Page 1

BIOSPHERE 03 Mars Colonisation

DS10 - Architectural Thesis

"Exploation is wired into our brains. If we see the horizon, we want to know whats beyond it"

Matthew Chamberlain MArch 160786911 Submitted May 2017


CONTENTS

MARS COLONISATION

[BIOSPHERE 03]

SECTION 01 - PLANET MARS

03

SECTION 02 - EXPLORING MARS

11

SECTION 03 - UNDERSTANDING MARS

17

SECTION 04 - BIOSPHERE

27

SECTION 05- DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

31

SECTION 06 - ROBOTICS SECTION 07 - FINAL CRITIQUE

47

SECTION 08 - BIOSPHERE 03

51

Martian Biosphere 3

Matthew Chamberlain


BIOSPHERE 03

FORWARD

[MISSION STATEMENT AND SYMBOL]

BIOSPHERE 03 - “REALISING THE IMPOSSIBLE DREAM” Biosphere 03 is pioneering next steps in space exploration and leading the world throughout our journey to Mars

Mars is a rich destination for scientific discovery, robotic and human exploration as we expand our presence into the solar system. Its formation and evolution are comparable to earth, helping us learn more about our own planets historical backdrop and future. We believe Mars had conditions suitable for life in its past and now at Biosphere 03 we will be the future.

People will unite and the world will be as one, as we venture towards the seemingly frightening unknown with open eyes and clear minds. Our continued research and investigations will seek to uncover evidence of life, answering one of the fundamental questions of the cosmos:

BIOSPHERE 03

Does life exist beyond Earth?

BIOSPHERE 03 - “THE SYMBOL” The symbol for the colony characterises the various elements that constitute the entire project. The circle

Finally the entire thing is carried by a drone, a prominent icon of the modern technological age. The drone is

with the arrow pointing north west, symbolises the planet Mars. It is the Astronomical and astrological symbol

both a metaphor for the growing dependency on technology and robotics, and the realisation that this project

of the planet Mars, alchemical symbol of iron, gender symbol for male, and symbol of the Greek god Ares

will be built entirely by robots, for the later colonisation of humans.

and the Roman god Mars. Finally the term, ‘Biosphere 03’ will be the name of the project and the name of the colony. Proceeding The flower, held by the hand, is a symbol for life. In its most basic of states life starts small and delicate but

from the two earlier Biosphere projects conducted in the world, this will be the first to truthfully sustain and

grows. The plant inside the circle also represents the biodome. The foundation of the design resides in the

promote life on another planet. In this case Mars.

biosphere that will be built to house plants, humans and life evolution.


1.0 Chapter 1.0 - Planet Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.


1.1

LIVING ON OTHER PLANETS WHERE WE STAND ON MARS

[BIOSPHERE 03]

AN IDEA At last humans are able to make educated guesses about what living on other planets might be like and what that could entail. As our research, technology and understanding

The southern hemisphere is pointed away from the sun when the planet is farthest from

of space develops so to does our basic human instinct of discovery and exploration.

it, resulting in far colder winters (and far hotter summers) than those in the northern

The question in my mind is not ‘can we live on another planet in space’, but rather

hemisphere.

‘which planet could we live on?’

If you were to live in the northern hemisphere, you’d enjoy about seven months of spring, six months of summer, a little more than five months of fall and only about four months of winter. (A year on Mars is about 1.88 Earth years, and a day lasts a little

MARS WILL BE OUR NEXT HOME...

more than 24 hours.)

The idea of living on Mars has been a staple of science fiction since the 19th century, when American astronomer Percival Lowell speculated that the channels on the Red Planet were really ancient canals built by intelligent extraterrestrials. But if this sci-fi dream were to ever become reality, what would it be like to actually live on Mars? In 1965, NASA’s Mariner 4 spacecraft completed the first Martian flyby, and six years later, the Soviet Union’s Mars 3 lander became the first spacecraft to land softly on Mars. Since then, there have been numerous successful missions to the Red Planet, including the deployment of four Mars rovers — the now-defunct Sojourner and Spirit, and the still-active Opportunity and Curiosity — and NASA’s Mars Odyssey spacecraft, which produced a map of the entire planet. NASA is now planning for a manned mission to Mars, which is planned for the 2030s. It’s unknown where astronauts will land on Mars for that mission, but for a future Martian space colony, “you’d probably want a permanent base somewhere in the low northern latitudes,” Ashwin Vasavada, a deputy project scientist for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory has said. Like Earth, Mars has seasons due to the planet’s tilt upon its axis, but it also has a secondary seasonal effect because of its highly elliptical orbit.

Mars from Orbit

Martian Biosphere 3

04 Matthew Chamberlain


1.2

PLANET COMPARISON

UNDERSTANDING THE SOLAR SYSTEM

[BIOSPHERE 03]

INTRODUCTION The following table represents a cross comparison between the eight planets in our solar system. Two critical pieces of information to note are the gravitational field strength and the minimum and maximum surface temperatures on Mars.

Feature

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

Distance from the Sun (km) (Semimajor axis of orbit)

57,909,227

108,209,475

149,598,262

227,943,824

778,340,821

1,426,666,422

2,870,658,186

4,498,396,441

Mean Equatorial Radius (km)

2,439.7

6,051.8

6,371.00

3,389.5

69,911

58,232

25,362

Volume (km3)

60,827,208,742

928,415,345,893

1,083,206,916,846

163,115,609,799

1,431,281,810,739,360

Mass (kg)

330,104,000,000, 000,000,000,000

4,867,320,000,000, 000,000,000,000

5,972,190,000,000, 000,000,000,000

641,693,000,000, 000,000,000,000

1,898,130,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000

5.427

5.243

5.513

3.934

1.326

9.80665

3.71

24.79

462

-88/58 (min/max)

-153 to +20

Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen

Nitrogen, Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon

Hydrogen, Helium

Hydrogen, Helium, Methane

Hydrogen, Helium

Methane

Density (g/cm3)

Equatorial Surface Gravity (m/s2)

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature (degrees C)

3.7

-173/427

Major Atmospheric Constituents

8.87

827,129,915,150,897

24,622

163,115,609,799

1,431,281,810,739,360

5,972,190,000,000, 000,000,000,000

86,810,300,000,000, 000,000,000,000

1,898,130,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000

0.687

1.270

1.638

10.4*

8.87

11.15

Moons

None

None

1 moon

2 moons

67 moons

62 moon

27 moons

14 moons

Rings

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Martian Biosphere 3

05 Matthew Chamberlain


LIVE VIEW OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

[WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, 2017, WEEK 21]

FEBR

ARY JANU

UARY

SOLAR SYSTEM PROFILE AGE: 4.6 Billion Years

DE CE

M

DWARF PLANETS: 5

CH AR M

BE R

PLANETS: 8 MOONS: 181 ASTEROIDS: 552,894 COMETS: 3,083 DIAMETER: 18.75 trillion km

MBER

MARS

L

URANUS

APRI

NOVE

SOL

MERCURY

B OCTO

JUPITER

VENUS

ER

MAY

EARTH

NEPTUNE

SATURN

R BE

NE

EM PT

SE

JU

1.3

SOLAR SYSTEM ORRERY

PLUTO

AUG U

ST

JULY


1.4

MARS

FACTS AND FIGURES

[BIOSPHERE 03]

TEMPERATURE AND AIR PRESSURE

GRAVITY AND TIME

Mars’s atmosphere is about 100 times thinner than Earth’s. Without a “thermal blanket,” Mars can’t retain any heat energy. On average, the temperature on Mars is about minus 60 degrees C. In winter, the poles temperatures can get down to minus 125 degrees C. A summer day on Mars may get up to 20 degrees C near the equator, but at night the temperature can plummet to about minus 73 C. Frost forms on the rocks at night, but as dawn approaches and

Scientists have calculated Mars’ gravity based on Newton’s Theory of Universal Gravitation, which states that the gravitational force exerted by an object is proportional to its mass. Since Mars has less mass than Earth, the surface gravity on Mars is less than the surface gravity on Earth. The surface gravity on Mars is only about 38% of the surface gravity on Earth, so if you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh only 38 pounds on Mars.

the air gets warmer, the frost turns to vapour, and there is 100 percent humidity until it evaporates.

TEMPERATURE

LAND SURFACE AREA

TIME

-5O C > -150O C 5C SOL (DAY) 24:39:35

-20O C > -153O C

-123O C > -175O C

144,000,000KM2

PRESSURE

GRAVITATIONAL FIELD STRENGTH MARTIAN YEAR 669 SOLS (698 EARTH DAYS)

1/200TH OF THE PRESSURE OF EARTH

9.807 M/S² EARTH

3.711 M/S² MARS

Like Earth, Mars has four seasons because the planet tilts on its axis. The seasons vary in length because of Mars’

A day on Mars is roughly 40 minutes longer than a day is here on Earth. Compared to other bodies in our Solar

eccentric orbit around the sun. In the northern hemisphere, spring is the longest season at seven months. Summer

System where a day is either incredibly short (Jupiter’s rotates once on its axis every 9 hours, 55 minutes and 29.69

and fall are both about six months long. Winter is only four months long. During a Martian summer, the polar ice

seconds) or incredibly long (a day on Venus lasts for 116 days and 18 hours), this similarity is quite astounding.

cap, composed mainly of carbon dioxide ice, shrinks and may disappear altogether. When winter comes, the ice cap

Because Mars is farther away from the sun, it has to travel a greater distance around the sun. It takes Mars about

grows back. There may be some liquid water trapped beneath the carbon dioxide ice sheets, scientists say.

twice as long as it does for Earth to make one circle around the sun. Therefore, a year on Mars lasts twice as long.

Martian Biosphere 3

07 Matthew Chamberlain


LOCATION

PRIMARY SITE: GALE CRATER

[BIOSPHERE 03]

The Crater has been chosen as the location for the colony. Currently the site remains the most detailed Mars mission conducted by NASA with extensive orbital data coverage. Gale Crater is a fascinating place to explore because of the mountain of layered materials in the middle. On Earth, this mound would be a mountain 5 kilometres high!

The layers tell a story about what Mars was like in the past, perhaps spanning much of the history of the red planet. Studies from orbit have revealed that the layers have different minerals depending on their height. Near the bottom of the mound are clay minerals. Above the clay-bearing layers are layers with sulphur and oxygenbearing minerals. Flowing water appears to have carved channels in both the mound and the crater wall. To get to the mound, Biosphere’s spaceships would land in a flatter part of the crater and carefully work its way upward, layer by layer. Along the way, robots would investigate how the layers formed and the environments in which they formed.

TYPE: Crator LOCATION: 5.4S, 137.8E. North-western part of the Aeolis Quadrangle SIZE: 155km Diameter/ (96mi)

DATA FROM CURIOSITY ROVER: Observation of terrain, soil mechanics, composition, temperature fluctuations, dust opacity, transferability and radiation research.

EDL [ENTRY, DESCENT AND LANDING] : The REMS ( Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) will provide daily and seasonal reports on atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed and Martian ground conditions.

ADDITIONAL SITE ATTRIBUTES: High chance that water used to exist. Bedrock indicates a lake might have existed. Little Carbon Dioxide in the air keeps and water frozen

Martian Biosphere 3

09 Matthew Chamberlain


1.5

SOLAR SYSTEM ORRERY

LIVE VIEW OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

ELEVATION

[WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, 2017, WEEK 21]

21KM 18KM 15KM 12KM 9KM 5KM 3KM 0KM -3KM -6KM -9KM

ELYSIUM MONS - MOUNTAIN

ALBOR THOLUS - MOUNTAIN

BEAGLE 2 LANDER (UK)

ELYSIUM PLANITIA - PLAIN

LOCATION: GALE CRATOR AL-QAHIRA VALLIS - CANYON

MARS 3 LANDER (USSR)

HELLAS PLANITIA - PLAIN


2.0 Chapter 2.0 - Exploring Mars There are currently various individuals and companies around the world who are trying to become the first people to land on Mars. The following page indicates the entire history of Mars exploration and the future objectives. This section also highlights two private firms exploring in habitation on Mars


2.1

MARS MISSION

MARS MISSION HISTORY CALENDAR

[57 YEARS]

LAUNCH FAILURE

PAST MISSIONS USSR/RUSSIA

KORABL 4

1960

USA

KORABL 5

1960

KORABL 11

1962

MARS 1 KORABL 13

1962

MARINA 3 MARINA 4

1964

ZOND 2 MARS 1969A

1964

MARS 1969B

1969

MARINA 6

1969

MARINA 7

1969

EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY JAPAN/CHINA FAILED SUCCESSFUL

FAILED TO REACH EARTH ORBIT

EARTH ORBIT ONLY

LOST

1962 1964 1969

MARINA 8

1971

KOSMOS 419

1971

MARS 2

1971

MARS 3

1971

MARINA 9

1971

MARS 4

1973

MARS 5

1973

MARS 6

1973

MARS 7

1973

VIKING 1

1975

VIKING 2

1975

PHOBOS 1

1988

PHOBOS 2

1988

MARS OBSERVER

1992

MARS GLOBAL SURVEYER

1996

MARS 96

1996

PATHFINDER/SOJOURNER

1996

NOZOMI (JAPAN)

1998

CLIMATE ORBITER

1998

POLAR LANDER

1999

DEEP SPACE 2 PROBES (2)

1999

MARS ODYSSEY

2001

MARS EXPRESS ORBITER/BEAGLE 2 LANDER

2003

MARS EXPLORATION ROVER - SPIRIT

2003

MARS EXPLORATION ROVER OPPORTUNITY

2003

MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER

2005

PHOENIX

2007

YINGHUO-1 (CHINA)

2011

PHOBOS-GRUNT

2011

MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY-CURIOSITY

2012

MAVEN

2013

EXOMARS (ORBITER)

2016

INSIGHT

2016

EXOMARS (ROVER)

2018

BIOSPHERE 03

2024

Martian Biosphere 3

12 Matthew Chamberlain

MARS FLYBY / ORBITER

LANDER

ROVER

COLONISATION


SPACEX

ELON MUSK

[NET WORTH $15 BILLION]

SpaceX founder Elon Musk has outlined his highly ambitious vision for manned missions to Mars, which he said could begin as soon as 2022. “What I really want to try to achieve here is to make Mars seem possible – like it’s something we can achieve in our lifetimes,”

Elon Musk is a South African entrepreneur known for founding Tesla Motors and SpaceX, which launched a landmark commercial spacecraft in 2012. He has a networth of over $15Billion. He said there were “two fundamental paths” facing humanity today. “One is that we stay on Earth forever and then there will be an inevitable extinction event,” he said. “The alternative is to become a space faring civilization, and a multiplanetary species.”

In order to achieve this goal, Musk outlined a multi-stage launch and transport system, including a reusable booster. The booster, and the “interplanetary module” on top of it, would be nearly as long as two Boeing 747 aircraft. It could initially carry up to 100 passengers, he said.

Missions to Mars would ideally be launched every 26 months when the planet is aligned with Earth. The 2020 planned lander will be critical for future possible manned missions as it will test technology required to land heavy equipment on the Martian surface—a task that, given Mars’unfamiliar terrain and thin atmosphere, could be difficult to execute. Heavy payloads entering Mars won’t have the planet’s atmosphere to cushion their landing and so there is the risk of very abrupt and hard landings.

Martian Biosphere 3

13 Matthew Chamberlain


MARS ONE

BAS LANSDORP

Mars One aims to establish a permanent human settlement on Mars. Several unmanned missions will be completed, establishing a habitable settlement before carefully selected and trained crews will depart to Mars. Funding and implementing this plan will not be easy, it will be hard. The Mars One team, with its advisers and with established aerospace companies, will evaluate and mitigate risks and identify and overcome difficulties step by step. Mars One is a global initiative whose goal is to make this everyone’s mission to Mars, including yours. If we all work together, we can do this. We’re going to Mars.

The private space-flight project is led by Dutch entrepreneur Bas Lansdorp, who announced the Mars One project in May 2012. Mars One’s original concept included launching a robotic lander and orbiter as early as 2020 to be followed by a human crew of four in 2024 and one in 2026.

Bas lansdorp is a Dutch entrepreneur best known as the co-founder and CEO of Mars One. Mars One’s mission design is currently in the early mission concept phase, or as called in space development terms: Phase A. The top level requirements for the mission have been identified and discussed with established aerospace companies. Possible solutions were proposed and discussed after which a baseline mission concept was defined and rough cost figures were discussed.

Martian Biosphere 3

15 Matthew Chamberlain


3.0 Chapter 3.0 - Understanding Mars It was important for me to research and explore the various characteristics of the planet. Analysing the possibility of construction materials and sustainable energy.


EXPLORING MARS FIVE KEY PROPERTIES

Before designing I wanted to establish a thorough understanding and appreciation for my site, which is effect a planet. By understanding the possibilities and subsequent challenges presented on the planet, I would be able to design accordingly.

1. CONSTRUCTION The best way to build on Mars will be using materials that can be found on the planet. This is because building materials would vastly increase the payload any rocket would need to carry and the cost of getting it to Mars. In-situ recourse utilization is the application of using materials already on the planet.

2. ENERGY Sustainable energy in the form of wind, waste, solar, hydro and geothermal

3. WATER Scientists examined part of Mars’Utopia Planitia region, in the mid-northern latitudes. Analyses of data from more than 600 overhead passes with the on-board radar instrument reveal a deposit more extensive in area than the state of New Mexico.

4. FOOD What crops and food can be grown and the nutrients available in the Martian soil already

5. FROZEN ICE One technique of water mining on Mars could actually be to use microwaves. Cooking some of the regolith.

Martian Biosphere 3

18 Matthew Chamberlain


3.2

CONSTRUCTION

MARTIAN CONCRETE

[SUSTAINABLE AARCHITCTURE]

MARTIAN REGOLYTH SIMULANT

MARTIAN CONCRETE

[LUNAR AND PLANETARY SCIENCE XXIX ]

[NET WORTH $15 BILLION]

JCS MARS-1

STRUCTURAL CAPACITY

JSC Mars-1 is a Martian regolith simulant specifically developed to support scientific research, engineering studies and education. The simulant is the <1 mm fraction of weathered volcanic ash from Pu’u Nene, a cinder cone on the Island of Hawaii. Pu’u Nene ash was chosen based on its spectral similarity to Martian material, extensive previous characterization and availability in

Scientific tests were carried out on a highly accurate simulated Martian soil to create a concrete. The test consisted mixing aggregate with varying percent of sulphur and allowing them to cool. The results concluded that using smaller aggregates of smaller particles reduces the formation of voids, which significantly increases the strength of the material. The best mix was 50% of both the soil and sulphur, with an aggregate of 1mm

quantity.

30

LOCATION

EARTH

MARS

25 20

TIME TO SET

15

RECYCLABLE

10

COST

24 - 48 Hours Often only used as aggregate Very Expensive

2-3 Hours Heat it and the sulfur melts Very Cheap

5 0

1000-450

449-250

249-150

149-53

52-5

STRENGTH (COMPRESSION)

<5

10-40 MPA (1450-5800PSI)

50 MPA

(This can be tripled due to the reduced gravity on mars)

GRAIN SIZE

Sieving and stokes settling techniques were used to determine the stimulant’s grain size distribution.

The results make for interesting reading. It turns out that using an aggregate of smaller particles

Most of the stimulant (75wt%) is larger than 149 mm, while only 1 wt% is smaller than 5 mm. The

reduces the formation of voids, which significantly increases the strength of the material.“The best

fine surface material clinging to the Viking sample arm magnets was in the 10 to 100 mm size range.

mix for producing Martian concrete is 50 percent sulphur and 50 percent Martian soil with maximum

Jordan Pollackl, an American astrophysicist who worked for NASA, estimated that the mean radius

aggregate size of 1 mm.

of windblown Martian dust is < 2 mm.

Martian Biosphere 3

19 Matthew Chamberlain


3.3

MARTIAN CONCRETE MANUFACTURE PROCESS

[BIOSPHERE 03]

2400C

SULFUR

HEATED

Maximum aggregate size of 1mm

COOLING

50%

LIQUID SULFUR

LIQUID SULFUR

MARTIAN SOIL [AGGREGATE]

50%

When sulfur cools, it undergoes a series of transformations and ultimately shrinks, creating cavities and stresses within. The best mix for producing Martian concrete is 50 percent sulfur and 50 percent Martian soil.

MARTIAN CONCRETE


3.4

ENERGY

WIND AND SOLAR POTENTIAL

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

WIND ENERGY

SOLAR ENERGY

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

CHALLENGES OF WIND ENERGY

CHALLENGES OF SOLAR POWER

The atmosphere on Mars is so thin that even a strong wind wouldn’t make that much of a difference. Mars has below 1% of the pressure on Earth. That means it has less than 1% of the force of wind on Earth with the same speed. Wind happens when there is a pressure gradient between two areas of an atmosphere. Pressure gradients are caused by temperature and humidity gradients.

Individual dust particles on Mars are very small and slightly electrostatic, so they stick to the surfaces they contact. This dust is an especially big problem for solar panels. Even dust devils of only a few feet across - which are much smaller than traditional storms - can move enough dust to cover the equipment and decrease the amount of sunlight hitting the panels. Less sunlight means less energy created.

250C NORTH 100M2 = 100KW 40KMPH TYPICAL WIND

400KMPH TYPICAL WIND

NORTHERN LATITUDES HAVE MUCH MORE AVAILABLE ENERGY

Mars is dryer and colder than Earth, and in consequence dust raised by these winds tends to remain

The possibility of dust settling on and in machinery is going to be a challenge for engineers designing

in the atmosphere longer than on Earth as there is no precipitation to wash it out. The maximum

equipment for Mars. This dust is an especially big problem for solar panels. If an array of solar

wind speeds recorded by the Viking Landers in the 1970’s were about 30 meters per second (60

panels is positioned at 25° north, measuring 100×100 metres, 100 kilowatts can be generated. The

miles an hour) with an average of 10 m/s (20 mph). On Earth about 10 meters (33 feet) per second

downside is that global dust storms can occur from between 3 and 6 months on Mars, completely

wind speed is needed to make electricity with wind turbines.

blocking all sunlight to the system.

Martian Biosphere 3

21 Matthew Chamberlain


3.4

ENERGY

WASTE AND GEOTHERMAL

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

WASTE ENERGY

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE ]

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

CHALLENGES OF WASTE RECYCLING

CHALLENGES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

The ultimate in closed-cycle resource is using a biodigestor. By placing waste in one end you can get out usable cooking gas and organic fertilizer. The odourless gas is piped to where it can be burned for 4-5hrs a day, replacing other ways of heating. The liquid fertilizer is rich in nutrients to boost crop production. By recycling human poop and other waste a closed-cycle recycling system

Geothermal energy is the heat from the planet. It’s clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the planets surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma. Water or working fluid is heated and then sent through a steam turbine where the thermal energy (heat) is converted to electricity with a generator through a phenomenon called electromagnetic

can develop to maximise sustainability.

induction.

HUMAN WASTE RECYCLING

TURBINE GENERATOR PLANTS

STEAM

ADDED BACTERIA TO SPEED UP DEGRADING PROCESS

PRODUCTION WELL

INJECTION WELL

STORED FERTILISER

Biogas can be combusted to provide heat, electricity or both. Alternatively, the biogas can be

With the Mars’ lower gravity, a third that of Earth, it should make it much easier to drill on Mars.

‘upgraded’to pure methane, often called biomethane, by removing other gases. This pure stream

That’s because the planet’s lower gravity will compact the soil less forcefully. And then once hot

of biomethane can be used as a substitute for natural gas. Digestate is the left over material in the

water is brought to the surface, it would be flashed to steam and used to power a turbine to generate

AD process. It contains valuable plant nutrients like nitrogen and potassium. Digestate can be used

electric power. The planet’s low atmospheric pressure will also allow steam to be much more fully

as a fertilizer and soil conditioner

expanded before it is condensed.

Martian Biosphere 3

22 Matthew Chamberlain


3.5

FOOD

USING THE SOIL

[RESOURCE UTILISATION]

MARS FOOD

FOOD TO GROW

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

NUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL

LED TECHNOLOGY

In reality, the soil on Mars actually does have the nutrients plants would need to survive. There may not be the right amount of nutrients depending on where astronauts land on the Red Planet, so fertilizers may need to be added to the soil. Fertiliser from human waste could be combined with

One of the ways to generate food on Mars could be to use artificial light. Working with LED technology, there could be away for people to grow food in space at maximum efficiency. There are advantages by using LEDs to optimize plant growth. You get a lot of photons for relatively little power, which is important when resources are in short supply. An LED can also be made to produce

the soil to help this.

a very specific wavelength of light for targeting just what a plant needs.

O

OXYGEN

Fe

IRON

C

CARBON

C

MAGNESIUM

H

HYDROGEN

H

ZINC

N

NITROGEN

N

COPPER

O

OXYGEN

K

MOLYBDENUM

C

CARBON

P

BORON

H

HYDROGEN

N

NITROGEN

Ca

AIR PUMP

WATER CIRCULATION PUMP

DETECED IN MARTIAN SOIL OR IN METEORITES AIR BUBBLES NUTRITIONAL SOLUTION

CHLORIDE

AIR PIPE HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

One of the issue facing plant growth is gravity. Though experiments have shown that some plants

Studies so far have suggested that plants can grow faster than normal since they can have up to 24

can grow relatively normally in microgravity on the International Space Station, but there is no

hours of light per day. No soil is necessary, as the plants hang in the air with their roots sprayed with

real way to mimic the “anti-gravity” of the Red Planet. Plants use gravity as a way of orienting

nutrients. The LED lights would be powered by some of the previous energy examples put forward.

themselves, so some plant species may or may not be confused.

Martian Biosphere 3

23 Matthew Chamberlain


3.6

WATER

UTOPIA PLANITIA

[RESOURCE UTILISATION]

GROUNDWATER

WATER EXTRACTION

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE ]

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

MARS CONDITIONS

CHALLENGES OF USING THE WATER

Scientists believe that beneath a region of cracked and pitted plains on Mars lies water. Scientists examined part of Mars’Utopia Planitia region, in the mid-northern latitudes, with the orbiters groundpenetrating Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument. Analyses of data from more than 600 overhead passes with the on-board radar instrument reveal a deposit more extensive in area than the state

Evidence that Mars once supported liquid water has been mounting for years, and exploratory missions have found that water ice still exists on the planet’s poles and just beneath its dusty surface. Accessing that water could require digging it up and baking it in an oven, or beaming microwaves at the soil and extracting the water vapour. By extracting water we can then further break it down to extract oxygen and hydrogen.

of New Mexico. DAYTIME

NIGH-

H2O

H2O

H2

WATER VAPOR

FROST

OXYGEN

HYDROGEN

O

EXTRACTION

SOIL: BRINE / HYDRATED SALTS (10M DEPTH )

H2O

MARTIAN SOIL

C

H2O

MICROWAVE

ICE

OH

OH

H2O

LOW FREEZING TEMP.

OH

Ca(CIO4)2

On Earth, both the surface temperature and pressure are high enough for water to exist in both

One technique of water mining on Mars could actually be to use microwaves. Cooking some of

solid, liquid and vapour phases. This is different on Mars: the low pressure and low temperatures

the regolith. The heat would vaporize the frozen water, which is then collected and condensed on

do not allow water to be stable in the liquid phase. Therefore, water on Mars is usually only stable

a chilled plate. Water absorbs microwaves very well, but ice does not, so the microwave beams

as ice on the surface and as vapour in the atmosphere. Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates on the

actually heat up the rock, which heats the ice upon contact,

surface and we think that some of this accumulation will compress down and actually form ice slabs and ice blocks.

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24 Matthew Chamberlain


DRY ICE

HEAT ENGINES ON MARS

[SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE]

Martian dry ice already exists close to its “sublimation point”– the temperature at which it turns directly from solid to gas. It therefore only takes a relatively small nudge for dry ice to change states. The challenge is to harness the energy released by this change to power a heat engine – or even a whole colony.

Carbon dioxide plays a similar role on Mars to water on Earth. It is a widely available resource which undergoes cyclic phase changes under the natural Martian temperature variations. The gullies observed on Mars were a topic of debate, as scientists searched for evidence of the water that once created them. But recent studies are overwhelmingly in favour of carbon dioxide.

Power stations on Mars could exploit all this frozen CO2 to harvest the energy from the sublimation phase change as dry-ice blocks evaporate, or to channel the chemical energy extracted from other carbon-based sources, such as methane gas. By placing water droplets and blocks of dry ice on top of hot, turbine-like surfaces, the Leidenfrost effect could be used to create rotational motion. The turbines channel the released vapour, whose flow in turn drives the levitating surface above to rotate. As the turbines rotate there kinetic energy can be transferred and used to generate electrical energy.

It could be possible that future power stations on Mars can exploit such a resource to harvest energy as dryice blocks evaporate, or to channel the chemical energy extracted from other carbon-based sources, such as methane gas. Our future on other planets depends on our ability to adapt our knowledge to the constraints imposed by strange worlds, and to devise creative ways to exploit natural resources that do not naturally occur here on Earth.

A machine could be developed that utilises both e dry ice on Mars and the frozen ice underground. Rather than melting all of it some of it could be used to drive turbines to generate energy for the entire city or colony that exists.

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25 Matthew Chamberlain


LEIDENFROST PHENOMENA

[DRY ICE HEAT ENGINE]

NUCLEATE BOILING (01)

Bubbles form and the droplet evaporates slowly

TRANSITION BOILING (02)

Marked by the violent sizzling. The droplet boils away explosively as soon as it hits the surface

FILM BOILING (03)

The droplet floats quietly on a vapor cushion, and evaporates very slowly

WATER DROPLET

WATER DROPLET

WATER DROPLET

RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER

3.7

DRY ICE

(01)

(02)

(03)

Vapor 1

Higher Surface Temperature

4

10

100

1000

TEMPERATURE OF SURFACE ABOVE TS (OC)

WATER MOVEMENT

A droplet on a ratchet surface will self propel

ICE ENERGY TRANSFER

WORK

By attatching magnets and copper coils, you can genereate an ac voltage

AC VOLTAGE SUPPLY DRY ICE BLOCK

WATER VAPOR Wrap the surface into a circle causes the water to rotate around itself.

Using a block of ice, the rotation energy can be transfered to spin the entire disk

ENERGY OUT

ENERGY OUT

HOT TURBINE


4.0 Chapter 4.0 - Design phase 01 Biosphere Design phase 1 includes the development of the Biosphere on Mars utilising a Biodome.


MARTIAN ARTIFICIAL BIOPSHERE ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

[THE BIODOME]

The objective of the Biosphere 03 project is to colonise Mars and begin a new civilisation. The previous research has highlighted the conditions, problems, challenges and possible solutions to this mission, but critically these are all small independent systems. They require an overall holistic system that will unite them all. That will happen with the creation of a new Biosphere on Mars.

In order to do this, the architectural response to Biosphere 03 is the design and manufacture of an artificial biosphere on Mars, taking the form of a‘Biodome’. A biodome is a form of controlled, self-sufficient eco-system that closely replicates the natural outdoor environment. It is the scientific based form of a greenhouse.

The objective of the Biodome will be to create a place where life can be born and thrive in an otherwise hostile environment. It will be a place where food and water can be grown, generated and reproduced. It will also be conditioned to produce oxygen and other important gases. It will develop as a centre for research and further investigations into the planet. And critically it will help to nurture and raise mental health and well-being of residents in Biosphere 03. It will respond to ideas of rethinking, reusing, recycling and reinventing the way in which we live. Ultimately it will be the solution envisioned for people to live sealed in a world replica of the Earth environment. Acting as a closed loop system, humans, wildlife will operate in perfect balance to sustain one another and allow life to evolve.

THE BIOSPHERE The biosphere is made up of the parts of Earth where life exists. The biosphere extends from the deepest root systems of trees, to the dark environment of ocean trenches, to lush rain forests and high mountaintops. Since life exists on the ground, in the air, and in the water, the biosphere overlaps all these spheres. Although the biosphere measures about 20 kilometres (12 miles) from top to bottom, almost all life exists between about 500 meters (1,640 feet) below the ocean’s surface to about 6 kilometres (3.75 miles) above sea level.

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28 Matthew Chamberlain


BIOSPHERE 2 CASE STUDY

[HISTORICAL BACKGROUND]

Two missions, between 1991 and 1994, sealed Biosphere inside the glass enclosure to measure survivability. Behind this highly public exercise was useful research that helped further ecological understanding. Several first-person accounts have been published by former crew members that provide different perspectives on the experiment.

In 1994, Decisions Investments Corporation assumed control of the property and Columbia University managed it from 1996-2003 and reconfigured the structure for a different mode of scientific research, including a study on the effects of carbon dioxide on plants. Columbia also built classrooms and housing for college students of earth systems science.

The property was sold June 4, 2007, to CDO Ranching and its development partners who then leased the property to UA from 2007-2011. The enclosure now serves as a tool to support research already underway by UA scientists. Biosphere 3 will take understanding and research from the way Biosphere 2 operated. Developing on from the flaws of Biosphere 02, Biosphere 03 will finally be able to create a liveable habitat on Mars, generating an airlock oxygen society.

CONSTRUCTION: The above-ground physical structure of Biosphere 2 was made of steel tubing and high-performance glass and steel frames. The frame and glazing materials were designed and made to specification. The window seals and structures had to be designed to be almost perfectly airtight, such that the air exchange would be extremely slow, to avoid damage to the experimental results.

During the day, the heat from the sun caused the air inside to expand and during the night it cooled and contracted. To avoid having to deal with the huge forces that maintaining a constant volume would create, the structure had large diaphragms kept in domes. Since opening a window was not an option, the structure also required huge air conditioners to control the temperature and avoid killing the plants within. For every unit of solar energy that entered the structure, the air conditioners would expend approximately three times as much energy to cool the habitat back down.[citation needed]

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4.3

PLANT ANALYSIS

NASA CLEAN AIR STUDY

[AIR FILTERING BIODOME PLANTS]

01

01

01

01

BENZENE

FORMALDEHYDE

TRICHLOROETHYLENE

XYLENE

AMMONIA

Eye irritation, drowsiness, dizziness, increase in heart rate, headaches, confusion, unconsiousness

Nose irritation, mouth and throat, swelling in the lungs

Excitement, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, drowsiness, coma

Hearth problems, liver and kidney damage, coma, confusion, headaches, drowsiness

Eye irritation, coughing, sore throat

NASA CLEAN AIR STUDY

BENZENE

House-plants are awesome indoor air cleaners, but some of them are more effective than others at filtering out pollutants and toxic chemicals in the air. This infographic highlights the best airfiltering plants, according to a NASA study.

PEACE LILLY BROADLEAF LADY PALM

NASA researchers set out to find the best ways to clean the air in space stations. Their Clean Air study found the plants below are effective at removing benzene, formaldehyde, and

SNAKE PLANT

trichloroethylene, xylene, and ammonia from the air—chemicals that have been linked to health

ENGLISH IVY

effects like headaches and eye irritation.

LILYTURF

There are other benefits to having these plants around, we’ve noted before, but the graphic

FLORIST’S CHRYSANTHEMUM

below from Love the Garden shows you at a glance the plants that make the best natural air filters. NASA research suggests having at least one plant per 100 square feet of home or office space. (The Snake Plant or Mother-in-Law’s Tongue is pretty hardy, by the way, although not

RED EDGED DRACENA CORNSTALK DRACENA

entirely unkillable.)

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31 Matthew Chamberlain

FORMALDEHYDE

TRICHLOROETHYLENE

XYLENE

AMMONIA


SUSTAINING LIFE THROUGH NATURE NATURAL BALANCE OF OXYGEN

[INSIDE THE BIODOME]

One of the key aspects of Biosphere 3 is the closed loop oxygen system. An environment where humans can completely depend on plants and organic growth to sustain the correct levels of oxygen. The equations on the right use average quantities and accurate propositions in order to calculate various figures.

The first part of the equation outlines the average amount of oxygen required by an individual - in this case an adult - to live for a day. Then by adopting the equation for photosynthesis, and the average of CO 2 consumed by a tree daily, we can make a guestimate as to the total number of trees that would be required for one human to survive. The final part examines how many plants that might equate and the possible space required.

GENERATING OXYGEN FROM PLANTS Trees release oxygen when they use energy from sunlight to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water. Like all plants, trees also use oxygen when they split glucose back down to release energy to power their metabolisms. Averaged over a 24-hour period, they produce more oxygen than they use up; otherwise there would be no net gain in growth.

It takes six molecules of CO2 to produce one molecule of glucose by photosynthesis, and six molecules of oxygen are released as a by-product. A glucose molecule contains six carbon atoms, so thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a net gain of one molecule of oxygen for every atom of carbon added to the tree. A mature sycamore tree might be around 12m tall and weigh two tonnes, including the roots and leaves. If it grows by five per cent each year, it will produce around 100kg of wood, of which 38kg will be carbon. Allowing for the relative molecular weights of oxygen and carbon, this equates to 100kg of oxygen per tree per year.

CONCLUSIONS Conclusions from the equations suggest that for one person to survive 500m 2 worth of plant space would be required. Therefore, for a colony of 100 people that would require 50,000m 2 and 1000 people would require 500,000m 2. The choice of plants is also of paramount importance. Algae and Sugar cane, pictured on the left are examples of plants that represent high CO 2 absorption and Oxygen production.

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4.5

SUSTAINING LIFE THROUGH NATURE CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM

[INSIDE THE BIODOME]

AVERAGE AIR INTAKE (HUMAN)

AIR COMPOSITION (BY MASS)

NITROGEN OXYGEN 2 WATER VAPOR, CO ARGON

78% 21% TRACE 6Kg (1/3)

AIR OXYGEN EXTRACTION (PER BREATH)

AVERAGE OXYGEN INTAKE (HUMAN)

LIFE REQUIRMENTS ON EARTH

26KG

PER DAY

Item

kg per person per day

OXYGEN

2

DRINKING WATER

10

DRIED FOOD

1.77

WATER FOR FOOD

4

2Kg

PER DAY

COMPARISON OF MARTIAN AND TERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERES AVERAGE TREE CO2 CONSUMPTION (PER DAY) CONVERSION

ONE TREE

50g

100% YEILD

6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 50g / 60g CO2 X = 27g

0.27 OXYGEN PRODUCED EACH DAY

Characteristic

Mars

Earth

N2

2.70

78.08

02

0.13

20.95

AR

1.60

0.93

H2O CO2

<1-4 95.32

03 (Ozone, ppbv)Surface

0.27KG HUMAN NEEDS 2KG OXYGEN (PER DAY)

2 รท 0.27 = 7.4 7/8 TREES (PER PERSON) 1 TREE 7 TREE

SAPCE REQUIRED (PER PERSON)

60 PLANTS 400 PLANTS

500m2

0.035 10-100

Temperature, 0C

-53

+15

Surface Pressure, mbars

6.36

1,013


5.0 Chapter 5.0 - Design Development Early stage development into natural formation design.


MARTIAN ARTIFICIAL BIOPSHERE ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

[THE BIODOME]

Designing on Mars from an architectural position means dealing with challenging and unkown site and context conditions. One of the most interesting factors for me is the change in gravity and how that could inform design. It was also important to me that the architecture develop in a way that.

In this light I began investigating how architecture could sit naturally within the landscape of Mars, and this led me to investigate Frei Otto’s form finding experiments that are based on the studies of sand self-distribution behaviour under the force of gravity.

“Any granular material falling from a fixed point forms a cone on the surface below and a funnel within the granulate mass, with the same angle of inclination, the ‘natural’ angle of repose, 35 degree.” Frei Otto, 1975

The fascination for me is how the angle of repose might vary with the varying degree of gravity on Mars. Investigations into the angle of repose under gravity suggest that as gravity decreases the angle of repose increases. The angle of repose on Mars could increase by as much as 4-5 degrees and the angle on incedent decrease by up to 10 degrees. I have, therefore, used these pieces of information to inform the architecture of the colony.

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36 Matthew Chamberlain


Matthew Chamberlain


5.2

MARS ROBOT 2 [M.2.] INTELLEGENT 3D PRINTER

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE]

I began by generating a basic pentagon. The process will be to use the geometric understanding I gained from my previous investigations.

Step 1 involved duplicating the pentagon to establish a paring of molecular characteristics. This adopts the same for as the DNA base paring.

The number 5 is important as it defines the shape itself. Therefore I positioned 5 parings around a central pentagon

In order to constantly maintain order and understanding I would wrap my developing pattern in a pentagon. I would then be able to understand the positive and negative space.

I began by generating a basic pentagon. The process will be to use the geometric understanding I gained from my previous investigations.

Step 1 involved duplicating the pentagon to establish a paring of molecular characteristics. This adopts the same for as the DNA base paring.

The number 5 is important as it defines the shape itself. Therefore I positioned 5 parings around a central pentagon

In order to constantly maintain order and understanding I would wrap my developing pattern in a pentagon. I would then be able to understand the positive and negative space.

I began by generating a basic pentagon. The process will be to use the geometric understanding I gained from my previous investigations.

Step 1 involved duplicating the pentagon to establish a paring of molecular characteristics. This adopts the same for as the DNA base paring.

The number 5 is important as it defines the shape itself. Therefore I positioned 5 parings around a central pentagon

In order to constantly maintain order and understanding I would wrap my developing pattern in a pentagon. I would then be able to understand the positive and negative space.

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38 Matthew Chamberlain


5.3

DESIGN PHASING

MOUND INVESTIGATIONS

[SAND FALLING]

PENTAGON EXPLORATION WITH CIRCLES

PENTAGON EXPLORATION WITH CIRCLES

Stage one involved placing the mounds in a circle around the central dome. A main

Stage two involved creating a space that would allow more

street is formed that will enable smaller the living

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39 Matthew Chamberlain


5.3

DESIGN PHASING

MOUND INVESTIGATIONS

[SAND FALLING]

I began experimenting with sand and the process by which it falls. trying to work backwards to find out how, given the polygon, I could have drawn the circles. By constructing a square one circle-radius in width on several of the key points it generated a larger pentagon.

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5.4

DESIGN PHASING

MOUND INVESTIGATIONS

[SAND FALLING]

LIGHT, STRUCUTRE AND MOVEMENT

MOUND DWELLINGS

The holes created by the formation of the main Strucutre have three main features. Firstly they act as light wells allowing the sun to penetrate deep into the subterainian world. Second they become the location of columns that will act as structural support to the arches. Finally they provide the location of the mound dwellings.

The colony is organised so that living dwellings with larger land plot sit on the outside, indicated by red, whilst communial mounds, indicated by green, are in the centre. this will create a environment in which residents meet rather than disperse

WATER

BRIDGES

By extracting the lines of the voronii pattern, these are projected down onto the ground. They introduce a river network that both divides land and plot to individual dwellings whilst also connecting the entire residential planning. The rivers should flow with clean water and help to reduce heat generated by the colony

An additional element is the introduction of skywalks and bridges. Connecting the living mounds to the communial mounds are a network of bridges. These counter the voronii pattern of the water, creating both an additional means of intercommunication of residents and to encorage movement.

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5.5

AXONOMETRIC

KEY DESIGN PHIOSOPHY

Level 1 - Arches - Depressed

Level 2 - Arches

Level 3 - Columns

Level 4 - Skywalks - moving around the colony

Level 5 - Mounds - Living quarters

Level 6 - Water - River Netwroks


6.0 Chapter 6.0 - Design phase 01 Robotics Biosphere 03 is constructed 100% autonomously. This way the colony can be constructed before human inhabitation officially starts


MARS MISSION ROBOTICS

CONSTRCUTING WITHOUT HUMANS

The use of robotics is becoming increasingly common in many technological feilds, particulary space exploration. Biopshere 03

The project is tackling a major architectural and tec

The folling section outlines robotic design development, identifying five of the key robots that will be sent to mars to construct and colonise the planet in preperation for human contact. Each robot, or collection of robots has been designed to suit both the climate and enviornmental conditions of the planet, as well as the specific application and job it needs to carry.

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4.2

MARS ROBOT [BIOBOT 01]

INTELLEGENT EXCAVTOR AND MIXER

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE]

COOLING CHAMBERS After the concrete mixture is bonded it undergoes cooling in order to solidify, and strengthen the bonds of the material

HEAT CHAMBER Magnets are used to separate the iron from the regolyth

TANKS Tanks that hold the printable concrete

FEEDING PIPES The feeder pipes transport the fine grain regolyth into the heat chamber

FEEDING RAILS The feeding rails enable the tanks to be removed and placed onto the next robot

BALL MILL-CRUSHER Once the regolyth has been collected the mill-crusher grinds up the rock into finer grains.

FEEDER BIN The regolyth falls through the feeder bin which initially sieves out any large pieces

ENGINE AND SUSPENSION Independent suspension on each wheel, applied to compensate the rough surface of the planet

EXCAVATOR The bin collects regolyth from the Martian ground

LED LIGHTS The lights act as sensors for the A.I robots to communicate. They are aware of each robots position by the levels of light displayed

BIOBOT 01 Biobot 1, is a A.I robot that produces the concrete used as a building material for the colony. Biobot 1 is

mixed and bonded with molten sulphur. As this cools it forms a concrete material. The tanks with this new concrete

designed to full-fill a entire process on its own. It begins by collecting Martian regolyth from the ground. It

material are then placed onto the body of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biobot 2. Biobot 2 will then use the concrete to print the buildings and

will sieve the soil it excavates, and then mill the particles to produce a fine grain. The regolyth will then be

infrastructure for the colony.

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BIOBOT 01 - MARTIAN CONCRETE PROCESS

EXCAVTOR

FEED BIN

BALL MILL

HEAT CHAMBER

LIQUID SULPHUR

MARTIAN REGOLYTH

COOLING

REMAINING REGOLYTH

MIXING CHAMBER

NOZZLE 1

PRINTING TANK

NOZZLE 2


4.3

MARS ROBOT [BIOBOT 02] INTELLEGENT 3D PRINTER

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE]

FEEDING PIPES Transfer the concrete mixture to the nozzle

3D PRINTING HEAD Magnets are used to separate the iron from the regolyth

TANKS Tanks that hold the printable concrete

6 AXIS ROBOTIC ARM A higher degree of manipulation and turning capabilities

ENGINE AND SUSPENSION Independent suspension on each wheel, applied to compensate the rough surface of the planet

CATERPILLAR TRACKS Caterpillar tracks for harsh Martian Terrain

LED LIGHTS The lights act as sensors for the A.I robots to communicate. They are aware of each robots position by the levels of light displayed

BIOBOT 02 Biobot 2 is a 3d printing robot. The machine takes tanks of liquid Martian concrete from Biobot 1 (previous), and then proceeds to 3d print the smaller structures of the colony. This will primarily be the housing domes.

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4.4

MARS ROBOT [BIOBOT 03] INTELLIGENT MINER

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE]

SCAFFOLDING As the ant robots begin to excavate the underground they swarm to gather to form towers to support the tunnels networks. This concept is adopted from building ideas of ants and termites

SCOOP TRAY regolyth and basalt removed from the ground is place in the scoop tray, which is then carried away

DRILL ARMS These enable the robots to use the drills as either excavating tools or for transportation. They also allow the robot to place the broken soil and rocks into the scoop

EXCAVATOR The metal grinders at the front of each of the robot rotate. When removing basalt, they spin at extremely high speeds. When the rocks are loose the grinders reduce in speed.

MULTI POSITION By placing drills on both ends, each robot can adopt a variety of positions, making it easier to drill more challenging areas.

ENGINE AND SUSPENSION Independent suspension on each wheel, applied to compensate the rough surface of the planet

LED LIGHTS The lights act as sensors for the A.I robots to communicate. They are aware of each robots position by the levels of light displayed

BIOBOT 03 Biobot 3 is the simplest of all the robots and yet it carries out a variety of different functions. Primarily it

the underground is unearthed, biobot 3 will begin to form column strictures to support the carved out underground

will behave in a spawn like manor. Working in huge teams, they will behave like termites and ants, carving,

arches.

digging and extracting the Martian ground around them. They will also form a robot scaffolding system. As

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4.4

MARS ROBOT [BIOBOT 04] DOME BUILDER

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE]

FEEDING PIPES The concrete mixture is processed and sent to the printing head

CENTRAL COLUMN The robot clings to the main central coloimn of the building. It is designed simetrically to improve stability and balance and production speed.

PRINTING HEADS The 3d printing machine and the brick building robot

HEIGHT ADJUSTER As the robot builds the dome it rises with the strucutre in a 360 degree spiral motion

BIOBOT 04 Biobot 4 is in essence two robots in one. It is classified as the dome builder, becasue it is the machine that will

periodically to build a dome/arch. Running alongside will be the 6 axis robotic arm, printing a honeycomb wall. The

construct the underground biosphere enclsure. It weill be construcuted from martian concrete but will combine

theory is that the two methods will form a stronger architectural strcuture.

two contrasting building methods. Martian bricks, cooled and solidified, with be produced and then layed out

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7.0 Chapter 7.0 - Design Development Through the tutorials and Final Critique This section outlines the design as it stood at the final crit, and highlights areas that were further developed, or redesigned to a more critical level.


MARTIAN ARTIFICIAL BIOPSHERE ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

[THE BIODOME]

At the final crit one for the fundamental aspects of the design that was brought into question was the inclusion and application of the tower element. I had designed the tower originally with multiple purposes based off research principles. Predominantly, it would act as a solar tower, with a large solar disk at the top that would draw in the sun light. I designed it in this way to attempt to remove the challenges of dust storms that can occur for up to 6 months continuously and reach heights of up to 800m. The nature of dust on Mars means that it would stick to everything, thus rendering any solar panels normally as useless. However, further investigations suggested that the dust and sand can actually completely engulf the entire atmosphere of the planet.

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FINAL PRESENATION FEEDBACK [ADVANCING THE DESIGN]

At the final presentation my city was broken down into two main parts. The central biodome and the living colony around it. The fundamental issue with what I had designed related to air pressure. On Mars the atmosphere is so thin that air contained simply wants to expand. I was therefore unloading potentially huge amounts of pressure of the walls of the dome. Furthermore, reducing rather than increasing the amount of contact directly with air pressure of the surface on Mars would be better. Therefore I started developing the design further, pulling more of the design undergrounds


8.0 Chapter 8.0 - Biosphere 03 Final Project Proposal


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56 Matthew Chamberlain


BIOSPHERE 03

COLONISING MARS [WEDNESDAY, AUG 23, 2024, WEEK 21]

Biosphere 03 is a project that aims to colonise the planet Mars through the construction of an underground inhabitatble environment. Based on evidence gathered from mars exploration programs and sataliete data, the introduction of a new, reconfigured biosphere will exist on the planet to sustain human life. The architectural design is one that responds to the planets natural environmental conditions and synthesises natural organic processes.


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT MAIN DESIGN MOVE

[54KM BELOW GROUND]

The city has been redesigned as a complete whole rather than a circumference as before. The main design move comes in the form of building deep underground. It is scientifically researched that at a depth of 54KM below the surface of Mars, you could experience earth like conditions. The gravity would essentially equal 0 and become what we know on earth. I began to question this and suggest that part of the city be built at this depth. Currently we have no proven method of recreating gravity and this would in some part solve that issue.

CITY OF TWO HALFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S 9.81G VS 3.15G I am proposing that the city be broken into two half. The first is the living part of the colony that will remain near the surface. The second is the biodome and working portion that will sit 54km below ground. The idea of Biosphere 03 now is one of human conditioning. Living on other planets will inevitably require and subsequently alter the way that humans behave and evolve. In response to that, Biosphere 03 will develop the human condition and anatomy. Half of the day will be spent in conditions of reduced gravity. This is proven to affect bone and muscle development. The second part of the day involves working below ground at earth like conditions. Here the gravity is normal and the body can recover in its natural state. The theory is that gradually humans will evolve to live in conditions of reduced gravity.

The tunnel is 54km in depth

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SUB 54KM

INSIDE THE BIODOME - SUB 54KM [MARS 1, EARTH 1]


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SAND CASTING

[INSIDE THE BIODOME]

The colony that the residents inhabit has been designed of some key principles, extending from my investigations into the way sand falls and creates the voronoi forms.

MOUNDS 39 DEGREES Each mound is designed based on a principle of 39 degrees - the scientifically believed angle of repose on Mars.

NETWORK OF RIVERS. From the voronoi pattern that produces the mounds, the lines in between for a network of rivers. This intern creates little islands, for each of the house mounds to occupy. Each family of residents has their own plot of land.

SECONDARY NETWORK. As a way of inducing both movement - in environment where staying active is key because of reduced gravity - and social interaction, travelling around the city is done via sky walks. Providing views out over the city, each mound has a structural concrete concrete column that acts as an elevator as well. You move upwards, then sideways, and then back down to destination. Vertical movement plays as important a role as horizontal, creating an architecturally irony perhaps against the issue of gravity.

SKY LIGHTS The holes formed by the voronoi pattern offer a variety of important purposes. They enable light to penetrate deep into the colony. They also provide the location of each mound and its column. These columns provide secondary support to the carved out caves by the robots.

VEGETATION As a knowledge and understanding would improve on the planet, it would become essential to introduce rich vegetation to the landscape. improving social and human happiness

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ROBOTS FIRST HUMANS SECOND CONSTRUCTING BIOSPHERE 03

[ARTIFICIALLY INTELLIGENT PROCESS]

My very early investigations towards this project were related to artificial intelligence and the application of swarm behaviour of autonomous agents. A basic understanding and appreciation for machine learning where systems develop knowledge based on the actions they carry out.

Below is an example of my tests in processing. This research stemmed the the design concept for designing city completely autonomously by robots. Working akin the likes of ants and termites, they would negotiate each other fulfilling there predefined tasks, learning from the environment as they progress.

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MOUND INTELIGENCE

LIVING ACCOMMODATION ON MARS

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE]


MOUND CONSTRUCTION PHASING

METHODS OF POSSIBLE MOUND CONSTRUCTION

1

2

5

6

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73 Matthew Chamberlain


3

4

Layer loose regolyth to increase strength and stability for the external walls

Lay out the riba supports and pour concrete slab Robots in Use: M 1

8

Martian Biosphere 3

prepares the building for growing external plants lif Robots in Use: M3

74 Matthew Chamberlain

e


MOUND DETAILING

METHODS OF MARTIAN CONSTRUCTION

[ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE]


THANK YOU


MArch Portfolio - Mars Colonisation - Matthew Chamberlain  

5th year MArch Architecture portfolio - Mars Colonisation Proposal

MArch Portfolio - Mars Colonisation - Matthew Chamberlain  

5th year MArch Architecture portfolio - Mars Colonisation Proposal

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