The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Winter 2019

Page 1

The magazine for the professional brewing industry

Brewers J o u r n a l

Winter 2019 | issue 11 ISSN 2398-6956


Playing the long game in Bracebridge, Ontario 38 | Short finger brew co: brewing up a storm in 2019

48 | reid’s Dundurn ale: the story of a special beer

67 | Diastaticus: The role it plays in your brews

le ad e r

Pushing on in 2019


elcome to the first 2019 edition of Brewers Journal Canada! I hope you all had a well-deserved break. Last year, the Canadian and global brewing industry was characterised by mergers and acquisitions, innovation and invention, breweries opening and sadly, breweries closing. 2019 will be another 12 months of challenge and opportunity. How well this period pans out is, to a degree, how you approach it. With that in mind, we've used this issue to present a wealth of expertise from figures across the diverse, exciting brewing sector. Shea Martin of Brew Ninja takes a look at various technologies available today that help smaller breweries be greener, save money, create revenue channels, and make more informed decisions. All of the solutions he mentions are affordable to smaller breweries. On collaborations, Ren Navarro, founder of Beer. Diversity. tells us that brewing gives the participants so much - learning, experience, or heck, just some old fashioned fun. Things that are mainstays in the craft beer community, but that so many don't get to experience until they step into the back area of a brewery. Here's to so many more collaborations in 2019, and all of us, whether we be brewers, industry, or just beer connoisseurs having the chance to experience the coming together of diverse folks and beers. Elsewhere, Jeff Rogowsky, chief executive officer at Sessions Craft Canning, muses on what will happen when we eventually hit peak craft beer capacity in Canada. "Is there a peak craft capacity or will we continue to chip away at the market share still largely dominated by the big brewers? All I know is that Canadian craft brewers will continue to push forward in this tough market and brew up what will surely be some awesome beers," he explains.

editor's choice The story behind Muskoka Brewery, its latest core beer, and doing things its own way - page 29

In addition to in-depth looks at keg maintenance, distribution, craft maltings and forecasting, Roger Mittag shares his wisdom on the art of selling your beer. "It really doesn’t matter whose sales philosophies we should follow. What will truly inspire success is a vision of growth and partnership," he says. "All sales people should be inherently connected with the goals and aspirations of the brewery and every step we make should echo the direction of the company." It was also fascinating to catch up with two very different breweries, in the form of Muskoka Brewery and Short Finger Brewing Co. Two businesses with very different backgrounds but a shared goal of making great beer that the consumer will enjoy. So, I hope you enjoy this issue and we will continue to do our very best to help develop with this fantastic industry. Thanks again for all of your support and here's to a successful and buoyant 2019. Cheers! Tim Sheahan Editor

Winter 2019


co ntac t s

contacts Total Filtration for the Brewing Industry

Tim Sheahan Editor +44 (0)1442 780 592


Richard Piotrowski Canada Bureau Chief +1 647 975 7656 Jakub Mulik Staff photographer Jim Robertson Head of sales +44 (0)1442 780 593 Johnny Leung North American Partnerships & editorial +1 647 975 7656 Jon Young Publisher Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

SUBscriptions Polyclar® BrewbriteTM Wort Clarifier & Beer Stabilizer

Diatomite (DE)

Perlite Filter Aid

General Filtration has been supplying the brewing industry since the company’s inception in 1955. For over six decades, our products have been highly regarded for their role in the filtration process. While technologies have evolved, the main objectives of stable, fresh, bright beer have remained the same.




Winter 2019

The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing:

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 23986948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

Brewers Journal Canada

Co nte nt s

contents 38





Cover story 29 - In an age of frenetic beer release schedules, Ontario's Muksoka Brewery is doing things its own way, and the outfit's beer is all the better for it.

COMMENTS 13- Ren Navarro on the joy of collaborations 14- Are craft beer clubs a blessing or a curse? 16- Distribution and its role in the beer industry 18- Recreational cannabis and employment law 20- Why forecasting is essential to your firm 22- The art of selling your beer 24- The hot trends hitting in 2019, and beyond 26- The value of the Ontario Craft Brewers Association, by one of its members

brewery tour | reid's dundurn ale 48- The story of Reid’s Dundurn Ale, no ordinary beer, brewed by Devyn Prince-Reid

sector | kegging 51- Why periodic inspection of the inside of your kegs is fundamental for quality control

sector | technology 54- Shea Martin outlines five ways technology can help smaller breweries in 2019

Meet the brewer | short finger 38- The Kitchener-based company's journey from homebrew supply store to nano-brewery

focus | malt 44- Why an increasing number of breweries are turning to craft maltsters to complement their malt bills and aid brand differentiation

crossing continents | ram 58- How brewing remained in London, UK

SCIENCE 67- Diastaticus, best practices and recipe 71- The role foam plays in your beer

Winter 2019



LEAVE IT TO US! "Ordering our equipment through Brewery Trader was a very positive experience. They helped us every step of the way. From the first email we sent asking about equipment to the final installation, they promptly answered ALL our questions and offered knowledgeable guidance. We are very happy with the customer service we received and continue to receive. The brewhouse and fermenters are working great and we've been very happy with the quality of beer we've been producing with this equipment. For the price, you'd be hard pressed to find better value and customer service anywhere." Justin, Gen & Marc Stray Dog Brewing Company


n e ws

Breweries in limbo following DME collapse


he futures of countless breweries, manufacturers and

creditors list include Moosehead Breweries, Labatt,

suppliers across Canada and North America remain

Anchorage Brewing, Maine Beer Company and New

in limbo following the collapse of brewing equipment manufacturer DME. The company, which was one of the most respected brewing equipment manufacturers in North America, was forced to cease operations at the end of November (26th)

Belgium. Secured creditor, The Royal Bank of Canada, is owed $18.1million with interest and costs. Elsewhere, the company’s unsecured creditors are owed $27 million. RBC appointed Alvarez & Marsal as the receiver for

after it was issued an order by the Supreme Court of

DME after the business defaulted on its loan payments.

Prince Edward Island in Canada.

The firm was accepting bids for the business up until 7th

More than 300 staff employed across its Charlottestown and Abbotsford facilities lost their jobs, while it’s almost certain that breweries will lose out on

January in the hope it can resurrect the manufacturer. It’s estimated that DME’s assets total $71.7 million. DME was formed in 2016 following a merger between

significant deposits and balances paid for kit that won’t

two brewery equipment manufacturers, DME Brewing


Solutions based in Charlottetown, PE and Abbotsford,

Key names listed on the company’s unsecured

Brewers Welcome Improvements to Internal Trade


eer Canada says it welcomes to positive signals to

BC-based Newland Systems (NSI).

average in Canada,” said Harford. “Reducing trade barriers and keeping beer affordable is what is needed for Canadian brewers to grow and compete in today’s global economy.”

have come from a recent first ministers’ meeting,

indicating productive steps being taken to consider ways to reduce the barriers that are currently in place in regards to the interprovincial trade of beer, wine and spirits. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau along with his provincial and territorial counterparts agreed they will work together to consult industry and consumers to develop ways to further the sale of beverage alcohol with social responsibility obligations in mind. The Government of Canada indicated it will consider

Redneck Brand aims for perfect beer pairing


edneck Brand, a newly-launched Alberta owned company producing premium grade Alberta grass

fed beef, has said the snack is the perfect pairing for modern Canadian beer. Ethically sourced and responsibly harvested from local

amendments to the Importation of Intoxicating Liquors

farms within the region, Redneck Brand offers generous,

Act to remove the requirement that alcohol moving

thick cuts of ultra lean beef.

from one province to another be sold or consigned to a provincial liquor authority. “There are more than 800 breweries in Canada and

These are carefully sliced and marinated using a coveted, old-fashioned, third generation family recipe consisting of a selected blend of spices & smoke, slow

an estimated 10 million beer drinkers,” said Beer Canada

oven roasted just right to ensure a succulent and tender,

President Luke Harford. “There are many visible and

full-bodied rich taste.

invisible trade barriers for beverage alcohol and today’s

“The perfect pairing of handcrafted beef jerky with

announcement is a good signal that all governments

Canadian brewed craft beer is simply a match made in

understand the economic value of a healthy and growing

heaven. The full-bodies richness of craft beers perfectly

beer category.”

offset Redneck’s robust beef flavours of lightly salted,

A 2018 Conference Board of Canada report states beer is Canada’s most popular alcoholic beverage. Beer is

seasoned eye of round,” the company said. Redneck is also partnering with Canadian craft

very much a local industry – 85% of beer sold in Canada

breweries to produce special limited edition small

is made in Canada. The beer economy contributed $13.6

batches of beer-infused beef jerky blends for fine food

billion to Canada’s GDP in 2016 and supports 149,000


Canadian jobs. “Tax is 47% of the retail price of a case of beer on

Each limited run will be launched at the partnering tap room for patrons to enjoy.

Winter 2019


n e ws

Gateway City Brewery opens in Ontario


ateway City Brewery, a new outfit founded by three

supporting community” led three North Bay friends to

friends, has opened in North Bay, Ontario.

found Gateway City Brewery.

Perreault, and Sully Sullivan, along with the company’s

deep sense of pride for North Bay and want to see their

head brewer John Palko, Gateway City Brewery opened

community grow and flourish. They figured what better

its doors on 29th December.

way to spread that love for their city than with great

Established in North Bay by partners Jeff Hodge, Mike

It has launched with two core brands, a 5.1% number 137 Rye Pale Ale and 11.17 India Session Ale, which comes in at 4.5% ABV. The beers are available in cans from the brewery, and

Founders Hodge, Perreault and Sullivan share a

tasting, fresh craft beer. Rounding out the team is head brewer Palko, a southern Ontario resident who took to the west to learn this craft, earning the head brewer position at Jasper

also on draught at some local bars, restaurants and also

Brewing Co. in picturesque Alberta. John (“JTB”) is eager

the brewery taproom.

to share his delicious craft beer recipes with North Bay

The brewery said a “passion for craft beer and

Forked River Brewing unveils latest beer

and all of Ontario.

Sessions Craft Canning & West Coast Canning will look to provide sales and technical support for Ska Fabrication’s products toCanadian breweries and


orked River Brewing has releases a new beer that gives a nod tribute to iconic Canadian rock band, The

Pursuit of Happiness. The Pursuit of Hoppiness (4.8% abv) is a session IPA named in honour of the aforementioned group. It

coincides with the 30th anniversary of the band's debut album, Love Junk. "Love hops? Pouring with a “beautiful white” head, this session IPA showcases the many flavours and aromas of the SEVEN different hops used in this beer. Dry, with citrus aromatics and a clean resiny hop finish and 4.8% abv so

beverage distributors beginning in January of 2019.

Bow River Brewing opens in Calgary


ow River Brewing, based in Calgary, has opened its doors.

The company, founded by Ian and Beatrice Binmore,

kicked off with retail beer sales in November, and then opened its taproom midway through last month. The brewery has started off by offering consumers four

you can enjoy a few while you bust out the TPOH tapes

brands. These include Scared Rabbit Hoppy Pale Ale,

and CDs!" the brewery explained.

Calgary Ale, Athabasca Wit, and RiverFest Lager.

Sessions Craft Canning & West Coast Canning sign distribution deal with SKA-Fabricating

Bow River Brewing described Scared Rabbit as: "Some like it hoppier. An India Pale Ale that represents the proud brewing traditions of the Pacific North West. "It is a well hopped pale ale, full bodied, unfiltered and just darn tasty. While driving in a snowstorm a rabbit,


xpanding in the Canadian canned beverage market,

chased by an owl, appeared in our headlights. Because of

Durango, CO-based Ska Fabricating has announced

our presence the rabbit "hopped" safely away.

a joint distribution deal with Vancouver, BC-based West

"Later that night we tasted our freshly brewed IPA and

Coast Canning (WCC) & Toronto, ON-based Sessions

the name of the new beer became Scared Rabbit Hoppy

Craft Canning (SCC).

Pale Ale."

"We have worked closely with the teams at SCC &

Elsewhere, Calgary Ale showcases the flavors that

WCC the past few years and feel they are the perfect

helped start the craft brewery movement in North

partner to distribute our products across Canada.

America. It is a rich Northern California Pale Ale with a

They already have strong relationships with breweries

wonderful Cascade Hop flavor that does not overwhelm.

and beverage companies across the country. Most

" Calgary Ale is named after Calgary our home city

importantly they are well versed in Ska Fab equipment

located where the Bow River and Elbow River meet," the

having many of our products currently in use for their own

brewery, which is based at 5769 4th Street SE in Calgary,

operations”, said Jim Mackay, CEO of Ska Fabricating.



Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

a dv e rTo r i A l

L akeside

P rocess

C ontrols

Not just automation solutions anymore Operating in today’s highly-competitive brewery industry has a handful of challenges. Production efficiency is paramount yet difficult to achieve with the rising cost of resources, increased regulation, tighter brand restrictions, and a lack of operational flexibility. Helping find solutions to these challenges, Lakeside Process Controls, a member of the Emerson Impact Partner Network, offers brewers instrumentation supported by state-of-the-art control systems to ensure your brewery is always at the top of its game.


Serving the Beverage Sector


akeside has a service-based approach to designing, building and integrating custom processing solutions. Continuing to grow with the

segment and offering innovative processing solutions for breweries is a priority. By leveraging Emerson’s global experience and technology, Lakeside wants to foster long-term, mutually beneficial relationships, all complete with exceptional local service.

Clean In Place


epeatable, documented, safe and efficient Clean In Place practices are becoming increasingly

or more than 65 years, Lakeside has been recognized for providing customers with

paramount in todays growing craft segment.

At Lakeside, they understand how important this part

reliable, innovative automation solutions,

of your business is. With that in mind, you should ask

services and support.

yourself the following questions:

Operating as a member of the Emerson

u Repeatable – If you do not have equipment

Impact Partner Network, Lakeside is the locally-

that confirms your SOP's are met and that ensures

accessible, singular point of contact for leveraging the full

consistent cleaning, then how can you troubleshoot

breadth of Emerson’s integrated solutions and expertise

properly when the product that’s gone through that

in Central Canada.

system didn’t turn out precisely as intended?

Lakeside operates across seven facilities in Canada –

u Documented – Do you have records to review your

Mississauga, Winnipeg, Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Guelph

processes and make educated decisions? Having

and Sarnia. The company’s long-term collaborative

these records is becoming increasingly important in

relationship with Emerson certifies Lakeside to deliver the

today's information-driven age.

highest level of customer support for its proven solutions,

u Safe – There is potential risk from chemical dilution

capabilities, local accessibility and consistent engineering

and handling to the physical connections that are to be

practices. With access to a vast network of locally

made to complete a CIP circuit. How can these risks

managed inventory and readily available OEM parts and

be mitigated?

products, Lakeside can ensure fast and efficient order

u Efficient – How much time are your employees/co-


workers currently spending on this process and could

Over the last few years Lakeside, which has always serviced a select group of Food and Beverage customers,

that time be better utilized elsewhere? A well designed and executed CIP protects your

has invested in resources and expertise to expand its

people, your brand and your bottom line. Lakeside would

reach, specifically into the Brewing and Alcohol Beverage

be happy to review your current process and discuss the


Return On Investment (ROI) at your convenience.


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada



Case study: Deschutes Brewery benefits from Emerson Automation technologies For more than a decade, Oregon craft brewer Deschutes has employed Emerson’s intuitive automation solutions to help sustain rapid industry growth. The brewer has leveraged Emerson hardware, software, and services to streamline automation, making it easier to expand production from 100,000 to more than 300,000 barrels annually. The growth will continue for Deschutes at their new facility, to be constructed in Roanoke, Virginia. As Deschutes grew during the last 15 years, management required an automation solution that would allow increased production without distracting focus from producing the highestquality beers. The organization turned to Emerson to help standardize process control. Advanced automation solutions from Emerson helped Deschutes reduce malt delivery time by 24 percent, providing the potential for an additional 450 barrels daily. “We love making beer, but as the brewery grew, so did our need to automate to


a dv e rTo r i A l

allow the brewmasters to concentrate on brewing. Emerson’s intimate understanding of our automation system hardware and organizational goals helped us find solutions to keep pace with rapidly increasing demand for our craft beers,” said Brian Faivre, brewmaster of operations. “Better visibility into process control strategy has allowed us to refine our processes to produce consistent quality beer, helping us quickly become a leader in the craft brewing industry.” Deschutes adopted Emerson’s DeltaV™ standard configuration library, delivering control modules that are preconfigured to operate with standard software structure across a variety of basic operating facilities. These standardized control modules provided streamlined process control and human-centered design principles to bring the most important and relevant information to operators’ eyes, speeding decisions to ensure optimal batch quality and efficiency. In addition, Emerson’s Rosemount instrumentation feeds the DeltaV system vital level, temperature, and flow information to ensure optimal batch quality.

Winter 2019


a dv e rTo r i A l

L akeside

P rocess


C ontrols

"Benchmarking is a process that allows a company to compare current production data - like cost, cycle time,


productivity and quality - both to its past performance and

he benefits of automation are well known, right? Automation helps breed quality, by ensuring

to industry best practices,” Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

a safe product that represents the brand

appropriately. It promotes consistency, allowing you to standardize your product regardless of the size of the system. Labour efficiencies benefit you allowing your

Benchmarking is important to your brewery for the following reasons. It allows you to: u Strategically plan OPEX and CAPEX in line with YOUR facilities culture

Brewmaster/Head Brewer/Brewer to work on different

u Measure the impact of changes (ROI)

tasks and initiatives while brewing.

u Identify strong practices and market accordingly

Automation improves the quality of data acquisition

Look out for a full comprehensive guide to our Top

with proper data logging to base key product and

Quartile Project in the next issue of Brewers Journal

business decisions on, while at the same time increasing


production, getting more of your product to market while using the same base equipment. Suprisingly, these benefits are easily attainable. As Technology evolves at a rapid pace efficiencies in manufacturing are applied to significantly reduce total

Contact us

cost of ownership Lakeside can help identify your pain points in the Brewhouse, Cellar or other areas such as filtration and utilities. They can help you create an action list to alleviate these issues whether as a single project or in stages, prioritized accordingly to the fiscal and perceived ROI.

Top Quartile Initiative


akeside Process Controls is bringing Emerson’s

If you would like to discuss any of your component and automation needs or are interested in learning more about our products and services, one of our product and solution experts would be happy to assist you. Paddy Finnegan Business Unit Manager – Food and Beverage Cell 905 299 1625

extensive benchmarking expertise to the Canadian Craft Brewing industry, providing Canadian

Visit our website at

Brewers information to leverage into strategic growth and top quartile performance, similar to how the Brewers Association does in the USA.


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

C ollaborations

C o mm e n t

The value of collaborations Collaborative brewing gives the participants so much - learning, experience, or heck, just some old fashioned fun. And Ren Navarro, founder of Beer. Diversity. wants to see many more in 2019 and beyond. by Ren Navarro


ol-lab-o-ra-tion Noun: The action of working with someone to produce

or create something In this case, it’s the creation of beer. And partnerships. And community. 2018 for me, was the year of the beer collaboration. Since launching Beer.Diversity. in April, I’ve been looking for ways to build and create more within the beer community. Again and again, it’s come out that the thing to create was - wait for it - beer. The elixir that brings us together. Or in extreme cases (hello, buck a beer), divides us. Collaborations aren’t new, and they’ll never disappear,

recognized in the beer community. The creation of beer wasn’t a mystery to me (I’m an extremely amateurish home brewer), but the real inner workings of some of my favourite breweries was. Watching people like Erin Broadfoot of Little Beasts Brewing in Whitby, or sweating to keep up with Jeff Manol

yet they always find ways to evolve. Breweries collaborate

of Toronto’s Muddy York Brewing is a fantastic experience

with other breweries, they collaborate with groups like

that you can’t get sitting in the tap room. Working on

Society of Beer Drinking Ladies (of which I’m a co-

a recipe together is an absolute magical moment.

founder, and ex-organizer), Guelph-based Queen of

Collaborations allow for groups of people to get great

Craft, bands - name one, I’m sure they’ve got a beer. Sam

beer and important messages out into the beeriverse

Roberts Band and Spearhead Brewery, anyone?

and beyond. It’s so much more than just beer. It’s about

These collaborations set a multitude of differing

partnerships, strengthening our community and helping

beer styles in front of entirely new audiences. Breweries

those around us. Quite often these beers give back -

introduce their collab partner to their die-hard fans, while

either by sharing the spotlight with a new group of people

the collab partner (beer group, band or me) introduces

(or your future new favourite brewery) or by providing

a brewery and possibly a different beer style to their

donations to local charities.

followers. Collaborations bring so much to the proverbial table.

Collaborative brewing gives the participants so much - learning, experience, or heck, just some old

Non-brewers or occasional brewers have the opportunity

fashioned fun. Things that are mainstays in the craft beer

to get their hands dirty in a production facility (or learn

community, but that so many don't get to experience until

how to press buttons in some cases). But at the end of

they step into the back area of a brewery. Here's to so

the day, groups of people learn more about beer and

many more collaborations in 2019, and all of us, whether

about one another. These brew days bring diverse groups

we be brewers, industry, or just beer connoisseurs having

of people together and sometimes help to highlight

the chance to experience the coming together of diverse

marginalised people who could and should be more

folks and beers.

Winter 2019


C o mm e n t

C raft

B eer

C lubs

More harm than help? Engaging in a partnership with the right craft beer club can certainly help to accelerate the growth of your brewery’s market share, but it can also hurt it. If you aren’t partnered with a craft beer club, why not? If you are, what are they doing for you to help you grow? Is the reward worth more than the risk and are they more help, or more harm, asks Sam Puntillo and Paul Liberti from Small Batch Dispatch.

BrewBox features three breweries in a 4L format, Amazing Clubs features 2-3 breweries and 12 of varied and unspecified size formats, Savvy Hip Hops features a single brewery with varying size formats. Elsewhere, Canada Craft Club features international and domestic craft brews in varying size formats, while Craft Tapp features a single brewery each month with varying size formats. An obvious benefit of partnering with a craft beer club is the instant boost to sales, however there are many other benefits as well, namely; brand awareness, brand association, and an alternate distribution channel. Essentially, these clubs should be seen, and legally act as, and outside sales representative for your brewery.

by Sam Puntillo & Paul Liberti

The big difference is that each unit sold is going to an individual consumer who may have never heard of your brewery before. This awareness is valuable in and of itself,


our brewery may or may not be partnered with one

however, primary data collected by SBD indicates that

already, but you’ve surely heard of them. Craft beer

71% of customers enjoy their beers with peers as opposed

clubs can be a great partner to you by moving inventory

to alone, further exacerbating the amount of mouths your

and building awareness, but did you ever think of how

beer gets to grace. Taking this one step further, clubs with

they could be hurting you? The increase in sales can be

large digital and social media presences can provide a

a great lift but do these partners shine the right light on

boost to your brewery’s as well.

your product? Is their brand built on the same pillars as

Clubs that create content around your brewery should be held in high regard. An important factor to look at, is

yours? Are you featured among breweries of the same

the geography of their subscriber base. If your brewery

calibre? Is the art you make put on the same pedestal

is in Toronto and the entirety of the club’s subscribers

as cheap imitations? In the rapidly expanding craft beer

are in the Greater Toronto Area, is the benefit of brand

industry, is the risk posed by partnering with craft beer

awareness as impactful as a club with broader scope?

clubs greater than the reward? This industry outlook

Craft beer clubs also provide the brand boosting effect

will bring to light the considerations you should make

of association when customers look at their catalog of

when deciding if, and if so, who, will keep your brewery’s

past curations. Clubs like SBD, BrewBox, and Amazing

interests in mind.

clubs that feature multiple breweries in each curation can

A quick google search of “craft beer club” will bring

expedite this association since your beer will share the

up 5 different clubs on the first page of results, with even

same spotlight with another brewery (SBD for example,

more appearing on the subsequent pages. Small Batch

features as many as 8 every month). While this effect is

Dispatch (further referred to as SBD) launched in May of

less powerful with clubs shipping only one brewery per

2018 and has since been joined by Craft Tapp and Hops

iteration, simply being held in the same portfolio as other

on Board. SBD aims to improve upon the offerings of

esteemed breweries can help boost the perceived value

more tenured clubs, such as; BrewBox, Amazing Clubs,

of your brand with end customers. Keep an eye open

Savvy Hip Hops, and Canada Craft Club. As a disclaimer, it

for clubs with exclusive portfolios and partnerships with

should be mentioned that this is not an all-encompassing

esteemed breweries.

list of beer clubs in Ontario, just a summary of Google’s first page results. The difference between their respective services is as

clubs is the added distribution channel. Inevitably, there will be consumers that prefer to shop online, or find it inconvenient to shop at one boutique brewery at a time.

follows. Small Batch Dispatch features eight different beers from no less than seven breweries in a 4L format monthly.


A tertiary benefit of partnerships with craft beer

Winter 2019

Clubs offer an avenue to reach customers who never would have reached you.

Brewers Journal Canada


BrewBox, and by the time this article is published,



C o mm e n t

pleasant. Going further, do the brands you're associated

SBD, even offers an online store for customers to pick

with share the same core competencies? If you are being

and choose, adding yet an extra layer of distribution and

shipped alongside other breweries, do you respect these

access to customers with different shopping preferences.

breweries and wish to have your product compared to

An added value to the end customer is the benefit of


choosing beers from multiple breweries with only one

This is especially important for clubs that offer a

shipping charge, instead of visiting multiple online

variety of breweries every month. These are questions

stores and paying even more for shipping. An important

that should be asked and answered by both yourself and

consideration, calling back to the geographical scope of

prospective beer club alike. Does the club operate as a

the club, is the extra distribution channel valuable if they

hobby or are the owners as passionate about beer and

only service your own local community?

moving the industry forward as you are?

The benefits to partnership are both tangible and

Every province has its own liquor control boards and

attractive, however there are two sides to every coin.

therefore unique liquor trade laws. Even provinces with on

While a partnership can certainly boost your brand, it can

the less heavily regulated end of the spectrum, there is

do harm as well. The boost to sales is certainly welcome,

still much ground to be gained by the craft beer industry.

but once the beer leaves your brewery, what happens to

Beer Canada published in 2017 that craft beer market

it? Will it be shipped promptly, or sat on for months before

share was 7.6% of all Canadian beer consumption.

hitting an end consumer's fridge? Is your product being properly distributed?

Engaging in a partnership with the right craft beer club can certainly help to accelerate the growth of your

Is that NEIPA you brewed going to taste the way

brewery’s market share, but it can also hurt it. If you aren’t

you intended it to by the time it hits the glass? Barncat

partnered with a craft beer club, why not? If you are, what

Artisan Ales of Cambridge, Ontario releases a new IPA

are they doing for you to help you grow? Is the reward

every week, only available in the tap room or growler fills.

worth more than the risk? Are they more help, or more

Have you ever had a 3-month-old hop bomb? It's not


Winter 2019


C o mm e n t

D istribution

Finding that perfect fit

Providing the logistics for the fast-paced and ever-changing craft beer industry is not for the faint of heart, but thankfully the sector is up to the task, says Rob Smith VP of sales and marketing at TNG. by ROB SMITH


s everyone who is reading this magazine knows, the craft beer Industry is one of the best industries

for developing innovative products to cover off every possible segment of consumers. In order for the industry to do this, there must be many different types of people focused on developing highly customized beers, and then developing a just as customized marketing approach, to properly fill the need of all the different niche segments. As almost any brewer

Brewer, meet logistics partner From talking with different brewers, the key common things that almost all of them are looking for in their logistics partner are: u Strong service culture u Professional organization that will represent their brand well u At least weekly delivery schedule that consistently executes at high level of quality u Competitive prices u Manageable payment terms u Motivated to grow sales u Fairly straight forward charges that they can effectively manage

can attest, this takes an immense amount of effort and focus to achieve. The challenge with the nature of the industry described above is there is also the messy business

logistics partner(s). The trick is finding someone that

of getting the beer to the consumer across a very

gives excellent service at a very good price and that

large geographical area. It is impossible to do this

brewers feel are a real partner with helping them grow

cost effectively and maintain frequent enough delivery

their business. Now across Canada there are several

schedules to not lose sales - unless you have significant

companies that fill this need for brewers – however at

density. However no craft brewery has enough density

varying success levels.

beyond perhaps their local town/area to have a good business model for wide scale distribution. As a result almost every brewery has one or more


Winter 2019

In terms of a logistics partner for a craft brewery, there are really three groups that have emerged as options: 1) Mass Brewers such as BDL in Western Canada; 2)

Brewers Journal Canada

D istribution

C o mm e n t

Established Provincial Liquor and Wine Distributors often

area these three majors cover. All three of these majors

one in every province such as the LCBO in Ontario; and

are making significant investments to expand their

3) Professional Logistics Organization that focuses on

logistics capabilities with beer and all seem to be growing

Craft Beer. There are many other general carriers moving


beer across the country, but these organizations are just

The Brewers Journal had the chance to tour through

moving beer from a brewery to a warehouse. The three

TNG/Prologix 100,000 square foot beer warehouse

groups we have highlighted deliver the beer to the retail

recently and one could immediately see the significant


number of craft breweries they perform services for. In

Although the first two groups do offer very good delivery prices, for most of the brewers the Brewers

this article are a few pictures from their operations. Over the next few years it will be interesting to see

Journal talked to, they do have some misgivings about

how the logistics network continues to develop for craft

these players covering off any of their other points.

brewers. All signs are, that more services and better

However it should be noted that some of the largest craft

data sharing will quickly be coming on board to help the

brewers are currently using these players for servicing

craft brewers better manage their business. As we were

their non licensee business.

touring TNG’s facility they were testing new hand-held

In regards to the last group, there seems to be three

devices they are rolling out to their drivers, so brewers

companies that have emerged as the leaders: Direct Tap

can view their Proof of Delivery immediately after the

that operates solely in BC; Cold Haus that operates solely


in Ontario; and TNG (has some different logistics brands

This is the first article where the Brewers Journal

across the province, Prologix in Ontario and Acculogix in

has taken a bit of a dive into the logistics world of craft

Western Canada) that is a North American wide logistics

brewers. We have come to realize, providing the logistics

company but only has their beer division operating in

for the fast paced ever changing craft beer industry is not

Ontario and Atlantic Canada at this point.

for the faint of heart. Thankfully our industry has grown

There are other players in this space but none come close to handling the amount of brewers and geographic

to a size, that professional logistics organizations are now focused on servicing our brewer’s needs.

Winter 2019


C o mm e n t

E mployment

L aw

Workplace Policies on Recreational Cannabis The legalization of recreational cannabis is relatively new, so is the interplay with this recreational substance and the workplace. For this reason, employers should also be prepared to have the workplace policies they create to address this matter revised on an as needed and ongoing basis as new unchartered waters are addressed in the Courts, explains Kyle D. Burgis LL.B. employment Lawyer at Minken Employment Lawyers.

reasonably discipline an employee if they do not follow the requirements of the policy, up to and including termination of an employee’s employment for cause. With the recent legalization of recreational cannabis, there has been a large amount of discussion as to how this may impact employers’ workplaces and how to address the possible use of this now legal substance at the workplace. This concern may in part stem from the ability for an individual to smoke recreational cannabis wherever smoking cigarettes is permitted (subject to local municipal bylaws), as well as the concern of having employees impaired at the workplace and the safety risk that stems from it.

by Kyle D. Burgis

illegal activity (again subject to local municipal bylaws), by


ot only can they provide clarification to an

returning to the workplace impaired from the substance

employer’s employees with respect to permissible

an employee may expose the employer to liability as well

conduct at the workplace, but if they are drafted properly and properly enforced, they can be used to


While an employee who leaves the workplace and smokes recreational cannabis is not engaging in any

Winter 2019

as pose safety risks to their co-workers and customers. One way to address the matter prior to any issues

Brewers Journal Canada

E mployment

L aw

C o mm e n t

policy may be more difficult than the enforcement of a cell phone policy. With a recreational cannabis policy, an

Policy wording

employer should ensure that they are properly enforcing its terms while also ensuring that they are not breaching

If the policy is drafted correctly, it should: u Prevent an employee from being able to consume or be under the influence of recreational cannabis at the workplace or while performing their employment duties away from the workplace; u Not impede upon any Human Rights with respect to medical cannabis or addiction to recreational cannabis; and, u Inform an employee how they will be disciplined in the event that they breach the terms of the policy.

an employee’s Human Rights, which can be tricky depending on the circumstances. Despite this difficulty, the enforcement of the policy is an integral part of the process. Therefore, employers should seek the assistance of an Employment Lawyer in regards to the creation and enforcement of such a policy, as one misstep may permit conduct at the workplace that is otherwise not desirable or possibly expose an employer to an allegation of breaching an employee’s Human Rights. With the legalization of recreational cannabis still relatively new, so too is the interplay with this now legalized recreational substance and the workplace. For this reason, employers should also be prepared to have the workplace policies they create to address this matter

arising at the workplace is to put into place a policy

revised on an as needed and ongoing basis as new

addressing recreational cannabis use and outline what is

unchartered waters are addressed in the Courts.

and is not acceptable. However, creating this document may not be as easy as you may think. An employer needs to ensure that the document

To stay on top of this area, an employer should seek the assistance of an Employment Lawyer to ensure that their workplace policy is up to date, consistent with the

they are creating is not impeding on any Human Rights

law, and continues to protect from circumstances that an

with respect to an employee’s use of medical cannabis,

employer does not want occurring at the workplace.

which is drastically difference from the recreational use of the substance, or discriminating against an employee who has an addiction to recreational cannabis, while

Brewery Division

also providing reasonable discipline for employees who contravene its terms. Such a policy can be a standalone policy addressing this specific topic, or form part of an existing workplace policy, such as prior existing drug and alcohol policies. However, the creation of a workplace policy addressing recreational cannabis is just the beginning of the matter. The enforcement of the policy is just as important. Employers must ensure that they enforce the terms and requirements of the policy at the workplace and follow through with any discipline as outlined in the policy

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in response to an employee’s breach of its terms. If an employer does not enforce the terms of a policy, then the policy may not carry much weight and may be difficult to rely on in the future. Think of a situation where an employer has a workplace policy stating that no employees are permitted to use their cell phone during working hours. The existence of such a policy may be necessary and beneficial to employee efficiency at the workplace, however, if everyone is walking around the workplace


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nothing is being done about it, then the policy will likely be very difficult to enforce in the future. Of course, the enforcement of a recreational cannabis

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Winter 2019



C o mm e n t


Reasons to forecast Forecasting capability within a management software will help your entire team have more fluid communication by keeping everyone informed, argues Josh McKinney, the CEO of Ekos.

inventory warning - allowing you to correct your mistake before it's even made. Create accurate purchase orders Do you find yourself making semi-educated guesses on what raw materials need to be ordered for your next round of batches? If you're ending up with the wrong quantity of ingredients, forecasting tools help. By planning out your batches, forecasting ingredient usage based on

by Josh Mckinney

recipes – allows you to dig into the numbers to see the exact batch associated with the transactions.


ave you been wondering all year what is in your

Break down transactions by month, week, or day

inventory? Been frustrated when you’re working on

Sometimes we need a deeper dive into information –

a batch and realize you don’t have all the ingredients in

management software will give your team that power. You

stock? Is your sales team busting at the bit to know what

can drill down into month, week, or day to see a targeted

they can sell in the upcoming months? If you said ‘yes’ to

list of data that is relevant in that moment. Providing

any of these, your team needs to start forecasting in 2019.

valuable data for your entire team focused on specific

Forecasting is essential to help your team continue to

information that relates directly to their responsibilities.

grow helping decrease delays. It can be done manually, but the most effective way is through a software platform

Empower your sales team

- saving your team time and money. Here are the ways

When your production team plans batches and creates

that forecasting will help your team stay proactive.

packaging plans, your sales team can automatically see what finished goods inventory they have available to

Real-time communication between departments – without

sell - down to the date. Since your sales team is on the


road a lot, make sure the software you choose is mobile.

Everyone is busy and we don't always have time for face-

Allowing your team to make accurate customer invoices

to-face meetings to discuss what's coming down the

on the go - even if they're in the field.

pipeline. Forecasting tools within a brewery management

Forecasting capability within a management

software allows your team to see real-time information

software will help your entire team have more fluid

on ingredient quantities, WIP volume, and finished goods

communication, by keeping everyone informed.


Hopefully your team is already using a brewery management system, making your next steps digging

Reminders & alerts for low inventory levels

deeper into the platform on how to optimize this area for

Forecasting tools will alert your team when quantities

your team. If not, Ekos Brewmaster would love to help.

are in the negative or reaching a low threshold. They also

Their brewery management system capitalizes on all the

give you a high level of where you may hit an insufficient

above elements – helping your team make more.


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

trusted by

C o mm e n t


The Art of Selling It really doesn’t matter whose sales philosophies we should follow. What will truly inspire success is a vision of growth and partnership. And that means that all sales people should be inherently connected with the goals and aspirations of the brewery, explains Roger Mittag, founder of Thirst for Knowledge Inc and creator of the Prud’homme Beer Certification program. by roger mittag


product that has been crafted with care and attention needs an equal amount of professionalism and

thought when selling it. To be honest, I am shocked and dismayed at how business is being done in our industry these days. Not only do we need to have a comprehensive understanding of the general category of beer, we need to be able to discuss the merits of our products with any potential customer. It boggles my mind to see so many inexperienced sales people plying their trade in the beer industry. It’s one thing to love beer and all that it brings to our social experiences; it’s quite another thing to strategically understand how to sell beer. Breweries need to hire passion and teach skills. This whole concept of commodity selling has to stop at some point. In this concept, beer no longer has an individual

Steps to follow u Understand why your brewery is in business. What are they all about? Where do they want to be when they grow up? What are the annual sales objectives? Do they have any unique characteristics that would endear them to a customer / consumer? u Define your territory. What are the geographical boundaries of your sales territory? How many on-premise accounts? How many retail accounts? u What defines a sales call? A face to face visit? A phone call? A visit with the customer to the brewery? u How many calls a day? Normally, this should range in between 6-10 but it all depends on the customer. u Call Schedules/Reports. These should always be forward looking. You should clearly know where you are going for the next month. Sales managers who want weekly reports on what you’ve done and where you’ve been are looking in the rear-view mirror. This behaviour is old fashioned and reflects a mistrust of the employee. It is much more valuable to coach and counsel on future prospects than keeping tabs on where you’ve been.

personality – it’s all about price, discounts and what’s new. The more we go down this rabbit hole, the further away from true selling we venture. If we open a door with a deal, we will have no where to go but down. Selling by

“From the time you get up in the morning until

price or rebates does nothing to establish a relationship

the time you go to bed at night, you are negotiating,

with the customer. It only opens a gateway to greed. I

communicating, persuading and influencing, trying to

urge all sales people to have the pride to say ‘NO’.

get people to cooperate with you to accomplish the

Sales people should be just that; professionals who

things that you want them to accomplish. So, the pivotal

spend time selling, marketing and growing brands. Sales

question with regard to selling is not if you are doing it,

people should not be a keg delivery service nor should

but if you are good at it.” - Brian Tracy

they inherently be collection agents. All of these activities

It really doesn’t matter whose sales philosophies we

remove a sales person away from doing what they really

should follow. What will truly inspire success is a vision

should be doing – selling.

of growth and partnership. All sales people should be


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada


C o mm e n t

Steps to a sales call u Planning. We need to create a call schedule so that we have a roadmap of sales calls. Waking up every day wondering where to go is a disaster waiting to happen. Create an objective for every call you make. Walking in unprepared will result in a negative experience in the long run. u Introduce yourself. Everyone you meet at the customer is important. Make sure you explain who you are and what brewery you represent. u Assess. When we walk through the door, everything you see and hear is important to understand why this customer should be proud to carry your beers. Don’t be afraid to ask questions from the bartenders or servers. Ask what’s hot, what’s not. Look at their food offerings. Leave no stone unturned. When you are meeting with the key stakeholder, ask a ton of questions. This will help to evaluate their needs and whether you even want to be a part of this business. ⎫u The Sale. This requires a lot of thought. Don’t rush this. Sometimes, it is wiser to just step back and re-evaluate. Once you have all the information you need, create a thoughtful proposal. u Closing. This could be as simple as agreeing to meet again. Make sure you have some form of commitment before you leave. u Evaluate. How did the call go? Was it successful? What could you do better next time?

inherently connected with the goals and aspirations of the brewery and every step we make should echo the direction of the company. There are some simple steps to ensure that you are driving business forward. Let’s all bring professionalism back and create great sales opportunities. This industry has become incredibly competitive and we collectively have to make it better. Roger Mittag will host a one day sales training workshop at Junction Craft Brewing in Toronto: How to Succeed Selling Craft Beer., 10am-5pm (with a beer break)

Winter 2019


C o mm e n t

T rends

What people are thinking 2019 will no doubt be one of change, but what is certain is craft brewers will continue to push forward in this tough market and brew some awesome beers, says Jeff Rogowsky, chief executive officer at Sessions Craft Canning.

owner of Steel & Oak Brewing Co from New Westminster, British Columbia. Scott Denyer, head brewer of Ottawa’s Dominion City Brewing Co, says: “We will see new spins on old classics. Pilsners, Kolsch, Vienna lagers but with an American hop edge. More Stouts with flavour variants will be here. “A lot of brewers are investing more cash and time into barrel aged beers, so it should be really interesting to see what comes out this year. Hazy IPA's aren't going

by Jeff Rogowsky

anywhere.” "Beer/Wine hybrids are hot. Matt & Jason at Burdock Brewery in Toronto were early pioneers here, and


018 was an interesting year for beer in Canada. In

we're seeing it a lot more lately across North America,”

Ontario we saw many breweries open, a few close

adds Adam Henderson, co-founder of Superflux Beer

and some mergers & acquisitions (primarily with bricks

Company in Vancouver, BC. “As for other things that might

and mortar breweries scooping up contract brands).

catch fire, I am not sure...we're going to make a few stouts

You can now buy beer in select grocery stores which is a big step forward and there was also the buck a beer fiasco which continues to be a step backwards. We saw the mailman start delivering beers from a multitude of craft breweries via their online stores. There were some new styles of beer popping up such

that we're really excited about. So, let's hope stout." For Chris Conway and Christina Coady at Landwash Brewery in Mount Pearl, “crisp is king”. They add: “Right now, we’re focusing on brewing lots of crisp, refreshing beers. This both means a resurgence of classic German styles like Dortmunders, but also

as the Brut IPA (pale, bone dry, highly effervescent) and if

rethinking lighter ales and even IPAs though the addition

you follow the craft brewing world closely you will have

of enzymes to provide low residual sugar and a dry, sharp

likely heard the term “crispy boi’s” to describe light &

finish. From the Bruit IPA, expect Bruit Pale Ales and

refreshing beers. On the opposite side of the spectrum

assertively hopped, dry, clean saisons to take their place

2018 saw more breweries get into barrel aging and it

next to lagers the refreshment kings.”

seems like anything sour is here to stay. With regards to beer in Canada for 2019 it’s anyone’s guess as to what will happen. We know there are more

Iain Hill, co-owner and brewmaster of Strange Fellows Brewing in Vancouver, BC rounds things off. “There may be significant East/West differences

breweries set to open their doors, but does this mean that

in answer to this question, at least in Canada. Overall

some will close? Will another new style of beer look to

modest positive growth in numbers of new breweries

take over the country?

however there will be more closures (or acquisitions of

What’s going to happen when we eventually hit

breweries that would otherwise close) than we have had

peak craft beer capacity in Canada, is there a peak craft

for years,” he explains. “We will continue to see more and

capacity or will we continue to chip away at the market

more sophisticated packaging from smaller brewers. The

share still largely dominated by the big brewers? All I

trend away from glass and into cans will continue and

know is that Canadian craft brewers will continue to push

be strong and this will grow for years until beer in glass is

forward in this tough market and brew up what will surely

more specialized and unique. This change has been very

be some awesome beers.

obvious in North America but has not started in Europe,

I posed the question of what people think will happen in 2019 to a few industry folk and here is what some of them had to say: “I think something everyone will see a lot more of are

but it will. Brewers will worry more about the effects of climate change on ingredient costs.” Hill adds: “Small brewers will make strong beers with much lower finishing gravities than has been normal for

IPAs made with Kveik yeast. It's hazy and depending on

strong beers in the past. I'd like to think we will see a few

the strain it can have huge orange, grapefruit or tropical

less hazy IPAs with typical hop-stand stone fruit character

notes. I know we'll be using it more,” says Jorden Foss,

but I'm not sure about that.”


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

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C o mm e n t

O ntario

C raft

B rewers

A ssociation

We are stronger together Waugh Dane Insurance Brokers joined the Ontario Craft Brewers Association in 2018 and in doing so, has seen that such associations are integral in improving knowledge sharing and business practices across the industry.

of the OCB is to work with all levels of Government to establish and maintain a viable and sustainable operating infrastructure along with access to affordable distribution channels. The government has embarked on a process to review and reform the beverage alcohol system in Ontario. Improving access to beer and wine is the key priority for the Ford government in this process, and they recently released a survey to gauge the opinion of all Ontarians.

by Waugh dane insurance brokers

(insert link here). This will be followed by consultation

ntario Craft Brewers (OCB) is a trade association


retail hours for alcohol for TBS, LCBO, grocery, agency

of 90+ small, independent brewers dedicated

stores, and authorized retailers and the cancellation of the

to making great-tasting, high-quality beer across

three cents per litre tax increase that was scheduled for

the province. The members of the OCB develop and

November 1st.

meetings with all key stakeholders, including the OCB. The Government also recently announced extended

produce hundreds of different brands and styles of

It has thus been a busy time for the OCB at Queen’s

beer using fresh, all-natural ingredients in communities

Park over the last few months, meeting regularly with

throughout Ontario. These craft breweries are in over 110

the Premiers Office, MPPs, and key staff. We have been

communities across the province and in total, there are

communicating the important role of locally owned,

over 270 operating breweries and brewpubs, with another

independent craft breweries to Ontario’s economy, and

estimated 75+ in various planning stages.

the OCB’s key priorities in any system reform.

The OCB was founded in 2003 as the Ontario Small

As such, it is essential local brewers reach out to their

Brewers Association to work collectively on marketing

local MPP(s) now, invite them to the brewery and discuss

and communications programs to promote local

your and the OCB’s priorities for the new system that will

breweries and the craft beer being brewed in Ontario.

be put in place.

Member dues, an Annual Conference and ongoing, proactive opportunities currently fund the OCB. The OCB adopted the name Ontario Craft Brewers and launched their first marketing campaign under that brand in Spring 2005. We chose "Ontario Craft Brewers" as our name, because it speaks to the tradition of care and craftsmanship that we insist upon when brewing our beer. It's taste that we're obsessed with, and taste that

In addition to their ongoing government relations and advocacy efforts, the OCB offers other key benefits to its members, including:

u Research and industry statistics u Communications support u Technical and education programs u Retail channel advocacy u Annual industry conference and tradeshow

distinguishes us from other beers.

Membership types

OCB’s Vision: The OCB will be the unified voice for the Ontario craft beer industry, where craft beer is sustainably produced, readily available, clearly understood, and consistently chosen. The OCB works on many fronts to ensure the interests of its members are put forward to, first and foremost,


he OCB has two main membership types: Full OCB Member and Associate Member. Full OCB Members include operating Ontario

reclaim and retain their rightful place in the Canadian

Craft Breweries, who have voting rights and access to all

brewing industry. As many members are now located in

of OCB’s programs, information, meetings, and more.

both urban and rural areas across Ontario, it is critical to

The Associate Member includes both Contract

always be conscious of the many factors that can impact

Brewers and Ontario Beer Industry Suppliers, Educational

those operating in these diverse markets. In order to do

Institutions and Government Institutions. Contract

this, and as our members have told us, the highest priority

Brewery members do not have voting rights, however


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

O ntario

C raft

B rewers

A ssociation

C o mm e n t

they do have access to all other benefits except for retail/

and special events coverage needs too. They can offer a

marketing programs. Ontario Beer Industry Suppliers

discounted insurance program for all OCB Members and

have no voting rights and they have specified dues and

your employees with significant savings on home and car

benefits as well.

insurance. If that wasn’t enough, they also offer financial

Waugh Dane Insurance Brokers

services, such as life, disability and employee benefits coverage. Many suppliers can benefit from joining the Associate Membership program as it is the best way to


augh Dane Insurance Brokers is an Ontariobased, full service brokerage that joined

get in front of the brewers in Ontario.

Ontario Craft Brewers Conference

the OCB as an Associate Member this year

and they also were the Gold Sponsor of our 2018 Ontario Craft Brewers Conference. In conjunction with the OCB, they are very pleased to introduce a comprehensive, discounted business insurance program for Ontario craft


ne of the OCB’s ongoing objectives is to bring together the industry’s top brewers, decisionmakers, thought leaders and supporters at an

brewers. They have already given some great benefits

annual conference. A trade show, education sessions,

to OCB’s members such as completing a comparison

networking, breakout workshops, and craft beer highlight

for the OCB Board Members on their current policies,

the show. Key statistics this year included: 1,100 registered

which generated savings from 10-30% off their existing

attendees; 112 breweries, cideries and distillers; and 180


exhibitors from Canada, US and Europe. This year’s event

They can also provide brewery Directors and Officers coverage, handle customs and excise bonds issues,

also marked the Conference’s first two-day affair, with the 2019 event being held in Niagara Falls on October 28-29.

Winter 2019



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M uskoka

B rewery

m e e t

th e

b r e w e r

Patience is a virtue In an age of frenetic beer release schedules, launching the first addition to your core range in more than four years is something of a lesser seen approach to business. But playing the long game in only releasing a new beer when it’s been dialled-in, and when the time is right, is the Muskoka Brewery way. And their beer is all the better for it.

Craft Brewers (OCB), proposed changes to the Small Beer Manufacturer’s Tax credit, which when passed, will positively impact Ontario craft breweries, empowering them to grow their operations, create more jobs and expand to new markets – both domestically and internationally. For Muskoka Brewery, the improved tax credit, as well as a substantial grant awarded by the Ministry of Economic Development, presented the opportunity to invest in its growth and expansion. “The renewed tax credit wasn’t just good for Muskoka

by Tim Sheahan

Brewery, it’s good for Ontario craft beer. As a pioneer in the industry, we know there are significant hurdles to


reach profitability,” says Lewin. “This improved tax credit

are all pointers that signify success. But as Lewin enters

increase the brewery’s capacity and continuously

the 8th year of his tenure at the Bracebridge brewery,

improve the quality of its beer through new, cutting-edge

he’s as eager as ever for Muskoka to make its mark on

technology and equipment.

odd Lewin, president of Ontario’s Muskoka

will remove a major barrier to growth and help small

Brewery, doesn’t do things by halves. But

breweries get over significant hurdles.”

when you see what you’re doing is working,

With this longer runway to grow and succeed, the

and working well, then why would you look

company has invested $5 million in the brewery’s

to do things otherwise?

operations, the largest capital expansion in its near 22-

Year-on-year growth, a team that’s swelled from 30 to

130 in seven years, and an established core range of beer

year history. These funds were earmarked to help the business

the Canadian brewing landscape. And he knows that the

It also supports an expanded and enhanced retail

team behind the Muskoka name is integral, no essential,

store and taproom experience to solidify Muskoka as a

to that success.

destination brewery for locals, cottagers, day-trippers and

“Call it a cliché, but we work hard and we play hard,” explains Lewin. He’s happy to roll out such effective platitudes

tourists. The multi-million dollar spend allowed the brewery to invest in a new canning line, catering for the shift from

because as the brewery shuts for Christmas, the team has

bottling to canning its produce. Such an investment was

planned its workload so inventory levels are as expected

a no-brainer when you crunch the figures. Five years

and his colleagues can enjoy some well-earned time off.

ago, 50% of Muskoka’s beers were bottled and 50% were

“I’m a firm believer that you benefit from the culture you help create. And when you’re surrounded by such hard-working, talented individuals, immersing yourself in

canned. Now that’s 90/10 in favour of cans, so a new machine, supplied by Krones, was a necessity. Two older machines could can at a rate of 30cpm and

a positive, productive environment like we have here is

60cpm respectively, but the Krones model offers output

very easy indeed,” he says.

speeds up to 240cpm. A true step change.

Lewin is modest, yet determined. Muskoka enters 2019

“We are very happy with it,” says Lewin. “We conducted

off the back of productive, successful 12 months both for

a great deal of research on the options available to us,

the business, and the beers that business makes.

but we wanted to make a statement and opt for a system

Since 2016, the brewery has worked in partnership

that would do well for Muskoka. Lots of breweries are

with the Ontario Craft Brewers Association to advocate for

putting a pause on such investments, but we wanted to

changes to the Small Beer Manufacturer’s Tax Credit and

move on, put our foot back out there and show people

help craft breweries, like itself, grow.

we believe in the beer we are making, and we believe in

With the introduction of last year’s budget, the Government of Ontario in collaboration with the Ontario

this business” The investment in machinery is a big step for any

Winter 2019


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brewery, especially when it’s carried out during the hectic summer months. In Lewin’s own words, summer was a “tough” time to undertake such a move, and it inevitably disrupted the business. But the long-term benefits are far greater as a result. “It was a big moment for Muskoka Brewery, small businesses and for Ontario beer drinkers. It means better beer, more choice and that Canadians’s favourite breweries will be able to stick around,” says Lewin. “As a proudly independent brewery, we feel a tremendous amount of pride that our investment will stay in Ontario and support our local economy and community.” Lewin’s pride in the Ontario community has only grown since joining the business back in 2011. He came on board with a business run by Gary McMullen, who founded Muskoka back in 1996 and Bob MacDonald, the majority partner who joined the Muskoka cause 12 years later in 2008. As vice-president of sales and marketing, Lewin was part of a team that knew it needed to update its approach to business, broaden its sales team and ensure its beer could be enjoyed further across Ontario and Canada as a whole. Lewin, who has spent 13 years within sales and marketing at Molson Coors, knew he could apply his experience to Muskoka and grow the business by grabbing “low-hanging fruit” and build its client and customer base as a result. Growth of close to 25% year-on-year growth has been achieved in the eight years since Lewin joined the business. He’s acutely aware of the team effort involved, especially with the brewery’s founder McMullen departing in early 2017. That move paved the way for Lewin to become the brewery’s president, a role he continues to relish. “The timing of moving to Muskoka was good for me and the business, and we’ve thankfully grown in these recent years,” says Lewin. “But as you continue to grow and scale up, it’s important to acknowledge that delivering that percentage growth each year becomes harder. You just need to concentrate on what you’re doing, and try and do it well." Lewin admits that growth in the last eight years correlated with a period in which 30 or so breweries operated in Ontario. Now that number is closer to 300. But just as the number of breweries has grown so has Muskoka, its team, and its brand. "Our culture and team has allowed us to build, improve and maintain our vision,” he tells us. “It’s hard when you feel like a tight-knit group of 20-30 people, and then over the years, that becomes 130 people. It’s important to make sure that everyone feels welcome, and that they are part of the team.” Muskoka produces its beers on a 70hl brewhouse,


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focusing on five core brands that comprise 95% of its volume. While Lewin enjoys the experimentation aspect of brewing, he reiterates that the focus from day one has been on developing a “real brand” and ensuring stability and security as a result. With that in mind, its newest beer, Ebb & Flow, recently became the outfit’s first addition to its core range since 2014. Complementing favourites such as Cream Ale, Detour and Mad Tom IPA, the new beer is a low ABV session number. But instead of being a Session Pale, Muskoka has instead chosen to produce a 2.4% Session Sour. According to the brewery, you’ll pick up a light tropical aroma with notes of lime and grapefruit on the nose of this effervescent beer. With a pleasantly tart flavour up front, there’s no need to pucker up “It’s all in the name. ‘Ebb & Flow’ calls out balance that’s achieved in motion. It’s well-suited to occasions when you’re craving a full-flavoured beer, but need to stay the course, whether that’s your weekend chores, heading back to work after a lunchtime pint or catching up with friends over the holidays,” says Lewin. “Sours continue to attract new drinkers to the beer category and with the recent legalization of cannabis, we also see occasions where there is crossover with a low alcohol beer option.” The launch of Ebb & Flow is something of a milestone for Muskoka. Lewin explains that there’s been something of a fragmentation of the market during his time in beer, something that’s only amplified during his years at the Ontario brewery. “Gone are the days that people would adopt a brand and stick with it for life. There’s a promiscuity centered around drinkers wanting to explore new styles, and that’s understandable,” he says. “It’s a change of culture and for us, when we launched beers like Mad Tom IPA out in to the world, it helped us learn about the types of beers drinkers wanted.” Lewin adds: “We were banging on doors that would shut on your face, but we remained focused on building these brands because we had faith in them. We wanted to develop real brands with real equity. And we stuck with that. “You see a lot of breweries chasing short term trends, and I believe that’s an example of short-termism. For us, it’s about having a position and looking to differentiate yourself when it comes to quality and consistency. It’s your sword to fall on.” For Lewin, quality is all-important. Because if you’re not offering a quality, reliable experience then you can’t blame the consumer for looking elsewhere. “The days of people buying a case of one beer and nothing else are long gone. It’s ok to be promiscuous now. We have a saying that we want to be two of every eight-


Winter 2019

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pack you buy. And with that, our name is a guarantee

B rewery

“We continue to ask ourselves what is the reason we

of a quality, well-made beer. And yes, you have our

exist,” he states. “We’ve never had a traditional vision here

permission to drink other brewery’s beers too,” he laughs.

at Muskoka. What’s been important is that we want to

Lewin is thrilled to be part of such a hotbed of brewing innovation in Ontario, and sees the growth of sour, wild fermentation beer is a boon for the industry. He’s also

make a difference in the community, through our beer, employment and the benefits those things bring “I feel that this brewery has shown resolve in its

thrilled that Muskoka continues to grow with it, especially

lifetime, and we never take things for granted. We always

after a year of upheaval even if it’s all for the greater good.

want to improve, and to do better.”


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada









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Best of Both Worlds When Rob Hern helped launch Short Finger Brewing Co back in June 2015, it was a statement of intent. A concerted move away from his experiences in largescale brewing, Rob, along with his wife Kat Rogers-Hern, started their business with the aim of educating, aiding and enabling the homebrewers of Waterloo and beyond. It’s something they’ve gone on to achieve, and it should just so happen that Short Finger brews its own great beers, too.

building, when you’re heading up a business that has no comparable peers for the government and other bodies to match you against. The Short Finger Brewing Co story began when Hern and Kat Rogers-Hern launched the business as an online store from their home in Waterloo, Ontario back in June 2015. Equipment was stored in their den, and raw ingredients in the basement. The kitchen fridge was stocked with yeast. Hern considers himself a beer lover, Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) certified judge, and avid homebrewer who has been working in the beer industry for nearly ten years. Before that, he attended Trent University, where he spent his days dreaming of one day opening a small

by Tim Sheahan

brewery. While there, he managed to pay most of his bills by throwing parties. The quality of his beer has come


a long way since the days of pitching yeast at the local

hopeful of getting a few well-earned days off. Whether

Belgian beer importer, which had a real impact on his

he’ll get them though, is a different matter. The launch of

current brewing style. Since starting Short Finger, he

their own nano brewery earlier in the summer has been

has collaborated with several breweries including: Great

followed with plans to offer drinkers the ability to imbibe

Lakes, Bar Hop, Indie Ale House, Sawdust City, Half Hours

on-site and take out Hern’s beers. And with that, comes a

on Earth, Block Three, Barncat Ales, TWB, and more.

don’t think there’s anyone like us in Canada, that I know of. So we’re definitely unique, but being

brew-your-own facility. He got his first real taste for brewing under the

unique has given me a lot of headaches, too!”

guidance of Mike Lackey during his time at Great Lake

laughs Rob Hern, co-owner of Kitchener-based

Brewery, where he managed LCBO sales and worked on

Short Finger Brewing Co.

the 25th Anniversary rebrand.

It’s less than a week until Christmas and Hern is

raft of hurdles to overcome. “When you are a home-brew supply business, but also

Hern also spent time working at Horizon Beers, a

The company’s co-founder, Kat Rogers-Hern can be summed up as an educator, librarian, and beer

one that makes its own beer, nobody really gets what

lover. While she was late to the party and didn't start

type of company you are,” he explains. “There are many

appreciating beer until her mid-twenties, Rob's passion

regulations, licences and instances of being categorised

and enthusiasm for it were contagious.

the wrong way. It took 15 months to get our business

As with any good teacher-librarian, she took the

license when starting out, and then you have to do it all

academic approach from Day 1, reading everything she

again when you want to actually sell beer. It’s like opening

could and taking every sensory training course to be

a new business all over.”

found; the more she learned - and sampled - the more

But don’t mistake Hern’s comments as negative, though. You get the impression such tricky obstacles were expected and are seen as almost character-


Winter 2019

she loved it. Rogers-Hern is a Prud'Homme beer sommelier and certified BJCP judge, and is plunging into the Cicerone

Brewers Journal Canada

Team Short Finger: Rob and Kat

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certification program. In these early days of Short Finger Brewing Co, the

F inger

The answer was a cautiously optimistic yes. With 28 days to renovate and move in, it was a tight

duo would fulfil orders that were placed online and

turnaround. Drains were cut, floors sealed, walls painted,

customers had the option of shipping or local pick-up.

and a massive warehouse party - called Short Can - was

Pick-ups happened from the house, which was in the

thrown on February 9th to help raise money for the

middle of serious renovations. Rather than grab-and-go,

transition. Short Finger Brewing Co. closed it’s doors for

it was the norm for homebrewers to stick around for a

one extra day over the Family Day weekend to make the

beer on the back porch or in the kitchen. Homebrewers

move, reopening in its new 6500 square foot location on

would also bring bottles by to get feedback from the duo

Wednesday, February 21.

- particularly if they were faced with an off flavour they couldn’t identify. Wasting no time, the company’s first ‘Homebrew Hangout’ followed a month later at the Bent Elbow in Kitchener. These events were drop-in community building

Come June, and much to their relief, all permits were finally in order and Short Finger Brewing Co. launched its bottle shop on the same day as their second annual Solstice is Coming bulk grain sale. Three barrel-aged styles were released in 375ml

and education events for regional homebrewers. Free

bottles, and six beers were offered for growler fills and on

to attend, and coupled with a featured talk along with a


collaboration brew made by Rob + the night’s speakers,

Hern is particularly proud of the beers he produces

brewers from aforementioned names such as Abe Erb,

on his modest, and in his own words, “rudimentary" 4hl

Block Three, Wellington, Great Lakes, Four Fathers, Barn

system. At the time of writing, brews available to take

Cat, TWB, and others have spoken on a wide variety of

out include Lando - Batch VB, a blended Sour Saison,


which contains a small amount of Lando (A), blended

In the following weeks and months, the company

with fresh saison and then matured with mixed field

hosted home brewing classes, competitions and

berries harvested from Steckle Heritage Farm. Secondary

hands-on sessions designed to raise the standard of

fermented with a mixed Brett culture from Omega Labs.

homebrewing in Ontario. “After a year of hunting for the right space, we

Also on offer is Maus, a 3.8% Conditioned Mouse Melon Gose, where Short Finger teamed up with Steckle

moved into a 1200 square foot retail space just south of

Heritage Farm to produce a Gose that incorporates

downtown,” says Hern. “The shop was a small addition on

fresh-picked coriander seed then aged with freshly

the back of a much larger unit, which was then-occupied

picked mouse melons and lemon cucumbers. The beer

by a major construction company.”

is conditioned with a special Brett from Escarpment Yeast

Short Finger secured first right to that space, should it become available down the road. Local pick-ups slowly

Labs. “I’ll be honest, I’m glad with the system I use. It’s small

transitioned down to this new spot while renovations were

but I know how much work goes into producing these

happening (in its previous life, the shop was a storage

beers and if you’re making beer at whatever volume, you

garage). Later that summer, the shop officially opened its

need to know where and how you will be selling it,” he

doors for in-store shopping.


With an eye on growth, Hern convinced the property

Through the business, Hern has seen a cross-section

owner to let him rent said owner’s connected private

of the Ontario brewing industry, from established

storage unit, adding an additional 600 square feet to the

operations to the professional brewers of tomorrow. And

shop’s footprint. This was renovated for the purpose of

with that, he’s developed a fair idea of what constitutes a

building a small brewhouse.

solid business plan.

He worked with Greg Smith (working owner at TWB

“You see people that are dead set on building 15 or

Co-op) to build a custom 3-barrel brewing system. Kat

20bbl systems, or they’re producing a 15bbl batch of

was able to move the Beginner’s Guide to Homebrewing

Kölsch. That’s fine, but how is that style fairing for other

classes and sensory training sessions out of borrowed/

breweries, who will be buying your beer, and where will

rented spaces and into the brewhouse.

you be selling it?” He asks. “It is a lot of work to sell beer.

Fast forward to early 2018, Rob and Kat were

I don’t have a taproom or a sales team, so you have to

presented with more good news, even if it was a little

put the effort in. Everyone has their own approach to

earlier than they would have anticipated…

business, but if you don’t know where the beer you’re

While the main building at 20 Hurst Avenue was not originally slated to become available until Spring 2019,

brewing is going to go, then I’d worry.” While Short Finger has undergone steady growth in

AMICO construction decided to move out early and we

these last three years, Hern is keen to steady the ship,

had to decide pretty much on the spot if they wanted to

once their tasting room is complete, of course.



“We have 7,500sqft of space and that’s three times

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bigger than I ever said this business would be,” he

if that’s my perspective, then you can expect many casual

explains. “But I’ve experienced the far greater scale of

drinkers to adopt a similar attitude. There is so much

things when working at Great Lakes, so I’m comfortable

choice around, why stick with mediocrity?”

with what we have and knowing we won’t grow much

With that. Hern believes breweries should no longer be expecting any form of commendation for opting

more.” What Hern wants is an environment for people to

against putting out sub-standard beer.

enjoy their beers, to engage with other drinkers and grow

“If you’re turning to social media to show consumers

as a result. Ensuring everything was right before opening

that you’re pouring out a bad batch of beer, then there’s

the business up to others has, partly, come from Hern’s

something very wrong with that,” he says. “It doesn’t

experiences drinking at other brewing operations.

happen in any other industry, so why should it happen in

“I’ll be honest, my old rule was to give a new brewery six months to dial their sh*t in. I’d swing by an opening and if there were obvious faults in that brewery’s beers,

beer? If I have to do that, I’m too annoyed that I messed up to be thinking about gratification from social media.” And with the opening of its tasting room due in 2019,

I’d forgive that and give them time to improve things,”

Hern is looking forward to sharing his beers with drinkers

says Hern. “But that approach has changed. With so many

of all kinds, growing in the same way Short Finger has

breweries opening, there is no need to be so patient. And

helped others over these last three years.


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Growing demand from craft maltsters An increasing number of breweries are turning to craft maltsters to complement their malt bills and with that, they are aiding brand differentiation and achieving a wealth of unique flavours in their beer, explains Dave Thomas a maltster and brewer for 43 years and senior craft malting adviser for First Key Consulting. by Dave Thomas



Winter 2019

from the multi-national malthouses? Among the nearly 7,000 craft brewers and 2,000 craft distillers in North America today, most are striving to separate themselves from all the rest through quality, brand differentiation and “terroir”, a French word meaning “sense of place”. Wine, cheese and chocolate makers have depended on and marketed terroir for many years. Customers have shown their willingness to pay several times the standard price for the story and unique flavours associated with terroir. In the 18th and 19th centuries, malt was typically made adjacent to and as part of the individual brewery or distillery. During the 20th century, third party commercial

hy are craft brewers and distillers

sales malthouses began building bigger and more

willing to pay two, three or

automated malthouses in order to reduce costs through

four times as much per pound

economies of scale. These large commercial malthouses

for malted grains from small,

replaced virtually all of the distillery and brewery-owned

independent craft malthouses than

malthouses (with the notable exception of Coors in

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Golden who has retained their 100% malting capability for

include “…bready, malty, milk chocolate, dark chocolate,

75 years).

fruit cake, pound cake, roasted, toasted, biscuity, caramel,

The top 10 malting companies in the US produce a

coffee, toffee, cacao, smoky, kola, almond, hazelnut,

combined 300 tons of finished malt every hour of the

raisins, prunes, figs, vanilla, clove, honey, marmalade,

day, which is equal to the annual combined capacity of

peanut butter, cinnamon, sour, sweet, bitter, sharp,

the 100 craft malthouses operating today! Most, if not

creamy, grassy, earthy, mesquite, candy, bran flakes,

all, of these large commercial maltsters have amped up

sourdough, graham crackers, Grape Nuts, toasted

marketing aimed at craft breweries in order to capture

marshmallow and woody…”

some of this rapidly growing business. Recently, mid-

In 2003, Michael Lewis, Professor Emeritus of Brewing

scale malthouses (10,000 to 50,000 ton annual capacity)

Science at University of California—Davis, suggested that

are being built in Colorado, Delaware, New York, Ohio and

US malt was made almost entirely for big brewery lager

Canada attempting to capture some of the lucrative craft

and light beer mashes diluted with up to 40% non-malted

beer and spirits market.

adjuncts, principally corn and rice. Lewis postulated that

The craft brewer of today is in the middle of a minor

brewing all-malt craft beers with this malt might be “…

revolution in choosing and promoting new hop varieties

too much of a good thing for craft brewers and, hence,

that give them unique flavours, terroir, brand identity


and a story to pass on to their customers. They are

Professor Lewis went on to say that standard lager

now, collectively, turning their attention in the US to the

malts have too much diastatic power, alpha-amylase

largest single dry ingredient used in brewing, namely

activity, free amino nitrogen, lipids, polyphenols, and

malt. When asked, many of them bemoan the fact that

extraneous enzymes like lipoxygenases as well as being

malt has become a commodity, with flavours, malting

too variable within and among malted barley kernels

characteristics and processes dictated by the big,

because of huge malt batch sizes. (Malt, the Beauty and

multinational breweries and they are impatient to see a

the Beast- An Appraisal for Craft Brewers, MBAA TQ, 40, 3,

revolution in malt akin to the craft hops success story they

2003 pp. 186-188).

made happen and are willing to pay dearly for. Unique malt and beer flavours that have been reported by craft brewers from craft malt made for them

Professor Lewis estimated that malts made for adjunct brews would contribute twice the enzymatic activity necessary for normal starch conversion in an all-malt craft

brew. These malts also would yield higher amino acids, peptides and proteins that are known to affect yeast growth, beer foam and mouthfeel of finished beer. High residual levels of these nitrogen-compounds may also contribute to higher beer pH and haze and increased potential for the growth of microbial beer-spoilage organisms in all-malt craft beers. Professor Lewis suggested that malts for all-malt craft beer should be produced differently than those made for adjunct brews in order to accentuate the positive (Beauty) and minimize the negative (Beast) aspects of malt in beer. The Brewers Association (Boulder, Colorado) published a white paper entitled “Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers” in April, 2014. After a 36-month BA member survey, it was revealed that to produce all-malt beer brands, craft brewers seek barley malts with distinctive flavours and aromas, lower free amino nitrogen (FAN), lower total protein, lower diastatic power and lower Kohlback index (soluble/total protein ratio). In March, 2018 Joseph Hertrich, retired director of malting for Anheuser-Busch Brewery, discussed “Challenges of All Malt Brewing with North American Two-Row Malting Barley” at the MBAA Eastern Technical

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Conference. Hertrich explained how key malt modification parameters have changed over time and can be detrimental in brewing all-malt craft beer today.

Craft malt questions

According to Hertrich, the last few decades of breeding, malting and brewing process changes have increased agronomic yield, shortened steeping and germination times, reduced seed dormancy, increased malt modification profiles and pre-harvest sprouting tendencies, lowered malt and beer colour and raised brewhouse yields, enzymatic activity and protein modification levels which has resulted in thinner (more highly attenuated), lighter beers with lower foam quality and poor flavour stability. In addition, 6-row malting barley variety acreage has shrunk to less than 10% of the total US barley crop due to disease and displacement by GMO-corn and soybean farming in the midwest. It has been predicted that 6-row barley will disappear entirely from US production in just a few years. Most brewers worldwide agree that 2-row barley is superior to 6-row barley for malting and brewing, while 6-row is mainly used for distilling and animal feed. During this same time period, AMBA (the American Malting Barley Association) recognized the same trends in malt produced mainly for adjunct brews and in March, 2018 published separate guidelines for 2-row barley malts to be used in adjunct brewing and all-malt craft brewing, shown below:

Questions to answer in your business plan prior to plunging into craft malting: 1. How much of your malt product will find its way into your own beer, spirits or foodstuffs? 2. Will your malthouse have an anchor at the front end i.e. self-production of grains for malting, or the back end i.e. use in your brewery or distillery? 3. What % of self-made vs. commercially purchased malts is in your business plan? How will you handle future expansion of your beer, whiskey, etc.? 4. How much labor vs. upfront capital equipment costs are you willing to invest? i.e. floor malting requires manual shovelling every 8-12 hours during germination while pneumatic and drum maltings can be turned via machines, often automatically. 5. How important is the story of local grains, locally malted and sustainability to your business plan?

Since most commercial malthouses and brewers with their own malthouses in the US today still produce malts mainly for adjunct lager beers, representing more than 85% of US beer production, a supply shortfall in

Most of the operating craft malthouses in America

production of malt for the growing all-malt craft beer

today are at the limits of their production capacity and

market has been created, leading to today’s burgeoning

are planning ways to expand their production. Since they

craft malting movement. The Craft Maltsters Guild

are all in their first few years of craft malting, they are

(Hadley, Massachusetts) estimates that nearly 100 new

willing and routinely share information and best malting

craft malthouses are in operation, with a similar number in

practices with each other through networks like the Craft

planning or construction.

Maltsters Guild, the Brewers Association, the Master

AMBA 2-row Malt Recommendations Malt for Adjunct Brewing

Malt for All-Malt Brewing

Total Protein, %



Soluble Protein, %


< 5.3%

Soluble/Total Protein, %



Free-Amino Nitrogen, ppm

> 210


Diastatic Power, oL

> 120


Alpha-amylase, D.U.



Beta-glucan, ppm



Source: The American Malting Barley Association


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Brewers Association of the Americas and the American

every day that combine grain terroir with the personalities

Malting Barley Association.

that grow and malt the grain. To brewers and distillers, the

Brewers and distillers use 87% of all non-feed barley

additional cost of brewing materials (which is a fraction

production in the US. In 2017, while overall US beer sales

of packaging material costs for those breweries that can

was down 1% year-over-year from 2016, craft beer sales

or bottle their beers) is well worth the “branding” that can

increased by 5%. “Mega-breweries” beer production and

brag about barley from unique soil conditions or barley

sales are dominated by light beer brands that call for 30-

varieties or stories about local maltster families and

50% non-malted adjuncts in their brewing recipes while

bespoke malting processes that can only be found in their

craft breweries brew nearly all of 100% malt (no adjunct)

beer. The same local, terroir and sustainability factors that

beer. This fact, coupled with the higher attenuation

compel more and more people to walk into their local

(fermentation rate) and increased dilution rate of

pub breweries for a craft beer, rather than buying beer

packaged light beers, means that all-malt craft beers

from multi-national corporations, is alive and well in the

require up to four times as much malt per packaged

entire brewing supply chain, urging craft beer and spirits

barrel of beer. Currently, nearly 50% of the malt made

drinkers to ask “Where does your malt come from?”

from malting barley is finding its way into craft beers. It

All of this adds up to the perfect time today for those

is projected that the balance will keep increasing toward

who have the desire and patience to turn hard, insoluble

craft beer usage and, very soon, a larger portion of the

grains of barley, wheat, rye, oats, triticale, spelt, quinoa,

US malt production will be used in all-malt craft beer

millet, milo, buckwheat, rice, teff, sorghum, amaranth,

production rather than large brewery light adjunct-

corn and even sunflower seeds into sweet, colourful,

containing lagers.

enzyme packed bundles of malt sugars, colours and

Brewer-maltster-farmer partnerships are being created

flavours. Indeed… if you build it… they will come!

Ontario District Technical Conference

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Winter 2019


B r e w e ry

To u r

R eid ' s

D undurn

A le

Creating a special beer Reid’s Dundurn Ale is no ordinary beer. Brewed at Valentino’s Restaurant in Westdale by Devyn Prince-Reid, the beer is named after William Reid, the 19th century Head Gardener at Dundurn Castle. Wayne MacPhail takes up the story.

by Wayne Macphail

The castle’s senior curator, Debra Seabrook, sent Prince-Reid a historic beer recipe and a journal from the


Seagram’s Museum to give him a taste of how beer might

garden for two centuries. The rectangular plot once

hops for bittering and some contemporary aromatics to

provided flowers and produce for the friends, family and

augment the flavour the historic hops would provide. He

servants of Sir Allan Napier MacNab, a railway magnate

handcrafted a recipe, strongly influenced by history and

and politician in the 1800s. It also offered up a mainstay of

hops of Dundurn Castle.

t’s late fall and Devyn Prince-Reid, the 32-year-

have been brewed in the castle during the 1800s. When

old brewer at Valentino’s Restaurant in Hamilton,

Seabrook interviewed for the curator’s job she had shared

Ontario is standing in the kitchen garden of

her hope that a Dundurn beer might be possible, so she

Dundurn Castle, rubbing a hop flower between his

was keen to see the idea ferment.


Those hops, Cascade, have been grown in the historic

the castle’s beer supply - the Cascade. Prince-Reid is here to make it possible for Hamiltonians to once again taste a beer brewed as it might have been in the basement of its famous Canadian castle. He’s pleased with the citrus scent of the crushed hops

The ancient recipe gave Prince-Reid the germ of a recipe he tweaked with the addition of some modern

“I’d never delved so deeply into the history of certain hops before picking them out for this recipe,” he said. Prince-Reid normally doesn’t use any finings in the Valentino’s brew, but the Seagram’s recipe called for some (historically extracted from fish bladders) so the

in his hand. “Look at these, they’re beautiful,” he says,

young brewer decided to toss some into the Reid’s to

sweeping an arm toward the bank of hops that grow

give the dark ale a marked clarity.

jubilantly up and over the south-facing wall of the garden.

At the time of writing, Reid’s Dundurn Ale was still

He’ll harvest about two pounds and then transport them

fermenting, but he’d had an early taste to test against

a few city blocks and two centuries away to the popular

off-flavours. “It’s got a butterness I haven’t had before in a

Hamilton Italian restaurant where he’s been brewing beer

beer,” he explained. “It’s going to be delicious.”

since 2012. His “Strange Brew” house beer and his constantly

He’s making six batches of 60 litres each. “That's the usual amount we brew for our rotating tap,” he says, “and

rotating styles of ales, stouts and lagers has been

there wasn't enough hops to double that, though I wish

popular with Hamiltonians year after year, but he doesn’t

we could have.”

think they’ve had anything like what he’s calling Reid’s

Prince-Reid makes the beer by steeping British Brown

Dundurn Ale. It’s not named after Reid himself. It’s a happy

and Victory malts in water. That sweet brew, redolent

coincidence that William Reid, Dundurn Castle’s head

with the grain’s natural sugars, is then boiled while bitter

gardener in its heyday, shares Devyn’s last name.

hops like Fuggles and East Kent Golding are added. In


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada

R eid ' s

D undurn

A le

b r e w e ry

to u r

“They were fantastic. They were so enthusiastic, and knowledgable about the history of the castle. I had an indescribably fun time hanging around the grounds, and harvesting the hops with them.” Paul Spadafora, Valentino's general manager, hopes the hops experiment will bear fruit for years to come. “To me it’s a natural connection. This incredible garden is just down the road,” he says. “I am extremely passionate about our industry and if an opportunity arises that is something different, something outside the box, you need to go for it. I think it’s always for restauranteurs to adapt and keep people interested,” Spadafora added. Next year Prince-Reid wants to use the Dundurn Castle hops to brew both a bitter and a batch of “small beer”, the sort that would have been served to servants, women and children in the castle’s heyday. Bick loves that idea because they might be able to the last few minutes, Reid tosses in a cheesecloth bag full

have visitors sample something that was a staple of the

of Dundurn Castle’s Cascade hops to give it the unique


aromatic flavour. Prince-Reid sent some of spent grain,

But, this year, the very first batch of Reid’s Dundurn Ale

or “wort” over to Dundurn Castle so it could be made

will be launched at a free event in the Hayloft of Dundurn

into bread in the site’s wood fired ovens - something that

Castle in Hamilton, Ontario on December 16 from noon

would in MacNab’s time as well.

to 4 p.m.. Visitors will be able to sample the first batch of

Victoria Bick, the head gardener for the historic site, says she loves this project because, “it expands what we get to do with our produce. Our primary reason for being is education, to have people come into the garden and see what we’re doing. But the hops is something

Reid’s Dundurn Ale and try some bread made from the spent grains that went into the beer itself. The new beer will then be exclusively available at Valentino’s Restaurants while supplies last. “Craft beer is so popular at the moment, we need to

we’ve never used before for the purpose for which it was

take advantage any way we can,” says Spadafora. “An

intended, which is beer.”

opportunity like this to collaborate with a well known icon

Prince-Reid can’t say enough about the castle staff.

like Dundurn will benefit us tremendously.”

Winter 2019


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s e c to r

What’s going on inside of my kegs and how can I find out There is a lot to say about the ways kegs can affect the quality of your beer, and one of the fundamental steps in quality control is random, periodic inspection of the inside of the kegs, says Steve Bradt, who provides sales, technical support and training for Micro Matic Keg spear customers in the Eastern US and Canada. by STEVE BRADT


travel the Eastern US and Canada working with brewers who use kegs as part of their packaging mix. As a “recovering” craft brewer, I came into this position painfully aware of how little most brewers know about that ultimate beer can they love so

Circlip removal using Valve Compression Safety Tool and Circlip removal knife

much. There is a lot to say about the ways kegs can affect the quality of your beer, and one of the fundamental steps in quality control is random, periodic inspection of the inside of the kegs. This provides an opportunity to determine whether your keg washing system* is doing the job you hope that it is. There are several steps in this process. The first of which is to determine the quantity and frequency with which you plan to sample. I would suggest a good starting point for a small brewery is to plan for random inspection of 4-6 kegs every month. Make this a priority; acquire the right tools, properly train your technicians, and do it consistently. Note that if you lease or rent kegs, you should check with the company which owns them before performing any service on their kegs. It should go without saying that no brewer should use or service a keg that belongs to another brewery without their express consent. Before you get started, the first thing to be addressed is safety. At most stages of a keg’s life cycle, it exists as a

Figure 2 - Valve Compression Safety Tool positioned for installation of new circlip

pressurized vessel and as such, it deserves some respect. As you work through the steps below, please pay special

because a keg with beer in it will re-pressurize over time,

attention to the safety considerations. There is no reason

and even an empty keg will re-pressurize as it warms.

for anyone to suffer serious injury to have a good draft

Technicians should never entrust this responsibility to

inspection program.

someone else.

The overarching safety requirement is that the

Drop-in style spears are the most common in the

technician who is working on the keg must always

American Sankey or D-system kegs. They are secured by

depressurize the keg immediately prior to removing the

a double circlip made of flat stainless steel that fits into a

spear. It seems like a simple concept, but it gets ignored

groove in the keg neck.

surprisingly often. The “immediately” part is critical

Ignore everything you’ve seen on YouTube. It’s wrong

Winter 2019


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Carefully examine the spear for evidence of:

Figure 3 - Ears positioned for removal

Figure 4 - Ears positioned for installation and in many cases dangerous! Use the correct tools. These are specifically designed and supplied by keg or spear manufacturers. These do not include hammers, creatively modified screwdrivers, ice picks or pliers! The safest tools will provide a way to clamp down on the spear to depressurize the keg. This achieves our main safety objective above, and relieves the tension on the circlip by compressing the sealing o-ring. This is commonly called a “Valve Compression Safety Tool”, and it allows for the insertion of a special stainless steel “knife” to remove the circlip without damage to the keg or the spear. Always find a comfortable position to work in that

u Damage, such as dents or scratches that may impact its performance or cleanability u Damaged or bent tabs (ears) which may prevent the spear from being properly secured in the safety “Z groove” in the keg neck. u Beer Stone on the spear. In early stages of beer stone development, this may be felt before it is seen. Run your fingers along the downtube and check for anything that feels like fine sand or grit. More highly developed beer stone may look like anything from a light whitish-yellow haze to something like a heavy boiler scale! Changes in process may be able to correct for and mitigate a very light stone formation. Heavier deposits will require significantly greater efforts to remove and a complete rebuild of the spear will probably be required due to the high concentration of chemical solution needed to soften and remove the scale without the use of harsh abrasives which will damage the highly polished surfaces of the spear. u Check for evidence of poor rinsing, such as caustic residue. Typically, a keg that has not been rinsed properly was probably not washed properly either. u Look inside of your keg to see if there are signs of beer stone or uneven cleaning, which might indicate damage to the keg, an improperly sized spear, or a poorly designed or maintained wash system.

keeps your body out of the spear’s potential path of ejection while removing the circlip. Always discard the circlip after you remove it. These are single-use items and a brand-new one should always be used for reassembly. Really – every time. Once the circlip has been removed, rotate the spear slightly counterclockwise to line up the tabs (ears) of the spear with the notches in the keg neck so that the entire spear can be lifted out of the keg. Before you re-install the spear, be sure to replace the

keg neck and then rotate slightly clockwise into a safety “Z groove” , designed to help prevent the spear from accidentally ejecting from the keg. Set a brand-new circlip on top of the keg neck. The same Valve Compression Safety Tool that was used to relieve the pressure against the circlip for removal

sealing o-ring, and moisten it with some clean water to

is used again for reinstallation. This allows you to insert

reduce friction during the installation.

your new circlip using no additional tools than your

Tabs (ears) on the spear fit back into the notches in the


Winter 2019

fingers. No other tools should be used as they may cause

Brewers Journal Canada



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damage to the circlip and the keg neck. Take care that the top tip of the double circlip is placed about half way in between the notches in the keg neck. Never land the tip of the clip in a notch as this makes it much more vulnerable to tampering and accidental removal. Pro Tip! If the circlip doesn’t go in all the way, loosen the valve compression tool, rotate it 90° and tighten it again. More often than not, one of these quarter turn rotations will allow the circlip to seat properly. If you repeat that for 360° and the circlip still hasn’t fully seated itself in the groove, take it back out and figure out why. Either the groove is gouged or dirty (clean it), or it has been pinched (this may not be repairable), or you neglected to lock the spear into the safety Z groove and the tabs are blocking the groove (carefully examine the tabs for evidence of structural damage) If you do not see any problems with the kegs you are inspecting, that’s great! If you do see problems, you will need to take additional steps to correct them and consider sampling more frequently until you have

Figure 5 - Proper positioning of circlip relative to neck notches

determined that the problem has been rectified. *Periodic removal of spears for repair or inspection is

keg neck and spear body. A well designed, commercial

a good practice, the practice of removing spears to wash

keg washer that will allow cleaning of the keg without

kegs is not. This greatly increases the likelihood of an

disassembly is an essential piece of equipment for

accident and causes excessive wear and tear on both the

commercial brewers of all sizes.


(888) 453-4776

Winter 2019


i n n ovati o n


Five Ways Technology Will Play the Role of Equalizer in 2019 "Technology is the great equalizer” is the contemporary version of Horace Mann’s famous quote “Education is the great equalizer”. Here, Shea Martin, founder of Brew Ninja outlines five ways technology can help smaller breweries compete with the big guys in 2019.

made craft beer. While consumer demand does play a part in this, it is a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem; more local beer on tap and on the shelves creates more craft beer drinkers, more craft beer drinks means venues put more craft beer on shelves and taps. A company called Craft Tapp is attempting to solve this problem with a simple technology that makes it easy to get fresh local craft beer from another (even more) convenient location… your phone. They work with local breweries to provide

by Shea Martin

sales of the frothy goodness via a mobile application, meaning that a brewery doesn’t have to battle with


a multi-national corporation for shelf space or offer

echnology doesn’t have to have the words Artificial-Intelligence, Machine-Learning,

kickbacks to a bar for tap space. “Going to the brewery is always a great option,

Block-Chain, or Crypto in its title to be a

however making a trip to a brewery can be far and limiting

difference maker. Technology can be a

because you have to drive,” explains Craft Tapp founder

difference-maker simply by providing a small

Irshad Shariff. “Lastly going to the bar/pub is always an

piece of the puzzle that enables centuries old no-tech

option to try craft beer (assuming they have it), but most

solution to be more feasible. One such example of this is

bars have a limited amount of taps dedicated to craft,

“the delivery”.

therefore reducing the variety of what they can offer. Craft

When asked about up and coming brewing trends,

Tapp makes sure you can access our mobile-inventory

Brewery consultant, Jay Cooke mentions Skip The Dishes

of local craft breweries, which comes fresh directly from

and Uber Eats: “Look for breweries to follow this path with

the brewery which means you have their entire variety

door-to-door delivery of draft and limited edition small

available at your fingertips without stepping foot inside a

packs using either their in-house delivery fleet during 9-5

vehicle. We truly aim to bring the tap room to your living

or a third party app. Direct delivery may cost more but


has the added benefits of taproom selection and brewery freshness.”

This technology is a win for the small brewery, but also consumers.

We have seen how technologies such as Skip The

The Fizz Master

Dishes and Uber Eats have changed the food industry. Any small restaurant can offer delivery to their customers now without the need for bringing on new staff, covering vehicle overheads, etc. Now getting pizza from your favourite neighbourhood pizza joint is as accessible as getting it from a pizza giant like Domino’s. The obvious next step is for this to come to the alcohol industry. We all know that brewing giants demand a lot of shelf space, and are not fond of sharing the rail with locally


Winter 2019


t is common knowledge in any business, be it software, hardware, or even services, that custom solutions can offer great benefits, but they can also hit

the wallet pretty hard. Advancing technology is constantly finding ways to take technology and put it in a noncustom form, which can then plug into existing systems.

Brewers Journal Canada


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Smaller businesses (in this case breweries) are the

scrubbing the beer of aromatics and proteins, plus the

largest benefactor of this evolvement, as it pushes these

fact that the excess CO2 becomes a waste product

solutions into their price range.

which is a financial and environmental burden. The Fizz

One technology which has recently undergone this is

Wizz reacts to the tanks temperature so it doesn’t need

beer carbonation. While we all love naturally carbonated

to be plumbed into your glycol system and control the

beer, force carbonating beer is more reliable and allows

temperature like most other advanced carbonation

beer to be sold sooner, but it still has its challenges.


The CO2 is pumped into a bright tank, containing a carbonating stone it can be difficult to regulate the carbonation level. Mechanical companies specializing in breweries can provide advanced carbonation systems which tie into the glycol system. These systems can be very expensive,

What the Fizz Wizz means to a brewer is that they can expect very consistent carbonation levels, virtually no waste CO2, and ultimately beer carbonated to the exact level they want in 6-12 hours without manual brewer monitoring and intervention. Inventor Guy Tipton recommends their

especially if you decide to retrofit it into an

ceramic carbonation stones for ultimate

existing finishing system.

consistency and efficiency, however, the Fizz

Plug-and-Play to the rescue: A product called the Fizz Wizz uses an advanced method

Wizz does work with any existing bright tank (from 1bbl right up to 500bbl) and carbonation

of monitoring a number of environmental factors to

stone. (He is also the undisputed champion of

ensure the ideal conditions to efficiently carbonate

carbonation knowledge.)

a bright tank of beer (or even soda pop!). Without

Besides the fact that the Fizz Wizz fits into any

precise conditions a brewer may use too much

system, it also costs less than a third of what traditional

carbonation which then meaning that excess CO2

custom solutions would cost, making it feasible for

must be gassed off; this can have the effect of

even very small breweries to add to their setup.

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Above: Craft Tapp and above right: Brew Ninja

traditional systems now. One such product is Brew Ninja, which is a brewery solution that costs less than a third of legacy ERP systems, with no initial investment in


software or hardware. With Brew Ninja, a craft brewery can keep track of their production, inventory, sales (retail and wholesale), and communications all in a package


he term ERP is defined as Enterprise Resource

tailored towards the brewing industry. While Brew Ninja

Planning. Most small business/breweries run

does offer comprehensive onboarding and training, the

scared when they see the term Enterprise and

entire package is configurable by the end user, just enter

software in the same sentence. Traditionally enterprise

your brewery’s information, (optionally) connect existing

software has been clunky, complicated, expensive, and

QuickBooks and Square Payments accounts, and start

often requires a link to an enterprise-accounting systems


(think SAP), with upfront costs. For this reason, But the SaaS (software as a service)

Another way Brew Ninja strayed from tradition, is by strategically partnering with Square Payments. When

revolution has made many forms of software accessible

Brew Ninja looked at various at payment systems for it’s

to smaller organizations. Lower cost of support,

specialized Tap-Room Point-of-Sale (POS), they were

deployment, maintenance, and setup, allowing software

drawn to a number of things about Square that they felt

companies to offer lower prices, put more resources

aligned with their vision of helping smaller breweries:

toward support and usability, and release new features

Square provides low-cost iPad/phone-based hardware

more rapidly. The result is that software consumers have

which requires almost no setup.

more choices than ever for fulfilling their needs, and it

Most other payment providers charge a different

is easier than ever to try them out without a long-term

amount for all card variations (even a Platinum Visa has


a different rate than a regular Visa!). The simplified and

Traditionally small-scale craft breweries skipped any

understandable billing aligned with Brew Ninja’s core

form of ERP, and just used a mish-mash of accounting

values of simplifying the management of a brewery. (Brew

software, spreadsheets, whiteboards, pen and paper,

Ninja also aligned with QuickBooks Online because it is a

and sometimes asset tracking software. Larger regional

very accessible accounting solution.)

breweries implemented ERP systems and enterprise

Using a software platform to track production,

accounting systems because they had the deep pockets

inventory, sales and purchasing, helps with paperwork.

to swallow the upfront cost, and the accounting and IT

But the big and evolving benefit is leveraging the brewing

staff to run and maintain the systems.

data that the system collects. Brew Ninja offers a number

Smaller breweries now have options to solve these issues without the financial and technical burdens of


Winter 2019

of reports that can help your brewery make production and purchasing decisions, but new reports are constantly

Brewers Journal Canada


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brewery is going that extra mile to be environmentally

being added. Forecasting tools were traditionally a trademark of


expensive enterprise software, but now even smaller

R5 CO2

breweries have can have access to such tools at a reasonable price point. The sooner that a brewery starts tracking their data electronically, the more data will be in the system to making forecasting more accurate.

The Green Choice


O2 is both consumed and produced during the brewing process: CO2 is a natural by-product of fermentation and is also used for carbonation and

purging. While breweries are not major CO2 emitters in


the grand scheme of things, they still do have a significant

am not talking about the impact of cannabis

footprint. At the same time CO2 may not be the most

legalization on brewing... that is story for another

expensive bill a brewery pays at the end of a month, it

article. I am talking about how smaller breweries

is still a significant cost. CO2 recovery systems offer the

have the agility to provide more environmentally friendly

ability to reduce the CO2 bill each month, but also greatly

options to their consumers than established macro

reduces the amount of emitted CO2.

breweries. Everyday consumers are becoming more

A CO2 recovery system takes the CO2 created during

environmentally conscious and having a product that

the fermentation process and captures it so that it can

satisfies that demand is a differentiator that the big guys

be used at other stages of brewing such as carbonation,

can’t easily offer yet.

purging, etc. Traditionally CO2 recovery systems have

Small breweries have been quick to recognize this; environmentally friendly packaging such as snap-packs, growlers, etc., first emerged on the craft scene. Look for

been too expensive for small breweries, taking years to recover the millions spent on the systems. Earthly Labs created an affordable commercial

that trend to continue with more technological solutions

solution for craft breweries, called CiCi ™ with the goal

such as CO2 and water treatment. For example, a

of making it easy to use and maintain. To accelerate their

company called NuLeaf has a nature-inspired system for

vision, Earthly Labs acquired a license for proven CO2

recycling water called NuTree.

purification technology from Pioneer Energy, a spinoff

Founder Rachel Major, says: “NuLeaf started as a

from NASA that has used similar technology to aid

makers group out of NASA Ames creating easy to use,

missions to Mars and get energy out of the ground.

nature-inspired solutions for the cleantech space. Water

In the words of founder Amy George,: “Many craft

quickly emerged as a keystone resource, and as the

brewers are innovators who want to look for ways to do

team became fascinated with unlocking the power of

things better. Recovering waste CO2 is one of the last

recycled wastewater, they realized this "side project" had

frontiers. At Earthly, we are focused on impact, and we

exponential potential and incorporated.”

knew affordability would help us get to 1 billion metric

Small scale water treatment, like what a microbrewery would need, are tough to find at an affordable price point

tons of CO2 avoided faster.” CiCi, a plug-n-play carbon capture solution, efficiently

and not easy or cheap to expand. Our NuTree units are

transforms a mixed CO2 gas waste stream into beverage-

both compact and modular, and not only treat wastewater

grade liquid CO2 for instant reuse. The CiCi platform

but incorporate water recycling, vertical farming, and

includes patented purification technology, CO2 capture

bioenergy in a beautiful, high tech garden at a pallatable

vessels (foam traps), control and monitoring software,


and CO2 storage. CiCi fits decades of big chemistry and

NuTree provides modular water systems at any scale

control science into a box the size of a refrigerator.

that remove over 90% of contaminants. A single unit

As more and beer drinkers look to reward companies

cycles about 350 gallons/day but it boasts compact

who invest in green technology, a CO2 recovery system

but modular units that grow and expand cheaply and

is one more way that a brewery can get on board with

with ease to match higher-volume needs of residents

green-tech, and save money long term too.

and industries alike. It’s no-fuss, low maintenance, and

So, I’ve touched on a few technologies available

odourless design costs less than $10,000 USD. All of

today that help smaller breweries be greener, save

this is achieved in a high-tech garden that uses naturally

money, create revenue channels, and make more

occurring plants and microbes.

informed decisions. All of the solutions mentioned are

Taprooms are a major revenue source for

affordable to smaller breweries. If you feel that any of

microbreweries and a big differentiator from macro

these technologies could help your brewery, there are

breweries. The NuLeaf system would look great on a

resources listed below which can be used to gather more

taproom patio as decor, but also as a reminder that a

information. Happy 2019!

Winter 2019


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No ordinary brewery When London, UK-based Young’s took the decision to shut its brewing operations in the capital back in 2006, it was a major loss for the community, and for a city with only a handful of breweries. But thanks to John Hatch, brewing has never left the old brewery site and instead, has a very bright future.

university degree at Bangor followed. “I enjoyed it, but had no idea of the type of career path I wanted. At the same time, I realised I liked beer, and drank a lot of it!” he recalls. Cask beer and Guinness were his fortes during education and Hatch even proudly held the record for knocking back a yard of famous Irish beverage. “If you think the cascading effect you get in a pint is memorising, wait until you see it in a yard,” he enthuses. “It was memorising!” But as his admiration for beer increased, his university

by Tim Sheahan

grant went in the opposite direction, and Hatch realised his couldn’t afford to drink as much anymore. So wide-


eyed, he journeyed to high street chain Boots and

am the luckiest brewer in London,” beams John Hatch. John is the head brewer at Wandsworth’s Ram

procured one of the home brew kits on offer. “Those early attempts were not good, I’ll be the first to admit. But before long I was producing some quite

Brewery. He’s also the assistant brewer, head

cracking beers, and even some wine, too,” he recalls. “The

cleaner, packaging operative and everything in-

only logical thing to do was throw parties on Sunday night

between. You see, the Ram Brewery is no normal brewery.

and people would get trollied. I’d enjoy watching people enjoy the drinks I made and one day a friend, Richard,

Instead, it’s a truly unique operation housed on the

told me what I was doing was great and that I should be

grounds of the old Young’s brewery. A passion project

doing it for a living."

that came into being upon the news that Young’s was to

He adds: “What a thought! It was inspirational to hear

shutter it’s London brewing business back in 2006, Hatch

because before that, I had no idea what I was going to

has ensured that although the brewery would be leaving

do for a living. And to work in beer was something I could

the site, brewing wouldn’t.

definitely get on board with.

In doing so, it has guaranteed that Wandsworth would

“So I returned home to Bristol in the summer of 1985

maintain the proud mantle of being home to the longest

and headed straight to the public library to consult the

uninterrupted period of continuous brewing in the UK.

Yellow Pages directory and write down the details of

And for Hatch, who celebrated his 30th anniversary on

every brewery going. There was 423 of them at the time,

site in September, it’s just the latest evolution of his love

I believe.”

affair with Young’s and the brewing industry as a whole. Something that started many years ago. “I was an underperforming school boy, to be honest.

Hatch wrote to these businesses to try and get that elusive first position in the industry. He was frank, telling each business that he was a student of Biology and

I was the prankster and trickster that teachers detested,

wanted to brew beer for a living. Whitbread responded in

and I don’t blame them,” he laughs. “Whether it was

kind thanking him for his letter and to get back to them

loosening a teacher’s bike seat, or lining their draw with

the following year upon completion of his studies.

a dozen snaps I removed from crackers, I’d be the one Comprehensive school followed and Hatch says he struggled along to get his A-Levels. The one subject of those that struck a chord, though, was Biology and a


“So I did! I wrote back to Alastair Lever at Whitbread in Magor, Wales and he replied to tell me ‘See you Monday’.

doing it.”

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Simple as that!” he laughs. Hatch joined Whitbread as a microbiologist on a three month contract in the run up to Christmas, helping

Brewers Journal Canada

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John Hatch: One of London's finest brewing advocates


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada



oversea the integrity of a mammoth canning runs of beers

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The quality of Young’s beer rocketed in the space

such as Heineken and Stella Artois. It was during that time

of a few years, Hatch believes, and the addition of the

that he also joined the Brewers Guild. A body that offered

ISO 9002 industry standard for quality assurance only

training, talks and also helped match brewers with jobs in

improved things further.

the industry.

“I was dumped in charge of that but I truly believe

It was a wise move.

that for decade after decade, there was continuous

The role, which was due to become permanent in the

improvement at Young’s,” he states.

new year, never materialised. The closure of Whitbread’s

Hatch enjoyed many years working for Young’s but

Salford brewery resulted in an influx of staff being

during this time, there remained pressure on chairman

relocated in their roles.

John Young to sell the valuable site and move the

“I was the last and the first out,” he says. “But they gave me a glowing reference and a month’s extra pay so off I went. During this time, I had learned about John Young

operations elsewhere. Something he fought against time and time again. “I have wonderful memories of AGMs where John

and his brewery, Young’s based in London. He was a keen

would turn up with a pair of old dusty boxing gloves,

advocate for cask beer and way before CAMRA existed he

something he’d swing around while shouting that ‘I will

was there on his soapbox declaring the benefits of cask

not be selling this brewery’. Another year he wore a

over ‘fizzy, gassy keg'. I knew I wanted to work for him."

beekeeper’s helmet to keep away the ‘annoying pests’ in

Hatch left Whitbread and worked for six months in the NHS. It was here he received his beer equivalent of a golden ticket from Charlie and The Chocolate Factory. The request to interview for a job at Young’s. “They told me they had found my details through

the room. Every year there was a different stunt. Fantastic!” he recalls. But everything must come to an end, and in 2003, Young’s launched a review of its brewing business. Something that culminated in the decision to merge

the guild and have space for a microbiologist. I couldn’t

brewing operations with Charles Wells’ brewing

believe it. So my dad zipped me down the M4 from

operations in 2006, closing the Wandsworth brewery in

Bristol to London. I vividly recall him pulling up into the

the process.

chairman’s carpark and was swiftly b*llocked for parking

“They decided to announce the closure on my

there. He didn’t care. He went toe to toe with the person

birthday. That was a very bad day. I had tickets to see

and informed them his son was there for an interview.”

the Queen musical ‘We Will Rock You’ that evening and I

Hatch passed the interview with head brewer Ken Don

remember nothing of it,” says Hatch. “In that summer I've

and laboratory chemist David Neal with flying colours. But

never seen so many grown men be reduced to tears. It

he was barely through the door when an opportunity to

wasn't like losing a family because for many, it was losing

become a junior brewer arose. And he took it with both

a family. Young’s took pride in employing families and

hands, working under brewhouse manager at the time,

when we shut, four generations of one particular family

Barry John. He learned a great deal with John but it was

were employed there. That was tough.”

another figure that Hatch singles out for particular praise. “It was at a Brewers Guild dinner when I was

Following the announcement, the subsequent months would involve decommissioning the brewery. 300 staff

introduced to a gentleman named Derek Prentice. He

either took early retirement, were relocated or found work

knew I was at Young’s and informed me he’d be joining

elsewhere but regardless, Hatch says the last beer to

me at the business after Christmas,” says Hatch. “We were

come out of the brewery was “as good as any” produced

the new guys together but even then, he was vastly more

during his time there.

experienced than me. Derek taught me a great amount

Once the dust had settled on the company’s

and I’ve forgotten so much more than he ever taught me.

announcement, Hatch and Prentice took things into

He's an amazing brewer and a fantastic person.”

their own hands. They approached the council to inform

Prentice, now head brewer at Wimbledon Brewery, is

them of how much of a loss it would be if brewing was to

celebrating an incredible 50 years in the industry in 2018.

disappear from the area. They understood but informed

Upon joining Young’s, Hatch recalls his skill at identifying

the duo there was little they could do.

problems but also a desire to not tread on anyone’s toes, either. “Derek recommended that I was given various projects

“We suggested however that if the site was to be redeveloped, the council could force the developer to incorporate a brewing operation into the new setup. This

such as looking as dissolved oxygen between point A

was greeted positively so we were thrilled,” he says. “We

and point B. I was young, and available, so happily took

knew we couldn’t simply open a new brewery the day

these projects on. And each time, I’d find a problem that

after Young’s stopped, so we had to improvise.”

he knew was going to be there. He just wanted someone else to identify it and solve it,” says Hatch.

Yeast was added to bottles of wort before fermenting and the yeast skimmed off. And on they went.

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“It was a bit underhand, to be honest,” says Hatch.


him for letting me brew for him and I told him it had been

“We weren’t supposed to be thinking about the future

my honour and privilege. Mr Young was already very

of Britain’s oldest brewery rather focused on shutting it

poorly and I really thought that would be my last chance

down. But that’s that."

to express my feelings.

Hatch and the team had a year’s worth of bottles to

“A few days went by and I had a phone call on site

keep them going once brewing stopped on site. The last

- from John Young! He said he quite understood my

brew was completed on the 18th September. The day

decision. I think his exact words were "marvellous! Well

before, John Young passed away.

done you!". I told him that Derek Prentice and I were

Young’s funeral took place less than two weeks

looking at ways to keep the brewing going and he wished

later and with it, the first beers from the new operation

us the best of luck. I then went on to promise that I would

were somewhat fittingly imbibed. Hatch has many fond

do all I could to keep brewing on site “while there was

memories of his old boss.

breath in my body”.

“Whilst Young's were attempting to relocate all of

The maiden beer produced by Hatch and Prentice

their staff back in 2006, I was offered a job as Health

was a 3.7% number based on the popular Young’s Bitter.

& Safety Advisor for the future Young’s pub company,”

But whatever you do, don’t call it by the name it’s also

recalls Hatch. “Over all my years at Young's I had taken

commonly known as, Young’s Ordinary.

on a whole host of jobs that nobody else wanted (ISO

“I remember when I was a young brewer I went to use

9002, BRC Food accreditation, FeMAS, HACCP, CoSHH

the gents within the director’s block of the brewery. Within

and finally full blown health and safety). I realised that, on

seconds, the door slammed. Good grief, I thought, and

being offered a job in the pub chain, I was going to have

there was John Young standing next to me.

to say 'no' to Young's for the first time! He adds: I felt bad about it so I wrote a letter to John Young explaining that my heart and soul was at Britain's Oldest Brewery and as such I was sorry but I really could not accept their job. I also took the opportunity to tell "Mr John" what he had meant to me over the years. I thanked


Winter 2019

He barked: “What are you brewing today?” “Erm, Young’s Bitter, sir.” He went quiet then replied: “Thank God for that. If you had called it Ordinary I would have fired you on the spot." What Hatch hadn’t realised at the time, was that nearby Fuller’s has launched an advertising campaign on

Brewers Journal Canada



double decker London buses with the slogan that read ‘Nothing ordinary about Fuller’s’. “Poor John saw these adverts pass his office day-in,

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and excited, and rightfully so. “They wanted to know what we’d use and my smart idea of using the scrap metal that surrounded us was

day-out and after that, we never used the term again!” he

immediately dashed as they reminded me, it simply didn’t


belong to us anymore. So I went to Young’s CEO Steve

So despite Young’s ceasing its brewing operations, Hatch and Prentice ensured that beer continued to be fermented on site, and enjoyed on site, too. But plans for

Goodyear, thanked him for seeing me and informed him of my plans.” Hatch had to come clean about the undercover

another brewery remained unclear. Prentice had been

bottling operation that had been taking place in the year

offered, and accepted, the role of brewhouse manager at

since Young’s closed its brewing operations, and also his

Fuller’s, while Hatch took on the role of site manager by

desires to build a new setup.

the site developers. During this time, the stock of bottles and other supplies began to dwindle. “I was very worried at that point,” remembers Hatch. "So I took myself to King George's Park in Wandsworth and to an oak tree planted in memory of John Young. There I

“He was surprised and shocked. But he understood. I had permission to use the scrap metal but one thing was clear, that we could not sell anything we make. Fair enough, I thought." So once more, Hatch returned to Wandsworth with the

was, in the pouring rain, apologising to John for failing and

good news and was greeted with overjoyed carpenters,

admitting that brewing was going to come to an and.”

welders, electricians, labourers and plumbers.

But it was there and then, that Hatch had his lightbulb

The diligent bunch set about finding what they could

moment. To build a ‘Scrapheap Challenge’ microbrewery

in order to create their new brewery. But when kit such

and brew beer once more. So he scuttled back to the

a £3,000 valve was reported “missing”, it conveniently

brewery site to announce his grand plans.

returned unharmed the following day.

He recalls: “I was greeted by a team of 17 depressed

“The team would tell the decommissioning firm that

staff decommissioning and destroying the brewery. While

any kit moved was the work of the ghost of John Young,

not strictly in charge, I had a white coat and declared: ‘Hey

and that happens all the time. Thankfully everyone saw

guys, we’re going build a brewery!’. They were confused

the funny side,” he remembers.

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Brewers Journal Canada



Left, Brewday records from the brewery's rich archive

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“But soon enough Minerva were approached by a local running group known as the the London Hash House Harriers. They refer to themselves as a drinking club with

The nano brewery that would take the Wandsworth site on the next stage of its brewing journey was constructed in nine days. Many of the former brewing staff returned to christen it, to mixed results. “You have the phrase too many cooks spoil the broth.

a running problem, and they asked if they could tour the brewery.” He adds: “They missed the chance when Young’s was in operation but we arranged it for them. I agreed to brew a bespoke beer on the proviso they’d furnish the honesty

Well I can tell you that too many brewers can wreck a

box. Something they did with many notes! And that was

beer,” laughs Hatch. “Although we decided on a 4.6% beer,

it, the way forward was tours, comedy nights and similar

it ended up at half that. It was quite frankly, disgusting. It

events to subsidise my brewing.”

was oily, rubbery and revolting.” He adds: “We filmed the entire process down to

Although the site was soon liberated of all its existing brewing equipment, it took on yet another purpose. As

pouring the first pint and a gentleman called Terry

a studio for film and television. For eight years, shows

Wilkins, who was a fantastic welder, was the first to the

such as Luther and Silent Witness leaned heavily on the

pumps. He couldn’t wait and there he was, lifting the

site, while feature films also called on the gritty, industrial

glass to his lips. He made eye contact with the camera


and before Terry even took a sip, he raced off sideways out of shot and threw it all away.”

“I’d often do beers for the crew and they loved the idea. Then they’d enquire about coming back to use the site

Not one to be defeated, Hatch spent many weeks

and also if I’d do another beer. Gladly!” says Hatch. “We’d

playing around with different recipes and ideas, with the

have anything from a zombie film to a gangster flick. With

question of ‘Well, is it beer-like?’ asked many, many times

buildings as old as 1724 right up to the late eighties, it was

by those involved. But it’s easy to track when the quality

no surprise we became so desirable.”

and consistency of the beer took an upward turn.

More than 120 productions were filmed there over

“I remember being paid a visit by an old colleague.

those eight years. So brewing with the sound of AK47

‘Wow,’ they said. ‘That yucca plant is still doing well.’ I’ll be

guns going off outside, or a building being blown up,

honest, I completely forgot it was there and I sure hadn’t

became the norm. But in 2014, it was announced that

been watering it. But he was right, it was doing great!”

Chinese group Greeland had bought the site.

says Hatch. But as my beers improved, the plant’s health

Its first venture in the UK, Greenland took on a site with

deteriorated. It was soon apparent that many beers has

brewing still very much part of its character. Much of the

been poured into that plant over the months. They kept it

area has changed beyond recognition with more than


600 homes being built on the old brewery grounds. But

The beers Hatch produced evolved, just as the plans

a working microbrewery and a brewery exhibition are still

for the former brewery site. As potential suitors eyed

very much part of the group’s plans as the housing build

up the land, Hatch was tasked with providing would-be

nears its end.

buyers with tours. On one such occasion, this involved liaising with Mark Cherry, then of UK-based company property developer Minerva. Not one to ignore such an opportunity, Hatch regaled Cherry with his brewing ideals and the plans he had. “Of all the interested parties, Mark was the one that

Brewing will be a firm part of central Wandsworth once again, just in a different guise. “I’ve seen the London brewing sector change. When the London Brewing Alliance was founded there was around six members,” says Hatch. “And one of those was Windsor & Eton, which was outside the M25. And now

showed a real interest in brewing. He found it fascinating

there are more than 100 members. What’s happened is

and was interested in my future,” he says. “I told him

marvellous and staggering.”

I wanted to stay in brewing, that it was in my blood.

The London scene will no doubt grow and develop

Thankfully they won the contract and he knew of my

even further but for Hatch, as long as he’s still brewing

plans to keep brewing on that site.”

then he’s more than happy to play his part.

Before long, they were clubbing together to buy the

“Paddy Johnson, co-founder of Windsor & Eton, came

ingredients and chemicals required for the ongoing

on a tour some years ago. He said I was very fortunate,

operation. Hatch would brew alongside his salaried

so I asked him why. And he simply told me that I’m

activities on site but the costs soon started to add up. It

able to brew what I want, when I want and without the

was time for brewing from the Wandsworth site to play a

commercial pressures that most breweries experience.

role in the community once again.

He told me that so many would want to be in my position.

“We started with an honesty box in the sample room and collected a few coppers. Small steps!” he recalls.

“And you know what? He’s right. I’m the luckiest brewer in London.”

Winter 2019


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D iastaticus

s c i e n c e

Diastaticus yeasts and their role in your beer Diastaticus yeasts can be used to produce complex and interesting beers, and Saison style beers are the perfect case in point. But we also have a responsibility as producers and consumers to take these yeasts seriously and to handle them appropriately, explains Robert Percival, regional sales manager at Lallemand Brewing

by robert percival


t seems a life time ago now but “The summer of

Saison flavour wheel

Saison” hailed the revival of a much loved and mysterious beer style, and arguably Saison style beers have been a staple favourite of the modern craft beer sector since, albeit a relatively specialist

niche style. Indeed, Saison style beers are certainly nothing new. On the contrary, this historical beer style has been brewed for centuries. Originally hailing from French-Belgian border regions (Wallonia in particular) this simple and thirst quenching farmhouse beer style was brewed in the winter months and consumed by sated seasonal farm workers (“Saisonniers”) toiling away in the height of the summer, what could be more refreshing? Traditionally, the recipe

Wallonia: The birthplace of Saison

composition of these beers has been quite simple (see overleaf for an example recipe with a modern twist).

advanced, so too has our appreciation for the darker

Simple grist and modest flavourings (with hops and/or

arts of fermentation. In this regard Saison yeasts, largely

spices) make way for the centre piece of the beer; the

defined by their high attenuation, are classified as


Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus. The ability to

Saison yeasts are revered for their complex aromatic and flavour qualities, offering something unique and complex; citrusy esters balanced with spicy peppery

ferment dextrins and starch not fermentable by other brewing strains presents a quality control challenge. Cross contamination with Diastaticus yeasts (not

notes and typical phenols we have come to associate

necessarily saison style yeasts) have certainly been

with Belgium in particular. They are top fermenting yeasts

making the headlines in recent times with some notable

that have high temperature tolerance and can be brewed

lawsuits ongoing in the US as well as a number of high

in ranges as extreme as 15-35C.

profile and public product recalls closer to home in the

As our collective understanding of yeasts has

UK in 2018, so very much a relevant and timely topic to

Winter 2019


s c i e n c e

D iastaticus

Mechanism of amylase activity α-Amylases Amyloglucosidases



Reducing end


Mechanism of amylase activity

The effects of over-carbonisation

Detection in beer

focus on. Once of the most serious threats that Diastaticus

provides body and mouthfeel) by hydrolysing both alpha

yeast poses to product integrity is over-carbonation, with

1,6 and 1,4 bonds one glucose unit away from the end of

the potential of excess CO2 evolution leading to gushing

the starch chain releasing free glucose into solution.

and even exploding final pack product. This article seeks to introduce and highlight the unique

This newly created glucose is then utilised by the yeast producing alcohol and CO2, which causes a very

nature of diastaticus yeasts, what they are, sources, how

high degree of attenuation (>90%). Diastaticus is also

they can be detected and how they should be handled.

known to be temperature and alcohol tolerant so can

Knowledge sharing and fundamentally understanding

be considered robust and able to survive in hostile

what we are working with as brewers is essential not only


to consistent product quality but also consumer safety. What is Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus? Diastaticus yeasts, a variant of S. cerevisiae, are

How Can I detect Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus? Herein lies one of the issues with Diastaticus

found naturally in a wide range of environments and are

yeasts, they are not always necessarily easy to detect.

also used in commercial applications such as brewing

Sources within the brewery can include packaging lines

and baking. Where they vary from typical ale strains of

(surprisingly >70% of reported cases), transfer hoses,

S.cerevisiae is that they crucially possess STA (1, 2 or 3)

pipework and in fermentation and cellaring areas. In this

genes. It is these genes that set Diastaticus apart and

respect hygiene is crucially important and working with

enable the yeast to produce and secrete glucoamylase

and seeking recommendations and best practice from


chemical suppliers can be invaluable.

This enzyme and mechanism is familiar to us and very

So, too, can the source come from raw materials;

relevant to Brut IPA, for example, as covered in November

ensuring a high quality and pure supply of yeast is of

2018 edition of the Brewers Journal (A Paterson, pp 58-62)

course essential. Does your yeast supplier include testing

as well as low carbohydrate and higher ABV beers. As

for Diastaticus as part of their QC release for example?

highlighted in last month’s Brut IPA article, this enzyme

Wild yeasts, including Diastaticus yeasts, have also been

acts upon dextrin material in wort (which typically

found on hops and something very relevant to bear in


Winter 2019

Brewers Journal Canada


D iastaticus

s c i e n c e

Modified Durham test

Windsor + Belle Saison - after five days

Windsor + Belle Saison - after 13 days

We can detect 10 cells of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus in one billion cells of brewer's yeast in two weeks

mind for breweries adding dry hops post fermentation

active, which can be more resistant to cleaning regimes.

and without pasteurising/sterilising final product.

Best practice CIP should be followed which can be

Two of the most common methods for detection of

further monitored by using cleaning controls such as

Diastaticus yeasts include plating on selective media

swab testing and ATP strips. If Diastaticus yeast has been

(LCSM or starch plates) and genetics (PCR detection of

used in primary fermentation (for example brewing a

the STA genes).

Saison beer) allow fermentation to fully complete before

One of the primary difficulties of such testing is that low

further processing and packaging, which could include

levels of Diastaticus can be incredibly difficult to detect in

allowing additional conditioning time to ensure complete

the presence of other brewing yeasts and so can be like

attenuation. Using dedicated equipment such as hoses

looking for a needle in a hay stack. There is no acceptable

and vessels and keeping these isolated from other beer

level of diastaticus in a finished beer – even single cells

production and streams is another option to consider in

can cause problems. Since Diastaticus yeast can be

limiting the potential of cross contamination.

active at very low cell counts, detection limits are set by the sample volume. For example, if there are 100 diastaticus cells per litre

Removal or inactivation of the yeast itself from the beer is another option to prevent re-fermentation and over carbonation and could be achieved via pasteurisation,

we would expect to have to sample at least 100ml of beer

filtration or specific separation (centrifugation for

before we would expect to find a single cell. As well as

example). For breweries that dry hop their beers one

plating and PCR, recent developments have been made

option could be to test incoming hops and to treat/

in using a modified Durham tube method (which has the

sterilise if necessary, though there would be the

advantage of being able to detect as little as 10 cells of in

obvious limitations of sampling and getting an accurate

1 billion brewing yeast cells) and similarly the Ankom test,

representation of a batch/crop of hops.

in which fully attenuated beer is inoculated with sample

Whereas we have a responsibility as producers and

yeast to test for further attenuation. A summary table

consumers to take yeasts like Diastaticus seriously and

outlining these key methods along with their respective

handle appropriately, this is not to say they should not be

pros and cons can be found in the best practices

used in brewing. On the contrary, Diastaticus yeasts can

summary page overleaf.

be used to produce complex and interesting beers and

How can contamination and over carbonation be prevented? Cleaning and sanitation is the obvious area to focus

Saison style beers are the perfect case in point. As continuation of this article our best practices guide to Diastaticus can be found overleaf and we have als

on. Inadequate hygiene in the brewery can lead to

included an example recipe for a Saison style beer. Happy

formation of biofilm where Diastaticus yeasts have been

(and safe) brewing!

Winter 2019


Best Practices

Diastaticus What is S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus?

But when handled correctly, S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus is a magnificent yeast that can produce great flavors and beers.

What are common sources of diastaticus contamination?

Gravity (°Plato)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus is a variant of S. cerevisiae that possess STA (1, 2 or 3) genes. These genes cause yeast to produce and secrete glucoamylase. Glucoamylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages in dextrins. This then produces smaller, simple sugars that the yeast can take into the cell, which causes a very high degree of attenuation (>90%). Diastaticus is also known to be temperature and alcohol tolerant.

Diastaticus is found in many environments. Because of this, cleaning and sanitation are highly important. We encourage you to speak with your local chemical representatives to establish a cleaning and sanitation regimen conducive to your brewery and specific needs. Sources: • Poor Hygiene - Bottling/canning lines (>70% of reported cases)* - Brewhouse - Fermentation cellar - Storage cellar • Raw Materials - Yeast - Hop (dry hopping) Name


Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation vs S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus

How can I detect it? There are a handful of options for detection of diastaticus - lets focus on plating, PCR, overattenuation tests, and monitoring. There is no selective media yet available to distinguish diastaticus. The methods provided below are other options, but each have their own challenges. Description



LCSM Plates

Lin’s Cupric Sulfate Medium – used for the detection and quantitative determination of wild yeast populations in brewing culture yeast.

• Low cost

Starch Plates

Plates with high starch content - S.cerevisiae cannot ferment starch but S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus can – will see growth if diastaticus is in sample.

• Low cost

PCR Genetic Test

PCR is a common laboratory technique that can detect the presence or absence of specific DNA fragments.

• Fast and specific results

• Initial investment required (approx. $10k) • Non-quantitative • Low sample volume

Real time PCR (qPCR)

Real Time PCR is a more sensitive PCR technique that quantifies the amount of the targeted DNA that is present in the sample.

• More sensitive than regular PCR • Faster than regular PCR • Quantitative results

• Higher initial investment required (approx. $50-80K) • Low sample volume

Modified Durham Test

This is a simple test that is run by adding 1g or 1 ml of yeast to fully attenuated beer and monitoring possible gas production over 2 weeks.

• Low cost • Can detect small amount of diastaticus cells (ex: 10 cells of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus in 1 billion cells of brewer’s yeast)

• Long waiting time – up to 2 weeks • Dry yeast might give false positive results due to metabolism of internal sugars • Low sample volume

Ankom Test

A shake flask test, Similar to modified Durham test for 25g sample.

• Shorter wait time; • Larger sample volume (25g vs 1g of Modified Durham Test)

• Intracellular storage carbohydrates will produce gas as well and can give false positive results due to metabolism of internal sugars

• Non -diastaticus strains can grow on this media which can produce false positives • Low sample volume • Low sample volume • Only detects presence or absence

Notes: For packaging breweries – Run sensory & monitor beers over time – have a beer library available to screen; check the alcohol and CO2 levels. Take any off flavors into consideration as a contamination. Documentation is highly important to notice any deviations. * Meier-Dörnberg, T., Jacob, F., Michel, M., & Hutzler, M. (2017). Incidence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus in the Beverage Industry: Cases of Contamination , 2008 – 2017, 54(4), 140–148. For more information, you can reach us via email at


Belle saison 10hl Belle saison 10hl Recipes

Step 1

Step 2


Liquor Step 1 Final Kettle Vol

Litres 900

Evaporation Rate

Beg Kettle Vol




3.1 Litres

Mashing in Liquor Final Kettle Vol Lauter Beg Kettle Vol

583 900 0 1000

Sparge Liquor L:G Total Liquor Mashing in Liquor

717 3.1 1300 583

evaporation amount




Lauter Sparge Liquor


Total Liquor


Extract (kg):

Weight of Malt (kg)

Step 2Gravity/Plato Original


malt Colour (Lovibond)

3 to 11

Original Gravity/Plato


BME (premised)

evaporation Evaporation amount Rate

BME (premised) Type of malt Colour (Lovibond) Pils

100 0.10

Flaked Wheat




Sparge Temp

172 °F

78.0 °C

Conversion Temp



Strike Temp Step 3 Sparge Temp



Sparge acid




Conversion Temp

temperature 162 72.0

Strike Temp


Type Step 3


Pils 170.13 Flaked Wheat 22.12 Yield Colour (L) Colour contribution TOTAL 192.25 0.697 3.0 3.3





% of Grist

Extract (as-is)


TOTAL Colour (L)

3.6 Colour contribution







Flaked Wheat






Font Legend Font Legend

Sparge acid none

Kettle Boil Time: 75 Min alpha-acid

170.13 22.12 133,16 192.25 Weight of Malt (kg)


0.860Extract (as-is) % of Grist 0.893 to 11 0.81

temperature °C

Pils Flaked Wheat Extract (kg): TOTAL



Type of malt



boil time (min)


3.6 Temp

Gravity/Brewing parameters Water Malts Temp Hops parameters Gravity/Brewing Yeast Water Malts Hops

IBUs: 23

Hop Additions: 5 utilisation %

IBU (%)

Irish Moss @ 30 min before knock-out: 50 G Yeast (1g per 20 l kettle full volume)

IBU contribution

weight of hops (g)



0.200 Hop Additions: 5

0.880IBUs: 23

Irish Moss @ 30 min before knock-out: 50 G 20.24 569

Green Bullet







0.13 alpha-acid 0.07 0.16

whirlpool boil time (min) whirlpool 75.00

0.050 % utilisation 0.050 0.200

0.030 IBU (%) 0.030 0.880

0.69 IBU contribution 0.69 20.24

weight 96 of hops (g) 177 569

0.13 0.12

whirlpool whirlpool

0.050 0.050

0.030 0.030

0.69 0.69

96 104

Galaxy Type Motueca Columbus Pacific Jade Green Bullet

Kettle Boil75.00 Time: 75 Min

(1g per 20 l kettle full volume)






0.69 TOTAL

96 1041








Pacific Jade Step 4











YeastStep Type/Number 4

Belle Saison

Fermentation Temp


Yeast Type/Number

Belle Saison


For more information. you can reach us via email at

Fermentation Temp


For more information. you can reach us via email at

• Non-filtered • Dry hop @ 3 g/liter blend of: galaxy (40%), motueka (40%) and pacific jade (20%)


• Non-filtered • Dry hop @ 3 g/liter blend of: galaxy (40%), motueka (40%) and pacific jade (20%)

Winter 2019


S c i e n c e

F oam

Think Foam Positive Foam is a defining characteristic of beers across the globe, with different cultures embracing different styles of beer foam. Just think of the dense nitrogen-enriched stout heads, frothy German lager coifs, and Belgian beers poured with foam so ample and meringue-like, it persists until the last drop (we’re looking at you, Orval). However, foam is also an oftenoverlooked property of beer, but foam quality may make the difference between an okay beer experience and a truly great one. explains Richard Preiss co-founder of Escarpment Laboratories

produce more foam than a standard force carbonated ale. When foam is formed, the inevitable process of collapse begins. However, the rate of foam collapse is highly dependent on the foam’s stability. When a foam collapses, bubbles within the foam burst and are absorbed back into the liquid phase of the beer. Some beer pouring strategies intended to promote stable form involve pouring beer, then waiting a half minute before pouring more beer, to encourage a thicker foam “cap” with less potential for collapse. A controlled rate of foam collapse is important. Since foam contains beer, and its associated aroma molecules, a stable foam is capable of releasing the flavour of the beer in a more controlled manner, ensuring a better drinking experience throughout the whole pint. We’ll often see the evidence of a good foam on our glass of beer – the beer leaves behind traces of foam called lacing on the glass with each sip.

by Richard Preiss


here is a lot of pretty cool science surrounding beer foam, so we are going to walk through some of the highlights and finish up with some practical tips to enhance beer foam.

Foam is, at its most simple, a mixture of gas and liquid.

The frothy details


here are many compounds present in and near beer which can be foam positive or negative to the beer. The main foam-relevant components of

beer are proteins, particularly two proteins called LTP1 and protein Z. This sounds complicated, but essentially

In the case of beer foam, we are talking about a mixture

LTP helps to form foam in the beer, while protein Z and

of CO2 (or beer gas) inside bubbles of beer. Beer foam

other grain-derived proteins help to stabilize the foam

has two major properties: foam formation, and foam

once it has been formed. The intricate balance between

stability. When carbonated beer is dispensed, foam is

different proteins and other molecules helps explain why

produced as a result of CO2 bubbles released by the

we see so many different types of beer foam, from lacy

pressure reduction. The more nucleation points (cracks,

and delicate to dense and rocky!

imperfections, etchings) in the glass, the more CO2 will

All ingredients impact the quality of foam. For example,

be released from the beer. Usually, the CO2 will pick up

hop iso alpha acids have a big influence on foam

some surface active compounds along the way (such as

quality. Hop suppliers have noticed this and have even

proteins, polysaccharides, etc), which help to stabilize the

developed specialized hop extract products which can


aid foam stability such as tetra- and hexa-iso hop extract.

You can’t make stable foam in a glass of water –

In general, higher foam stability can be achieved from

these surface active compounds are required for foam

beers with a higher wort protein and hop iso alpha acid

stability. Both foam-positive compounds and soluble

content. Other wort components can also play a role in

gas are important for the overall foam quality of a beer.

foam quality. Polysaccharides have a role in stabilizing

In general, the more CO2 in solution in the beer, the

bubble size, while melanoidins can also promote foam

greater the capacity for foam formation. This is why bottle


conditioned Belgian beers with high CO2 pressure tend to


Winter 2019

Of relevance to the juicy IPA crowd, there is some

Brewers Journal Canada

F oam

S c i e n c e

evidence that polyphenols can negatively impact foam,

surfaces and prevent them from draining, helping to

since they can bind with proteins that may otherwise be

stabilize foam. There are a couple other similar proteins in

foam-positive. Recent hop research even shows that

ale yeast, but not much is known about them (yet)!

different hops can have positive or negative effects on

You lost me

foam quality! Foam is very complicated, and no single ingredient is a silver bullet for optimal foam.

Foam and our favourite fungus


understand, this stuff gets complicated. Brewing science is a rabbit hole! Ultimately, we can boil all of


ven yeast plays a major role in beer foam quality.

this down to factors which are foam-negative, and

those which are foam positive, admitting the current

When beer (and the yeast that fermented it) is

limitations of science to explain everything that is

aged, the yeast can sometimes enzymatically


break down LPT1, which can lead to decrease in foam

If we want to maximize foam quality in the brewery, we

stability. This is especially common with yeast which

can taking what we’ve learned as an example. We could

is experiencing poor nutrition and being starved in the

use a small amount of flaked grain in an all-malt grist,

bottom of a big tank. Unhealthy yeast can lead to poor

mash using a step mash in short steps (just enough to


achieve conversion). We could also use a good dose of

Beyond unhealthy yeast ruining foam, some yeasts even have the ability to enhance foam – lager yeasts

hops As you can see, this regimen can be quite flexible as to

contain a gene called CFG1 (Carlsbergensis Foaming

the beer style – this would work equally well for a saison

Gene). CFG1 is a mannoprotein (sugar-containing) on

as it would for a lager! In fact, it might be even better with

the surface of the yeast cell, which can “stick” to bubble

a lager yeast, since these yeasts naturally aid foaming.

Winter 2019


date s


e v e nt s


Victoria Beer Week is a nine-day festival showcasing BC craft breweries in unique event settings.

January 26, 2019

Winter Craft Beer Festival Roundhouse Park, Toronto February 15, 2018 - February 19, 2018

Winter Brewfest Ottawa Lansdowne Park, Ottawa February 23, 2019

Williams Lake Craft Beer Festival Thompson Rivers University Gymnasium


Winter 2019

March 1, 2019 - March 9, 2019

Victoria Beer Week Various venues, Victoria, BC March 8, 2019 - March 9, 2019

Fredericton Craft Beer Festival Fredericton Convention Centre March 22, 2019 - March 23, 2019

Northern Ontario Microbrew Festival Caruso Club, Ontario

Brewers Journal Canada

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