THE MAGAZINE FOR THE PROFESSIONAL BREWING INDUSTRY
J O U R N A L
JULY~AUGUST 2021 | VOLUME 7, ISSUE 4 ISSN 2059-6669
NORTH BREWING CO A new home in Springwell
09 | BREWERS CHOICE 2021: CLOSING DATE APPROACHES
31 | HARD SELTZERS: EMBRACE THE OPPORTUNITY
58 | THE STORY OF BREWERY D’OUDE MAALDERIJ
GOOD TO BE BACK
his issue is heading to press
gress will take place in The Porter Tun on
on the eve of us visiting the
the 8th December.
venue for this year’s Brewers Congress event.
The Porter Tun room has a 170-foot king
And is increasingly com-
post timber roof, with an unsupported
mon for so many of us, it’s a particularly
span of 65 feet giving an uninterrupted
strange feeling to restart parts of your
view across the room.
professional life that have been on hold for so long.
The vaults beneath the Porter Tun room were filled to the ceiling with porter after
But we’re incredibly excited for the Brew-
Whitbread had the idea of bulk storage
ers Congress to return this winter. Taking
without using casks. At first the liquid ran
place on the 7th and 8th December,
through the walls ‘as through a sieve’. It
we kick off with our annual awards and
took advice from John Smeaton designer
industry dinner on the evening of the 7th
of the third Eddystone Lighthouse, and
followed by the Brewers Congress itself
Josiah Wedgewood, to help make them
on the 8th.
And following three years at The Institute
Following an enforced absence in 2020 I
of Civil Engineers, we are moving to a
hope you can join us The Brewers Con-
new home. Fittingly, the new home of our
gress later this year. And as we mention
flagship event is The Brewery in London.
elsewhere in this issue, the deadline for the Brewers Choice Awards is 31st
The Brewery occupies the site of the
former Whitbread brewery in East Lon-
don. In 1750 Samuel Whitbread, having
That means you still have time to enter,
bought property in the area, transplanted
or nominate industry leading lights in, the
his operations to Chiswell Street from two
following categories. New Brewery of the
smaller breweries in Old Street and Brick
Year, Brewery of the Year, New Beer of
the Year. Beer of the Year, Young Brewer of the Year, Brewer of the Year, Branding
Within a few years Whitbread’s brewery
of the Year and Lifetime Achievement.
had become a vast operation, its sheer size making it an attraction worthy of
For more information, turn to page nine
royal visits. George III, Queen Charlotte,
of this issue for the latest updates on this
Queen Elizabeth II and Elizabeth the
Queen Mother all visited the site. Best of luck in all that you do in these Brewing on the site continued until 1976,
upcoming summer months.
the last tanker pulling out of the South Yard on April 13, bringing to an end a 225-
Our awards dinner on the 7th takes place in the King George Room, and the Con-
20 21 Brewers Choice
Deadline: 31st August 2021 Winners announced 7 December 2021 Full terms and conditions available at:
BREWERS CHOICE AWARDS THE CLOCK IS TICKING Time is running out to get your entries in for the Brewers Choice Awards 2021. So whether you’re a young brewer or have a beer you want to shout about, your time is now. We also want to recognise the role you’re playing in the industry as part of an exciting new brewery and, of course, we want to acknowledge the best brewery in the UK & Ireland.
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Dear John Why John Keeling is looking forward to a return of in-person beer judging Comments - Why breweries are turning to on-site CO2 storage - Behind the scenes of the supply chain - Advice for growing your brewery profitably - Staff training advice for optimum bar hygiene
21 24 26 28
Trending | Hard Seltzers Hard Seltzers are here and the only question is, will you be making money or watching on?
Brewery Tour | North Brewing Co Nearly 25 years since starting out, North has just opened the doors on a new brewery of its own.
Focus | The Environment - A journey towards a “Carbon Zero” future - The benefits of solar power to your brewery - North Brewing’s green approach to Springwell
43 46 49
Meet The Brewer | McColl’s Brewery With a new head brewer in tow and producing beers to help good causes, McColl’s Brewery is looking ahead to its next chapter.
Focus | Funding How to leverage your brand to secure funding
Crossing Continents | Belgium Paul Davies tells the story of Brewery D’oude Maalderij in Izegem, Belgium
Focus | Branding Why it coule be time for a rebrand of your beer
Science | Yeast Take a journey through carbohydrate metabolism
34 Brewery Tour | North Brewing Co
Nearly 25 years on since opening the legendary North Bar, North Brewing Co has a new home in Springwell
CONTACTS Tim Sheahan Editor firstname.lastname@example.org +44 (0)1442 780 592 Velo Mitrovich Deputy Editor email@example.com +44 (0)1442 780 591
Tim O’Rourke Technical Editor firstname.lastname@example.org Josh Henderson Head of sales email@example.com +44 (0)1442 780 594
Meet The Brewer | McColl’s
How McColl’s Brewery in Bishop Auckland are making great beer that’s for a great cause, too.
Jon Young Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK
46 Focus | The Environment
The commercial and cultural factors that make solar power such a good fit for UK breweries.
Trending | Hard Seltzers
Why the time is still right to capitalise on the hard seltzer opportunity
SUBSCRIPTIONS The Brewers Journal is a published 10 times a year and mailed every February, March, April, May, June, July, September, October, November and December. Subscriptions can be purchased for 10 issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing: subscribe@ rebymedia.com
UK & IRELAND £29 INTERNATIONAL £49 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Manson Group, St Albans, UK.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal ISSN 2059-6650 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.
BREWERS CONGRESS FIRST SPEAKERS ANNOUNCED
BREWERS CHOICE AWARDS LAST CHANCE TO ENTER
he first speakers and panellists for this year’s Brewers Congress in London have been announced. The event returns for its fourth year in 2021 and with it, a more expansive and feature-packed programme than ever before. Delivering the keynote at this year’s Brewers Congress is Greg
Zeschuk. Originally trained as a medical doctor, Zeschuk started the videogame company BioWare in 1995 in his hometown of Edmonton. While a part of EA BioWare grew to employ over 1500 employees at seven studios across the world. Greg left BioWare in 2012 and after a short hiatus started working
The closing date for entries to the Brew-
ers Choice Awards 2021 is fast approach-
The founder of YouTube channel The Beer Diaries, he now owns Blind Enthusiasm,
ing. To be in with a chance of winning
a brewery that excels in beers such as lagers to mixed fermentation and spontane-
any of the eight categories at this year’s
event, you must submit your entries by the 31st August.
We are also delighted to be joined by Rudi Ghequire. Born in the shadow of the historic Rodenbach Brewery in Roeselare, Belgium, Ghequire has spent the last
We’ve been incredibly impressed by the
39 years advancing the legacy of the region’s distinctive sour beer, brewing with a
quality of submissions so far and look for-
combination of old-world and new-world technologies.
ward to seeing even more quality entries in the coming months.
The Brewers Congress is also thrilled to welcome brewing professional Charlotte
We launched the Brewers Choice Awards
Cook, Matt Clarke and Michelle Gay, the co-founders of Lakes Brew Co, Dan
in 2019; designed to recognise the pinna-
Hojdar, the founder of Vinohradský Pivovar in the Czech Republic, Sharp’s head
cle of UK brewing, and to put the best of
brewer Aaron McClure, Vik Stronge, brand & marketing manager at Magic Rock
the best in the spotlight.
Brewing, Danny Tapper and Robin Head-Fourman, the founder and head brewer of Beak Brewery respectively, and John Taylor, the head brewer at Drop Project.
You can enter one, or all of the categories. Or nominate a brewer for the
Owing to the global pandemic, the speaker programme is subject to change. But
Lifetime Achievement Award.
keep up to date with the latest additions to the programme at congress.brewers-
These awards will be presented during
the industry party taking place at The
Following three sold-out years at The Institution of Civil Engineers, this December
Brewery on 7th December and also an-
The Brewers Congress moves to a new home at The Brewery in the City of London.
nounced online and in the print edition of The Brewers Journal.
Taking place on the 7th and 8th December, The Brewers Congress 2021 kicks off with an industry wide Christmas Party and Brewers Choice Awards celebrations.
Here’s a reminder of the categories you can enter:
Education and team development is at the heart of the Brewers Congress mission.
u New Brewery of the Year
Day two is the largest gathering of breweries in the UK brewing Calendar. More
u Brewery of the Year
than 300 breweries come together to share their knowledge of brewing, industry
u New Beer of the Year
trends, developments in methodology, technology and ingredients. The trade hall
u Beer of the Year
has been one of the most popular aspects of the event amongst attendees. This
u Young Brewer of the Year
year we are increasing the number of exhibitor spots to 40.
u Brewer of the Year u Branding of the Year
We are creating four beer tasting spots, all trialling different beers, to keep attend-
u Lifetime Achievement
ees moving around the hall. And for the first time we are live streaming the lectures into the exhibition space so attendees can spend more time in the trade hall with-
For full details on each category and to
out missing out on the talks.
submit your entry to any of the awards, please visit: awards.brewersjournal.info
Big Smoke Brew Co, the Surrey-based brewery, has opened the Big Smoke Taphouse & Kitchen at London Heathrow Airport. The airside destination is a partnership with Airport Retail Enterprises (ARE) and will be located at Heathrow, Terminal 2. Big Smoke have produced a beer and a gin to be sold exclusively at Heathrow; Flight Mode. It’s a crisp and refreshing 4% pilsner and Taphouse London Dry Gin which will be available with personalised labels that can be created while you wait. Big Smoke Brew Co’s own range of locally produced beers, cider and gins will also be available – including six draught
BIG SMOKE BREW CO TO OPEN HEATHROW AIRPORT LOCATION NEW TECHNICAL EDITOR JOINS BREWERS JOURNAL TEAM
options, cans in the fridge and 3 gins on the bar. This range is backed up by a large selection of other beers, wines, spirits, cocktails and soft drinks.
the website www.brilliantbeer.com. For the past 25 years, he has run The Brilliant Beer Company, a Training & Brewing Consultancy, providing technical support and training for breweries all over the world, particularly supporting Institute of Brewing candidates preparing for exams
The Brewers Journal is delighted to have
at introductory, foundation, certificate and
appointed Tim O’Rourke as technical edi-
tor. O’Rourke is a Master Brewer with over 45 years’ experience in both multinational
O’ Rourke was one of the four founders
and craft breweries.
of the Beer Academy and wrote much of the original content presenting many of
He has been involved in the international
the courses. He is a beer sommelier and
brewing industry in a wide range of ca-
Certified Cicerone and give talks on beer
pacities; his expertise covers production,
styles, beer and food pairing and tutored
innovation and business development,
“I am also committed to deal with current
tasting. He is also an international beer
marketing and promotion.
“ hot topics” with a regular column “Talk-
Commenting on his appointment, O’Ro-
ing Points”. In this edition I have covered
urke said: “I am honoured and delighted
Climate Change and Global Warming,
Tim Sheahan, editor of The Brewers Jour-
to join the team at the Brewers Journal as
there is no hotter topic than that!”
nal said: “It’s a genuine privilege to have
Tim join our team. Before joining the Brewers Journal he
“As well as writing a regular article in the
was technical editor for the Grist Interna-
“His wealth of knowledge and expertise is
series Back to Basics II which is aimed at
tional and the Brewers Guardian having
a true asset to our magazine, events and
providing scientific knowledge for brew-
published over 200 technical articles, a
podcast going forward, as we celebrate
number of which are available online at
our sixth anniversary this September.”
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NEW YAKIMA CHIEF HOP BLEND “BRIDGES GAP”
HARBOUR INVESTS IN NEW PACKAGING KIT
akima Chief Hops has launched a new hop blend that allows brewers to showcase “raw hop aroma” in finished beers.
Harbour Brewing Co has made a com-
Cyro Pop Original Blend arrives four years after YCH released its
mitment to using recycled packaging
advanced product line, Cryo Hops.
with the addition of a new cardboard
These used a cryogenic hop-processing technology that separates
whole cones into two components—concentrated lupulin and bract.
The Cornwall-based brewery established in 2012 has taken delivery of a beverage
These concentrated lupulin pellets provide brewers with maximum aroma impact
multipack machine from T. Freemantle.
while reducing the negative effects experienced with brewing hoppy beers.
Since 2012, Harbour Brewing Co has
YCH has combined this novel process with cutting-edge hop lab analysis tech-
grown from strength to strength and
niques to create Cryo Pop Original Blend, formerly known as trial blend TRI
now exports craft beer all over the world
including to countries such as Australia and America.
The YCH R&D facility houses one of the only labs in the world with the capability to
Whilst the core focus for Harbour Brew-
analyze hops via GC-QTOF and GC-SCD technology and study previously unde-
ing is supplying their Cornish beer to res-
tectable aromatic components.
taurants, they now supply to well-known
The data is utilized to engineer a hop pellet that contains high concentrations
supermarkets such as Marks & Spencer,
of the most beer-soluble compounds, or compounds that survive the brewing
Asda and Morrisons.
Eddie Lofthouse, chief at Harbour explained: “One of my main goals for the business is to become a B Corporation and we want to be as ethical as possible by reducing plastic and replacing it with fully recyclable alternatives such as cardboard, as a result we opted for the T. Freemantle Ltd machine to help us achieve this.” The new machine supplied by T. Freemantle Ltd, the UK manufacturer of beverage multipack machines, is all geared around cardboard packaging. The range on offer is designed specifically for the small to medium sized beverage producer so suit the needs of a craft brewer perfectly. The machine is understood to be the most flexible machine of its type, manufactured in the UK, and can pack cans and bottles in a variety of counts and sizes, within a huge range of different
The result is a supercharged pellet that provides brewers with a dynamic solution
cardboard pack designs.
for juicy, fruit-forward, highly aromatic applications, showing massive tropical,
Lofthouse went on to say: “We were able
stone fruit, and citrus aromas.
to work together with T. Freemantle Ltd to create a machine that would cut out
“The research behind Cryo Pop is revolutionary,” said Spencer Tielkemeier, YCH’s
plastic and also provide a multi pack
East Division sales lead and a member of the brewing innovations team. “It helps
solution for all our products.”
brewers harness a practical understanding of how beer-soluble compounds make an impact in the finished product.”
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MUNTONS LAUNCHES ALCOHOL FREE MALT EXTRACT Muntons has launched a premium alcohol free malt extract available to commercial brewers both in the UK and abroad. The maltster, which is based in Stowmarket and has sites in Bridlington, the
of the wort sug-ars, the typical character-
Consumers expect more choices and
USA and Thailand, has been developing
istics of beer are replicated.
therefore we want to remove barriers for
the malt extract for two years, with the
This then creates a malt extract with low
breweries that want to add alcohol free
mindset of creating great tasting alco-
sweetness and a mild fermentation aro-
to their range.
hol-free beer that is more accessible to
ma, which is an ide-al versatile base that
“Muntons Premium Alcohol Free Malt
brewers can use to build on and create
Extract makes the brewing of low or no
Versatile and easy to use, the extract
an alcohol-free version of their trade-
alcohol beers simple and fuss-free, and
is designed to give body, mouthfeel,
mark brewing styles, ranging from hop
we’re delighted to bring our product to
and taste. Muntons’ lat-est innovation
forward IPAs to a hearty stout.
allows the brewer to include alcohol-free
Vanessa Makings, marketing manager at
Famous for being one of the greenest
options in their range without the need to
Muntons, said: “With a quarter of adults
maltsters in the country, Muntons’ Pre-
invest in expensive equipment.
saying they’re semi-regular drinkers
mium Alcohol Free Malt Extract is made
Made by the maltster’s signature process
of no or low alcohol, we know that
from 100% sustainable malt, sourced
of combining the heating and modifying
alcohol free is no longer a niche market.
from local farms.
HVO, or hydrotreated vegetable oil, is a
truck – have gradually transitioned over
vehicles become viable, which is still a
synthetic, paraffinic fuel made from 100%
to HVO, with additional haulage partners
few years away.
renewable raw materials. It is stable,
al-so using the fossil-free fuel for their
To showcase that the wagons are running
sustainable and high quality, offering
malt deliveries with the company.
more sustainably, an HVO logo – de-
better combustion, filterability and cold
As well as reducing net CO2 emissions
signed by Courage Creative Ltd in Coun-
temperature resistance than other diesel
by up to 90% – which equates to more
ty Durham – has been applied to the rear
than 4,000 tonnes based on litres the
of the trailer of each truck.
In January 2021, Simpsons Malt took
company’s fleet consumes in a regular
The switch to HVO marks the completion
delivery of a 140,000-litre steel bunded
year – HVO is also found to reduce NOx
of another of Simpsons Malt’s sustain-
HVO fuel storage tank from provider
(nitrogen oxide) emissions by up to 27%
ability objectives and comes hot on
Crown Oil and, in the weeks that fol-
and PM (particulate matter) by up to 84%,
the heels of the company assisting all
lowed, 28 trucks in the company’s fleet
with all these key components towards
its farming partners who grow malting
based out of its Berwick-upon-Tweed
achieving improved air quality. It is the
bar-ley on contract in becoming verified
headquarters – comprising 21 DAF
best available technology to do this until
to the SAI Platform’s Farm Sustainability
trucks, six Scania trucks and one MAN
electric or hydrogen powered haulage
Assessment (FSA) to Gold level.
SIMPSONS MALT FLEET GOES SUSTAINABLE Simpsons Malt, the fifth-generation family malting and merchanting business, has reduced net CO2 emissions from its wagons by up to 90% after switching its fleet from diesel to HVO fuel.
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BREWERS L E C T U R E S
NORWICH 24 AUGUST 2021, 12.30PM Dragon Hall, 115-123 King Street, Norwich, NR1 1QE CONFIRMED SPEAKERS FERGUS FITZGERALD ADNAMS MIRANDA HUDSON DURATION BREWING JOHN KEELING FULLER’S CHARLES O’REILLY BURNT MILL BREWERY LOTTE PEPLOW BREWERS ASSOCIATION
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A RETURN TO NORMALITY WHILE JUDGING BEER ONLINE HAS BEEN A GOOD WAY TO CATCH UP WITH FRIENDS AND TRY SOME GREAT BEVERAGES JOHN KEELING, THE FORMER HEAD BREWER AT FULLER’S, IS VERY MUCH LOOKING FORWARD TO SUCH EVENTS RETURNING IN PERSON, ALONG WITH THE SOCIALISING THAT COMES WITH IT.
ell, I’ve been in
invitations from overseas and provided
my lords and masters were ok with my
and enjoyed the
expenses then off I would go and be the
cask beer and
beer ambassador for Fuller’s. A good job
it was too.
enormously. I have even been to some
local restaurants and enjoyed some great
Sadly, those days are behind me so
food. Everywhere I have been has looked
I have to be more selective over my
busy so some semblance of normality
commitments. I am really enjoying my
retirement but I do miss some things about working and travelling around.
However, I write this before Boris has
Being Fuller’s Beer Ambassador is one.
made his mind up regarding June 21st. It does feel like the finishing line is getting
My two favourites were the Australian
further away but I am forever hopeful.
International Beer awards and the Beer
I have never really enjoyed propping
World Cup, which is always held in the
the bar up, instead preferring to sit
USA. Travelling to those events meant I
down. Well, it is my age, comfort before
could really plan a holiday alongside as
well. My holidays tend to be “busman’s holidays” i.e., visiting breweries etc.
Which reminds me I need some new slippers and a pair of trousers with an
I would also do some work and meet up
elasticated waistband. I do know that
with the local distributors for Fuller’s and
for a lot of pubs this last stage is vital for
do some beer events. All great fun and
them and if it is vital for pubs it is vital for
I keep in touch with those distributors
today. As you can imagine I really enjoyed this aspect of my job
I am even thinking about travelling again and have booked a little trip to
I also loved any that were judged in
Cambridge in July. It will be good to get
this country and especially London but
away from the house for a few days.
they tended to be overnight stop-outs
When I was an employed brewer, I used
or back home in the evening. These are
to plan my holidays around my beer
easier to do but there is less socialising,
but hooking up with friends is always enjoyable.
In those days I used to get lots of
The main reason I enjoyed judging was
International Beer Challenge and Adrian
the people, it was so good meeting up
Tierney-Jones who runs the World Beer
with my beery mates and having a good
Awards. In my early days, brewers did not
chinwag however, it was equally good to
really mix with journalists.
meet new friends as well. To be in a room with hundreds of beer judges is quite
Thank goodness those days are long
a thing. Unfortunately, under current
gone and even brewers say that it is very
restrictions I know of no beer competition
useful to admit journalists into the fold. In
doing “live“ judging.
fact, some of my best ideas were stolen from them.
However, a number of competitions have decided to run them using Zoom.
Whilst I do miss some aspects of my old
Two competitions have just asked me
job other aspects I do not. Management
to participate and this is how they work.
training courses were particularly
They send you the beer through the post
loathsome. I never went on one I
and then hook you up with your table of
judges using Zoom and then you judge the beers together at the same time.
I remember one where the course instructor asked the room what each
Well, this seemed like fun so I signed
individual got out of the course.
Whilst I do miss some aspects of my old job other aspects I do not. Management training courses were particularly loathsome,” John Keeling
up this year. Last year unfortunately I couldn’t because my house was being
I was sat at the back of course and after
upgraded and I couldn’t trust my Wi-Fi or
listening to the complimentary bull from
the builders. Apparently, you get to keep
my fellow students when asked I merely
any unused samples too.
stated, “a pen and a folder”. I always was a difficult bugger to teach.
The two competitions are both run by friends, Jeff Evans who runs the
NEW ERA OF GAS STORAGE
AN INCREASING NUMBER OF BREWERIES ARE TURNING TO ON-SITE CO2 STORAGE. HERE CHRIS HAMLETT, THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF IGC ENGINEERING, EXPLAINS THE BENEFITS OF SUCH AN INVESTMENT.
ased in the North-West
So how has such growth and change in
of England, we are
the market been realised?
experiencing new levels
The IGC legacy began through utilising
of growth as increasing
our acclaimed 25-year industry
numbers of companies
knowledge. We have pushed boundaries,
consider their options when it comes to
brought change to the industry and, as
their storage supply.
a result, now provide gas tank contract rentals to clients previously bound to one
IGC started as a small company with
company for their gas and tank business.
the vision to bring competition for the
Now, it is this simple switch not unlike
nationally based industrial gas providers.
those we make as consumers in our
A now-established company, we offer
everyday purchases that has welcomed
gas storage solutions UK-wide and Eu-
a new era of independence within the
industrial gas sector.
The services span across multiple
The sufferings of CO2 shortages that
industrial sectors, the likes of which
reverberated through the market several
include brewing and soft drinks and
years ago meant that many companies
extend to cover food manufacturing and
are being incited to re-evaluate their
current storage contracts.
Those who have seen the attraction of
The repercussions of this shortage mean
the IGC package include the likes of
‘companies have been dissatisfied with
Beavertown, North Brewing Co, Wells &
the status quo, and are considering us as
Co and Heineken.
COMMENT GAS STORAGE
We pride ourselves on our personal and
Today we supply a range of single skin or
tailored approach towards companies,
vacuum insulated vessels in accordance
even offering periodic reviews into their
to Pressure Equipment Directive
usage to supplement changing supply
(Directive 97/23/EC) (PED). What would
needs or expansion programmes. The
be better for your business than CO2
comprehensive website for IGC outlines
storage tanks that are recognised
the range of services available and
nationally and nationally supported with
sectors covered. If you too, like many
service engineers all around the UK.
companies, are looking at measures to streamline your processes and outgo-
If you’re in the business of manufacturing
ings then IGC could just make a real
food goods, chilled food, growing
difference to you.
tomatoes, soft drinks, brewing or even mixed gas, you need a pressure vessel
you can trust. IGC Engineering fulfills that task safely.
Customers are aware a pressure vessel is a container that holds a source of
Our CO2 storage tanks are made from
liquefied gas such as, oxygen, and
either low temperature carbon steel or
nitrogen, carbon dioxide CO2. These
stainless steel with a weather proof jacket
can range in pressure from 0 – 30 bar
and temperatures ranging from -197 to ambient.
Our pressure vessels are tested by our in-house quality and welding inspectors
The switch of course, as well as granting
Choosing the right CO2 storage tanks is
before they even leave our facility. Fully
money-savings down the line, also
important to your business.
designed to meet PD5500 and Pressure Equipment Directive (CE Marking)
facilitates the ability to source alternatives should supply issues arise.
Our pressure vessels, especially our
standards, you will have total confidence
IGC can supply storage vessels in varying
CO2 storage tanks, are compliant to
with the supply and installation of your
size, refurb and even offer engineering
all known regulatory bodies with in the
CO2 storage tanks.
services that set the bench mark in the
UK, Europe and USA. Before 1980, you
had the choice of weather proofing by using mastic or fiberglass outer jackets.
This comprehensive package comes
Of course, many of these tanks are still
tailored to company size, gas usage
used today, but white aluminum jackets
and industry through a technical review
were introduced in the early 1980s. These
carried out by the company directly.
pressure vessels were more durable and long-lasting.
Left: IGC Engineering has supplied on-site gas storage solutions to a wealth of breweries such as North Brewing Co, Heineken and Vocation Brewery
COMMENT SUPPLY CHAIN
BEHIND THE SCENES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN DURING A CHALLENGING TIME FOR UK BREWING, WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THOSE ACROSS THE INDUSTRY HAS BEEN IMPERATIVE. HERE, CHRIS ROGGEBAND, NEWLY APPOINTED CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER OF ONECIRCLE PRODUCER OF KEYKEG AND UNIKEG, OUTLINES THE APPROACH THEY’VE TAKEN TO HELP KEEP THE BREWING INDUSTRY MOVING.
ith the UK market
The supply chain was set up to be robust
feeling the strain
and reactive to confidently meet peaks
in demand. When we expanded our
and Brexit, we
salesforce in the UK, we also created
paused but did not
more new jobs at our purpose-built UK
stand still. We took some time to connect
production facility in Seaham.
with our partners and customers to really look at the best way to support them until
This was opened to support our
their demand per keg returned.
customers reactively and offer reliability after such a turbulent year. Crucially, we
Our teams at local level listened to
were recruiting from within the British
their frustrations and took on board the
hospitality industry, where the job losses
various challenges of adapting to smaller
had been so heavy. We have been
packaging formats, like can and bottle.
preparing for Brexit from 2018, we did
While we couldn’t sell kegs at usual
not expect the pandemic and it certainly
volumes, what we could do was work
hit us hard. We felt it was essential to be
on expanding our UK team. With this
physically present in the UK with local
strategic forward planning, it was
possible to ensure the right style of Keg was in the right place at the right time
The UK is traditionally our largest market
when the hospitality sector reopened.
for KeyKeg, and we see service as a crucial element of our success. We aim
SUPPLY CHAIN COMMENT to provide the best service, keeping
forward-thinking team back in Holland
Our long-term goal is to equip every
stock as close to our customers as
adapted and pushed harder to come
stakeholder in the supply-chain with
possible, reducing transport costs and
up with OnePET®, a material that will
the optimum storage and dispensing
the environmental footprint. We are
improve our overall circularity.
equipment, with a considerable overall reduction in transport costs, CO2
now perfectly positioned to offer rapid,
emissions, and water consumption.
cost-effective solutions across the United
The first OnePET® containing KeyKegs
Kingdom and Ireland, and can continue
were manufactured. It consists of 85%
to strategically support our partners
recycled PET - of which 50% originates
Natalie Maestri, UK Account Manager,
growth as restrictions recede.
from our own post-industrial and
concludes: “Thanks to our partners,
community connected (post-consumer)
OneCircle was able to make ambitious
leaps forward, increasing the recycled
The last twelve months have really
Regular production will see the
shown the resilience of those working
KeyKeg circular material content rise to
in our industry. It made us even prouder
approximately 45%, surpassing the EU
“OneCircle takes responsibility for the
to be part of the supply chain behind
legislative demands for 2030.
end-life of its kegs and continues to
material content of the KeyKeg from 30% to 45%.
add new collection partners in new
the United Kingdom and Ireland’s 3000+ The thirst for change is everywhere,
areas to drive our mission forward. Each
and OneCircle is creating a ripple effect
new partner is another step in the right
We are more determined than ever
of efficiencies across the UK beverage
direction, with our message and products
to support these suppliers and their
industry with its high-quality, lightweight
increasingly circling the globe.”
hospitality customers over a period
that will be vitally important for them to recoup the last year’s financial losses.
Collectively we are focused on redefining the sustainability expectations within the
For us, the challenges of the pandemic
sector by connecting the dots between
also brought new opportunities, and our
people and product.
BRING YOUR BRAND TO LIFE THROUGH TEXTILES www.thecottontextilecompany.co.uk firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3633 2699
GROWING PROFITABLY REGARDLESS OF THE AIMS OF THE BUSINESS AND GOALS YOU ARE TRYING TO ACHIEVE, MAKING A PROFIT UNDERPINS THE FINANCIAL STABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE BREWERY, EXPLAINS NEIL STEVENS, DIRECTOR AT BROMHEAD CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS AND A BREWERY AND DISTILLERY SPECIALIST.
rowing any business
can mean many things – increasing turnover,
Your plan should include a cashflow
market share, owner’s
forecast to help you view what funding
you will need, if any, and when you will
numbers, reputation or profit.
Understanding how the owners, investors
As you grow you will need to fund new
and management team measure “growth”
equipment, marketing costs and new
will ensure operations are aligned and
employees to enable you to meet the
the whole team is pulling in the same
direction. This shouldn’t be just financial but include lifestyle and other factors,
Being prepared for this and having
such as environmental sustainability.
facilities in place beforehand will ease the pressures on the business.
You may call this a budget, a forecast,
You should also be aware of grant
a projection or a financial model, the
funding may be available and
name is less relevant but it should be a
opportunities such as research and
roadmap of where you want to be and
development tax incentives.
how the numbers need to look in order to
Some key financial information is needed
to feed in to your plan. Importantly you need to know how much it costs to make
These valuable documents will ensure
your target is achievable and your plans
This should be on two levels, the
will actually make the profit you require.
ingredients, packaging and labour that go into producing each pint (your direct
Once you know where you are and where
costs) and a contribution towards the
you want to be you can work on how
overheads of the brewery, including the
to get there and performance can be
premise costs, sales team and office
monitored against the milestones.
costs (your indirect costs).
Running a business without this key
information is like driving a car without
This information will tell you how much
a dashboard. Are you driving too fast or
profit you should make on each pint and
allow you to monitor whether this is being
FUNDING COMMENT achieved. You can use this information
market for you to consider. These routes
systems capture the source data
to help set your pricing and assess
to market will often achieve very different
accurately and efficiently.
opportunities as they arise.
PLAN YOUR MARKETING
For instance, supermarkets could
You really don’t want to be spending too
achieve a high volume of sales but at a
much time gathering this information or
doubting it’s reliability as analysis needs to be timely in order to be most useful.
To grow your brewery, you will need to raise the profile and market your product,
Direct to consumer sales through your
which will of course have a cost.
website will likely achieve much lower
Software can be used to effectively
Choosing where or how to spend on
volumes but at a higher margin.
gather much of the financial and non-
marketing and advertising is difficult, but
Interestingly £150,000 of sales at a 20%
financial data if the systems are designed
plan it and set a budget for this area.
profit margin and £50,000 of sales at a
and configured correctly.
This budget shouldn’t be set in stone
60% margin will achieve the same profit.
as you will need to adapt and identify
Which works best for reaching your
Last but certainly not least is your beer.
the activity producing the best results.
Producing great beer is fundamental, but great beer by itself will not make a
Monitoring the results alongside your
TRACK YOUR DATA
Successful businesses use the data
The quality of your beer is only
When focusing on growth and ramping
from recent periods to make changes
recognised when people are drinking
up operations, overheads can potentially
and sculpt the future of the business. It
it. Establishing your brand identity and
spiral. Regular monitoring alongside your
enables you to identify successes and
unique selling point will help ensure
forecast or budget will help pick this up
importantly where improvements can be
you reach as many potential customers
at the earliest opportunity.
as possible and hopefully they can tell
Depending on the beer you are
Fundamental to using this key
producing, there are many routes to
information well is to ensure your
financial budget or forecast will help keep you on the right track.
others how great it is!
FIVE STAFF TRAINING TIPS FOR BAR HYGIENE KEEPING ON TOP OF NEW TECHNOLOGY, AND HAVING A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF NEW GUIDELINES, NEW PRODUCTS AND CLEANING TECHNIQUES IS ALSO CRUCIAL - AS SOME OF IT WILL SAVE YOU MONEY, SAVE YOU TIME, CUT WASTE AND INCREASE PROFITS, EXPLAINS HANCE MCGHIE OF CHEMISPHERE UK
s the UK’s hospitality industry fires up again after many months of closures, refreshing your cleaning schedules and ensuring
your team is well versed in hygiene practices has never been so critical. Engaged staff members, visible cleanliness and the use of the correct sanitising and cleaning products are key to instilling customer confidence after such a tumultuous year, so recapping on your policies is key. We have been at the forefront of bar hygiene for three decades. As well as offering a full range of tried and tested hygiene products that will ensure all on trade sites are fully cleaned and C19 free, we also offer free advice on the best methods to use to be totally compliant with any new regulations or cleaning schedules. It’s more important than ever that the industry sticks together to ensure the rejuvenation of the UK on trade, so with this in mind, here are five tips on staff
You don’t need to blind the team with
training to ensure strict bar hygiene
science, but letting them know how
standards are maintained;
bacteria can grow, what bacterias and organisms can affect product quality and
customer health and the importance of excellent sanitation for customer
As you welcome new members of staff
retention and confidence can help them
to your team, it’s prudent to have a tried
to understand on a deeper level why
and tested training session with recruits,
you are strict about the processes you
to instill excellent hygiene practices from
the off. And, after the Covid19 pandemic, it Providing a manual or a lesson on your
has never been so crucial to run a tight
cleanliness processes are, of course,
ship when it comes to cleanliness and
useful, but it’s even better to explain to
staff why these things are critical, and equip them with the knowledge and a
This initial session is also a good time
wider understanding of cleanliness and
to show staff where to find all the
equipment and cleaning supplies, and what products work with which area
BAR HYGIENE COMMENT
- and, of course, why! Any chemical
policy, having strict systems for other
Remember to re-allocate the tasks to a
hazards and other safety issues should
areas of cleaning is a great idea.
new member of staff if a team member leaves the business.
be clearly explained. For extra peace of mind, you could draft up a one-pager
You can draw up easy to follow, clear
with key points highlighted, for staff
how-to guides for beer line cleaning
members to take home, take a picture of
(even if you use a high tech system),
and keep for reference.
closing the bar down, sanitising sparklers,
Having high standards when it comes
washing glassware, cleaning the toilets,
to personal hygiene is crucial, but these
There are lots of online courses that
keeping the cellar immaculate, cleaning
tasks do fall to individuals - so training
you can use for training sessions too,
floors and front of house will help you -
them in areas such as hand washing and
so it’s worth researching into options
and your staff - be more confident when
sanitising, cleaning uniforms, avoiding
and investing into the right ones for
it comes to ensuring everything is done
touching their faces, keeping their hair
your business and team - especially if
correctly and to a high standard.
tidy and avoiding wearing certain pieces
you sell or handle food or even cocktail ingredients etc.
CLEAN AS YOU GO
STRICT PERSONAL HYGIENE
of jewellery is very important. The guides can also include details of the products that should be used for each
These standards can be covered in the
area of cleaning and any guidelines for
initial training sessions, but it is important
using them safely.
to keep an eye on these aspects every day so customer confidence can be
You will no doubt employ the services of a professional cleaner to thoroughly
Having the systems clearly visible in the
maintained. After all, your team members
clean the front of house and bar areas
venue - and providing digital copies for
are on centre stage for customers, so
before opening each day, and starting
staff members - can help employees to
their habits and appearance will have
off every morning with a clean venue is
stick to the checklists clearly until they
an impact on customer perception and
are well versed in your methods. This will
also help staff members to crack on with However, it’s very important to instill
tasks without having to ask for recaps or
It goes without saying that bar managers,
a “clean as you go” policy with staff
help - something that will help them feel
owners and landlords have a part to
members, to ensure that your premises
more confident in the long run.
play, too. Keeping up to speed on new ideas and processes is important, as
always look perfect. Having an effective clean as you go policy will minimise
getting stuck in your ways won’t do your business any good.
hygiene risks and any other risks to health or safety for staff members and
It’s important that younger or less
experienced members of the team feel
Keeping abreast of new technology, and
like they’re contributing to the overall
having a working knowledge of new
In essence, it ensures staff members
running of the bar, so allocating areas
guidelines, new products and cleaning
tackle any spills or other issues straight
of cleaning to certain members of staff
techniques is also crucial - as some of it
away, and ensures that they take the
can help them to take responsibility and
will save you money, save you time, save
time to continually clean throughout the
become an “expert” in that area!
waste and increase profits!
day, wiping surfaces, and equipment, removing waste and tidying up after
Play up to skill sets; if someone is a
themselves immediately and at all times
tech whizz, let them be in charge of the
to make sure the bar, cellar, surfaces and
beer line cleans using high tech apps
all walkways are always clutter free and
and systems, and if someone is great at
customer service, give them the front of house cleaning job so they can chat to
HOW -TO HYGIENE GUIDES
customers and represent the venue in a positive, friendly manner.
As well as operating a clean as you go
THE HARD SELTZER OPPORTUNITY THIS MUST BE SOUNDING LIKE AN OLD VINYL RECORD WITH A SCRATCH ON IT, REPLAYING A SECTION OVER AND OVER AGAIN. BUT HARD SELTZER IS HERE AND THE ONLY QUESTION IS, WILL YOU BE MAKING MONEY WITH IT OR WATCHING FROM THE SIDE LINES? VELO MITROVICH REPORTS. brewersjournal.info
ou mention hard seltzer to
its muscles in 2016, last year the market
some craft brewers here
grew to $4 billion.
and you’ll hear reasons why it will never catch on
White Claw and Truly (owned by Boston
with the major one being,
Beer) are seen by many as the Coca-
nobody here knows what seltzer is.
Cola and Pepsi of the hard seltzer world, battling it out for the top spot with the
Yeah…that makes perfect sense.
two having a combined US market of 70
Following the same logic, KFC and all it
percent, with the majority belonging to
knock-offs should have never become
one of the UK’s favourite fast foods.
While that might be fine if they were
McDonald’s ‘Big Mac’ – no, that won’t
staying over there, they’re not. White
fly here. Dried beans that are baked in
Claw, owned by Ireland’s Mark Anthony
tomato sauce and served for breakfast?
Brands International, announced in April
Now you’re really talking crazy.
2021 its first global marketing campaign, targeting Canada, Ireland, Belgium, the
According to Nielsen IQ, in the States
Netherlands and the UK. When it was
hard seltzers racked up sales of around
launched in Australia last year, White
$500 million in 2018. While that’s not too
Claw sold one million cans in its first
shabby for a drink that first started flexing
TRENDING HARD SELTZER Ryan and Dean Ginsberg, through mutual
already have? Simple answer – yes.
friends. She was impressed with Served and with
According to Craft Beer & Brewing, as a
the company’s eco-minded approach.
brewer you have the skills necessary to
The 4% ABV hard seltzer is made in
get sugar into a liquid, ferment it, flavour
Herefordshire using spring water, wonky
it, package it, and carbonate it.
fruit and the brand’s own ‘ServedPure’
There are few ingredients and a lot less
hassle in making it when compared to beer. Plus, we’re talking about a relatively
There are now an increasing number of Hard Seltzer brands to choose from in the UK
Served is by far not the only UK hard
low-ABV product with few ingredients—
seltzer company. East London Liquor Co,
two factors that tend to reduce the
Keepr’s, High Water, Dalston’s, and others
degree of difficulty.
are making it here, although with some there seems to be a lack of transparency
But, cautions CB&B, hard seltzer’s
as to exactly where in the UK or EU their
defining attribute is its crisp, clean
hard seltzers are being made.
character, and that can be challenging to create.
With White Claw and Truly having so much of the US market locked-up, other
MAKING HARD SELTZER According to yeast company Lallemand,
players are probably looking for new markets to expand into.
How and why hard seltzers erupted like
there are many different strategies for
These include Bud Light Seltzer and
they did will someday be the subject of a
producing hard seltzer depending on the
Bon & Viv – both owned by AB InBev –
book. You create a drink that is a basically
priorities of the brewer.
Diageo’s Smirnoff Seltzer; MillerCoors’
clear, colourless alcoholic beverage with
Henry’s Hard Sparkling Water;
a 4 to 5% ABV, with some strong versions
For example, some brewers might
Constellation Brands’ Corona Seltzer; and
favour higher alcohol yields or faster fermentation times, while others might
Molson Coors’ Vizzy Hard Seltzer. To the sugar-solution alcohol base, add
focus on a cleaner flavour profile with
Interesting partnerships are shocking the
in 95 percent water, some flavouring and
fewer off flavours. Priorities of the brewer
market. Coca-Cola and Molson Coors
fizzy it up with carbon dioxide and there
will determine the choice of yeast strain
have created Topo Chico Hard Seltzer,
and nutrient strategy.
while hip-hop star Travis Scott and
Lower calorie than most beers and
Anheuser-Busch have released Cacti,
almost 100 percent gluten free, the
In principle, many different sources of
a seltzer made with blue agave syrup.
public grabbed onto the idea that hard
sugar may be used to produce hard
Good luck finding either of these two in
seltzers were the healthy alternative to
seltzer including dextrose, sucrose, cane
the States, they sell-out fast.
beer or spirits, and one that you could
sugar, liquid invert sugar, agave syrup
easily drink three to four cans without
and honey, to name a few. Lallemand
getting drunk or lethargic.
and others see an advantage in using
Here, singer/model Ellie Goulding has
cane sugar since it is widely available,
just acquired what is being called a “significant” stake in hard seltzer brand
Some get around making their own
often organic certified, and is generally
Served. According to reports, Goulding
alcohol base by just using vodka – there
perceived as a high quality ingredient
was introduced to the brand’s founders,
is no Hard Seltzer Guild dictating as to
when listed on a label.
what defines hard seltzer. Served Hard Seltzers are produced using “wonky fruit”
Unlike a beer, wine or cider fermentation, According to brewing consultants First
sugar-based fermentations have almost
Key, running an ordered fermentation is
zero buffering capacity. As a result, the
the most challenging aspect of making a
CO2 produced by the fermenting yeast
will react with water to form carbonic acid
“Finding the correct concentration of
(H2 CO3 ) resulting in a rapid drop in pH in
yeast nutrients for your yeast strain,
the absence of any buffer.
substrate concentration, pitching rate, and oxygenation level is the biggest
To maintain optimal yeast health during
hurdle facing most brewers. These
fermentation, Lallemand says that the
variables may have to be tweaked even
pH should be maintained above 3.5-4.0.
after several production batches.”
This is best achieved by the addition of potassium bicarbonate (K2HCO3 ) as a
If you can brew beer, can you make
hard seltzer and with the equipment you
HARD SELTZER TRENDING
MICHELADAS MADNESS In Mexico, a drink popular for years is a beer cocktail made with dark Mexican beer, hot sauce, tomato juice and lime – basically a beer-based Bloody Mary. Called micheladas or shortened to cheladas, it’s one of those drinks you have try before passing judgement. Canned versions are now being produced in the US, primarily in cities with a large Mexican population such as Los Angeles and San Diego, and Bud Light has entered the Michelada arena in the USA
The exact amount required will vary depending on the mineral and salt
made by either Mexican or southern Californian breweries. The US versions use a light lager, lime, tomato juice, hot sauce, and
composition of the water as well as the fermentation volume (larger fermenters
Sanjiv Gajiwala, senior VP of marketing
other flavourings such as ‘Clamato’ –
have higher hydrostatic pressure in
at White Claw, says that on social media,
a tomato and clam juice concentrate
the fermenting liquid leading to higher
there was “a snowball effect” which kept
– tamarind, chipotle peppers, pickled
CO2 and carbonic acid concentrations
growing and growing.
fruit sauce or mango.
and therefore requiring more buffer).
White Claw responded by cutting its
While it is hard seeing micheladas
Generally, 10-15g/hL of potassium
marketing budget by 30 percent and just
taking off in the UK, stranger things
bicarbonate is a good starting point.
let its fans take over, giving it advertising
have happened and thanks to Old
El Paso’s marketing, Mexican food is becoming popular.
Lallemand says that a high quality, highly viable yeast strain such as its
While some social media took the micky
LalBrew CBC-1 is “ideal” for hard seltzer
out of White Claw and its fans, even
these videos brought in new drinkers,
This strain is tolerant to high levels of
curious to try the drink.
alcohol, high osmotic pressure and low
In one of the most famous of these,
pH and produces a neutral flavour profile.
Millennial comedian and actor, Trevor
The high purity of a premium brewing
Wallace, coined the phrase: “Ain’t no laws
According to the Distilled Spirits
when you’re drinking the claw.”
Council of the US, the rise of hard
yeast strain such as LalBrew CBC-
seltzers is fuelling the growing popu-
1 reduces the bacterial count in the
White Claw could not keep up with
larity of canned cocktails.
finished product. Yeast should be
demand, creating a new phrase for when
In 2019 AB InBev, owner of Budweis-
rehydrated in the presence of GoFerm
a bar/pub ran out of White Claw – it’s
er, bought out San Diego-based craft
distillery Cutwater in order to get an
The high sterol and unsaturated fatty
easy entry into the canned cocktail
acid content of GoFerm Protect Evolution
What Gajiwala finds interesting is as
market. Cutwater is the second-best
provides additional protection to the
competition goes up – there are now
selling canned cocktail brand and
cell well against stress caused by high
around 80 hard seltzer makes in the USA
its growth motivated AB InBev to get
osmotic pressure, low pH and high levels
– White Claws’ market share goes up.
involved, especially since it had seen
AIN’T NO LAWS
a trending downward trend in beer Unlike with beer which is seen more
of a male’s drink, hard seltzers defy
AB InBev has also partnered with a
demographics with an even 50/50 split
Canadian distiller to bring out Nutrl,
What changed hard seltzer in the States
between female and male drinkers. With
a line of vodka drinks which are very
from being a marginal drink to going
age, however, the majority of fans are
similar to hard seltzers.
mainstay was White Claw’s introduction
LEADERS OF THEIR CRAFT HOW DID A SMALL BAR IN LEEDS SERVING BEAMISH RED AND KRONENBOURG BECOME A DRIVING FORCE IN THE CRAFT BEER REVOLUTION? FOUNDED BY JOHN GYNGELL AND CHRISTIAN TOWNSLEY BACK IN 1997, NORTH BAR IS AN INSTITUTION WHEN IT COMES TO GREAT, MODERN BEER. AND NEARLY 25 YEARS ON, THE TEAM HAS JUST OPENED THE DOORS ON A NEW BREWERY OF ITS OWN.
hat do The Stone
sawdust Irish pubs, some rough boozers
and that was pretty much it. The city
Slayer and ... East 17
centre wasn’t a very welcoming place to
have in common?
have all played at the birthplace of North
Both Gyngell and Townsley knew this
Brewing Co, of course.
needed to change…
Well, yes and no…
They wanted somewhere that would offer table service, that offered up a
Because before North Brewing there was
continental vibe and was welcoming to
North Bar. Located on New Briggate in
each and every customer.
Leeds City Centre, the seminal craft beer
He recalls: “The intention was to create
bar would open its doors in 1997. And in
an open, friendly space for the liberally-
the years that followed, it too would open
minded people. A venue for people like
up people’s eyes and palates to a world
us. I think most businesses are founded
of modern, exciting beer.
upon the needs of the founders. “They identify a need in their life and
A launchpad for countless local
solve it by opening a business to do that,
breweries and a gateway to a wealth
and that was ultimately what we did.”
of world-famous brands like Brooklyn Brewery, Erdinger and Sierra Nevada to
They found their location at New
enter the UK market.
Briggate, and with a “modest” loan from John Smith’s went on their way opening
The impact the bar, founded by John
with beers, necessitated by the loan,
Gyngell and Christian Townsley, has
such as Beamish Red, Fosters, Guinness
had on the craft beer sector cannot be
understated. “A pretty poor selection, let’s be honest,” But before the duo were to open that
much-loved bar, they would meet during
Following months of hard graft to get
their role as glass collectors at the Town
the place open, a period of the bar being
and Country Club in Leeds. Originally
“deathly quiet” followed.
opened way back in 1885 as the Leeds
“It makes you question if you’ve made the
Coliseum, the grade II listed Gothic
right decision. There’s times where you’re
building would host a variety of circus
incredibly tired, the place is empty and
shows and political events.
you go into a dark place,” he says. “But we held our nerve and thankfully things
Come 1992 it reopened as the Town
started to pick up.”
and Country Club, it too hosting a raft of events but this time of a musical nature.
And this time, it was the turn of another of
If you’re passing the venue, located at
the city’s entertainment venues to have
55 Cookridge St, is now known as the O2
its say in the story of North Bar.
Townsley explains: “We got really lucky being right next to the Leeds Grand
“John is from Stockport so he used to
Theatre. And the crew effectively started
spent a lot of time in Manchester. From a
to use the bar as their greenroom. We
young age, he always had an aspiration
ended up attracting some really creative
to open his own bar one day,” says
individuals that were working in a range
Townsley. “When we met, he told me that
of roles at the venue.
he wanted to open somewhere in Leeds. Back then, there were a few spit and
“They were well-travelled and loved
(L-R) John Gyngell, Sarah Hardy, Christian Townsley, Seb Brink and Fiona Potts - May 2021
The intention was to create an open, friendly space for the liberally-minded people” Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co
the fact that we started to stock more
The success of these draught products
interesting beers that they recognised
meant North Bar was able to pay off its
from those trips.”
loan sooner than expected and before
Members of team North with the newly-installed brewhouse from Gravity Systems
long, the duo would meet the team at To celebrate the upcoming Euro 1998
specialist beer importer James Clay &
football tournament, Gyngell and
beers from the revered US brewery. Townsley will also never forget his first
Townsley wanted to offer beers from all of the participating nations. So in came
The relationship swiftly blossomed and
time enjoying a bottle of Anchor Liberty
beers from Hoegaarden Brewery, Duvel
North Bar would become something of
Ale from Anchor Brewing.
and TAP7 Mein Original from Schneider
a shop window for the breweries such as
the aforementioned Brooklyn Brewery
“People from the theatre knew these
and Erdinger as well as Goose Island,
beers and the flavours and aromas
“It blew my mind!” he recalls. North’s love affair with US beers grew by the day but visits to expos across Europe
really excited John and I. It really got us interested in beer and we then knew we
“It worked brilliantly for us,” says
ensured they stayed on top of world-
wanted to do more,” says Townsley.
beating Belgian and German produce,
But while North Bar would start to stock
“We became known for these exclusives
find themselves at a trade expo in Ghent.
a raft of beers from across Europe, its
and as a result, other companies would
“I tried a beer and thought ‘Oh my god,
sales of Kronenbourg and Guinness
bring their customers to North Bar to
this is amazing’ so I asked Ian at James
were absolutely flying, with the venue
show how well these brands could
Clay who went on to supply us with it,”
becoming a major account for both
perform. I feel that James Clay helped us
brands in the North of England.
grow and we helped them, too.”
“I remember having to repeat myself a
The venue would also be the first to pour
few times on the phone when asking for
Sierra Nevada in the UK. Working with
twenty 50l kegs of
Steve Holt of Vertical Drinks, and more
“We have always been very lucky with
Kronenbourg as the lady on the end of
recently the founder of Kirkstall Brewery,
the type of customer North Bar attracts.
the line didn’t believe us!” he smiles.
the duo work work closely to showcase
They are open-minded, inquisitive and
too. Gyngell and Townsley would soon
That particular beer was Duchesse de
Bourgogne by Brouwerij Verhaeghe.
NORTH BREWING BREWERY TOUR willing to try new things. We learn from
having fun’. And some ten years after that
them, too, and continue to do so.”
visit to Copenhagen the team’s designer,
The success of North Bar led the duo\
James Ockelford, had a proposal.
to open their second venue in 2005, a
“He told us that North Bar needed a
number that currently stands at eight in 2021. But rewind back to 2004, and a research trip to Copenhagen would light that fire of doing something more handson with beer. Nørrebro Bryghus can stake its claim to be first real micro brewery in Denmark. Founded in 2003 by Anders Kissmeyer, a former Carlsberg brewmaster, the aim was to open peoples’ eyes to a world of great beer. “We walked in and thought wow, this is
We have always been very lucky with the type of customer North Bar attracts, Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co
rebrand,” recalls Townsley. “Ok, we thought. So he came to us with this weighty brochure of the new logo and the work behind it. “He then turned to the back and showed us how had adapted this new North Bar logo for North Brewing Co. We looked at him and said ‘Ah shit, we’re going to have to do a brewery, aren’t we?’” Gyngell and Townsley knew it was now or never. They could discuss it and put it on the back burner, or act upon it and make their move.
class, this is class,” muses Townsley. “You could see the brewhouse, the branding was smart, clean, and the layout of the
River Aire. “It was an amazing site. We
place was spot on.”
started to join the dots but the money
They chose the latter.
that was required, along with the us
Around that time Seb Brink was plying his
He adds: “We went on to visit some
getting distracted opening new bars
trade as ukulele teacher. He also enjoyed
other smaller brewpubs and were just so
meant it escaped us,” he recalls.
cuckoo brewing for his own business Golden Owl, too. A regular of North’s
impressed with what we saw. We even asked the head brewer at one place that
Venues such as Further North in Chapel
Alfred bar, word reached him that North
if she ever wanted to move to Leeds, she
Allerton and Alfred in Meanwood
were looking to expand into brewing their
could start a brewery for us!”
followed. With it, North was bringing
own beer. Gyngell and Townsley had
over more and more great beer from
also heard positive things about his beer.
Returning to Leeds, Gyngell and
breweries across the globe. Leeds had
And one day, Brink turned up to politely
Townsley would happen upon a Victorian
become a hot bed for excellent beer.
inform the duo that he had quit his job.
As the saying goes, ‘Time flies when you’re
“Ok, I said,” says Townsley.
engine house which formed part of an industrial estate on Water Lane near the
BREWERY TOUR NORTH BREWING Christian Townsley and John Gyngell, June 2020
Beers that are still part of North’s offering today. One that didn’t make the cut was Bulkhead, a brown ale that resonated with Townsley. “I was really excited about it because I grew up on Double Maxim ale. But it was a tough sell and it just didn’t really happen. But I loved it!” From the off, North knew they wanted a reliable core range to hang their hat on. Another addition, tropical pale ale Piñata, soon joined the group. “I’m dead proud of the beers that Seb has produced in the core range,” he says. “From the bar point of view, we also needed some consistency, so we needed a pale ale, and a IPA. It gave us reliability in supplying our own bars.”
“He replied that ‘We’re doing a brewery, aren’t we?’ So we thought we better crack
While the team invested in capacity
We believed in the team, in the beer and in the brand, Christian Townsley, North Brewing Co
that, they assumed, would be more than
pretty nervous. He opted for a beer that
values. That taking a leap of faith can be
Shortly into their tenure at Sheepscar,
had characteristics of both East and West
a positive thing.
the team from Fourpure Brewing Co in
As the bar that launched Magic Rock, Cannonball was always a favourite of the team at North Bar. Townsley suggested Brink create something along those lines, paying homage to excellent West Coast beers. So off he went.
they’d require, it would soon become apparent that the brewery would outstrip that capacity pretty quickly. Especially with the brewery’s ability to directly sell from the taproom and through the North bars, all driven by a hospitable environment to drink those beers in, too.
“He came to meet us, and I think he was
London were in town. North Bar would
Coast styles,” says Townsley. “John was there but he was full of cold and couldn’t
“But when Seb tells us that he’s tinkering
host an annual Fourpure event around
smell or taste anything.
with the recipe for Transmission, we’re
the time of Leeds International Beer
“But the second Seb opened the beer I
like ‘No, no, no’. But you have to trust him
Festival. “They remarked on the empty
knew he had hit it out of the park with his
and he always gets it right.”
unit next-door and if we had enquired,” says Townsley. “We hadn’t, and they told
first go. It brought a tear to my eye. It was On 9th September 2015, the team
us we better get our skates on as we’d
would get the keys to their brewery
need it. We took their advice and secured
That beer would become Transmission.
site in Sheepscar. Armed with a 25HL
it. Then shortly after we secured another
A 6.9% IPA boasting a hazy orange
brewhouse from Malrex and four 25HL
unit on the same estate.
appearance and soft, juicy mouthfeel.
FVs, the on-site taproom would open
One that has gone on to win awards and
that November serving beer to thirsty
“By 2018 it became apparent that even
become a flagship beer for the brewery.
with that space, capacity was becoming
“It’s quite amusing,” says Townsley.
North launched with Transmission and
“When we introduce the company to
also Sputnik, a 5.0% American Pale Ale. A
new team members, we always promote
Kölsch, Herzog, would follow, along with
Towards the end of following year, North
continuous improvement as one of our
Full Fathom 5, a Coffee Coconut Porter.
would collaborate with Leeds-based
an issue and we would soon have to
consider our options.”
NORTH BREWING BREWERY TOUR
ice cream company Northern Bloc on a
the team had some knew there were
Raspberry and Rhubarb Sorbert Sour.
some challenging decisions to be made.
Construction on the site started in
Brewed with organic raspberry puree
So in late March 2020, they met with
earnest shortly after. An architectural
and forced Yorkshire rhubarb from the
Mischendahl to work out where they
survey swiftly revealed that the floor
famed E. Olroyd & Sons, Sorbet Sour
of the building was in no fit shape to support four 150HL FVs down the
would prove to be more than just a “Dirk had just spent a lot of money on this
middle of the facility. This resulted in
building and needed to know our plans.
the unexpected investment in all-new
“Northern Bloc’s founder Dirk
It was an anxious time but it didn’t take
reinforced flooring. The building’s former
(Mischendahl) looked around the brewery
long for John and I to agree we had to
role as a tannery also required some
and could see we were running out of
crack on,” says Townsley.
deep site investigations to get the all
clear on contaminants. All of this while
space,” recalls Townsley. “He told us he had an offer out on a building we might
He adds: “We believed in the team, in the
the global pandemic threatened the
like, but was having second thoughts.”
beer and in the brand. We knew it was
longterm existence of the bars that had
time to crack on and sign the lease.
led the team to this point in the first place.
Located at Springwell Works on Buslingthorpe Lane, the site was less
“We’ve spent five years without a
than a mile north of the brewery’s existing
full-time salesperson and we’ve been
“On our bar side we were fighting for
facility. “We went to look at it and it was
constantly short of beer. Starting with four
our lives, it was horrendous,” Townsley
perfect. He said if we were happy to rent
25HL tanks and always needing to add
explains. “It has been really difficult and
it then he’d buy the building and lease it
more and more 50HL vessels each and
you find yourself firefighting on a daily
to us. Perfect!”
basis.” We managed to convert many of
Then the global Covid pandemic struck
“We told ourselves we had been chasing
us. But the changing restrictions, and the
and the lease had yet to be signed.
our tail for too long and it was time to
addition of the 10pm curfew was a real
And at that point, Gyngell, Townsley and
make that move.”
killer for a lot of hospitality.
the bars to bottleshops, which helped
BREWERY TOUR NORTH BREWING
“There was zero help and it was a real
with the eponymous Springwell Pils.
hospitality in England on April 12th was
stranglehold for businesses like ours.
Springwell Pils is a crisp and refreshing
the green light for Springwell to open its
So to see the support come through,
Pilsner, brewed using German Pilsner
doors. For outdoor drinking, of course.
be it online or click and collect, has had
Malt and Cara Gold, it has a light, clean
The brewery tap has, predictably, been
John and I in tears. It meant the world to
and fresh profile whilst a light dry hop
a hit in with visitors in those early months
know you have that connection with the
of modern German Callista and noble
community. It was very humbling.”
Mittelfruh finishes the beer with delicate tart gooseberry, fresh herb and floral
And despite the busiest period in his
But thankfully, they pulled through.
career, Townsley is grateful for the size of
The centrepiece of the new Springwell
While visitors to the new brewery can
brewery is a 50HL brewhouse from
enjoy a beer in its 500-seater taproom,
“I look back at the last year and, in
Gravity Systems, supported by a wealth
Townsley is also proud of the improved
some ways, the pandemic gave us the
of much-needed tank capacity. The
facilities the Spingwell site offers the
opportunity to make Springwell a reality,”
first beers were brewed on this kit last
the project he and the team took on.
December. He says: “We’ve been incredibly fortunate
“There’s no way we would have been
Townsley explains: “The potential for us
with how everyone has pulled through
able to manage a project like this in
to brew more and in bigger batches is
during this last year. They’ve been hard-
normal times. John and I are travelling for
massive for us. Our colleague Fay, who
working and flexible and they’ve got us
work so often that this brewery wouldn’t
is responsible for the distribution and
through this. In some ways, I feel like this
have happened with that being the case.
allocation of stock, has a really hard time
new place is something of a reward to
over the years. She’s got a tough job.
“I’m always grateful for having that focus, too. It’s been hard work but, to be honest,
“Working out what goes where, be it to
“It’s a nice environment. We’ve got on-site
I think it’s helped save my sanity. Now we
our bars, export, local delivery, webshop,
showers and will be adding a gym, team
have the team under one roof, and can
the lot. She’s constantly trying to keep
garden and space for people to relax.
make more beer too.
everybody happy. Thankfully now, if
“Already it’s so much more than I
we’re to brew say 100HL of a new special,
dreamed it would ever be. I want it
“I hope that, by showing a company like
it gives her a bit of comfort knowing she
to become a space for the brewing
ours can grow, we can show everyone
has that volume to work with.”
community to collaborate and work
there’s still much to be positive about,
together at for a long time to come.”
that there’s always light at the end of the tunnel.”
In addition to larger batches sizes, North marked the opening of its new facility
The lifting of restrictions on outdoor
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TIM O’ROURKE, TECHNICAL EDITOR AT THE BREWERS JOURNAL, LOOKS AT A JOURNEY TOWARDS A “CARBON ZERO” FUTURE FOR THE BREWING INDUSTRY.
he brewing industry has
make affect the size of our Carbon
been through a really
Footprint. Below are some examples
difficult time surviving the
of the carbon footprint associated with
pandemic. As we emerge
different food and beverages.
from lockdown, we are
It is not just CO2 which contribute to
facing another, less obvious, existential
greenhouse gases but other gases such
threat to our livelihood from the
as methane and ammonia which have
deteriorating environment and climate
an even greater insulation effect and are
added to the carbon dioxide value to give a CO2e (equivalent).
We all interact with the environment consuming resources, creating waste,
As we work to reduce our carbon
and emitting greenhouse gases, referred
footprint, each producer will be expected
to as carbon footprint. Individual carbon
to improve their production efficiency
footprints vary around the world with
towards the global objective a carbon
the average North America citizen
zero future on or before 2050.
producing 16.5 tonnes of CO2e pa, in the UK it equates to 6.5 tonnes per person,
To calculate the carbon footprint of a
whereas in India it is around 1.7 tonnes of
beer it is necessary to consider the whole
CO2e per person.
supply chain, from barley growing to drinking the beer in the pub.
The rise in greenhouse gases is thought
Around 15 to 20% of the carbon footprint
to result in net increase in average
is due to the Brewing Process itself,
temperature from 13.70C in 1900 to 15.00C
the rest comes from the raw materials,
in 2020, a net increase of 1.30C; any
packaging, and trade.
increase above 1.50C (Paris Agreement 2016) results irreversible damage to the
While a lot of breweries want to work
out the carbon footprint of their beer, it is important that they all cover the same
The lifestyle we lead and choices we
Carbon footprint for a variety of food & beverages CO2e per 100 grams of food or beverage Bottle of wine cheddar cheese Bottled Beer Pint of milk Imported bananas black coffee Bottle of mineral water
Locally grown apple Boiled water in a kettle 0
The CO2e values are calculated from “How Bad are Bananas by Mike Berners-Lee 1
Comparing CO2e studies needs common methods
Above: The CO2e values are summarised in the presentation give to the Brewers Company by William Calvert4
factors. If a carbon footprint is to have any value it is necessary to use the same criteria so that they are meaningful and the results comparable. Stroud Brewery in Gloucestershire UK in partnership with specialist environmental consultants are preparing a Carbon Footprint Calculator which will be available to all breweries and hopefully will receive the support and endorsement of the Industry associations to make working out your carbon footprint much cheaper and simpler. The chart above shows published carbon footprint data from different brewers, and
There is a varying carbon footprint of draft beer, in can and in bottle
although it is not expect to be identical, it would expected to have a high degree of correlation between the results.
REFERENCES & CITATIONS
Calculating the beer’s carbon footprint
1. “How Bad are Bananas” by Mike
Reflections on the journey to a ‘Net Zero’
is just the beginning of the journey. As
Berners-Lee 1Mike Berners-Lee
well as targeting the reduction of carbon
published by Profile Book Rev 2020
3. Tim O’Rourke “Towards zero carbon
emissions it will drive down production
2. Environmental Conference 22nd March
– saving the planet one grain at a time”
costs and drive investment decisions.
2021 jointly organised by the (BFBi)
Brewers Journal June 2020
Doing nothing is not an option; our
Brewing & Beverage Industries Business
4. William Calvert “Sustainability issues for
customers and investors will expect us
& the Southern Section of Institute of
smaller breweries” May 2021 presented to
to take a responsible approach to the
Brewing and Distilling.
the Brewers Company
environment and we expect to see the
➢Malt: Embedded sustainability to
carbon footprint information appearing
protect your brand- https://youtu.be/
on the package, which will drive
consumers purchasing decisions.
➢Brilliant Beer Company: Road to Zero
Carbon- https://youtu.be/4eeuRLoVg2g ➢Good Business- “Hero to Zero’ –
A DEPALLETIZER THAT YOU CAN FOLD, MOVE & STOW WHEN IT ISN’T IN USE LEARN MORE AT SKAFABRICATING.COM
Bringing Quality Control To Your Brewery
Guarantee the consistency and quality of your beer using QCL’s range of analysers. We can help you with:
l Beer Chemistry l Rapid Microbiology l ABV and Density l Hygiene Swabs (ATP)
www.qclscientific.com 01342 820820 Brewers Journal January 2021.indd 1
SOLAR POWERED BEER BREWERS ARE INCREASINGLY LOOKING TO RENEWABLE ENERGY TO POWER THEIR OPERATIONS AND MEET THEIR SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS. HERE ED LENNON, THE COMMERCIAL MANAGER OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPANY CLEANEARTH, OUTLINES THE COMMERCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS THAT MAKE SOLAR POWER SUCH A GOOD FIT FOR UK BREWERIES.
The UK emitted around
past 12 months, previous years were a
400 million tonnes of
lot more volatile and the trend has been
greenhouse gases last year.
steadily upwards – rising by 30% over the
While that was down by a
last five years and more than 50% over
half from 1990, we still have
the last decade.
a long way to go before we reach net zero.
The good news is that what’s good for the climate can also be good for your
The move to renewables in the brewing
bottom line. “Solar and wind are by far
industry is not, however, driven only
the cheapest sources of power today,”
by the commercial argument or the
says Ed Lennon. “And the gap between
government’s emissions targets.
renewables and fossil fuels just keeps
It’s also motivated by the respect that
brewers hold for the natural environment that provides their essential ingredients,
That means that businesses can, at the
and by the recognition that a sustainable
very least, buy their electricity from a
future relies on our responsible
low-carbon supplier without the kind of
stewardship of the environment.
premiums that sustainability pioneers used to have to pay.
Ed Lennon’s take on this is: “Most
It also means that self-generation is a
breweries take pride in the provenance
viable option for far more businesses,
of their ingredients and the naturalness
with payback periods down to as little
of their products. And that’s certainly
as three years and massive cost savings
a factor in the beers I choose to drink.
over the 25-year life of the system.
Knowing the ‘craft’ that goes into making
“The cost of solar generation has come
a craft beer just adds to the pleasure.”
down 80% in the last decade,” says Ed. “As a result, our clients are now paying
If you work with a product that’s so tied
as little as one third of what their power
to the land and to nature, you’re unlikely
company was charging them.”
to be indifferent to how they are treated.
Lower cost, lower risk
And climate change is already affecting how we grow and harvest those natural
According to the Department for
Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy*, UK manufacturers pay an average of 10p
As Ed reminds us, “it may feel like we’ve
per kilowatt hour (kWh) for their electricity
been talking about it forever, but the
– with all but the very largest paying 11p
reality is that the climate emergency has
barely started. So it’s great to see UK
By contrast, CleanEarth have installed
breweries of all sizes stepping up and
solar PV systems in recent months that
investing in renewables.”
are generating for as little as 3.6p per kWh. Ludlow Brewing Company is one
DIRECT TO CONSUMER
such example. With the onset of the covid pandemic,
But the headline unit cost is not the most
many breweries had to adapt their
important thing. As Ed points out, “the key
business model to survive. For the likes
is that the price is effectively fixed at this
of Verdant Brewery (see below), this
low rate for the next 25 years! That takes
meant moving away from cask beer – at
a big chunk of risk out of your financial
least for the short to medium term – and
planning, because you don’t have to
focusing on canning beers that could be
factor in price inflation and volatility.”
sold direct to consumers, or via bottle
While prices have been fairly flat for the
shops and online suppliers.
CASE STUDY: VERDANT BREWING u System size: 67 kWp u Number of panels: 200 The installation of canning lines,
u Annual output: 70,000 kWh
while crucial to keeping the business
u Annual carbon saving: 18 tonnes
running, has increased the electricity
Founded in 2014 by directors James Heffron and Adam Robertson, Verdant have
consumption of the breweries, placing
gone on to establish themselves as one of the UKs leading craft breweries with
more importance on self-generation
their distinctly “hop” focused, hazy IPA style and distinctive branding.
through on-site renewables.
From humble beginnings in James’s kitchen, via a £200 a month shipping container, Verdant now find themselves proud occupants of a 1,500m2 premises in
Penryn, just down the road from their previous base.
For any business that’s considering solar,
Solar power would form a key aspect of the brief when Verdant were specifying
or wind power (CleanEarth do both) there
the re-fit, and it gave the Falmouth-based brewers a fantastic opportunity to har-
are a few key factors that need to be
ness abundant solar resources from their southernly location.
Having identified the new brewery’s location, Verdant embarked on a complete refurbishment of the site, including a completely bespoke 35 hectolitre brew kit. At
Geographical location and the size and
the same time, they issued a tender for the installation of a solar PV system on the
type of building are fundamental. As Ed
Lennon explains, “Probably 90 per cent of UK breweries are of a size that works
CleanEarth’s Ed Lennon recalls, “It was a great project to pitch for, as the refurb
for roof-mounted solar. Only the very
called for a strong visual style that the solar PV needed to complement.”
biggest need to look at wind turbines as
The logistics were also demanding, as the solar installation needed to dovetail
an option. And for solar, the further south
with the main refurbishment project plan. This required detailed liaison with the
you are, the more sunshine you get.”
various on-site contractors, and a very tight timeframe – operational demands that CleanEarth were very familiar with.
Another consideration is the electricity usage profile. “You want to size the
“Ed and the rest of the CleanEarth team clearly grasped the logistical complexities
solar array to maximise the amount of
of the project,” says James. “It was reassuring for us to know they had the experi-
generation that’s consumed on-site,”
ence and the can-do attitude that the job demanded.”
says Ed. “So we analyse the consumption profile over time and size the system to
Even once the installation is finished the job is never complete. CleanEarth have
optimise the commercial returns.”
taken on the daily monitoring and maintenance of the system to maximise output and minimise any system downtime. And in order to make the most of every single
Ownership of the brewery building can
“drop” of electricity, CleanEarth are now working with Verdant to incorporate a solar
also be an issue, as a freeholder won’t
diverter that will use excess solar generation at the weekend to heat water for
need to negotiate with their landlord to
get the installation approved. But this doesn’t have to be a stumbling block for leaseholders, as more commercial landlords wake up to the advantages of renewable generation for their tenants. Ed Lennon sums things up: “There are a number of variables that make a project feasible or not, but we can arrive pretty quickly at a confident projection. We’ve done several hundred commercial installations, so we’re familiar with all the issues – and we’ve learned how to overcome some interesting challenges!” * Source: BEIS 25 March 2021: Prices of fuels purchased by manufacturing industry in Great Britain
P R E M I U M
ALCOHOL FREE MALT EXTRACT Brewing Innovation from Muntons
GOING GREEN AT SPRINGWELL IN OPENING ITS IMPRESSIVE NEW SPRINGWELL FACILITY, NORTH BREWING CO HAS ENSURED IT REDUCES ITS CARBON FOOTPRINT AND ENERGY BILLS WITH THE INSTALLATION OF A FLEET OF SOLAR PANELS AND ALSO A RAPID CHARGER FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES.
eeds-based brewery North
which will generate an estimated 36,700
Brewing Co has partnered
KW annually. This equates to an average
with Planet-U Energy to help
annual saving of around £6,653 per year,
reduce its carbon footprint
or a ROI of less than 5 years.
and energy bills at its brand
new Springwell headquarters.
The renewables firm also provided a 22kW EV rapid charger installation which
To ensure its new headquarters operates
will charge vehicles on site in around one
as sustainably as possible, North
to two hours.
Brewing Co commissioned renewable energy specialist Planet-U Energy,
During the lifespan of the renewable
based at Leeds’s East Parade, to provide
technology, it is estimated it will generate
a range of sustainable technology
total savings of more than £160,000
services, including renewable energy
compared to traditional energy sources.
procurement, EV Charger and Solar PV installations.
Tom Thurling, Head of Renewable Engineering at Planet-U Energy, explains:
These solutions form part of North
“It has been great to deliver this project
Brewing Co’s wider sustainability strategy
at Springwell for North Brewing Co and
at Springwell, with other initiatives
our partnership is a fantastic example of
implemented including sustainable
how renewable energy procurement and
sourcing of merchandise and workwear,
energy saving technology can benefit
new operating procedures placing
recycling at the heart of the brewery’s
“By moving away from traditional sources
operations and encouraging green
of energy, North Brewing Co will save
modes of transport through the firm’s
money on their electricity bills, whilst also
cycle to work scheme.
becoming more energy efficient.”
Following a full site energy audit, Planet-
He adds: “Despite the additional
U’s engineers provided the installation of
challenges of completing the
104 solar panels to the site’s roof space,
installations during Covid restrictions, we
were able to complete all of our works on time whilst the brewery remained operational in anticipation of its opening. “This has been a flagship project for us and we hope it will be the first of many for us in the brewing industry.” Comment, John Gyngell, co-founder of North Brewing Co, says: “Adding a renewable energy solution at Springwell was an easy decision for us to make, since we were looking to become more sustainable in our operations as well as reducing our energy costs. “It has been an exciting time for us, with so much activity taking place despite the pandemic and we’ve adapted to not only keep the business running but growing as well. With our move to Springwell,
move the business forward in line with
For businesses interested in making the
we also wanted to step back and look at
the Government’s 2030 decarbonisation
transition to renewable energy, Planet-U
how we could do things more sustainably
Energy has strategic partnerships with
while still making progress.”
“Planet-U Energy has helped make this
multiple large investment organisations
a seamless process, providing fantastic
and lenders which can provide
He adds: “The transition to Solar PV and
consultation and customer service
customers with funding options.
EV charging is a great move for us, it will
throughout both the energy audit and
help reduce our carbon footprint and
4 NEW YEASTS DEDICATED TO CIDERS
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PROUDLY SPONSORED BY:
BREWING BEER WITH PURPOSE WE FIRST FEATURED MCCOLL’S BREWERY, A THEN FLEDGLING OUTFIT, BACK AT THE START OF 2017. FOUR YEARS ON, WE SPEAK TO DANNY MCCOLL, THE FOUNDER OF MCCOLL’S BREWERY IN BISHOP AUCKLAND ABOUT NAVIGATING THE CHALLENGES OF THE PANDEMIC, EXPANDING THE TEAM WITH A NEW HEAD BREWER AND HOW RECENT RELEASES SUCH AS ‘LET’S EAT PIES AND TALK ABOUT MEN’S MENTAL HEALTH’ HELP RAISE MONEY FOR LOCAL CAUSES AS WELL.
aking great beer that
Not only that, they’ve managed
people enjoy is the
to navigate the challenges of the
goal of any brewer.
pandemic, expand the team with a new
Whether that’s a
head brewer and with recent releases
clean, crisp lager or a
such as ‘Let’s eat pies and talk about
rich, decadent stout. Producing beers
men’s mental health’, they’re making
that make people happy is what it’s all
beers that helps raise money for local
about, isn’t it?
causes as well.
But not every brewer follows the tried and tested path when it comes to the
But before moving on to the buoyant,
beers they create.
positive start they’ve made to 2021, let’s take a step back and look at the anxious,
So if you’re interested in a Beetroot
nervous times that greeted so many
Biere de Garde, a Rhubarb Hefeweizen
breweries little more than a year ago.
or a Bitter with the addition of white and black pepper, then come right this way.
For Danny, the pandemic was a shock to
Not only that but the bitter in question
the system but one that they overcame
supports a fantastic cause, too.
and in doing so, improved as a brewery, too.
Way back at the beginning of 2017 we
“Initially, we were just in a blind panic,”
featured an article in this very magazine
designed to share words of wisdom with those planning to open up their own
“So we took a step back to reassess
things. It’s basically an overused word
Unlike other entries in the series, this
but we pivoted, literally overnight, to
time we spoke to a brewer that was
online sales. But we were lucky, in that
going through the imminent opening of
we had multiple canning runs booked in
their own operation.
before the pandemic struck.” Like many of their peers, that meant
Following a good few years rising
working more frequently with couriers,
through the ranks of a brewery in nearby
dealing with online interactions and
Cumbria, Danny McColl would set
doing what was needed to stay afloat.
out on his own with the launch of the eponymous McColl’s Brewery.
And through the various changes in lockdown restrictions we’ve all
Located in Bishop Auckland, a market
experienced in the last year, McColl has
town in County Durham, Danny told us
seen his brewery mature. In doing so,
how he was enamoured by a dreamy,
he knew the time had come to push on
idyllic mindset of hops, brand design
further by bringing in and out-and-out
and happy punters supping the
head brewer to take it to the next level.
brewery’s wares. And more than four years on, McColl’s
“For me, the final piece of the jigsaw
Brewery has made a name for itself by
was bringing Si (Whittington) to ease my
brewing beers defined by drinkability,
physical burden,” he says. “The flip side
balance and nuance.
of that coin is that the quality of beer has gone through the roof as well.”
MEET THE BREWER brewersjournal.info
MEET THE BREWER McCOLL’S BREWERY Simon Whittington joined McColl’s after a
been something McColl describes as a
It’s a beer designed to raise funds for
spell as head brewer at Durham Brewery,
“breath of fresh air”.
Men’s Pie Club, who describe themselves as a group all about local guys, making
with the majority of his career prior to this
pies in Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
at Camerons Brewery in Hartlepool.
He explains: “He’s not just a great
He started as a lab technician at
sounding board, but he has experience
Camerons, before moving into
working at bigger businesses. He
McColl explains: ”They are a social
production and packaging, and then
understands the whole mechanics of
enterprise that basically provides a space
leading the development of nano-
beer production, tank management and
for blokes from Newcastle, who find
brewery Tooth & Claw Brewing.
also a level head with the financial side of
themselves either socially isolated, or just
the business, too.
losing that sense of belonging within that community.
In joining McColl’s, he plans break down the current core and seasonal ranges and
“So when it comes to formulating new
dive into the technical side of each beer.
recipes, we can run through ideas
“The space doesn’t offer therapy, or
knowing they’ve already been costed
anything. They simply just bake pies,
up. Honestly, I cannot speak highly
and have a bit of banter and craic. And
Speaking at the time, he said: “With QA at the forefront, we are looking at the way
if they want to open up and discuss
we brew and ferment depending on the
personal matters, they can, but there’s no
final packaging method.
“We’re focusing on water, grist bills,
“Beyond that, they hopefully a nice time,
hop usage and yeasts, not only as raw
meet some friends, learn a skill, and start
ingredients but how we use and process
to find themselves part of the community
them. “There are lots of controls and background stuff that has already been identified and once in place will elevate our beer to the next level. “We’re fortunate to have really good equipment and a shared passion for beer, now it’s time to work on the amazing foundations that Danny has laid and get stuck into the nitty-gritty.” For McColl, the addition of someone like Whttington was “probably on the cards
We put our heads together and thought, you know, what if we don’t do something now, we will regret it,” Danny McColl, McColl’s Brewery
that can help with any problems that they have. It’s as simple as that.” McColl’s Brewery has been working with the enterprise, which is part of Food Nation, for some time but the ongoing impact of the pandemic made McColl want to do more to help their cause. And thankfully, support that was also on hand from a wealth of brewing industry partners, too. “We’ve supplied their restaurants over the previous three years and had been working out ways to develop the relationship, then the pandemic stuck,”
for too long”.
he recalls. “I knew before the the pandemic that I With that, the brewery founder began to
had hit my limit. The working day wasn’t long enough for me to do everything,”
enough of his his brewing experience. His
discuss and dwell on the ways the winter
he says. “And with that, problems would
maturity, his level of dedication and kinda
of 2020, and the sense of social isolation
happen, and quality would kind of reach
work ethic is brilliant.”
that many people might feel as a result.
While there are a wealth of professional
He explains: “We put our heads together
synergies between Danny and Simon,
and thought, you know, what if we don’t
Conversations with Whittington would
another important shared bond is the
do something now, we will regret it. So
start a little before Christmas 2020.
type of beers they both enjoy drinking
we knew something positive needed to
McColl would lean on him for some
and brewing, too. This means beers that
come from this.”
advice and to outline his plans to bring
are often influenced by Belgian brewing,
someone on board. Several months
beers that are nuanced, delicate and
And that manifested itself in ‘Let’s eat pies
down the line, it just so happened that
respectful to style.
and talk about men’s mental health’, a
a plateau. My knowledge was maxed out.”
3.6% black and white pepper Bitter.
Whittington was looking for a fresh start and as a result, the “timing was perfect”. Now, several months into the role, he’s
And a beer McColl’s Brewery has recent produced is ‘Let’s eat pies and talk about
“It literally got turned around in about
men’s mental health’.
four weeks. But it wouldn’t have been
McCOLL’S BREWERY MEET THE BREWER possible without the help of Them
to pieces within the brewery. This ranged
And for someone we featured for the first
That Can, Oasthouse, CS Labels, Crisp
beer design and recipe development
time when they were just starting out,
Maltings and Durham Box,” he says. “They
to costings, the direction we’re going,
it’s only right we end by finding out what
pulled out all the stops, with £1 of each
quality assurance, cleaning regimes, and
advice they now have for others.
can going to support Men’s Pie Club.”
everything in between,” he says. “This sounds genuinely obvious but do
The beer has just raised £2,500 from can sales online and the beer has recently
Initial temptation to use a grant from
things right. From the go you’re going to
launched on cask, too.
Durham County Council on a canning
make mistakes and it’s important to learn
line has instead been invested in the
from them. I know I do,” he explains.
McColl adds: “It’s a 3.6%. Bitter but with a
“fundamentals” of the brewery. McColl adds: “Don’t try and force things
sprinkling of black and white pepper in it. It’s such a simple beer. But that little
He says: “We thought what’s the point of
to happen because silly errors will be
elevation of flavour with black and white
getting a canning machine, and chucking
made. I think I’ve learned the hard way on
pepper acts as a sprinkling of magic on
loads of beer out there if even more
occasions but what’s so important is you
fundamental stuff isn’t in place. So we’ve
do all you can to ensure you put out a
replaced all our glycol chilling unit.
reliable, consistent product.”
In addition to producing important beers such as those, his focus going forward
“We’re also getting a brand-new system
is to work with his new head brewer
that can control all the FVs within an
to ensure the beers McColl’s Brewery
inch of their life. That and much more
create are the best they can be.
will mean we’re in control of our process more than ever before. It will take time
“From a business perspective, with Si
but we want to do things properly.”
joining, everything is being critically torn
HOW TO LEVERAGE YOUR BRAND TO SECURE FUNDING THE END GOAL WITH IP DUE DILIGENCE IS TO INSTIL CONFIDENCE AND BUILD TRUST WITH A POTENTIAL INVESTOR. WHILE INVESTORS ARE PREPARED TO TAKE ON VARYING DEGREES OF RISK, SMES ACROSS THE BREWING INDUSTRY AND BEYOND WILL ALWAYS NEED TO SHOW AN IP APPROACH THAT DOESN’T SIGNAL ALARM BELLS, EXPLAINS CHRIS BAUME, TRADE MARK SPECIALIST AT LEADING EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FIRM, POTTER CLARKSON.
n the face of the economic fall-out
guide, outlining the five key essential
from the pandemic, innovation is
IP ingredients they will need to put
vital. Being able to turn good ideas
themselves in the strongest IP position to
into a commercial success - at
attract and secure funding.
scale - can have a transformational
impact on the wider economy.
Clear Ownership: This is the number one deal breaker. Clarity is everything.
Innovators have been front and centre
Make sure there are no grey areas
in finding alternative ways to do things
on ownership of IP. Any grey areas
during the pandemic, including the way
surrounding who ‘owns’ IP will signal
we purchase, consume and receive
alarm bells for a potential investor.
goods. The brewing sector has been no
Innovation, especially in start-ups, can
exception to the businesses forced to
occur before commercial relationships
‘pivot’ and find new ways to get their
and business processes have been
products to market.
formally defined, which can make determining IP ownership less clear-cut.
Ambitious companies with new ideas
This can be prevented by identifying
will also play an essential role in the
and documenting ownership from the
economic recovery. However, even the
outset. Where appropriate, the necessary
most ground-breaking of innovation
assignments should be signed and
requires investment to become a viable
market proposition. Effective Innovation Capture: Establishing a successful brand requires
Understanding what IP your business
resources and the road to securing
may have and what you might be able to
funding is not always straightforward or
protect is not always obvious. It is always
clear, with various hurdles to overcome
worth seeking professional advice early
before winning the trust and backing of
on to determine which IP rights you might
be able to secure.
It’s also a competitive arena and in these uncertain times, investors will apply
Robust procedures also play a big part
an even more rigorous approach to
in creating the right culture for effective
identifying the risks and opportunities
innovation capture. Create an IP register
with each investment target.
and keep it up to date monthly so that opportunities are not overlooked. Do not
Intellectual property alone will not likely
underestimate the importance of robust
secure funding, but a weak IP position
processes and procedures.
could significantly impact on valuation
- by as much as 70% - or even see an
Sound Strategy: IP is not a tick box static
investor walk away altogether. What’s
exercise. It should evolve in line with your
more, for return-hungry investors,
commercial priorities - and help you to
new research shows that SMEs with
deliver against them.
intellectual property rights generate
Put yourself in an investor’s shoes - they
68% higher revenues per employee than
are focused on whether you can provide
those who don’t.
them with a return on their investment.
To help ambitious, high growth SMEs
They are looking for clarity in your
tackle the challenge, Potter Clarkson
approach - a strategically sound business
has produced the IP Blueprint for Growth
plan, where it is easy to see how the IP
rights will help to achieve the commercial
Good Timing: Knowing when to act is
objectives. These objectives will evolve,
critical to a sound IP approach. Knowing
and the IP strategy requires regular
what steps to take and when to take
review to remain fit for purpose.
them can have a critical impact on the strength of your IP position.
Market Awareness: A growing business can be all-consuming, but a sound
For example, the rules for registered
IP approach takes into consideration
designs can differ from country to
the wider marketplace in which your
country and therefore understanding
business is operating and any potential
where your markets and competitors are
located can influence the timings in your
Investors will ask you what trade mark
registered design filing strategy.
availability searching you have done, and the most important thing is to
Put simply, those businesses who are
demonstrate that you’ve given this due
clear on these five areas will reduce
consideration and have a sound strategy
the chances of IP being the reason an
investor walks away.
Extensive searches and legal opinions
Ultimately, the end goal with IP due
are usually not appropriate for early-
diligence is to instil confidence and build
stage companies. Instead, consider what
trust with a potential investor. While
you can do to mitigate future risk, for
investors are prepared to take on varying
example, maintaining a watch for the
degrees of risk, SMEs across the brewing
publication of competitors’ patents and
industry and beyond will always need to
trade marks, as well as undertaking the
show an IP approach that doesn’t signal
necessary clearance searches for any
proposed brands and trade marks.
PakTech has Repurposed over a Half Billion Containers into Packaging Handles
CROSSING CONTINENTS D’OUDE MAALDERIJ
THE STORY OF BREWERY D’OUDE MAALDERIJ THE D’OUDE MAALDERIJ BREWERY WAS FOUNDED IN 2011 IN KOOLSKAMP AND IT HAS ACHIEVED A GREAT DEAL IN THE YEARS SINCE. HERE, PAUL DAVIES, THE FOUNDER OF ALEHUNTERS BREWERY TOURS, CHARTS THE STORY OF ITS FOUNDER JEF PIRENS.
rouwer met een bizar
An unfiltered 8% bier bruin with wheat
kantje, brouwer ‘met een
malt and candi sugar for a sturdy body,
hoek af’. Brewer with a
the beer remains a top seller for the
bizarre side, a brewer
‘on the edge’. So said an
Jef continued to brew further batches
article in De Zytholoog magazine about
of the beer at Brouwerij Maenhout in
D’Oude Maalderij in Izegem recently.
Meulebeke and was rewarded with 8th place in the consumer trophy at Zythos
The article in question recognises the
achievement of brewer Jef ‘Hiq’ Pirens being made a knight of the mashing
Now, the nickname ‘Hiq’. No, it doesn’t
paddle at last year’s Belgian Beer
relate to an insatiable thirst for dark beer,
Weekend, the feast of Gambrinus and
although this isn’t too far from the truth.
Apparently this is an old nickname
What is amazing is that this accolade
given when he was younger and
was awarded a mere eight years after
has its foundations in Pinball and the
releasing his first beer Qantelaar in
Transformers comic series. D.O.M.
Brewery continued to develop slowly but steadily and ‘Hiq’ hosted numerous beer
So the rise of this wonderful craft
tasting evenings, pushing the reputation
brewery has been rapid indeed, but its
of his beer.
beginnings go back even further to 2001 when a 18-years-old Jef Pirens brewed a
He also developed a slogan for his beer
beer at KIHO College in Gent for his end
‘Leer Proeven, Durf Genieten or Learn to
of school project.
Taste, Dare to Enjoy’.
Displaying his ‘edgy’ credentials, his
Possibly a swipe at the Jupiler generation
Geslacht beer was financed by selling
perhaps? The English version is ‘Dare to
it through his local youth club, Andere
Taste, Learn to Enjoy’, an unintentional
Geslacht – of which he was also
volte-face but one that works as the
interplay can be switched around.
Born in Hasselt, young Jef grew up in and
D.O.M. Brewery were also participating
around Brugge. His dedication to fine
in beer festivals, Zythos, Poperinge,
beer owes itself in parts to discovering
Koekelare but the first big festival
new beers at Daisy Claeys’ Brugs Beertje
featured a stand at the 2013 edition of
with friends. From there his interest in
BAB in Brugge due to a last minute
beer became much more serious, a
cancellation by Domis Ignis.
passion in fact.
Around this time, two further beers were launched – Redenaar at the 7th Brugs
Following a period of home brewing Jef
Bierfestival, a 6.5% bier blond and Hop
finally released his first batch of Qantelaar
The Brewer, another 6.5% beer but this
(based on Kantelen the word for tilting,
one being an IPA.
how one gets after a couple of drinks)
beer in 2012 and took on the name
Beers were being produced by Jef at
D’Oude Maalderij (D.O.M. Brouwerij) from
friends’ breweries, namely ‘t Gaverhopke,
the former old millhouse in Koolskamp
Gulden Spoor, Alvinne, De Leite plus
where the home brewed beer was
he undertook a short brewing course at
Glenn Alvinne’s brewery.
The next development would be the trio of dark beers, Deo a 4.8% porter, Optimo an 8% smoked stout and Maximo an 11.5% imperial stout. Borne out by Jef’s love for dark beers, the message was to educate drinkers that not all dark beers taste like Guinness (a Hiq guilty pleasure). This trio of beers, whose initials spelled out the D.O.M. Brewrey were sold in unique triangle packs so that all 3 could be tasted, compared and appreciated. It was 2015 and D.O.M. Brewery was gaining momentum. A former flower shop became available in Izegem and Jef worked day and night from August of that year to install
area and lower pressure. All bottles are
It’s little wonder that Ratebeer has voted
water and waste supplies and open his
filled under Jef’s expert eye and the
the café Belgian’s best brewpub for three
brewhouse conditions are perfect for
consecutive years! I can personally vouch
Opening just before his 34th birthday,
bottle conditioning with no added sugar
for Liesbet’s cookies made with spent
the taproom was furnished like those
grain – hot from the oven and delicious. Another new direction brought a barrel-
cafes from a bygone era with plenty of memorabilia, both beer-related and
The brewhouse launched in September
aged series of beers with an oak aged
otherwise from Jef’s collection of antique
2016, a year after the bier café opened,
Qantelaar with Makers Mark and Wild
continuing a long-standing brewing
Turkey bourbon barrels.
Both D.O.M. beers and guests were
heritage in Izegem.
Putting the same focus on quality as with
offered alongside Jef’s collection of
Local fresh tapwater is used for all the
his other beers, Jef treats the addition of
approximately 2.800 different vintage
beers, Belgian hops and sometimes
oak as a 5th ingredient in these beers.
herbs are added when necessary. On
Local snacks were showcased alongside
average D.O.M. Brewery produces 40
At the end of the year sees the annual
brews a year.
release of Dominator’s Potion with Martinique rum and Blair Athol whisky
Thai food from Kai Fa and a new beer,
flavouring a 12% Maximo over a year.
Farang (stranger) was produced in
With a new brewery began a period of
collaboration with them – an 8% Belgian
experimentation. The Homo Beerectus
Tripel made with galanga.
project with Brecht Kindt aimed to launch
However, Jef regards his Sea Monster
The bar is a delight with plenty of beer-
a new beer every 10 weeks, with 30 new
series of beers as his showpiece. Inspired
related heritage including old signs,
beers produced over 6 years. However,
over games of Magic, The Gathering,
religious artifacts, antique furniture while
the project came to a sudden end with
these beers take their time to develop
outside old dodgem cars and bikes
the untimely passing of Brecht in April
and are only released into bottle when
compete with a (very) old campervan.
they are ready. At 14% abv Leviathan,
The next project was to remove the old
The beers were very popular and Eager
Kraken, Chtulhu, Scylla, Lorelei and
greenhouses and build a new building to
Eagle became a regular beer, renamed
Charybdis are beers to be both
house the new D.O.M. brewery, pieced
Stoffoasje Tripel, 8% abv.
respected and appreciated on special
together by Jef from many different
Jef had decided that he needed a Tripel
parts of brewing kit – a true Frankenstein
in his range and this sturdy beer has
creation and inspiring the brewhouse
become his second best seller.
Which brings us to the present. Being knighted is an honour not lost on ‘Hiq’
name ‘Frankie’. The only new piece of kit In May of the same year saw the opening
Pirens. Nominated as deserving brewers
of The Mash eetcafe on the site with Jef’s
who make an important contribution to
Four of the lager tanks and the bottling
girlfriend Liesbet Schoonvliet.
Belgian beer its a reward for him being
plant are from Alvinne, the pump from
Focussing on tasty Belgian
creative and progressive with his beers,
Van Honsebrouck, the yeast tanks are
homecooking, you can create your
and not being afraid to experiment.
old farmers’ milk tanks and the labelling
own meal from choosing a Stoemp
He feels that there is ‘no greater honour
machine is from Fort Lapin.
and a meat dish or go for a Mini Mash
in the brewing world’ and you can see
The fermenters are horizontal which
or Monster Mash, depending on how
his medallion and framed charter on
is preferred due to the larger surface
hungry you are.
the wall in The Mash. So this honour
was the malt mill.
CROSSING CONTINENTS D’OUDE MAALDERIJ Finally – a date for the diary. On the 9th October 2021 D’Oude Maalderij will turn 10 years old and to celebrate The Mash will be hosting a party with a new D.O.M. beer launched every hour. This promises to be a major event with many guests on hand to assist in hosting the beers with stories, etc. Liesbet will be on hand to supply tasty beer food throughout the party of course – just in case. As a footnote Jef feels that his story has been one of steady momentum, not rushing ahead too quickly but making steady progress from small, local festivals up to the bigger ones and on to international events, spreading the name of this unique part of West Flanders.
has opened new doors. D.O.M. Brewery
important that everyone has fun making
was selected as one of eight brewers
the beers and has the opportunity
for the Barrel Boutique of Brouwerij Het
to learn from one another. Equally
To get a taste for what is happening in
Anker in Mechelen and launched at the
important is that the beers are financially
Izegem go and take a look for yourself
successful as this has been a very hard
and have a chat with Jef, sample his
year for local breweries.
beers and enjoy Liesbet’s cooking. You won’t be disappointed.
Fortunately five further barrels of beer remain at the brewery for an additional
The project is also a statement to
advertise the fact that these producers
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
are still around and continuing to make D.O.M. beers were also entered into
excellent beers. Half of these beers will
Paul Davies is the founder of AleHunters
their first international beer competition
be available as a 1,000-only limited-
and hosts beer tours and events in London
and picked up an impressive nine silver
edition 6 pack. To whet the appetite even
and Belgium. For more info, visit www.
and bronze medals at the London Beer
further, the remainder of the beer will be
barrel aged and available at a later date.
In typical Hiq style a lockdown beer
On another note the old campervan has
‘Antibirus’ was also launched this year
gone – sold – but Jef has added some
plus a butternut squash Hallow’een beer.
classic cars to adorn the outside of the
Further projects include a low alcohol
tafelbier though an even more exciting development is underway. Part of Jef’s Brewmance series of collaborations, the Mash of the Titans promises to be one of the most exciting project yet. A series of six barley wines will be produced in collaboration with six equally creative Belgium brewers. These breweries are Brasserie Minne in Wallonie, Brouwerij ‘t Verzet in Anzegem, ‘t Hofbrouwerijke in Beerzel, Brouwerij Alvinne in Zwevegem, Brouwerij Totem in Evergem and Brasserie Atrium, also in Wallonie. Apart from being such a creative exercise, Jef feels that it is
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WAKE YOUR CUSTOMERS UP TO A NEW DAY EVOLUTION OR REVOLUTION, IT’S TIME TO REFRESH AND RECOVER YOUR BEER THROUGH REBRANDING. VELO MITROVICH REPORTS
t was the question everyone was afraid to ask last year: how many breweries were going to close? In the States, 45 percent was the believed number, which was
close to the same number being mooted around here. While some did sadly shut, the number was nowhere near as high as was expected and many that did closed were already suffering before Covid. The opportunities you took advantage of during last year’s survival-mode shouldn’t be abandoned but instead, now
Richard Horwell of Brand Relations
incorporated into your business plan. It’s not a time to be safe, but to take a risk, to not produce six styles of beer that
While many of us were positive the
everyone is producing, but something
corona virus would disappear by summer
instead that will make you stand out.
and there would be a quick return to
normal, that never happened, and a
To expand on this forward thinking,
Covid summer, led into a Covid autumn,
consider your branding. As CODO Design
winter and spring.
asks, is it time for a refresh or a rebrand;
But, finally a light can be seen at the
an evolution or a revolution?
end of the tunnel. One of the coldest springs in decades has ended, pubs have
Do you need just a little tweak to get rid
reopened, and breweries are ramping-up
of a perception of brand staleness, or
do you need a rebrand due to outdated thinking, e.g. New Orleans’ Dixie Brewing
As this issue goes to print, it appears
Company changing its name last year to
that tough travel restrictions will be
Faubourg, or to reflect new ownership, or
remaining in place through summer.
some other major change?
People who would have been doing their beer drinking in Spain, Greece or
The Covid-19 pandemic was worldwide
France, will be doing it here in the UK.
event that none of us were expecting,
It is back to being a good time to being
like looking up and seeing a black swan
a local brewer. But, if there has been
flying across the sky.
one thing we have all learned, from
When lockdown started last April, people
the biggest to the smallest brewer, the
started panic-buying toilet paper, pasta
days of centering sales along only one
and flour – an odd combination in the
distribution method are over.
best of times. Like how you’re changed how you’re Some countries like South Africa flat-out
doing business, consumers have
banned alcohol sales – prompting a
changed how they enjoy beer.
massive buy of pineapples used to make
With pubs and taprooms closed, beer
homemade hooch – others limited the
fans didn’t switch beverage, they just
hours alcohol could be sold, while here
switched how they consumed it. Instead
in the UK pubs, taprooms, tasting rooms,
of going to pubs, they drank at home.
restaurants and clubs were all closed.
Considering the state of many pubs and
prices they charge, after consumers
Consignia. What does the Royal Mail do?
have become used to just adding beer to
It handles mail. What does Consignia
their online food shopping list, will they
do? Nobody knew and after a year, it
want to go back? How will your branding
rebranded its rebrand back to Royal Mail.
purchase is based on the branding; it’s why a consumer will pick your
REBRAND FOR NEW TIMES
Camden Town Brewery’s rebrand in 2016 was considered a success
Camden Town Brewery’s new identity
product over their regular choice or your
in 2016 was a huge success; San
Francisco’s Anchor Brewing’s major Let’s first go over a few definitions so we
rebrand this year has been seen by most
What Horwell cautions is that you do not
are all singing off the same hymn sheet.
as a huge failure.
confuse design with branding. “Design is
Your brand is your customer’s perception
When your PR and marketing team have
what goes on your can’s label, branding
of your brewery, including your products
to go into overdrive to explain and justify
is the message you want to give your
and your culture. It’s your total package,
your rebranding, you know you’ve taken
target consumer – and that message
defining who you are and what makes
the wrong approach.
should be ‘BUY ME’,” he says.
you different from all your competitors. What most of you do from time to
So how do you communicate your
Your brand identity is the visual language
time is a brand refresh. Think of this as
message to your target audience?
you use to tell this story. This includes
an update, like painting your house.
Education and that starts with yourself.
your logo, your bottle shape, can label,
Same core values, just adding a bit of
and image. Brand essence is a distillation
excitement to something that seems a bit
It is hard thinking of another industry
of the most compelling idea behind your
dated. Another term we need to define
where the founder sees themselves as
brewery. When you’re having a meeting
for you is positioning, which is also called
the product, as much as in craft beer
and someone says: ‘This is who we are’,
a point of difference. A point of difference
industry. If it is impossible for you to take
and you all nod in agreement, that is
is a something about the brand that
a step back and see your beer as your
brand essence – though most times
makes it different from other competing
customer sees it and how it reflects on
someone says: “This isn’t who we are….”
them – not you – then you’re wasting
Rebranding is a shift in your core
What brings these terms together is
message. Coors realized that by far its
educating the consumer, according
When you first start developing your
biggest seller was Coors Light – they
to Richard Horwell of Brand Relations.
product you will need to ask yourself a
dropped the ‘light’ and now it’s just
Since 2007, Brand Relations has helped
lot of questions, those questions will be
‘Coors’. Kids’ cereals dropped ‘Sugar’
over 100 brands with product and brand
much the same as the ones your target
in their names, ‘Sugar Frosted Flakes’
development, along with marketing
audience will ask. For example: ‘what
became ‘Frosties’. Core logo, website,
is unique about this product?’; ‘why is it
your time in rebranding.
better than the competition’; ‘should I risk
and brand identity can all be changed. “You can have the best tasting product
spending money on this untried brand?’;
Sometimes these rebrands work and
on the market, but if no one picks it up
’does this product offer value for money?’
sometimes they’re total disasters.
and tries it, no one will ever know,” says
Your branding needs to answer all these
Remember Royal Mail’s change to
Horwell. “Ninety percent of a first-time
“The most expensive word in the Food & Drink category is ‘education’, if you need to take time to educate the consumer, away from the packaging, then you will either spend millions or fail, or both,” says Horwell.
Although in pure beer sales figures
The best place to educate your target
it remains low, according to some
audience is on your product’s packaging,
experts direct-to-consumer (DTC)
so your branding needs to be clear and
beer sales is one of the most exciting
perfect. Trade buyers and consumers
things to come out of the pandemic.
need to understand the product without having you standing there. That’s what
US design company CODO Design
the branding is for; to provide instant
believes convenience will be one
of the most important drivers of the economy over the next 10-years,
According to Horwell, what helps this
what CODO says is a natural out-
along is linking your brand to what your
growth of the Amazon “Prime-ifica-
audience already understands.
tion” of the world.
Anchor Brewing’s move from the classic branding above was less so
“We all tend to pigeonhole everything in “Why go to the grocery store if I can
our lives and whether we are conscious
buy something with one click on my
of it or not, when we see a new brand, we
between the other brands and mine?
phone? And to think that the alco-
put it in its place. So, if you are attempting
Getting the answers to these questions is
hol shopping experience will be an
to break new ground with an idea or
the first step to creating brilliant branding.
exception to this trend is myopic,”
base ingredient then you need to add
something to the mix that the consumer
“Today we have more choice of food
knows,” he says.
and drinks than ever before and the big brands are no longer dominating the
Will a brewery that decides to only do DTC succeed? That is the million
The key is to make sure the messaging is
market. Many consumers want to try
pound question. Already some
easy to understand and include elements
something different, but that doesn’t
spirit brands – especially no-alco-
that consumers can understand instantly.
mean they have all day to stand around
hol brands – are doing this, with the
Trade buyers only want products that will
in-store or go online to research every
thought behind this being it is too
sell, they don’t want old stock taking up
product. They need to be drawn to a
difficult to get onto a supermarket
room on their shelves. A product has to
brand that relates to then and says, ‘buy
sell easily and quickly. Buyers won’t give
me, I am new and exciting’,” says Horwell.
you long to prove that your brand works, By developing a compelling brand
it’s in one day and out the next, so, make
“When I lived in Australia, I knew a very
and marketing campaign, pouring
it easy for the consumer to choose your
successful businessman who could
money into advertising on TV and
turn his hand to anything. When I asked him his secret to success, his response
social media, and you might succeed. Might. “Provenance, authenticity and locality
Horwell says that in order to get your
was ‘when you explain something to
branding right, you need to ask yourself
someone and they don’t understand,
and others some questions:
it’s not them that’s stupid, it’s you for not explaining it properly’.
are all perennial value propositions in craft beer, so we have our doubts that
u Where will this product sell and what
a craft brand can credibly operate in
brands will sit alongside it?
“This is the same with branding, just
this space entirely, but that doesn’t
u How will my beer stand out against
putting your brand name on the front
mean that DTC can’t be a major part
and thinking the brand will sell is crazy,
of a brewery’s distribution and sales
u What is my brand message? For
Consumers don’t care about a ‘new’
plan moving forward,” says CODO.
example, is it based on great taste,
brand name, they care about what’s in it
treating yourself or pure refreshment?
for them. So, make sure your message
u Will my consumer be able to read the
conveys this. Always focus on them, your
messages I have on the packaging from
customers, not you.”
a distance, without picking it up? u Why should a consumer buy my brand instead of their regular choice? u What is the point of difference
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BETTER DATA FOR BETTER BEER BREWERS WILL OFTEN ATTRIBUTE THEIR SUCCESS TO PASSION, DETERMINATION AND INNOVATION, BUT ONCE A BEER HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AND BRANDED, IT’S ALL ABOUT CONSISTENCY. PROCESS MONITORING THEREFORE HAS A KEY ROLE TO PLAY. IN THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE KEIJO PYÖRÄLÄ FROM VAISALA EXPLAINS HOW IN-LINE REFRACTOMETERS, LOCATED STRATEGICALLY AT EVERY STAGE OF THE BREWING PROCESS, ENABLE PROCESS OPTIMIZATION, SAVE ENERGY, REDUCE WASTE, LOWER COSTS AND HELP DELIVER TOP QUALITY BEER.
ome breweries rely on
some methods such as turbidity and
manual sampling and
density can experience measurement
laboratory analysis, but
errors from fouling and interference
there are a number of
by the larger suspended particles
(especially in mashing and the lauter tun)
with this approach, so there is an
and by the bubbles and foam that are
inevitable trend toward in-line monitoring
present in most stages.
and increased automation. Refractive Index monitoring is therefore Laboratory analysis is obviously an
preferred, and the key advantage of
essential component of research and
the Vaisala refractometers is that they
development; providing an insight into
provide accurate measurements at every
the effects of different raw materials or
stage of the brewing process without
processes on characteristics such as
suffering from these interferences.
flavour and aroma. A further advantage of refractometers Laboratory analysis also plays an
is their speed of response, which is a
important role in investigatory work;
particular advantage in the packing/
helping to understand the chemistry.
filling line and CIP process – this will be
However, from a production perspective,
sampling and analysis can be of limited value because of the cost and the
Refractive Index (RI) measurements are
delay incurred – by the time a lab result
based on the angle of refraction of light
uncovers a problem; a significant volume
in the process medium, using an LED
of product may have already passed
through the brewery.
A sensor continually detects the critical angle at which the total reflection of light
Similarly, samples represent a ‘snapshot’
commences, and the concentration of
of the process at one moment in time,
dissolved solids is calculated taking pre-
and are therefore unable to support
defined process conditions into account.
feedback control or provide timely alarms, and are less able to uncover
Vaisala’s sanitary refractometers are
therefore supplied factory calibrated to meet the requirements of the specific
Vaisala’s K-PATENTS sanitary
brewery and are deployed at most
refractometers can be calibrated in
stages of the brewing process, some of
Plato, Brix, Balling, gravity, or density,
which are described below.
depending on the preference of the brewery.
THE BREWING PROCESS
They are available with 3-A Sanitary and EHEDG certifications and are designed to
Typically, mashing takes place in a tun,
withstand CIP/SIP cleaning and rinsing
which is an insulated brewing vessel
with a false bottom. Malt is steeped in hot water which activates enzymes that
A number of different technologies
cause starch in the malt to break down
have been employed to monitor various
and release simple sugars, producing
aspects of the brewing process, but
REFRACTOMETRY TECHNOLOGY Wort Boiler
Lauter tun Crushed grain Hot water
and helps to form desirable taste and
An overview of the brewing process
Mashing is a crucial step because it
determines the final structure of the beer,
It also brings the brew to the appropriate
so it is important to maintain a consistent
strength or gravity, so this is an extremely
recovers some of the energy used to
wort output. The refractometer is used to
important stage in the brewing process.
boil the wort. Refractometers can be installed in the outlet of the cooler as a
measure the concentration of the mash The refractometer is installed directly
quality control measure; ensuring that the
in the wort boiler, providing continuous
bitter wort contains the correct level of
The process by which the grains are
measurements of wort strength/gravity
dissolved solids before fermentation.
separated from the wort is known as
so that the brewer can determine exactly
Alternatively, or additionally, a
lautering, which is often conducted in a
when the wort has reached the required
measurement can be made after the
separate chamber known as a lauter tun.
strength. This improves beer quality and
boiler and prior to the whirlpool, to
consistency, while helping to optimize
avoid the possibility of processing bitter
brewing time and energy consumption.
wort that does not meet the required
in water at the outlet pipe.
Sparge water rinses the grains inside
the lauter tun to complete the extraction of sugars, producing a clear wort
After boiling, the wort is transferred to a
with a concentration that gradually
whirlpool, where solid particles (hop rests
During the fermentation process, yeast
decreases during the rinsing. The
and coagulated proteins) are separated
converts sugars and amino acids in the
refractometer continuously measures this
from the bitter wort.
wort to carbon dioxide and alcohol.
concentration, allowing the detection of
The whirlpool causes residual particles to
The gravity of the fermenting liquid is
the appropriate shut-off point for rinsing,
coagulate and settle out of the liquid as
measured as the specific gravity, or
which prevents the excessive use of
a sludge known as trub, which is partially
relative density compared to water. In the
water and saves energy.
removed from the bottom of the kettle.
brewing industry, this is mostly measured
Once the sweet wort has been
It is important that the solids are removed
separated, it is pasteurized in a wort
quickly and effectively to produce a clear,
boiler or brew kettle, and this is the stage
bitter wort for transfer to the next stage,
Spent yeast collects at the bottom of
at which hops and other flavourings may
so a refractometer may be installed
the fermentation tank and is regularly
before and/or after the whirlpool.
removed, which helps to clarify the beer.
activity, preserves foam-positive proteins,
Once boiling is complete, the wort
The density of the wort varies according
evaporates unwanted flavour volatiles,
is cooled by a heat exchanger which
to the sugar content, so the density
on the Plato scale, which is very similar to the Brix scale used by the wine industry.
Wort boiling terminates enzymatic
When the beer is ready for distribution
Continuous monitoring of packing
it is packed in bottles, cans, casks
and CIP processes with the Vaisala
and barrels which must be clean and
refractometers therefore enables
automation, reduces wastage and lowers
readings decline as fermentation
In addition, the internal surfaces of pipes,
costs and energy use.
vessels, tanks and packaging equipment
The alcohol percentage can be
must be cleaned between batches and
calculated from the difference between
between different products.
Refractometers provide insight into every stage of the brewing process
the original wort gravity and the current
REFRACTOMETERS IN BEER In contrast with other methods, the main
specific gravity. Refractometers are
Known as Clean in Place (CIP) this
advantages of Vaisala’s refractometers
therefore able to closely follow the
protects the beer products from
are that they provide greater insight into
fermentation process; providing brewers
microbiological and chemical
every stage of the brewing process; they
with real-time insights into the process,
are not affected by suspended particles,
and allowing them to accurately
In large modern breweries the cleaning
bubbles or colour, and with the option
determine when fermentation is
processes are complex, so automation is
of automatic prism wash with steam or
frequently utilized to improve speed and
high-pressure hot water, they are not
efficiency, and lower costs.
affected by scaling or fouling.
between the end of primary fermentation
At the filling line, the refractometer
Each refractometer is factory calibrated
and the removal of yeast from the beer.
instantly detects the product-to-product
for the full measurement range (e.g.
After fermentation, the beer is allowed to
and product to-CIP cleaning interfaces,
0-100 degree Plato), which means they
rest, so that any remaining spent yeast
allowing efficient change-over between
can be freely interchanged between
can settle out. However, a number of
products or batches.
installation locations without parameter
filtration techniques are often applied to
The refractometer output signal can also
changes. Furthermore, the Vaisala
further clarify the beer.
be utilized for quality control monitoring,
refractometers do not require any routine
and to ensure correct product-to-
recalibration or maintenance.
Maturation includes all transformations
This is the final opportunity to affect
the quality profile of the beer – flavour,
In summary, it is certainly true that
bitterness, odour and foam stability,
The response speed of the refractometer
brewing success is underpinned by
clarity, colour, alcohol and gas content.
means that the interfaces (between
passion, determination and innovation,
All of which vary according to
product/cleaning chemicals/water), can
but, with the help of refractometry,
the requirement of the brand, so
be detected very quickly, which avoids
brewers can optimise their processes,
refractometers can fulfil a vital role in
waste and ensures that no product
reduce waste, lower energy consumption
and rest assured that they will continue to produce consistently good quality beer.
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CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN THIS LATEST ARTICLE TIM O’ ROURKE, FOUNDER OF THE BRILLIANT BEER COMPANY, TAKES US ON A JOURNEY THROUGH CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM.
east needs energy (carbohydrates) for growth and reproduction which it principally obtains from simple fruit sugars. As discussed in the previous articles on yeast genomics, brewing strains of yeast have evolved and adapted to thrive in brewer’s wort. Brewer’s wort consists of the sugars derived from the breakdown of
starch which originates from cereal and a typical all malt wort is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1: WORT SUGARS FOUND IN WORT AND BEER FROM AN ALL MALT WORT Sugar spectrum
Typical concentration in wort g/kg malt
% sugar composition in wort
Typical concentration in beer g/kg malt
SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES Yeast takes up the wort sugars in a particular sequence governed by molecular size. Since yeast evolved alongside fruits from flowering plants the main sugar it expects to encounter is Sucrose which is a made up of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. As explained in Back to Basics article four, yeast has the enzyme invertase in the periplasmic space and this passes out into the wort where it rapidly breaks the sucrose down leading to an increase in glucose and maltose. Glucose and fructose being simple single sugar molecules, can rapidly pass into the Figure 1 A graph showing the sequence for sugar uptake by brewing yeast in a normal all wort fermentation
yeast cell by facilitated diffusion. It is only when most of the single sugars have been taken up that that the yeast looks for additional sugars to metabolise, at this stage both maltose and maltotriose along with unfermentable dextrin remain. The yeast activates a series of genes to mobilise the proteins and enzymes necessary to take up maltose and maltotriose as shown in Figure 2 (overleaf). Yeast excretes Invertase into the wort where it breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose. Yeast rapidly takes up glucose and fructose through facilitated diffusion down the concentration gradient. The cell requires to process the sugars as quickly as possible to be able to maintain the concentration gradient and hence to take up as much of the available sugars as possible. Once the majority of glucose (< 1% remains in wort) and fructose has been used up (Figure 1) then the yeast will want to take up maltose and maltotriose. These are not naturally occurring sugars and are only found in wort. Brewing yeast has evolved to take up and use these more complex sugars. The utilisation of maltose and maltotriose involves three genetic steps which for convenience we have referred to as MAL genes u MAL R – is an activator gene which detects the presence of the sugars in the wort and activates the other genes u MAL T – produces an Active Transport Permease which will allow the uptake of the specific sugar u MAL S – produces an enzyme (maltase) which can hydrolyse the 1,4 – 1,6 bonds to produce individual molecules of glucose which are then available for breakdown in the
CARBOHYDRATES SCIENCE glycolytic pathwa Maltose and maltotriose are taken up more slowly and requires the expenditure of energy (ATP) to facilities its uptake. From Table 1 it can be seen that nearly all the maltose but only half the maltotriose is utilised, but this depends on the yeast strain. Figure 2 Schematic showing the uptake of sugars from wort by brewer’s yeast.
There is no permease structure to take up dextrin (C4 or greater) and these remain in the wort. Note: Uptake of maltose and maltotriose is mainly restricted to brewing yeast Saccharomyces sp. Certain yeast such as Saccharomycodes ludwigii cannot take up these sugars and are used in the production of low alcohol beer, also the ability to take up these sugars depends on the activation of the MAL genes and this can be lost through mutation particularly which may result in poorer attenuation after serial repitching with older yeast. Maltose uptake does not start until the wort glucose concentration falls below 1% and which is thought to be due to the catabolite repression of maltose permease and alpha 1,4 glucosidase. The mechanism for nutrient uptake and cell is governed by the cell membrane which acts as a selective membrane controlling what can enter and be expelled from the cell. Lipids and any material soluble in non-polar organic solvents can pass directly through the membrane by free diffusion, this is a slow process passing down the concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion uses selective protein carriers which only allow specific molecules to move down the concentration gradient, but it is very fast, allowing for the rapid uptake of glucose from wort. In addition, some facilitated diffusion depends on the movement of ions to create a voltage differential to allow molecules to pass through diffusion channels. Some molecules are just too big or do not match up with the protein carriers and these can be taken into the cell through active transport which requires the use of energy (ATP) by excretion of H+ ions fpr the intake of more complex compounds such as maltose. Once the glucose enters the cell then enzymatic breakdown can start in the cytoplasm
As As As explained explained explained above above above the the the mechanism mechanism mechanism for for for nutrient nutrient nutrient uptake uptake uptake and and and cell cell cell isisgoverned isgoverned governed bybyby the the the cell cell cell membrane membrane membrane (described (described (described ininB2B inB2B B2B Article Article Article 4)4)which 4)which which acts acts acts asasas a aselective aselective selective membrane membrane membrane controlling controlling controlling what what what can can can enter enter enter and and and bebebe expelled expelled expelled from from from the the the cell. cell. cell. TABLE 2: SYSTEM UPTAKE FROM WORT
Table Table Table 2 2Systems 2Systems Systems ofofuptake ofuptake uptake from from from wort wort wort
Passive Passive Passive Transport Transport Transport Free Diffusion FacilitatedDiffusion Diffusion Free Free Free Diffusion Diffusion Diffusion Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion
Active Active Active Transport Transport Transport Active Transport
Free Free Free diffusion diffusion diffusion ––Lipid –Lipid Lipid Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion --Active Active Active transport transport – Active transport –transport Energy (ATP)–is–reFree diffusion – Lipid soluble particles Facilitated diffusion - specific protein quired to pump protons (H+) ions out of move through the cell based on a consoluble soluble soluble particles particles particles move move move specific specific specific protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers Energy Energy Energy (ATP) (ATP) (ATP) isisrequired isrequired required carriers allow selective compounds to move the cell generating an electrochemical centration gradient (moving from high to ++ + down a centration gradient. gradient allowing nutrients to enter through through through the the the cell cell cell based based based on on onallow allow allow selective selective selective compounds compounds compounds cell toto pump topump pump protons protons protons (H(H(H )the)ions )ions ions low) using an electrochemical gradient. aaconcentration aconcentration concentration gradient gradient gradient totomove tomove move down down down aacentration acentration centration out out out ofofthe ofthe the cell cell cell generating generating generating (moving (moving (moving from from from high high high totolow) tolow) low)gradient. gradient. gradient. an an an electrochemical electrochemical electrochemical gradient gradient gradient allowing allowing nutrients nutrients nutrients to release energy necessary for cell metabolism and growthallowing and for reproduction (budding). totoenter toenter enter the the the cell cell cell using using using an an an Under are AEROBIC respiration conditions where molecular oxygen is present all the electrochemical electrochemical electrochemical gradient. gradient. gradient. sugar components are completely oxidised to release energy.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy 36 ATP (F=686 kcal)
Lipids Lipids Lipids and and and any any any material material material soluble soluble soluble ininHowever, non-polar innon-polar non-polar organic organic solvents solvents can can can pass pass pass directly directly directly through through through the the the in theorganic absence ofsolvents oxygen ANAEROBIC respiration (aka fermentation) yeast membrane membrane membrane bybyby free free free diffusion, diffusion, diffusion, this this this iscannot isaisaslow aslow slow process process process passing passing passing down down down the the concentration concentration gradient. gradient. gradient. fully oxidise the sugar components and athe lot ofconcentration energy is left in the ethanol (alcohol) produced.
Facilitated Facilitated Facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion uses uses uses selective selective selective protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers which which which only only only allow allow allow specific specific specific molecules molecules molecules totomove tomove move C Hbut 2C Hfor OH +the 2CO + Energy 2 ATPof (F=54 kcal) down down down the the the concentration concentration concentration gradient, gradient, gradient, but but itO itis itisvery isvery very fast, fast, fast, allowing allowing allowing for for the the rapid rapid rapid uptake uptake uptake ofglucose ofglucose glucose from from from wort. wort. wort. InInaddition, Inaddition, addition, some some some facilitated facilitated facilitated diffusion diffusion diffusion depends depends depends ononon the the the movement movement movement ofofions ofions ions totocreate tocreate create a avoltage avoltage voltage The fermentative pathway releases approximately 8% of the total energy trapped in the differential differential differential totoallow toallow allow molecules molecules molecules totopass tosugar. pass pass through through through diffusion diffusion diffusion channels. channels. channels. 6
Both Respiration and Fermentation start with Glucose being reduced to Pyruvate in the
Some Some Some molecules molecules molecules are are are just just just too too too big big big orordo ordodo not not not match match match upupup with with with the the the protein protein protein carriers carriers carriers and and and these these these can can can bebebe Glycolytic Pathway which releases 2 ATP per molecule of Glucose, but in the absence taken taken taken into into into the the the cell cell cell through through through active active active transport transport transport which which which requires requires requires the the the use use use ofenergy of energy energy (ATP) (ATP) (ATP) bybyby excretion excretion excretion of oxygen, yeast is unable to take advantage ofof the additional energy locked up in + ++ ions ions ions fpr fpr fpr the the the intake intake intake ofofmore ofmore more complex complex complex compounds compounds compounds such such such asasas maltose. maltose. maltose. ofofH ofHH alcohol. Given continuous aeration yeast will respire and release all the available energy from sugar, this option is exploited during yeast propagation to create biomass (yeast
growth) rather than the production of alcohol. However, yeast still produces some alcohol as discussed in the Introductory Article, in part this is due to excessive rapid uptake of glucose explained below but, alcohol also has the additional benefit of providing bacteriostatic activity giving yeast a competitive edge in accessing the nutrients. Although fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen (air) brewers add air or oxygen to the wort before pitching to stimulate yeast growth even though there is a clear energy penalty by using anaerobic respiration (fermentation). The Pasteur effect involves the transition from anaerobic glycolysis (fermentation) to respiration in the presence of O2. Its significance lies in the fact that the cells switch to a more economical mode of obtaining energy. For a given substrate, approximately 20 times as much energy is extracted during respiration as during fermentation. The rate of utilisation of the substrate, for example, glucose, decreases in the presence of O2. Figure 4 Flow diagram to show major pathways used in Respiration & Fermentation.
Figure 4 Flow diagram to show major pathways used in Respiration & Fermentation
The Crabtree effect: The Crabtree effect: English biochemist Herbert Grace Crabtree describes a situation English biochemist Herbert Grace Crabtree describes a situation whereby yeast, whereby yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces ethanol (alcohol) aerobically in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces ethanol (alcohol) aerobically in the presence of high the presence of high external glucose concentrations rather than releasing all the external glucose concentrations rather than releasing all the energy through the tricarboxylic energy the tricarboxylic cycle andwas electron transport. acid cycle through and electron transport. Thisacid phenomenon originally called the contra-Pasteur now called the Crabtree effect and is observed in yeast when glucose is above 0.4% in the growth medium. The oxygen is used to synthesise sterol compounds required for membrane This phenomenon was originally called the contra-Pasteur now called the Crabtree synthesis for yeast growth. The "Crabtree effect” is associated with alterations in the effect and is observed in yeast when glucose above 0.4% the growthand medium. mitochondria with the catabolic repression of certainisenzymes suchinas succinic alpha oxoglutarate dehydrogenases.
The oxygeneffect is used tonot synthesise sterol compounds for membrane The Crabtree does occur in all yeasts, but only inrequired a few species such as synthesis Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.chevalieri andisS. pastorianus. for yeast growth. The “Crabtree effect” associated with alterations in the mitochondria with the catabolic of certain such as succinic and alpha Initially it was thought repression this phenomenon was enzymes entirely due to catabolite repression by glucose, and oxygen. Recently another explanation has been given suggesting that the effect may be oxoglutarate dehydrogenases. due to Crabtree the oversaturation of the pathways to the rapidasuptake The effect does notrespiratory occur in all yeasts, (excess but onlyPyruvate) in a few due species such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.chevalieri and S. pastorianus. 6 Initially it was thought this phenomenon was entirely due to catabolite repression by glucose, and oxygen. Recently another explanation has been given suggesting that the effect may be due
SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES to the oversaturation of the respiratory pathways (excess Pyruvate) due to the rapid uptake of glucose. The yeast cannot process the Pyruvate fast enough through the aerobic pathway and the excess sugar is fermented to give ethanol.
of glucose. The yeast cannot process the Pyruvate fast enough through the aerobic pathway Results show that with low yeast cell concentration the metabolic pathways used are and the excess sugar is fermentedrespiration, to givebut ethanol. when cell concentration reaches a critical number ethanol fermentation occurs.
Results show that with low yeast cell concentration the metabolic pathways used are respiration, but when cell concentration reaches a critical number ethanol occurs. The theory is that at low cell count there are still enoughfermentation enzymes for respiration, but The theory is that at low cell countthethere are stillof enough enzymes forbecause respiration, but thesynthesis by concentration enzyme does not increase of the supressed so thebecause respiration path is replaced by fermentation. concentration of enzyme does notglucose increase of the supressed synthesis by glucose so the respiration path is replaced by fermentation. This is observed in continuous culture with Figure 5 Showing the key stages in the GlycThis is observed in continuous culture with aeration where some ethanol is produced. olytic pathway and thesome oxidation of NADH tois produced. aeration where ethanol NAD+ by reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol.
Figure 5 Showing the key stages in the Glycolytic pathway and the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol. During the initial stages of respiration, sugar is broken down to Pyruvate and two new molecules of ATP are produced along with two molecules of another high energy
During the initial stages of respiration, sugar is broken down to Pyruvate and two new molecules molecule called NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). of ATP are produced along with two molecules of another high energy molecule called NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). TheisNADH is re-oxidised by reducing acetaldehyde to pool The NADH re-oxidised by reducing acetaldehyde to alcohol restoring the NAD+ and balancing Redox. Other reactions restore Redox be discussed in the next alcohol restoring the NAD+ pool and balancing Redox. Other toreactions to will restore Redox will be article of Yeast Flavour Development (B2B Article 5). discussed in the next article of Yeast Flavour Development (B2B Article 5). Glycolysis is a Catabolic pathway which produces energy, reducing power, and
flavour compounds the breakdown carbohydrates and Glycolysis is a Catabolic pathwayintermediate which produces energy,through reducing power,ofand intermediate produces energy molecule ATP and NADH which serves as electron acceptor and flavour compounds through the breakdown of carbohydrates and produces energy molecule which requires to be oxidised to NAD+ to maintain the cells Redox balance. ATP and NADH which serves as electron acceptor and which requires to be oxidised to NAD+ Yeast also produce structural compounds from glucose through an alternative to maintain the cells Redox balance. metabolic pathway, the Pentose pathway (also called the hexose monophosphate shunt HMP) which consumes energy and is the process by which cells build up Yeast also produce structural compounds from glucose through an alternative metabolic complex molecules for repairing and making new cell material. It requires ATP and the pathway, the Pentose pathway (also called the hexose monophosphate shunt HMP) which generates NADPH and is known as Anabolism. consumes energy and is the process by which cells build up complex molecules for repairing Glycogen and trehalose are storage polymers of glucose. Glycogen is a polymer of
Anabolism. The Pentose pathway also called the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP).
Only a relatively small proportion of the available glucose passes through the HMP A minor part of glucose is metabolised through the pentose HMP- pathway, which is also called pentose phosphate pathway.
THE PENTOSE PATHWAY: HEXOSE MONOPHOSPHATE SHUNT (HMP) 1. It provides source of NADPH for anabolic reduction reactions Only a relatively2.small proportion of the and available through the HMP Asynthesis minor partand of glucose is metabolised through It provides pentose otherglucose sugarspasses required for nucleotide other metabolic the pentose HMPpathway, which is also called pentose phosphate pathway. pathways.
1. It provides source NADPHpathway for anabolic reduction reactions The of pentose is used to generate NADPH necessary for Anabolism and several 2. It provides pentose and other sugars required for nucleotide synthesis and otherfor metabolic pathways. different sized sugars particularly 5 carbon sugars necessary nucleotide synthesis.
The pentose pathway is used to generate NADPH necessary for Anabolism and several different sized sugars particularly 5 carbon
Ø Oxidative Phase – irreversible which generates NADPH Ø Non-oxidative Phase- reversible Generate pentose When NADPH levels are low oxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide Oxidative Phase – irreversible which generates NADPH biosynthesis. When NADPH levels are high nonoxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis from Fructose-6-P and Glyceraldehyde-3-P. Both oxidative and nonNon-oxidative Phase- reversible Generate pentose oxidative pathways are required to generate NADPH while converting the product Ribulose-5-P When NADPH levels are low oxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis. When NADPH levels into non-oxidative pathway to generate glyceraldehyde-3-P into pyruvate. sugars necessary for nucleotide synthesis.
are high nonoxidative pathways are used to generate ribose-5-P for nucleotide biosynthesis from Fructose-6-P and Glyceralde-
hyde-3-P. Both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways are required to generate NADPH while converting the product Ribulose-5-P into non-oxidative pathway to generate glyceraldehyde-3-P into pyruvate.
8 TABLE 3 OF THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ROLES OF NAD AND NADP IN BREWING
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ / NADH)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP / NADPH)
NAD+ serves as an electron and hydrogen acceptor while NADH serves as an electron and hydrogen donor. NAD+ is used to obtain electrons from the catabolizing reactions in the cell such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
NADP+ is an electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH created under anabolic reactions which builds large molecules from small molecules donating hydrogen (H) and associated electrons.
NAD is the oxidised form, is most abundant inside cell
NADPH is the reduced form is most abundant in cell
NAD+ is mostly used as an oxidising agent in respiration
NADPH is mostly used in catabolic reaction
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, fatty acid & sterol synthesis
Pentose pathway (photosynthesis) Lipid synthesis
SCIENCE CARBOHYDRATES glucose consisting of 104 to 105 glucose monomers linked by alpha 1-4 glycoside bonds with frequent branches arising from alpha 1-6 bonds. It is synthesised when cellular energy is in surplus and in response to a wide variety of environmental stresses factors including higher levels of alcohol and conditions of nutrient starvation, such as limited nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, or sulphur. Acknowledgement: I would like to thank Professor Graham Stewart Emeritus Professor Heriot Watt University, Professor Chris Bolton Nottingham University, Professor Matthew Carrigan, Santa Fe College, and Dr Sylvie Van Zandycke for checking the metabolic details. Any errors are entirely down to the author.
REFERENCE & CITATIONS u R. Haroitt and G. K. Buckee “Carbohydrate balances and wort fermentability estimations” JIB July 1978 u Ian S Hornsey “Brewing” published RSC paperback u Chris Bolton & David Quain “Brewing Yeast & Fermentation” published Blackwell Publishing
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