The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Autumn 2017

Page 1

The magazine for the canadian brewing industry

Brewers J o u r n a l

Autumn 2017 | issue 6 ISSN 2398-6956

BRUNSWICK Brunswick Bierworks opening doors for breweries through partner brewing

40 | ocb conference 2017All you need to know

50 | cowbell putting blyth on the brewing map

58 | why training is key to your brewery

Mash, Wort, Trub, Ale, Lager, Liquid Gold; No matter how you say it, it’s all fluid to us. With over 70 years of experience controlling and monitoring fluids of all kinds (yes, even steam and glycol) we have the know-how and expertise to maximise the efficiency of your brewery. Better yet, we can design, build and fully automate your dream, state of the art brewery completely in house. Let us show you how we can make your ideas flow.


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Mash, Wort, Trub, Ale, Lager, Liquid Gold; No matter how you say it, it’s all fluid to us. With over 70 years of experience controlling and monitoring fluids of all kinds (yes, even steam and glycol) we have the know-how and expertise to maximise the efficiency of your brewery. Better yet, we can design, build and fully automate your dream, state of the art brewery completely in house. Let us show you how we can make your ideas flow.


(905) 632-3033


le ad e r



elcome to your new look Brewers Journal Canada! The brewing industry continues to grow, develop and innovate. New breweries are opening, existing breweries are expanding and drinkers are being treated to fresh takes on muchloved beer styles, while others are pushing the boundaries even further. With that in mind, we caught up with Scott Simmons, the new president of Ontario Craft Brewers on the eve of the association's annual conference, the Ontario Craft Brewers Conference and Suppliers Marketplace. Simmons took on the role in August and, as someone who previously held the role of vice president of marketing and development at The Beer Store, has strong views on the future of brewing in Ontario and beyond. "I am excited about the future. Having spent seven years in this industry previously, it’s incredible to witness the growth that has taken place in the time since,” he explains. “Back then I was probably dealing with less than 20 breweries. Sure, growth has been gradual but in the last three years it has really exploded.” Simmons tells us: “What I find amazing is how people’s tastes and interests have developed. So many people drink craft beer now. People want quality, they want provenance, something unique. And people want to learn. The art of making good beer is such a science and I still see tremendous growth here in educating and informing people of the skill that goes into that. Looking at Ontario, craft beer accounts for roughly 6% of the market but I see no reason why it can’t triple that in the next five or ten years. That can happen through informing and educating people.” Though fresh in the role, Simmons is ready for the association’s sixth annual conference. For new brewers looking to make their mark in this

editor's choice How Brunswick Bierworks is bringing partner brewing to Canada. And with it, lots of fantastic beer - page 32

growing field, Simmons has some words of advice. "Beer is a tough business to crack as it’s capital intensive, and there is a lot of expertise and knowledge needed. Lots of smaller businesses need help and education. You need to be looking and thinking about the whole picture. There are hurdles, sure, and there is a lot of competition in places like Ontario from mainstream brands and imports, too,” he adds. "But we have a very thirsty audience, There is a science and art to making beer. Wine has done so well in romanticising their product, its production, the provenance and how it pairs with food, too. The same opportunity applies to beer, whether that’s for local consumers or on a larger scale when it comes to things like tourism. These opportunities exist.” I hope this issue of the Brewers Journal help inform and educate. We will continue to develop with this fantastic industry. Thanks again for all of your support. Tim Sheahan Editor

Autumn 2017


co ntac t s

contacts Tim Sheahan Editor +44 (0)1442 780 592 Richard Piotrowski Canada Bureau Chief +1 647 975 7656 Jakub Mulik Staff photographer Jim Robertson Head of sales +44 (0)1442 780 593 Johnny Leung North American Sales +1 647 975 7656 Jon Young Publisher Reby Media global head office 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

SUBscriptions The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing:

CANADA One year: $39 International One year: $49 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Buxton Press Ltd, Derbyshire, UK.



Autumn 2017

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 23986948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

Brewers Journal Canada

“A fine beer may be judged with one sip, but it’s better to be thoroughly sure.” - Czech Proverb

We couldn’t agree more. So you focus on making great beer, and let us take care of your packaging needs. Let’s talk.

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co nte nt s

contents 66





Cover story 32 - Brunswick Bierworks is on a mission to revolutionise the beer landscape in Canada, opening doors for breweries both local and overseas.

COMMENTS 15 - First Key on building a brewery 19 - Mason Personal talk trademarks 22 - The Food Safety Alliance on ATP testing 24 - CarbonTap look at draught maintenance 26 - Assurances Palldium Insurance take on the issue of contract brewing 28 - McLean Hallmark look at contamination 30 - NDL Keg put the spotlight on kegs

Sector | training & education 58- Ensuring your team has access to the best training and education available to them are essential facets of any progressive, forwardthinking business. The brewing industry is no different. We look at some of the best on offer

science | management 66- Escarpment Laboratories talk yeast management and the best techniques to utilise

show preview | OCB Conference 40 - All the talks and exhibitors not to miss at the the sixth annual OCB conference

science | basic alcohol 72- Gary Spedding from BDAS on why it is key to have alcohol and extract info on hand

Meet The Brewer | cowbell 50- How Cowbell is putting Blyth, Ontario well and truly on the brewing map with a 26,000 square foot destination brewery


Autumn 2017

science | yeast 79- Renaissance BioScience ask whether yeast can undergo an industry hop-like explosion

Brewers Journal Canada



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n e ws

Muddy York opens taproom M

uddy York Brewing Co has opened its new taproom, featuring an eleven-foot high tap tower, made from

mid-century hydraulic pipes and boasting twelve taps from which a rotating roster of beers will flow. The vintage industrial space, has been constructed from mainly salvaged materials, and designed by brewery co-owners Jeff Manol and Susan Michalek. The taproom pours beers such as Gaslight Helles Lager and Storm Glass IPA, alongside seasonals including Haberdasher Hefeweizen and Brick Maker Common. In addition to bottles for sale, visitors can purchase 12oz pours of whatever is on tap or can choose to sample beers in a flight of four 5oz glasses. The team is also promising a few surprises as well; with “big” beers that aren’t often available in the Muddy York Bottle Shop, as well as beers on cask. “Opening a taproom has been a dream since I established Muddy York Brewing Co. in 2013,” explained brewer and proprietor Jeff Manol. “It’s the perfect way to showcase the many varieties

She said: “We believe that this will become a destination for fans of craft beer and their families to

of beers that we brew here, and it allows us to interact

sample our product line as well as a place for events,

directly with the community.” Michalek added.

corporate gatherings, and private parties.”

Fernie Brewing launches Fresh Hop Pale Ale


ernie Brewing Co has taken the wraps of the second

seasonal treat even more exclusive. If you see some on the shelves chances are they won’t be there long so make sure to snap it up if you want to be sipping some this fall.”

annual release of its early autumn seasonal.

Fresh Hop Pale Ale is a 6% beer available in 650ml

bottles. It is dry hopped with Cascade from Red Tractor Farms in Skookumchuck, which results in a Pale Ale with distinctive hop aroma and bitterness, showcasing the floral, spicy and citrus characters of Cascade. The brewery explained: “Fresh hopped beers aim to showcase a different aspect of hoppiness, relying on

Lake of Bays Brewery announces new brewhouse


ake of Bays Brewery has officially announced the launch of The Huntsville Brewhouse.

The brewhouse, which follows more than a year of

highlighting the crisp fresh flavours that do not overload

planning, will feature an extra-small batch brewing facility

the senses. In comparison to typical hoppy beers, a fresh

that will include a full kitchen and seated capacity of 70+

hopped beer showcases the delicate and is reminiscent


of newly cut grass, or citrus that has been just peeled. Yep. We are talking that fresh. “The key to achieving this bright flavour is timing. In order to earn the “Fresh Hop” status, the hops must be picked, transported, and brewed within a 24 hour window.

Street-facing windows that draw up to welcome in the fresh air, and the potential to open a sidewalk patio, this is sure to be a new favourite in the downtown core, the company said. They added: “You can expect all of your Lake of Bays

This usually means a long, sleepless night for brewers but

favourites plus experimental one-offs and seasonals as

the final product is undoubtedly worth it.

we let our brewers go wild with six 6 HL fermenters. We

“The complex process of creating a fresh hop beer means that it is brewed in smaller batches, making this

might even bring back a few favourites …. (Mocha Porter, anyone?).”

Autumn 2017


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Moosehead Breweries to open new small batch brewery


aint John-based Moosehead Breweries has

opportunity to enjoy fresh beer on the floor of the new

confirmed it will open a new brewery and taproom at


its existing Main Street West site in May 2018. The small-batch brewery will feature a 20-barrel

The small-batch brewery will serve as the beginning and end point for Moosehead Brewery tours, that the

brewing system and a 3-barrel pilot system, allowing

company started offering in June 2017. More than 1,000

the company to create new beers in smaller quantities

visitors have taken part in tours so far.

for offer at retail, on-site in the tap room or at bars and restaurants. “As a company, we’re excited to have the flexibility to experiment in ways that can be difficult within our primary brewhouse,” explained Andrew Oland, President and CEO of Moosehead Breweries. He added: “We have a talented team ready to bring

The new brewery, while will result in new hires at the company, follows a decision by Moosehead earlier this year to park plans for a small-batch brewery on the Saint John waterfront. “The entire team at Moosehead has worked incredibly hard to bring our small-batch vision to life in a way that I know is going to delight both new and existing

incredible new innovations to life and I can’t wait to

Moosehead fans,” said Karen Cousins, director of brewery

introduce these new beers to Saint John and to Canada.”


According to the company, the new small-batch brewery will provide “a complete Moosehead experience”. The brewery will feature a retail store, growler fill

She added: “Housing the new small-batch brewery within our historic brewery allows us to uniquely bring together our past and our future as one of Canada’s

station and a selection of Moosehead merchandise for

leading brewers, and reaffirms our commitment to our

sale while an on-site tap room will give drinkers the

Saint John home.”

The Exchange Brewery takes wrap off latest vintage

well as a surprising, but very pleasing fruitiness. It has more yeasty esters on the nose, with a nice dry finish. I find it more complex and compelling now,” said


iagara-on-the-Lake-based The Exchange Brewery has taken the wraps of its latest Belgian Pumpkin

Christine Nagy, brewer at The ExB. To compare, the new 2017 Pumpkin Ale is more pumpkin-foward and sweeter, without being too


The beer, which is from its Vintage Reserve Series is lightly spiced, brewed with loads of pumpkin and aged in large oak casks. The Belgian Ale has then been bottleaged for a year, building increasingly complex flavours. A recent tasting panel revealed that the Vintage brew

overwhelming. It shows earthy notes and delicate hints of vanilla. Younger, it displays less Belgian ester and the hints of cloves and cinnamon are more subtle as well. With a medium body and moderate carbonation, it is a well-

kept its subtle pumpkin profile and built extra layers of

rounded pumpkin ale, perfect for the Fall season, the

spice and esters. It developed an assertive carbonation as

brewery said.


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

trusted by

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Black Oak Brewery Rebrands


lack Oak Brewery has rebranded the tallboy cans it

‘Canadiana. Stripes & Canoes’ theme that would evoke

sells in the LCBO and grocery stores.

painted paddles, hiking trails and the Great Outdoors.

undertaken a full revamp of its website.

in 473ml cans earlier this year available exclusively in

The Toronto, Ontario-based brewery has also Black Oak Brewery has worked with designer-

Love Fuzz was the first brand to receive the new look the Black Oak retail store, followed by Beat the Heat in

illustrator Cai Sepulis to evolve from its “dated branding”

June that was available in LCBO’s and grocery stores.

to an innovative design that taps into their Canadian roots.

Revamped Pale Ale and Nut Brown will now be available

The original inspiration for the new brand overhaul came from our great outdoors- cottage life and camping adventures with a fresh, retro colour palate and unique

to consumers as of this week in LCBO and grocery stores across Ontario with 10 Bitter Years to follow. Black Oak Brewery has also revamped its website,

fonts to give off the feel of a hand painted cabin sign, they

working alongside Kyle Hosick and Chris Elsworthy from


Addrenaline Media to create a new site to showcase the

Black Oak says the original plan was to go for a

NSLC details beer and cider discovery events

new branding.

wood can be imparted on a beer with one of Halifax's original craft breweries, North Brewing, and one of its newest, 2 Crows Brewing.”


he Nova Scotia Liquor Corporation has outlined a

The following Wednesday, October 18, Emily Tipton &

series of events designed to craft beer and cider.

Henry Pedro, beer engineers /co-founders, Boxing Rock

“Discover the world of wine, spirits and beer in this

event series led by industry hosts. In each week of the

Brewing Co focus on ‘(Un)traditional Autumn Beers’ “What makes an autumn beer? Do seasonal beers

series, you’ll have the opportunity to learn from a different

have to follow the seasons? Learn all about autumn

expert and experience a guided tasting of unique

seasonal beer varieties, then challenge that information.

products they’ve selected,” they explained.

This fits with the Boxing Rock Brewing Co's tag line that

Taking place through October, three events cover

our products are both Legendary and (un)traditional,

the disciplines of barrel aged beer, unfiltered beer and

helping customers to think outside the box and have fun

Autumnal beers.

learning and trying NS Craft Beer,” they explain.

On Wednesday, October 11, Peter Burbridge, North

And October 25, Jeremy White, founder and

Brewing Co. & Mark Huizink, 2 Crows Brewing look at

alesmith of Big Spruce Brewing Co, looks at unfiltered,

barrel-aged beer.

unpasteurized beer.

The organisers said: “Today, many craft brewers are

They said: “Since the beginning, Big Spruce has

using wood to influence the flavour and aromatics of

focused on using as many local ingredients as possible,

their beers, by aging them in barrels. Barrel-aged brews

which includes hops grown on their farm, and their own

can represent the height of a brew master's talent and

water which is rich in mineral content, and particularly

passion, as it makes for the most complex expression

suited for hoppy and dark beer styles. Learn more about

possible in terms of the aroma, taste, mouth feel and

this certified organic brewery in a session with its founder

finish. Learn more about how the unique character of

and alesmith Jeremy White.”


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

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Krones' Craftmate success K

rones, the German equipment manufacturer, has

with the filler modelled in an open design and therefore

experienced ongoing success with its Craftmate can

easy to clean. On a space front, the filler, in addition to the valve rack

filler, the company said this month. The machine has a new pitch circle diameter of 1,080

and the seamer, have a “very small footprint” with the

millimetres, for the small output range of 12,000 cans an

electronic component cabinet being directly connected

hour when filling 16-oz cans.

in a space-saving configuration.

Krones explained that the new filler was designed

Krones added: “The latter also accommodates the

with stringent requirements on oxygen pick-up, filling

pneumatic control system for the compact-design valve

accuracy, CO2 consumption and hygiene.

rack, which, together with the product tank, is located

Features of the machine include; the insertion of

directly behind the filler, with the seamer right next to it,

CIP cups by hand before cleaning, while ann automatic

which is electronically block-synchronised by means of

external foam-cleaning feature or a hot water flushing unit

servo technology. “The newly developed can filler for craft beer has been

can be integrated as optional extras. “During the development work, care was also taken

conceived as a volumetric machine with 24 filling valves.

to ensure that filler and seamer can be shipped in a sea

Three pneumatic diaphragms each serve for controlling

container, so as to keep the transport costs down. This

the filling process.

means that the first-time user receives an affordable

“The generously dimensioned machine doors make for

machine in the field-proven Krones quality right from the

optimum access to the filler room, and a Krones touch-

start, plus the service support that comes with it,” the

screen with operator prompting ensures ultra-simple

manufacturer added.


The Craftmate filler can, for the first time, be operated

Finally, the machine has been dimensioned for filling

without lifting cams. This reduces the number of

cans in the 211/202 standard format but can also be

components, and enhances the machine’s accessibility

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Through rectification technology, Newlands has helped Cowbell Brewing Co. make a big impact on the North American brewing industry and the environment. This new technology reduces their total evaporation from a typical 6% down to 2% while still achieving the same volatile extraction and flavour profiles. The reduction of evaporation means they can brew more beer using less energy and less water. Newlands - Building with Passion, Engineering & Craftsmanship.


1 . 8 7 7. 8 5 5 . 4 8 9 0

B uilding


B rewery

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Bring the South to the North Building a brewery means developing a detailed business plan and careful consideration through the design, build, and start-up phases. Lynn Mcllwee and Michael Tysarczyk from First Key Consulting walk us through these essential stages and how they implemented them with Andina Brewing Company, a South Americaninspired brewery that is a destination in Vancouver’s beer scene.

without cutting corners,” explain Andrés Amaya. As the process started it took months of searching for the Amayas to find a site – a 107-year-old building in the heart of East Vancouver’s burgeoning brewing district. The attractive location and a facility with ample room for growth made the place a “perfect” fit for the brothers. Selecting an older building created multiple challenges for the team, but one-by-one the Amayas worked with First Key to find the right solution for each issue. The brothers knew if they cut a corner or overlooked a problem early on it would harm their ability to deliver a consistent, high-quality customer experience, which remained their vision for Andina thoughout. By gaining a deep understanding of the Amayas’ vision

by Lynn Mcllwee & Michael Tysarczyk

and goals for Andina, First Key provided guidance that allowed the brothers to focus their time, effort, funds and other resources on the things that mattered most.


That included recommending the right brewery layout

ancouver, British Columbia is surrounded by

to fit the building and meet expansions plans. First Key

majestic mountains and rippling water, not unlike

also prepared the brewery equipment list, including

Colombia, the birthplace and long-time home of

the process, packaging and utilites requirements, and

brothers Nicolás and Andrés Amaya. Consequently, the Amayas felt at home when they

then sourced and procured the equipment on behalf of the brothers. Given the volume projections for their first

arrived in B.C. in 1998. As they explored the scenic terrain

five years, the choice was made to purchase a 20 bbl

they also became curious about new beers, trying as

brewhouse to meet near and long-term plans.

many local offerings as they could find at the time. Soon

Building a brewery that focused on sustainability was

they were enjoying beers from across Canada, captivated

also an important part of Andina’s mandate. Their spent

by the bold new flavour profiles.

grain is used as animal feed, as many breweries do, but

Along the way they mentally took notes – and started

they didn’t stop there. Andina is the first brewery in the

to plan what would become Andina Brewing Company,

world to use a self-contained heat pump, the Pirahna,

a South American-inspired brewery that is now a

developed by International Wastewater Systems. It

destination in Vancouver’s beer scene.

uses a heat exchanger to extract thermal energy from

The story of how the Amaya brothers turned their dream into reality is a study in persistence, planning and partnership. Nicolás and Andrés launched their

wastewater which is then recycled and used for domestic hot water heating for the building. As construction progressed, the Amayas worked

efforts in 2014 by piecing together a high-level plan for

on a brand and marketing plan. A key step in bringing

Andina. Without the know-how to build a brewery, they

together the brewery’s overall story was a foundational

sought the advice of local brewery owners and industry

branding workshop that was facilitated by First Key’s

professionals. This included partnering with brewery

Commercial Services Director in Vancouver.Working

consulting firm First Key, which assisted them with the

with Andrés, Nicolás and Claudia Amaya, Andina’s

project, from developing a detailed business plan and

Communications and Marketing Director, the group

through the design, build, and start-up phases.

outlined the brewery’s purpose, vision, core values and

“There is no doubt that without the assistance of the

brand attributes combining the Colombian roots of the

local breweries and First Key, we would have had a bigger

brand with the unique nuances of the Vancouver market.

challenge on our hands. Our main objective since we

To complete the picture, First Key also connected with

started this enterprise was to do things the ‘right way’

Andina’s Colombia-based branding expert Lucho Correa

Autumn 2017


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B uilding


B rewery

and designer Leo Espinosa of Salt Lake City to ensure

India Pale Ale that features hints of honey and prominent

alignment of the brand.

aromas of citrus and tropical fruit. The other three flagship

The core of the brand is reflected in the brewery name

beers, or principales, are the Totuma Kölsch, which is their

- Andina refers to a woman from the Andes, the famed

best seller, Melcocha Andean Mild Ale and the Ay Ay Ay,

mountain range that runs through Colombia and down

a flavourful Pale Ale. Andina worked with First Key on the

the western side of South America. The name would

beer development, which included trial brews, tasting and

represent the Amaya family’s history and culture. Beer,

analysis to compare to the original intent. Recipes were

malt and mountains all have feminine references in the

updated and re-brewed as required to get the optimum

Spanish language. As the Amayas describe it, “Andina is


feminine, innovative, majestic, vibrant and friendly!” Fast forward to 2017, and take a drive in what is

Andina’s Head Brewer, Andrew Powers, collaborates with Nicolás on recipes that can include fruit only found in

affectionately known as “Yeast Van” because of the influx

South America, panela (raw, unrefined whole-cane sugar)

of breweries. A bright yellow building adorned with a

from Colombia and malt from Patagonia Malt, which has

vibrant 30’ x 60’ mural of Andina’s “La Pola” girl greets

cultivated and malted barley in Chile since 1896. Though

visitors as they venture down Powell Street. This building

the focus on South American ingredients adds some

has become a landmark in Vancouver not only for its bold

complexity to the supply chain process, the flavours they

colour, but for the culture and hospitality it shares with its

impart make Andina’s beers distinctive.

community. The Andina brewery is not only unique from an

Case in point: the use of panela. After some experimentation, Andrew, a Siebel-educated brewer

architectural standpoint, but also for the feeling of family,

trained in Germany, determined that when it is paired with

home and warmth that envelops visitors. The music, the

certain malt, it enhances the natural flavours and shortens

conversation and the lively ambiance all stand out, as do

fermentation time.

flavorful brews such as the Melcocha Andean Mild Ale

Seasonal beers are released every couple of months

and South American snacks, including plantain and yucca

and often focus on fruit from South America, including

chips. The tasting room inhabits the charm of the Amayas’

lulo, a fruit that has green pulp and a citrus flavour.

Andean heritage with traditional art, crafts, clay pots and woven baskets accenting the décor. This is the atmosphere that the Amaya family has

The Amayas have given the same care and attention given to the food offered at Andina, which is 100% organic and ocean friendly. Customers are treated to a perfect

created with their new brewery, which has become a

fusion of eight kinds of ceviche (seafood, vegetables

popular location in the local beer scene as well as with

and fruit “cooked” on citrus juice instead of heat), based

Vancouver’s South American community.

on traditional recipes from Ecuador, Peru and Colombia

“Working with the Amaya family, the design intent

- all created by Andrés Amaya. The plantain and yuca

was to create a space that brought Colombian culture,

chips are served with a Colombian sauce that is an

textures, landscapes and atmospheres into the heart of

interpretation of salsa as well as homemade Arepa,

Yeast Vancouver. A wood and steel screen that wraps the

which are corn patties and cheese served with Hogao (a

space and the splashes of bright colours on the bar are

warmed Colombian sauce).

derived from Colombian textile patterns. The bar itself

Andina’s merchandise also embraces Colombian

is shaped and located to encourage the vibrant social

culture. In addition to the usual growlers, shirts, toques

interactions and hospitality that Colombians are known

and hats, the brewery offers a beautiful sombrero-style

to exemplify.” says Bill Uhrich, Simcic + Uhrich Architects,

hat and bracelets made from organic material and hand-

who were the Project Architects for Andina.

crafted specifically for Andina.

Andina’s brews also reflect their passion for flavourful

The collective efforts of the Amayas has led to Andina

beer that is approachable to the novice beer drinker.

providing a great customer experience that treats visitors

The Monita Blonde IPA, one of four flagship offerings,

to a warm atmosphere, great beer and a peek into their

is a great example. It is a lighter take on the standard

rich cultural history.


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

T rademarks

Co m m e nt

DIY Strategies for Creating and Protecting Distinctive Names and Marks One of the necessary ingredients to a great brewery is a distinctive name, and the recipe for a distinctive name includes creativity, searching its availability and setting it up for legal protection, explains Cynthia Mason, trademark lawyer at Mason Personal Corporation.

be good names, because they appear coined in a predominantly English or French market. Names that should be avoided include descriptive words, geographic names, or words and terms that are a play on other known brands, titles or characters. From the outset, these kinds names face challenges. They aren’t unique identifiers that customers can use to distinguish between competitors, and in the case of a name that is a play on another brand, title or character, there is a risk of liability for trademark infringement. Even

by Cynthia Mason

if an infringement suit has little to no merit, a bigger and better funded complainant may still make a claim on the


ou can always count on an entrepreneur to

chance the smaller defendant will cave under the threat of litigation.

add creativity to the mix, and when it comes to

Seach and search again

searching the availability of a name and legally

protecting it, that’s where a lawyer or trademark agent can add real value. But lawyers and agents can also add real costs. To maximize on your legal budget and avoid the bitter taste of wasted search costs, follow these simple naming principles and DIY search strategies. The best names are original or coined words that have


nce you have a great name in mind, the next step is to conduct searches to see if it is available for your intended use.

There are various levels of searches available. A

no dictionary definition and have never been used before.

lawyer or trademark agent can provide you with a

Words that have meaning but are completely arbitrary

comprehensive search that covers trademark and trade

in relation to the business or product can also serve as

name registries, as well as other private databases, with

distinctive names. Foreign language, non-descriptive

additional investigation into any potentially relevant

words that have no geographic significance can also

references. This level of search is the most inclusive

Autumn 2017


Co m m e nt

T rademarks

available, and it is recommended before launching any

name is available as a .COM and a .CA is, therefore, a

new name or mark.

must. If these domain names are available, register them

But before investing in a comprehensive search,

immediately. A short 1-year term is inexpensive and will

you can conduct a few very basic searches (for free!)

put a hold on the domain name for your future use. If you

to quickly see if your proposed name is already use.

ultimately decide on a different name, you can always let

If your searches don’t turn up any obvious obstacles,

the registration lapse.

you can then work with a professional to conduct a

If the .COM or .CA of your business name is not

comprehensive search and gain a greater level of

available, take a close look at how it is being used. Is it

assurance that the name is available and unlikely to lead

being used by someone in a competing or related field? If

you down a rabbit hole of potentially costly legal troubles.

you think your customers would visit the website and be

These free preliminary searches are all done on

confused, you could be risking lost future revenues when

publicly available databases that are easy to navigate.

your customers can’t easily find you online. Even worse,

Included below are links to these databases and

you could be risking a trademark infringement or passing

instructions for DIY searching a proposed name or mark.

off suit from that website owner. The Internet is the largest publicly available database

Trademark register

of words and terms in use anywhere in the world. Running Google searches for your name, or your name along with the generic name for your business or products (e.g. beer,


he trademarks database of the Canadian

brew, brewery), should give a good idea in the first couple

Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) is available

of pages of results if the name is already in use. Any

online here, and it includes all registered

online references to the name can be examined closer

and pending Canadian trademarks. The database is

to see if they relate to a competing or related business or

searchable by a range of fields including trademark,

product, or if they show commercial activities carried on

owner and goods or services. A solid beginning strategy

in Canada. The internet may be borderless, but trademark

is to search your proposed name in both the trademark

rights are only enforceable in the country or countries

and trademark description fields. You can also narrow

where there is actual trademark use, meaning where

the search results by Nice Classification, which is the

branded products are sold or services are provided. The

internationally accepted system of classifying goods and

use of a mark in Australia, for example, may not affect the

services in trademark applications. The most relevant

legal availability of that mark for your use in Canada.

Nice classes for breweries are Classes 32 (beer and

For every trademark or trade name reference that

non-alcoholic beverages), 33 (wines and spirits), and 43

comes up in your searches of the Trademarks Register,

(providing accommodations, food and drinks).

online dictionaries and the Internet, ask yourself how the reference affects your marketing plans. Is the name or

Online dictionaries and domain names

mark used by another brewery? Or is it used in a related field, such as on wines, spirits or other non-alcoholic


beverages? Are consumers likely to think that your

uick searches of any online dictionary, such as

businesses or beverages are in some way related? Or, Urban Dictionary and Wikipedia,

would the reference create a negative connotation for

will tell you if the name has any descriptive

your name or your beer?

meaning in relation to your business or your beer, whether

If you answer yes to any of these questions, you should

intentional or not. Descriptive words are not capable of

re-think the proposed name. If your preliminary searches

trademark protection under Canadian law, unless they are

have identified obstacles, it is quite possible, even likely,

combined with other distinctive words or designs. CIPO

a comprehensive search will only confirm the name is not

and the courts take a negative view of companies who

available. Its easier and a lot less expensive to start with a

seek to monopolize words and terms that are commonly

name that has no potential conflicts or risks of trademark

used in an industry to describe products or product


attributes. Think you can own “craft” for use on beer? Think again. Every business needs a website, and it just makes

Once you have a great name and you know it is available for your use, set it up for strong legal protection by filing a trademark application. Then you can focus

sense for your domain name to consist of or contain

your attention on brewing a distinctive beer to match that

your business name. Searching whether your proposed



Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada


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02-10-2017 15:01:13

Co m m e nt

S anitation

Monitoring Sanitation in Breweries Using ATP Testing There are many ways of ensuring that the sanitation procedures have done a good job of cleaning the equipment and the brewery to get it ready for production. Of course nothing can substitute for ensuring that the employees have the right chemicals, equipment and manpower to do the job properly in the first place but it is still necessary to monitor the effectiveness, explains Adam Brock, president of the Food Safety Alliance.

remains after cleaning. ATP is used to trigger a reaction between the compound luciferin and the enzyme luciferase. This causes a flash of light to occur and is exactly how a firefly blinks light. Sometimes the test is called the Firefly Test. Several scientific supply companies sell kits for monitoring sanitation using this technique. The kits contain a small hand-held luminometer, an instrument which measures light output. Special swabs are also supplied which contain all the necessary reagents. The selected surfaces are swabbed using a prescribed technique and inserted into the instrument. No special preparation is needed. The amount of light is generally measured in some sort of Relative Light Unit (RLU) reading. The higher the reading, the more ATP was

by adam brock

present. Therefore a high reading indicates a surface that contained either a lot of micro-organisms or residual particles or likely both. In addition to surfaces the test can


anitation procedures have changed over time.

also be employed on rinse water samples to check on

Traditionally this was done by visual inspection;

Clean-In-Place (CIP) systems.

however it is also wise to use other methods. The

use of ATP testing is an example of just such a method. What is ATP testing? All living cells, including

What are the advantages of ATP testing? As just noted there is a wide range of applications. The major advantages are the rapid result, generally in in a minute

micro-organisms, contain universal energy molecules

or less, and the ease of use. Many companies have

called Adenosine Tri- Phosphate (ATP). It is present

the brewers do the testing as a way of ensuring that

in food and beverage residues, too. This makes it an

equipment is clean even before applying sanitizer. That

excellent indicator of whether a surface is clean. Using

way corrective action can be taken if necessary. The test

something called bioluminescence (production of light

is also very inexpensive.

by a biological process) we can measure how much ATP


Autumn 2017

Many of the kit suppliers will have pre-set limits on the

Brewers Journal Canada

S anitation

Co m m e nt

RLU reading to define what is good or bad but it is wise

cleaned properly it’s very hard to keep flavours consistent

to also do preliminary work in each brewery or even each

and often leads to off flavours.

particular tank or vessel. to set your own limits based on what is necessary for your particular needs. ATP testing should not entirely replace doing microbial swab testing since this is related to the effectiveness of

Cheap chemicals by the drum can lead to very expensive in use cost or inefficient cleaning. ATP can verify your in use cost vs price per drum. For Example: A brewery who was running a product (blended

the sanitizing step as opposed to the overall cleaning.

caustic) that retailed for $350 per drum ($1.71 per L) at

Microbial testing is also needed to check for specific

2%. Once we swabbed with ATP we found we had to run

organisms. Since the ATP testing does not differentiate

in excess of 5% to achieve desirable results. 100 L’s of

the source of the ATP it is not possible to always compare

cleaning solution should cost $3.42(at the manufacturer

plate counts to RLU results. Generally breweries find that

recommendation of 2%) in chemical but once verifying

in only about half the cases is there agreement.

with ATP to achieve the desired result the actual in use

Another advantage of ATP testing is the ability to track and trend data using either built-in or stand- alone

cost was $8.55 (5%) in chemical. We replaced the $350 per drum product with a $500

software provided by the supplier. This allows the user to

per drum product ($2.44 per L) and verified with ATP. The

pin down hot spots and trend the overall picture. Some

higher priced product achieved slightly better results at

software even allows for easily interpreted visual graphs.

only 1.5% compared to the cheaper product at 5%. 100 L’s

ATP is a great way to do a heads up comparison of

of cleaning solution using the higher priced product was

the common chemicals used in breweries. In the past

$3.66 in chemical. Even though the product was $150

we’ve seen many low cost chemicals come to market and

cheaper per drum to achieve the same results the cost was

although they leave the tanks and vessels visually clean

actual $4.89 higher for every 100L’s of cleaning solution.

the ATP tells a different story. ATP also allows you to dial

Food Safety Alliance is presently evaluating an ATP

in the best concentrations with your current supplier. You

testing kit. We intend on being able to show customers

may be running you chemicals at a higher than needed

both the benefits of using ATP tests and the better results


using our cleaning compounds and procedures. Contact

When selecting a chemical supplier for your brewery be sure to verify the chemicals work at the recommended

us for further details. In summary, the use of a highly sensitive and

concentrations. Visual checks are a first indicator but

repeatable test such as for ATP will save you time, money

not verification. If your tanks and vessels are not being

and ensure a strong sanitation program.

Autumn 2017


Co m m e nt


Up Your Game As consumers demand more for their money, it is time for the Canadian draught beer industry to step up and deliver. Your beer deserves better, your brand deserves better, and your customers will thank you for it, explains Mike O’ Brien owner of Ontario’s CarbonTap.

cleaning procedures. Unfortunately, old habits die hard, and without legal mandate to require otherwise, many long standing licensee owners are reluctant to change their cleaning standards, often citing “cheap” and “fast” as reasons to stick with the status quo. In the case of draught quality, and cleaning standards, the age old adage of “you get what you pay for” could not be more accurate. While Mechanical Recirculation Cleaning is quite common in the U.S, most draught lines in Canada are unfortunately still using the Pot & Kettle method to clean

by Mike O'Brien

their lines. With Pot & Kettle cleaning, a cleaning pot is used to pour a caustic/toxic chemical in to the lines and left to sit stagnate for 20 minutes, before flushing the lines


or a brewery, cleaning and sanitation are an integral

with water (hopefully) and re packing the lines with beer.

part of it’s day to day operations, and a critical

Pot & Kettle cleaning is little more than a warm bath for a

factor in its ability to control quality. The last thing a

beer line, and is simply ineffective at adequately cleaning,

brewer wants is for anything to come in contact with the

and does very little at removing or preventing the build

beer, causing any off flavourings that could negatively

up of organic materials that accumulate inside a draught

impact its flavour and aromas, or effect the overall quality

system. Pot & Kettle cleaning also allows for cleaning to

of the beer.

be done without removing beer faucets. One look inside

Unwanted yeasts, bacteria, microorganisms, and other

a faucet that has not been disassembled and cleaned in

organic/inorganic materials, can potentially ruin a batch

quite some time is enough to convert most people in to

of beer, spread throughout the brewery and contaminate

bottle drinkers.

brewing vessels, and equipment. But for so many

Mechanical Recirculation on the other hand, uses a

breweries, the ability to control quality ends when the

pump to recirculate cleaning solution and water through

product leaves the door. By the time its in the consumer’s

the draught system at a higher than normal pressure.

hands, how it ultimately tastes, is left up to a number of

The goal with Mechanical Recirculation is to isolate as

various factors, from transportation, storage, delivery,

few lines as possible, while maximizing the total number

and in the case of draught beer, how clean the draught

of circulations in the 15-minute cleaning period. The

system is, that its being served through. Regardless of

increased effectiveness of Mechanical Recirculation

whether the brewery, or the licensee pays for the line(s) to

allows for the ability to use non-toxic, non-caustic,

be cleaned, the brewery’s commitment to quality should

environmentally friendly cleaning products, and allows

extend to the licensee level.

the technician to circulate water in a direction counter to

Although most people have likely never given it a

the normal direction that beer travels through the system.

thought, many might be surprised to know, that unlike

It is the constant, high pressure, mechanical circulation,

food storage and handling regulations, or the standard

as well as the added ability to agitate (creating air bubbles

of quality a commercial kitchen must follow to pass a

in the system) that allow for a much more volatile, and

health inspection, at the time of this article, there are no

effective method of not only breaking down the softer

laws or regulations in Canada, that mandate the quality

materials, like proteins and yeasts, but the more difficult

or cleanliness of a draught system. Unlike other countries

minerals, like calcium, or beerstone, that build up on the

around the world, along with many states across the U.S,

inside of your draught lines over time.

there are no laws or regulations that require a draught

The term “line cleaning” itself, is problematic, as it

system to be built to any specific quality or standard, or

minimizes the scope of what we’re trying to achieve

to be cleaned or maintained in any way, let alone to any

during cleaning. As in the brewing process, cleaning,

specific frequency, standard or process.

and quality control should be a focus at every step of

Canada’s draught beer industry is an unregulated black art, with varying degrees of quality, standards, and


Autumn 2017

the process – with draught system maintenance, this includes ensuring that any part of the system that comes

Brewers Journal Canada


Co m m e nt

in contact with the beer must be of a certain quality, and must be cleaned as part of regular draught maintenance. With every cleaning, beer faucets should be removed, disassembled, soaked and scrubbed. Shanks, couplers, and foam on beer detectors (FOBS) should all be cleaned thoroughly and on a regular basis, to prevent the growth of mould, yeasts, bacteria and minerals. Beer lines inside the cooler, between the FOBs and couplers should also be changed out on an annual basis. Beer is a consumable product, and while dirty draught lines are highly unlikely to cause serious illness, the sheer fact that something won’t kill you, should not excuse a breakdown in quality control, or hygiene. Until laws or regulations are passed to mandate the quality and cleaning processes of draught systems, or until such time as health inspectors have it as part of their inspection mandates, licensees in Canada face no penalties for non-compliance, and have no other motivation to clean or maintain their draught systems for any reason other than their own personal morals, or values in providing their customers with a clean, fresh, and safe product. Ultimately, it is the brewer’s beer being served through these lines. Leaving the cleanliness, and ultimately, the reputation of your beer and brand, in the hands of a licensee, may ultimately prove to be more costly than the surprisingly affordable cost of having your lines maintained on a regular basis, and to a standard that is sure to leave your customer with a positive experience. Over the last few years I’ve been witness to a slow but steady movement, from people on all sides of the industry, who believe in, and appreciate the importance of setting a higher standard for draught quality. With so many new craft breweries popping up every month, today’s beer landscape is growing increasingly more crowded. In an industry with so many varying degrees of standards and practices, more and more breweries, bar and restaurants are looking for any way to set themselves apart from the rest of the pack, often turning to social media to promote their higher standards of draught quality. Ultimately, the breweries that set themselves apart

Mike O’ Brien is the owner of CarbonTap, a company that builds draught Towers and installations as well as MEchanical recirculation/agitation line cleaning. He

from the rest, will be the ones who provide a consistent,

us currently completing his Prud'homme Master Beer

and quality product. As consumers demand more for

Sommelier Program, and is a Prud'homme Instructor.

their money, and brewer’s demand more for their beer,

O’Brien was a Guest Speaker at the Master Brewer's

it is time for the Canadian Draught Beer industry to step

Association of the America's Technical Conference on

up and deliver. Your beer deserves better, your brand

Draught Quality and Line Cleaning Standards. They work

deserves better, and your customers will thank you for it.

with a number of breweries across the Province.

Autumn 2017


Co m m e nt


Insurance for Contract Breweries Contract Brewing is here to stay, and growing in popularity. The unfortunate reality is that sometimes-bad things happen to good brewers; taking reasonable steps to protect the business is prudent. By and large property insurance is inexpensive and easy to obtain, so there is no excuse to go without. Speak to your insurance advisor and make sure that all bases have been covered, explains Greg Strahl, commercial insurance specialist at Assurances Palladium Insurance.

Who owns what?


nderstanding which party is responsible to insure the replacement value of stock, packaging and raw materials is important. Let’s say there is a fire

at the production brewery and the damage is extensive; equipment has been destroyed, and the business is shut down for several months while the brewery is re-built. In addition to the equipment there is also finished product that is destroyed, including that of the contract brewer. How will the contract brewer recover from its financial loss? The production brewery more than likely has insurance coverage for it’s own equipment and inventory, but unless it has been specifically addressed the property belonging to the contract brewer will NOT be covered.

by Greg Strahl

The contract brewery should take out insurance to cover it’s own property (e.g. Kegs, Packaging, Finished product awaiting delivery, merchandise, raw materials, etc.


Interruption in business

o, who made this stuff anyway?’ If you ask that question of the average craft beer drinker they probably think the answer is as plain as the hops

in their IPA, but those in the industry know that it is not that simple. Today, a growing number of craft breweries concern themselves only with recipe development, marketing, sales and distribution of the beer. The actual


n the scenario above, the production brewery has been shutdown due to an insured loss (fire). It will be at least six months until that operation is back up

and producing again. The contract brewery is also now

production is “contracted” out to a brick-and-mortar

shutdown with no facilities from which its product can

brewer with additional, unused brewing capacity. This

be manufactured. The contract brewery may be able

type of brewer is what The Brewers Association defines as

to mitigate it’s losses by finding a new host brewery;

a “contract brewer.”

however, that may take several months to arrange during

There are a few key considerations to be made

which time the lost revenue will surely be felt. Let’s not

that can affect both the contract brewer as well as the

forget that the original production brewery is probably

production facility that will manufacture the product, and

also seeking a new partner for production of its own beer.

they are as follows.

It may not be possible to obtain sufficient capacity within


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada


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Meet our newest innovation– the mACS

the immediate geographic area to accommodate the needs of both breweries. The resulting loss in revenue is insurable under a property policy that includes “contingent business interruption” coverage. This should be discussed with the insurance advisors of both the contract brewer and the host facility.

Avoiding potential legal woes


e recommend that a formal agreement be established between the contract brewery and the production facility. Among

other things, this contract should contain a “bilateral

Co m m e nt

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indemnification” clause – which is a fancy way of saying, “I won’t sue you, if you don't sue me.” As a part of this clause both parties can agree to waive their rights of subrogation against the other. Without such a waiver it would be possible for the insurers of one party to attempt to recover any losses that have been paid against the 825+ customers and 46 countries

other. For example: let’s say the insurer for the contract brewery pays for a loss of product following a fire at the host facility. By contract that insurance company is now in a position to sue the host brewery to recover what it has paid to its client. This scenario is likely not what either the contract brewery or the host brewery had in mind when they decided to join forces and can be easily avoided with the right contractual language. This agreement will need to be disclosed to the insurers of both operations. Contract Brewing is here to stay, and growing in popularity. The unfortunate reality is that sometimes-bad things happen to good brewers; taking reasonable steps to protect the business is prudent. By and large property insurance is inexpensive and easy to obtain, so there is no excuse to go without. Speak to your insurance advisor

Contact us today


Official supplier of Ball Corporation for the supply of printed aluminum cans to our customers

and make sure that all bases have been covered.

Autumn 2017


Co m m e nt


Contamination: Know the Risks The battle against contamination has been waged since the first batch of beer was brewed. Up until recently, it was a matter of simply keeping bacteria and wild yeast out of the brewery. But now sour beers are bringing contaminants into breweries ushering in a new era of precautions, explains Stephen J Smith, Managing director of McLean Hallmark Insurance.

yeast infect an otherwise delicious beer, making it taste downright funky (and not in a good way.) Contamination has always haunted breweries. The processes of making beer are extremely inviting to the invisible creepy crawlies that would corrupt your craft. In response, beer makers have gotten pretty good at sanitization and processes that prevent contamination. Unfortunately, it’s becoming harder than ever before. The recent explosion in sour beer popularity is causing contamination headaches for a lot of breweries looking to jump on the trend. Unlike conventional styles, sours actually require the carefully monitored application of bacteria and wild yeasts to give the beer a pleasant and

by Stephen j smith

refreshing sourness. But what goes great in a Gose tastes awful in an amber ale. And once you’ve introduced a contaminant, even one


o, who made this stuff anyway?’ If you ask that

brought in intentionally to your brewery, it poses a risks to

question of the average craft beer drinker they

all other beers you brew.

probably think the answer is as plain as the hops

in their IPA, but those in the industry know that it is not

Here’s what you need to know about beer contamination and how to avoid it.

that simple. Today, a growing number of craft breweries

Causes of beer contamination

concern themselves only with recipe development, marketing, sales and distribution of the beer. The actual production is “contracted” out to a brick-and-mortar brewer with additional, unused brewing capacity. This type of brewer is what The Brewers Association defines as a “contract brewer.”


et’s take a minute to meet the bad guys of beer -- in this case, bacteria and wild yeast. While plenty of breweries ruin their own beer by with the over

There are a few key considerations to be made

plication of hops or the addition of cheap flavouring,

that can affect both the contract brewer as well as the

plenty of great craft beer falls to prey to the insidious

production facility that will manufacture the product, and

infection of microbials. Now, if you know anything about

they are as follows.

beer you’re not put off by a bit of yeast. In fact, you’ve

When you’ve poured your heart and soul into

probably come to appreciate its fruity expression in

something, you’re bound to be highly invested in it turning

saisons and belgian ales -- not to mention the fact it’s

out right. Like a cook with a collapsed souffle or the

the reason you get a buzz! But there’s a big difference

parent of a rebellious teen, brewers hate to see their beer

between conventional brewers yeast and the wild variety.

go bad.

Brewer’s yeast has been carefully selected to behave a

Unfortunately, it’s enormously common, and growing more so. We’re talking about contamination -- the kind where unwanted micro-organisms like bacteria and


Autumn 2017

certain way and remain highly predictable throughout the process. Wild yeast is a different beast. And while bacteria and beer are becoming more

Brewers Journal Canada


Co m m e nt

frequently acquainted with the sour trend (Lactobacillus,

from ever coming in contact in the first place. Make sure

for instance) most varieties ruin beer completely. Even

everything remains covered during the brewing process

Lactobacillus becomes a nightmare if it infects non-sours

to minimize exposure to undesirable yeast.

in a brewery. The problem is outside of airtight Nasa labs,

Prepare for the worst

bacteria and wild yeast are all around us in the air and on unclean surfaces. Without taking the proper precautions, it’s all too easy to lose an entire brew. Thankfully, there are steps that can be taken to mitigate the likelihood of contamination.

Science of sanitation


hile contamination is far from a foregone conclusion, it nonetheless remains an unfortunate likelihood for beer producers.

Even with all the sanitization and careful anti-contaminant steps taken, your beer might become infected.


Massive breweries like Budweiser can survive the

he number one thing brewers can do to avoid

massive loss of product contamination can bring. But for

losing their beer to contamination is keeping

smaller, independent breweries a major hit like that can

everything sanitary -- and we mean EVERYTHING.

cause financial ruin. If you’re going to enter the brewing

From the tanks and tools to the water used in the brewing process, everything should be as clean as can be. This is

game, you need to take precautions. That’s why insurance companies offer protection

just as important for homebrewers making beer in their

against contamination and a variety of other beer-related

basement as it is for Molson.

incidences. Having the right insurance through a trusted

As mentioned above, the popularity of sours is forcing

broker will allow for peace of mind in case the worst really

breweries to go to even greater extremes to avoid

does happen. It’s best to look for insurance experienced

microbes. In addition to simply sanitizing, breweries

in the industry, and truly understands your business too.

are segregating their sour beer brewing facilities,

You might lose a round of beer, but at least you won’t

encouraging employees to avoid travel between different

lose your livelihood. The battle against contamination has

parts of the brewery, and asking brewers to wash their

been waged since the first batch of beer was brewed. Up

clothes on a daily basis. If nothing else, this goes to show

until recently, it was a matter of simply keeping bacteria

just how easy cross contamination can be.

and wild yeast out of the brewery. But now sour beers are

In terms of cleaning, an acid wash is the go to method

bringing contaminants into breweries ushering in a new

to deal with bacteria. As annoying as bacteria is, it’s

era of precautions. With proper sanitization and ensuring

more easy to combat than other microbes because the

minimal exposure to airborne wild yeast, breweries can

low-oxygen process of making beer is already difficult

feel pretty confident they’ll avoid contamination. But even

for most strains to survive. Combined with a good acid

the most thoroughly prepared brewers will occasionally

wash, most breweries have gotten pretty good at keeping

have to deal microbial infection

bacteria out of your beer (although of course accidents

The key is to plan for the worst. Beer can be brewed

do happen.) Unlike bacteria, wild yeast is airborne. And

again, but only if you’ve got the resources to start fresh.

worse, it does fine with minimal oxygen and can survive

By purchasing adequate insurance, you’ll have the safety

acid washing. Sanitization is still important, but for dealing

net you need to survive and prosper in the event of

with wild yeast you’re going to want to prevent your wort

accidental contamination.

Autumn 2017


Co m m e nt

K eg

D istribution

The Keg Conundrum Delivering a quality product to the consumer should be the number one priority for a brewery and kegs are ultimately the easiest way to do that, explains Nic Syzdek, national sales manager at NDL Keg.

information to ensure their kegs will endure many rigorous cycles. Normally, warranties cover improper corrosion and welding, though they typically don’t protect brewers from standard wear and tear or improper use.

To rent, own or rent-to-own


he main advantage of buying kegs over renting

by Nic Syzdek

is the final price, but you also control your fate! There are no lost keg fees or monthly payments,


your kegs can be fully customized to improve brand ome might think making beer is the hardest part

recognition and you can generate maximum revenue

of owning a brewery, but kegging and distributing

from your asset immediately. A brewery can expect a keg

beer is a challenge on its own. On average, brewers can

to make at least three or four turns per year, so brewers

expect to lose roughly five percent of their precious kegs

typically make well beyond their return on investment.

every year. There is no best answer to managing a fleet, which is

The keg rental or lease model can be beneficial to many breweries of various scale, especially for those

why so many different models and suppliers are available.

short of capital. Brewers new to distribution with an

Just like any business, breweries have no guarantees on

unknown history of consumption in the market benefit

ROI, but brewers can take steps to combat keg loss and

from the flexibility of renting kegs. Renting does come

reduce sunk costs. On the other hand, suppliers should

with disadvantages such as long-term commitments to

aim to provide brewers with options and information to

volumes starting at 18 months. Rental kegs typically do

make informed decisions. Between rental agreements,

not include customization options, and the lease cost per

rent-to-own models and buying kegs outright, brewers

keg is estimated to be roughly 10-13 cents per day. At this

have a number of options. Some breweries are content

rate, breweries could outright purchase a new keg in two

with managing a small keg fleet and self-distributing

or three years.

to local accounts. Others have a drive to distribute

Many suppliers are now offering rent-to-own models,

nationwide and require logistics support and an expansive

which can be a good option for cash-strapped breweries,

keg fleet. Despite the distribution network, breweries and

but the final cost is typically well above standard

distributors face the challenge of retrieving kegs.

purchase prices. Another model is pay-per-fill, which

There are steps brewers can take to combat asset

gives a brewery flexibility regardless of how fast the keg

loss and hang on to their shiny kegs. The most common

turns. However, breweries pay rental fees per fill, which

tactic is customization - it’s a lot harder to sell or rent a

tends to make a noticeable cut to margins, especially for

keg with a massive logo or brand name that isn’t your

small-scale breweries.

own! Some of the most popular keg customization

Despite the ownership model, delivering a quality

options include embossing a brewery name into the top

product to the consumer should be the number one

chime, electro-chemically etching a permanent mark of

priority. Kegged beer is not exposed to elements such as

your logo into the keg body, color striping the body of

harmful UV rays that can damage flavor profiles.Kegging

the keg in company colors or silk-screening a custom

beer is the most sustainable practice for breweries

mix of graphics and text around the keg. In an industry

and recommended from an environmental standpoint.

filled with crowded taprooms and distribution centers, it’s

For new breweries, kegging also has lesser up-front

important that your kegs stand out as unique to improve

equipment costs than bottling or canning.

the chances of making the journey back to your brewery. Manufacturer’s warranties are another factor in

Distributing kegs and dealing with keg loss can be a challenge, sure, but kegs are ultimately the easiest way

preventing loss. Most companies offer a warranty from

to distribute your tasty brew to the masses. (And who

one to 30 years long, so buyers should always request

doesn’t love a kegger party!).


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

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steve mason - • TeL.: (905) 802-2337 Visit:


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B runswick

B ierworks

Strength in Numbers Brunswick Bierworks is on a mission to revolutionise the beer landscape in Canada. The team’s aims are simple; to foster growth, open doors for breweries both locally and overseas, and to bring Canadian drinkers beers that are as fresh as they are diverse.

on innovation, quality and growth. Their proposition is to enable breweries to expand distribution in the most efficient and cost effective manner, working together to establish packaging requirements, sales & marketing strategies, a route to market and a distribution plan, as well as the ability to explore new export opportunities. And earlier this year, Laba and the team asked themselves a question, how do you take a well loved Dutch Trappist beer and add innovation and relevance

by Tim Sheahan

to a market of consumers who are local-centric and are constantly focused on what’s next and new? The Craft Brand Company has been importing La


Trappe beer for nearly four years. The beers are brewed e canned our first beer on July 16th

by The Netherland's De Koningshoeven Brewery. The

2016. From then to December, we

Craft Brand Company has helped the brand grow

produced 36 different beers and a

throughout retail and on premise, developing a loyal

ton of different styles, too. We did a

following in the process. This relationship allowed the

lot. Things have only gone upwards

team, through the Brunswick Bierworks operation, to

since then,” explains Mike Laba. Laba is the co-founder

attract La Trappe’s Brouwmeester, Lodewijk Swinkels,

and brand director of The Craft Brand Company and

to Canada for a collaboration brew with their own senior

Partner & Vice President at Brunswick Bierworks.

brewing advisor Christian von der Heide.

For someone with nearly 20 years’ experience building

All the more impressive considering this was,

companies and brands within the Canadian beer industry,

according to Laba, the first time the Trappist brewery has

Laba and his team have been vindicated with their

engaged in a brew outside of their monastery.

decision to take the plunge and make the Brunswick Bierworks vision a reality. “We have always had this vision, even before the first shovel hit the ground. To build a strong roster of breweries from Canada, the US and across the globe, to have them

The two great brewing minds developed a New World Double Bock. A beer distributed throughout Ontario and the US with proceeds going to support La Trappe’s efforts at the Kyotera Hospital in Uganda. “For it to actually happen with La Trappe here, was

here, in one room, and watch things happen. And we’ve

a real pinch me moment,” explains Laba. “But now we

done that,” he explains.

have this facility, we are reaching out to the guys we are

Brunswick Bierworks does not brew its own beers. It is a partner brewing business that has a firm focus


Autumn 2017

importing. We are having a new conversation asking if they want to take that opportunity and brew fresh beer

Brewers Journal Canada

B runswick

B ierworks

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here in Canada. For companies like Weihenstephaner and

production runs, plus a smaller pilot brewing system

La Trappe, we just tell them to come over and have fun."

(20 hectolitres) which provides flexible small batch

Brunswick Bierworks offers a full roster of advantages

production capabilities for contract brewers wanting to

to breweries looking to grow their presence in the

introduce, develop and refine new products, as well as

Canadian market.

offer seasonal one-off beers brewed in collaboration with

Laba says: “When we first conceived this model and asked ourselves what we were hoping to achieve, it was

Brunswick Bierworks. Access to high-end canning equipment like that from

to give global brewers a Canadian home for brewing in

Krones was a must from the get-go for Laba and the

the market, to provide excess volume to Ontario brewers


with strained capacity, to act as an incubator for new

“Ontario is so hot on cans. One reason for that is

brands and to create a collaborative brewing hub for our

because the LCBO said that they wanted tallboy cans


so craft breweries started doing tallboy cans. More got

“We knew that the immediate opportunity was through

accepted and the whole landscape got skewed from

breweries here in Ontario. There is rapid growth among

6pack bottles to tallboy cans. For consumers, it’s a

the craft beer segment in Ontario and there are a lot of

great shopping experience. You can try lots of different

interesting new entrants. We want to help people that

products, it can be harder as a brewer to move volume

want to brew at their own facilities further down the line.

but in craft, people like to sample and trial. The barrier to

We have provided a solid runway for a few breweries en

entry is a lot lower as a result,” he says.

route to their own facilities by helping brew quality beer,

And lowering that barrier to entry is part of the core of

build the brand, generate sales, find investors and build

what Brunswick are doing. One such brewery it is bringing

their own breweries.”

to Canada is Omnipollo, the well-regarded outfit based in

Just look at Cowbell and Bench that represent many millions in capital investment in their communities and

Sweden. We brew Omnipollo Zodiak every three weeks and we

the creation of around 175 jobs. These are case studies for

sell that in the LCBO. It is our fastest growing brand. It’s

our model; we provide a stable runway for the next wave

an IPA that checks every box. The aroma is spectacular

of strong Ontario craft breweries,” Laba explains. “We

and the mouthfeel is great. True to all Omnipollo beers,

brewed for those breweries throughout the development

it is flavourful and really drinkable. With Omnipollo,

of their own breweries. In this new world of partner

Henok started with two beers; Zodiak IPA and Prodromus

brewing, it is really interesting that in the span of a year,

Imperial graham cracker chocolate chunk caramel bar

we have helped launch and establish brands that will

stout. We send Henok samples throughout the process

represent a major investment into the Ontario brewing

from fermentation to packaged product. He has tweaked


a couple things in subsequent batches and now the beers

Brunswick Bierworks is a big operation, evidenced in the high-end equipment setup at every point around

are spot on,” says Laba. While the beer itself is doing the talking, the team has

the brewery. The was enabled through raising $12m of

not taken any shortcuts when it comes to promoting the

combined equity capital from a private investor and senior

beer, and its origin to drinkers.

debt through National Bank of Canada. “MNP Corporate Finance acted as exclusive advisor to

“With import clients, we are overtly clear to customers that the beer being brewed here and why. In launching

us in arranging the private placement and securing the

Omnipollo, we made it known we were doing it here. It’s

debt capital. They were instrumental in the buildout and

on the can, and I think we make it clear. With that, it was a

we can’t thank them enough,” Laba enthuses.

good case study for us. We launched it in 15 bars, we did

This investment has allowed the team to install brewing capacity that currently sits at 100,000hl in addition to a Gruber kegging line and a 24 head rotary

server training to inform them on the style of beer, and to present the story and why they do it,” he explains. "“So then we launched it at the top LCBOs, we went

Krones line that can output 250 cans a minute, kit Laba

to their beer ambassadors, we presented the story and

describes as a “workhorse”.

it resonated well. We now have a template, and that’s

The brewery team comprises a talented lineup that features senior brewing advisor Christian (Augustiner,

something we can now build upon.” Laba adds: “When working with us, freshness is a

Guinness), head of brewing operations Evgeny (Baltika/

component for breweries, for sure. But the distribution

Molson) and their head brewer Colin (Steam Whistle).

and access to this market is the big one. It’s a challenge

Under them, Brunswick has nearly 10 brewers forming

for import breweries to get access to market, have

part of a 25-30 staff

events and that level of activation, while getting them to

Its brewery setup has a main production facility (50 hectolitres) for higher volume contracts and licensed

market in a timely fashion. Our model provides a world of opportunities that helps overcome that.”

Autumn 2017


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B runswick

B ierworks

Freshness is very important, but distribution and access to this market is a huge draw Mike Laba, Brunswick Bierworks

Brunswick Bierworks encourages its partners to take a

hands-on approach, so to have full confidence in the beer being produced at the facility. “For our Ontario breweries, they come in for each

have a contract for that," he adds. . Doing different beers with different breweries is now the goal for Laba and the team going forward. “In this first year, we have landed some great clients,

batch because they want control, or want a presence

but it’s about setting a foundation and pushing on. But

during the process. Others will leave us on it after several

going forward, the growth will hopefully come quicker.

batches. The big thing here is that we have a centrifuge.

Some guys are dream partners and they are now

That makes such a difference for so many people, and

reaching out to us,” he explains. “They are hearing great

often we are told that the beer we are making for these

things and want to see the facility. It’s a world class facility.

companies is actually better than what they can produce

It’s brand new, considered and seeing some sizeable craft

at their own facilities,” Laba tells us. “We take the time

brewers from the US being impressed. That is the phase

to understand the recipe, how a partner brews it and

where we will see some top tiers coming in and doing

we have the confidence to say where it can be tweaked

some really volume. Even some BC brewers want to shift

to improve stability, and improve results. We have

production to here for the Ontario market.”

developed experience and a track record." And when it comes to ingredients, nine house yeasts

He adds: “With craft brewers opening up around the world to be closer to a market, it takes a lot of the risk out

are available along silos that house Canada Two-Row

and brings people closer to their audience. We want to

malted barley and Superior Pilsner malt. For a brewer

reel in the US guys and give them that access so people’s

using Brunswick, of which there are 19 at the time of

perceptions of pricing and freshness change. We are

writing, all malt speciality or from silo is included but

also asked if we are creating new competition for local

brewers source their hops.

business but we are opening the doors for collaboration

“The only reason we did that out of the gate is because hop availability is a tricky game and if a brewer wants 10000hl of an IPA that only uses Galaxy, they need to


Autumn 2017

and we want everyone to grow. “We feel we are a savvy business group but ultimately, we are still beer nerds.”

Brewers Journal Canada

Craftmate #GermanBlingBling #Craftmate

We do more.

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Education and Innovation in Ontario This October, the sixth annual Ontario Craft Brewers Conference & Suppliers Marketplace 2017 comes to The Beanfield Centre at Toronto’s Exhibition Place. The region’s top brewers, decisionmakers, thought leaders and supporters will gather in Toronto for a full day of education sessions, networking, and a suppliers marketplace with more than 100 exhibitors.

aging and sour beers; will share techniques such as pseudo spontaneous fermentation, different oak types, many styles such as "lambic", "flanders red" and brett beers. Elsewhere, Joshua Kearley, founder & program specialist at Beverage Protect powered by BKIFG will look at brewery risk management & insurance. Insurance shouldn't be looked at as another expense on a balance sheet, but an investment in the protection of a brewery's reputation and future in this industry. Denis Blais, area technical support coordinator at Ecolab will place the spotlight on common challenges in CIP and keg washing. Optimized Clean in Place (CIP) is critical to producing quality product in breweries of


all sizes. Common equipment configuration oversights

ow in its sixth year, the successful Ontario

will be reviewed including troubleshooting techniques

Craft Brewers Conference &

to improve cleaning . Special focus will be placed

Suppliers Marketplace returns for a

day of networking and education. More than 1,000 attendees are expected at

on brewery CIP, its challenges and the keg washing environment. On a retail front, a talk on the voice of the shopper

The Beanfield Centre on 19th October, These include

from the LPSI will ask what makes craft beer so different

craft brewery owners, operators, brewers, suppliers to

to the shopper and how does it differ from not only other

the brewing industry, investors, government and industry

beer categories but the entire store. What are shoppers


saying from coast to coast in all retailers in Canada. What

The conference runs from 9am-5pm and features a

is important to the shopper, are they satisfied, what does

range of topics that include regulation, hops, insurance,

it take to win. Canada's first ever shopper insight tool for

branding, starting a brewery, finance and the LCBO.


Talk highlights to look out for include a piece from Kate

Ted Clark from High Park Brewery will look at starting

Fisher & Rebecca Castillo, AGCO on AGCO regulatory

a craft brewery in Ontario. He’ll share lessons learned

updates. This presentation will highlight regulatory

from founders of High Park Brewery who have recently

updates in the craft beer and alcohol industry, as well as

gone through the process on both the contract brewing

recent developments including the implementation of the

and bricks-and-mortar side, including Setup, Planning,

newly launched iAGCO portal.

Brewing, Packaging, Marketing, and Selling to Bars &

Pierre-Paul.Carpentier, Barrel Aging manager & owner and Mathieu Brochu at A la Fut will focus on Barrel-Aging: Experimentations & Techniques. This discussion on barrel


Autumn 2017

LCBO. Finally, Spencer McCormack & Ian Mills, 5 Paddles will focus on growing from part-time nano to full-scale micro.

Brewers Journal Canada



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Venue and Schedule The Beanfield Centre (formerly Allstream), Canada’s greenest conference centre at Toronto’s Exhibition Place (just inside the Princes Gates across from Direct Energy Centre), 105 Princes Blvd., Toronto, ON, M6K 3C3 Thursday, October 19, 2017 Breakfast: 7:30 am Conference: 9:00 am - 5 pm Beer & Cheese Reception: 5 pm - 7:00 pm

Ian and Spencer haven't seen it all by any stretch but, they have seen a lot of craziness in the Craft Beer industry. Steering a brewery through the storm with a small budget

OCBC 2017 Keynote

and next to no debt is no easy task. Ian and Spencer will discuss the challenges, solutions, pitfalls, victories & failures that come with - Distribution, Branding, Financing, QC, Branding, unethical bar owners. The Ontario Craft Brewers Conference & Suppliers

Matt Phillips, founder of Phillips Brewing & Malting Co., Victoria, BC | The Importance of Craft Culture in a Growing Market

Marketplace 2017 will be the first for new president of Ontario Craft Brewers, Scott Simmons. He took on the role in August, following in the footsteps of industry leader and champion, John Hay, who founded the association in 2003. “OCB is fortunate to have found such an excellent candidate to lead us through the next phase of our industry’s development,” says Garnet Pratt, president & CEO of Side Launch Brewing Company and chair of Ontario Craft Brewers. “With his extensive expertise in strategic planning, governance, financial planning, brand management, and business development, Simmons will

Matt Phillips got his beer start homebrewing his way through University, afterwards supporting his thirst for craft beer through brewery jobs at the Grizzly Paw in Canmore AB, Whistler Brewing, Wildhorse Brewery (Penticton, BC) and Spinnakers Brewpub in Victoria. In 2001, he spotted a used 7BBL brewhouse and some used dairy tanks, and moved them into a 1300 sq. ft. warehouse to create Phillips Brewing Co.

be a tremendous asset to the association in helping to develop and execute our long term strategic vision and annual operating plans.” Simmons is a 33-year veteran of the packaged goods, retail, agency, and sport administration industries. He has a deep interest and knowledge of the brewing industry, having previously worked as vice president, marketing and business development for The Beer Store (2001 2007), where he led the development of a long range strategic plan to guide the organizational retail renewal program. “This is a very exciting time for the craft brewing industry,” says Simmons. “I look forward to working with an organization that contributes so much to the Ontario

A one-man show for the first few years, Phillips has moved two times since being established, and now encompasses a malting plant, distillery and two brewhouses. The brewery is host to several summer festivals, 70 different beers a year, and a number of environmental awards for its commitment to sustainability. Matt lives on a small farm outside Victoria BC with his wife Paula and two children, where he has proven that he has no aptitude for growing hops.

economy in terms of jobs, investment and premium quality, local craft beer.”

Autumn 2017


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Abell Pest Control

specializing in sanitary process valves including butterfly,

Abell Pest Control is the #1 Canadian owned pest control

control, by-pass, single seat, and double seat valves. Well

company in the nation and are proud members of your

established in the food and beverage industry, Bardiani

local community. Canada's leading brands trust us to

continues to offer custom valve solutions while meeting

protect their business and customers by ensuring a safe,

the highest hygienic design standards.

pest free environment.

Alpha Controls & Instrumentation

Berg Chilling Systems Promo Berg Chilling Systems custom designs, manufacturers,

Alpha Controls & Instrumentation is one of Canada’s

installs, and services durable, cost-effective chilling

leading suppliers of instrumentation for pressure,

solutions for brewery applications, large and small. We

temperature, humidity, gas, level, flow, analytical and

have expertise in providing refrigeration systems for

more! We are an ISO 9001 registered company and our

process cooling for brewery, distillery, and wine sectors,

calibration lab is accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 by A2LA. t.


Beverage Protect Your Reputation is our Business Beverage Protect

Amoretti, a California company, specializing in super

provides breweries, wineries, distilleries and other

concentrated natural infusions for artisan craft breweries.

beverage manufacturers with a customized insurance

Brewers find the consistency of our product makes

program. Our goal is to contribute to the protection and

bringing creativity to life, easier than ever. Sourcing the

continued growth of our rapidly expanding beverage

freshest fruits, herbs, spices, chocolates from around

industries in Canada.

the world, paying meticulous attention to quality & consistency to create over 2000 of the finest ingredients


all made from scratch.

From glassware decoration, custom tap handles, and

Anton Paar

personalized bar accessories to logo design, inventory management, freight optimization, and more, our craft

Anton Paar develops, produces and distributes highly

brewery branding experts make business easy. You focus

accurate laboratory instruments and process measuring

on the beer. We’ll take care of the rest.

systems, and provides custom-tailored automation and robotic solutions. It is the world leader in the

Brew Culture

measurement of density, concentration and CO2 and in

At Brew Culture we're passionate about craft beer and the

the field of rheometry.

community within the industry. Craft brewing in its purest


form is defined by the creativity and imagination of its brewers. We aim to supply those brewers with the highest

Aquatherm polypropylene-random (PP-R) pipe systems

quality hops, direct from out partner growers around the

use heat fusion, a fast, reliable process that creates

globe, so they can explore their creative minds in the

seamless, leak-free connections. Aquatherm pipe

beers they so artfully create.

systems are highly inert and don’t react with water or glycol, so they don’t corrode.

ASL Print FX

Brew Wizz BrewWizz - Innovation for Craft Brewers, are the developers of the FizzWizz automated carbonation

ASL is the industry leader in providing innovative print

system that gives brewers much more control over the

solutions for your label needs. Prototyping capabilities

quality of their final product.

support new design development, a variety of print platforms are available to suit order size and required on-

BSG Canada

shelf looks.

BSG Canada has been producing and distributing

Atlantic Packaging

brewing products to Canadian markets since the early 1990s. . From exclusive ingredients to our innovative can

Atlantic Packaging is a fully integrated supplier of

program, we are committed to being your partner and

corrugated packaging products. Atlantic is a key

share your passion for creating outstanding beer.

packaging supplier that is trusted by many craft brewery brands in both Canada and across the US.

Bardiani Valves Canada The North American division of Bardiani Valvole Spa;


Autumn 2017

Bullfrog Power Bullfrog Power, Canada’s leading green energy provider, offers renewable energy solutions that enable individuals and businesses to reduce their environmental impact,

Brewers Journal Canada


omplete plant designs for bre c n i g n i we r i cializ


Our wide range of expertise includes: initial startup consultation, process and equipment design, structural, architectural, electrical, controls & instrumentation, and project management. Five generations of experience as brewery designers and builders.


TOLL FREE: 1-888-6PC-BREW (1-888-672-2739)

CHI L LI WA C K Chilliwack Hop Farms—Bringing world-class hops back to British Columbia! For over a hundred years, Chilliwack produced some of the best hops in the entire British Commonwealth. We are proud to play our part in rebuilding that legacy right back here where it belongs—in Chilliwack, BC. We are now over 300 acres and growing! We carry over 120 varieties of hops that we ship out daily to over 15 countries. We love growing hops. You love brewing with great hops. Contact us—we’re here to help.

CHILLIWACK HOP FARMS 6575 Unsworth Rd., Chilliwack, B.C. 604-614-1764 •


Chilliwack Hop Farms



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support the development of green energy projects in Canada and help create a cleaner, healthier world.

Burkert Burkert is a German-based manufacturer of valves, instrumentation and automated control systems with presence in 36 countries around the globe. With the continued growth of craft brewing and the natural fit of our core components and systems within the craft brewing industry,

Cambridge Environmental Cambridge Environmental Products Inc is a small family run Laboratory Testing Supply Company Since 1993. Located in London Ontario supplying Ontario, Canada, United States and the rest of the world. We have been supplying Laboratory Equipment, Lab Glassware, Plasticware and Chemicals for the last 24 years.

Canada Kegs & Packaging Canada Kegs & Packaging is the Canadian Distributor of Franke Blefa stainless steel Kegs, a German made keg line famous for it’s quality and longevity, and the 30 Year Warranty. Our Kegs are available with your breweries name Embossed on the top chimb and can be shipped in 2 weeks.

Charles Faram Charles Faram Brewing Supplies is part of the Charles

Country Malt Group

Faram Group, a grower-owned hop merchant that

Country Malt Group is your complete brewing solution.

has been established for over 150 years. With offices

We are a one stop shop for all your brewing needs and

and Warehouses in Canada (Toronto), USA (Portland &

pride ourselves on putting our customer's first. We are

Yakima), UK (Worcester) our hops from around the world

constantly applying new technology to make sure that

have never been easier to access. We provide an artist’s

using Country Malt Group is just like hitting the 'easy

palette of hop varieties and flavors for every type and


style of beer and continue to search for new aromas and flavors through our international breeding and

Descon Conveyors

development programs.

Descon provides conveyor system solutions to the

Clayton Industries

beverage and liquid food marketplaces. We know who we are and where our applications expertise is

Clayton Industries has established a world-wide

most prevalent. Conveyor Systems for Breweries Beer

reputation as a leading manufacturer of equipment for

manufacturing is tough on conveyors and equipment.

industrial process steam generation—both fired boilers and unfired waste heat boilers. Their unique controlled


circulation, counter-flow design offers many operational

Diversey shares your passion for brewing great beer.

advantages and benefits over conventional boilers.

That’s why we offer Diversey Hygiene craft brewing

ColdHaus Direct ColdHaus Direct is a one-stop shop for distribution and logistics partnerships. Our core values are to provide

solutions designed specifically for the needs of the craft brewer. From complex cleaning procedures to reducing water consumption,

best-in-class service to our partners and work with


people with like and respect. We are not a freight carrier;

Ecolab is a full service provider to Canadian breweries

you will never see fuel surcharges, or additional fees.

of all sizes – as well as full range of cleaning & sanitizing chemicals, for CIP of tanks & lines, and environmental


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

Want a Better Brew?

Try liquid nitrogen dosing for product preservation Praxair knows every craft brewer wants to preserve product flavour and increase the shelf life of your product. With the addition of dosing to your process, you also have the opportunity to offer nitro-infused beers. Working together, we are here to help guide you with the right gases, equipment and expertise to help you master the craft of brewing with; Gases – carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, from cylinders to bulk Applications – brewing, carbonating, bottling/canning/kegging, blanketing, purging, sparging Safety – gas monitoring systems for inside and personal use Nitro-Infused Beer – for excellent cascading, stable creamy head, lighter can and lower packaging costs

An excellent way to preserve the product flavour and increase shelf life of your beer is with liquid nitrogen (LN2) dosing. In this process For brewery solutions contact us at; Ontario 800.361.3874 Quebec 800.892.2726 Western Canada 800.383.4262

a precise dose of liquid nitrogen is delivered immediately before capping or seaming. One of the most important benefits is total package oxygen reduction commonly referred to as DO (dissolved oxygen). This results in lower oxygen content so the CO2 and nitrogen content are preserved resulting in better quality beer.

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cleaning of the brewery. Brand protection is a primary focus – ensuring highest levels of beer quality with our


customized sanitation programs, colour-coded sanitation

Immerse yourself in the wonderful world of craft

tools to prevent cross-contamination, etc.

brewing, and discover how with the right equipment from


Steinecker you can conjure up your own magnificent beer. But craft breweries don’t only brew the beer, they also

Fairtax is an industry leader in obtaining government

bring the liquid gold safely from the tank into the bottle:

funding in Canada. Our group of companies, totalling over

fillers, labellers and packers from Krones and Kosme are

200 employees, has recovered billions since inception.

the connecting links between the brewer and the beer-

We specialize in obtaining government grants and

lovers, turning your production operation into child’s play.

incentives, including SR&ED and sales tax.

Fast Track Packaging

Lorpon Labels Lorpon Labels provides smart, value-driven labels and

Leaders in sleeved cans and turn-key packaging for the

packaging to manufacturers and retailers throughout

Craft Beer, Cider, Wine, and Beverage industries. Unlimit

North America. We focus on innovative labels and single-

yourself by leveraging our vast selection of no-cost and

serve packages for everything from food and beverage

premium special effects, industry lowest prices, and

to household and beauty products. Using the HP Indigo

superior quality.

WS6800, the most advanced label press on the market, allows us to offer tremendous customization options and

First Key Consulting The world’s leading beer industry consulting firm. First

affordable solutions.

Key is a uniquely global firm, having worked for craft

Mason Professional Corp

to large-scale breweries in over 50 countries around

Mason PC is a boutique trademark law firm that helps

the world. We have the most talented, interesting

growing businesses select and protect names and logos

and experienced brewery consultants who provide

in Canada and around the world.

independent, objective and comprehensive solutions in every area of our clients’ businesses.


Master Brewers’ Association of the Americas ​Master Brewers Association of the Americas is a dynamic,

At GEA our comprehensive portfolio includes over

global community working to advance the brewing,

50 solutions developed to meet the needs of today’s

fermentation, and allied industries by: advocating

growing craft beer market. We design and engineer

the exchange of knowledge; creating, assembling,

turnkey breweries and provide individual solutions and

interpreting, and disseminating credible and beneficial

components to enhance the performance of existing

information; developing world-class education offerings;

operations. Our HB Craft Brew separator systems set

and providing valuable personal and professional

the industry standard for clarification and beer recovery

development opportunities.

during all phases of brewing.

Georg Fischer

McLean Hallmark At McLean Hallmark, we work hand in hand with our

At Georg Fischer our Cool-Fit Plus pre-insulated plastic

clients to provide solutions that foster growth and give

piping system is designed with brewery glycol systems in

you piece of mind to let you focus on what you do best.

mind. Cool-Fit Plus is a 3 in 1 piping system, is corrosion

The Protect Your Craft program was designed by a team

and maintenance free and will completely eliminate

of leading craft loving insurance professionals.

condensation and mold build up on your cooling system.

Huron Feeding Systems

Mettler Toledo Mettler Toledo is a global manufacturer and marketer

We sell, install and maintain the tanks and augering

of precision instruments for use in laboratory and

equipment to several breweries in Ontario.

industrial applications. Our Process Analytics division

Keg-Management Keg management presents a different way to get kegs by

produces analytical measurement solutions for industrial manufacturing processes.

offering leasing options. This Canadian company offers to

Micro Matic Packaging

their customers the opportunity to grow efficiently without

Micro Matic USA, Inc. a global leader in keg valves and

spending big amounts of money when purchasing kegs.

draft beer dispensing systems for over 50 years. Insist


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

s h ow

Pr e v i e w



on kegs with New Generation valves installed. We offer

and sectors worldwide. The foundation to our success

tools and replacement parts, as well as personalized

is combining business understanding with packaging

technical support and troubleshooting for following best

innovation. We work collaboratively with our customers to

practices when it comes to safe and effective repair and

understand their strategic and portfolio needs and identify


opportunities to optimise their product proposition.

Nordic Malz

Phoenix Packaging International Corp

Nordic Malz Corp is the first new Canadian imported malt

Phoenix is a packaging solutions company. From standard

supply chain company in over 20 years. They have the

to customized glass bottles, ceramic bottles, closures,

experience to make specialized custom malts from 5 ton

labels, decoration and much more, we provide a wide

trial batches to 20 ton FCL.

variety of options to help you achieve your perfect

North Keg North Keg was founded with one goal in mind – to

package. We work with materials such as glass, plastics, ceramics, and metals.

provide brewers with an alternative pathway to owning

Portage Promo

the best quality kegs in the industry. Our unique lease

Portage Promo has been a leader in the promotional

to own model allows your brewery to minimize capital

products industry since 1994. All of our products are

out by switching over to low fixed monthly payments. All

handpicked for the markets we serve. Our personalized

our kegs come custom branded with your brewery logo,

service, innovative graphics, unique products, and timely

ensuring you maintain a strong brand image at licensee

delivery set us apart from the competition.


Nova Filtration

Praxair Praxair has assisted breweries from as small as 1,000

Nova Filtration Technologies Inc. is a leading supplier of

up to 400,000 hectolitres annually with their brewing,

liquid filtration products with over 35 years of experience

carbonating, bottling/canning/kegging, blanketing,

in the liquid filtration industry. For the Craft Brewing

purging and degassing needs. We can help you

Industry we supply: Sanitary Cartridge Filter Housings,

determine the best mode of supply for your carbon

Pleated Membrane Cartridges, Pleated Depth Cartridges,

dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, the right equipment

Filter Pads, Plate and Frame Filters among others.

such as generators, dosers and injectors and the right safety monitoring equipment to help ensure a safe work

Packaging Technologies Inc Packaging Technologies Inc. is a leading manufacturer of

environment for your team.

high definition graphic packaging with brilliant color that


stands out on the shelf at retail for the Craft Beer Industry.

With 45 years market experience, Prospero Equipment

PTI Inc. offers 4pk/ 6pk carriers, 12pk/ 24pk beer boxes,

offers Brewhouses to tanks, filters, pumps, Copper stills,

beer trays and other items.

bottling and canning lines, labeling and case packing equipment, even pasteurising tunnels. TUNNELS- and we


service everything with our own factory trained in-house

Pall Corporation is a global filtration, separation and purification leader providing solutions to meet the critical

technical teams located around the continent.

fluid management needs of customers across the broad

R.E. Morrison Equipment Inc.

spectrum of life sciences and industry.

Manufacturers of the Adamark Brand Blower Driven Air

Palladium Insurance

Knife Drying Systems for cans and bottles of all sizes, using only Republic American made Blowers and Air

Palladium Insurance is an independent insurance

Knives with Canadian made accessories. Design, build,

brokerage firm offering home, auto, commercial, travel,

install and support systems from 40 to 1200 BPM.

and health insurance protection to our clients throughout Canada. As a craft brewer the focus of your business is

Sessions Craft Canning

utilizing time-honoured, traditional techniques to create

Sessions Craft Canning (SCC) is Ontario’s first and most

fresh, natural products for sale to local markets.

comprehensive mobile canning company, offering full

Petainer Petainer sets the benchmark in sustainable high

service packaging and goods options (Mobile Canning, Shrink Sleeves & Label Application, Printed Can Distributor) to craft beverage manufactures.

performance packaging across dozens of industries


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

Specific Mechanical

UBC Group

Since 1986, Specific Mechanical has handcrafted

UBC Group is a both manufacturer and distributor of draft

brewing and distilling systems for the craft beer and

beer and beverage equipment. At UBC Group Canada,

spirits industries. Our mission is to provide the world’s

we sell a wide range of equipment such as beer kegs

finest handcrafted brewing and distilling systems,

and brewery tanks, kegerators, back bars and glass door

complimented by the industry’s most comprehensive

refrigerators, draft beer towers, jockey boxes, draft beer

customer success program.

parts, market umbrellas, illuminated signs and more.


Wessuc Inc.

Stanpac is a manufacturer of packaging supplies for the

Turning Waste into Value. Wessuc is a waste company

dairy, food and beverage industries. We love dairy and

who provides solutions for the effective re-use of what

specialize in ice cream packaging, manufacturing food

might otherwise be waste materials. We're more than just

containers and paper board ice cream cups, and we also

cleaning out lagoons and hauling away waste.

excel with glass container printing.

Tap Handles

West Coast Canning West Coast Canning (WCC) is Canada’s first mobile

Tell your story. Brewers commit their lives to creating an

canning company, offering full service packaging and

amazing beer. It's our job to capture that same passion

goods options to craft beverage manufactures. We allow

with impactful product solutions that tell your story and

our customers to allocate capital, space, and expertise to

sell more beer. Taphandles is the leading designer and

other areas of their operation.

manufacturer of custom tap handles.

Twin Monkeys Beverage Systems

Zenan Glass Zenan Glass stands alone when it comes to glassware

Twin Monkeys Beverage Systems is a team of automation

decorators as the largest in Canada and Top 5 in North

engineers and commercial brewers that have come

America. Zenan brands over 12 million units per year.

together to create world-class beverage automation.

Autumn 2017


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From Barn to Bar It's a brewing story eight years in the making but now, in 2017, Cowbell is putting Blyth, Ontario well and truly on the brewing map with its new 26,000 square foot destination brewery.

David, built Sparling’s Propane, which grew to be one of the largest propane retailers in Canada before it was sold to a national energy company. Steven, David, and the third generation, Grant have taken this business expertise into craft brewing. Despite opening in August 2017, the beginning of the Cowbell story can be traced back eight years when the


wheels were set in motion for economic development underway across Huron County. Blyth was identified by


a study as an area of renewal and one means to help

n the first 12 days we have had seven thousand people through the doors. It’s an incredible feeling

catalyse that was to open a brewery. Initial suggestions put out included a brewpub but it

and we are really appreciative of that.”

wasn’t long before the idea of a full-scale setup started to

take hold. Handily a site to build said brewery on was only

The people behind Cowbell want Blyth, Ontario

and the people of Blyth, Ontario want Cowbell. It's

no surprise that Grant Sparling, general manager and vice president of the new brewery couldn’t be happier.

a stones throw away. In the 1970s, as Sparling’s Propane grew, Grant Sparling’s grandpa purchased the neighbouring farm

A brewery's ability to play their part in transforming

from a gentleman called Robert Henry and it has been

an area is well known, they can even help raise property

in the family ever since. Over the years, the family has

prices in some cases. But it says a lot about Cowbell’s

donated land for the construction of the Emergency

immediate impact on Blyth that the main image on the

Services Training Centre and two soccer pitches, but they

Blyth, Ontario page of TripAdvisor is that of the brewery

retained acreage, that would eventually become home to

itself. Not bad for a business that, at the time of writing,

Cowbell Brewing Co.

had been open little more than three weeks. Cowbell is owned by the Sparling family, one that has

This land at the corner of Highways 4 and 25 was formerly a cattle farm – which served, in part, as

entrepreneurial roots in Blyth, Ontario, going back three

inspiration for the brewery’s name. Beyond the name,

generations. Grant Sparling and his sons, Steven and

Sparling explains, the family recognize that farmers


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Brewers Journal Canada

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We are crafting our brand, our stories, our future Grant Sparling, general manager, Cowbell

are the true stewards of the land, and in honouring the

“The first step in minimizing the environmental impact

property’s past, Cowbell conducts itself in a sustainable

of the main brewery and restaurant building is reducing

and environmentally conscious manner.

energy consumption using smart building enclosure

The facility itself is incredibly impressive. The 26,000

systems, equipment, lighting, dramatically reducing

square foot destination brewery is located just south of

water consumption in the brewing process, and providing

Blyth on 111-acres at the corner of Highways 4 and 25. The

systems that are derived from the building’s conceptual

authentic 19th century barn architecture features soaring


ceilings with visitors able to take part in self-guided

The lofty interior spaces of the brewery use rooftop

brewery tours on the catwalk, local farm to table fare in

cupolas, equipped with remote control windows, as an

the restaurant and on the verandah, wood fired pizza, and

effective, traditional means of ventilation. Additionally,

the main event, excellent beer.

the building’s orientation on the property is designed to

“There are so many breweries popping up in across the

globe. You have to offer something worthwhile to stand out. It has to be unique, special and creative,” Sparling

effectively reduce the energy required for heating and cooling. State-of-the-art brewing equipment and design

explains. “In our mind, the beer had to be great and it

comes from Newlands Systems Inc. (NSI) of Abbotsford,

has to be the starting point but every other aspect of the

BC. Some of the key features of this include electrical

experience has to be excellent, too. It has to be. Look,

components equipped with variable frequency drives

everyone that comes here has to drive and you’re looking

to reduce unnecessary electrical draw, internal rotating

at a minimum of 15 minutes here and back so we need to

jets that reduce water consumption as they clean. It also

offer an experience that lives up to expectations.”

features a low-energy brew kettle boiling design that

While much emphasis has been placed on the

reduces primary energy by 50%, evaporation water by up

customer-facing side of the Cowbell operation, it’s

to 80%, and allows remaining vapour to be condensed

important to point out that the brewery is the first carbon

and used to generate hot water.

neutral operation of its kind in North America. Cowbell will offset 100% of its greenhouse gas

In addition, Cowbell’s targeted water-to-beer consumption ratio is 4:1 – a figure far lower than the

emissions including all energy consumed in the brewing

relative industry standard of 10:1. Sparling and the brewery

and facility operations. This goal stemmed from a three-

are particularly proud that they operate a closed-loop

step approach as established by lead architect, Jason

facility with an onsite deep well supplying 100% of the

Morgan of Allan Avis Architects, Goderich, ON.

brewing water. This design also features the company’s

Speaking prior to the opening, Morgan explained:


Autumn 2017

own effluent management system, meaning there will be

Brewers Journal Canada


no impact on municipal sanitary services infrastructure. Such building design and water saving strategies,

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Upon graduating from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire in 2015, 10 days later he was starting a

along with many others, will significantly reduce the

program at BrewLab in Sunderland, England. Here

environmental footprint of the brewery operation.

he learned about the brewing industry areas such

Another step is Cowbell’s carbon sequestration program.

as ingredients food pairings, business and running a

This is achieved on-site through an intensive, 29-acre

brewery. Graduating as a brewer in the September of that

reforestation project. The initiative, a 2010 joint venture

year, he and Rich researched craft breweries in North

with the Maitland Valley Conservation Authority, planted

America, Canada and the UK.

approximately 12,000 native tree species to return the

“I think the US is around eight years ahead of what

land back to forest, complete with trails and meadows for

we’re doing in Canada if I’m honest. They are building

year-round use.

for the long term and that is the type of model we

Cowbell’s brewhouse setup from NSI is part of the

wanted to take and build here in Cowbell. We’re building

facility that the whole team beam about when asked.

for longevity and that’s what why we have invested in

The brewing team spent more than a year with a crew

equipment from NSI, GEA and Krones. The best of the

of engineers, architects, experienced brewers, suppliers

best. It is the top end,” he explains.

and installers designing its custom, four vessel 50HL brewhouse.

The Brewlab course introduced Sparling to other aspiring brewers from across the global stage but it

Earlier this year, the team took part in the factory

was closer to home where his paths would cross with

acceptance test of the brewhouse. For it, they travelled

brewmaster Stephen Rich. Dave Clarke has more than

to NSI’s manufacturing facility in Abbotsford, BC, to

20 years of sales and senior marketing management

see the Cowbell brewhouse assembled for the first

experience with beer and spirits companies including

time, and verify its function and construction meet our

Bass, Diageo and Creemore Springs. Upon the latter’s

specifications and goals.

sale to Molson Coors, he joined the Cowbell team and

“For this process, the NSI team built the bare bones of the brewhouse and supplied it with power in the same way it will be constructed on site, explains Stephen Rich,

introduced Rich as an ideal candidate of brewmaster for the upcoming brewery. “During his time at Creemore, Stephen brewed more

brewmaster at Cowbell. “The full platform with stairs

than 400 types of beer with fruit, spice, vegetable or

is assembled, all four brewhouse vessels go in, the

anything he could get his hands on,” says Sparling. “It’s

spindle station (sampling station) is installed, the digital

absolutely fantastic to have something so creative like

controller is active, the hop dosing units are functional,

him on board and his beers are already going down a

the rectification unit is on and most pumps and valves

storm. We are already seeing drinkers come in, try a

work to see water flow. The stacks are left off, steam is

craft beer for the first time and before long, be sampling

not connected, and electrical conduit and other detail

and enjoying a 12% barleywine. It is so satisfying, it is so

plumbing is left off. Essentially the system is built so its

exciting. It’s hard to put into words.”

process-driven components are operable and it can push water around.” He added: “The factory acceptance test allowed our

The brewery is currently able to output around 1520,000hl per annum but there’s already plans in place to add new fermenters to help produce beer for its high-

team to verify basic function for the brewhouse and all

end GEA and Krones equipment. Other plans include

its major components. It is also a great time to talk about

building an Estate Beer brewhouse that will use fruit

automation, maintenance, build quality, and any changes,

and vegetables from an accessible restaurant garden, a

directly with the people who engineered and built the

working farm complete with barley, hops, and an orchard.

system. “We spent nearly two full days at Newlands with

“We will also complete construction of a unique outdoor natural amphitheatre for live music, culture, and

the brewhouse, inspecting (and swooning over)

athletic events, with space for 15,000 people. We want a

pumps, valves, welds, tanks and function. The level

year-round entertainment venue at The Cowbell Farm,” he

of craftsmanship that went into building the Cowbell


brewhouse was very obvious when we got our first look at it. It was clear the NSI fabrication team was proud of their work and of the results.” The NSI team is proud of their work and of the results,

You get the impression that Sparling aren’t ones to rest on their laurels… He adds: “We want to be unique, we want to be authentic. We have built a barn that would have been

as is its customer in Cowbell. While Stephen Rich is the

built here 100 years ago, using food that is sourced here

brewmaster, forming part of a 110-strong team across

and we are telling stories in each and every one of our

the whole company’s operations, Grant Sparling has also


completed training in the field of brewing.

"We are crafting our brand, our stories, our future.”

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s e c to r

T raining


E ducation

Why training is essential to your brewery Ensuring your team has access to the best training and education available is an essential facet of any progressive, forward-thinking business. The brewing industry is no different. Whether you're a director of brewing operations, front of house, or in sales, knowing as much about your product is invaluable in building a brand and educating your audience.

Alongside Chris Gillis, manager who works in the field of Applied Research and Development at Durham College, the college’s Siebel instructors include Dirk Bendiak, who has more than 20 years with Molson Coors, Dave Coutts a former plant manager at Mill Street with more than 20 years experience with Labatts, and Erin Broadfoot, a homeopathic doctor who is a business partner and launching her own brewery in the form of Little Beasts. The team believes that Canadian brewing schools are getting better at preparing students for the industry, but there is a distinct lack of hands-on options for brewers and those working in the industry.

by Tim Sheahan

“Back when Durham College first started to look into this and talked with many brewers, we heard very


clearly that technical topics such as recipe development,

breweries do find out at some point that they need to

came out of many discussions with brewers who wanted

shore up knowledge, for both themselves and their

to learn from those with real practical expertise. So,

employees. Often they find this out the hard way, after

bringing the oldest brewing school in North America to

mistakes, which hopefully are not too costly or damaging

Canada seemed to fit that need.”

s we see in many industries, every

quality control and lab testing, packaging, equipment

company has a different approach to

repair and maintenance, the business of brewing and

continuous learning and a large majority

even server training and food pairing were what brewers

of craft brewers are small businesses

wanted in one or two day hands on sessions,” they

with limited resources so readily investing

explain. “The notion of partnering with the Siebel Institute

in learning may not be a priority however, most

of Technology to pilot several of their courses in Ontario

to their brand,” explain the team at Durham College (DC).

The team adds: “We have also heard from experienced

And they should know.

brewers that it is important for young people and those

Durham College (DC) has an agreement with the

getting into the industry, as well as those looking at

Chicago-based Siebel Institute of Technology (Siebel

enrolling in brewing programs, to think of brewing as

Institute), North America’s oldest and most prestigious

a lifelong learning experience. If you ask any industry

brewing school, to deliver its craft brewing courses in

professional with 20+ years experience if they think they


know everything, none will say yes. While most of the


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Brewers Journal Canada

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post-graduate learning takes place on the job, there

offer a lot of different courses that focus on technical

is definitely a place for taking courses and attending

brewing and also the qualitative processes of brewing,”

seminars and webinars in the middle of your career as

says Mittag. “I think one of the reasons that Prud’homme


fits in well with technical brewing is that we provide the language and skills for brewers to talk to consumers. It’s

A way to go

critically important to be able to tell your story in manner that makes sense to the consumer. Not everyone understands the impact of alpha acids or amylase.”


oger Mittag, founder of Canada’s Thirst For

While we continue to see growth in the brewing

Knowledge and creator of the Prud’homme Beer

industry, both in Canada and abroad, many argue that

Certification, a sommelier style program for beer

few breweries are matching this growth with their own

and the first such program in Canada. He echoes the above, saying that we “still have a long way to go”. “I believe that we still have a long way to go. While

personal development. Something Mittag agrees on. “Not at all – Training is and always has been a ‘nice-todo’. Since is part of the soft skills, it doesn’t always seem

there are options for brewers to learn their trade in

to driving sales volume. In the time that I have spent in

colleges, they need more options. This industry is not

the industry, I completely believe in the overall impact of

just about brewing but it includes marketing, sales and

education for everyone in the business. We often forget

understanding distribution. One of the biggest concerns

that everyone involved in beer should have a certain level

is the consistency of beers in the marketplace. Many

of knowledge – not just about your brewery but beer in

of the brew masters around the world are bio-chemists

general. It’s not just for sales people!” he says. “Everyone

and the understanding of science is critically important

in the industry has impact with a consumer. I think one

to creating beers that are consistent. Consumers will

of the issues with providing training and beer training is

probably tire of trying hundreds of new brands all the

the transient nature of employment these days. Many

time and will most likely lean towards beers they know

employers are becoming wary of absorbing the cost of

are the same day-in, day-out. The Siebel Institute does

education when it’s possible the employee may look for


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada

greener pastures at some point in time.

Crystal Luxmore in Canada. There is the 4 hour BeerSavvy

Mittag adds: “The other point of view on training is that

Bootcamp, which is get teach those working in the beer

employees now need more than just beer training. They

industry the basics. How to properly pour a beer, clean a

need to be experts in draught troubleshooting, in sales

class, and speak on a general level about beer styles and

etc. Understanding the market and how to achieve sales


targets is integral in growing business in a sustainable

He adds: “If an individual can’t attend an in-person

way. The amount of competition in the industry is

course, we offer a similar course online that’s accessible

incredibly intense these days and everyone needs to find

to anyone with an internet connection and includes the

their way.”

Certified Beer Server exam. The second in person course

For John Scholl, marketing manager for the Cicerone

is a one and half sensory class where 6 beer off-flavours

Certification Program, which has become the industry

are explained and sampled. We also offer onsite private

standard for identifying those with significant knowledge

workshop where a Master Cicerone will come to a

and professional skills in beer sales and service, he says

location to train entire staff. We also work with guilds to

Cicerone believes any education in beer is good for the

provide an 8-hour in depth sensory workshop on brewing


off flavours.”

“I believe there are several great options in Canada,

Finally, Craig Youdale, Dean at the Canadian Food

though breweries may have to actively search for them.

and Wine Institute at Niagara College says he and his

There are mainly two types of education for those

team see a constant and every growing demand for their

wanting to get into the beer industry; training that focus

brewing program.

on brewing and training that focuses on a wide breath

“We offer 18 seats every 4 months to perspective

of beer knowledge that includes handling, draft lines,

students and see about 200 applications for those

history, styles, and pairings,” says Scholl. “Pretty much

seats. Some applicants take years before they get

everything that involves beer after it’s been brewed.

accepted. We also have seen great demand for short

Cicerone® Certification Program focuses on the later. We

courses and upgrading style courses from the industry.

offer a few public courses taught by Certified Cicerone®

In response we are launching what we call our Brewing

Autumn 2017


Academy which is a one week Certificate that is 5 one

shelves. Breweries need to put out solid beer recipes free

day workshops on Production, Packaging, Ingredients,

of flaws to compete.”

Operations and Safety,” says Youdale. “There can never be enough training and development especially with an industry growing like craft brewing. Focus on Safety is

Mittag goes a step further, saying the issue is a big concern for him. “I have experienced a lot of substandard beers in the

paramount with the well-being of the general public and

past few years. Even though I don’t look for them, flaws

workers in mind.”

in beer reveal themselves quickly. Here’s the crux – I’m not saying that consumers are experienced enough

Continuous learning

to determine what oxidation or diacetyl smell or taste like but they do know that something is not quite right. Historically, brewers have become successful when they


he team at Durham believe that as we see in

have conquered the consistency and quality issues. It

many industries, every company has a different

really is the only way to convince a consumer that they

approach to continuous learning and a large

need to invest in your brand,” he explains.

majority of craft brewers are small businesses with limited resources so readily investing in learning may not be a

Is the customer always right?

priority however, most breweries do find out at some point that they need to shore up knowledge, for both themselves and their employees. “Often they find this out the hard way, after mistakes, which hopefully are not too costly or damaging to their


oving on from that, a major issue for breweries both new and old is that a bad consumer experience can negatively impact on the

brand.The college’s sense is increasing the amount of

wider industry. And addressing that dilemma is far from

hands-on training, education and skills development


available, while keeping it affordable and easy for working

Scholl explains: “It seems easy, but putting a well-

people to access, would go along way in helping the

developed recipe that’s free of flaws out is the best

industry,” they explain. “Durham College shares its 50th

way to avoid a bad beer experience. Also, making sure

anniversary with the establishment of the college system

that retail accounts are practicing proper handling and

in Ontario. As a post-secondary institution focused on

cleaning to ensure the beer is as the brewer intended.

hands-on, experiential learning, we are well positioned

That means keeping beer at in the correct temperature

to provide this type of training. In fact, our ideal solution

range, rotating stock, and keeping glassware and draft

would be a network of Canadian colleges working

lines clean.”

collaboratively to support the craft brewing industry by

According to Youdale at Niagara the issue lies with it

helping local brewers with challenges and conducting

being difficult to control your competitor and the overall

applied research in areas key to the sector and sharing

industry as a whole.

the results.” With that aforementioned growth comes an increase

“There are opportunities to create standards in the industry and time will tell if that develops. The wine

in competition. But the Durham team do not necessarily

industry created the VQA system for that exact reason to

believe that quality and consistency is at the level

ensure some quality standards. Its similar to any industry

required to sustain this, either.

is that people will gravitate to quality and consistency

“In a word “no”, but the awareness of the need for quality and consistency is getting there. Our sense is that this is an area where resources are needed in addition to education and training. From a consumer point of view quality and consistency

over time. A bad experience is more likely to hurt that producer rather than the whole industry,” he says. “First – make consistent qualitative beers. This means investing in QC labs or collaborating with brewers who have those facilities. The brewers typically all get along

are a key aspect to enjoying their favorite beverage and

with one another and are more than willing to help make

trying new brands and style. Quality and consistency

great beer. The second is education – we need to help

are the price of entry for a brewer to be in the game and

our partners (hospitality and retail) understand how to

ensuring the viability of his or her small craft brewery,”

store and handle beer properly. This is tough!” adds

they say.

Mittag. “Quality measures in trade are hard to maintain

Cicerone’s Scholl adds that quality and consistency

but are so vital to providing a great beer experience to the

are major factors not only sustaining growth, but in

consumer. With increased competition at retail, there is

developing growth. “The beer drinking public is becoming

a likelihood that we will get beer that is past its due date.

attune to quality as the flood of new beer hits taps and

This means a bad beer experience overall.”


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Personal development

neighbourhood while rural brewers should shoot for a 25-50k square radius,” he says. “This means that you don’t need full retail distribution in your province. Brewers also


or Durham, the solution, at least in part, goes

need to know the impact of trying to get too big too fast.

back to the training and personal development

Quite often, distribution goals outpace production. This

and being clear on what brewers need to know to

becomes a problem if you can’t meet demand.”

ensure quality and consistency of their products. “It’s also important this information is accessible

He adds: “For existing brewers, my advice is similar – stay true to your original plan while maturing your

and affordable through formal educational programs,

branding. Make sure that you are meeting the needs

workshop, seminars and hands on opportunities,

of your base consumer while trying to figure out how to

which is why the research being undertaken and the

attract a new beer fan.”

courses offered at Durham College is so important.

For Youdale, his advice to those at the beginning is

Industry associations such and the Ontario Craft Brewers

to start small, invest low, and build you brand. Quality

Association (OCB) also have role to play in helping to

comes with time and experience and don’t be too quick

establish standards for both education and production,”

to go head first with large investments, he says.

they say. “The other part of the equation is applying what

“Brewing is a tough business with small margins

is learned; instituting formal systems and processes to

and understanding sales and the market is equally as

embed consistent good practices in making, tasting and

important as brewing a great tasting beer. Brewers in the

testing to ensure a brewer knows what is being package

industry learn quickly that market share is vital and the

and shipped from their brewery.”

ability to get your product to the consumer is paramount.

And going forward, Mittag believes that there is a

The reason so much stress is out there with rules and

desire to learn and further knowledge in this industry, but

regulations is that it impedes this process. The other piece

it’s definitely something that needs to be enhanced.

of advice is be consistent. Great beer companies and

“For brewers starting out, the biggest obstacle is

brands are not just about quality but about consistency.

understanding the industry. Distribution is critical – how

Beer drinkers know what they want and want a brand that

do you actually attract a consumer? The old adage of

delivers each and every time,” he explains.

‘if you build, they will come’ is flawed in this industry.

Cicerone’s Scholl concludes: “My advice is to focus on

You really need to understand your profit centre and

quality. Set up a QC program, no matter what size. You

where you can grow your business. My advice for most

don’t need a $40k lab to run sensory training. Invest in

brewers these days is to own the area around your

education to create quality staff. The more rounded in beer

brewery / brewpub. The actual area will vary – big city

knowledge a staff is the happier your customers are going

centre brewers can stay within the boundaries of their

to be because your product is going to be better.”


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Brewers Journal Canada

Supporting craft beer innovation and commercialization

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Brewing certificate courses

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Classes begin on Monday, October 23

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Repitch and Reap the Benefits

When most brewers are starting out, they rely on dry yeast cultures for the bulk of production. Dry yeast is very easy to use, and affordable to the point that it does not need to be reused. However, as breweries and brewers grow, they often find themselves seeking out the wider range of flavours available through liquid yeast cultures, or the other benefits of liquid yeast slurry reuse.


eusing yeast presents possible benefits to both the brewer and the owner. The most obvious reason to reuse yeast is to reduce the cost of each brew. There are several other practical benefits to reusing yeast

within the brewer - many yeast strains exhibit increased fermentation performance, flocculation, and enhanced flavour compound production when reused (repitched). This improvement is most often observed in the 2nd to 3rd generation of the yeast. For reference, the 2nd generation of a culture is the batch of beer made with cells harvested from the initial pitch. If performed correctly, there are no downsides.

by Nate Ferguson


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However, poor/incorrect practices in yeast management

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can cause problems. The most notable issues are

harvested. Tunneling is when the yeast cake does not

Contamination and Yeast Health & Pitching

slide into an opening below the cone and instead forms

Contamination: If a beer is contaminated, then the

a passage in which beer begins to travel through causing

yeast culture will also be contaminated. If you harvest

a loss of beer and a reduced yield of yeast. Tunneling is

the contaminated culture and use it to inoculate another

more prominent in some yeast strains and is impacted by

batch, then the contamination will be present in the

tank design and cleaning regime.

repitched beer. Sources of contamination can be from

Collecting the yeast into a brink: Now that you are

process, equipment failure, or contaminated ingredients (fruit, etc). Yeast Health & Pitching: Ensuring healthy yeast is critical for brewers. Without a microscope and viability stain, it is not possible to directly assess the quantity and

yeast cropping

quality of a yeast culture. As a general rule, it is always better to overpitch than underpitch since underpitching is more likely to produce unpleasant flavours than overpitching. Escarpment Laboratories recommends using proper microscope technique to count and analyze your yeast

Method 1: Crop very slowly, allowing for gravity to induce tunnel collapse. This method is slower and does not ensure as complete of a crop, but it is much easier in practice.

culture and can advise where to acquire the equipment to do so.

Three main stages of Yeast Management


tage 1: Yeast Cropping. Understanding the Layers: Yeast is often cropped from the bottom of the conical fermentor cone after fermentation

and cooling to ensure that fermentation has come to completion and cells have flocculated out of the beer and sedimented at the bottom. This practices ends up

Method 2: Remove the beer from the top of the cake via a racking arm or standpipe and then remove the yeast cake (this process is often benefited with CO2 agitation after beer has been removed). This ensures near complete removal of the yeast cone however more labour is required. If you have yield problems with method 1, then we recommend method 2.

pro tips

producing “3 layers� within the yeast cone which need to be managed. Layer 1 is the Trub/Dead Yeast at the bottom which contains trub (protein) which precipitates from the wort during fermentation, as well as the earliest flocculating yeast.. This portion of the cone is normally darker brown to beige in colour and must be dumped from the cone before harvesting. Layer 2 is the Ideal & Healthy Yeast which is composed of healthy, fit for fermentation and dense to moderately dense culture. This region will be a light beige to tan in colour in lighter beers and darker in stouts/porters. This is the section of the cone you will harvest. Layer 3, the top layer, is the Poor Flocculating and Thin Yeast which is normally less useful for repitching. Methods for removing the yeast: Removing the yeast

u Yeast slurry contains CO2 which causes the yeast to expand/foam. It is never recommended to fill a brink to the top to account for expansion. u If tunneling occurs, stopping the flow and allowing for settling will mitigate the issue. Make sure while settling occurs that the end of the collection hose is capped or shut and the brink is covered/ free of environmental contamination. u When removing yeast from a tank it is always recommended to ensure 1-4 PSI of CO2 pressure to ensure a vacuum or oxidation of beer does not occur.

from the tank is easy, however there is one variable you must keep in mind to ensure enough cells can be


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ready to harvest you need a device to hold the yeast -

meaning that the longer you store your cells the less

commonly called a brink. A yeast brink is simply an easily

nutrients the cells will have when they are added to

sanitizable container used to contain the cropped yeast

the next fermentation. Cells with low nutrients reserves

under CO2 but not under pressure. This can be as simple

when pitched have a higher risk of producing off flavour

as a clean and unscratched sanitized plastic bucket, a

and/or stuck fermentation and due to this it is always

stainless steel bucket with tight fitting lid, a converted

recommended to use the cells as soon as possible.

Cornelius or Sanke keg up to expensive custom built

Different cells will be impacted by storage different. Yeast

sanitary brinks.

strains like Saisons can be stored for long periods of time while other strains such as English Ale yeasts cannot.

Yeast storage

Using the yeast sooner is always better. When do I know when the cells are no longer useful?


This is very strain-dependent, however there are a few

ow to Store Yeast: Once yeast is collected, the

general rules. We recommend using a microscope and

slurry must be kept cold in a walk in fridge (we

viability stain (either methylene blue or trypan blue) to

recommend between 0ºC and 5ºC) and away

determine viability. If the culture is less than 60-80%

from oxygen and sunlight. While in storage it is important

viable (strain dependent) it is likely time to dump the cells.

to prevent yeast stress: Head Pressure - Yeast should

Pitching yeast

not be stored under excess CO2 pressure. If using a pressurized brink, we recommend 5psi at most. Oxygen contact - Oxygen is a trigger for the cells to reenter respiration and leave dormancy. Exposing cells to oxygen will prime the cells for fermentation before it occurs, reducing the lifespan of the cells. Alcohol - Alcohol


ow to Pitch yeast and how much to use: How you pitch yeast is going to be based on what you are storing the yeast in - kegs are great for this

will stress out yeast cells and due to this it is normally

reason as you can push the yeast with CO2; It is important

recommended to harvest yeast from beer in the 4-6%

to depressurize the remaining yeast after use. If using

ABV range; there are some exceptions.

buckets that cannot be pressurized then your options

Can I store yeast in the cone of my fermentor? If your fermentor has glycol jackets on the cone, yes you can. A brink is however usually recommended as the

become limited to pouring yeast into the fermentor via a manway. There are two main ways brewers pitch yeast: Pour

additional head pressure from the liquid above the tank,

yeast into the ferment (before or after wort is present; Or

residual CO2, low nutrients, higher alcohol and IBU

inject yeast into the brew during transfer

content of the cone make it a non-ideal place for yeast

Pouring yeast into the fermentor. This is the most

to remain dormant. Harvesting the cells into a brink is

common method for small breweries as it is simple, does

recommended to reduce these issues.

not require a complex system or stainless and allows

How long can I store my yeast? The main question

for sanitary buckets to be used instead of a costly yeast

everyone has when storing yeast is “how long can I store

brink. There are a few measures that must be taken into

my yeast before it is no good”

account for this method so that you do not harm the cells.

This question is best answered when you relate it to

If adding yeast before knocking out make sure your

food. If you asked “how long is my soup in the fridge good

wort cooling is on max and slowly bring the wort online. If

for” the answer is always “sooner is better”; same goes for

wort cooling is not on or is not sufficient as soon as wort


enters a yeasted fermentor the wort will heat and kill

To explain why this is you must realize that yeast is

some or all of the yeast. A way to consistently get around

not frozen or still while dormant - it is still alive and still

this is to add your yeast after the tank has been filled.

consuming its own nutrient reserves. Yeast cells have

However, if the fermentor does not have a top manway

2 main nutrient reserves - glycogen and trehalose.

or your yeast pitch is large, then this becomes infeasible

Glycogen is the main nutrient source, while trehalose

and/or dangerous.

provides rigidity to ensure physical stability. As the yeasts cells are dormant they will consume these nutrients,

Inject yeast in the brew during transfer. This is the most common method for adding yeast to large tanks

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of wort. To do this you must pressurize the yeast brink, attach a valve to the brink and connect it to the chilled wort entering the fermentor. It is recommended for

about the author

this applications that a pump is not used however if unavoidable a positive displacement or diaphragm pump are appropriate. To ensure flow it is important to pressurize the tank to the proper PSI; if your pump places

Nate Ferguson is the co-founder of Escarpment Laboratories and an instructor at Niagara College

10PSI onto the line and your brink is pressurized to 10PSI then no yeast will leave the device. If no yeast is leaving then it is recommended you increase the pressure on the brink. A scale is normally used to measure the amount

what you as a brewer are trying to do and how the strain

of slurry entering the wort - as the slurry is removed the

you are working with operates. In general English and

weight will decrease allowing for controllable pitching.

Belgian strains are comfortable at the lower end of the

How much yeast should I pitch? In order to determine

range, while high gravity beers and Lagers should be

the amount of yeast to add to the tank we need to first

pitched at the high end of the range, especially when

determine a few parameters of the yeast - Its viability and


its concentration. Viability is the % of the cells within the

What else can/should I do while pitching yeast? While

population that are alive. For example, if I have 100 cells

repitching yeast it is very important to oxygenate your

however only 90 of them are alive our culture is said to

wort just prior to or during yeast pitching. Oxygenation is

be 90% viable. Concentration is the quantity of cells per

commonly performed with a sintered stone (carbonation

mL of slurry. This is important as different cultures will

stone) in the wort stream between heat exchanger and

flocculate more or less intensely resulting in different

the fermentor. The biggest problem that occurs with this

slurry thicknesses.

process tends to be a lack of a flow meter for oxygen gas

For example, English strains will becomes much more compact and tightly flocced than Lager strains. If we are working with a thin slurry then we will have to add more

volume determination; normally a PSI gauge is all that is present. A common technique in many breweries is

litres of slurry to equal the same cell count of a thick

acid washing for the removal of potential brewery


contaminations from the yeast culture. Resources for

The general rule of thumb is 1L of slurry per hL of beer,

yeast washing can be found online, and typically involve

however this is not an accurate measure as it does not

exposure to phosphoric acid or chlorine dioxide to help

take into account viability or cell concentration. For these

reduce bacterial load. In general, if good sanitation

reasons cell counting is highly recommended as part of

practices are followed and yeast reuse is limited to 10-15

the brewery yeast management program.

generations, yeast washing is not necessary. You should only harvest yeast from beers that

How much yeast?

turned out the way you wanted them and are free of fermentation off flavours. If the beer has noticeable off flavours, do not collect yeast from that tank. Additionally,


he amount of cells you need to add for a brew is

yeast should not be harvested from sour beers as the low

going to be different for each brew. A formula for

pH environment is non-ideal for yeast health.

the amount of cells needed for a ferment is given

Using the information in this guide, any brewer should be able to familiarize themselves with the best practices


0.5-1.25 million cells/mL/â °P

and practical considerations to yeast repitching. Yeast

With this equation we can see that the larger the

repitching, when implemented properly, can reduce costs

volume of wort (mL) the more cells we are going to need.

if yeast is used for multiple, and significantly reduce tank

As we increase the gravity of the brew we will also need

time, which also creates greater operational efficiency in

more cells. The rule of 0.5-1.25 million cells is based on

the cellar.


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Find the balance : Basic Beer Alcohol & Extract Determinations For several reasons brewers often need to be able to obtain basic alcohol and residual extract information for their beers. Alcohol values are important at point of sale to drive responsible consumption decisions by customers, and are sometimes required for legal reporting purposes. Having alcohol and extract information on hand also allows the brewer to compute brewhouse efficiencies and help them maximize their return on investment. Moreover, as the marketplace for beer gets ever more crowded, quality and consistency evaluations are becoming of paramount importance irrespective of any desired or required testing, explains Gary Spedding from BDAS LLC, a brewing and distilling analytical chemist and biochemist with a special interest in the origins and development of beverage flavour and in the sensory evaluation of beer and spirits.

legal reporting purposes, the brewer must have access to expensive and officially accepted instruments for their measurements or make use of a qualified and established third party analytical facility. If seeking an analytical testing facility for beer alcohol, extract and nutritional work, the brewer should be sure the facility fully understands how to test the beer and report the parameters. Data must be obtained using officially approved instrumentation and methods as quickly, efficiently, and accurately as possible while all being done at a reasonable cost. The brewer in the US might also ask if the lab is TTB certified or otherwise recognized as providing reliable data. For European brewers and Canadian brewers there are agencies that they can consult and laboratories available to test their products. With that said we now look at some basic evaluations and calculations to better understand key beer parameters no matter if products are tested in house or elsewhere. As this article is directed towards a British and Canadian brewing perspective, calories will be expressed in both US Calorie and International kJoule units.

Alcohol and extract determinations


areful measurement of the original extract (OE) of

by Gary Spedding

the wort and terminal gravity of the beer can lead to the calculation of attenuation (fermentation


efficiencies), and to determination of residual extracts

his review will illustrate how brewers may

(real and apparent) and alcohol content. A review on

obtain such alcohol and beer extract

how to determine alcohol content and extract values

values and then, along with optional

has appeared recently (Spedding, 2016); the reference

beer protein estimation, shows how to

shows the use of proper tools, methods, and robust

approximate both total beer carbohydrate,

algorithms needed to obtain accurate data. Currently user

and calorie information with a reasonable degree of

error, both through incorrect instrument use and method

accuracy. The approaches here allow the brewer to

performance and the use of simple formulas (often

obtain such information using basic instruments and

inaccurate “rule of thumb� homebrewer’s equations), is

robust algorithms. Though the data as obtained are to be

the main cause for many calculation discrepancies.

considered as unofficial results for internal use only. For

The understanding of alcohol and extract

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determination is underpinned by a theory pertaining to fermentation and alcohol production, chemical mass

ABWt =

balance relationships of fermentation and, Carl Balling’s original theoretical work in brewing science. This topic has been covered elsewhere (Spedding, 2013, 2016 and

(OE − RE ) (2.0665) − (1.0665 × OE / 100)

references contained therein). To keep this present article as brief as possible only the details of the calculations

Where: ABWt is the percentage alcohol by weight (as

needed by the brewer to obtain key data are presented.

w/w, grams of alcohol per 100 grams of beer), OE, original

For brewers to be able to determine both the alcohol

extract and RE the real or present extract in degrees Plato. It

by weight and by volume for beer the following values

is assumed that the brewer is familiar with or will familiarize

must be known or obtained; the present or apparent

themselves with all these brewing terms.

gravity of the beer, the real extract of the beer and the original extract of the wort. To help solve for these various

The original extract of wort is the amount of material

terms an arithmetical relationship exists between them as

extracted from the mash and is measured in grams of

attributed to Carl Balling. The relationship which is known

extract per 100 grams of wort. The brewer will determine

as Ballings’s formula is:

the original extract by measuring the specific gravity of

OE % P =

( A% mass x 2.0665 + RE ) x 100 ( A% mass x 1.0665 + 100) (1)

the wort and will relate this to the established sucrose (= extract) tables (in grams per 100 grams) to report the original extract content in degrees Plato. Or more simply they will determine the OE using a Plato hydrometer. For the brewer limited to the use of a hydrometer, real extract (RE) can be approximated using the OE (of the

Where: OE is original extract (Plato; g/100g or mass/mass),

original wort) and AE (apparent extract of the final and

A% mass is alcohol by weight, RE is the real extract and

degassed beer) and by using another empirical equation

the numbers in the numerator and denominator are as

recently revised but based on Balling’s work:

described below. The above formula (equation 1) is based on an understanding of the mass balance relationship in

RE = (0.1948 × OE ) + (0.8052 × AE )

brewing – simply the chemical relationship dealing with

Where: AE = apparent extract – that extract value

the conversion of fermentable sugars to alcohol, carbon

determined when alcohol is present. This is the value for

dioxide and yeast biomass. Theoretically, 1 gram of

gravity obtained by the brewer on the final attenuated beer.

fermentable sugar will yield 0.51 gram of ethanol and 0.49 gram of carbon dioxide. In fact, some sugar is needed for

The real extract (RE) assessment here will always be

cell growth and so, more realistically, the ethanol yield

an estimate for reasons discussed elsewhere (Spedding,

is more likely 0.46 gram, and carbon dioxide 0.44 gram

2016). Using equation 3, the brewer will find satisfactory

from 1 g sugar. Or more simply put: 2.0665 g sugar yields

answers to RE values compared to those obtained from

1 g ethanol, 0.9565 g CO2 and 0.11 g yeast and - for the

official instrumentation over the typical ranges of OE, real

equations below: 0.9565g and 0.11g sum to 1.0665g which

degree of fermentation (RDF), and alcohol for most beers

is the extract not converted to alcohol.

(see Spedding, 2013 and 2016 for a fuller discussion on

An application of Balling’s formula and a minimum

limitations to the above approaches). Errors in evaluations

number of analytical measurements allows the brewer,

between official and less accurate methods are typically

without the full range of sophisticated instruments

quite small but are not considered further here. Operators

to obtain some quite accurate values for alcohol and

should be aware of accuracy and precision for all

extract using a series of approximate beer calculations. In

methods and instruments used.

simplifying the discussion, it is known, from above that a

Getting back to the use of Plato values - by

quite accurate estimate of alcohol content can be derived

substitution in the above formula (Eq. 3), it is possible to

by subtracting, from the original extract (OE), the final or

solve for the alcohol by weight without directly inputting a

present extract gravity (PG) as “real extract” (RE – not the

calculated or determined RE value:

apparent extract, AE), assuming no process dilution, and by applying conversion factors which infer the alcohol content from the drop in the wort gravity occurring during fermentation. Using an equation, deriving from Balling’s

ABWt =

0.8052 × (OE − AE ) (2.0665) − (1.0665 × OE /100)

formula noted above, alcohol weight can be calculated:


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And then, if the SG value for the beer has also been

be reported both % by weight (wt.) and by volume (vol.)

determined the alcohol by volume can be deduced with

to two decimal places. For reporting purposes brewers

a correction to account for the specific gravity of the beer:

in the US are allowed a tolerance of +/- 0.3% alcohol by volume (see American Society of Brewing Chemists,

ABV ( % by vol ) =

ABWt × SG beer SG ethyl alcohol at 20 0C / 20 0C

2017). Armed with the set of principles, equations and tables defined or referenced above - if the brewer can obtain either reasonably accurate Plato extract values or SG

Where: SG is the specific gravity, e.g., for the beer or pure

values for the original extract (gravity) of their wort and

ethanol respectively.

the terminal (apparent) extract gravity of the resulting beer – as well as real extract (measured or calculated),

This simplifies to:

ABWt × SG beer ABV = 0.7907

via use of hydrometers, refractometers or simple digital density meters, they can get quite close to true alcohol results for beers with low to reasonably high alcoholic strengths – typically 2.5-12% ABV and real extract values of around 2.5-8 degrees Plato (see caveats in Spedding, 2016). Furthermore, with the real extract value for the beer

in hand several other useful equations can be applied as

Variant equations are available but alcohol should

described below.

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Carbohydrate/12 fl. oz. beer = 5.48 x (355 x 1.01534/100) =

Basic nutritional calculations

19.75 g (See Beer-6 in the ASBC Methods of Analysis -


ith alcohol by weight, real extract and total

American Society of Brewing Chemists, 2017 for further

beer protein determined it is possible to

details. The European Brewery Convention also supplies

obtain a good estimate of total carbohydrate.

a special methods manual that covers the same details.)

Protein values will need to be obtained from a third-

A final note here covers the fact that in the absence of

party lab and this complex topic has been discussed

protein and ash data the real extract value can be taken

elsewhere (Weygandt et al, 2017). For a more accurate

as an upper limit on the carbohydrate content of the

carbohydrate determination a value known as ash (which

beer – a rough upper estimate! Though use this value as a

is the inorganic mineral content in the beer expressed as

crude estimate only if anyone requests the carbohydrate

% by weight per 100 mL – w/v) will also be needed; ash

load of a beer style, and note also that some of that

determination has also been discussed by Weygandt et

carbohydrate is non-calorie bearing (again see Weygandt

al, (2017). Established brewers know how to calculate total

et al, 2017).

calories in their beers starting with just alcohol and real

Calories, energy and definitions

extract information; many more craft brewers should now learn how to do so. In Europe researchers also showed that, for the most part, a set of routine calculations solve the overall calorie values for many of the beers they tested (Olšovská et al, 2015). For simple nutritional purposes, we can consider that traditional beers contain mainly alcohol, carbohydrates,


n the US, the term calorie refers to a kilocalorie. One kilocalorie (kcal) is the same as one Calorie (upper case C). A kilocalorie is the amount of heat energy

required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of

and protein. For unofficial in-house estimation, the ash

water by one degree Celsius. Nutritional calculations are

determinations may be omitted from certain nutritional

largely based on the so-called Atwater factors, which

calculations (see below). The more detailed examination

express the caloric content per nutrient source (fat,

of the topic presented by Weygandt et al, (2017) should

protein, carbohydrate, alcohol) in terms of calories per

again be consulted for more official nutritional reporting

gram. For protein and carbohydrate this is 4 kcal/gram,


fat 9.0 kcal/gram, alcohol 6.9 kcal/gram (7.0 in Atwood

Carbohydrate calculations. Once the protein,

tables though brewers’ use 6.9).

ash and extract values for the beer are known the

total carbohydrate value is obtained by the formula:

(University of Minnesota, 2017). The international or SI unit

Carbohydrates g/100g beer = Real Extract – protein – ash.

for measuring food energy is the joule with nutritionally

An example will serve to illustrate the total

The Atwater factors are discussed elsewhere

relevant amounts of energy expressed in kilojoules (kJ,

carbohydrate content in a robust porter. Note: a typical

1000J). 1 US calorie is 4.18(65) joules or 1kcal (Calorie) is

serving size as in the US – 12 US fl. oz (355 mL) is used

4.18kJ (usually rounded to 4.2). The related Atwater factors

in the examples below. It should be easy to see how to

in kilojoules are: protein, 16.8 kJ/gram (rounded to 17),

adjust for a different serving size.

fat, 37.8 kJ/gram (not relevant to us here), carbohydrate 16.8 kJ/gram (rounded to 17) and alcohol at 29 kJ/gram


(Hughes and Baxter, 2001). As total beer calorie values are sometimes important to consumers and for reporting to official regulatory

6.40°P = real extract, (°P = degrees Plato, g/100g or % by

bodies we provide the total calorie calculations that

weight); 0.70 = protein % by weight; and 0.22 = ash % by

will be of most use to the brewer. An example for total

weight; 1.01534 = Specific gravity (SG) of beer; 355 = 12 fl.

calorie determinations in beer as based on calculations

oz. in mL.

described in ASBC Method Beer 33 again includes the robust porter beer data as noted above for the

Carbohydrate g/100g beer = 6.40 – 0.70 – 0.22 = 5.48 g


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caloric content, as determined by approved TTB analysis, is within the tolerance +5 and -10 calories of the labeled caloric content (

Alcohol by weight; 5.54%, real extract; 6.40 Plato (%

htm). For example, a label showing 96 calories will be

by weight), ash; 0.22 (% by weight) and SG of the beer

acceptable if the analysis of the product shows a caloric


content between 86 and 101 calories. European and Canadian regulations may be slightly different and the

Calories per 100 grams of beer: = 6.9 * (5.54) + 4 * (6.40 - 0.22) = 62.95.

brewer should always be aware of local and changing regulations and the tolerances for reporting caloric content in kJ terms.

[The real extract minus the ash is considered as protein and carbohydrate and it will be recalled from above that


there are 4 kcal of energy per gram for both protein and carbohydrate.] Calories per 12 fl. oz. (355 mL beer). = 62.95 * (355 * 1.01534/100) = 226.9. [226.9 Calories or kcal.]


ny brewer routinely getting alcohol and extract data and (optionally) ash and protein values can get quite good estimates of their beer’s

As already mentioned above the brewer could omit the ash value and still obtain a suitably accurate value of the calories if the alcohol by weight and real extract

carbohydrate content and note the caloric impact per serving size. Furthermore, they will be better informed on their own

values have themselves been obtained accurately. From

brew-house efficiencies, as well as providing consumers

the data above the astute reader should be able to back-

of their beers with nutritional information to help them

calculate the alcohol by volume for this porter beer (hint it

make better choices in their drinking of fine craft and

is slightly above 7.0%)

homebrewed beers.

In the UK, the calorific (energy) value is calculated in a

The brewer should also check out the Scandinavian Beer

related way to the above using a formula based on Food

calculator to perform a range of calculations including

Labeling Regulations:

calories in kJoule units ( However, note how the calculator is not using an ash term

Energy value (kJ/100 gram) = (alcohol * 29) + (carbohydrate * 17) + (protein * 17)

for calorie determination. It simply takes the real extract as if all protein and carbohydrate as best we can tell. The

Simplifying and incorporating the ash value:

values should all be good enough for most purposes.

Energy value (kJ/100 grams of beer) = 29 * (5.54) + 17 * (6.40

The reader should practice with this robust and freely

- 0.22) = 265.7

available on-line tool. For those brewers with a wider distribution of their

For the example: kJ/12 fl. oz. (355 mL beer). = 265.7 * (355 * 1.01534/100) = 957.7 [957.7 kJ]

products, and whose beers might come under the recent US and European nutritional mandate guidelines, more extensive and official testing will be required (consult local

If using the US approach, simply multiply the kcal

regulatory authorities, the author, BDAS, LLC, Olšovská

number by the rounded conversion factor number 4.2 to

et al, 2015 and Weygandt et al, 2017 for current details).

obtain the kJ value. From the above example, the values

Perhaps most significantly though, is that those brewers

would then compute out to be 264.4 kJ/100 grams of

not paying more attention to quality considerations may

beer or 953.0 kJ/12 fl. oz serving of the beer.

not survive in an ever more crowded and competitive

Depending on exactly how calculated (using either


the accurate or rounded values), these values will vary a

Product consistency is a hot topic today and this

little but should provide an adequate means to obtaining

review on alcohol measurements and nutritional basics

data that will be within most tolerated reporting ranges.

should, hopefully, provide a platform to help the brewer

In the US, the statement of caloric content on labels

launch a quality control program to ensure delivery of the

for malt beverages will be considered acceptable if the

most consistent highest quality beer time after time.

Autumn 2017


Order custom designed boxes and carriers for large runs—or standard items that are always in stock for small quantities.

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s ci e nc e

Yeast: The new hops Given the impressive range of yeast’s biodiversity and the ingenuity of modern scientists, the potential of beer yeast to undergo a hop-like explosion has now moved beyond theory to become an exciting, new reality.

paved the way for lagers to become the most popular beer worldwide. However, what’s popular with the brewing world right now is being “different.” This desire has eroded the dominance of uniform, “industrial” lagers in favour of small-batch craft beers. Given the explosion of craft brewing, brewers are now constantly in search of new and diverse ingredients with which to differentiate their products. To this end, hops, barley, and even water are

by Jason Hung, Zachari Turgeon & matthew Dahabieh


now painstakingly sourced to exacting specifications to generate interesting flavours and aromas.

Yeast, breeding the "other" ingredient

he biodiversity of yeast is an incredibly powerful force capable of not only profoundly shaping the utility of yeast, but also is the foundation of a global beer industry estimated by Canadean at more

than US$700 billion. Indeed, some 450 years ago, a wild yeast strain


east, however, remains an enigma to most brewers, who tend to ignore it much like in the original German Reinheitsgebot beer purity law.

But this is a mistake given yeast’s impressive biodiversity in comparison to other brewing ingredients. Indeed, due

growing on a beech tree in Patagonia somehow found its

to the ease and speed of yeast propagation, the number

way into a cold fermentation tank in Bavaria, ultimately

of untapped Saccharomyces species and the inherent

becoming what we now know as lager yeast. Today,

genetic flexibility of yeast, scientists can now develop

Canadean estimates that lager yeast is responsible for

novel, customized yeast strains to exacting specifications,

more than 90% of the world’s two billion hectolitres of

all using the non-GMO techniques — screening, artificial

annual beer production.

selection and selective breeding — that are already

The canonical lager yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus, is in fact a hybrid of the traditional

familiar to hops and barley breeders. As with beer, the quality of yeast is only as good as its

ale yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the wild

“ingredients”; therefore, finding the right breeding stock

yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus, whereby the high

is vital for strain development. To this end, Mother Nature

fermentative power of S. cerevisiae and the cold

is by far the most bountiful source of new biodiversity,

tolerance of S. eubayanus merged to produce a hybrid

which should come as no surprise to brewers familiar with

yeast capable of brewing beer at cold temperatures. This

the traditional practice of open fermentation.

striking example of species hybridization and selection

In this process, the inherent diversity of indigenous wild

Autumn 2017


s ci e nc e


yeast is utilized to create unique beers; unfortunately, this


occurs at the expense of consistency and reproducibility. However, using modern non-GMO techniques, it is possible to isolate these strains and optimize them for the

Artificial selection The human-directed selection of advantageous traits in an organism.

brewery, all the while retaining the traits that make them interesting. How scientists optimize yeast strains for the brewery is essentially the act of domestication — akin to what

Biodiversity The variety and variability of life within and between species.

ancient agriculturalists have achieved with hops and barley. Wild barley Hordeum spontaneum bears little resemblance to modern malt barley Hordeum vulgare;

Domestication The artificial evolution of organisms with traits best suited to the needs of humans.

over the millennia of producing beer, humans have artificially selected barley with high starch content for greater ethanol yield, thin cell walls for efficient milling, and uniform water absorption for fast malting.

Evolution The change in an organism’s heritable traits to better suit the environment.

It is believed that the domestication of S. pastorianus followed a similar pattern and occurred after the initial mating of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Since repitching has historically been the only method

Hybrid The progeny of two genetically distinct individuals.

of directly adding yeast to wort, the S. pastorianus strains that were most suited to the brewing lagers survived and were then artificially selected (unknowingly) by being

Selective breeding The human-directed breeding of specific organisms in order to develop particular traits through artificial selection. Spore The yeast equivalent to gametes — sexual reproduction in yeast requires two spores to fuse to create a new organism.

repitched into the next batch of wort.

The evolution of modern noGMO development techniques


owever, modern scientists don’t rely on hundreds of years of random chance to domesticate a new yeast strain. Much like the recent

Screening: The evaluation of individual organisms for particular traits of interest.

application of selective breeding for high α-acid hops, the selective breeding of yeast involves the directed— yet natural—merging of distinct strains. Choice parent strains are induced to form spores that are then placed


Autumn 2017

Brewers Journal Canada


s ci e nc e

About the authors This paper was authored by Renaissance BioScience Corp. Jason Hung, MSc., is an Associate Scientific Research Writer Zachari Turgeon, MSc., is Lead Research Scientist – Yeast Innovation Matthew Dahabieh, Ph.D., is Chief Science Officer

together to mate and create a new hybrid yeast with the characteristics of both parents. To further refine specific traits, initial hybrids can be backcrossed to its parents. It is possible this way to produce a selectively bred strain that is similar to a parent strain, but with the addition of specific traits. The key to this entire process is a holistic understanding of what the brewer wants from their yeast; with this information and the right background biodiversity, it becomes possible to breed in any trait. Most, if not all, modern domesticated organisms are a product of selective breeding. For example, these domestication methods were used in 1919 by E.S. Salmon to develop Brewer’s Gold, the ancestor to most modern hop varieties; the “3 Cs” of hops are all hybrids of older parental varieties. Centennial hops in particular result from multiple crosses and are a mix of Brewer’s Gold, Golding, Fuggle and Bavarian varieties. While it took Salmon 15 years to develop Brewer’s Gold, the modern yeast scientist can now produce a novel strain in six to twelve months, and in a far more precise and directed manner. Today, just as Brewer’s Gold was the genesis of the modern explosion in hop varieties, the development of novel yeast strains holds even greater potential for innovation in beer making. It is now possible to create yeast strains that are unique and fully customized for a brewery and its specific requirements in terms of flavour, aroma and performance. Brewers can also “upgrade” their current yeast strains by enhancing flavour, removing defects, or optimizing brewing kinetics to streamline the brewing process. Given the impressive range of yeast’s biodiversity and the ingenuity of modern scientists, the potential of beer yeast to undergo a hop-like explosion has now moved beyond theory to become an exciting, new reality. u

Autumn 2017


date s


e v e nt s


The Art of the Brewhaha is a fun night for beer lovers and newbies alike, featuring craft beers with media art projections


BC CRAFT BREWERS CONFERENCE Croatian Cultural Centre, Vancouver 19/10/17

Ocb conference & marketplace The Beanfield Centre, Toronto 21/10/2017

Ottawa valley festival Best Western Pembroke Inn 03/11/17-04/11/17

Coquitlam Craft Beer Festival


Autumn 2017

Westwood Plateau Gold Club


Winterbrau 2017 Canoe Brewpub, BC 11/11/17

Art of the Brewhaha Old Quebec Street Shoppes 20/11/17 - 26/11/17

HOPSCOTCH festival Various Venues 23/11/17

Banff Craft Beer Festival Cave and Basin

Brewers Journal Canada

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