUMER CONVENIENCE

“The most expensive word in the Food & Drink category is ‘education’, if you need to take time to educate the consumer, away from the packaging, then you will either spend millions or fail, or both,” says Horwell.

Although in pure beer sales figures

The best place to educate your target

it remains low, according to some

audience is on your product’s packaging,

experts direct-to-consumer (DTC)

so your branding needs to be clear and

beer sales is one of the most exciting

perfect. Trade buyers and consumers

things to come out of the pandemic.

need to understand the product without having you standing there. That’s what

US design company CODO Design

the branding is for; to provide instant

believes convenience will be one

education.

of the most important drivers of the economy over the next 10-years,

According to Horwell, what helps this

what CODO says is a natural out-

along is linking your brand to what your

growth of the Amazon “Prime-ifica-

audience already understands.

tion” of the world.

Anchor Brewing’s move from the classic branding above was less so

“We all tend to pigeonhole everything in “Why go to the grocery store if I can

our lives and whether we are conscious

buy something with one click on my

of it or not, when we see a new brand, we

between the other brands and mine?

phone? And to think that the alco-

put it in its place. So, if you are attempting

Getting the answers to these questions is

hol shopping experience will be an

to break new ground with an idea or

the first step to creating brilliant branding.

exception to this trend is myopic,”

base ingredient then you need to add

says CODO.

something to the mix that the consumer

“Today we have more choice of food

knows,” he says.

and drinks than ever before and the big brands are no longer dominating the

Will a brewery that decides to only do DTC succeed? That is the million

The key is to make sure the messaging is

market. Many consumers want to try

pound question. Already some

easy to understand and include elements

something different, but that doesn’t

spirit brands – especially no-alco-

that consumers can understand instantly.

mean they have all day to stand around

hol brands – are doing this, with the

Trade buyers only want products that will

in-store or go online to research every

thought behind this being it is too

sell, they don’t want old stock taking up

product. They need to be drawn to a

difficult to get onto a supermarket

room on their shelves. A product has to

brand that relates to then and says, ‘buy

shelf.

sell easily and quickly. Buyers won’t give

me, I am new and exciting’,” says Horwell.

you long to prove that your brand works, By developing a compelling brand

it’s in one day and out the next, so, make

“When I lived in Australia, I knew a very

and marketing campaign, pouring

it easy for the consumer to choose your

successful businessman who could

money into advertising on TV and

product fast.

turn his hand to anything. When I asked him his secret to success, his response

social media, and you might succeed. Might. “Provenance, authenticity and locality

Horwell says that in order to get your

was ‘when you explain something to

branding right, you need to ask yourself

someone and they don’t understand,

and others some questions:

it’s not them that’s stupid, it’s you for not explaining it properly’.

are all perennial value propositions in craft beer, so we have our doubts that

u Where will this product sell and what

a craft brand can credibly operate in

brands will sit alongside it?

“This is the same with branding, just

this space entirely, but that doesn’t

u How will my beer stand out against

putting your brand name on the front

mean that DTC can’t be a major part

them?

and thinking the brand will sell is crazy,

of a brewery’s distribution and sales

u What is my brand message? For

Consumers don’t care about a ‘new’

plan moving forward,” says CODO.

example, is it based on great taste,

brand name, they care about what’s in it

treating yourself or pure refreshment?

for them. So, make sure your message

u Will my consumer be able to read the

conveys this. Always focus on them, your

messages I have on the packaging from

customers, not you.”

a distance, without picking it up? u Why should a consumer buy my brand instead of their regular choice? u What is the point of difference

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BREWERS JOURNAL


www.kanegrade.com Tel: +44 (0) 1438 742242 Email: info@kanegrade.com

NATURAL FOOD INGREDIENTS Kanegrade_Advert_185mm W x 120mm H.indd 1

13/11/2019 11:10


TECHNOLOGY REFRACTOMETRY

BETTER DATA FOR BETTER BEER BREWERS WILL OFTEN ATTRIBUTE THEIR SUCCESS TO PASSION, DETERMINATION AND INNOVATION, BUT ONCE A BEER HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AND BRANDED, IT’S ALL ABOUT CONSISTENCY. PROCESS MONITORING THEREFORE HAS A KEY ROLE TO PLAY. IN THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE KEIJO PYÖRÄLÄ FROM VAISALA EXPLAINS HOW IN-LINE REFRACTOMETERS, LOCATED STRATEGICALLY AT EVERY STAGE OF THE BREWING PROCESS, ENABLE PROCESS OPTIMIZATION, SAVE ENERGY, REDUCE WASTE, LOWER COSTS AND HELP DELIVER TOP QUALITY BEER.

S

ome breweries rely on

some methods such as turbidity and

manual sampling and

density can experience measurement

laboratory analysis, but

errors from fouling and interference

there are a number of

by the larger suspended particles

significant disadvantages

(especially in mashing and the lauter tun)

with this approach, so there is an

and by the bubbles and foam that are

inevitable trend toward in-line monitoring

present in most stages.

and increased automation. Refractive Index monitoring is therefore Laboratory analysis is obviously an

preferred, and the key advantage of

essential component of research and

the Vaisala refractometers is that they

development; providing an insight into

provide accurate measurements at every

the effects of different raw materials or

stage of the brewing process without

processes on characteristics such as

suffering from these interferences.

flavour and aroma. A further advantage of refractometers Laboratory analysis also plays an

is their speed of response, which is a

important role in investigatory work;

particular advantage in the packing/

helping to understand the chemistry.

filling line and CIP process – this will be

However, from a production perspective,

discussed later.

sampling and analysis can be of limited value because of the cost and the

Refractive Index (RI) measurements are

delay incurred – by the time a lab result

based on the angle of refraction of light

uncovers a problem; a significant volume

in the process medium, using an LED

of product may have already passed

light source.

through the brewery.

A sensor continually detects the critical angle at which the total reflection of light

Similarly, samples represent a ‘snapshot’

commences, and the concentration of

of the process at one moment in time,

dissolved solids is calculated taking pre-

and are therefore unable to support

defined process conditions into account.

feedback control or provide timely alarms, and are less able to uncover

Vaisala’s sanitary refractometers are

trends.

therefore supplied factory calibrated to meet the requirements of the specific

Vaisala’s K-PATENTS sanitary

brewery and are deployed at most

refractometers can be calibrated in

stages of the brewing process, some of

Plato, Brix, Balling, gravity, or density,

which are described below.

depending on the preference of the brewery.

THE BREWING PROCESS

They are available with 3-A Sanitary and EHEDG certifications and are designed to

Typically, mashing takes place in a tun,

withstand CIP/SIP cleaning and rinsing

which is an insulated brewing vessel

procedures.

with a false bottom. Malt is steeped in hot water which activates enzymes that

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

A number of different technologies

cause starch in the malt to break down

have been employed to monitor various

and release simple sugars, producing

aspects of the brewing process, but

wort.

BREWERS JOURNAL


REFRACTOMETRY TECHNOLOGY Wort Boiler

Mash

Whirlpool

Lauter tun Crushed grain Hot water

Cooler

Fermenters

Storage tanks

Bottling line

Filter

and helps to form desirable taste and

An overview of the brewing process

Mashing is a crucial step because it

aroma compounds.

determines the final structure of the beer,

It also brings the brew to the appropriate

so it is important to maintain a consistent

strength or gravity, so this is an extremely

recovers some of the energy used to

wort output. The refractometer is used to

important stage in the brewing process.

boil the wort. Refractometers can be installed in the outlet of the cooler as a

measure the concentration of the mash The refractometer is installed directly

quality control measure; ensuring that the

in the wort boiler, providing continuous

bitter wort contains the correct level of

The process by which the grains are

measurements of wort strength/gravity

dissolved solids before fermentation.

separated from the wort is known as

so that the brewer can determine exactly

Alternatively, or additionally, a

lautering, which is often conducted in a

when the wort has reached the required

measurement can be made after the

separate chamber known as a lauter tun.

strength. This improves beer quality and

boiler and prior to the whirlpool, to

consistency, while helping to optimize

avoid the possibility of processing bitter

brewing time and energy consumption.

wort that does not meet the required

in water at the outlet pipe.

Sparge water rinses the grains inside

specification.

the lauter tun to complete the extraction of sugars, producing a clear wort

After boiling, the wort is transferred to a

with a concentration that gradually

whirlpool, where solid particles (hop rests

During the fermentation process, yeast

decreases during the rinsing. The

and coagulated proteins) are separated

converts sugars and amino acids in the

refractometer continuously measures this

from the bitter wort.

wort to carbon dioxide and alcohol.

concentration, allowing the detection of

The whirlpool causes residual particles to

The gravity of the fermenting liquid is

the appropriate shut-off point for rinsing,

coagulate and settle out of the liquid as

measured as the specific gravity, or

which prevents the excessive use of

a sludge known as trub, which is partially

relative density compared to water. In the

water and saves energy.

removed from the bottom of the kettle.

brewing industry, this is mostly measured

Once the sweet wort has been

It is important that the solids are removed

separated, it is pasteurized in a wort

quickly and effectively to produce a clear,

boiler or brew kettle, and this is the stage

bitter wort for transfer to the next stage,

Spent yeast collects at the bottom of

at which hops and other flavourings may

so a refractometer may be installed

the fermentation tank and is regularly

be added.

before and/or after the whirlpool.

removed, which helps to clarify the beer.

activity, preserves foam-positive proteins,

Once boiling is complete, the wort

The density of the wort varies according

evaporates unwanted flavour volatiles,

is cooled by a heat exchanger which

to the sugar content, so the density

on the Plato scale, which is very similar to the Brix scale used by the wine industry.

Wort boiling terminates enzymatic

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TECHNOLOGY REFRACTOMETRY

When the beer is ready for distribution

Continuous monitoring of packing

it is packed in bottles, cans, casks

and CIP processes with the Vaisala

and barrels which must be clean and

refractometers therefore enables

sanitized.

automation, reduces wastage and lowers

readings decline as fermentation

In addition, the internal surfaces of pipes,

costs and energy use.

progresses.

vessels, tanks and packaging equipment

The alcohol percentage can be

must be cleaned between batches and

calculated from the difference between

between different products.

Refractometers provide insight into every stage of the brewing process

the original wort gravity and the current

REFRACTOMETERS IN BEER In contrast with other methods, the main

specific gravity. Refractometers are

Known as Clean in Place (CIP) this

advantages of Vaisala’s refractometers

therefore able to closely follow the

protects the beer products from

are that they provide greater insight into

fermentation process; providing brewers

microbiological and chemical

every stage of the brewing process; they

with real-time insights into the process,

contamination.

are not affected by suspended particles,

and allowing them to accurately

In large modern breweries the cleaning

bubbles or colour, and with the option

determine when fermentation is

processes are complex, so automation is

of automatic prism wash with steam or

complete.

frequently utilized to improve speed and

high-pressure hot water, they are not

efficiency, and lower costs.

affected by scaling or fouling.

between the end of primary fermentation

At the filling line, the refractometer

Each refractometer is factory calibrated

and the removal of yeast from the beer.

instantly detects the product-to-product

for the full measurement range (e.g.

After fermentation, the beer is allowed to

and product to-CIP cleaning interfaces,

0-100 degree Plato), which means they

rest, so that any remaining spent yeast

allowing efficient change-over between

can be freely interchanged between

can settle out. However, a number of

products or batches.

installation locations without parameter

filtration techniques are often applied to

The refractometer output signal can also

changes. Furthermore, the Vaisala

further clarify the beer.

be utilized for quality control monitoring,

refractometers do not require any routine

and to ensure correct product-to-

recalibration or maintenance.

Maturation includes all transformations

This is the final opportunity to affect

packaging selection.

the quality profile of the beer – flavour,

In summary, it is certainly true that

bitterness, odour and foam stability,

The response speed of the refractometer

brewing success is underpinned by

clarity, colour, alcohol and gas content.

means that the interfaces (between

passion, determination and innovation,

All of which vary according to

product/cleaning chemicals/water), can

but, with the help of refractometry,

the requirement of the brand, so

be detected very quickly, which avoids

brewers can optimise their processes,

refractometers can fulfil a vital role in

waste and ensures that no product

reduce waste, lower energy consumption

quality control.

contamination occurs.

and rest assured that they will continue to produce consistently good quality beer.

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YEAST

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN THIS LATEST ARTICLE TIM O’ ROURKE, FOUNDER OF THE BRILLIANT BEER COMPANY, TAKES US ON A JOURNEY THROUGH CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM.

Y

east needs energy (carbohydrates) for growth and reproduction which it principally obtains from simple fruit sugars. As discussed in the previous articles on yeast genomics, brewing strains of yeast have evolved and adapted to thrive in brewer’s wort. Brewer’s wort consists of the sugars derived from the breakdown of

starch which originates from cereal and a typical all malt wort is shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1: WORT SUGARS FOUND IN WORT AND BEER FROM AN ALL MALT WORT Sugar spectrum

Typical concentration in wort g/kg malt

% sugar composition in wort

Fructose

11.3

1.6

Glucose

49.5

7.1

Sucrose

38.2

5.5

Maltose

318

45.8

Maltotriose

108

15.5

64.2

Dextrins

164

23.6

162

brewersjournal.info

Typical concentration in beer g/kg malt

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SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES Yeast takes up the wort sugars in a particular sequence governed by molecular size. Since yeast evolved alongside fruits from flowering plants the main sugar it expects to encounter is Sucrose which is a made up of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. As explained in Back to Basics article four, yeast has the enzyme invertase in the periplasmic space and this passes out into the wort where it rapidly breaks the sucrose down leading to an increase in glucose and maltose. Glucose and fructose being simple single sugar molecules, can rapidly pass into the Figure 1 A graph showing the sequence for sugar uptake by brewing yeast in a normal all wort fermentation

yeast cell by facilitated diffusion. It is only when most of the single sugars have been taken up that that the yeast looks for additional sugars to metabolise, at this stage both maltose and maltotriose along with unfermentable dextrin remain. The yeast activates a series of genes to mobilise the proteins and enzymes necessary to take up maltose and maltotriose as shown in Figure 2 (overleaf). Yeast excretes Invertase into the wort where it breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose. Yeast rapidly takes up glucose and fructose through facilitated diffusion down the concentration gradient. The cell requires to process the sugars as quickly as possible to be able to maintain the concentration gradient and hence to take up as much of the available sugars as possible. Once the majority of glucose (< 1% remains in wort) and fructose has been used up (Figure 1) then the yeast will want to take up maltose and maltotriose. These are not naturally occurring sugars and are only found in wort. Brewing yeast has evolved to take up and use these more complex sugars. The utilisation of maltose and maltotriose involves three genetic steps which for convenience we have referred to as MAL genes u MAL R – is an activator gene which detects the presence of the sugars in the wort and activates the other genes u MAL T – produces an Active Transport Permease which will allow the uptake of the specific sugar u MAL S – produces an enzyme (maltase) which can hydrolyse the 1,4 – 1,6 bonds to produce individual molecules of glucose which are then available for breakdown in the

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CARBOHYDRATES SCIENCE glycolytic pathwa Maltose and maltotriose are taken up more slowly and requires the expenditure of energy (ATP) to facilities its uptake. From Table 1 it can be seen that nearly all the maltose but only half the maltotriose is utilised, but this depends on the yeast strain. Figure 2 Schematic showing the uptake of sugars from wort by brewer’s yeast.

There is no permease structure to take up dextrin (C4 or greater) and these remain in the wort. Note: Uptake of maltose and maltotriose is mainly restricted to brewing yeast Saccharomyces sp. Certain yeast such as Saccharomycodes ludwigii cannot take up these sugars and are used in the production of low alcohol beer, also the ability to take up these sugars depends on the activation of the MAL genes and this can be lost through mutation particularly which may result in poorer attenuation after serial repitching with older yeast. Maltose uptake does not start until the wort glucose concentration falls below 1% and which is thought to be due to the catabolite repression of maltose permease and alpha 1,4 glucosidase. The mechanism for nutrient uptake and cell is governed by the cell membrane which acts as a selective membrane controlling what can enter and be expelled from the cell. Lipids and any material soluble in non-polar organic solvents can pass directly through the membrane by free diffusion, this is a slow process passing down the concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion uses selective protein carriers which only allow specific molecules to move down the concentration gradient, but it is very fast, allowing for the rapid uptake of glucose from wort. In addition, some facilitated diffusion depends on the movement of ions to create a voltage differential to allow molecules to pass through diffusion channels. Some molecules are just too big or do not match up with the protein carriers and these can be taken into the cell through active transport which requires the use of energy (ATP) by excretion of H+ ions fpr the intake of more complex compounds such as maltose. Once the glucose enters the cell then enzymatic breakdown can start in the cytoplasm

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As As As explained explained explained above above above the the the mechanism mechanism mechanism for for for nutrient nutrient nutrient uptake uptake uptake and and and cell cell cell isisgoverned isgoverned governed bybyby the the the cell cell cell membrane membrane membrane (described (described (described ininB2B inB2B B2B Article Article Article 4)4)which 4)which which acts acts acts asasas a aselective aselective selective membrane membrane membrane controlling controlling controlling what what what can can can enter enter enter and and and bebebe expelled expelled expelled from from from the the the cell. cell. cell. TABLE 2: SYSTEM UPTAKE FROM WORT

Table Table Table 2 2Systems 2Systems Systems ofofuptake ofuptake uptake from from from wort wort wort

Passive Transport

Passive Passive Passive Transport Transport Transport Free Diffusion FacilitatedDiffusion Diffusion Free Free Free Diffusion Diffusion Diffusion Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion

Active Active Active Transport Transport Transport Active Transport

Free Free Free diffusion diffusion diffusion ––Lipid –Lipid Lipid Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion --Active Active Active transport transport – Active transport –transport Energy (ATP)–is–reFree diffusion – Lipid soluble particles Facilitated diffusion - specific protein quired to pump protons (H+) ions out of move through the cell based on a consoluble soluble soluble particles particles particles move move move specific specific specific protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers Energy Energy Energy (ATP) (ATP) (ATP) isisrequired isrequired required carriers allow selective compounds to move the cell generating an electrochemical centration gradient (moving from high to ++ + down a centration gradient. gradient allowing nutrients to enter through through through the the the cell cell cell based based based on on onallow allow allow selective selective selective compounds compounds compounds cell toto pump topump pump protons protons protons (H(H(H )the)ions )ions ions low) using an electrochemical gradient. aaconcentration aconcentration concentration gradient gradient gradient totomove tomove move down down down aacentration acentration centration out out out ofofthe ofthe the cell cell cell generating generating generating (moving (moving (moving from from from high high high totolow) tolow) low)gradient. gradient. gradient. an an an electrochemical electrochemical electrochemical gradient gradient gradient allowing allowing nutrients nutrients nutrients to release energy necessary for cell metabolism and growthallowing and for reproduction (budding). totoenter toenter enter the the the cell cell cell using using using an an an Under are AEROBIC respiration conditions where molecular oxygen is present all the electrochemical electrochemical electrochemical gradient. gradient. gradient. sugar components are completely oxidised to release energy.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy 36 ATP (F=686 kcal)

Lipids Lipids Lipids and and and any any any material material material soluble soluble soluble ininHowever, non-polar innon-polar non-polar organic organic solvents solvents can can can pass pass pass directly directly directly through through through the the the in theorganic absence ofsolvents oxygen ANAEROBIC respiration (aka fermentation) yeast membrane membrane membrane bybyby free free free diffusion, diffusion, diffusion, this this this iscannot isaisaslow aslow slow process process process passing passing passing down down down the the concentration concentration gradient. gradient. gradient. fully oxidise the sugar components and athe lot ofconcentration energy is left in the ethanol (alcohol) produced.

Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion uses uses uses selective selective selective protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers which which which only only only allow allow allow specific specific specific molecules molecules molecules totomove tomove move C Hbut 2C Hfor OH +the 2CO + Energy 2 ATPof (F=54 kcal) down down down the the the concentration concentration concentration gradient, gradient, gradient, but but itO itis itisvery isvery very fast, fast, fast, allowing allowing allowing for for the the rapid rapid rapid uptake uptake uptake ofglucose ofglucose glucose from from from wort. wort. wort. InInaddition, Inaddition, addition, some some some facilitated facilitated facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion depends depends depends ononon the the the movement movement movement ofofions ofions ions totocreate tocreate create a avoltage avoltage voltage The fermentative pathway releases approximately 8% of the total energy trapped in the differential differential differential totoallow toallow allow molecules molecules molecules totopass tosugar. pass pass through through through diffusion diffusion diffusion channels. channels. channels. 6

12

6

2

5

2

Both Respiration and Fermentation start with Glucose being reduced to Pyruvate in the

Some Some Some molecules molecules molecules are are are just just just too too too big big big orordo ordodo not not not match match match upupup with with with the the the protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers and and and these these these can can can bebebe Glycolytic Pathway which releases 2 ATP per molecule of Glucose, but in the absence taken taken taken into into into the the the cell cell cell through through through active active active transport transport transport which which which requires requires requires the the the use use use ofenergy of energy energy (ATP) (ATP) (ATP) bybyby excretion excretion excretion of oxygen, yeast is unable to take advantage ofof the additional energy locked up in + ++ ions ions ions fpr fpr fpr the the the intake intake intake ofofmore ofmore more complex complex complex compounds compounds compounds such such such asasas maltose. maltose. maltose. ofofH ofHH alcohol. Given continuous aeration yeast will respire and release all the available energy from sugar, this option is exploited during yeast propagation to create biomass (yeast

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growth) rather than the production of alcohol. However, yeast still produces some alcohol as discussed in the Introductory Article, in part this is due to excessive rapid uptake of glucose explained below but, alcohol also has the additional benefit of providing bacteriostatic activity giving yeast a competitive edge in accessing the nutrients. Although fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen (air) brewers add air or oxygen to the wort before pitching to stimulate yeast growth even though there is a clear energy penalty by using anaerobic respiration (fermentation). The Pasteur effect involves the transition from anaerobic glycolysis (fermentation) to respiration in the presence of O2. Its significance lies in the fact that the cells switch to a more economical mode of obtaining energy. For a given substrate, approximately 20 times as much energy is extracted during respiration as during fermentation. The rate of utilisation of the substrate, for example, glucose, decreases in the presence of O2. Figure 4 Flow diagram to show major pathways used in Respiration & Fermentation.

cytoplasm

Figure 4 Flow diagram to show major pathways used in Respiration & Fermentation

mitochondria

The Crabtree effect: The Crabtree effect: English biochemist Herbert Grace Crabtree describes a situation English biochemist Herbert Grace Crabtree describes a situation whereby yeast, whereby yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces ethanol (alcohol) aerobically in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces ethanol (alcohol) aerobically in the presence of high the presence of high external glucose concentrations rather than releasing all the external glucose concentrations rather than releasing all the energy through the tricarboxylic energy the tricarboxylic cycle andwas electron transport. acid cycle through and electron transport. Thisacid phenomenon originally called the contra-Pasteur now called the Crabtree effect and is observed in yeast when glucose is above 0.4% in the growth medium. The oxygen is used to synthesise sterol compounds required for membrane This phenomenon was originally called the contra-Pasteur now called the Crabtree synthesis for yeast growth. The "Crabtree effect” is associated with alterations in the effect and is observed in yeast when glucose above 0.4% the growthand medium. mitochondria with the catabolic repression of certainisenzymes suchinas succinic alpha oxoglutarate dehydrogenases.

The oxygeneffect is used tonot synthesise sterol compounds for membrane The Crabtree does occur in all yeasts, but only inrequired a few species such as synthesis Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.chevalieri andisS. pastorianus. for yeast growth. The “Crabtree effect” associated with alterations in the mitochondria with the catabolic of certain such as succinic and alpha Initially it was thought repression this phenomenon was enzymes entirely due to catabolite repression by glucose, and oxygen. Recently another explanation has been given suggesting that the effect may be oxoglutarate dehydrogenases. due to Crabtree the oversaturation of the pathways to the rapidasuptake The effect does notrespiratory occur in all yeasts, (excess but onlyPyruvate) in a few due species such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.chevalieri and S. pastorianus. 6 Initially it was thought this phenomenon was entirely due to catabolite repression by glucose, and oxygen. Recently another explanation has been given suggesting that the effect may be due

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SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES to the oversaturation of the respiratory pathways (excess Pyruvate) due to the rapid uptake of glucose. The yeast cannot process the Pyruvate fast enough through the aerobic pathway and the excess sugar is fermented to give ethanol.

of glucose. The yeast cannot process the Pyruvate fast enough through the aerobic pathway Results show that with low yeast cell concentration the metabolic pathways used are and the excess sugar is fermentedrespiration, to givebut ethanol. when cell concentration reaches a critical number ethanol fermentation occurs.

Results show that with low yeast cell concentration the metabolic pathways used are respiration, but when cell concentration reaches a critical number ethanol occurs. The theory is that at low cell count there are still enoughfermentation enzymes for respiration, but The theory is that at low cell countthethere are stillof enough enzymes forbecause respiration, but thesynthesis by concentration enzyme does not increase of the supressed so thebecause respiration path is replaced by fermentation. concentration of enzyme does notglucose increase of the supressed synthesis by glucose so the respiration path is replaced by fermentation. This is observed in continuous culture with Figure 5 Showing the key stages in the GlycThis is observed in continuous culture with aeration where some ethanol is produced. olytic pathway and thesome oxidation of NADH tois produced. aeration where ethanol NAD+ by reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol.

Figure 5 Showing the key stages in the Glycolytic pathway and the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol. During the initial stages of respiration, sugar is broken down to Pyruvate and two new molecules of ATP are produced along with two molecules of another high energy

During the initial stages of respiration, sugar is broken down to Pyruvate and two new molecules molecule called NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). of ATP are produced along with two molecules of another high energy molecule called NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). TheisNADH is re-oxidised by reducing acetaldehyde to pool The NADH re-oxidised by reducing acetaldehyde to alcohol restoring the NAD+ and balancing Redox. Other reactions restore Redox be discussed in the next alcohol restoring the NAD+ pool and balancing Redox. Other toreactions to will restore Redox will be article of Yeast Flavour Development (B2B Article 5). discussed in the next article of Yeast Flavour Development (B2B Article 5). Glycolysis is a Catabolic pathway which produces energy, reducing power, and

flavour compounds the breakdown carbohydrates and Glycolysis is a Catabolic pathwayintermediate which produces energy,through reducing power,ofand intermediate produces energy molecule ATP and NADH which serves as electron acceptor and flavour compounds through the breakdown of carbohydrates and produces energy molecule which requires to be oxidised to NAD+ to maintain the cells Redox balance. ATP and NADH which serves as electron acceptor and which requires to be oxidised to NAD+ Yeast also produce structural compounds from glucose through an alternative to maintain the cells Redox balance. metabolic pathway, the Pentose pathway (also called the hexose monophosphate shunt HMP) which consumes energy and is the process by which cells build up Yeast also produce structural compounds from glucose through an alternative metabolic complex molecules for repairing and making new cell material. It requires ATP and the pathway, the Pentose pathway (also called the hexose monophosphate shunt HMP) which generates NADPH and is known as Anabolism. consumes energy and is the process by which cells build up complex molecules for repairing Glycogen and trehalose are storage polymers of glucose. Glycogen is a polymer of

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Anabolism. The Pentose pathway also called the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP).

CARBOHYDRATES SCIENCE

Only a relatively small proportion of the available glucose passes through the HMP A minor part of glucose is metabolised through the pentose HMP- pathway, which is also called pentose phosphate pathway.

THE PENTOSE PATHWAY: HEXOSE MONOPHOSPHATE SHUNT (HMP) 1. It provides source of NADPH for anabolic reduction reactions Only a relatively2.small proportion of the and available through the HMP Asynthesis minor partand of glucose is metabolised through It provides pentose otherglucose sugarspasses required for nucleotide other metabolic the pentose HMPpathway, which is also called pentose phosphate pathway. pathways.

1. It provides source NADPHpathway for anabolic reduction reactions The of pentose is used to generate NADPH necessary for Anabolism and several 2. It provides pentose and other sugars required for nucleotide synthesis and otherfor metabolic pathways. different sized sugars particularly 5 carbon sugars necessary nucleotide synthesis.

The pentose pathway is used to generate NADPH necessary for Anabolism and several different sized sugars particularly 5 carbon

Ø Oxidative Phase – irreversible which generates NADPH Ø Non-oxidative Phase- reversible Generate pentose When NADPH levels are low oxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide Oxidative Phase – irreversible which generates NADPH biosynthesis. When NADPH levels are high nonoxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis from Fructose-6-P and Glyceraldehyde-3-P. Both oxidative and nonNon-oxidative Phase- reversible Generate pentose oxidative pathways are required to generate NADPH while converting the product Ribulose-5-P When NADPH levels are low oxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis. When NADPH levels into non-oxidative pathway to generate glyceraldehyde-3-P into pyruvate. sugars necessary for nucleotide synthesis.

are high nonoxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis from Fructose-6-P and Glyceralde-

hyde-3-P. Both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways are required to generate NADPH while converting the product Ribulose-5-P into non-oxidative pathway to generate glyceraldehyde-3-P into pyruvate.

8 TABLE 3 OF THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ROLES OF NAD AND NADP IN BREWING

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ / NADH)

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP / NADPH)

Role

NAD+ serves as an electron and hydrogen acceptor while NADH serves as an electron and hydrogen donor. NAD+ is used to obtain electrons from the catabolizing reactions in the cell such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle.

NADP+ is an electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH created under anabolic reactions which builds large molecules from small molecules donating hydrogen (H) and associated electrons.

Status

NAD is the oxidised form, is most abundant inside cell

NADPH is the reduced form is most abundant in cell

Function

NAD+ is mostly used as an oxidising agent in respiration

NADPH is mostly used in catabolic reaction

Place

Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, fatty acid & sterol synthesis

Pentose pathway (photosynthesis) Lipid synthesis

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SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES glucose consisting of 104 to 105 glucose monomers linked by alpha 1-4 glycoside bonds with frequent branches arising from alpha 1-6 bonds. It is synthesised when cellular energy is in surplus and in response to a wide variety of environmental stresses factors including higher levels of alcohol and conditions of nutrient starvation, such as limited nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, or sulphur. Acknowledgement: I would like to thank Professor Graham Stewart Emeritus Professor Heriot Watt University, Professor Chris Bolton Nottingham University, Professor Matthew Carrigan, Santa Fe College, and Dr Sylvie Van Zandycke for checking the metabolic details. Any errors are entirely down to the author.

REFERENCE & CITATIONS u R. Haroitt and G. K. Buckee “Carbohydrate balances and wort fermentability estimations” JIB July 1978 u Ian S Hornsey “Brewing” published RSC paperback u Chris Bolton & David Quain “Brewing Yeast & Fermentation” published Blackwell Publishing

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+44 (0)7734 035562 SHorrox@keglogistics.com

RECRUITMENT

PACKAGING HANDLES

www.carlingpartnership.com +44 (0)1483 893 100

P

Q

1809

www.paktech-opi.com handlesales@paktech-opi.com Phone: +1.541.461.5000

www.lallemandbrewing.com +44 (0)7930 451687

T

TO

Est

CETT

YEAST PakTech designs and manufactures 100% recycled, recyclable and reusable packaging handles. PakTech is the smart and sustainable packaging solution.

AL

AW

S

F

www.crispmalt.co +44 (0)1328 829 391 info@crispmalt.com

UALITY M

PACKAGING AUTOMATION

www.fawcett-maltsters.co.uk +44 (0)1977 552490 sales@fawcett-maltsters.co.uk

skafabricating.com +1 (970) 403-8562

Fermentis is an expert in the art of fermentation. Our active dry yeasts and yeast derivatives cover almost all professional requirements: from safeguarding production to expressing sensory characteristics. Discover our products on www.fermentis.com Contact us at fermentis@lesaffre.com

www.muntons.com +44 (0)1449 618300

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JULY~AUGUST 2021

BREWERS JOURNAL


1961

Refreshing innovation Discover how our push-fit fittings are used in 95% of British pubs as well as soft drink, vending machine, OEM and water filtration applications. You can feel reassured that if they’re good enough for your beer, they’re more than good enough for your water! Thank you to all our customers for helping us reach our 60th anniversary. Here’s to the future. rwc.com/johnguest

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The Brewers Journal July~August 2021, iss 4 vol 7  

The bimonthly magazine for the professional brewing industry

The Brewers Journal July~August 2021, iss 4 vol 7  

The bimonthly magazine for the professional brewing industry

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