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STUDIO THESIS Street Tree Pods

28th April

Architectural Thesis Report

Matthew Chamberlain MArch 160786911 Submitted May 2018



Forward THE NATURE OF THE PROJECT The following work focus on the final studio project of the year that we started in February. Part of DS10 this year, we were tasked before January with the design of a micro home over a 6 week period. I designed a small home situated above a car parking space. For our final project now, we were asked to take this concept of ‘micro living’ and expand the ideas to generate a large complex architectural and strategic business model at a city scale. I took my approach from the previous project and developed it towards two of the most critical concerns of the city of London. The housing Crisis and pollution. I was also fascinated by the notion of designing in air space rather than on the ground and in close contact with streets and trees. As a result, my project seeks to construct self sufficient tree houses (Street Tree Pods) along the streets of London. The project aims to increase tree density to help offset and mitigate the pollution along the road, increase affordable homes available to first time buyers, and generate a raised cycling highway that connects all the homes and trees.



Contents BRIEF STRATEGIES

7

SITE ANALYSIS

15

EARLY CONCEPT

23

LONDON ROAD ANALYSIS

27

LONDON STREET TREES

35

BUSINESS MODEL

56

ALGORITHM

67

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - PART 1

71

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT - PART 2

77

SUSTAINABILITY

91

MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT

105

STREET TREE POD CONSTRUCTION

113

STREET TREE POD

127



01 Brief Strategies

Strategies and Aspirations

Outlining the key elements of the brief and project challenges and the intended aspirations of the architecture



Strategic Brief Components Housing, Pollution and Traffic

The diagram below represents the various strategies employed by the brief. The components on the left indicate the issues that the project seeks to address and design against. On the right are the outcomes and design ambitions. This basic model forms the basis of all the work that follows. On the following four pages are the strategies for brief 03 and the projects ambitions.

HOUSING Lack of affordable housing for first time buyers. Not enough housing supply to meet demands of population

INCREASED HOUSING Provide affordable housing Target first time buyers Increase housing supply Create unique housing typologies

POLLUTION Pollution limits exceeding UK limits. Unhealthy streets Risk to children’s health

POLLUTION REDUCTION Improve air quality through out the area Lower car emissions Offset emissions with more planting

STREET TREE PODS

TRAFFIC Congested and Busy Streets Unsafe Undesirable for pedestrians

NEW HOUSING TYPOLOGY SITE LOCATION

REDESIGN ROADS Decrease lanes where necessary Redefine pedestrian walkways

London Street Parking Spaces

TRANSPORT OPTIONS Inadequate provision for cyclists Not comfortable for Pedestrians Highly congested

DEDICATED CYCLING ROUTES Provide dedicated alternate route for traveling Protected and safe cycling route

GREENER ENVIRONMENT Lack of trees Lack of greenery and nature Pollution

INCREASED TREE DENSITY Increase the number of trees along the street Increase variety of greenery Develop a synthesis between nature and architecture


London Trees

Overview and Aspirations GOVERNMENT STANDPOINT Mayor Sadiq Kahn set out plans last year to deliver London with more trees with an estimated £750,000 to plant more than 40,000 new trees across the capital.

TREES AND ARCHITECTURE Architecture has a rich history of unapologetically demanding massive amounts of land to create man’s vision over nature’s. However, I believe a more conscientious and natural approach to architecture can quell our territorial imperialism over mother nature. By being inclusive of the natural environment there can be a more symbiotic relationship with nature—by incorporating trees into the built environment rather than destroying or damaging them.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF STREET TREES Some of the Key health benefits of Street Trees

1.

Reduced and more appropriate urban traffic speeds

2.

Create safer walking environments

3.

Increased security

4.

Improved business.

5.

Less drainage infrastructure.

6.

Rain, sun, heat and skin protection.

7.

Lower Ozone

8.

Convert streets, parking and walls into more aesthetically pleasing environments.

9.

Reduced road rage

10.

Added value to adjacent homes, businesses and tax base.

PROJECT INTENTION The project aims to concentrate in particular on ‘Street Trees’ throughout London. Rather than viewing trees as an independent issue, the existing and subsequent planting of new trees, will be a key element of building new homes in the city. By living in a more harmonious and connected relationship with trees, we increase both our quality of urban life and the condition of the natural environment. Increasing the density of trees in London is an essential city wide strategy that offers improvements far greater than we perceive.

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London Car Park Spaces Overview and Aspirations GOVERNMENT STANDPOINT From November 2017, Sadiq Khan is banning car parking spaces around new homes and offices in the capital in a bid to cut car use. The release has been issued ahead of the publication of the draft London Plan. This will require the doubling of cycling parking provision in many new developments. In addition, new housing and offices near public transport links will be required to be car-free. Sadiq Khan said it is “essential� London continues to reduce its reliance on cars.

DISADVANTAGES OF CAR PARK SPACES Some of the key disadvantages of car park spaces along streets

1.

Costly to park your vehicle

2.

Congested streets

3.

Traffic accidents

4.

Visual Pollution

5.

Noise Pollution

6.

Inconvenience for Pedestrians

7.

Damage to vehicles

8.

Obstructs alternate modes of transportation

9.

Increases level of Car usage

10.

Wasted and unused space

PROJECT INTENTION The projects intention is two fold, seeking to utilise the space currently designated to parking cars along streets. One strategy is to redesign this space for the use of beneficial infrastructure for the London public, in this case housing, and secondly by changing the use of the space and thus reduce the opportunity for people to park cars. In turn this should reduce the number of vehicles on the streets.

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London Pollution

Overview and Aspirations GOVERNMENT STANDPOINT The Mayor has set out various plans for the reduction of pollution in the city. These include:

5000 older buses will be upgraded by 2020, 12 low emission bus zones will be introduced,

London’s bus fleet will be zero-emission by 2037, and drivers of older, more polluting vehicles will pay a £20 fine to enter central London.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION Some of the key heath problems of Pollution

1.

Children’s lung development is affected by air pollution

2.

Increasing risk of respiratory diseases such as asthma and lung cancer

3.

Premature deaths

4.

NO2 from cars kills around 6000 people per-year in London

5.

Increasing number of privately owned, non-electric, vehicles

6.

Reduction in Well-being as a result of prolonged N02 Exposure

PROJECT INTENTION One of the key components of the brief will be to increase tree density throughout specific streets in London, with an overall ambition of increasing trees all across the city. To coincide with the increased tree density, along specific roads in London a dedicated cycling ‘Ultra Highway’ will be introduced, not only liking the street Tree Pods together, but offering people are alternative but dedicated mode of transport to cars. Cycling provision is often very poor in London, and so this route will provide a safety to pedestrians travelling.

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London Housing Crisis Overview and Aspirations GOVERNMENT STANDPOINT The new London plan sets out his plans to tackle the capital’s housing crisis and to provide all Londoners with a decent and affordable home. This Strategy has five key areas: Building more homes for Londoners, Delivering genuinely affordable homes, High quality homes and inclusive neighbourhoods, a fairer deal for private renters and leaseholders and tackling homelessness and helping rough sleepers

WHAT IS LONDON’S HOUSING CRISIS Some of the Key health benefits of Street Trees

1.

London’s population is increasing by around 35 000 households (foyers) per year

2.

London will need roughly 800 000 new homes by 2021

3.

House prices are 50% higher in London

4.

Social rented accommodation represents only 24%

5.

Private rented accommodation represents >25%

6.

There are 4000 homeless in London

7.

Over-crowding is widespread – 11,6% of dwellings in London, 25,4% in Newham

8.

London is surrounded by a greenbelt where there is no planning permission

9.

There are over 80 000 empty homes in London

10.

There are 362 000 people on housing waiting lists

PROJECT INTENTION At the heart of the brief is the creation of a new housing typology. This type of housing will not only be affordable to first time buyers but will provide a new, unique architecture to house design in Cities. The homes are aimed at first time buyers, more often young working professionals and those studying at Universities. The homes will be the first step on the property ladder, providing the opportunity for house ownership. The architecture of the living pods will be designed to have minimal, if any, affect on current land space in the London. There construction will be from sustainable building materials and utilise sustainable architecture to become as self reliant and as close to Net Zero as possible.

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02 Site Analysis

Parking Spaces, Marylebone and Sutherland Avenue

Analysis of the specific sites that the Street Tree pod project will design towards



Need for New Homes Car Park spaces

GOVERNMENT STANDPOINT Hundreds of London car parks should be built on to help solve the housing crisis. There are a total of 868 car parks within a mile of a Tube or rail stop in London, that could support an average of 90 new homes each. With the growing opinion that car ownership is set to plummet in London over coming decades, releasing these plots of land in key locations “could provide a solution” to the capital’s desperate housing shortage. Developing them for housing would ease the pressure to build on green land in the struggle to hit Sadiq Khan’s updated target of 66,000 new homes a year. There are many car parks identified in outer London areas where councils have struggled to find sites suitable for large numbers of new homes.

Soaring land prices mean that many in central London have already been sold to developers, although typically for luxury rather than affordable housing. The 0.83 acre former Moxon Street car park in Marylebone was bought by developer Ridgeford in 2013 and is being turned into 79 homes and 11 shops and restaurants with enough space for 95 cars in a new subterranean lot. Nick Whitten, residential research director at JLL, said: “London’s rapid population growth has been driven by young professionals, students and recent graduates choosing to live close to employment hubs and cultural and entertainment quarters. “However, this trend towards urban living has disproportionately put a strain on London’s local authorities to allocate sites for residential development – typically in areas where land is unavailable.

“JLL’s (Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated) research suggests car parks could provide a solution. Just under 900 car parks in the Capital are all within close proximity of existing rail or tube stations which could accommodate up to 80,000 new homes.” A report from the OECD earlier this year forecast that car ownership could fall by 90 per cent as traditional car ownership is replaced by hiring self driving cars.

SITE LOCATION - STREET PARKING My aim is to take this ideology one step further and propose the building of houses upon street car parking spaces rather than surface car parks, in a tackle to solve and challenge other city wide issues like pollution and car transportation. These areas typically measure in a lane width of 2.5m, with the assumption of 5m per car, although on the road these are often not marked.

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Site Location

Marylebone Road - Euston Road THE NATURE OF THE PROJEC T SITE Architecture is often static, defined by an exact location. In the case of the Street Tree Pods the notion of site is somewhat relieved. The design is a modular component that whilst stationary in one instance, at a masterplan scale moves organically around the streets of the city. The specific architecture of each pod is defined by the tree that it inhabits. The tree internally redefines a pod each time, yet they all follow certain defining strategies.

BASIC STRATEGIES FOR LOCATION RESPONSE Each Tree pod is initially defined by the following criteria

1.

The location of the tree and its position in the street

2.

The condition of the tree; Its health, age, branch structure

3.

The species of tree

PROJECT LOCATION - MASTER PLAN Marylebone Road leading towards Euston Road was chosen as the Primary location for the projects masterplan ambitions as it presented one of the most challenging and problematic streets in the city. The irony is astounding that it has the odd distinction of being the world’s most studied road in terms of air pollution – yet remains a chief culprit in London’s ‘shameful’ air quality. Marylebone road therefore becomes the ambitious site

On a masterplan scale the project will redesign the way this street operates. It will aim to deliver specific strategies through the briefs own predefined architecture:

1. Increase tree density along the street

2. Provide small housing pods aimed at first time buyers

3. Redesign the lane structure of the street

4. Introduce a cycling ultra highway that provides a dedicated mode of transport

PROJECT LOCATION - SPECIFIC STREET POD Sutherland Avenue will provide the basis more street tree pod designs. The road provides one of the ideal locations for the entire project to take effect. Measuring 18m wide, it occupies three lanes, two of which are for moving vehicles and the other is for on street car parking.

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Site Analysis Context Plan

Primary location of site, secondary locations and pollution.

Euston Road

Marylebone Road University of Westminster

59.3

80.4 145

97.6

74.5

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03 Early Concept Brief Ideas

Initial concept study at the start of the project used for intense brief development



Concept

Conceptualising the Brief EARLY THOUGHT AND IDEAS The image on the right was originally an A0 render that highlighted my initial brief ideas and concepts for the final project. It was my intention to capture the essence of what the project could become and the development from Brief 1 and 2.

The most important aspect of this projects brief was the continued development of raising structures above car parking spaces. However, moving on from brief 2, I now want to raise the level of interaction with he city, and factor in more complex constraints. By moving to parking on the street thins brings into play cars, pedestrians, traffic, streets, and surrounding buildings.

It was then my initial intuitive thinking that noticed one component that is always present along streets and roads. Trees. Street trees have a long relationship now in the city in this location and it was my ambition to embody them within the project.

The other apparent inclusions in the image at this stage were the level of greenery and cycling. Once i began speculating trees within the architecture, my appreciation of the often lack of greenery along our roads became clear. I felt from this point that my architecture should seek to celebrate nature and our environment, rather than destroy or leave redundant, as is so often the way. As a keen cyclist myself, I understand the appalling provisions London provides for cyclists. Could the link between the community of Street tree pods, also be a cycling route for the public?

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04 London Road Analysis Preliminary Research

Analysis of the specific road conditions, land valuation across London and master plan development


Road Typologies

Analysing different street types INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY Below is a collection of different street types. I am specifically concerned with distances between cars, pavements and buildings and the initial condition of moving the parking space area vertically upwards.

6.0m

3.0m

9m 9m

PAVEMENT PARKING

2.0m

2.1m

ROAD

4.5m

PARKING PAVEMENT

PAVEMENT PARKING

2.5m

2.1m 2.0m

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2.2m

ROAD

5m

PARKING PAVEMENT

2.2m

2.5m


4.0m

7.3m

16m

PAVEMENT PARKING

2.0m

2.3m

ROAD

PARKING PAVEMENT

8m

2.3m 2.0m

FRONT GARDEN

5.3m

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PAVEMENT

PARKING

2.0m 2.2m

ROAD

PAVEMENT

FRONT GARDEN

5m

2.0m

5.3m


Economic Research

Land Valuation

The value of land and housing in London

Industrial and residential land values per square metre in London

The table below represents land value data in specific places in London per square metre. An early piece of research involved calculating the price of land equivalent to that of the standard car parking space measuring 12.5sqm.

Land and property are hugely important socially and economically to London. Having sufficient housing available to accommodate the population comfortably matters for living standards and labour supply, while decisions over whether to allocate land for business or residential use has implications for the structure of

LONDON

INDUSTRIAL £/per sq.m

RESIDENTIAL £/per sq.m

RATIO RESIDENTIAL TO INDUSTRIAL

PARKING SPACE PRICE INDUSTRIAL (12 m2)

PARKING SPACE PRICE RESIDENTIAL (12 m2)

the economy. Within an urban environment, the location of commercial and residential buildings is driven by a range of factors including: topographical (like the river), the location of transport infrastructure, and also the

CAMDEN

620 m2

3330 m2

5.4

£7,750

£41,625

city’s inherited traditions of urban culture and development

HACKNEY

250 m2

2070 m2

8.3

£3,125

£25,875

Residential land values in London were estimated to be on average 3.2 times higher than industrial

ISLINGTON

740 m2

5200 m2

7.0

£9,250

£65,000

KENSINGTON

740 m2

9110 m2

12.3

£9,250

£113,875

WESTMINSTER

620 m2

2550 m2

15.0

£7,750

£31,875

HARINGEY

370 m2

1040 m2

2.8

£4,625

£13,000

GREENWICH

250 m2

2440 m2

9.8

£3,125

£30,500

Table 1.0. www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/chapter4-economic-evidence-base-2016.pdf

land values in London in 2015 ranging from a ratio of 1.3 in Brent to 15 in Westminster. The differential in land values highlighted in Table 4.1 also illustrates why there is significant pressure on industrial land in London to be converted for residential use.

PROJECT LOCATION ACTION PLAN: I decided to apply the initial research into land value to some real locations to get a sense of the cost of that parking spaces would account for. If compared to residential or commercial values. I chose part of Kensington and Islington, two areas with very different land valuations.

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Land Value Real Application

Parking space valuation applied to areas of London

Islington

Kensington

Land Value per sqm

Land Value per sqm

INDUSTRIAL

£740

RESIDENTIAL

£5200

INDUSTRIAL

£740

RESIDENTIAL

£9110

£5200 X

way

Hyde Park

X

Arch

Ha

rfo

rd

Me

ws

Arsenal

X

So u

C rls

Ke

ou

rt

th ns in on

Ea

gt

X

Tu

f

ne l

Pa

rk

X

140K

X

Total Area

70K

Housing Plots

8.6K

Street Parking Provision

£44.7m

140K

TOTAL COST

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Total Area

133K

Housing Plots

4.6K

Street Parking Provision

£41m

TOTAL COST


Street Trees - Before Masterplan Development PLAIN TREE PEAR TREE LIME TREE BEECH TREE

536

TREE POPULATION


Street Trees - After Masterplan Development PLAIN TREE PEAR TREE LIME TREE BEECH TREE

1040

TREE POPULATION



05 London Street Trees

Tree Analysis and Location

London Street trees mapped across the city and then an understanding of the different species



London Street Trees Overview and Aspirations

Following a data release of Southwark publicly maintained trees a couple of years back, I have collected and published various maps which shows street trees along roads and public paths, and trees in public open spaces, such as small parks and other minor green areas.

Each borough has its own tree information, of and not all boroughs have, at the time of creation of the map, supplied their data, so the map is a little incomplete (for example, it includes Islington and Tower Hamlets, but not Hackney which lies between the two, except alongside TfL-managed “red route” roads). Still, it has good coverage in many parts of London and reveals interesting patterns, not only in planting patterns differing coverage across different streets, but also the variation of species – for example, the red dots in the extract below show lines of pear trees in Marylebone.

In total, there are currently 700,000 trees that recorded data for, out of a total of around 8 million across London (including those on private land, in forests, and in major parks not managed by the councils.)

LONDON TREE DATA: The GLA has published the underlying data on the London Data Store as a huge CSV file, along with notes about the collection process. 25 of London’s 32 boroughs released the data in a form which was easy to map, so for 7 borough the map remains largely blank. Within each borough, the level of detail, and the scope of the trees recorded varied.

Boroughs can be reluctant to release such data, as tree damage and ownership disputes can arise from such datasets, but it’s great to see this information, showing the greening of what can be a gritty urban streetscape, being made available to all.

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Trees - Structural Resource Valuations and City profit analysis

Trees in London offer huge benefits and saving through long term investment. From an economic stand point they provide offset costs towards pollution but from an architectural perspective they can lower building costs and reduce energy usage.

Leaf Area and Species Dominance

Air Pollution Removal

Leaf area (km2) provided by each dbh class for Inner, Outer and Greater London.

Value of the pollutants removed and quantity per-annum within Inner and Outer London. Valuation method’s used are UK social damage cost (UKSDC) where they are available - where there are no UK figures, the US externality cost (USEC) are used as a substitution.

Inner London

Outer London

Greater London

350 300

Pollutant ID

250

Carbon monoxide (CO)

11

21

32

£10,360.00

£19,561.00

£29,921.00

200

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

288

410

698

£28,433,674.00

£26,521,053.00

£54,954,727.00

150

Ozone (O3)

86

911

997

£564,111.00

£5,947,607.00

£6,511,718.00

100

Particulates PM10’s

105

194

299

£28,588,993.00

£34,679,430.00

£63,268,423.00

0

Particulates PM2.5’s

43

110

153

£323,814.00

£825,666.00

£1,149,480.00

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

28

34

62

£45,141.00

£57,038.00

£102,179.00

7-15 15 - 30

30 - 45

45 - 60

60 - 80

80 - 100

Buildings and Energy Use

Annual costs and savings due to trees near buildings (in pounds)a substitution. Outer London

Greater London

Annual energy effects of trees near buildings

Area

5,000,000 2,500,000

Inner London

0 -2,500,000 -5,000,000

Outer London

Heating

Value

100 - 120 120 +

Buildings and Energy Use Inner London

Tons removed per year

Cooling

Total

Greater London

Heating

Cooling

Total (Units of Energy)

MBTU

-47,221

-

-47,221

MWH

-2,613

8,560

5,947

Carbon avoided (mt)

-806

1,186

380

MBTU

-113,561

-

-113,561

MWH

-6,715

17,671

10,956

Carbon avoided (mt)

-1,949

2,451

502

MBTU

-160,782

-

-160,782

MWH

-9,328

26,231

16,903

Carbon avoided (mt)

-2,755

3,637

882


Trees - Structural Resource Valuations and City profit analysis

ALL OTHER 48% BIRCH SPECIES 12%

The following data table provides an overview of key information relating to the

COMMON LIME 6%

specific trees along London Streets. Replacement Costs are based on valuation procedures of the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers, which uses tree

APPLE SPECIES 6%

INNER

species, diameter, condition and location information.

LONDON

SYCAMORE 5% LONDON PLANE 4% SILVER BIRCH 4%

London has an estimated tree population of 8.4 million trees. The trees that make up London’s urban forest are situated on both public and private property.

OAK SPECIES 3% PLUM SPECIES 4%

It is estimated that 57% of these trees are in private ownership and 43%

HOLLY SPECIES 3% HAWTHORN 3%

in public ownership.

Species

Number of Trees

Carbon (πmt)

Gross Seq (πmt/yr)

Net Seq (πmt/yr)

Leaf Area (km²)

Leaf Biomass (πmt)

Replacement Cost

English Oak

613,562

481,795

11,401

10,012

104.314

6,945

£981,243,502

Sycamore

656,085

216,414

7,579

6,603

117.607

8,224

£638,225,621

Ash

374,195

374,195

3,817

2,896

59.763

6,358

£447,345,251

London Plane

114,537

143,050

3,386

3,167

40.224

1,756

£351,623,660

Willow Spp

260,927

136,170

2,131

1,751

35.28

2,178

£297,301,384

Small Leaf Lime

111,403

149,318

3,076

2,644

41.252

4,071

£281,480,595

Common Lime

137,365

98,710

2,113

Medium

24.09

1,689

£238,217,193

Silver Birch

521,556

64,163

1290

Medium

32.726

2,451

£213,662,425

Beech Sp

18,028

45,228

274

104

27.292

1,366

£133,382,782

Black Popular

22,927

34,606

770

673

5.502

397

£110,737,086

Pine

68,881

15,705

446

372

9.818

946

£71,671,131


LONDON PLANE TREE Platanus x acerifolia Tree Type:

Deciduous Broad leaf

Shape:

Broad Columnar

Origin:

Spontaneous Garden Crossover

UK provenance:

Non-Native

Fruit:

Spiky fruits, comprising a dense cluster of seeds with stiff hairs

Leaves:

Sycamore-like leaves are leathery and thick, with five triangular lobes. They turn a rich orange-yellow before falling in autumn.

Flowers:

London plane is monoecious, meaning the ball-shaped male and female flowers are found on the same tree, although on different stems.

Elevation

Description: For many years after the London plane-tree was discovered in London, England, its origins were shrouded in mystery. It was originally thought that London plane-tree was a natural variety of Oriental sycamore, Platanus orientalis, an introduced species from Asia, however it was never observed growing in the wild. It is now accepted

occidentalis). Some botanists speculate that this hybridization occurred in the 1600s when a gardener to Charles I of England planted seeds of American sycamore that had been collected in Virginia. It is thought that one of these American Sycamores subsequently crossed with an Oriental sycamore growing nearby. Since that time, London

28m-32m

that London plane-tree is in fact a hybrid between Oriental sycamore and the North American sycamore (Platanus

plane-tree has been cultivated for planting in cities around the world and it is now one of the most widely planted urban trees.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of plane tree across London

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LONDON APPLE TREE Malus x domestica Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Oval with serated edges

Origin:

Spontaneous Garden Crossover

UK provenance:

Non-Native

Fruit:

Large green to red fruits can be sweet or sour

Leaves:

Dark green and typically oval in shape with serrated edges. Underneath, the leaves are slightly furry or woolly.

Flowers:

Five-petalled and white, with hints of pink. They grow in clusters, known as blossom, and put on a stunning display in May and June.

Elevation

Description: Domesticated apple originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were taken to North America by European colonists. Apples are an important food source to wildlife, thrushes feast off fallen fruit and bullfinches are partial to the buds.

10m - 12m

Bushy specimens are excellent nesting spots for blackbirds.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of apple tree across London

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LONDON ASH TREE Fraxinus excelsior Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Opposite Branching structure

Origin:

Europe

UK provenance:

Native

Fruit:

Winged fruits, or ‘keys’, in late summer and autumn

Leaves:

Pinnately compound, typically comprising 3-6 opposite pairs of light green, oval leaflets with long tips. There is an additional singular ‘terminal’ leaflet at the end.

Flowers:

The male and female flowers are purple and typically grow on different trees, although a single tree can also have male and female flowers on different branches.

Elevation

Description: When fully grown, ash trees can reach a height of 35m. Tall and graceful, they often grow together, forming a domed canopy. The bark is pale brown to grey, which fissures as the tree ages. Easily identified in winter by smooth twigs

30m - 35m

that have distinctively black, velvety leaf buds arranged opposite each other.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of ash tree across London

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Elevation

LONDON ELM TREE Ulmus glabra Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Opposite Branching structure

Origin:

UK

UK provenance:

Native

Fruit:

Flowers develop into small, winged fruits known as samaras.

Leaves:

Toothed, and at 7-16cm in length, they are larger than those of other elms. They have a characteristic asymmetrical base and taper to a sudden point at the top.

Flowers:

They are red-purple in colour, and appear in clusters of 10 to 20, spaced out along the twigs and small branches.

Description: Mature trees can grow to a height of 30m. The bark is smooth and grey when young, becoming grey-brown and fissured after 20 years. Twigs are dark grey and covered in coarse hairs, and leaf buds are hairy, purple-black and

25m - 30m

squat in shape.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of elm tree across London

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LONDON HORNBEAM TREE Carpinus betulus Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Long clear stem with a crown

Origin:

Europe

UK provenance:

Native

Fruit:

Female catkins develop into papery, green winged fruits, known as samaras.

Leaves:

Oval, toothed and with pointed tips. Hornbeam leaves, however, are smaller and more deeply furrowed than beech leaves. They become golden yellow to orange.

Flowers:

Hornbeam is monoecious, meaning male and female catkins are found on the same tree.

Elevation

Description: often confused with common beech, the bark is pale grey with vertical markings, sometimes with a short, twisted trunk, which develops ridges with age. The twigs are brown-grey and slightly hairy and the leaf buds are similar to beech only shorter, and slightly curved at the tips. Mature trees can reach a height of 30m and live for more than 300

20 - 30m

years.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of hornbean tree across London

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Elevation

LONDON CHESTNUT TREE Aesculus hippocastanum Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Opposite Branching structure

Origin:

Europe

UK provenance:

Non - Native

Fruit:

Each flower develops into a glossy red-brown conker inside a spiky green husk.

Leaves:

The palmate leaves comprise 5-7 pointed, toothed leaflets spreading from a central stem.

Flowers:

In May - individual flowers have 4-5 fringed petals, which are white with a pink flush at the base.

Description: Mature horse chestnut trees grow to a height of around 40m, and can live for up to 300 years. The bark is smooth and pinky grey when young, which darkens and develops scaly plates with age. Twigs are hairless and stout, buds are oval, dark red, shiny and sticky. Horse chestnut timber is a pale creamy white to light brown with a smooth, soft,

35m - 40m

fine texture. It’s not very strong and is therefore not used commercially, but its soft texture makes it ideal for carving.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of chestnut tree across London

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LONDON PEAR TREE Pyrus communis Tree Type:

Deciduous

Shape:

Central Leader

Origin:

Europe and Asia

UK provenance:

Non - Native

Fruit:

Grow on long stalks and ripen to a golden colour with sweet, grainy textured flesh.

Leaves:

Alternate, oval, pointed leaves with toothed edges and long stalks. The leaves are light green in spring, turning to gold and then black in autumn.

Flowers:

White throughout and appear in clusters up to three centimetres across.

Elevation

Description: pear trees usually grow to about 12 metres but some can reach up to 20 metres. The crown of the tree is domed and the branches can have spiny twigs. The bark is grey-brown and broken into small square shapes. Pear trees have been grown in gardens and orchards throughout much of the UK since 995 and many cultivars now exist. Naturalised or wild pear (Pyrus pyraster) trees can be found in hedges, woodland margins and old gardens, and on railway banks

10m - 12m

and waste ground. They spread easily by seed and by discarded cores.

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London Street Tree Map

Distribution of pear tree across London

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06 Business Case Strategic Model

The following business plan and model outline the framework of the project and how the Street Tree pods could in effect be realised.



Project Management Cycle

How my project correlates to the RIBA work plan The graph below represents the work I have carried out in DS10 and how it relates to the RIBA work

It is often the case though in DS10 that as the brief begins to get established and concept design takes

plan stages. The design began back in January with a strong development of the brief coinciding

precedent, multiple work-streams can work alongside each other. Creative design solutions are tried and

with a site analysis. Understanding the site context was key to knowing the potential of the project.

tested and a large emphasis is placed on working between the small and large scales. Whilst developing

Much of the preparation and Brief existed around building up an extensive amount of background

the Street tree house, I would be simultaneously be working on the masterplan scale. DS10 challenges

information. This was either tree analysis, land valuation, cluster mapping of potential sites

students to place themselves between the conceptual and real worlds.

February 01 Strategic Definition

02

March 03

04

01

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Review Feedback on projects from Semester 1 & 2 Identify Project Brief Site Visit into Marylebone and Euston Road

Preparation and Brief Land and Street analysis data of Site areas Analysis of Tree data along London Streets Analyse sustainability aspirations homes Refine Project Brief Concept Design Macro scale design of tree pod living Development of Masterplan Produce conceptual design for the homes Developed Design Materials Research Massing Development Structural Test Modelling Research into Legislative Framework Developed Design Technical Design Develop construction phasing sequence Technical development of Design proposal Consultation on technical construction resolution Produce Final Renderings Final Drawings - Plans / Sections and Elevations

April 02

03

04

01

May 02

03

04

01

02

03

04


Target Group

Housing for a specific need SUSTAINABLE CITY LIVING The Street Tree Pods have been designed as a housing typology to satisfy the needs of

YOUNG WORKING PROFESSIONALS

specific individuals and circumstances in London. These are primarily aimed at money,

Aimed towards young people between the age of 20 and 35 who are often

creating cost effective and affordable homes for people with often reduced or little

situated at the lower end of the working sector. With reduced income the

income.

housing offers a largely more affordable alternative to traditional housing.

UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Students often suffer from almost entirely no income and must live off

YOUNG WORKING PROFESSIONALS

government funding. These tree pods become a cheaper accommodation. Additionally there location in central London provides reduced transport travel expense

HOME RELOCATION

PARENT/CHILD INVESTMENT

UNIVERSITY STUDENT

For a large portion of parents, housing provision for children in the future can be challenging, expensive burden. Long term tree planting investment, with a projected house in the future, becomes a optimistic financial choice

FIRST TIME BUYERS With soaring house prices in London, and salaries not generally high enough to offset, young couples find it increasingly difficult to buy their first

HOMELESS PEOPLE

properties. The cheaper value and security that the Tree Pods provide, offer

PARENT/CHILD INVESTMENT

a more attainable step on the ladder

HOMELESSNESS London has a increasing population of homeless people. Tree pods could provide a temporary/permanent residences for homeless people to occupy whilst re-purposing their lives.

HOME RELOCATION FIRST TIME BUYERS

In the event of eviction due to circumstances beyond your control (Construction, fire, terrorism threat, etc) people can be relocated temporarily/ permanently to Tree pods to reside and live

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Connected Communities Neighbourhood Relationships

The intention of the Street Tree Pods scheme long term is the development of community based architecture. Creating housing types that have a common, symbolic relationship to one another. Along wider streets in London, the introduction of a cycling highway will be implemented, cross connecting the houses and open access to the public. Creating not only a safer transport network, but directly connecting the otherwise separated houses.

Name: Asha Camal Profession: Entrepreneur Age: 22

Name: Reid Samuels Profession: University Student Age: 20

Name: Matthew Carter Profession: University Student Age: 19

11 Years Growth

Name: Chiara Esposito Profession: Architect Age: 26

Name: Ryland Thomas Profession: Doctor Age: 28

Name: Asha Camal Profession: Chef Age: 28

19 Years Growth


Land Exchange

Exchange of money and services MONEY TRANSFER The phasing of money handover is very important to the scheme. Providing affordable housing that benefits all parties from initial private investment, through to government and then Home buyer is imperative.

PHASE 01 Tree identified by Green Future City Int. They obtain the lease hold of the freehold of the tree and leasehold of the small area

PHASE 02

PHASE 03

PHASE 04

Green City Future constructs individual Street

The Government proceeds by buying the

Government maintains freehold of the area,

Tree Pod, managing, all construction and

housing unit at a largely reduced priced due to

but relinquishes the leasehold to the occupant

material supply

lack of land equity and efficient construction.

buying the Street tree Pod. The occupant will either buy or rent the Tree Pod.

around for structure GREEN CITY FUTURE

GREEN CITY FUTURE

GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT

Purchase Lease Hold of

Construct street tree pod

Purchases complete Street Tree Pod

Implementation of Tree Tax

Street Space

£25,000

£35,000

£100 per month ( Exclusion from Council Tax )

£5000

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Project Business Model Business Contractural Tree

Mayor of London Sadiq Kahn

Dep. Environement, Food and Rural Affairs

Public Privte

Green City Future Int. CEO

Partnership

Dep. of Transport

Subsidiary Company

Dep. of Housing, Communities & Local Government

Subsidiary Company

Masterplan Contractor Clean Air Cycle

Tree Home Inc.

Ultra Cycle Highway

Contractor

Street Tree Pod Design

Board of Directors

Contractor

Cycle Highway Design

Framework

Architect Practice 1

Architect Practice 2

Framework

Architect Practice 3

Local Council

Architect Practice 1

Architect Practice 2

Camden Council Westminster Council

Street Tree Pod Type 1

Street Tree Pod Type 2

Public Ultra Cycle Highway

Street Tree Pod Type 3

General Public

Architect Practice 3


Homeowner Values

Values of investment into a Street Tree Pod

IMPOSED TREE TAX

Safety

In order to manage and maintain the homes,

TREE TAX

Office

Retail Connected Communities

and more specifically the condition, safety and integrity of the trees, a tree tax is imposed. A monthly charge is payed directly to the

sp

e ac

ab

ov

e

LONG TERM INVESTMENT

Re

nt

ou

t

government from the home occupier

Parents with babies / young children can invest

Opportunity

in the long term option enables. Purchasing

Buy

a young tree and over the course of the first 25years, the tree will grow along with your

New Transport

investment. At this point the tree will be moved

Investment

to s desired location and the Pod built around it, providing a home entirely payed for.

Land Ownership Family

ROI Capital

Net Zero

Home Owner

TREE IDENTIFICATION Select from a variety of different homes

p shi ner Ow

d ri

ve r

s

depending on the type of tree and location you

t ar ec th of

wm

desire. These vary mostly in size and price.

at co m es wi th

the spa ce Lea

s

eo u

tP ar

gs

ce

h

to

un

ko

Value

kin

pa

Mortgage

LEASE HOLD Giving the occupant the air rights lease hold Asset

encourages a sense of home ownership. Within certain legislations this gives them legal

Sustainability Payback

ownership of there property.

MORTGAGE

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Buying Options

Buying your first Tree Pod

The model below represents the buying options for different homeowners.

Tree Growth over 20-30 years

Rent Tree Monthly Basis

Sign Leesehold

Identify Tree Type

Monthly

Rent payed Monthly Option 01

Identify Tree Type

Sign Leesehold

Purchase Seed

Tree Growth over 20-30 years

Purchase tree outright

Tree Growth over 20-30 years

Option 02

Option 03

Investment into a tree seed from day 01 ÂŁ100

Monthly

Monthly installments to maintain the tree

Tree Growth over 20-30 years

Identify desired Location

Obtain Leese hold of the Land

TREE TAX


Branding and Marketing

Overview of the Street Tree Pod application on IOS

STREET

STREET

TREEPOD TREEPOD

Mail

Calendar Mail

Calendar Photos Mail

Calendar Camera Photos

Camera Photos

STREET

Results

TREEPOD

STREET Results

STREET

T R E E P O D T Results REEPOD

STREET

TREEPOD

Camera

Current Location Current Location Current Location

Maps

Clock Maps

Home

Notes Home

ClockMaps Weather

Clock News Weather

NotesHome Reminders Stocks StocksNotes

News Weather

Reminders Stocks

News

MAPLE

Reminders

1 Bedroom

APPLE ELM TV

App Store TV

App StoreTV iTunes Store

iTunes iBooks App StoreStore

iBooks iTunes Store

Wallet Health

Se�ngs Wallet Health TreePods Se�ngs Wallet

TreePods Se�ngs

PLANE

1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

APPLE ELM CHESTNUT APPLE ELMCHESTNUT

CHESTNUT

iBooks

1 Bedroom Health

MAPLE PLANEMAPLEPLANE

1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom

TreePods

CHERRY

2 Bedroom

CHERRY PEARCHERRY PEAR

PEAR

PLANE TREE PLANE TREE PLANE TREE £500 pcm £500 pcm£500 pcm

1 Bed Pod 1 Bed Pod

1 Bed Pod

Sutherland Avenue, Sutherland London, Avenue, Sutherland T08London, POD Avenue, T08 POD London, T08 POD 1 Bedroom

1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

PLANT A TREE PLANT A TREE PLANT A TREE

Schools

SchoolsFloorplans Schools Floorplans

Floorplans

Location

Location Full Description Location Full DescriptionFull Description

HOME SCREEN

APP HOMESCREEN

PROPERTY

The Street Tree Pod app sits seamlessly on the Home

The home-screen of the app is simple and displays the

When a property is located by the user, the specific

Screen. The app’s API enables the interaction of other

different types of homes available. Short cut to find the

Tree Pod is displayed. Here is all the information

apps on the Apple or Android devices

ideal tree Pod for the user. ‘Plant A Tree’ takes you to

about the home and the price.

the long term investment page

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07 Algorithm

Technical Design

Developed Algorithm for the basic design parameters of the Street Tree pod


Algorithm - Part 1 Identification

The algorithm is based on section architectural design, viewing the proposed tree from street side. The first part of the algorithm involves using the Fibonacci tree as the parameters to set up the floor plates and dimensions.

OPERATION 01 - Fibonacci Node Sequence

OPERATION 02 - Floor plate dimensions

Starting with a branch, after a certain period of time it splits into two smaller branches: a main one and a sapling. In the next time period the sapling stays the same size as it grows to adulthood, while the main branch once again splits into two.

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

3

1

2

2

3

1

1

1

2

1

2

3

5

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

1

1

1

1

3 2

5

8

1

1

1 2

3

5

1

2

3

5

8

21

13

8

5

3

5

3 5

8

13

2 2

21

1

INDEX

RULE 01

The numbers indicate how wide each branch

When sizing up the floor plates a rule must be followed. At each respective node on the tree you make a calculation. The fourth number drops down to the bottom for the lower ground entrance level

These Numbers Indicate how many branches there are at each step Fibonacci Tree Structure The circles indicate the points at each rising node. These circles are overlaid onto the real tree

5

These values represent the smaller values at the nodes and will be used for the floor width

> Than 1 Branch = Choose the larger number < Than 1 Branch = Choose the Smaller number


Algorithm - Part 2 Shifting Space

The second part of the algorithm relates to shifting the floor plates according to the tree. A base point is set up 1.5m to the right or left of the tree trunk

OPERATION 03 - Shifting Floor Plates

RULE 02

OPERATION 04 - Envelope

1.5m

Always position the base point 1.5m to either the right or left of the tree

The two central floor plates remain central along the trunk The lower floor moves to the side of the base point The Higher floor moves to the opposite side of the base point

Envelope Line An envelope line is drawn from the base point around the floor plates to the top. The variables in the design consist of changing floor heights - dependent on the tree’s nodes - and the branch count at these nodes, in turn altering the lengths of the floors.



08 Design Development - Part 1 Photogrammetry

Using the effects of photogrammetry software to create 3D virtual models




Photogrammetry Plane Tree Location:

Finsbury Park, London

Tree Type:

Plane Tree

Photograph count:

935

Description: Part of design development for me was establishing more accuracy and utilising the existing structure I would design with. In the same way as surveying existing buildings, I undertook a series of photogrammetry exercises in order to reconstruct tree’s. This specific tree to the right is an example of a final mesh and texture. The model is composed of 935 photographs I had taken, all at reduced light in order to gain more detail.

Work flow Step 1- Align photos The first stage is camera alignment. At this stage PhotoScan searches for common points on photographs and matches them, as well as it finds the position of the camera for each picture and refines camera calibration parameters. As a result a sparse point cloud and a set of camera positions are formed.

Step 2 - Build Dense Point Cloud Based on the estimated camera positions and pictures themselves a dense point cloud is built by PhotoScan. Dense point cloud may be edited and classified prior to export or proceeding to 3D mesh model generation

Step 3 - Build Mesh PhotoScan reconstructs a 3D polygonal mesh representing the object surface based on the dense point cloud. Generally there are two algorithmic methods available in PhotoScan that can be applied to 3D mesh generation: Height Field - for planar type surfaces, Arbitrary - for any kind of object.

Step 4 - Build Texture The texture mapping mode determines how the object texture will be packed in the texture atlas. Proper texture mapping mode selection helps to obtain optimal texture packing and, consequently, better visual quality of the final model.

Step 5 - Build Tiles Model Hierarchical tiles format is a good solution for city scale modelling. It allows for responsive visualisation of large area 3D models in high resolution, a tiled model being opened with Agisoft Viewer - a complementary tool included in PhotoScan installer package.

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Using the Photogrammetry Textures and Mesh

After building the final model and importing into Rhino, I then used the final mesh and texture in designing. The texture I applied to the physical Trees I built and then rendered in my final images. I used the mesh as part of an on-going process in developing an accurate 3d Mesh Tree to design with

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09 Design Development - Part 2 Drawings

Collection of Drawings compiled over the extent of the design development for the project


Design Drawings Development Sketches

Vine Pipes Network of pipes constricts the tree Acting like vines they engulf the pods Transport Nutrients up the tree Underground Storage Space Waste Removal Energy Stores Food Growing

Connecting Communities Above each pod is a terrace that links one pod to the next

Tree Planting Tree grows underground

Braces Rotating network of braces move vertically up the structure holding a series of pipes in place

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Grid Structure Along the streets the trees create a grid like structure through a series of columns

Bridge Between Pods Linking Communities Structural Support

The Parking Space Space for seating Space for growing food

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Hybrid Structure Tree Provides primary structure Bracing is traversed off the trunk and branches

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Design Drawings Development Sketches

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Design Drawings Development Sketches

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Design Drawings Development Sketches

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Design Drawings Development Sketches

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Design Drawings Development Sketches

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10 Sustainability

STRATEGIC REPORT

The sustainable strategies for the project, personal aspirations and goals, and the



Sustainable Components Learning from Trees

The following diagram represents my initial sustainable investigation regarding what I can learn from the way a tree operates and provides.

1.

SUNLIGHT/ENERGY/HEAT Using Energy from the sun

2.

STRUCTURE/CONSTRUCTION Tree is an organic Structure Tree Pod 100% recyclable

3.

LOAD BARING STRUCTURE

4.

PROSPECT Animals overlook the street Humans over look the street

5.

AIR CIRCULATION Wind penetrates the tree whilst the pod utilises natural ventilation

6.

LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE Using Energy from the sun

7.

VISIBILITY

8.

The first level is the height of the first branch separation TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES Tree Trunk vs around the Trunk

9.

FERTILIZATION Soil Fertilisation BIO Waste

STREET TREE POD

TREE


Sustainable Tree Pod Strategies Inputs and Outputs

SENSE OF WELL-BEING

NATURAL TREE SHADING

Living amongst the tree can present an improved sense of living

During the summer the tree creates a buffer around the pod, retaining heat. It also holds the heat. In the winter when the leaves have gone, then building can optimise all opportunities to gain heat.

VENTILATION OUTPUT

INTERNAL TREE INCUBATION

Air ventilated out of the pod at the top through operable windows

A skin of ETFE will enclose the tree trunk and main branches. This will provide a sealed environment for both the occupant and the tree

NATURAL VENTILATION

LED LIGHTING

Natural Ventilation intake in the lower part of the building through operable windows.

All lighting in the pod will come from LED source

DAYLIGHT Optimised internal daylight throughout the day with no direct sun illumination

RAINWATER COLLECTION Shape of the pod maximises rainwater collection on this facade with increased surface area

AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP

BIO DIGESTER

Takes heat from the air and boosts it to a higher temperature using a heat pump

The recycling of organic material from occupant that will be decomposed to produce biogas

RAIN WATER STORAGE Rainwater collection to a maximum of the highest monthly rainfall per annum. Additional water is transfer back to the main off-site rainwater tank

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Energy Model

Energy source and usage

As part of the sustainable strategy of the project I conducted a simplified energy model. The model was carried out in Honeybee using Energy Plus as an engine. This exercise was performed to acquire a rough idea on how my design compares to the CBSE TM46 baseline for UK Long Term Residential buildings. However, due to the unique nature of the project the building can be oriented in any direction and the surrounding context will entirely depend on the specific location of the parking space, therefore this study will only be focusing on orientation.

HEATING

5712kWh/yr 79%

LIGHTING

557kWh/yr

ENERGY SOURCE

PLUG LOADS

550kWh/yr

COOLING

385kWh/yr

7140KHW

7.7%

The North orientation was assumed, leaving the big windows to the South. The schedules used were predefined apartment schedules, with a Light Power Density of 6w/m2 and an Equipment Load of 3W/m2. The cooling and heating set points, which will highly influence

7.8%

5.4%

the Space Cooling and Heating energy use, were set to 22C and 19C respectively.

North Orientation

West Orientation

Conclusion Evidently, the largest source of energy used by the tree pods will be heating. This is a result of the ratio between the envelope area and the floor area. The envelope is where all the heat loses and infiltrations occur. Consequently, the more envelope, the more heat loses a building will have. Having an envelope to floor area ratio of almost 5 does not benefit the heating demand of the pod, but it encourages natural ventilation and having individual pods is the key concept of the project.

As a strategy, higher U-values could be tested to find the balance between cost constraints and the operational costs of the tree pods. Furthermore, it is known that very few residential buildings in London are equipped with cooling systems. Together with the tree pod’s architecture that is designed for cross and buoyancy natural ventilation, it is safe to say that we would not need cooling systems and thus would save plant space and 672kWh/ y.

Energy used per year kWh/yr Even though the total energy of the tree pods will slightly vary depending on orientation and the specific surrounding context, we can assume that a tree pod with a GFA of 40sqm will use 7,140kWh/year. As mentioned above, we can

East Orientation

exclude the cooling system and improve the pod’s envelope, considering a minimum of 10% improvement, resulting in a potential annual energy consumption of 6,248kwh/yr

Predicted Energy Use Intensity The Energy Use Intensity (EUI) is used to compare buildings of different sizes within the same use. Taking a total energy consumption of 6,248kWh/yr, the Predicted EUI for a tree pod would be 156.2kWh/ m2/yr. According to CBSE TM46, a long term residential consumes 485kWh/m2/yr in the UK. This means that each tree pod is designed to be at least 67.8% more energy efficient. South Orientation


Water Diagram Water Recycling Map

INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY I felt it necessary to follow the important role that trees play in absorbing surface water and mitigating flood risks by designing towards a water recycling system

14.5m

NIGHT

Surface Water Runoff The sloping side of the end facade enables surface rainwater runoff. This will be increased by the water retention and subsequent slowing down of speed by the leaves in winter LEVEL 2

WORK

10.4m

8.2m

Toilet - Black Water Black water from the toilets will be fed down into the ground.

LEVEL 1

DAY

Rainwater Harvesting Tank and collector This tank will be dedicated to collecting rainwater. This rainwater will also be used for flushing toilets and cleaning clothes

LEVEL 0

SERVICING

5.6m

3.0m

Grey Water Tank All water from the occupants, except for toilet and garbage disposal will be collected in the tank at the bottom. This container has a volume of around 1500L for this. This water includes Kitchen, Shower, Sinks and washing machines. Inside the tank will be treatment plant that will clean the water. This recycled grey water will then be used for flushing toilets and cleaning clothes.

LEVEL-1

CROSS SECTION 1.2m

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Net Zero Water

Water Harvesting Calculation

The calculations below represent the water harvesting strategies performed by the tree pod and the concluded design considerations and Net profit of the systems

Homeowner Age: 21 - 25

Roof Area Calcuation

London Annual Rainfall (mm)

5.2m + (6.7 ÷ 2) x + 3.46m2 = 30m2

January

64.7

30m2

February

46.6

March

48.9

Average Water Consumption

April

51.5

Per day

142 litres

May

58.0

Per Week

994 litres

June

54.2

Per Month

3,976 litres

Area x Drainage x Filter Coefficient x Monthly Max Rainfall

July

50.4

Per Year

47,712 litres

= Rainwater Harvested

August

64.4

September

56.9

October

77.7

November

68.3

December

62.9

Annual

704.5

Rainwater Harvest

Water and Waste Water Cost Per Year

£315

Per Month

£26

30m2 x 0.9 x 0.9 x 80 = 1944L 1944L = 2000L

Use of Rainwater Clothes Wash Cycle (50 Litres each)

0.5 Cycles

Toilet Flushes (5 Litres each)

4.4 Flushes

25.00L

Recycling

BREEAM ASSESSMENT Grey water Harvest

44.40L

25.00L 50.00L

Use of Clean Water Shower (50 Litres each)

1 Shower

Dish washing - hand (22 Litres each)

1 Wash

50Litres 22.00L

= Required Tank Size

Recycling Recycling

22.00L 97.00L

Credits awarded based upon the percentage of the total hard surface for the site (roof plus hard-standing) that is designed to allow the harvesting of rainwater for re-use. One

Between 5% and 25%

Two

Between 26% and 50%

Three

Between 51% and 100%


Facade Design

Specific Sustainable Strategies INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability should start with a direct understanding and appreciation of the specific

on the residents neighbouring my architecture and the animals that occupy the tree.

context in which you work, design and operate. In the case of the facade treatment,

Therefore, I responded with consideration design towards these areas. The following four

thought was focused around the tree. I understood that my design will have both an impact

facade renders highlight the various strategies employed by the Tree Pod.

Bird Homes

Vertical Planters

Vertical Green Wall

Facade 01 Habitat provision is vital as the Tree is home to a variety of different animals, most noticeably birds. Across this facade are a series of long wooden bird homes that the birds can nest in.

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Facade 02 The Green wall functions on multiple levels. For the occupant and building, it provides thermal store, reducing heat loss through this side of the building. For pedestrians and neighbours the green wall provides a visual comfort and sense of well-being. Appreciating the new infrastructure, the architecture in this way seeks to blend as seamlessly as possible into the trees and street life.

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Rain Water Harvesting

Facade 03 Learning from the tree, this faรงades design realises the potential of rainwater harvesting. Using the slope of the building, rainwater runs down and is collected in a small reservoir, later filtered into storage tanks within the dwelling. The added presence of the tree will help to reduce the speed or rain impact, and thus improve water harvesting.

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Facade 04 Natural is important to a small space like the tree pod. Facing the street, the Main and first floors are full hight glazing to allow natural daylight to flood the interior. The windows are covered, however, in a thin reflective film, creating a one-way effect. Occupants inside can look out to the street, though the street activity cannot see back inside.

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Eco-Build - Visit

Zed-Pod by Zed Factory As part of the Eco-Build this year, the ‘Zed Pod’ was on show by Zed Factory. I attended the exhibition in order to appreciate the architecture of a project designed above car parking spaces. Noticeably, the structure is highly commercial and practical in its design, with a highly traditional architecture. This project had more relationships with my project 2 proposal earlier in the year. It maximises the parking space area and then extrudes vertically to a pitched roof.

They are not the biggest buildings with a gfa of only 22.4 square metres, excluding the balcony – but they propose larger versions available with two bedrooms in their design guides. Prices for the pods also vary, with the cheapest being either £65,000 or £650pcm and the most expensive reaching £110,000 to £115,000 (depending on the cladding). One advantage of the houses for the people renting is that tenants get a lease purchase, which means after 25 years they get to keep the house.

DESIGN INTENT The design intent of the project is for them to be able to be installed at any large surface car park, such as those owned by local authorities, supermarkets, universities, schools and hospitals, and as all these locations tend to have good transport links, they come with in-built work and leisure accessibility

WHAT IS INCLUDED IN EACH POD The houses each have a balcony, micro kitchen with dining table, bathroom, sofa space and a mezzanine floor with a desk, double bed and wardrobe. They also come with almost no bills – their roofs are covered in solar panels that charge a battery, they have insulation inside and out, heat recovery ventilation and large triple glazed windows. Maintenance costs should be low too – with the outside of the building designed to last 20 years before needing work done on it. The location of the tree and its position in the street

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Precedent

San Francisco Parklets The ideas of what could replace a parking space, specifically the physical area on the road itself is debatable. For my project it actually acts as the only physical connection the home makes with the ground. I was keen to investigate how parking spaces have had their uses changed. In San Francisco they have actually set up a architectural typology known as ‘Parklets’ which are design intended for sides of streets.

Streets and sidewalks make up to twenty-five percent of the City’s land area and are an integral part of our daily experience. Many sidewalks were narrowed and streets widened during the mid-twentieth century to create more space for automobiles. This has left us with sidewalks that are often crowded and uncomfortable. Some residents need to travel farther than others in order to enjoy a park, playground, or other public space, since those amenities are not evenly distributed around the City.

PARKLET PROGRAM GOALS Parklets re-purpose part of the street next to the sidewalk into a public space for people. These small parks provide amenities like seating, planting, bicycle parking, and art. While they are funded and maintained by neighbouring businesses, residents, and community organizations, they are publicly accessible and open to all. Parklets reflect the diversity and creativity of the people and organizations who sponsor and design them. They also reflect the City’s commitment to encouraging walking, bicycling, and strengthening our communities.

PRECEDENT OUTCOME The design of the parking space area at the base of my Street Tree pod is very important because its the only physical interaction with the street. It will need to accommodate and entrance into the home. Learning from these examples in San Francisco, however, the inclusion of planting appears to be a common inclusion, as well as providing cycling locks. The base could also cover up and hide potential services.

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11 Masterplan Development

Increasing tree Density for London

Development of the master plan around Marylebone for increased Tree population and density


Masterplan Development Current Street Tree population

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Masterplan Development

Proposed Street Tree population Increase

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12 Street Tree Pod Construction Build Phasing

Breakdown of the construction phasing for the Street Tree Pods



Construction Phasing Exploded Axonometric

STAIRCASE LEVEL 02-03

STAIRCASE LEVEL 01-02

GLULAM BRACING JOISTS

STEEL TREE CONNECTORS

AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP

FLOOR JOISTS AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP STRUCUTRALLY INSULATED PLYWOOD PANELS

AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP

DAMP PROOF MEMBRAIN

STORAGE TANKS

AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP

Constrcution Phase STRATEGIC REPORT AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP

PLANT CLIMBER SUPPORTERS

1 GLULAM GROUND CONNECTION

CONCRETE

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Structural Concept Principles of Stability

RETHINKING TREE HOUSE METHODOLOGY In the case of traditional tree houses, all most all of them are built without any

to approach my structural strategy in terms of a 50/50% approach. Rather than solely

connection to the ground. And if there is its usually only for a ladder. Therefore,

depending on the tree, the frame of the structure is fixed down to the ground. As the form

structurally all the load is placed vertically downwards, along with gravity. This

over hangs, the trunk of the tree now acts as stability, working laterally as opposed to

puts a large degree of weight and stress on the trees branches. Therefore, I chose

vertically. No weight is placed on the branches and thus minimal stress on the tree

7/

7/

7/

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RETHINKING TREE HOUSE METHODOLOGY

RETHINKING TREE HOUSE METHODOLOGY

The most important connection for the Street Tree Pod beside that with the tree, is the one to the ground. I

One of the unique elements of the design is the Tree Incubator. By combining the architecture with the tree I

wanted to expose this structure, showcasing the minimal ‘footprint’ that the architecture takes up. Specifically

wanted to maintain both living conditions. The living trunk and the weatherproof conditioned home. Each pod has

towards land space. The foundation is the only piece of concrete used in the entire design.

therfore been designed like an incubator. The enitre tree that sits inside the home is enclosed in a ETFE shell. Where the trunk and branches meet the edges of the pod, the ETFE dissapears. This system allows for water to enter the tree and run through to the ground. At the junction between the tree and the envelope line, a rubber gasket, much like the ones used in toilets, will be used. This will allow for minimal tree growth over its life

GLULAM BEAM

RAINWATER

PLANT CLIMBER SUPPORTERS

SIDE PLATES BOLTS

STEEL FIXING

BOLTS

TREE TRUNK

STEEL PIN STEEL PIN WELDED TOGETHER

BASE PLATE

ETFE

ETFE

CONCRETE FOOTING (FOUNDATION)

ETFE The Etfe itself will have a honeycomb patternation with thin steep wires holding its frame. under compression (When a force like a hand pushes against it, it will act like a cushion, and press against the trunk. Releasing the compression and the ETFE will fall back to its original shape

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Build Construction

On-Site Construction Phase from Identification to Completion

PHASE 01

PHASE 02

Tree identified by Green Future City Int. They obtain the lease hold of the

Installation of the concrete foundations fro the glulam connections. A small

freehold of the tree and leasehold of the small area around for structure

excavation takes place and then the concrete blocks are placed in position

TIME

TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Tree Analysis

PARTS Concrete Slab Steel Bottom plate Steel Connectors

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PHASE 03

PHASE 04

The timber base platform is put into place. Defining the parking space area

The four main glulam beams connected to the ground and cross connected.

and surrounding the steel connectors

TIME

TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Softwood Timber Platform

PARTS Glulam beams type 01 Glulam beams type 02 Steel Rod Connectors

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x4 x3 x5


Build Construction

On-Site Construction Phase from Identification to Completion

PHASE 05

PHASE 06

At phase 04 the rest of the basic building shell is complete. The four main

Pre fabricated panels are fitted to the frame of the pod. Made from structurally

glulam beams rise up to meet at the top

insulated plywood, the panels provide the internal finish and back face to the

TIME

envelope. TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Glulam Beams Type 01 Glulam Beams Type 02 Steel Rod Connectors Steel Connectors

PARTS Structurally insulated plywood panel x 40

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PHASE 07

PHASE 08

Two types of windows: Windows fixed to the ends of pod will be triple glazed. Street

Internal trunk encased in an ETFE skin. The skin is lightly fastened back to the

facing facade will be acoustically treated glass with a reflective coating, creating a mirror

tree at junctions with small rings of steel. Air and water tight seals are made at

effect from street side obstructing views in, but allowing views of the street from within.

the external junctions, collectively seeing the thermal line.

TIME

TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Triple Glazed glass Acustic Glazing

PARTS ETFE Membrane

x3 x8

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Build Construction

On-Site Construction Phase from Identification to Completion

PHASE 09

PHASE 10

Installation of the plant-work at the lower levels. Water storage tank, Bio-

Underfloor heating is installed on the main level of the pod. This is connected into

digester, Air source heat pump, and electrical energy stores

the services below. Timber decking is fixed for flooring on the above levels

TIME

TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Storage Tanks Electric Units Air Source Heat Pumps Copper Piping Glulam Tubular Profile

PARTS Underfloor heating pipes Screed pad Timber floorboards

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PHASE 11

PHASE 12

The internal furniture is then installed. Components like the stair and desk are

Vines and planting is introduced at the lower part of the pod that will continues to

made bespoke my local timber craftsmen. Designed to fit the space perfectly

grow up the side of the structure. Bird homes are built into the side of the facade

TIME

TIME

STREET IMPACT

STREET IMPACT

PARTS Kitchen Units Bathroom Units Chairs and sofa Study desk Storage Bed

PARTS Vertical planters Timber ribs for growth Bird homes

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WATER LEVEL

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13 Street Tree Pod Final Design

Conclusions, Final Imagery and Project Review



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Final Proposal

Overview and Aspirations PROJECT OUTCOME The project was driven by creating a new type of housing typology, develop on from the tiny home movement, and creating a wider residential scheme and business model. Street Tree Pods is exactly that. Most noticeably this project has little ground interaction but instead develops a house using air space. There is also a direct relationship with the surrounding context in the form of trees, and embodies the notion of a more sympathetic urban architecture as opposed to the often aggressive approach.

LIVING WITH TREES I believe more of an effort should be made to live amongst the natural landscape. Its not enough to simply move it out the way for our architectural interventions. Trees are imperative to the success, health and wellbeing of all people and only ever provide advantages to our way of life. Living with trees creates a calmer, more respective way of living and treating our environment. Sustainability should start with one of the primary sources of our existence. Tree pods use the tree as structural support, rather than ripping it down and using it as support when its dead

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Project Critical Evaluation Aspirations and Assessment PROJECT EVOLUTION My early aspirations and ideas for this project focused very solely around the car park space and building above. Whilst this has maintained, as a result a more in-depth and natural architecture has evolved that makes a direct relationship with the environment and nature. The inclusion of the tree, acting as both a design constraint and inspirational element, has been an extremely interesting architectural exploration for me. I believe I have thought more critically about my designing in this project than before, building a substantial, well research and grounded project .

FUTURE PROJECT AMBITIONS Taking this project forward there would be two areas I would investigate. The first is the range of tree houses. In this project I focused on one type, but the theory I have is that multiple types of typologies could be created depending on the specific tree. Smaller trees could be aimed at hostel type accommodation, solely a bed and bathroom, with kitchens in separate trees. Larger trees could perhaps start to link and create larger homes.

The second area I would like to have pursued is the location. It would be interesting to see how this scheme moves to different countries where the structure of roads and parking spaces vary. How might climatic conditions affect the design, and the possible energy gains and loses that could be found. I feel that building materials, specifically in relation to the facade could be tested in more detail, with more learning from the tree’s bark as the focal point

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LEVEL RETAW


WATER LEVEL


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Thank you


Thank you


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