The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Summer 2019

Page 1

The magazine for the professional brewing industry

Brewers J o u r n a l

Summer 2019 | issue 13 ISSN 2398-6948

Small Pony

How Ottawa’s Small Pony Barrel Works are doing things their way with barrel-aged beer 40 | von bugle PROFILEd

58 | focus on Denver, CO

77 | kveik yeast in focus

le ad e r

It’s a date


eptember 5th, 2019. It’s a date to mark in your diaries. Why? Because we’re proud to be hosting the second instalment of our Brewers Lectures series, and we want you there! Taking place at the Harbourfront Centre in Toronto, the event will feature talks from leading brewers, brewery owners, the field of ingredients and other experts from across brewing’s broad spectrum. To be talented in one field is impressive. To turn your hand elsewhere with similar results? That’s just not fair. But thankfully for drinkers and readers across the globe, Garrett Oliver is just that. Brewmaster at Brooklyn Brewery, and delivering the keynote at the September Brewers Lectures, Oliver is also the editor-in-chief of The Oxford Companion to Beer, and author of The Brewmaster’s Table. Probably the most recognisable figure in modern beer, Oliver has hosted more than 1,000 beer tastings, dinners, and cooking demonstrations in nearly 20 countries. You would be hard-pressed to find someone in the Ontario beer industry who doesn’t know and love Ren Navarro. With her extensive knowledge in craft beer, passionate drive, and hilarious wit, Ren Navarro is here to educate, enlighten, and make craft beer approachable for a more diverse audience. And as founder of Beer. Diversity. she’s addressing the lack of diversity in the Canadian craft beer industry and how we can all work together to improve it. One beer at a time. Omnipollo is a beer production company founded by brewer Henok Fentie and artist Karl Grandin in 2011 with a shared vision of changing the perception of beer for good. Carlos de la Barra is a brewer and quality manager at the company that brews a plethora of styles to explore what beer has and can become. Its beers are always a collaborative effort and they brew at

editor's choice How the breweries of Denver, Colorado are adapting to an ever-changing landscape - page 59

breweries in all corners of the world. This approach means they get to stay curious, grounded and tuned in. For Lisa Pumphrey, CEO and co-founder of Lickinghole Creek Brewery, the farm is home, and the brewery is on the farm, therefore, home is the brewery for Lisa, and she wouldn't have it any other way. Her background in law and environmental studies come from years at University of Montana and University of Vermont, which make her an unstoppable force in the local and state level of brewery business development and legislation. For the full lowdown on the September event, turn to page 13 and stay tuned to for more updates on what will be an event not to be missed! Until next time, Tim Sheahan Editor

Summer 2019


co ntac t s

contacts Total Filtration for the Brewing Industry

Tim Sheahan Editor +44 (0)1442 780 592


Richard Piotrowski Canada Bureau Chief +1 647 975 7656 Jakub Mulik Staff photographer Josh Henderson Head of sales +44 (0)1442 780 594 Johnny Leung North American Sales +1 647 975 7656 Jon Young Publisher Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

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Summer 2019

The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing:

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 23986948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

Brewers Journal Canada


contents 40




Cover story 36 - How Ottawa's Small Pony Barrel Works are making their mark in the world of barrel-aged sours and in doing so, attracting new fans each and every day

Brewers Lectures 13- The full lowdown on Brewers Lectures Toronto, taking place on 5 September, 2019

the big interview | jim koch 16- The Boston Beer Company's Jim Koch talks mergers, new beers and the future

COMMENTS 18- Using architecture to set you apart 20- Assembling the best team for your brewery 22- How one-way kegs can offer an advantage 24- Why flights are fun and offer variety 26- Brewing better non-alcoholic beer 30- How taprooms remain a boon to business 32- The benefits of lenticular filtration

SECTOR | HYGIENE 46- Why brewery hygiene should always be top of your agenda

Focus | New products 48- All you need to know when rolling out a new brewery brand, from Hired Guns Creative

Sector | traceability 53- What new Safe Food for Canadians Regulations mean to your brewery

City | Denver, Colorado 59- How the city's breweries are moving with the times to adapt to a changing scene

science BrewerY TOUR | VON BUGLE 41- Etobicoke's Von Bugle on putting faith in one beer and the opportunities that lie ahead

69- An in-depth look at yeast genomics 77- The ways you can innovate with kveik yeast 81- Beer stalling and oxygen control in brewing

Summer 2019



P O R T L A N D • YA K I M A • T O R O N T O • W O R C E S T E R



Tel: +1 503-922-2565 • Email: Tel: +1 416-907-9343 • Email:

CFA19_NewBrewer_Advert_Feb19 | 04/02/19 | PDF/X-1a

© 2008-2019 j6c19.arr

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Canadian Craft Brewers Association founded A

new federation of provincial craft beer Associations,

providing services to support the rapid growth of member

the CCBA-AMBC, has been founded to represent

companies in the sector, many of which are new;

craft breweries in every province and territory in Canada Canadian Craft Brewers Association–Association des Microbrasseries Canadiennes represents more than 700 craft breweries from every province and territory in Canada. The federation aims to “promote and protect the

Promotin the hundreds of breweries and thousands of unique Canadian craft beer offerings to beer-drinking consumers nationally and internationally The Canadian Craft Brewers Association has three member categories: Provincial craft beer Associations, of which there is one in every province; Independent

interests of small and independent breweries across

craft breweries, of which there are over 700 in Canada


including every province and territory; and Supplier and

“Our Association represents a unique sub-sector of the Canadian alcohol beverage industry,” said Steve Beauchesne, co-chair and CEO of Beau’s Craft Brewery in Vankleek Hill, Ontario. “We’re made up of mostly young companies who are revolutionizing a very established industry. The story we have to tell is very different from the global corporate

service provider partners, who form an essential part of the growing craft beer ecosystem. “We are organized to allow each provincial Association to carry on business as usual,” added Frederick Tremblay, co-chair and CEO of Microbrasserie Charlevoix in BaieSaint-Paul, Québec. “The provinces will work with the new national

enterprises that now own and control the big beer

Association on issues that can only be dealt with at the

companies in Canada.”

national level.”

The CCBA-AMBC will initially focus on three strategic goals: Educating federal government on the growing positive

The Board of Directors of the new Association will be comprised of one individual to represent each of the ten provincial craft beer Association members, and one

economic impact created by the craft beer sector, which

individual to represent craft brewery members in each of

includes a substantial business ecosystem of primarily

five geographic regions in Canada.

small and local companies;

The breakdown of the Canadian Craft Brewers

Working with the ten provincial craft beer Associations,

Association board can be found below.

The Association board members are:

The regional brewery board members are:

u Ken Beattie, BC Craft Brewers Guild

u Western Canada breweries: Chloe Smith, Townsite

u Mike McNeil, Alberta Small Brewers Association

Brewing Co., Powell River,

u Kari Stenson, Saskatchewan Craft Brewers

u BC Canadian Territories breweries: Bob Baxter,


Yukon Brewing Co., Whitehorse,

u John Heim, Manitoba Brewers Association

u YK Ontario breweries: Steve Beauchesne, Beau’s

u Scott Simmons, Ontario Craft Brewers

Brewing Co., Vankleek Hill, ON

u Marie-Eve Myrand, L’Association des

u Quebec breweries: Frederick Tremblay,

microbrasseries du Québec Kirk Cox, Craft Brewers

Microbrasserie Charlevoix, Baie-Saint, Paul,

Association of Nova Scotia

u QC Atlantic Canada breweries: Emily Tipton, Boxing

u Andre Leger, New Brunswick Craft Alcohol

Rock Brewing Co., Shelburne, NS

Producers Association Mitch Cobb, PEI Craft Brewers Alliance

Rick Dalmazzi, partner in Sawdust City Brewery and

u Justin Fong, Newfoundland and Labrador Craft Beer

member of the board of the Ontario Craft Brewers


Association, will serve as Acting Executive Director of the CCBA-ACMB.

Summer 2019


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Dominion City Beer, Beer. Diversity. & Niagara College launch scholarship


ominion City Beer has collaborated with Beer. Diversity. and Niagara College to launch a

new scholarship. The scholarship will be awarded annually to one outstanding senior level student in the Niagara College Brewmaster and Brewery Operations Management program with a background presently underrepresented in the brewing industry. The scholarship is two-fold. It includes $1,000 towards tuition and will be followed by a paid eight-week internship at Dominion City upon completion of study. The focus of the internship will be on beer production, covering everything from wort production and cellaring to packaging and lab work. Recipients will learn how to apply theory into day-to-day life as a working brewer. The brewery explained: "Our intention is to provide talented brewers presently underrepresented in Ontario's craft beer industry with valuable first-hand experience to jump-start a successful career in the field. “We believe an inclusive and diverse craft beer scene will lead to a better community and ultimately, a stronger

Cowbell launches partnership with Great Lakes Helicopter

industry.” Interested applicants can reach out to Niagara College's office of scholarships and bursaries to learn how to apply.

The return flight will showcase the rolling fields of Huron County, a bountiful agricultural area, dotted with small towns and villages.


owbell Brewing Co has teamed up with Great Lakes Helicopter (GLH) to offer a service that transports

guests from Grand Bend to Cowbell Farm.

Helicopter flights will be available for custom charters, and scheduled flights. Helicopters will vary from 3 passenger to 6 passenger machines, with custom flight

The trips will run every Wednesday and Sunday

packages beginning at $75.00 per person. Tickets from

from June 22 2019 and will be operated by Great Lakes

Grand Bend to Cowbell and return will start at $299.00

Helicopter, of Breslau, a Transport Canada approved,

per person.

Ontario Private Career College Flight Training School and a charter company. Based at the Region of Waterloo International Airport, in the heart of southern Ontario, GLH is a “perfect match” to showcase the beauty of Huron County. “The Great Lakes Helicopter team is excited to announce this new and unique service, in cooperation

Avling Brewery opens in Leslieville, Toronto


vling Brewery Kitchen & Brewery has opened in Leslieville Toronto.

Located at 1042 Queen Street East, the business

with Cowbell,” said Bill Leyburne, owner of Great Lakes

was founded by Max Meighen, a brewer and chef from

Helicopter. “Our two local companies are working

London, England.

together to create memorable experiences for every

Comprising a rooftop garden, taproom and restaurant,

Cowbell Guest, whether they live down the road, or half-

Avling Brewery launched with beers such as the 6.1%

way around the world!”

Esperta Hoppy Belgian Ale, 4.7% Galette Buckwheat

Flights depart from Grand Bend and travel along the beautiful Lake Huron coastline. Once guests arrive at Cowbell Brewing, Canada’s first Destination Brewery, they

Saison. Other numbers include the 6% Avling IPA and Avling Saison, which comes in at 4.4% abv. The brewery said the beers it produces will be as

are invited to take a VIP Guided Tour of the brewery, enjoy

seasonal as the ingredients that go into them, constantly

a local farm-to-table meal and award-winning craft beer.

evolving and developing over the course of the year.


Summer 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

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Specific Mechanical Systems celebrates 35 successful years V

ictoria, British Columbia-based Specific Mechanical Systems is celebrating 35 years in brewing and

distilling. The business, which was founded in 1984 and incorporated in 1986, has manufactured Canadian made brewing and distilling systems for award winning breweries and distilleries worldwide. Chad MacIsaac, sales and marketing manager at Specific Mechanical Systems, said: “The success of our company is based on the values instilled by its owners, the founders of the company back in 1984. “We value building long lasting relationships with our customers and creating a feeling of community and inclusion both within the walls of our facilities as well as with our customers. “Our commitment to the highest standards of

“You can always feel secure when choosing to invest in equipment from Specific Mechanical Systems.” The company evolved from manufacturing 5 – 20 BBL

manufacturing quality, intuitive and proven designs for

systems in the 80’s and 90’s to fully automated systems

each customer project and the industry’s best customer

well over 100 BBL in size.

service program are the pillars that have propped up our

In addition to building breweries and distilleries,

name as the manufacturer of choice for thousands of

Specific also manufactures process systems for other


industries, including cannabis, dairy, pharmaceutical and

“The company has experienced many changes in the brewing and distilling industries, including booms

oil & gas. Specific operates two manufacturing factories at

and dips, and has always continued to advance by

its location in Victoria, BC, and employs approximately

maintaining strong fiscal policy and incorporating the

100 staff, including skilled trades, design engineers,

latest technological advancements to offer industry

automation engineers, project managers, sales, customer

leading systems.

service, and office administration.

Steam Whistle broadens portfolio


has invested considerably in growing the business.

complement its well-established Pilsner, both of which

Roundhouse in downtown Toronto, and that has enabled

are made according to the exacting standards of the

it to significantly increase its capacity.

team Whistle has added the first new beer to its portfolio in 19 years.

The brewery has launched a premium Pale Ale to

Bavarian Purity Act of 1516

It opened a production facility in Etobicoke last year to complement the work at the historic Steam Whistle

Since then, it has launched a sister brand, Von Bugle,

“We have grown to become the No. 1 craft beer in

which produces a German-style lager and has forged

Canada with only one beer,” said Tim McLaughlin, vice-

a partnership to brew one of the leading craft beers in

president of marketing for Steam Whistle. “But we have

the United States, Fat Tire Belgium Ale, for the Canadian

heard loud and clear from our customers that they would


like to see more beers from us.” Following an extensive research project reviewing the Steam Whistle brand, the company found that 92% of

That said, Steam Whistle Pale Ale is the first time it has added a new beer under the Steam Whistle brand. “In terms of the style of the beer, our pale ale is still

Steam Whistle drinkers would try another beer from the

easy to drink and crisp, but more hop forward than our


pilsner,” said Mr. McLaughlin “We will remain true to

While Steam Whistle was launched 19 years ago with the mantra of only making one beer, over the past year it


Summer 2019

our standards of brewing a pure ale with no additives, preservatives or artificial foam enhancers.”

Brewers Journal Canada

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Universities join on brewing Innovation Center


merson has collaborated with Colorado State University (CSU) to build the Emerson Brewing

Innovation Center, where students will get hands-on experience using the latest automation technologies. The centre is funded by a joint investment and will serve as the main educational hub for the Fermentation Sciences and Technology program. It’ll reinforce advanced competencies for digital transformation as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) era continues to evolve the industry. The CSU Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition attracts diverse, top-notch students to address

students to gain experience using the latest real-world

the industry’s growing technology demand.

technologies driving innovation in the industry.

“Partnerships like these enable us to give our students

Emerson Impact Partner Lakeside will build the

experience with industry standards and help them

systems that feature elements of Emerson’s Plantweb

prepare for the job market,” said Jeff Callaway, associate

portfolio of IIoT technologies used in brewing automation:

director of Fermentation Science and Technology at CSU.

a DeltaV distributed control system, Micro Motion flow

“The new center will enhance our fermentation science

meters, Rosemount measurement technology and ASCO

academic program while strengthening ties to the

and Baumann valves.


In addition to the center, Emerson is donating $10,000

The Emerson Brewing Innovation Center will open

toward a CSU diversity fellowship to help set up the

this fall in the Gifford Building on CSU’s main Fort Collins

brewing innovation center and a scholarship for the

campus and feature two brewing systems that will allow

fermentation program.

Summer 2019


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Brewers Lectures toronto The Brewers Lectures is returning to Toronto this September. So join some of the industry's leading lights for an afternoon of education, entertainment and great beer on September 5th, 2019.

speakers Carlos de la Barra | Omnipollo With a background in food science and over a decade of international winemaking, Carlos brings knowledge and passion for all things related to flavor, food and booze. Carlos thinks that by relying on the knowledge of manufacturers for their food and beverage, people’s choices around what they eat and drink are a political act. He joined the team at Omnipollo in August 2018 to help them change the perception of beer — forever. Kevin Lane | Fermentis Kevin Lane has been involved in all aspects of the Fermentis business in North America, working in the craft and industrial distilling markets, home and commercial wine and cider making, and most importantly in the home, craft and industrial brewing segments. He has been a judge at international beer competitions as well as a speaker at a wide variety of conferences. Ren Navarro | Beer.Diversity. Working as the face of breweries within her respective sales regions, With her extensive knowledge in craft beer, passionate drive, and hilarious wit, Ren Navarro is here to educate, enlighten, and make craft beer approachable for a more diverse audience. And as founder of Beer. Diversity. she’s addressing the lack of diversity in the Canadian craft beer industry and how we can all work together to improve it.

KEY INFORMATION Harbourfront Centre Toronto 235 Queens Quay W Toronto, ON, M5J 2G8 5 September 2018 12.30pm to 5pm Tickets are $49 full price and $24.50 concesssion. Go to

Summer 2019


b r e w e r s

le c tu r e s

T oronto

Garrett Oliver | Brooklyn Brewery

proudly sponsored by

Garrett Oliver is the brewmaster of The Brooklyn Brewery, the author of “The Brewmaster’s Table” and Editor-in-Chief of “The Oxford Companion to Beer”. Over his 30-year career he has brought many innovations to craft brewing, including the world’s first brewing collaborations, beers based on cocktails, secondary fermentation on natural wine and cider lees, and a particular focus on beer’s culinary talents. Garrett has hosted more than 1,000 beer dinners and tastings in 17 countries. In 2014 he became the first brewer to win the prestigious James Beard Foundation Award for “Outstanding Wine, Beer or Spirits Professional”. Brian Perkey | Lallemand Brian Perkey is the North American sales manager for Lallemand Brewing. Supported by decades of long-standing industry experience, an extensive support network and strong technical expertise, Lallemand Brewing is positioned to help breweries achieve their growth and quality goals, offering an extensive range of products and services. Lisa Pumphrey | Lickinghole Creek Brewery Lisa Pumphrey, CEO and co-founder of Lickinghole Creek Brewery, the farm is home, and the brewery is on the farm, therefore, home is the brewery for Lisa, and she wouldn't have it any other way. Her background in law and environmental studies come from years at University of Montana and University of Vermont, which make her an unstoppable force in the local and state level of brewery business development and legislation. industrial mixing and reactor technology, and focuses on extraction applications.

Alice Tseng | Smart & Biggar A powerhouse combination of lawyer, patent agent, pharmacist and life sciences star Combining sought-after expertise as a lawyer, patent agent and registered pharmacist, Alice is a powerhouse in regulatory and marketing/


Summer 2019

advertising matters, earning acclaim as a “life sciences star” and a “true expert with years of experience” from her clients and peers. Jim VanderGiessen | Pro Refrigeration In 1990, Jim and his father started Pro Refrigeration, Inc, for the purpose of building chiller systems for cooling milk on dairy farms. Over the next 3 decades, Pro has grown to become a leading manufacturer of refrigeration equipment to several markets including the craft beverage industry. Pro Chiller Systems operates with approximately 80 team members from their headquarters near Seattle, WA, with a 65,000 SF Production Facility located near Winston Salem, NC.

Brewers Journal Canada

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Innovate for the right reasons As The Boston Beer Company launches Sam ’76, its new beer in Canada, founder Jim Koch tells Brewers Journal Canada that innovation is more important than ever, but it has to be innovation for the right reasons. by tIM sheahan


im Koch recently celebrated his 70th birthday,

“Statistically, mergers fail due to cultural reasons. You bring together two different cultures and often, they simply do not work. With Dogfish Head and Boston Beer Company, we share the same culture and the same values. Global conglomerates may well be good brewers but they rarely share the same values.” The deal with Dogfish Head is expected to close late in the second quarter of 2019, but in the more immediate future, Koch’s attentions have turned to the launch of its Sam ’76 into the Canadian market. Available for a limited time in LCBO and year-round

a date clearly so important that public holidays

at The Beer Store for Ontario drinkers, the 4.7% beer will

were observed either side of the pond. But for

also be sold at local retailers in Alberta, BC, Manitoba,

Koch, he was hardly taking it easy in the weeks

Saskatchewan, New Brunswick and Quebec.

and months leading up to such an important

anniversary. For starters, his Sam ’76 beer, a new addition to Boston

Beer Company’s Sam Adams brand, has just been launched into the Canadian market. Then there’s the small matter of the merger with Delaware-based Dogfish Head Brewery in a $300m deal. Koch says the combination is the “right fit” with both

Initially launched into the North American market last year, Sam ’76 started life in Samuel Adams’ experimental nano brewery in Boston. The culmination of more than a year of testing and 60 different brews, brewers began with two active fermentations – a base lager and a base ale – each with their own respective yeast strains. The base beers were brewed, then combined during

Boston Beer and Dogfish Head holding a passion for

a final maturation step when both yeast depend on each

brewing and innovation.

other during a “tag-team fermentation”.

“We share the same values and we will learn a lot from

The combination of multiple yeast strains and dry-

each other as we continue to invest in the high-end beer

hopping during a late stage of fermentation creates

category,” he says.

an impressive array of flavors not possible in a typical

Speaking to Brewers Journal Canada, Koch says consumers are allowed to be “rightfully suspicious” during

brewing process. The beer showcases the impact hop compound

the takeover of their favourite breweries by multinational

biotransformation can have on a beer. Biotransformation

brewing giants but was proud to say the move with

can be described as something of a complex chemical

Dogfish Head sits at the opposite end of the spectrum.

process. Yeast cells transform hop components into new

“Sam (Calagione, founder and brewer of Dogfish Head) had more financially attractive options from those types

aromatic compounds. The combination of American Cascade, Citra, Mosaic

of businesses, but he was determined not to do that,”

and Simcoe hops in Sam ’76 imparts a tropical citrus

explains Koch.

aroma that gives way to a bright, juicy citrus hop flavor

He adds: “Instead, we spoke about the possibility of doing something. Things gelled and by coming together

without overpowering the palate with a strong hop bitterness.

we knew it would enable their business to remain an

“We’re very proud of it,” he tells us. “Look, you’ve got

independent craft brewery, which was so important.

something along the lines of 8000 breweries in the US, so

“Sam and I have been friends for many years, working on brewing beers and also industry initiatives. We’ve fought shoulder to shoulder. There was a comfort in knowing there was a cultural fit.


Summer 2019

it’s hard to do something exceptional that nobody else is doing. “It took us 18 months of experimentation to produce something that starts as a fruity, juicy IPA in terms

Brewers Journal Canada

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Statistically, mergers fail due to cultural reasons. You bring together two different cultures and often, they simply do not work Jim Koch, The Boston Beer Company

of aroma and flavour, then becomes something so immaculately clean.” He adds: “I suppose you could say it’s something people nowadays call a ‘crushable’ beer. Something you could enjoy three of rather than two of your normal beer. And I think we got there.” Despite co-founding The Boston Beer Company in 1984, Koch still has an insatiable appetite for the new, interesting and innovative. “I feel like we’re the perfect size for a brewery. We’re large enough to have high-end technical capabilities and incredible brewers, something smaller brewers often don’t,” he explains. Koch adds: “But we are at the size where we can still do crazy things and continue to be innovative. And we are. “Don’t get me wrong, we won’t be silly by putting glitter

and innovation taking place across the global brewing industry.

But he also knows how tough it can be, too. “When things are challenging, remember why you

got into this business,” he says. “For most of us, hopefully that’s a passion for making people happy with great beer.” He explains: “Have pride in your brewing and the

work you do. As brewers, we have a responsibility to consumers to give them a great product on a reliable basis and, you know, hopefully delight them with something unique from time-to-time, too. “When I started in ’84, my business plan had goals I hoped would take five years to achieve. If I hit these, I could grow to 5000 barrels and hit $1m in sales. That would enable me and pay myself $75k a year. “I’m grateful I’ve been able to grow this brewery

in our beers, or launching French Toast IPAs or Milkshake

beyond that. But I know that had I simply accomplished

IPAs. That’s novelty for novelty’s sake and it doesn’t

that, I’d be just as happy as I am now.

interest me. “If one of our brewer wants to make a really spicy beer

“I’d have probably undertaken a lot less work, travel and who knows, maybe I’d be even happier! So be sure

here at our brewery? I tell them ‘Sure, go for it. But it’s not

to think about what you set out to do and don’t get

leaving these walls and you’re going to have to drink it!’”


While Koch has his own values of what The Boston

“Brewing is hard work, much harder than you think.

Beer Company stands for, and the type of beer it

It’s never meant to be easy. But the great thing is there’s

produces, he has great admiration for the hard work

more of us these days and we’re all in it together.”

Summer 2019


Co m m e nt

A rchitecture

BREAKING THE MOULD How do you make your brewery stand out from the crowd? Sure, it might feel like a loaded question, but the reality is that all breweries are not the same, your history, brewing process, recipes, community and clientele are diverse, valuable and all should be considered and embraced, explains Tara Marshall, partner at FORT Architecture. by Tara Marshall

Just because your neighbour plays it safe doesn’t mean you should. Make smart design decisions that set you apart and feed “your” dream. Don’t be afraid to step out of the box, the design should reflect your personality and core values. Who says your patrons shouldn’t be seated in the middle of production facility?! Case in point, at Ol’ Beautiful Brewing Co. our instinct was to situate the patrons smack dab in the middle of the production floor. This strategic move offers patrons an insightful view into the process of brewing that they might not otherwise have experienced. It’s a simple move that makes for a memorable experience. Tighten Up. Just because your brewery is in an industrial style building doesn’t mean it needs to be


hese days, brewers everywhere are stepping up

a big empty space. If a large open brewery isn’t your

their game and paying much needed attention to

thing, then we suggest tightening up your floor plan or

the broader experience of drinking beer. Although the

offering up multiple user experiences. A narrower floor

beer itself remains the focal point, brewers are making

plan and tighter front of house can provide a surprising

conscious decisions to enhance the experience of both

and beneficial level of coziness that isn’t typically

the consumption of beer and the space in which it is

associated with breweries. The reason why you love your

being enjoyed.

neighbourhood pub isn’t necessarily for the kitsch art,

With an influx of competition in the market, the brewery experience is becoming almost as important as the beer itself. While big production breweries with

it’s the inexplainable feeling of comfort that keeps you coming back. Forget About It. Forget about what you know a

simply designed tap rooms will always have a place, we

traditional brewery to be and ask yourself what you would

are seeing a shift towards more experiential designs and

like it to be? Design is subjective, so think about the


experience you would like your customers to have and

As breweries continue to become more common

own it. There is no right or wrong way to design a brewery

place, brewers and their brands need to find additional

when you have considered your customer and the beer

means to stand out from the crowd.

hand in hand. Don’t be afraid to buck the trend, a strategic

So how do you make your brewery stand out from the crowd? It might feel like a loaded question, but at FORT Architecture we are all in favor of breaking tradition

move away from the typical brewery model might just surprise you. To a novice, a brewery might seem like simple project,

and looking at the brewery model with fresh eyes. The

but in terms of design there is a lot to factor in. If you are

reality is that all breweries are not the same, your history,

considering building an open concept brewery, have you

brewing process, recipes, community and clientele

thought about fire ratings, odours, sight lines, privacy,

are diverse, valuable and all should be considered and

storage, or customer hazards? As brewery designers


these are topics we deal with right from the get go

A thoughtful focus on the brewery design can not

and why one of our top recommendations to anyone

only improve the overall look, feel, flow and efficacy of

considering starting a brewery is to hire the right designer.

the brewery itself, but increase revenue by drawing in a

The reality is, brewery design is complicated and budgets

new beer consuming demographic beyond that of your

can be tight, so when hiring a designer, they need to be

typical beer aficionado. Based on our experience in the

able to provide thoughtful ideas that work within your

field of brewery design, we have compiled our top tips for

budget, are technically and operationally sound, and put

designing a brewery that will set you apart from the rest.

you on a path to making your dream brewery a reality.


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What sets you apart from the competition? JAMIE ANHOLT PHOTOGRAPHY

story is the element worth highlighting in the design. In the case of Establishment Brewing Co. modest finishes are highlighted throughout. From plywood to epoxy flooring, we took otherwise “back of house” materials and utilized them as featured elements, exposing the simplicity yet beauty in the strategic use of these materials. Much like the Bauhaus movement, which was their brand inspiration, the brewery mixes the crafts of architecture, beer and the art of making into an authentic beer drinking experience. Provide the Opportunity for Exploration. Don’t

Yes, you must work within a budget. Some are large

underestimate the opportunity for exploration. Think of

and some are small, but a budget is just a constraint that

the brewery as a theatre where the patron can experience

forces you to think outside the box. Consider how you can

and learn about the brewing process itself. By showcasing

use affordable materials in different ways. Try your hand

the equipment, raw ingredients and process, you can

at some construction or connect with other local small

engage your customer in a more meaningful way. Not

businesses and makers (maybe you can trade beer tabs

only does the patron want to visit your brewery to just

for services?). The point is, creativity and perseverance

drink your beer, now they want to come for the immersive

can go a long way in building your dream brewery.

experience and a broader knowledge of the process.

Strategic design decisions can take your brewery from

What Sets You Apart? This is the key driver we look for when coming up with a new brewery concept and

cookie cutter to standout, even on a budget. FORT is an up and coming architecture and interior

should be the first question you ask yourself. The answer

design firm based out of Calgary, Alberta. They have

could be anything from the type of barrels you use, the

quickly become known as a go-to firm for brewery design

history of how your got your start, your brand story or the

and have been successfully leaving their mark on the city

character of the surrounding community. Your unique

of Calgary one brewery, cidery and distillery at a time.

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B uilding



Assembling Your Craft Brewery Build Team To make your dream of a brewery build happen, the owner needs to evaluate the available options and decide on what the build team looks like in order to maintain a comfort level throughout the project, argues Rod Waite, First Key Consulting by Rod Waite


any homebrewers, beer lovers and entrepreneurs have envisioned opening a craft brewery or

brewpub. The thought of crowds of people sipping on your beers in a unique space can be a great way make a living. Without question, building a brewery can be exciting

WHO IS IN YOUR TEAM? Generally, the build team can consist of a blend of: - Owner - Brewery personnel (brewmaster, general manager, etc.) - Local engineer(s)/architect(s) - Brewery consultants - Equipment suppliers - Contractors (this could be combined with the local engineers as part of a design-build company) - Support from other local breweries

and rewarding. It can also be very challenging. After completing a brewery business plan, selecting the right location, establishing a workable budget, meeting deadlines and dealing with unforeseen risks often

thing is to set the project up for success by best using the

complicate the process.

resources available.

Though it’s unlikely that start-up breweries can avoid all of these challenges, they can put themselves in a

To illustrate the above comments, lets look at a few build team examples:

much better position for success by creating a trusted build team. The build team’s purpose is to manage and

Team #1

provide oversight on the many steps it takes to bring a

- Owner

craft brewery or brew pub from initial concept to brewing


Single source equipment supplier

its first batch.


Local engineer/architect

Each of the above can be tasked to cover more or less of the scope, depending on their core strengths,

- Contractor(s) In Team #1, the Owner should have an excellent

the size of the brewery, complexity of the operation and

understanding of brewery equipment (including utilities)

geographical location. It is important that engineers/

and be available to work closely with the local engineers

architects are familiar with local code requirements.

and contractors to ensure all details are captured

Ultimately the Owner has to make a decision on how


to run the project. This decision is normally based on: Budget, owner’s knowledge of brewery operation and

Team #2

construction, owner’s availability, owner’s vision of fit and

- Owner

finish of the brewery (bootstrap or top of line), brewery


Brewery consultants

personnel hired (or to be hired) and affiliation (if any) with


Various equipment suppliers

local engineers or contractors.


Design-build contractor (engineering/

Clearly, there are many start-ups built under the direction of a passionate brewer with a limited budget, who has the patience and knowledge to start up a

architectural + construction), or independent engineers/ architects and contractors. In Team #2, the Owner does not necessarily need to

brewery. On the flip side, many others do not have the

have brewing or construction experience. The brewery

time, risk tolerance and/or knowledge. The important

consultants would act as the Owner’s representative


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in dealing with equipment suppliers and contractors.

making sure the competitive bids can be compared

Integration drawings, construction supervision and

apples-to-apples, and ensuring the prices make sense,

start-up support would also be an important part of the

are all important tasks where a brewery consultant can be

brewery consultant’s scope.

helpful. Also, throughout a project it is a good idea to

Team #3

ensure engineers and contractors are aligned with the

- Owner

requirements of the equipment suppliers (and vice versa).


Brewery hired staff

The brewery consultants can use their experience to


Brewery consultants

ensure the right details are communicated and fill in the


Single source equipment supplier

gaps, where necessary.


Design-build contractor (engineering/

In the end, “where there is a will and a way� and

architectural + construction), or independent engineers/

assuming the budget is sufficient, the brewery will be

architects and contractors.

built. To make it happen, the Owner needs to evaluate

On paper, the example shown in Team #3 may appear

the available options and decide on what the build team

a little heavy on the overheads. However, for many

looks like in order to maintain a comfort level throughout

projects, depending on size and complexity, it is critical to

the project.

spend the necessary time up front during the selection of

Rod Waite has over 17 years of experience as an

the single-source equipment supplier. The procurement

engineering project manager and process design engineer.

process can be troubling for some.

As Director of Engineering Services at First Key Consulting

Preparation of the specifications, reviewing the

he has led multi-million dollar capital projects for breweries

technical aspects of the proposals (e.g. all requirements

across North America and has worked with both small- and

are met and no unnecessary components are included),

large-scale breweries and distilleries.

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D istribution

Disrupting Distribution In this era of start-up breweries in particular, one-way kegs offer the flexibility to test the market with less initial investment. As breweries continue to launch new beers and develop new and innovative ways of experiencing them, these could offer a new competitive edge for all those thinking of dipping their toes into the beer industry. says Chris McEwan, president of Petainer, Americas by Chris McEwan

the competition is crucial to a thriving brewery. Which is why the advent of intensely flavoured beers, for instance, was one of the drivers to developing a ready-to-use, light weight, one-way keg alternative to the traditional steel. Steel kegs have of course been around since the dawn of beer, well almost. Prior to that brewers used ceramic kegs which replaced clay. Few have thought to challenge them until quite recently, yet a cumbersome steel keg comes with its own handling issues which start with the need to thoroughly clean them to remove all traces of the last brew they were transporting. In truth, steel kegs should be completely overhauled at least every 5 years yet very few are even tagged and


t might not be beer drinking weather yet as CTV recently pointed out, but the Canadian beer sector is

most are continuously used until they are too damaged. Since every obscure beer style has by now been

still booming regardless! As craft breweries continue to

resurrected, dynamic new micro-breweries have taken to

grow and expand the craft beer market is starting to reach

experimenting with some exciting new ingredients that

out into rural areas and a string of new and exciting beers

are even more challenging to efficiently clean out of the

are emerging as a consequence.

old steel kegs.

Craft brewers may be approaching saturation point

So let’s take a look at some of the alternatives.

in Canada, however, to date, most game-changing

Over the last few years a range of one-way kegs have

strategies they have adopted have centred around

started to appear on the market. As a disruptor in a

launching unusual beers, innovative branding and

well-established sector they have had their fair share of

packaging, through to cutting edge technology, such as

teething problems, yet this has resulted in the serious

AR, to enhance standout.

contenders fine-tuning their offering.

The logistical side of a beer’s journey to the

Since one-way kegs are also one-time use, they don’t

consumer’s glass has seen very little change over the

require cleaning, maintenance or storage after use. It

years. But this too is now being disrupted. It may not be

takes about 11 litres of water to wash one steel keg not

the most glamorous facet of a brewery, however it is

to mention the chemicals and energy outlay to properly

rapidly gaining a competitive edge.

sterilise them. Any new beer producer who does not want

As the sector diversifies with challenger Tap Rooms, micro-breweries and Brewpubs re-defining the

to invest in either a keg cleaning system, or a stainless steel fleet will appreciate this.

landscape, there is now an urgent need for innovative,

However to offer true differentiation the PET keg

more nimble logistical solutions to match these more

has had to re-write the storing and transportation rule

agile breweries’ growing requirements.

book. There now exists a one-way keg that can either

Working side by side with brewers for over 35 years

be delivered purged and ready to fill or blown and

has taught us one vital lesson; effectively managing on-

assembled locally, on or off the filling line. To specifically

going change and remaining at least one step ahead of

support the Canadian market, Petainer is opening its


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second manufacturing site in North America in Ontario,

management on its head. At a time when sustainability

Canada. This manufacturing site will blowmold the kegs

is on everyone’s mind it might at first appear to be a

locally and optimise supply chain savings to provide

throw-away option that does not tick the ecological box.

Canadian made kegs to the market.

Yet by reducing the carbon footprint and the high-energy

Weighing in at only 10% of the standard steel keg the shipping cost is reduced as is the carbon footprint. It can be totally dis-assembled and all its component parts are

requirement of cleaning alone this solution is already a greener option. Furthermore these new-age kegs are easy to brand,

either re-usable or totally recyclable. Its chimes, which

use standard keg valve fittings (Sankey D), fit on the same

comprise around 60% of the total weight of the product,

production line, can be filled upright or inverted, enable

are re-usable and pack down to a small return pack size

operators to actually see the beer in the keg through to

alleviating the need for recycling altogether and bringing

reduce foaming and increase speed of filling, and you can

economic savings to the supply chain. The keg itself can

start to see why they are gaining traction.

be depressurised, crushed and recycled. This means there are no storage, fleet or maintenance issues. Getting back to the taste of your beer, cuttingedge barrier technology and heightened UV and light protection are just two of the factors that ensure the

As with any disruptor, it will take heritage breweries some time to switch, however we are already seeing many who have keg fleets starting to trial the one-way alternatives to rapidly top up production when needed. In this era of start-up breweries in particular they offer

beer maintains its integrity and has the same shelf-life as

the flexibility to test the market with less initial investment.

its steel sibling, even at higher temperatures. In fact an

As we continue to launch new beers and develop new

independent expert panel ran a blind test over a 12 month

and innovative ways of experiencing them, these could

period to ensure the taste profile remained the same.

offer a new competitive edge for all those thinking of

There is no doubt that one-way kegs flip fleet

dipping their toes into the beer industry.

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Taking Flight Creating a beer flight is fun and offers a new way for your guests to try a variety of beers without committing to a full glass of something they are unsure of, argues Roger Mittag, the President of Thirst For Knowledge Inc and founder of Prud’homme Beer Certification

sure the guest see the benefit of buying a sampling flight. Step 1 – Glassware Find a set of glasses that will help you to sell this product. It’s easy to default to one standard glass but that glass will not always showcase the characteristics of each beer properly. It is recommended that you settle on a glass that is 5-6 ounces in volume. Ideally, this glass would provide a visual impact as well as the opportunity to smell and taste a beer in the right environment. This

by roger mittag

stemless wine glass is my choice for sampling in the Prud’homme classroom. Once you have chosen the glass, you should find


n a world on curious, experimental beer consumers,

something (a custom wooden tray) that will allow you

the concept of offering an option to try a variety of

to serve the entire flight to the guest. These are widely

different beers in smaller samples seems to be on every restauranteur’s mind. While the concept of beer flights

available through the glassware supplier. Next – how many samples is the right amount? I

seems to be an easy one, it requires a tremendous

would strongly recommend either 4 or 5 depending on

amount of thought to be able to drive interest at the

how many draught brands you have on tap. This gives

consumer level.

the guest a nice range of beers to try and may be able to

The beer sampler should be draught beer only. It really doesn’t make any sense to open cans and bottles

guide them to the one they enjoy the best. Pouring sample beers requires a gentle touch and

for sampling unless you can easily sell the remainder in

a draught system that works well. In flights, it is still

the same sitting. So….where to start?

important to ensure a proper amount of foam is poured at

The first question in offering a quality flight of beers should be why. Understanding the purchase decisions of your consumers is vital in deciding how to approach this. Are you trying to establish an opportunity to sample

the top of each sample glass. Aim for at least 1 ounce of foam at the top. Step 2 - Design The type of flights you offer is critical. If your beer line-

a variety of beers that might be foreign or new to your

up is over 30 brands, you might be able to focus on styles

guests? Are you interested in moving slow moving

like an IPA flight or a Wheat beer flight but it’s more likely

draught beers to maintain freshness and quality?

that the focus should be on a variety of beers.

Are you trying to create new beer occasions centered

If you want to showcase the diversity of beers, I would

around beer styles, countries or flavours? Are you simply

recommend the following to be included in the flight:

trying to increase sales by offering a new product? One of

Easy drinking – beers like Pilsners, Kölsch are great to

the most important of all decisions should be whether this

start with; Fruity – add a fruit beer or Radler; Smooth –

flight will convince the guest to buy a full-sized version of

amber lagers or ales are a good bridge to fuller flavours;

one of the beers. All of these are important in the greater

Bold – this is a good chance to introduce hops into the

scheme of things but it’s critical to your success to make

flight – beers like American Pale Ales and IPA’s; Robust


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– Add darker beers like American Brown Ale, Porters &

menu item with each beer on the flight. This will allow


your staff to suggest a pairing along with a full beer.

While this is only one way to offer a sampling flight, you might also consider countries of origin (Belgian, Germany, Canadian Craft, British etc.)

Step 4 -Variety is the spice of life Make sure you change the brands in the flight every month. Keep in mind, that you are trying to enhance

Step 3 - Education

the beer experience and this means that you need to

Create the right environment that will help your

understand that your regular guests may want to try

staff to sell this product. That means you will need to provide as much information about each brand and each

something new. Creating a beer flight is fun and offers a new way for

style of beer in the flight. Knowledge is power and if a

your guests to try a variety of beers without committing to

server or bartender is equipped with the right amount of

a full glass of something they are unsure of.

information, they will become your biggest ambassador in the beer category. You may also want to think about food pairings with

If you need help designing and executing a Beer Flight, contact me at Roger Mittag is the President of Thirst For Knowledge Inc.

each brand. Knowing how to pair food with beer is crucial

(Canada’s leading beer education company) and founder of

to your overall success, so consider pairing at least one

Prud’homme Beer Certification® ( )

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N o

A lcohol


How to Brew Better NonAlcoholic Beer Non-alcoholic beer offers great potential for craft brewers since different flavors and aromas can be created to meet the tastes of various audiences. So with that in mind, here are some tips to brew better no-alcohol beers, says Sean Burley, project engineer from API Heat Transfer.

using a process such as reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, spinning cones or vacuum distillation. These processes have come a long way from the early days when brewers heated beer at a high temperature to boil away the ethanol. Although this process is successful in stripping the alcohol from the beer, it generates baked or cooked odors and drives out the inherent flavors and aromas in the beer thus changing its taste, smell and even mouthfeel.

by Sean Burley

There are several methods to remove alcohol from beer that utilize high pressure or low heat instead of high temperatures thus avoiding heat-generated flavor


n about five years, it is projected that 20 percent of all beverages in the beer market will be non-alcoholic.

distortion. Reverse osmosis is one option and actually is the same

Today, non-alcoholic beers make up approximately six

process that is used to desalinate ocean water. It does

percent of the market, so the opportunity for growth is

not require heating, rather external energy using a high-


pressure pump and a physical membrane that separate

Several factors are driving the projected spike in nonalcoholic beer, most notably the untapped cannabis beer

the water and alcohol from the concentrated beer. In this technique, the already-fermented beer is

market. There are also several health-related reasons

pushed through a filter with microscopic holes that only

contributing to the growth of non-alcoholic beers. Recent

allows water, alcohol and a few volatile acids to pass.

studies have shown non-alcoholic beers to be beneficial

After filtering, the alcohol is distilled from the alcohol-

to the immune system because of the presence of

and-water mixture using standard distillation.

polyphenols that can suppress viral infections and help fight off colds. In addition, Millennials and Generation Z are more health conscious than previous generations, and nonalcoholic beers have fewer calories than their alcoholic

At the same time, a syrupy mixture of sugar and flavors collects on the opposite side of the filter. After the alcohol is distilled from the water, the remaining water and acids are returned to the syrupy mixture. Membrane filtration is another process used to

counterparts, which helps keep weight in check

dealcoholize beer, and it is similar to reverse osmosis. In

and decreases the chance for obesity-related heart

this process, brewed beer passes through an extremely


tight membrane filter that separates the alcohol from the

Making a non-alcoholic beer is actually more complex and technologically intensive than making its alcoholic

beer. There are two types of membrane filtration -- dead-

counterpart due to the added processes. Most non-

end or crossflow. In dead-end filtration, the liquid (in this

alcoholic beers go through the traditional brewing

case, beer) is forced through the membrane.

process: making a mash, boiling the wort, adding hops and fermenting. Then, the alcohol is removed or lessened


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In cross-flow membrane filtration, the beer flows continuously across the membrane surface, which

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Industry developments such as aroma recapture make it possible to produce non-alcoholic beer that has the natural aromas and flavor of its alcoholic counterpart.

In vacuum distilling, beer is placed under vacuum and

Some dealcoholization equipment can be easily installed

gently heated to evaporate the alcohol, leaving the

into a brewer’s current process on an existing line without

beer’s essence intact.

changing recipes.

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prevents the buildup of filter cake that can lead to fouling

break down during other high-temperature distillation

and uneven flow. Both types of filtration use similar

processes, can be captured to be later recombined into


the finished beer, enhancing its aroma and flavor.

Membrane-systems have a tendency to over filter the

In addition to processes that dealcoholize beer, other

beer as in the reverse osmosis paradigm, removing a

processes such as arrested fermentation restrict the

beer’s essence along with the alcohol. As a result, non-

formation of alcohol in the first place.

alcoholic beers produced using these processes often lose some of their natural aromas and flavor. Vacuum distillation Is a process that has mastered

Utilizing the arrested fermentation process, a brewer pitches yeast into the beer and tightly monitors the process. When the desired alcohol content is reached

the art of aroma recapture. In this process, beer is placed

(typically 0.5 percent), the yeast cells are deactivated by

under vacuum and gently heated to evaporate the

subjecting them to cold temperatures, effectively halting

alcohol. Under vacuum, the alcohol boils off at a much

the production of more alcohol. The product then has to

lower temperature than it would at atmospheric pressure,

be heated to be dealcoholized.

so the process is gentle, which does not alter or change the beer’s essence.

Since arrested fermentation involves stopping a live culture yeast, it can be more difficult to control batch

Advanced vacuum distillation systems extract the

consistency compared to other processes. Based on the

aromas early in the process so they can be reintroduced

actual amount of alcohol produced from the yeast (± 0.5

back into the beer. This makes the non-alcoholic beer

percent), different batches may yield slightly different

even more similar to its alcoholic counterpart.

flavor profiles.

Vacuum distilling is the preferred dealcoholization

Non-alcoholic beer offers great potential for craft

process of many of the industry’s leading brewers such

brewers since different flavors and aromas can be created

as Heineken, Franziskaner and Jever due to the beer’s

to meet the tastes of various audiences. Any of the above

freshness, aroma, flavor and mouthfeel.

processes can be utilized by a craft brewer but remember

Breweries also like the vacuum distillation system

that beer drinkers are accustomed to a product that has

because it is inherently flexible and can be used to make

a good appearance, luscious aroma, excellent flavor and

many different types of beers such as a Hefeweizen,

smooth texture.

Scout, New England IPA or a generic Lager.

Like any good alcoholic beer, a non-alcoholic version

Vacuum distillation systems that include SIGMATEC

must pass a beer drinker’s sensory evaluation. Historically,

technology can be easily installed into a brewer’s current

non-alcoholic beers have fallen short on flavor, which is a

process. The equipment fits in the middle of the process

complex combination of taste and aromas.

line, so the non-alcoholic brews do not have to run on

Taste defects in non-alcoholic beer are mainly

a different line, nor is it necessary to change recipes as

attributed to a loss of aromatic esters and/or changes to

required by some other alcohol-stripping processes.

a beer’s compounds during the dealcoholization process.

Some systems also have an integrated PLC system that automates the entire solution. Recipes and settings can be pre-programmed to minimize operator error as well as ensure product consistency. Another type of dealcoholization process that does a good job of aroma capture is spinning cones. The equipment in this process consists of a vertical column that features rotating and stationary metal cones.

Aroma recapture in the vacuum distillation process makes it possible to produce excellent beer without any alcohol. To get started brewing non-alcoholic beer, do your research. Know that there are different technologies and processes for stripping alcohol from beer, and some are better than others. When exploring the various options, be sure to consider the following: if and how aroma compounds are

Low-temperature vacuum steam distillation is used

recovered, if recipe changes are required, how the system

in this process to extract desirable volatile compounds

ensures consistency over time, system flexibility, run time,

during fermentation. These compounds, which often

ease of maintenance, and brewery market experience.


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T aprooms

Taprooms: Where Brands Come to Life As taprooms continue to thrive, as more and more breweries see their gathering places as the cradle that nurtures their brand, breweries that are already good at all this will become great, and all breweries will become better. Why? Because they’ll have to, argues Mike Kallenberger, First Key Consulting

but the surge in own-premise sales is undoubtedly getting a big boost from the growing number of these – or even simply “taproom breweries.” The latter is a new classification recently added by the BA to designate a brewery that sells 25 percent or more of its output onsite (without having significant food service operations, in contrast to a brewpub). There’s growing evidence that the prevalence of taprooms has created an expectation among beer drinkers that the best way to learn about what a

by Mike Kallenberger

beer brand stands for, to get a feel for its image and personality, is to visit them “live and in person.” In a series


he rules of beer brand building are being turned

of recent research interviews, when drinkers were asked

upside down again.

about the image of a given brewery they consistently

Microbreweries, as they were called then, began

to emerge in the 1980s, and from the beginning their success defied the conventional wisdom. The “rules”

volunteered that it was the taproom that had given rise to that image. One major craft brewer, we were told, has a “kind of

that had been in place for decades said that big-budget

a northern west coast hippy type of vibe – and the only

television advertising was the key to building brands,

reason I characterize it that way is I visited the brewery in

and that the difference between the winners and losers

California.” A Colorado brewery was described by another

often came down to little more than how entertaining the

interviewee this way: “I don’t know that they’ve figured

ads were in presenting their message. Then along came

out who they are. They moved to a bigger, beautiful

the first wave of craft brewers, creating strong brands

place and it’s always busy but it’s a tourist place – they’re

with virtually no vehicle for communicating what they

almost the establishment now.” A third participant said

were all about except their labels, portraying distinctive

“I’ve been to a pub in Dublin and [the mood there] shapes

personalities with evocative visuals that lived solely in the

my opinion of the feel that Guinness has.”

palm of the beer drinker’s hand. In recent years the rules seem to be changing again.

And not only has the taproom apparently become a drinker’s primary source of insigh t into imagery and

More and more often brands come to life not in small,

personality, for some it’s the only relevant source. When

self-contained little packages, but by immersing the

asked their image of specific beer brands, more often

drinker in the brand experience, in the form of a brewery

than not interviewees told us things like “I can’t describe


their personality because I’ve never been to the brewery”

There are a lot of lenses through which to view the growing number of taprooms in breweries throughout

or “I don’t know much about them – I’ve never been there.” But while it’s true that the taproom’s role in brand

North America, and while brand building may not be

building has been elevated in today’s world, it’s also

the first that comes to mind, it may well be the most

true that the smartest brewery taproom designs have


intuitively recognized this all along.

Dubbed “own-premise sales,” beer sold directly to

The physical environment of the taproom, of course,

drinkers on brewery premises now accounts for roughly

communicates a lot. It’s a common practice for one

11% of U.S. industry volume, according to estimates

wall to incorporate a large glass window overlooking

published by the Brewers Association. The barrelage

the brewery itself, to make the patrons feel intimately

growth has averaged over 20% for each of the last three

connected to the process and the product. Another

years. Not all of this passes through a taproom per se,

widely practiced rule: no televisions, the better to


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promote conversation and the sense of community

of a tree rising up to a rusted metal treehouse, nested

so inherent to the beer experience. Those feelings of

within branches of twisted wrought iron lattice – an “off-

intimacy and community are both great ways to promote

centered” welcome from an “off-centered” brand. And

a brewery, but arguably neither represents brand-building

rising from a hilltop above the small Swiss-American

per se, since a brand by definition is differentiated. Think

village of New Glarus, Wisconsin, the New Glarus brewery

of these basic design features as costs of entry – they say

may as well be a castle from the country that inspired its

“we’re all about beer and beer culture,” but they don’t say

design and the brand itself.

it any differently than do a half dozen other breweries not too far away. Then there are the design elements that are essentially physical representations of the brand essence. Rhinegeist Brewery, located in a pre-prohibition

When it comes to audio cues music is clearly the most important consideration. Still, it seems far fewer breweries are focused on piping in the kind of music that reinforces their brand personality. Three Floyds, in Munster, Indiana, is known for their heavy metal vibe, whether on the label

bottling plant, takes their name from the building's

or on the air in the taproom. Melvin Brewing in Alpine,

history- “Rhine” for the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood

Wyoming, has used rap music as the crux of its imagery,

they call home, and “Geist” as a ghostly nod to the area’s

and that’s what you’ll hear in the taproom. But these seem

German heritage and a signifier that brewing life is making

to be exceptions. It’s easy to tout the virtues of variety,

a comeback in Cincinnati. The taproom houses two bars,

and playing the kind of music the customers want. But as

the original 20 BBL brewing system, and a small food

marketers often say, strategy is all about making choices.

kiosk, with burgers sent over from the restaurant next

Not choosing the music strategically is at best a missed

door via pneumatic tube. While filled mostly with wooden

opportunity to build the brand and at worst a point of

benches and cornhole sets, Rhinegeist has hosted a

inconsistency that could contribute to gradual brand

number of guests over the years, from motorcycle shows


to a 150-million-year-old dinosaur skeleton.

The walls of the Sierra Nevada taproom in

But let’s end on a positive prediction: as taprooms continue to thrive, as more and more breweries see their

Chico, California, feature a high ring of mountain scenes

gathering places as the cradle that nurtures their brand,

made up of colored backlit panels fitted together,

breweries that are already good at all this will become

complemented by local flora frothing up over the edge of

great, and all breweries will become better. They’ll have

a long, elevated planter – all cues to the explorer vibe that

to. Breweries will be using every facet of their taproom

permeates the brand. Visitors to the Dogfish Head tasting

– visual, audible, and who knows, maybe even aromas

room in Milton, Delaware are greeted by the Steampunk

or tactile elements - to make what they stand for crystal

Treehouse, a post-apocalyptic (but still friendly!) sculpture


Summer 2019


Co m m e nt


Why microbreweries favour lenticular filters There’s a number of reasons microbreweries favour lenticular filters such as lower start-up cost, good availability, effective results and much more, says Ed Bridge, senior technical consultant at General Filtration by Ed Bridge


ellulose/diatomite filter pads, in flat sheets, have been known since the 1960s, when they began

replacing asbestos, as effective media for polishing filtration of beer. Cellulose/diatomite media has existed in lenticular module format also since the ‘60s and was favoured for certain industrial applications, but recently has also become widely adopted in microbreweries.

Lenticular filters offer a raft of benefits to breweries

Historically, in an era when virtually all beer had to have optical brilliance, flat sheets in a filter press

for use with filter aid. At start-up, when every dollar must

were widely used for second stage polishing after

be stretched, with lenticulars, the brewer gets immediate

primary filtration on filter aid precoat and bodyfeed.

filtration capacity at lower cost.

Nowadays craft beers which will be distributed locally

Successful microbreweries always seem to be obliged

and consumed quickly can be filtered in a single step

to expand constantly right from initial start-up; therefore, it

and still be optically bright and microbiologically stable.

is best to install greater filtration capacity than what is just

Improvements in upstream processing and use of fining

right for the start. For filters, each increment in capacity

agents in the brewhouse and in maturation mean that the

costs less than the previous increment; for example, a

dirt load on filters nowadays tends to be low. The classic

housing to take 3-high/16” diameter modules has three

two-stage approach with very fine polishing pads in the

times the surface area but is only about 35% higher in

second stage is not required.

price than a housing to take 2-high/12” modules. In the

Because a lenticular module is a complex construct

initial period when all the capacity is not required, internal

compared to the simplicity of flat sheets, modules

adapters can be installed to allow for use of less than a

are more costly to manufacture and are priced higher

full loading of modules.

per square metre of effective surface; however, if the

Unless strictly necessary to get the required capacity,

brewer is careful about a few essential points of correct

four-module-high housings are not recommended

procedure, the life of the modules is extended. Operating

because material handling issues become a little more

cost ends up being not significantly greater than that of


flat sheets, and the many conveniences of the lenticular

Lenticular filters are widely enough in use nowadays

format compensate for the higher but still reasonable

that filter pads in the lenticular format are stocked by


several distributors, in a range of grades, in the two

Although ongoing media cost per hectoliter filtered

standard lenticular module sizes – 12” diameter/16 cell

is higher with lenticulars than with flat sheets or filter aid,

(active surface area of 19 sq. ft./1.8 m2) and 16” diameter/

the initial capital cost of lenticular housings is substantially

16 cell (active surface area of 38 sq. ft./3.6 m2).

less than the cost of a filter press with an equivalent surface area for flat sheets, or an equivalent pressure filter


Summer 2019

Microbreweries tend to report that their first few filter cycles are challenging and then things get better. This

Brewers Journal Canada


Co m m e nt

regeneration procedure; do not seek shortcuts and do not freelance. A Final Tip to Optimize Volume Filtered Per Cycle When operating as a two-stage filtration with a medium or fine clarifying grade of media in the first stage and a sterilizing grade in the second stage, brewers are often frustrated that they cannot quite get a full lot of a given brand filtered on a single run. The brewer should try setting up the two housings in parallel rather than in series and use a grade of media at the top of the fine clarifying range of grades. Now running at the same overall flux rate, the filters will be running at half the previous flowrate per unit surface area. There is a good chance that, with no sacrifice in optical brightness, the volume filtered will be higher, because the solids loading capacity of the media will be greater and will be optimized.

Discostar lenticular filter technology

Advantages of Lenticular

usually because, in their rush to get started, the brewers

In addition to lower start-up cost, lenticular housings’ advantages are: u Much less floor space required than for a filter press or pressure filter; u Fully enclosed housing eliminates dripping during filtration; u Fully enclosed housing and absence of filter aid mean much less oxygen pick-up during filtration; u Fully enclosed housing allows for effective CO2 blowdown to maximize recovery of beer without dilution; u Low internal housing volume allows for brand changeovers on the fly with little mixing at the interface; u Internal adapters allow for use of more or fewer modules if greater or lesser volume is to be filtered on a given run; u Excellent sanitary design and highly polished finish; u Housing and modules can be stored for days between runs if the vessel is filled with an appropriate microbiostatic solution. The system can then be quickly rinsed up and restarted.

have neglected the following key points and then have paused, read the supplier’s recommendations, and adopted them: Select a more open grade of media and run at a lower flowrate. The more open grades have higher pore volume and thus higher dirt capacity; and yet, if the flux per unit area is low, clarity remains good. Being a depth media, the lenticular module does not have to be a “tight” grade to achieve good clarity. The maximum recommended flowrate for grades at the top of the “Fine Clarifying” range or the bottom of the “Sterilizing” range, is 2.5 hl/h/m2. If you can run more slowly and still meet production requirements, do run more slowly. Stop filtration and start regeneration at 1.5 bar (≈22 psi) pressure differential. Do not drive the retained solids deeper into the media by running to the maximum allowable pressure differential of 2.5 bar (≈ 35 psi). Water and chemicals for backwash and regeneration should be filtered to the same degree of fineness as the grade of the modules; otherwise, you could contaminate the media in the very process of trying to clean it. A nominal 0.5 micron high efficiency filter bag is a good media for regeneration water and chemicals. Stick meticulously to the filter module manufacturer’s

Summer 2019


a dv e rto r i a l

A lpha

B rewing

O perations

The Alpha Way Alpha Brewing Operations is an industry leading supplier of a comprehensive lineup of professional craft brewing and canning equipment. Located in Lincoln, Nebraska, within the walls of our state-ofthe-art manufacturing facilities you’ll find an industry tenured and talented team of engineers, technicians, brewmasters and dedicated professionals. Through our entrenched, Midwestern work ethic we deliver professional tools for professional brewers. Whether the need is a single piece, or a complete project from design to execution, Alpha is the answer.

countless possible brew system configurations. We listen to the brewer and design to suit. We often encounter incredibly challenging spaces. We have designed a turnkey operation with the grain handling, brewing and cellar spread out over 4 different floors in a building originating in the mid 1800s! We have designed and supplied breweries for a few celebrities. We have built and rebuilt a brewery lost in a fire. We haven’t found a space yet that we couldn’t design to suit.

Our canning proposition


n 2015 Alpha began design on a canning line that would offer unique, innovative features, an expandable platform, and would deliver the highest quality

packaged product to consumers. The prototype was


developed in 2016, got a 6 month workout in a brewery

e believe value to be the greatest

in Alabama and was the first step toward the refined,

reward to our customers and

efficient weapon we lovingly call the Beer Cannon today.

relationships to be the greatest

The Beer Cannon (insert Cider, Wine, Coffee, Cocktail Cannon) is abounding with innovation never before seen on linear canning systems. Our design engineers sought after energy efficiency, simplicity and reliability while focusing on minimal dissolved oxygen pickup, scalability, and maximum flexibility. The Beer Cannon checks all the boxes! Unique features and innovations include dual lane design, expandability (24 to 80cpm), servo motor technology, recently patented can weigh scale (weighs every can and automatically rejects low fill), revolver lid magazine (highest capacity in the industry, easiest to load), lowest energy cost in category and much more. The Beer Cannon went into full/mass production in mid-2017. There are nearly 100 Beer Cannons in operation and increasing rapidly in the U.S., Australia, Argentina, Costa Rica, Canada and elsewhere. Compare the Beer Cannon to other canning lines and you’ll see the robust build and careful craftsmanship. You’ll see the best value. You’ll see a weapon of mass distribution.

reward to Alpha. We build value through innovative research

and development, lean, efficient manufacturing, uncompromising quality, and excellence in service. We build relationships through responsiveness, promises kept, and a “whatever it takes” philosophy to create a satisfied customer for life. Our success is measured by that satisfaction.

Our turnkey brewing systems


lpha Brewing Operations has implemented equipment in over 400 breweries in the United States, Canada, Australia and a dozen other

countries around the world. We have outfitted larger regional breweries, cideries and distilleries to small neighborhood brew pubs. Alpha currently has four of the twenty nominees for USA Today’s 10 best new breweries for 2019. We could well end up with all four in the top 10. Three of them are there currently and a fourth currently 11th on the leader board.

Alpha, Canada and the road ahead

Alpha specializes in customization of brew systems. Every brewer has a little different way of doing things and a different business model and style focus. Some like decoction. Some like kettle souring. Some want to brew 4 times a day, others 4 times a month. This leads to


Summer 2019


lpha is currently and aggressively searching for the right location in Canada to establish our Canadian Headquarters and showplace. The goal

Brewers Journal Canada

A lpha

B rewing

O perations

A dv e rto r i a l

is to show the Canadian entrepreneurs we are serious

treatment, refrigeration, HVAC and steam systems. We go

about our commitment to serving the Canadian market,

the extra two miles when it comes to working closely with

that we are intent on investing in building Canadian

contractors, architects and others necessary to make the

business and rewarding our Canadian family (customers)

entire project a smooth ride.

with the same level of technical support and service excellence we have in the U.S. The only way to do that in our mind is to have a

We believe our level of planning and coordination exceeds most others when it comes to facility design, equipment layout, workflow efficiency planning, glycol

legitimate physical location for parts, stock equipment,

and steam process piping. Sometimes (more than I’d

sales and service personnel. It also helps to have an

prefer) we come in 2nd choice to a Canadian company

established Canadian bank with which our customers can

and the reason we are not selected is simply because we

work in Canadian currency. We are intent on employing

are not Canadian.

some Canadian citizens and have already hired a

We understand and respect that sentiment and us

Canadian sales/marketing director and project manager

Yankees make decisions for similar reasons all the time.

who holds dual citizenship.

There should be a pride in supporting local and national

There are some good Canadian suppliers that do

business at home. We also believe Alpha is the best

some of what we do. None of them however do all that

value, the best real partner one can find regardless of

we do. There is not a Canadian company that offers a

border lines. I believe in win-win trade and business

turnkey brewery outfit and complete canning operation.

relationships. We want to see our customers succeed no

We do. We have many years of experience in water

matter where they call home, even if they like hockey.

Summer 2019


M e e t

th e

b r e w e r





Keeping it Real A passion for sour beers and a commitment to barrel ageing led Sean McVeigh from a career in hi tech industries to the world of brewing. And if the reception his young brewery has already received is anything to go by, we should all be thankful he made that jump.

the aforementioned homebrew clubs, complemented by the sporadic seasonal availability of beers from brewery's like Belgium’s Rodenbach gave him a taste for more. And a road trip three years ago from Portland, Oregon to San Diego allowed McVeigh to visit other breweries he admired such as Rare Barrel from Berkeley, California and Portland’s Cascade Brewing, both famed names in the world of modern sour beers. “To spend time at those breweries, having great



conversations and learning about their art really opened my eyes,” he recalls. McVeigh returned home imbued with a sense of

like it when I make a beer that I’ve never tasted

destiny, knowing his own sour beer brewery, focused

before,” explains Sean McVeigh, founder and

exclusively on barrel-ageing, was calling.

brewer at Ottawa’s Small Pony Barrel Works. “You

“I found myself in a position where I had to question if

should never lose sight of the desire to experiment

this was something I could do from my home. I had my

and innovate when it comes to beer and for me,

first wine barrel and an idea of filling it from my homebrew

barrel ageing is the perfect canvas for that.” And since McVeigh threw open the doors to his Kanata

brewery back in 2017, his barrel-aged creations have proved to be a willing canvas indeed, resonating with

system. Could I use the space in the garage to store more barrels in the future and sell beer from there?” he asks. The answer was no. Conversations about teaming up with a neighbour

drinkers of all kinds and more importantly, not just with

were mooted. Then came the possibility of purchasing a

beer enthusiasts.

modest kit from a peer at Nepean-based Evergreen Craft

It’s the latter however, that helped drive Small Pony Barrel Works to lofty heights so early in its lifetime. The

Ales became an option. Another possibility was buying wort from nearby Big

brewery was rated among the best new breweries in

Rig Brewery and using that to fill the growing number of

Canada at the latest RateBeer Best Awards.

barrels McVeigh had in mind for his business.

Elsewhere, the Ontario outfit stands as the fifth highest rated Canadian brewery on ratings site Untappd, with

But no. “It seemed feasible until we discovered a provincial

more than 10,000 ratings and an average score of 4.073.

regulation that meant you are unable to sell beer from

Not bad for a brewer that started out experimenting in

that type of site, unless 100% of it was produced there,”

the world of homebrew kettle sours that were “no doubt

he says. “It’s somewhat outdated, but I can also see why

the worst beers in the room” at the local homebrew club

it exists.”

gatherings he attended. “It’s great to see people enjoying the beers we

However, following another period of research, the best option for McVeigh would become apparent. A friend

produce,” he says. “I try not to pay too much attention

looking to invest in a steam kettle had a 2000l gas-fired

to such ratings but people are into craft beer because

kettle available. A mashtun was procured from another

they want something different from the norm, so it’s

friend, kit that needed some $8000 of modifications with

gratifying to see those beers strike a chord with them. The

the addition of a false bottom, manifold and rakes.

challenge is to keep up that momentum, especially when we’re in the world of making slow beer!” That said, McVeigh put out a fair few beers in 2018. Something he’s continued to do into 2019, too. A passion for sours was nurtured in the formative years of his beer journey. The sampling of well-made sours at


Summer 2019

With the kit part of the equation solved, a suitable facility was needed, too. And thankfully for McVeigh, that would prove to be somewhere particularly familiar in the form of his old Karate Dojo, where he earned his blackbelt in the martial art, no less. “The owner needed to downsize somewhat and with

Brewers Journal Canada

Small Pony Barrel Works: June 2019

For McVeigh, most of the time he and his team spend is “moving beer around” rather than making it so with that, there was the small need for barrels to age their beer in. And with that, California, once again, came calling.

that, the opportunity became available. Sure, it needed a

“I found an online broker that had worked with

fair bit of work but it had high ceilings, which was a great

companies such as The Bruery, so I knew I would be in

asset for us,” he explains.

good hands. I just wanted to see if they were real!” he

McVeigh had the keys to his brewing home in February

laughs. “I flew to meet them and that day they were in the

2017 and brewing would commence in earnest three

process of unloading a truck full of barrels. I liked what I

months later.

saw and asked them to put them straight back on. All 180

“We had great support from the Business Development Bank of Canada and also Royal Bank. But

of them.” It was a considerable investment, but McVeigh knew it

there were a great deal of conversations to be had, too,”

was cheaper to buy in bulk. It was also more convenient

he recalls. “They had dealt with a fair number of breweries

than relying on the sporadic supply available to him

before, but we were a new proposition to them.”

closer to home.

He adds: “Our model required a long runway before

He opted for neutral barrels, which he considered ideal

the first beers would see the light of day, with around

for the type of beers Small Pony would be producing.

eight months before the first beers were out the door.

Following the first year of use, a wine barrel ends up

“The need to pay wages, buying ingredients and

losing much of its flavouring ability. After three or four

accruing other expenses while not selling our beer was

years, it is then considered a neutral barrel. Of course,

an idea that we had to get across. We likened what we did

wines can still be fermented or aged in such vessels,

to a winery rather than a traditional brewery.

allowing for the slow introduction of oxygen into the wine.

“It made us think of the ways we could produce beers in, say, three months, but the hunt for something we are happy with in that timeframe continues. We wouldn’t put something out if we weren’t 100% happy with it.”

This method of ageing often tends to soften wines but without the addition of any extra flavours. Beers McVeigh and his team have produced to date include A Lonely Forest. This is a spontaneous golden

Summer 2019


“That one was fun to do,” McVeigh recalls.

sour beer aged in oak barrels. The golden sour wheat

Such beers have resonated with beer fans and non

beer was inoculated in the traditional Belgian fashion of spontaneous Lambic beers. While it was still boiling, they

beer fans alike. Something McVeigh is particularly proud

transferred it outdoors into a shallow tank to cool down


naturally overnight and allow the wild yeasts and bacteria

“I’ve had wine drinkers that always turn down beer

in the air to float down and begin the fermentation. It was

go on to try what we do and change their perceptions of

then aged untouched in two oak barrels for one year

what beer can be,” he says “We’ve also had restaurateurs

before bottling and naturally carbonating.

comment on the complexity of the beer, and how it

Another number is the 5% Half Remembered Dream, a blend of golden sour beers aged in oak barrels with rose hips and hibiscus. Elsewhere you have One Year Wiser, a golden sour

stands out. That means a lot.” You can’t please everyone, though. “We’ll still be part of brewery tours where there’s a sense of disappointment that we don’t offer a Lager or an

beer aged in oak barrels with Chardonnay musqué

IPA. But that’s not who we are, there’s plenty of choice out

pomace and tonka means. The beer was blended in

there if you want that,” he says.

collaboration with the brewery's friends at Bar Lupulus

McVeigh laughs: “We had one visitor from the Czech

to celebrate their one year anniversary. Coincidentally,

Republic and the only question he asked was ‘Why are on

the release also marked one year since they added

earth have you done all this?’.

Chardonnay Musqué wine pomace from Trail Estate

“So yes, you can’t please everyone. We’re a niche in

Winery to barrels of one of its golden sour beers. The

an already niche market. But we have belief in what we’re

addition of Tonka beans lending a complex vanilla,

doing and people are enjoying what we’re doing, too. One

almond character.

thing is certain, we’ll never stop experimenting.”

Summer 2019



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The Waiting GamE When you’ve nailed your colours to the mast of quality of consistency in such a way that you only brew one beer for 19 years, you know your next move has to be the right one. No pressure, then. With that, in the age of monthly and even weekly beer releases, the last 12 months have been somewhat unchartered territory of Steam Whistle. It has just added a Pale Ale to the Steam Whistle portfolio. It is also celebrating the first anniversary of the launch of Von Bugle Brewing, a new brewing concern that marks the start of a new era for the Ontario-based business.

the consumer has more choice than ever. Whether you’re a new business, or a long established one, you need to make a positive impression on the drinker straight off the bat,” he explains. “The consumer doesn’t need to show patience if you’re not giving them a great drinking experience. So it’s incredibly important everyone knows what they’re doing before taking their beer to market.” With that ethos at front and centre, it’s no surprise that recent landmarks in the Steam Whistle story were the culmination of extensive research, experimentation and planning. Years of brewing its successful Steam Whistle Pilsner had put the business in a challenging position. It was running out of capacity at its home of 17 years, the John St. Roundhouse, so they had a decision. Stop growing or grow outside those walls and start a new chapter? They chose the latter and with that, the decision to

by tim sheahan


he world has changed a great deal since the

build a brand new brewery in Etobicoke and launch a new beer with it in the shape of Von Bugle Brewing’s Munich Lager. Located on Evans Avenue, the brewery opened

year 2000. You don’t have to worry about

its doors last year. The brewery forms part of a major

late fees at your local video store. The word

expansion project that has been supported by the Ontario

milkshake is as likely to adorn a beer label as

Government, which is providing a grant through the Jobs

it is a diner menu and on vacation, tourists

and Prosperity Fund.

prefer to be taking selfies rather than the sights around them.

In 2000, there were far fewer breweries operating in Canada, too. It was also the year Greg Taylor, Cam Heaps and Greg Cromwell, former employees of Upper Canada

The support complements a significant outlay from Steam Whistle on the project that not only helps retain existing positions at the business, but create around 100 new roles, too. “By supporting food and beverage processors in

Brewing Company, founded Toronto’s Steam Whistle

Ontario, we are helping businesses like Steam Whistle


Brewing expand to become more competitive both at

Even when Tim McLaughlin, vice-president of

home and abroad,” Jeff Leal, Minister of Agriculture, Food

marketing at Steam Whistle Brewing joined the business

and Rural Affairs said at the time. “Steam Whistle Brewery

several years later, there were only 28 breweries plying

is the largest independent craft brewer in Canada, helping

their trade in Ontario.

to grow our economy and create jobs while making a top-

“That’s changed a lot!” he laughs. “When I started here

quality product. Ontario is pleased to support talented

that figure was a lot lower, and now there’s more than

local brewers through strategic investments that continue

300. The challenge, with such a proliferation of breweries

to grow our economy by creating jobs and strengthening

operating in the same space, is to continue being

our agri-food and beverage sector.”

successful." And for McLaughlin success isn’t taken for granted,

Also speaking back in April last year, Cam Heaps, the now retired co-founder of Steam Whistle Brewery,

despite Steam Whistle’s position at the high table of

explained: “We appreciate the government’s support of

independent craft beer sales in Canada.

our new expansion project. This investment will not only

“There are a lot of breweries making great beer and

help Steam Whistle increase production and efficiency,

Summer 2019






but enable us to build our capacity to enter new

opportunity to explore styles that wouldn’t have


sat well within the Steam Whistle portfolio at that

“The craft brewing sector in Ontario has seen

association with Steam Whistle but in our eyes,

the sector and remain competitive through our

Von Bugle is a completely new operation.”

innovative brewing techniques and our novel

He adds: “The beer doesn’t drink dark. It’s

approaches to producing great tasting, quality

incredibly refreshing and we’re very happy with it.

products. The funding we received through the

It wouldn’t be leaving the brewery if we weren’t.

Jobs and Prosperity Fund is helping us achieve

Consistency is key and it’s important to remember

that goal.”

that the beer’s journey doesn’t end when it leaves

And more than a year down the line, the company’s expansion project is already bearing

the brewery, quite the opposite.” It’s not only the Munich Lager being brewed

fruit. The new facility allowed Steam Whistle to

at the new facility, either. Only last month Steam

not just release a new beer, but create a new

Whistle launched only the second beer under

brewing outfit to launch it under.

the Steam Whistle name, a whole 19 years after

Von Bugle Brewing has focused around one beer in the shape of its 5% ABV Munich Lager. The

brewing its Pilsner, the 5% Pale Ale. “Having that increased capacity has allowed us

grain bill and specialty malts provide a robust and

to embrace the opportunity to brew new beers,

traditional flavour, which is contrasted with hints of

so the time was most definitely right for the Pale

Noble and Kazbek hops.

Ale,” says McLaughlin. “It’s made according to

“The ability to open a new brewery gave us the


time,” says McLaughlin. “Sure, we don’t hide our

tremendous growth. We want to continue to lead

Summer 2019

the exacting standards of the Bavarian Purity Act

Brewers Journal Canada





of 1516, just like the pilsner. In terms of the style

throughout every aspect of our operation. It is a

of the beer, it’s is still easy to drink and crisp, but

natural partnership and one that makes sense."

more hop forward than that beer. We will remain

If anything, Steam Whistle’s new brewery has

true to our standards of brewing a pure ale with

allowed it to embrace change and look to the

no additives, preservatives or artificial foam

future. When you’ve only brewed one beer for


the best part of two decades, the launch of a new

They haven’t stopped there, either. Earlier

brewery, a new beer and cementing a partnership

this year, the company announced a tie-up with

with one of the most respected breweries in

Colorado’s New Belgium Brewing. The capacity

North America, is no small feat. But things aren’t

afforded by the Etobicoke facility has enabled

stopping there, either.

Steam Whistle to brew Fat Tire Amber Ale for marketing and distribution across Canada. Fat Tire Amber Ale comes in at 5.2% ABV and is New Belgiums flagship beer, made with House Ale Yeast, Willamette, Goldings and Nugget hops and Pale, C-80, Munich and Victory malts.

“I think we’ll probably see another addition to the Steam Whistle family of beers before we do with Von Bugle,” says McLaughlin. “We also want to explore more licensing relationships, too.” He adds: “Our goal here is to understand the market, and make beers that are aligned to that.

McLaughlin explains: “I see a lot of similarities

We’re in a changing landscape and you have to

in the approach New Belgium Brewing and Steam

change with it. For so long we’ve been a much

Whistle take to business. They’re one of the most

loved and respected brand, but we want to be

sustainable breweries in the U.S. and here, we

known for more, and as a company. We want to

take environmental conservation very seriously

be the best company out there.”

Summer 2019


Strive for perfection

Maintaining excellent levels of brewery hygiene is of upmost importance, and you should consider your chemical supplier as part of your team, says Peter Thorman, sales manager for brewery and beverage at Holchem.

s e c to r


H ygiene

contact of detergent with soiling but is fast dispersing when rinsed; this reduces rinse time, and reduced water


consumption*. In brewery use, Express Foam breaks

ome things never change and for us, that

down under wellington boots and dissolves easily in rinse

means helping breweries produce the

water, thus saving rinse time and rinse water.

perfect pint on a constant basis with high

Consistency is key

level effective hygiene regimes. We all know this is at the heart of a brewery’s business

whatever the size and it remains an ongoing objective. We are working with our customers in the sector, from small scale start up breweries to large ones, to ensure hygiene standards are understood and implemented and we also


rewers should include their hygiene solutions supplier as an extension of their team, and work hand in hand to ensure the correct cleaning and

advising more and more on the stringent regulations that

sanitising chemicals are used to achieve the highest level

need to be implemented throughout production.

of plant hygiene.

An ongoing issue is contaminants in small numbers

Consistency is key, and one of the keys ways that

that become a bigger problem during the production

this can be achieved is through the implementation of a

process as well as cleaning and disinfecting that

stringent hygiene plan in conjunction with the supplier

helps deliver a high-quality beer, delivering customer

of hygiene solutions. A bespoke approach has to be

satisfaction and avoiding the potential for loss of revenue

taken and this is backed up more and more with regular

if a substandard pint is served. In the brewhouse the

visits ensuring that our advice and support is constantly

main areas of concern are the deposits of protein/tannin/

monitored and tweaked. We also advise on the correct

sugars, with caustic based detergents the best method to

cleaning methodology audits and Cleaning In Place

combat this type of soiling.

audits are carried out.”

In Fermenting vessels protein/tannin deposits can

Marston's Brewery

cause issues, sometimes combined with beer stone. Once Beerstone is formed this can be removed by using the correct caustic-sequestrant blend or the correct acidic detergent. The majority of maturation tanks are relatively easy to clean, however beerstone can very occasionally be an issue. The main potential issue in


he challenge to Marston’s for ongoing success is to achieve consistency for each product. As production on the site increased Marston’s

kegs & casks are organic deposits left due to storage

needs increased and, as such, it started working with

conditions between emptying & returning to the brewery.

Holchem to help ensure the quality of the final product.

Where next?

We have worked with Marston’s across its five breweries

We advise on the correct cleaning chemicals and

for over 16 years to help achieve the perfect pint time

sanitising chemicals to use bearing in mind that no two

after time. Our teams ensure that the correct cleaning

breweries are the same. Holchem products that are

and sanitising chemicals are used to meet the ongoing

being used in breweries includes Chlorpress Foam -


fast dispersing when rinsed, reducing rinse times and

This is then backed up with regular visits by our

the volume of water used. It is P Free and provides

dedicated technical team to deliver the required advice

an environmentally responsible approach to effluent

and support to help achieve the highest level of pant

discharge using replacements for Phosphorous derived

hygiene. Fundamental to the success of the whole

chemical scale control agents.

cleaning and hygiene regime is our understanding of

Traditionally foam detergents use Sodium hydroxide

what Marston’s is trying to achieve an ensuring that the

as a source of alkalinity; however, Chlorpress is based

whole operation is maintained from a plant hygiene point

on Potassium hydroxide which produces soluble

of view. Some of the investigative work carried out by

saponification products that are easier to rinse from

our team has spring boarded continuous improvement on

surfaces. It also has improved emulsification which

the site.

reduces the amount of manual action required. In factory

Hector MacDonald, quality manager at Marston’s,

trials Chlorpress Foam was found to reduce rinse down

explained: “Good plant hygiene is fundamental to

times by around 25-50%* compared to a traditional long

producing a good quality product. Holchem understand

cling foam.

what we are trying to manage and are very keen to help

Express Foam is our new generation alkaline Express

us deliver that. They are very good at resolving problems

Foam cleaner, designed for use in Open Plant Cleaning.

in an efficient and speedy manner. They are also very

Express Foam is a long cling foam product for extended

good at anticipating potential glitches.”

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Evolve and Experiment New product development can be a wonderful opportunity to slowly evolve your brand, experiment a bit, and gather feedback. If you do happen to goofup with your new product - the style, the beer, the packaging, or the rollout - realize that you’re not stuck with it. Brewery brands are very resilient and the craft beer market can be forgiving in terms of design, allowing breweries the opportunity to make mistakes and course-correct, argues Leif Miltenberger, managing partner at Hired Guns Creative

are two important things to consider: how does this new product fit into your brand, and how does it fit into the market? These should be your two major areas of consideration. Some of the following tips inform one of those concerns or the other... some of them inform both. And, of course, many of these packaging design tips don’t just apply to new product development but also to redesigning the packaging of existing products. Do’s: Market Analysis, Beer Style Selection If the products you’re going to be competing are weak or not very competitive then you have an opportunity to design something exciting or completely different. If the competing products are strong or if it’s a very competitive set then you might not want to ignore common cues, references, or trends within that set.

by Leif Miltenberger


Don’t's: Market Analysis, Beer Style Selection

slowly evolve your brand the expectation of constantly

Do’s: Recipe Development

turning out new products places a burden on breweries

Consider how the ingredients, process, and beer style

who elect to play that game.

could be woven into a compelling story for the beer. If

n these days of the “Rotation Nation” business

Don’t forget to research design conventions for the beer

model it’s expected that breweries launch new

style your launching. (for example, black letter text on

products on a regular basis. How many times have

pilsner labels or naming bocks with words that end in

you heard “What have you got that’s new?” from

“-tor”. ) Even if you decide not to adhere to them, it’s good

a customer in the past few years? While New

to know about them.

Product Development can be a wonderful opportunity to

Maintaining a professional, consistent brand is much

your volumes are such that the new beer will require any

more difficult when you’re releasing a new beer every

sort of marketing push it’s very useful to have something

month (or even more frequently) then it was back when

unique about the beer that can be emphasized

you could get away with one new release per quarter. We’ve been involved with dozens of NPD projects over

Don’t’s: Recipe Development

the years and we’ve learned a few things that can help

Be wary of brewing a beer that’s almost identical to any of

maximize the effect of the time, money, and effort that it

your other permanent SKUs without a very good reason

takes to launch a new product.

for why your customers should care.

Let’s start with the steps in the NPD process. Many of these steps are geared towards beers that are sold in a

Do’s: Competitive Set Analysis

retail setting. If you’re only selling a couple of pallets of

Collect images of the products your new beer will be

sticker cans out of your tap room you don’t need to worry

competing against and see what you can learn. It’ll end

so hard about a lot of these steps. Some of them can be

up next to them one day... in the beer press, on a beer

ignored completely.

blogger’s website, sometimes in the mainstream press,

When it comes to the design of new products there


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and - most crucially - on a retail shelf.

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Hopped & Confused Session Ale was a seasonal (summer) release from Mill St. Brewery that launched in 2018. It used common design elements to anchor it to their other products (their logo and the top illustrated band) and then went a very different direction from their other products with the primary illustration. The liquid and the design resonated with Ontario customers: it was one of the most popular new beers in the LCBO that year. BY Sean Fenzl

Arcus Pilsner and Raised By Wolves Wild IPA are two new seasonal releases that we named and designed for Driftwood Brewing. They both ended up becoming part of the brewery’s year-round offerings. Driftwood’s approach to their packaging design is what we call the “Fully Custom” approach, where there is almost no consistency in the designs from one beer to the next. In their case, the brewery branding stays the same, each label has a custom die-cut shape, the label stock is always the same, and the illustrations are always very detailed and dynamic BY Sean Fenzl

Do’s: Naming & Trademarking

Don’t tie a beer’s name (or packaging design) to a

Run potential product names past your designer.

specific date. Calling something a "Winter Ale" is much

Some names are fantastic concepts but are difficult to

better than calling it a “Christmas Ale” because as soon

represent visually (at least if you’re looking for a literal

as Jan. 2nd rolls around people lose interest in all things

representation). Some that sound good on paper are


difficult to represent well on a small canvas, especial when it's wrapped around a cylinder. Consider the “bar call” of your product name - how will it sound out loud when someone orders it in a busy bar?

Do’s: Choice of Packaging Format Consider how your choice of packaging format affects your product’s placement in retail: do you go with the norm, or try to disrupt?

Don’t’s: Naming & Trademarking

Consider the common packaging formats for the beer

Don’t launch a beer without checking to see if the name

style you’re launching. Customers might be put off by a

has been trademarked or is in use by another brewery.

huge BBA stout in a 6- pack of 355ml cans or a 750ml

And you should probably get a lawyer to at least run a

cork & cage bottle of Pilsner.

knockout search on the name.

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Whitetooth Brewing launched in 2016 with a core line-up of six beers, each one with a label that represented an outdoor activity that’s popular in their region. A year later they released their “High Gravity” series, a high-end lineup of adventurous, high ABV beers. We created a new, darker look for this tier – distinct from their core lineup, while playing to the strength of the Whitetooth brand. image: Sean Fenzl

Do’s: Primary Packaging Design

Don’t’s: Primary Packaging Design

New product concepts need to be considered in the

Don’t launch a beer without considering how it fits into

context of your existing product lineup. How will it fit in?

your portfolio of other beers. Even if you decide that you

Or will it fit in at all? Could it become the first product in a

don’t care that this product looks “off- brand” or doesn’t fit

new tier? How long will the product stick around? Will it

in with your existing tiers, make this a conscious decision.

be tied to a specific season or event? Compare the packaging design concepts for the new beer against the packaging of your existing SKUs. Does

Don’t launch a beer without considering what happens if it becomes your next best-selling beer. What happens to that dumb-ass name you gave

the new product look like it came from your brewery?

it? What about the can design that bumps up a little

Do you care? Does it look like it came from one of your

too closely to someone else’s IP? If it ends up being a

competitors? (Do you care?)

runaway SKU you may have to rebrand it at some point.

Take the images of competing products that you

If you’re relying on your consumers to pick up on visual

collected earlier in the process and mock up your new

cues (i.e. ripping off Champagne labels for a Brut IPA)

design into that lineup. What do you notice? Evaluating

don’t expect that everyone will get the cues. The design

your new design in this context helps you avoid

needs to stand on its own for the people who don’t get

making aesthetic decisions based purely on personal

those cues. And don’t forget to research what impressions


the visual references in your design give.

Test your new packaging design in real-world

Be wary of following design trends too quickly and

scenarios such as in a liquor store beer fridge. Does the

aggressively. For example, the repeating geometric

bar that keeps the beers from falling out of the fridge

patterns that are all over the BC hazy IPA’s. With so many

obscure the beer name? How does it look when none of

breweries jumping on this trend it’s difficult to tell the

the cans in your 6- pack are facing “forwards"?

one from the next on a shelf. It’s easy to disappear when

Be wary of following design trends too quickly and aggressively. For example, the repeating geometric

you’re following a trend. Don’t undersell your beer. Don’t be afraid to inform

patterns that are all over the BC hazy IPA’s. With so many

your audience about what makes your beer unique. Beer

breweries jumping on this trend it’s difficult to tell the

nerds love to have something to talk about.

one from the next on a shelf. It’s easy to disappear when you’re following a trend. If you’re trying a new beer style that's outside of your

Do’s: Secondary Packaging Design Consider how the number of cans in your pack affects the

comfort zone, make sure that the design lets people

perception of the beer, its use, and its placement in retail

know this. People who aren’t normally attracted to your

settings. For example, 15- packs of craft lager might end

products because they don’t prefer your typical area of

up getting shelved in the Value section and will need to

focus should notice this new product.

appeal to more price-sensitive customers.


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Don’t’s: Secondary Packaging Design

Do’s: Post-Release Follow-Up

If you’re working with a new dieline, don’t skip the physical

Build this step in to your process so that you do a “post-

prototyping stage to test for strength and performance on

mortem” on each new product after it launches. Be

your packaging line.

consistent about how long you wait before doing the review so that when you look back on a year’s worth of

Do’s: Collateral Design & Production

NPD you’re comparing apples to apples.

Collateral should be considered as early as the product naming stage. A great product name can lead you

Don’t’s: Post-Release Follow-Up

effortlessly to ideas for unique, desirable collateral and

Don’t skip this step because you got caught up in the


excitement of focusing on your next release. That which is measured, improves.

Don’t’s: Collateral Design & Production

In conclusion

Don’t confine your ideas to typical brewery merchandise (hats, shirts, glassware, etc.) If your new beer has a fishing theme, get some branded lures made up.


s I said in my previous article, we like to think of

Do’s: Launch Ask your designer for input on the product launch they’ve been in deep with the beer for weeks, sometimes months... they may have thought of some creative ideas you could incorporate into the launch. Get the new product graphics up on your website,

your brewery’s brand as your promise to your customers. It tells them what to expect from your

products and (ideally) it differentiates your offerings from those of your competition. New product development can be a wonderful opportunity to slowly evolve your brand, experiment a bit,

social media, and UnTappd, etc. as soon as the new

and gather feedback. If you do happen to goof-up with

beer launches. Build this into your launch process so it

your new product - the style, the beer, the packaging, or

becomes second nature.

the rollout - realize that you’re not stuck with it.

Don’t’s: Launch

market can be forgiving in terms of design, allowing

Don’t just drop a photo on Instagram and expect

breweries the opportunity to make mistakes and course-

customers to come running.


Brewery brands are very resilient and the craft beer

Summer 2019



BUY or

LEASE 1-800-519-5534








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Beer Traceability in Canada: Are you ready? If you produce beer, wine, spirits, kombucha, cider, mead, or ready-to-drink cocktails, you should care about the introduction of Safe Food for Canadians Regulations by the Government of Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Here, Steve Grundy, director of business development of brewery solutions at McRae Integration explains what it might mean for you. by Steve Grundy

If you trade interprovincially, import or export your product outside of Canada, or sell your product at the


retail level.

alcohol by volume, to have a traceability system in

about traceability and what is required to be compliant

place by July 15, 2020. Google the topic using a logical

with the new regulations? How can you achieve this

set of search words and you will quickly find these new

without disrupting your business and adding significant

regulations on the CFIA website and through a variety of

cost and complexity in an increasingly competitive market

other government sources.

environment? Also, is traceability only the responsibility

t’s official. Beer is food. That’s effectively what the

By the time this article is published, it will already be 6

Government of Canada and the Canadian Food

months since the CFIA made its announcement and you

Inspection Agency (CFIA) said on January 15, 2019

will have roughly 12 months to get your act together. If

when introducing new Safe Food for Canadians

you are a brewery owner or a manager in this space, the

Regulations (SFCR) for Canadians.

big question is what do you need to do between now and

With this comes new requirements for manufacturers

of alcoholic beverages, those containing 0.5% or more

Prepare yourself though, the SFCR document isn’t a

next July to be ready? Ask yourself - what do you and your teams know

of the producer? What role do ingredient suppliers

light read. We’re talking about a government document

and distribution partners play to ensure the entire food

designed to drive processes and procedures that protect

chain is safe for consumers? This article won’t provide

the health of humans, so it is very comprehensive.

the answers to all of these questions, but hopefully we

You should care about these new regulations if you

can stimulate a positive discussion and generate action

produce beer, wine, spirits, kombucha, cider, mead, or

toward solutions that drive compliance and safe food for

ready-to-drink cocktails.

everyone. Let’s start by defining traceability. Basically, it comes down to lot tracking of where your ingredients come from (one step back) and where you provid your finished product (one step forward). The following infographic paints a simple picture of a batch manufacturing process with lot tracking of inputs, work in progress (WIP - not required for CFIA compliance), and finished goods. Depending on the nature of your operation, this may be familiar to you. Many larger breweries with automated process controls and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have the ability to automatically collect this data, manage

Left: Lot controlled batch manufacturing process

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and track inventory from start to finish, and get reports

The other end of the spectrum

and analytics with a few simple mouse clicks. How does that happen? Ingredients such as malt, hops, and yeast arrive at the brewery and are received by an operator who scans a barcode on the container with the lot number and quantity.


ow consider the opposite end of the spectrum. Suppose you own a smaller brewery with manual processes, limited information

A programable logic controller (PLC) processes

technology, and a small part-time staff. It doesn’t mean

the transaction and shares it with a database or, as is

you can’t be compliant like your larger automated

increasingly the case, directly with the ERP which then

competitor – but you will need to have solid procedures, a

provides a location and internal lot tracking number

discipline for data collection and accurate record keeping,

that follows those ingredients through the facility.

and a commitment to quality above all else.

Internal work orders move the ingredients through the

You might not have a bar code scanner to receive your

manufacturing process and the resulting batches of beer

ingredients, but if you check your most recent invoices

and other beverages are given unique batch records, a

from your suppliers, you will likely find the lot numbers for

birth certificate of sorts, containing the quantities and lot

what you purchased. Someone needs to record that data

numbers of the ingredients used.

at the time of receipt. If you don’t have an automated

We don’t need to belabor the point but you can

brewing system with instrumentation to measure and

see how this carries on through packaging, finished

validate the quantity and lot number of the ingredients

goods, order fulfillment, and shipping. Of course,

used, you will need to include these fields in manual brew

mobility technology such as smart phones and tablets

sheets and the brewer will need to record these values

provide instant access and visibility to this data. Having

every time.

access to all this technology is definitely an advantage

The same manual data collection process continues

when it comes to compliance. If an inspector should

through packaging, finished goods, order fulfillment, and

come calling and ask to see the brewery’s records, the

shipping. It comes down to accurate record keeping and

conversation should be straightforward and compliance

a commitment to quality - but there are inherent pitfalls

should be easy to prove.

to manual processes. Data entry errors are common and


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Brewers Journal Canada


s e c to r

while they can be relatively easy to correct, spotting them

journey toward traceability compliance more efficient and

can be difficult and extremely time consuming.


What would happen if today a government inspector

As you might expect, there are software packages

were to show up unannounced at your facility and ask to

available on the market that are designed for food

see your traceability records? How easy would it be to

and beverage batch processes. They use electronic

comply with that request? Take it a step further. What

procedures that allow manufacturing teams to gather

would happen if you were forced to do a recall right now?

the required data with minimal errors and make reporting

Imagine you get a phone call from a distributor because a

simple and consistent.

consumer complained of an “odd” aroma from a beer you

Industry working group

just released. Upon further investigation, you discover that a significant portion of last month’s production is contaminated due to a yeast issue. How easy would it be for you to identify and quarantine all the product from that lot? How easy would it be to identify the lot numbers


o help prepare brewers for the new CFIA requirements, Beer Canada has put together an industry working group tasked with creating a

for the ingredients used? How confident are you be that

template that brewers can use to implement a traceability

you could contain the risk to the public and your brand?

system into their operations in advance of the July 15,

Have you ever done a mock recall to test your existing

2020 deadline.

systems? If not, try it sometime and see how vulnerable

Members of the Beer Canada Working Group are

you are. It might be a little uncomfortable, but it will

currently touring breweries of different sizes to get a

reveal your blind spots and benefit you in the long run.

picture of how ingredients flow into and throughout the

There is no step-by-step guide to traceability

brewery before the finished product exits the brewery and

compliance, but there are plenty of great examples in

enters the market. The Working Group is aiming to have

other segments of the food industry where traceability

the excel-based template available for brewers to use by

has long been a requirement. There are people with

the end of summer 2019.

years of industry experience that can help make your

“The ability for brewers to trace their ingredients back

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to the supplier and their finished products to the retailer is

Some may use this as an opportunity to up their

not only a requirement under the Safe Food for Canadians

manufacturing technology game and take advantage

Regulations, but also a commitment to quality. A greater

of the efficiencies and operational insights that follow.

emphasis has been put on the importance of traceability

Others will do the bare minimum because that’s what

in recent years and Beer Canada is taking a leadership

they can afford and that’s OK. End of the day, this is

role by ensuring that breweries of different sizes have

going to shine a big light on how things are done in

the tools needed to seamlessly implement traceability

breweries and has the real potential to give a substantial

principles into their brewing processes.” - Luke Chapman,

lift to quality across the industry. As spirits, wine, and

Director, Federal Affairs, Beer Canada

other beverages continue to put pressure on the beer

This initiative by Beer Canada will provide breweries and other alcoholic beverage companies almost a full year to examine the template against their existing tools

industry, perhaps this couldn’t have come at a better time. End of the day, it comes down to having a solid

and procedures, figure out where they have gaps, and

strategy built around a combination of people, processes,

make changes if necessary to ensure compliance with

and technology to ensure the quality and safety of your

the new CFIA regulations.

products. Are you ready?

The Malt Supplier’s Perspective

what SKU and batches did they pick, when did they pick it, what brew was it used in, how are those usage records recorded? The same information must be gathered for when the beer is packaged, and again at shipping. The tools used to perform “Traceability” may vary greatly from one organization to another. Some organizations are able to demonstrate strong control using hard copy record tools, while others will use electronic ERP system tools. No matter what tool is chosen, the more detailed an organization can answer the who, what, when, where and how’s, the lower the overall risk will be in the event that product needs to be controlled in the market place. This is because a detailed traceability story will help an organization narrow down the total quantity of product that is to be controlled. In the event that a consumer becomes ill and a recall is necessary, federal regulatory agencies will determine how large a recall will be based on an organization’s ability to efficiently demonstrate it can answer the detailed questions about what may have gone wrong, when and how much product is affected. Inability to answer this will cast suspicion onto ALL products made by the organization which can result in brand damaging publicity as well as financial damage. Furthermore, it is the moral obligation to consumers that firstly every food manufacturing organization has the ability to provide safe food, and secondly that food can be tracked and controlled efficiently and accurately if it does happen to be hazardous for some reason.”

Shelley Beirnes, sales manager at BSG Canada gives her take on the Safe Food for Canadians Act and Food Safety Modernization Act. The Safe Food for Canadians Act and Food Safety Modernization Act have excited attention towards many food safety and quality fundamentals, notably traceability. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency provides the following definition: “Traceability is the ability to track the movement of food or a food commodity, one step back and one step forward.” In simple terms this means that an organization can account for the who, what, when, where and how’s of product movement from the dock door, through storage, production, packaging, and eventually to shipping of finished product. Brewers, for example, will receive malt shipments and must be able to answer; who performed the inspection of the incoming malt, what SKUs and batches were received, when was it received, where was it stored, how was the receipt recorded? This serves as the “one step back” section of the CFIA definition. The definition has a “step” that is implied but not explicitly described, it happens between the “one step back” and “one step forward”; the step that happens during custody. In order to be able to provide traceability “one step forward”, an organization must know what happened to the product while in their custody. Thinking back to the malt example; what operators pick the malt from the warehouse,


Summer 2019

Brewers Journal Canada


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Changing with the times The state of Colorado boasts some of the best breweries in the world. Its capital, Denver, is home to a sector that continues to flourish with close to 20 new operations in construction or planning. The landscape is changing, sure, but the demand for quality beer remains insatiable in the Mile High City, and its brewers are more than up to the task. words by Tim Sheahan Photography by JaKub Mulik


One brewery that has been a mainstay in Colorado for three decades is Odell Brewing. Founded in the outskirts of Fort Collins by Doug, Wynne, and Corkie Odell in 1989, the brewery has gone from strength-to-strength with its beers distributed in 19 US states and overseas, too. In its 30th year, the business was was ranked the 23rd largest U.S. craft brewing company by the aforementioned Brewers Association and ranked the 33rd largest overall U.S. brewing company. Last month, the brewery was also celebrating the first anniversary of its River North Art District (RiNo) brewery and taproom. Offering the brewery’s staple beers brewed in Fort Collins, it also offers 10 barrel small batch numbers brewed on the facility’s own kit.

Changing lanes

f you could only eat one meal for the rest of your life, what would it be? Or perhaps, listen to only one album, drink one beer or have one movie to fall back on. If you could take it with you, I’m pretty sure the state of Colorado would be many drinkers’

Desert Island Disc, no question. In the world of modern beer few other states, perhaps


ure, Odell is something of a household name for many but for Matt Jaspers, who heads up the RiNo operation, that’s not something to dwell on.

“I feel like there is nothing given, or to be assumed,

no other, can boast that so many seminal breweries call

these days,” he tells us. “You sold beer last year? Cool,

this western US state home.

that’s great. But there are no guarantees you’ll repeat that

In 2018, Brewers Association figures note that 396 craft

this time out. You need to produce quality, consistent

breweries operate out of Colorado, ranking it second

beers but also be fluid and show you’re able to react to

only behind California. With that, there are 9.2 breweries

market demands."

per Capita and an impressive 1,522,834 barrels of beer produced per annum. And to date in 2019, some 15 breweries have

Jaspers would know. Starting out with Odell in Fort Collins, he was working 12 hours a week and determined to “see how it goes”. He soon became a full time member

opened their doors in Colorado and close to 50 new

of the team and before long, was manager of the

businesses are under construction. 20% of these will be

brewery’s venerable taproom.

proudly brewing out of the state’s capital Denver in the foreseeable future. The Mile High City is steeped in the tradition of beer. Be it the opening of the Rocky Mountain Brewery back

So when the opportunity arose to lead the team in RiNo, following nearly a decade in Fort Collins, it was one that made sense. “So much of the beer culture in the US has become

in 1859 or fast forward to the tens of thousands that

focused around the taproom experience. It is central to it,”

descend upon the city’s Convention Center for the

he muses. “People, whether they’re drinks enthusiasts or

annual Great American Beer Festival. Great, as the name

not, want to enjoy fresh beer. They want to speak to the

suggests, if you’re there. But more likely the reason for

folk behind the beers and learn more about them.”

you muting/blocking your friends and family on social media if they’re in attendance living it up and you’re….not.

Although only 60 miles separate Odell’s RiNo and Fort Collins taprooms, according to Jaspers, there are some

Summer 2019


Matt Jaspers: Leading the line at Odell Brewing's taproom and brewery in RiNo

marked differences in the cultural landscape. He explains: “The advent of the taproom in Fort Collins was a very organic process. It wasn’t forced, we just wanted to offer a comfortable environment where people could enjoy quality beer served by a knowledgable team. “It became something of a third space for people. If home was the first space and work was the second, then our taproom for many people was that third environment. “But when it comes to beer, you’d offer someone a beer that was below 6% ABV and they’d often politely refuse. It wasn’t what they were there for. In Denver, however, people are in the market for beers closer to 4% ABV.” For Jaspers, there are a number of factors behind this shift. “People drive to this neighbourhood, or come to the taproom for a quick drink after work. Then come the weekend, there are so many choices available to the consumer and they might be visiting anything up to 10 breweries so moderation is key,” he explains. The lower ABV beers continue to prove popular in RiNo, as do certain beer styles. “Fruit beers and New England-style IPAs,” he says. “People appreciate choice but anything hazy will sell. That’s still the case.” Speaking ahead of the launch of the Larimer Street

You need to produce quality, consistent beers but also be fluid and show you’re able to react to market demands Matt Jaspers, Odell Brewing

ourselves to create new and innovative beer,” he said. “The RiNo brewery will be solely focused on that exploration, and we’re excited to share that with Denver, one of the most educated and passionate craft beer communities in the world.”

And within the first year, the ability to experiment on a

small scale in RiNo has already bore fruit. A Guava Gose was an instant hit with drinkers resulting in the production of repeat batches and eventually, scaled up on the main kit at Odell’s main brewhouse in Fort Collins. Christened Sippin’ Pretty, the beer is pitched as a

Fruited Sour Ale, which is loaded with a blend of açai,

facility, Odell COO Brendan McGivney said the brewery

guava, and elderberry, balanced with a delicate addition

has always placed a great level of importance on its pilot

of Himalayan pink sea salt.

system. “It’s been our proving ground, where we push

With its position in RiNo established and success on the beer front so early on, Jaspers is already looking

Summer 2019




D enver

Denver Beer Co: Calling the city home since 2011


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Brewers Journal Canada


ahead. “I’m feeling pretty damn good,” he laughs. “We see lots of happy faces, and the beers are selling well. The first year was a learning curve and there were a lot of unknowns. “We geared up for a big Christmas Eve in 2018, always one of the busiest days in Fort Collins, and it was completely dead. The demographic is different so it’s valuable to learn from those experiences. “But now the mystery has gone, we have lots of plans and I’m confident about the future.”

Community role



Growth for us has meant continuing to take calculated risks Charlie Berger, Denver Beer Co

since starting out eight years ago.


xit Odell’s Larimer Street brewery and within minutes, and in certain cases, seconds, you have Epic Brewing Company, Ratio Beerworks, Our

Mutual Friend Brewing, and Great Divide Brewing, among others, all plying their trade. Continue west and you’ll eventually reach Denver Beer Co’s Platte Street taproom, some 30 minutes from its larger Canworks production facility. Denver Beer Co was founded in 2011 by Charlie Berger and Patrick Crawford. Two friends that graduated from the same university and individuals that Berger says “reconnected” years later while pursuing different paths. Born and raised in Denver, Berger is proud of his heritage as a fifth generation Coloradoan. He has worked

“I suppose you could say we on the early side of the

boom,” says Berger. “It went up a notch in 2012/2013 and since we opened, some 250 breweries have opened in the 50 miles around us.”

Echoing what Odell’s Jaspers said earlier, Berger

knows that years in operation and the ability to sell beer the year previous, stands for little in such a competitive marketplace.

“It’s important to reward customers with a unique

experience and great beer,” he says. “There are a lot of breweries out there. We ourselves are promiscuous beer drinkers, so why shouldn’t your customers be, too? If they are loyal to you, you have to ensure are living up to, and exceeding, their expectations each and every time." What started as an outfit producing 1,200 barrels in its

in the craft beer industry since 2004 with several craft

first year has grown to 20,000 in 2019, employing 75 staff

breweries across the US. He attended the Siebel Institute

across its three sites.

of Technology and the Doemans Brewing Academy in

“Growth for us has meant continuing to take calculated

Munich, where he was trained by some of the world’s

risks,” explains Berger. “We had a popular taproom and

most acclaimed brewing professionals and earned his

brewery in Platte Street, but wanted more of a challenge

International Diploma in Brewing Technology.

and that meant kegging and canning our beers for

Crawford is an award winning home-brewer with a great passion for beer and the brewing process. In his past life, he was a physicist and engineer extraordinaire for Lockheed Martin. When they started out in an old Auto body shop

distribution. It meant moving out of our comfort zone and with it, increasing the visibility of our beers.” The company’s Canworks brewery facility was the answer to that particular question. Beers are produced in 30bbl batches on its DME brewhouse before being

back in 2011, the duo’s ethos was to embrace the idea of

transferred into 120bbl FVs. This is all overseen by head

community. To experience beer with friends old and new,

brewer Jason Buehler, who joined Denver Beer Co from

to appreciate the process behind beer production and to

his role as head brewer at Oskar Blues Brewery.

enjoy fresh beer “whether it’s one or seven,” Berger says. “Our brewery was founded on passion for high quality,

“For me, Jason is the best brewer in Denver,” says Berger. “We’re fortunate that we have such a great

flavourfully crafted beer, and the belief that the best pints

team here. And if you don’t have a great brewing team

are those shared with good company,” he explains. “We

producing fantastic beer, we wouldn’t be growing, simple

love the Denver lifestyle and wanted to create a brewery

as that.”

that matches our city’s personality. Denverites work hard,

The brewery’s taproom locations fulfil a number

and play even harder. And after a long slog at the office

of purposes. One key role being the valuable market

or a gnarly mountain bike ride there is nothing better than

research insights it offers on what beers are selling well

a friendly place to sit and relax with friends and a pint.”

and which ones less so.

In such a buoyant, burgeoning landscape, much has changed at Denver Beer Co, and the landscape around it,

“It’s a very democratic process. We don’t vote on beers, our customers do. And that means it’s a diverse range

Summer 2019


Berger: “We don’t vote on beers, our customers do.”


indeed,” he adds. “When we say we’re from Denver, it


the same culture, supporting each other and, of course, having fun.” Having fun is something Ayana Coker, Chantel Columna, and Tamir Danon have had since opening the doors to Novel Strand Brewing Co, the brewery they opened in July 2018. It’s finding the time to do so that may be the problem.

Beer is an adhesive for social interaction. That’s how it should be Tamir Danon, Novel Strand Brewing Co


Doing things your way


rewing, always focused on brewing," says head brewer Danon reflecting on that first year. “I’m still making the beer I want to drink but the main thing

gives us a great freedom to make every style of beer.

is the beer is better now than it was then. And it was good

Be that a hoppy IPA, German-style Lager or a Wild Sour.


What defines our beer is our Denverness. We don’t have one track or one niche, and it’s all the better for it.”

Importance of diversification


he brewery hasn’t stopped at beer, either. Last month Denver Beer Co rolled out its O&A

Colorado Craft Hard Seltzer. Developed by head

brewer Buehler, the drinks launched with Lime and Black Cherry flavours. “When crafting O&A it was very important to us to

Danon co-founded Baker neighbourhood brewery alongside general manager Columna and comptroller Coker. Three individuals that met as undergraduates at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. Utilising a 5bbl system from Nebraska’s Alpha Brewing Operations, Danon brews into nine tanks of varying capacities, dedicating the larger FVs to the styles he knows will prove popular with drinkers at the W 1st Avenue taproom. “If I’m making a Pilsner, that will get the relevant tank space. But when it comes to the more experimental stuff, I’ll do a much smaller batch,” he says. “If we like it, it’ll

make sure we created great flavours that are both

disappear immediately. If we don’t then it’ll also disappear

refreshing and satisfying,” says Buehler. “We went through


many rounds of development and testing and landed on

Having the flexibility to brew diverse styles in differing

recipes that we believe deliver seltzers that are fun and

batch sizes fits in with Danon’s brewing ethos and the one

easy to enjoy.”

he, along with Columna and Coker, wanted from their

Both the Lime and the Black Cherry O&A craft hard seltzers are made with carbonated water, alcohol from

brewing operation. “Each time you come here, there’s always going to be

cane sugar, and natural flavours. Each can of O&A is 5%

something new on. We think of ourselves as a boutique

ABV, gluten free, and contains 0 grams of carbohydrates,

brewery and strive to offer the drinker something

0 grams of sugar, and 100 calories.

different,” he says. “That’s what drives the process. I’m not

“O&A is was made for when you are ‘out and about’

interested in Instagram, or things like that, to see what’s

with friends,” adds Berger. “We hope this craft hard seltzer

popular. We do what we want to do. For better or worse.”

finds its way into skiers backpacks for après, in coolers for

Thankfully, as Danon says, a lot of what he enjoys

afternoons at the park or a friend’s backyard BBQ, in the

brewing and drinking are the styles that resonate with

back of a Subaru when heading to the mountains to bike

consumers. Hoppy beers that are full of flavour and

or hike with friends, or for tailgating at Red Rocks before

complexity, defined by its “house beer” Green Showers,

a show. It’s light, refreshing, health-conscious, and a lot of

which is an IPA featuring Amarillo, Huell Melon, Idaho #7,


and Mosaic.

Berger is excited about the brewery’s diversification,

Beers such as Green Showers epitomise what Novel

and if the popularity of the seltzers with its brewers are

Strand Brewing Co is about, according to Danon. Beers

anything to go by, it’ll be a hit. But regardless of what

that are accessible but also full of flavour.

beverage they’re producing, one thing stays constant. “I spend an inordinate amount of time in my day

“Beer is an adhesive for social interaction. That’s how it should be, and that’s how it has always been,” he explains.

working with people to believe in the same thing and

“There are breweries out there doing exceptional things

push in the same direction,” he says, “If we work towards

with fruit, or in the world of Pastry Stouts and beers that

the same goal, then we’ll succeed. It’s about sharing

taste like cocktails. The innovation is incredible.

Summer 2019


Team Novel Strand: (Top to Bottom) Ayana Coker, Chantel Columna, Tamir Danon and the wolf pack


“But for me, beer doesn’t need to be that crazy. I’m more interested in how can I squeeze so much flavour into this Pilsner or IPA that makes it a fascinating beer to



the consumer likes it, then it’s unsurprising to see other brewers wanting to put their own stamp on it, too." Danon adds: “I don’t know if you can call it arrogant, but

drink, but also one you can drink a lot of. So, I want the

we love the beer that we make. So when it hits the taps,

6.2% Green Showers to be as smooth as our Pilsner. I’m

we know it’s going to be good.

less concerned with the idea of having one beer and done. I prefer it more as something to stick with.” Danon looks to Europe where beer is intrinsically linked

“So when someone tries a beer, looks up and tells us it’s great, we like to think we knew that already. Surely that’s the point? We go through a painstaking process to

with the culture of many countries, citing its unifying

make sure each beer we make is good enough to sell. We

qualities whether out with friends or family and speaking

wouldn’t bother otherwise.

politics, sport, travel or otherwise. He explains: “In the USA, we seem to have lost a lot of

“I’ve dumped beers that demonstrated off flavours. But I’ve done the same for beers that didn’t fit the flavour

that over time. The advent of craft beer has been great for

profile I wanted, too. I’m a chef, but I brew. So if I think a

a lot of people really into the scene. Bearded white dudes

beer isn’t in line with what I had in mind, then it’s not of the

wearing flanneled shirts, you know what I mean?

quality I’d expect the consumer to pay for, either.”

“But it should be more than that. There shouldn’t solely

It’s an admirable approach, especially in an age

be a type that can enjoy, or try, modern beer. There

where a brewer’s drain pour of a faulty batch can still be

shouldn’t be a need for approval or attention. If you like

celebrated on social media. And it’s that commitment to

beer, great. Then we hope you’ll enjoy drinking with us. If

quality that puts Novel Strand Brewing Co in good stead

you don’t, then maybe give it a go anyway."

as it celebrates its first birthday.

Calling Denver its brewing home, Danon believes that

“Well, we’re still open, we got that down, so I consider

there’s a more rapid proliferation in the uptake of beer

that a success,” smiles Danon. “I obviously look at our

styles owing to fact that it’s a city, and one that some

business plan and our financials, and as long as I see

680,000 people reside in.

growth and progression, then I’m happy."

“With such a larger number of breweries, ideas

He concludes: “For the team here, the goal is to

certainly progress faster than if you were in the

continue making great beer, but to have it disappear

countryside,” he says. “The market evolves quickly and

faster each time. The joke we have is that we make beers

it tells you where to go. So if someone adds milk sugar

that we want to drink, and trick people into wanting to

to their IPA and starts producing a Milkshake IPA, and

drink them too. And it’s working!”

Summer 2019



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Yeast Genomics In this series, Back to Basics 2, Tim O’ Rourke, director of the Brilliant Beer Company, is covering the whole brewing process starting from barley, right up to bright beer. It is aimed at anyone with an interest in practical brewing and brewing science, but it has a particular focus for students preparing to sit exams. In this instalment, he looks at yeast genomics.

are polyphyletic which means that they have evolved from more than one common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group.

Ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae


east has two methods of reproduction, the first and main method is through asexual reproduction or Mitosis also known as budding. (See figure 2A,


by Tim O'Rourke


The yeast makes a complete copy of the genetic material and this in conjunction with some cytoplasm, mitochondria and vacuole passes into the growing bud

t is believed that yeast originated in China some

to make a completely new cell. Once the new bud has

400 million years ago1around the time of the

reached a certain size it can then start budding. This is

development of flowering (fruiting) plants. Around

a very effective way of rapidly colonising a good growth

100 million years ago there was a dramatic increase

media such as wort.

in the amount of genetic material (genome

In mitosis each new cell is a clone of its parents with

duplication) which was crucial to increasing genetic

very little genetic variation except from mutations or DNA

variability producing a proliferation of yeast species which

transcription errors.

were able to adapt rapidly to colonise new environments (see Figure 1, overleaf)) Yeast strains in Brewing (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

The other method is sexual reproduction (meiosis) with the formation of spores which results in generating greater genetic variation. S. cerevisiae has 16 separate

have been “domesticated� (adapted to brewing

chromosomes and wild yeast strains exist in two forms

environment) and are more diverse than wine yeast and

with a single set of chromosomes (haploid state) and

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duplicate sets of chromosomes (diploid state). Sexual reproduction (meiosis) only occurs between

Figure 1. Phylogeny of S. cerevisiae Top-Fermenting Beer Strains Based on Whole-Genome Sequences2

haploid cells of opposite attraction denoted by a & α. The cells produce pheromones which signal the presence of both mating types and produce a growth projection

to “domestication” of brewing. Brewing strains of yeast,

towards the opposite cell in a process called “shmoo”

Saccharomyces sp., have been selected over thousands

(a fictional comic character created by Al Capp in the

of years to take up glucose and producing higher levels

late 1940s, for his comic strip Lil’ Abner) before fusing to

of alcohol in fermentations and have acclimatised to

produce a diploid cell with genes from both partners.

the constant conditions (a form of “domestication”). As

These new cells can bud or under adverse conditions

a result, they have evolved from the wild yeast species

produce four haploid spores which can be released when

to produce Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a new strain

conditions become more favourable. Although the spores

particularly adapted to the more stable environment

are haploid during meiosis there is a mixing up of genetic

found in brewers’ wort and these varieties would no

material producing unique cells and increasing the

longer grow in the wild.

genetic variability (see Figures 3 & 4 opposit). There is an evolutionary disadvantage in having a large genome since it requires a lot energy to maintain,

This has resulted in several changes from their “wild” ancestors. The main sugar encountered in the nature is sucrose

hence over time yeast have specialised and deleted

(a combination of glucose & fructose) but in wort the main

unnecessary genes which is an important part on its path

sugars are maltose and maltotriose. Brewing strains of


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Figure 2A: Asexual Reproduction in Yeast (Mitosis)



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Figure 2B Yeast can bud (undergo mitosis) as either the haploid or diploid cells, this usually occurs under high stress conditions to produce stable spores.

Figure 3: Sexual Reproduction (mating) in yeast

Figure 4: Shmoo from Al Capp cartoon

yeast have adapted by producing a series of genes not

strains found in UK and USA and Beer 2 which are

only to take up maltose and maltotriose but to be able to

commonly found in the rest of Europe. This has resulted

metabolise it within the cell.

a huge range of ale yeast adapted to each brewery’s

On occasion through changes and mutations yeast can lose this facility to use the malt sugars producing

fermentation conditions. Also due to gene redundancy brewing yeast has lost

lower attenuations. There is a species Saccharomycodes

or duplicated different genes and now has a complex

ludwigii which cannot metabolise maltose and

genome which is often polyploid (having more than 2 sets

maltotriose and can be used in the preparation of low

of chromosomes) or aneuploid (having an abnormal or

alcohol beers.

uneven number of chromosomes) which makes sexual

Brewing strains have lost the gene found in wild yeast strains often described as the POF genes made up of PAD1, phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase and/or FDC1,

reproduction more difficult and most brewing stains do not naturally reproduce sexually. In 1487 Duke Albert IV passed the Reinheitsgebot

ferulic acid decarboxylase, which governs the conversion

(Germany Purity Law) governing the ingredients

of ferulic acid from the barley cell wall into 4 vinyl guaiacol

which could be used in brewing in Munich and this

(4VG), which gives beer a clove phenolic flavour. Many ale

was extended to the whole of Bavaria in 1516. As well

and all lager yeast strains have been selected to exclude

as the ingredients it later restricted brewing to the

this gene, but it is still present in yeast strains producing

months of November through to March which are cold

wheat beer and certain Belgium beer styles.

seasons in Germany and this led to specific beer styles

Domestication has led to two distinct clades (figure 1) know as Beer 1 which principally comprises yeast

being developed with longer cooler fermentation and maturation.

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Lager yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus

Europe in the caravan of Marco Polo down the Silk Road when he was exploring and opening up China and the Mongol Empire to trade. The first isolate of S.eubayanus was discovered in


consequence of the change to cooler

Patagonia by Diago Libkin in 2011 who speculated that

fermentation temperature was to disfavour

the yeast may have found its way to Europe in wood

traditional ale yeast which are poorly adapted to

barrels following the discoveries by Magellan when

thrive in cold conditions, giving an opportunity for a new

circumnavigating the world. This yeast has a 99.56%

strain of yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus or lager yeast

correlation with the non S.cerevisiae genetic content of

to evolve. It is known that lager yeast has a larger genome

S.pastorianus S.eubayanus has also been discovered in North

than ale yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) but for a long

America by Peris and Hittinger in 2014 and it has been

time the source of the extra DNA was not known.

speculated that Christopher Columbus was the unwitting

In 2011 Dr Diego Libkind found a new yeast species Saccharomyces eubayanus, which grows in temperate

carrier of this yeast from the New World to Europe

forests in Patagonia on Nothofagus Beech Trees which

and this yeast shows a 99.79% correlation with the non

closely matched the non-cerevisiae genetic component

S.cerevisiae genetic content of S.pastorianus S.eubayanus has also be isolated in New Zealand, by

in Lager yeast. Since then species of S.eubayanus has

Gayevskiy and Goddard 2016.

been found in North America (Peris and Hittinger 2014)

Even though these stories are very romantic and no

and China (Bai and Bing et al. 2014). But so far, no isolates

species of S.eubayanus have yet been found in Europe, it

of S. eubayanus have been found in Europe. It is now believed that Lager yeast is a natural hybrid

seems most likely that a local strain was involved which

between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces

either remains to be isolated or which has subsequently

eubayanus to produce a new species Saccharomyces

died out. Hybridisation of yeast is quite common and successful,

pastorianus which can successively grow and ferment at

Professor Chris Hittinger and colleagues at University of

lower temperature and is only found in wort and beer.

Table 1: the growth of different yeast strains at different temeratures Temperature oC Yeast Strain









S. cerevisiae

No growth

No growth







S. eubayanus








No growth

S. pastorianus








No growth

Legend 0 is no growth up to 6 maximum growth

Since Brewing yeast species do not readily sporulate

Wisconsin-Madison have discovered a quick and efficient

and do not easily travel between different locations,

way to fuse different strains of yeast to make hybrids

except mainly in the stomach of insects, this leaves an

similar to the lager beer hybrid. (See figures 5 and 6, right)

intriguing question as to how S. eubayanus found its way

Lager yeast hybridisation produced two distinct

to Europe and into a German Lager cellar in the 16th

strains, Group 1 - Saaz and Group II - Frohberg, named

Century to form a hybrid with S. cerevisiae.

after the areas in which they were isolated. Saaz has

This has resulted in several theories to explain how

greater capacity to grow at low temperatures but is less

hybridisation could occur and how S eubayanus found

efficient at attenuation compared with Frohberg strains,

its way into a Munich beer cellar. Some of the more

this is partly due to their poorer utilisation of maltose and


maltotriose, which comprise 45–65% and 16–26% of all

Ideas based on the current distribution of S.eubayanus

available sugars respectively. Frohberg also produces higher esters, making it the dominant ancestor of most

include: The genome from S.eubayanus from Tibet (Feng-Yan Bai & Jian Bing 2014) shows the best correlation with

modern Lager strains. S. Eubayanus has been adopted by many Argentinian

the non S.cerevisiae genetic content of S.pastorianus at

Brewers to produce new styles of beer, with Heineken

99.82% and it is possible that it may have found its way to

producing a range of “Wild Lagers” using isolates from


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Brewers Journal Canada


Figure 5: S. Eubayanus was first isolated from Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, found in temerate areas of Patagonia Credit: Diego Libkind, Institute for Biodiversity and Environment Research, Bariloche, Argentina



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Figure 6: Larger yeast hybridisation produced two distinct strains. Group I - Saaz and Group II - Frohberg, named for areas in which they were isolated. Each strain has a different ratio of S. Eubayanus and S. Cerevisae, suggesting that they were the result of separate hybridisation events

Figure 7: Current geographical distribution of S.eubayanus populations Patagonia, Tibet, and North America. S. eubayanus is a wild yeast which has not been

Lager yeast (S.pastorianus) only thrives in fermentation and has been selected to express the useful genes

domesticated for its brewing property and produces

from both its parent hybrids. Since it is a relatively recent

a distinctive beer. It still has the POF genes and all the

species (around 500 years) and natural selection was

beers have a clove/phenolic (4-Vinyl guaiacol) aromas

largely suspended following the adoption of pure culture

and the yeast is not efficient at fully metabolizing maltose

and yeast propagation 100 years ago, there has been

and particularly maltotriose giving poorer attenuated

little time for selection and lager yeast show little genetic


variation when compared with the large range of Ale

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Table 2 Comparison between characteristics of Ale yeast and Lager yeast Ale yeast

Lager yeast

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces pastorianus

Size of genome



Flocculation characteristics

Top cropping

Bottom cropping

Yeast separation

Skimmed from top of fermenter

Cropped from bottom of the fermenter

Maximum growth temp C

370 C


Growth below 5 C


Some growth

Typical fermentation temperatures used

180 to 230 C

100 to 140 C

Figure 8 “Wild” Lager brewed with S.eubayanus. (reproduced with kind permission from Heineken)

Typical duration of fermentation days

3 days

7 days


Fermentation flavours

High Fruity/ Esters

Lower ester profile

Fining action (isinglass)



Melibiose utilization



S. pastorianus



The effects of adding genetic material creates differences between Ale and Lager yeasts, principally in regard to temperature tolerance and the ability to utilize different sugars. At present many new beers are hop forward, using hop aroma character to differentiate between different brands. Novel yeast and bacteria strains can be used to provide additional complexity to beer flavour and produce a new range of textures and flavours in beer. u S. eubayanus has been adopted as a brewing yeast

such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus: which is a prolific producer of ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate,

by many brewers in the South America and at least one

phenyl ethanol, and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity

international Brewer has found it sufficiently interesting to

aroma) and Torulaspora delbrueckii: which produces

produce limited edition of “Wild” Lager (figures 8)

of 2-phenylethanol and amyl alcohols (fruity and floral

u Dekkera/Brettanomyces has long been used to give the unique character to speciality Belgium beers, and

aroma) As well as natural strains of “wild” yeast which could

was traditionally used to provide secondary fermentation

be pitched directly to produce novel beers, there has

(conditioning) to cask beer. More recently Brett. has

been considerable research into producing genetically

been used more widely to produce novel flavours often

modified (GMO) yeast strains the most interesting

described as “sweaty horse blanket” or “farm yard” in a

examples include:

range of craft beers. u There is a renewed interest in producing low and

u The first genetic recombination carried out on brewing yeast was in 1995 at BRi when the STA2 gene

no alcohol beers and this can be partially achieved by

which encodes for extracellular glucoamylase, an

using a number of yeast species which have which have

enzyme which breaks down dextrins to produce a more

limited ability to utilise some or all of the wort sugars for

fermentable wort and lower final gravity, was introduced

example Saccharomycodes ludwigii: has limited activity

to ale yeast,. The gene is available in a wild yeast of

to metabolise maltose and maltotriose; Torulaspora

S.cerevisiae (var. diastaticus) and the new ale strain was

delbrueckii: cannot ferment maltose and maltotriose;

able to directly ferment low carbohydrate or “lite” beer

Zigosaccharomyces rouxii: has limited ability to

without the usual addition of Amyloglucosidase.

metabolise maltose; and Pichia kluyveri: which has limited ability to ferment glucose. u Esters are usually recognized as one of the major

u A major off flavour particularly in Lagers is diacetyl which occurs during fermentation by the chemical breakdown of alpha acetolacate an oxyacid produced

flavour components produced by yeast and there are

as a by-product of protein synthesis. Once produced,

several yeast strains capable of high ester production

diacetyl is readily reduced by yeast to recycle NADH to


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NAD to the less flavour active compounds acetoin & 2,3

process. A natural example is the hybridisation of

butanediol. An enzyme alpha acetolacate decarboxylase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and Saccharomyces

(ALDC) can reduce acetolacate to acetoin directly, thus

eubayanus to produce the new species Saccharomyces

bypassing the much more flavour active diacetyl. This

pastorianus, Lager yeast.

gene has been transferred from a genetically modified

Acknowledgement: I would like to thank Professor Chris

species of Bacillus subtilis subspecies brevis to provide

Todd Hittinger from the University of Winsconsin-Madison,

this ability in brewing yeast.

Dr Diego Libkind from the National University of Comahue

Genetic engineering involves introducing extraneous genes from other species and has been extensively

and Dr. Niels Kuijpers from Heineken and Heineken Brewers for permission to reproduce the photograph of Wild Lager.

applied in agriculture particularly to the major cereal

Citations & further reading

crops used to feed the world. However, there is considerable consumer resistance against using genetically modified products in brewing due to fears over possible health risks and environmental impact.

1 Shen XX, Opulente DA, Kominek J, Zhou X, Steenwyk

There are no published accounts of genetically modified

JL, Buh KV, Haase MAB, Wisecaver JH, Wang M, Doering

yeast being used in commercial brewing.

DT, Boudouris JT, Schneider RM, Langdon QK, Ohkuma

An alternative approach suggested by Hittinger is

M, Endoh R, Takashima M, Manabe RI, Čadež N, Libkind

yeast hybridization, which occurs naturally and can be

D, Rosa CA, DeVirgilio J, Hulfachor AB, Groenewald M,

used to generate new brewing yeast hybrids from de

Kurtzman CP, Hittinger CT, Rokas A- Tempo and Mode

novo hybridization avoiding GMO.

of Genome Evolution in the Budding Yeast Subphylum

Brewing yeast is exceptionally well adapted to utilise wort sugars and can fully ferment wort in a few days compared to lambic or sour style beer which usually

Cell. 2018 Nov 29;175(6):1533-1545.e20. doi: 10.1016/j. cell.2018.10.023. Epub 2018 Nov 8 2 Margarida Gonc¸ alves, Ana Pontes, Pedro Almeida,

takes 1 to 2 years to fully develop. Producing hybrids

..., Mathias Hutzler, Paula Gonc¸ alves, Jose´ Paulo

may allow the best characteristics of both strains to be

Sampaio - Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top

included in the one organism delivering the required

Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts Current Biology

flavours but retaining the efficiency of the fermentation

26, 2750–2761, October 24, 2016


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Norwegian Kveik: Old Yeast New Tricks The use of Norwegian kveik yeasts is very on trend in 2019. Here, Richard Preiss, from Escarpment Laboratories, aims to provide more information for the converts to expand the types of beers they produce with kveik, and also provide a convincing argument for the kveikskeptics to also learn a bit more and give these fascinating yeasts a try. by Richard Preiss


t seems like everyone these days is talking about Norwegian kveik yeasts, due to the promise of fast, clean, and hot fermentations beyond what we thought was possible for beer production. We’ve found that people tend to fall into two camps

when it comes to kveik: the converts, and the skeptics. The aims of this article are to provide more

information to the converts to expand the types of beers they produce with kveik, and also provide a convincing argument for the kveik-skeptics to also learn a bit more and give these fascinating yeasts a try. Kveik yeasts are now available through several

S c i e n c e

K veik

Once we got kveik into the lab, what we found astounded us - the dry yeast, when rehydrated, began fermenting within an hour. What was more, the yeast seemed to produce clean, fruity beers. We were immediately captivated, and were able to start to conduct some proper scientific research in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Guelph (George van der Merwe, Caroline Tyrawa) as well as VTT in Finland (Kristoffer Krogerus). It’s important to distinguish between kveik isolates and the original cultures. The original cultures typically contain multiple strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and some original kveik cultures contain a large strain diversity.

Kveik tradition: Brewing regions of Norway

Some kveik cultures do contain bacteria, mostly lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconobacter). In the lab and commercially, we work with kveik isolates, pure cultures originating from the original yeast material. Some of our products are blends of high-performing isolates from the original cultures, and all are bacteria-free. This appears to be true of most commerically available kveik cultures. In the lab, we were able to confirm some of the interesting qualities of kveik: they do indeed perform very well under high temperature (40ºC) and high alcohol (16%) environments, they ferment faster than several industrial beer strains, they produce less fusel alcohol at high temperature, they are non-phenolic, and they can produce noticeable amounts of fruity esters (pineapple,

The dry yeast, when rehydrated, began fermenting within

apple, floral). That was really fascinating, because it

an hour

suggested these yeasts could be used to replace English or American strains in beer styles typically employing those yeasts.

different yeast companies, who have been intrigued

We also got to dive deep into the genetics of kveik

by the surprising characteristics of these yeasts. Back

yeasts, and made another surprising finding. The kveik

in 2016, we sourced some original kveik cultures from

yeast family appears to be a hybrid of a distant ancestor

Lars Marius Garshol, the beer writer who has been

of the main brewing yeast group (think German Ale,

critical in highlighting and preserving surviving European

English Ale, and American Ale strains) along with a

farmhouse brewing traditions.

mysterious ancestor, that may have roots as far back as

Kveik are used to produce traditional Norwegian

Asia. So in addition to having unique fermentation traits,

farmhouse beers, mostly centring on two brewing regions

kveik also appears to be genetically distinct from other

south and north of the Jostedal glacier in the fjords of

brewing yeasts as well.

western Norway. In the south, centred on Voss, the

It is still unclear what genetic mutations give rise to the

beers are a caramel-brown with deep citrus and caramel

behaviour of kveik, but this is something we are actively

flavour, from both the use of long boils as well as the

pursuing now. We did find several mutations in kveik that

regional kveik.

were not found in any other beer yeasts, some of which

In the north, centred on Hornindal, the beers are often ‘raw ales’, not boiled at all. These beers are lighter and brighter in flavour, and some acidity is not necessarily

may be related to temperature tolerance or fermentation rate. That’s all well and good, but as a brewer, how do I use

considered an off-flavour. The kveik in this region can

kveik? Do the usual rules apply to a yeast that breaks a lot

contribute tropical fruit and orchard aromas. Everywhere,

of rules?

juniper persists, infused in all of the brewing water and

In general, kveik can be used like regular yeast. It can

lending a decidedly boreal edge to the regional beers. I

ferment anywhere from 15 to 40 ºC. Underpitching has

am radically simplifying things of course, since farmhouse

been reported to result in fruitier flavours, but slightly

brewing is quite family-dependent too.

slower fermentations. Increasing temperature also has


Summer 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

K veik

S c i e n c e

Kveik: Can be used for a wide range of styles

Kveik yeast is not a panacea and will not solve every brewing problem, but we do think these yeasts will settle into a role as another tool in our ever-expanding beer flavour toolset. To date, very few of the known kveik yeasts have been commercialized, and fewer still have been studied in detail in research laboratories. We think there is still lots to learn from these surprising landrace yeasts, and that they will expand our brewing flavour toolset and also help us understand more about yeast domestication and stress adaptation. Through the continued drive of craft brewers to explore new ideas, we

Kveik phylogeny

will be able to teach these old yeasts new tricks.

A plea been reported to produce a fruitier beer. Repitching is typically problem-free as this yeast has adapted to being dormant for long periods of time. These process controls are now being explored in the lab and we are hoping to be able to help brewers dial in precise flavour profiles with kveik in the future. Since kveik are non-phenolic and range in character from neutral to fruity (depending on strain and handling), they can be used for a wide range of styles. While we encourage brewers to experiment with reproducing the


f you are using kveik, please make mention of the original source of the kveik. Many of the farmhouse brewers have graciously offered these yeasts for

science and commercialization, and it is important to give credit where it is due to the farmers who kept traditional yeast alive. For more information: Garshol, L. M., and Preiss, R. (2018). How to Brew with

Kveik. Tech. Q. 55, 76–83. doi:10.1094/TQ-55-4-1211-01.

traditional styles to understand the traditional context for

Preiss, R., Tyrawa, C., Krogerus, K., Garshol, L. M., and

kveik, we recognize these yeasts are also catching on in

Van Der Merwe, G. (2018). Traditional Norwegian Kveik are a

more popular and trendy beer styles, like NEIPAs. The

Genetically Distinct Group of Domesticated Saccharomyces

enhanced fruitiness of kveik and low potential for fusel

cerevisiae Brewing Yeasts. Front. Microbiol. 9, 2137.

alcohols and diacetyl can help to produce heavily dry


hopped beers with less worry.

Kveik registry

Summer 2019


O xygen


Oxygen control in brewing Beer staling exists, it’s a fact of life. So the aim of the brewer is not to prevent these processes from occurring, but to slow or limit them to such a degree that the flavour profile of the beer remains acceptable for the duration of its shelf life, explains Andrew Paterson, technical sales and support for Lallemand Brewing.

to prevent these processes from occurring, but to slow or limit them to such a degree that the flavour profile of the beer remains acceptable for the duration of its shelf life.

What is beer staling


eer staling refers to the sensory and analytical changes a beer undergoes during storage. Whilst there are relatively few studies into the actual

sensory changes observed during beer storage, work



done by (Dalgliesh, 1977) presents a generalised view (see fig 1). These include a constant decrease in bitterness,

espite the best efforts of the brewing

an increase in sweet honey-like tastes and aromas,

industry beer is, and remains, an inherently

increasing levels of an aroma of wet cardboard, and an

unstable product. Even beers produced

increase and subsequent decline in a flavour described

at industry-leading levels of in-pack

as ribes (the aroma of blackcurrant leaves). In addition

dissolved oxygen, with reduced protein

to the taste and aroma changes, there is a subsequent

and tannin levels, will still be stale towards the end of their

decrease in colloidal stability as well as an increase in

often year-long shelf life. Add, in less than ideal storage

colour during storage.

and transit conditions and staling can arise much faster than this. As an industry we understand that beer is best

It should be noted that most studies into the sensory and analytical changes that take place in beer during the aging process have looked at beers with a rather

consumed when it is as fresh as possible. This is the best

different sensory profile and colloidal stability to the hop

way to ensure beer arrives at the final consumer as it

forward, and often hazy, beer produced by many craft

was intended. Pressures from supermarkets which often

brewers today. My own experience suggests that sensible

require long life on products have been the key driver

additions to Dalgliesh’s chart would include a decline in

towards an ever increasing shelf life. This has contributed

dry hop aroma as well as a sometimes dramatic increase

to the misguided view of some consumers that beer in

in colour in hazy, hoppy beers. The rapid rise of the craft

small pack simply doesn’t go off.

brewing industry means that research into the staling

There are signs that customer and consumer attitudes

of beers such as this has not kept pace with the overall

to beer shelf life are changing. Some larger companies

growth of the industry. More work in this regard would be

are starting to embrace born on dates rather than best


before dates to better indicate the age of the product to

Ask the majority of brewers, what is the cause of beer

the consumer. The craft beer market has done much to

staling, and their almost unanimous response would

emphasis this viewpoint and consumers familiar with the

be oxidation. ‘Stale beer is stale because it has been

segment are now acutely aware of the issues that arise

oxidised’. The reality is rather more complicated! An in-

when trying to put long shelf lives on hoppy, hazy or

depth review of the causes of beer staling is beyond the

unfiltered beers.

scope of this article, however I will try to outline some of

The chemical processes attributed to the changes seen in beer over its shelf life are varied and include

the basic oxidative interactions below. Oxidation is a way of describing a chemical reaction

varying temperatures, exposure to UV light as well as

in which there is a loss of an electron from one atom to

levels of dissolved oxygen. The aim of the brewer is not

another. The atom which loses an electron is ‘Oxidised’.

Summer 2019



O xygen

Conversely, the atom gaining an electron is ‘Reduced’, (see fig 2). Every time a molecule or atom is oxidised another atom or molecule must be reduced. This gives rise to the REDOX reaction. Those who studied Chemistry at school might remember the old mnemonic OIL-RIG, standing for oxidation is loss, (of electrons) and reduction

Figure 2: The oxidisation process Once generated ROS can go on to react with the many organic molecules present in beer including; alcohols, higher alcohols, hop bitter acids, polyphenols, amino acids and lipids. These oxidative changes result in many of the sensory changes seen during beer aging (Vanderhaegen, 2006). After Oxidation, the other most often quoted reason for an aged character in beer is the increase in a compound known as E-2-Nonenal or (Trans-2-nonenal). This compound is responsible for the wet cardboard aroma frequently detected in aged beers and is recognised

Figure 1: Sensory changes arising during beer staling (Dalgliesh, 1977)

as arising from the oxidation of malt derived lipids. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the creation of this compound, an enzymatic method involving the malt enzyme Lox-1, and a non-enzymatic method resulting

is gain. Oxidation can also be described in terms of the

from the reaction of lipids with ROS (Vanderhaegen,

oxidation state of the atom. Electrons have a negative

2006). Importantly, this interaction is thought to take place

charge of -1 hence the loss of an electron increases the

during hot side brewing processes and the increase in

oxidation state by +1 for every electron lost. Reduction,

cardboard flavour in final pack is due to the subsequent

where electrons are gained leads to a decrease in the

release of bound forms of the chemical.

oxidation state of the molecule by -1 for every electron

Malt Lipids


Generation of ROS Lox-1 Enzyme + O2



any of the reactions recognised to cause staling can be attributed to the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beer. Molecular

oxygen is relatively unreactive in its ground state and



so must first be activated to form the ROS responsible for these reactions. This activation is catalysed by the transition metals Iron and Copper and is an example of a Redox reaction. The amount of ROS generated is

Control of oxidised character

dependent on the level of oxygen in the beer, the storage temperature, as well as the availability of Iron and Copper ions to catalyse the reaction (Vanderhaegen, 2006).


trategies for reducing the tendency of a beer to

Fe / Cu O2

stale quickly are based around the reduction of


oxidation reactions by limiting the availability of

molecular oxygen and transition metal ions as well as slowing the subsequent generation of ROS. Methods


Summer 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

O xygen


to reduce E-2-Nonenal pick up focus on reduced Lox-1 enzyme activity as well as reducing oxygen ingress to hot side processes. Limiting dissolved oxygen concentration in pack is crucial to preventing the uptake of stale character in beer. To this end there are various strategies the brewer can employ to reduce the final level of dissolved oxygen in pack. Meticulous control of oxygen uptake after fermentation is key. All pipes and filters should be flushed


with CO2 or DAL prior to making beer transfers and, if

O2 + Heat

possible, the oxygen content measured.

O2 + Heat + Vicant

Seals and fittings should be tight and well maintained and bright beer tanks should be cleaned under an inert atmosphere. Metal ions should be kept to a minimum by using all stainless steel pipework and fittings and quality crown caps. Technologies such as oxygen scrubbing crown caps should also be considered. In addition to these physical strategies thought should be given to additions that could be made to the product to protect it from staling during its shelf life. The two key strategies here are the addition of bottle conditioning yeasts as well as antioxidants.

Antioxidant blends: Addition of 2-4g/hl to final beer is sufficient to improve flavour and colloidal stability

Bottle conditioning yeasts such as the Lallemand CBC-1 strain can protect beer through a variety of

involve limiting the availability of the Lox-1 enzyme by

mechanisms. First, viable yeast has a strong ability to

the use of barley varieties with low levels of the Lox-1

metabolise molecular oxygen reducing its level in pack

enzyme, as well as higher temperature mashing and

and preventing the generation of ROS. In addition, yeast is

kilning regimes (Vanderhaegen, 2006). Mashing at lower

known to create the antioxidant sulphite which can react

pH and milling regimes which prevent embryo damage

with, and prevent, the onward reaction of ROS as well as

have also been explored (Vanderhaegen, 2006). Limiting

binding with flavour active staling aldehydes to create

the availability of molecular oxygen needed for the Lox-1

flavourless products (Guido, 2016). Finally, active yeast

reaction by anaerobic mashing and milling processes, as

and a strong secondary fermentation have been shown

well as purging grist and mashing vessels has also been

to reduce existing staling aromas by reduction of flavour

shown to reduce E-2-Nonenal production (Vanderhaegen,

active staling compounds in beer (Saison, 2010).


Antioxidants blends such as Lallemand Vicant SB,

Preventing the auto oxidation route could involve all

which contain sulphites as well as other antioxidants, can

of the above techniques for limiting oxygen uptake into

also help prevent beer staling. The mechanism is much

the mash and wort but also the use of antioxidants such

the same as the antioxidant effect provided by bottle

as Lallemands Vicant SBX to help prevent the reaction

conditioning, binding flavour active staling compounds,

of lipids with ROS. An addition of 5-10g/hl to the mash is

but also preventing the reaction of ROS with polyphenols,

sufficient to improve flavour and colloidal stability as well

sugars and amino acids which tend to cause colour pick

as reduce browning.

up and hazes, (see fig 5). An addition of 2-4g/hl to final

In conclusion

beer is sufficient to improve flavour and colloidal stability as well as reduce browning.

Reducing E-2-Nonenal pickup


eer staling is a complex process involving many different pathways. One of the key reaction paths


is the reaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)

imiting the creation of E-2-Nonenal focusses

with the numerous organic molecules present in beer.

on the hot side of the brewing process. The

Strategies for prevention of these reactions focus on

two accepted routes to its creation involve

the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration in final

an enzymatic oxidation route and an auto oxidation

beer but could also include the use of specialist bottle

route due to the action of ROS in the mash and wort.

conditioning yeasts, as well as antioxidant additions to the

Approaches to the prevention of the enzymatic route

beer and to upstream hot side processes.

Summer 2019



O xygen

Best Practices

Bottle conditioning with CBC-1 FERMENTATION -

Brew beer with alcohol as high as 12-14% abv


Ferment beer to completion with final gravity stable for >48 hours


Beer may be dry hopped or aged in a bright tank prior to bottle conditioning.

The addition of non-sterile ingredients (fruit, spices, hops) may increase the risk of contamination with wild yeast such as S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus, which may cause overattenuation and overcarbonation of bottle conditioned beer.


If beer has been aged cold after fermentation, allow the beer to warm to >10°C prior to priming and bottling.


Determine amount of sugar required for priming using the Lallemand Bottle Conditioning Calculator


Dissolve sugar in a small amount of water (~5x its weight) and sterilize by boiling before cooling down to 10°C and adding to the beer.


Measure 0.1g of CBC-1 per liter of beer and rehydrate the yeast in 10x its weight of sterile water for 30 minutes at 30-35°C.


Bring the yeast to within 10°C of the beer temperature by adding small amounts of beer (already primed with sugar) to the rehydrated yeast. The sugar in the beer will activate the yeast and start fermentation.


Add activated yeast to the primed beer and proceed with bottling.

After yeast has been added to the beer, work quickly to complete bottling ASAP. Prolonged bottling may result in under-carbonated beers if the sugar is consumed before the bottle is capped.



Summer 2019


Leave bottles for at least two weeks at a constant temperature between 15-25°C


Open a test bottle to ensure adequate carbonation

Brewers Journal Canada

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fo cu s


Create and Innovate In our latest instalment of Homebrew 4.0 we will review a simple Homebrew Hack sent into us by a fairly active brew-centric Instagram poster that’s designed to help you nail your gravities even when you need to get creative with the space you have available or allocated to your brewing activities. How @flora_brewing almost accidentally started brewing is a funny enough footnote but when you feel the passion through her words and the sketch she whipped up for us, and see how far she has taken her hobby, I’m sure many of us can relate to.


ndustry 4.0 is the moniker given to describe the

profile all the homebrewers in Canada. Well, sort of. Here,

current movement towards leveraging all attainable

you'll will read about Canadian Home Brew Day from the

data and automation to maximise production

founder of the Canadian Homebrew Association. This

efficiencies and support educated, strategic,

recent event attracted at least 50 participants of their 300

business decisions concerning manufacturing

strong membership to come together in the true spirit of

processes. What a mouthful right? It’s considered

homebrewing. Innovations were on display, collaborations

the 4th Industrial Revolution but since that’s not catch

happened, good food was found, and sharing of wares

enough “Industry 4.0” it is. Instead of profiling a second

was plentiful. I wonder if there was a spike of red solo

homebrewer and their specific innovation we decided to

cups in the days leading up to it?

Sarah Flora | Instagram @flora_ Brewing)

homebrew club that a friend and I started to promote more women in homebrewing; I’ve also joined Socal Cerveceros and participate in the festivals they host

I’m located in Los Angeles, CA at the moment but

regularly. I started entering into competitions last year

am hoping to move up to Bremerton, WA in the next

and my proudest wins are the silver and bronze I took

few years and open a brewery up there. I started

home from She Brew.

brewing in a very unromantic way, I purchased a kit for

The system I use is a Clawhammer 120V. It’s great

my husband’s birthday and after a month of him not

having an electric system in my small apartment. The

expressing any interest, I gave it a shot. I’ve been going

system utilizes a BIAB model with a mesh screen to hold

non stop since then. I’ve always been an avid cook so it

the grain out of the wort. The one thing I didn’t like about

came pretty naturally to me.

the BIAB model is that unless you squeeze all of your

I’m constantly influenced and inspired by different

wort out of the bag or screen (and I would definitely not

ingredients that are available in my area. I love going to

recommend doing that with a screen, you can punch

the farmers markets and trying out different styles with

through them) you’re losing valuable sugar!

new fruits, my most experimental was probably a brett farmhouse made with feijoa (pineapple guava). One thing I want to try this summer is brewing with tomato leaves,

I'm not great at explaining mechanical things, I'm more of a visual person. I heat it up on my stove in a regular soup pot. That's

I have a garden that’s exploding with tomatoes and that

the only specific extra equipment, it's basically just

smell is to die for.

changing the input of the pump from the bottom of the

I’m a part of a couple of homebrew clubs: The Crafty Brewsters (insta: @craftbrewsterclub) club is a feminist


Summer 2019

kettle (suction side, there's no false bottom because the grain is held together with the screen) to the hot water

Brewers Journal Canada


fo cu s

Sarah Flora's homebrewing setup

in the pot. It's very rudimentary but works great. Since I started this process, it’s rare that I miss an OG.

BIAB is a process that allows beginners or people that are spatially (?) challenged to execute the entire brewing process in one vessel on a stove top or a burner depending

Paddy's thoughts

on volume. Recently I was out at an industry event and a fella I’ve known for +/- 10 years told me he just took up

Losing “The Converted” (my overly dramatic term for sugars

the hobby. As I’m an admitted equipment nerd I asked

in the brewing process. “The Converted” sounds like a new

him what we was brewing on and he rather sheepishly

age horror flick right?) is painful in general never mind after

admitted it was a BIAB System Now I think he was a little

a particularly difficult mash/lauter. This could only be

funny about it as we are both in the process equipment

compounded by the tight footprint Sarah is working with

supply industry and he thought I would expect some

hence including @Flora_Brewing in this months edition.

big elaborate kit. Really I was just excited that he was

I think its important to make sure anyone interested

embracing it and I sincerely hope there is no stigma out

in Homebrewing knows they can start if they really want

there around BIAB. Lets face it. Flora Brewing probably

to. I have friends that say they cant because they don’t

makes some really great beer!

have the space to dedicate to it but Sarah is just one of

Quick sidenote, I’m guessing Sarah started with a fairly

many proving that to be false. You can make excellent

simple kit if it was a gift for someone who had never tried

Homebrew with limited space and a couple neat tricks that

Homebrewing before but its clear to me that Sarah has

you’ll pick up along the way or maybe even right here! And

upgraded since. For example there is a Riptide pump in the

Brew In A Bag (BIAB) is a smart way to dip your toe in the

pics that I am confident contributes to her “Confined Space

waters and either fall in love with your new hobby or…..well

Sparge Hack” mentioned. These pumps are awesome little

we’re pretty sure it’ll be door number 1.

workhorses and are high up on my wish list for sure.

Summer 2019


fo cu s


Canadian Homebrew Day

participated across Canada.

The Canadian Homebrewers Association is a non-profit

from across the country. Members get access to a

organization that was founded in August 2018 to advance

treasure trove of recipes that is constantly expanding

and promote the hobby of homebrewing in Canada.

every month. We offer discounts at supporting

We currently have over 300 members from all across

businesses, a program that we are constantly working


on expanding. In the future, we hope to offer events to

As of now, we cover Canadian homebrewing news

The American Homebrewers Association usually has a couple days a year where they encourage homebrewers to do a big brew day either to celebrate homebrewing or to introduce a friend to the hobby, and we wanted

members only. You can sign up for a members on our website,, for $20 per year. One of the things we're working on is creating a

a day like that, but for Canadians. After consulting with

conference about homebrewing that moves from city to

homebrew clubs on a preferable month to run such an

city every year, showcasing different regional breweries

event, we decided to declare the first Saturday of every

and homebrew clubs! We hope to bring it to our

June to be Canadian Homebrew Day.

members in the next year or so.

We had 22 events by 12 homebrew clubs in 7 provinces and a territory registered with us for our

Paddy's thoughts

Google Maps, but there were definitely more than that that we've seen on social media. We don't have exact numbers of brewing members,

I don’t think cool people declare things enough these days. Can you imagine what I’d “declare” after a mittful of good

as each event was coordinated independently from the

Hombrew? And yet here are our compatriots using this

CHA, but there was probably at least 50 brewers who

newly found power of declaration for good as opposed to


Summer 2019

Brewers Journal Canada


evil. My hat is officially tipped.

fo cu s

Until next time

I checked out my local home brew shop, Shortfinger Brewing Company, in Kitchener, ON, as local club True

Thanks to Flora for sharing insights into her process

Grist had organized their participation in Canadian

and to Kathy for doing her part in uniting the Canadian

Homebrew Day. What I experienced was impressive. The

Homebrewing community. Please keep us up to date on

vibe was really great. Everyone was pretty laid back and

any exciting developments.

friendly considering they were doing something they are

If you are an industrious home brewer that would like

very passionate about without the comfort of familiar

to be featured in an upcoming issue please send me a pic


and a quick summary of your innovation and contact info

No doubt Rob and Kat could hook anybody up if

on Instagram @brew4.0

something was missing but you know what I mean. We have all had that moment when brewing and suddenly

About Paddy Finnegan

”Where is my ________? It was right here a minute ago, I need it now!” It’s likely in your hand but panic has already displaced

Paddy Finnegan started his career as a sanitary fitter welder in his families business before moving into

reason and logic in the moment because in your head the

Business Development for Food and Beverage Engineered

whole brew is about to be a drain pour.

Solutions Providers. He still services many of his early

This group made me want to do what I didn’t think I

customers today and is part of a team that designs and

could be convinced of and that’s dig up a propane system

executes sanitary process projects for Food and Beverage

for the first Saturday of June 2020, and more importantly

processors. He is a Prud’ Homme Certified Sommelier, a

find my inner Charlie Papazian and “Relax, have a

MBAA Beer Steward, a Recognised BJCP, an active judge


and an avid homebrewer

Summer 2019


date s


e v e nt s


With exhibitors from Belgium, England, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Czech Republic, Holland, Italy, Iceland and of course right here at home, The Halifax Seaport Cider & Beerfest features the best and the brightest craft brewers in the business.

9 August 2019

BrewHa! Craft Beer Festival Prince Arthur’s Landing

Port Perry Craft Beer Festival Palmer Park, Port Perry

9 August - 10 August 2019

22 August - 26 August

Halifax Seaport Cider and Beerfest

Craft Beer Fest

Cunard Centre, Halifax 9 August - 10 August 2019

Craft Beer Festival Roundhouse Park, Toronto 9 August - 11 August 2019

Waterfront BeerCraft Ontario Place, West Island

10 August 2019

True North Beer Festival Picton Airport


10 August 2019

Summer 2019

Prince’s Boulevard 6 September - 7 September 2019

Great Canadian Beer Festival Victoria, BC 13 September - 22 September

Toronto Beer Week Various venues, Toronto 28 October - 30 October 2019

Ontario Craft Brewers Conference Scotiabank Centre, Niagara Falls

Brewers Journal Canada

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