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COMENIUS PROJECT 2012 – 2014

‘’TELL ME HOW IT WAS IN YOUR TIME, GRANDFATHER’’

Dance with us

Come along

Show us the Past

To build the Future

...makes the world dance around! KAЖИ MИ KAK БEШE ЛО TBOE BPEME, ДЯДО...

BULGARIA

GROSSVATER, ERZÄHL MIR VON FRÜHER...

ΠΑΠΠΟΥ, ΠΕΣ ΜΟΥ ΠΩΣ ΗΤΑΝ ΣΤΑ ΧΡΟΝΙΑ ΣΟΥ...

MESĖLD EL, HOGY VOLT A TE IDÖDBEN, NAGYPAPA...

DIMMI COM’ ERA AI TUOI TEMPI, NONNO...

DIZ-ME COMO ERA NO TEU TEMPO, AVOZINHO...

SPUNE-MI CUM ERA PE VREMEA TA, BUNICULE...

BÜYÜKBABA, SENIN ZAMANINDA HAYAT NASILDI...

GERMANY

GREECE (HELLAS)

HUNGARY

ITALY

PORTUGAL

ROMANIA

TURKEY

This programme was financed by the European Community


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Bulgaria / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

9 септември 1944 година След тази дата настъпва мащабна политическа, икономическа и социална промяна в българското общество.

На 8 ноември 1948 г. начално училище „Яне Сандански“ отваря врати за учениците от Разлог. Училището има само четири класни стаи. Изградено е с активното участие на жителите на квартала. През 1975 г. е разширена сградата на училището, а през 1983 г. започва изграждането на столова и физкултурен салон. Днес училището разполага с всички необходими условия за съвременно обучение на подрастващите.

Георги Иванов е първият българин, излетял в космическото пространство. Това се случва на 10 април 1979 г., а полетът трае два дни – до 12 април. Чрез неговия полет България се превръща в шестата нация на планетата, изпратила свой представител в Космоса.

През 1981 година България отбелязва 1300 години от създаването на българската държава . България е създадена през 681 година от хан Аспарух. В 13-вековната история на нашата родина има много събития и личности, които са дали своя принос за развитието на Европа. Векове наред държавата ни е била под робство –


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Bulgaria / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

византийско и турско. На 3 март 1879 година в резултат на освободителната Руско-турска война България е освободена от продължилото пет века робство. Затова 3 март е национален празник на родината ни.

На 10 ноември 1989 година започва преходът на България към демокрация и пазарна икономика. Тодор Живков е освободен от поста генерален секретар на партията, след еднолично управление в продължение на 33 години. Със свалянето от власт на българския диктатор започват политическите промени в страната. Ден преди свалянето на Живков, в Германия бе съборена Берлинската стена.

НУ „Яне Сандански“ започва първия проект по програма „Сократ - Коменски“ през учебната 1999/2000 година. Училищата партньори са от Франция, Румъния, Ирландия, Германия и Испания.

На 1 януари 2007 година България става член на Европейския съюз. България и Румъния завършват петото, найголямо разширяване на ЕС. От българска страна Договорът за присъединяване е подписан от президента Георги Първанов, министър-председателя Симеон Сакскобурготски, министърът на външните работи Соломон Паси и министърът по европейските въпроси Меглена Кунева.


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Bulgaria / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

Since September 9, 1944 comes a major political, economic and social change in the Bulgarian society. Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence.

On 8 November 1948 was built a primary school „Jane Sandanski" in Razlog. Then the school opened its doors to students. The school has only four classrooms. Built with the active participation of neighbourhood residents' „Varosha“. In 1975 has expanded the school building. In 1983 began building dining room and a gymnasium. Today the school has all the prerequisites for modern training of adolescents. The first Bulgarian who took off into space is Georgi Ivanov. Bulgaria is the sixth nations that send out representative in the Space. On 10 April, 1979, 20 min and 34 h were launched into orbit around Earth, the spacecraft "Soyuz-33" with an international crew: commander and cosmonaut Nikolai Rukavishnikov and astronaut - researcher Georgi Ivanov.

In 1981 Bulgaria notes 1300 years of the establishment of the Bulgarian state. Bulgaria was founded in 681 by Asparukh. In the 13th century history of our country there are many events and personalities that have contributed to the development of Europe. For centuries, our country was


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Bulgaria / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

under the yoke – Byzantine and Ottoman. On March 3, 1879 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War of Bulgaria's liberation from slavery lasted five centuries. So March 3rd is a national holiday of our country.

On November 10, 1989 began the transition of Bulgaria towards democracy and market economy. Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Todor Zhivkov was dismissed from his post as party secretary general. With the overthrow of the dictator began Bulgarian political changes in the country. Changes in the former communist bloc started with the coming to power the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, who started process. A day before the overthrow of Zhivkov in Germany was broken Berlin Wall.

Primary school "Yane Sandanski” begins the first project under the "Socrates-Comenius" in 1999/2000 academic year. Partner countries were France, Romania, Ireland, Germany and Spain. On 1 January, 2007 Bulgaria joined the European Union. The accession process go in 1998 was completed in September 2006. Then European Commission recommends joining to the organization. From the Bulgarian side Accession Treaty was signed by President Georgi Parvanov, Prime Minister - Simeon Sakskoburggotski, Foreign Minister Solomon Passy, Minister of European Affairs, Meglena Kuneva.


Deutschland/ Almanya/

1945 + 1949

Германия/

Γερμανία/

Alemanha/

Németország

Germania/

Kriegsende und Teilung in zwei deutsche Staaten

Das Deutsche Reich war nach dem 2. Weltkrieg in vier Zonen aufgeteilt, die von den Siegermächten USA, Frankreich, England und der Sowjetunion regiert wurden. Die Hauptstadt Berlin war ebenfalls in vier Sektoren geteilt. Da die Sieger unterschiedliche Vorstellungen über die Zukunft Deutschlands hatten, kam es 1949 zur Teilung des Landes. In dem von den westlichen Mächten kontrollierten Gebiet entstand am 23. Mai 1949 die BRD mit der vorübergehenden Hauptstadt Bonn. In dem von der Sowjetunion kontrollierten Teil wurde am 7. Oktober 1949 die DDR mit der Hauptstadt Ost-Berlin gegründet. Diesen Teil Deutschlands durfte man nur mit Erlaubnis verlassen.

1953

Gründung der Brüder-Grimm-Schule

In den ersten Nachkriegsjahren nahm die Bevölkerung in Göttingen – nicht zuletzt durch die Zuwanderung von Flüchtlingen aus dem Osten – so stark zu, das seine neue Schule gebaut werden musste. Im Jahr 1952 wurde sie unter dem jetzigen Namen eingeweiht.


Deutschland/ Almanya/

1961

Германия/

Γερμανία/

Alemanha/

Németország

Germania/

Bau der Berliner Mauer

Seit Entstehung der DDR flohen tausende Bürger aus dem Land. Um weitere Fluchten zu verhindern, wurde 1961 mit dem Bau der Berliner Mauer begonnen.

1989 + 1990

Fall der Berliner Mauer und Wiedervereinigung

Die Wiedervereinigung beider deutscher Staaten wurde durch die friedlichen Massenproteste der DDR-Bürger eingeleitet. Am 9. November 1989 wurde die Öffnung der Berliner Mauer bekanntgegeben, was schließlich zum Zusammenbruch der DDR führte. Da es seit Ende des 2. Weltkrieges noch keinen Friedensvertrag gab, mussten die Siegermächte von damals der Wiedervereinigung Deutschlands zustimmen. Diese wurde am 03.10.1990 besiegelt.


Deutschland/ Almanya/

1945 + 1949

Германия/

Γερμανία/

Alemanha/

Németország

Germania/

End of WWII and Separation into 2 German states

After WWII, the German Empire had been separated into four zones controlled by the victorious powers USA, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union. The capital Berlin, too, had been split into four sectors. The victorious powers had different concepts concerning the future of Germany, that’s why they agreed upon the foundation of two German states in 1949. On 23 May, 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was installed with the preliminary capital Bonn in the area controlled by the western powers. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with the capital East Berlin was founded in the area controlled by the Soviet Union. This part of Germany could be left only by permission.

1953

Foundation of the Brüder-Grimm-Schule

In the first years after WWII the population of Göttingen was increasing at a big rate – also due to immigrating refugees from the East – which made it necessary to build a new school. In 1952, the school was inaugurated.


Deutschland/ Almanya/

1961

Германия/

Γερμανία/

Alemanha/

Németország

Germania/

Construction of the Berlin Wall

Since the foundation of the GDR thousands of citizens fled the country. In 1961, the regime started to build the Berlin Wall to prevent further escapes.

1989 + 1990

Fall of the Berlin Wall and Reunification

The reunification of the two German states was initiated by peaceful mass protests of the GDR citizens. On 9 November, 1989, the opening of the Berlin Wall was declared. This lead to the collapse of the East German system. Eventually, the victorious powers had to consent to the reunification of Germany because of the lacking peace treaty, which they hadn’t come to since the end of WWII. On 3 October, 1990, the seal was set on the reunification of Germany.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция 1946-1949: Ο Ελληνικός Εμφύλιος Πόλεμος που θεωρείται διεθνώς ως η πρώτη πράξη του ψυχρού πόλεμου στη μεταπολεμική ιστορία ήταν η πολεμική σύγκρουση με τις μεγαλύτερες απώλειες που γνώρισε η χώρα από το 1830 έως σήμερα. 1950: Αστυφιλία. Οι κάτοικοι των χωριών εγκαταλείπουν την ύπαιθρο και εγκαθίστανται μόνιμα στα μεγάλα αστικά κέντρα. Ο μισός περίπου πληθυσμός της χώρας ζει στα τρία μεγάλα αστικά κέντρα, την Αθήνα, τη Θεσσαλονίκη και την Πάτρα. 1952: Θεμελιώνεται η πρώτη κατοικία στον οικισμό Παπάγου. Ο οικισμός Παπάγου συνεστήθη στις 29 Αυγούστου 1950 από την τότε κυβέρνηση του Σοφοκλή Βενιζέλου. 1952: Απονέμεται το "Μετάλλιο Τιμής της Αμερικανικής Εταιρίας Καρκινολογίας" στον έλληνα γιατρό Γεώργιο Παπανικολάου για το "Τεστ Παπανικολάου". Ο Παπανικολάου με τις εργασίες του έγινε ο θεμελιωτής νέου επιστημονικού κλάδου. Η μέθοδος του που έλαβε προς τιμή του την ονομασία «Μέθοδος Παπανικολάου» ή «Τεστ Παπανικολάου» και κατά συγκοπή «Τεστ Παπ» άνοιξε ευρείς νέους ορίζοντες στην ιατρική έρευνα στη γενετήσια φυσιολογία και ενδοκρινολογία και ειδικότερα για τον καρκίνο. 1963: Βραβείο Νομπέλ Λογοτεχνίας στον έλληνα ποιητή Γιώργο Σεφέρη. Ο λόγος του είναι συμβολικός και υπαινικτικός. Βασικά θέματα του η αρχαία και νεότερη ελληνική παράδοση και η συνάντησή της με τον σύγχρονο ευρωπαϊκό πολιτισμό, η μελαγχολία για τη μοίρα του ελληνισμού, η νοσταλγία του απόδημου και οι «χαμένες πατρίδες» (Μικρά Ασία). 1965: Ο Οικισμός Παπάγου γίνεται Κοινότητα. 1967: Πραξικόπημα και επταετής στρατιωτική χούντα. 1973-1974: Εξέγερση του Πολυτεχνείου και η Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο(στις 20 Ιουλίου 1974). Κατάρρευση της Χούντας στις 24 Ιουλίου 1974 (4 ημέρες μετά την τουρκική εισβολή). Η χούντα ακολούθησε επιθετική εσωτερική καταστολή και κακή εξωτερική πολιτική που οδήγησε στην διχοτόμηση και τραγωδία της Κύπρου. Αποκατάσταση της δημοκρατίας το 1974.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция 1977: Πεθαίνει η σπουδαία ελληνίδα σοπράνο Μαρία Κάλλας(Καλογεροπούλου)(2/12/1923-16/9/1977). Υπήρξε κορυφαία υψίφωνος και η πλέον γνωστή παγκοσμίως ντίβα της όπερας. Η Σκάλα του Μιλάνου ήταν η σκηνή των μέγιστων θριάμβων της σε ένα ευρύ φάσμα ρόλων. Το 1955 ανεβάζει την ιστορική παράσταση της "Τραβιάτα" του Βέρντι σε σκηνοθεσία Λουκίνο Βισκόντι. 1979: Βραβείο Νομπέλ Λογοτεχνίας στον έλληνα ποιητή Οδυσσέα Ελύτη. Ο Οδυσσέας Ελύτης ήταν ένας από τους σημαντικότερους Έλληνες ποιητές. Διακρίθηκε το 1960 με το κρατικό βραβείο ποίησης και το 1979 με το βραβείο λογοτεχνίας. Θεωρείται ένας από τους ανανεωτές της ελληνικής ποίησης. 1981: Η Ελλάδα γίνεται μέλος της ΕΟΚ. 1982: Η Κοινότητα Παπάγου γίνεται Δήμος. Πρόσφατα, με το Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης, ο Δήμος Παπάγου ενώθηκε με τον Δήμο Χολαργού και αποτελούν πλέον τον ενιαίο Δήμο Παπάγου – Χολαργού. 2001: Η Ελλάδα γίνεται μέλος της Οικονομικής και Νομισματικής Ένωσης. Η Ελλάδα εντάχθηκε στη ζώνη του ευρώ την 1 Ιανουαρίου 2001. 2002: Η Ελλάδα υιοθετεί ως νόμισμα το ευρώ. Την 1η Ιανουαρίου 2002 το ευρώ αντικατέστησε την δραχμή (1 ευρώ=340,750 δραχμές). 2004: Οι 28οι Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004 διοργανώθηκαν στην Αθήνα (Ελλάδα)(13-29 Αυγούστου 2004). Συμμετείχαν περίπου 10.500 αθλητές, 5.500 προπονητές και συνοδοί από 202 χώρες. Έγιναν 301 τελετές απονομής μεταλλίων από 28 διαφορετικά αθλήματα. Για πρώτη φορά από το 1996, όλα τα μέλη της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Επιτροπής πήραν μέρος στους Ολυμπιακούς Αγώνες. 2010: Η Ελλάδα αντιμετωπίζει κρίση χρέους και αναγκάζεται να ζητήσει οικονομική βοήθεια από το Διεθνές Νομισματικό Ταμείο και την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Η ελληνική κρίση που ξεκίνησε στο τέλος του 2009, αφύπνισε τις αγορές που πάνω από μια δεκαετία παρέμεναν αδιάφορες στις διαφοροποιήσεις ανάμεσα στις χώρες της Ευρωζώνης και στα προβλήματα ανταγωνιστικότητας και δημοσιονομικής εκτροπής πολλών χωρών.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция 1946-1949: Civil war. The Greek Civil War which is considered internationally as the first act of the cold war and post-war history was warfare with the biggest losses experienced by the country since 1830 to today. 1950: Rural Exodus: Mass moving of people from villages to cities. The villagers left the countryside and settled permanently in the major urban centers. About half the country's population is living in the three major urban centers: Athens, Thessaloniki and Patra. 1952: The first house is founded at the Settlement of Papagos. The Settlement of Papagos was constituted on 29th August 1950 by the then government of Sophocles Venizelos. 1952: "Medal of honour of the American Karkinology Company" to the greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou for the "Pap-test": method of diagnosis of cancer of the uterus that is used worldwide. By his work Papanikolaou became the founder of a new discipline. In honour, the method adopted his name: "Method Papanikolaou" or "Test-Papanikolaou" and syncope "Pap-test". It opened broad new horizons in medical research in reproductive physiology and endocrinology, cancer in particular. 1963: Nobel Prize for Literature to the Greek poet Georgios Seferis. His poetry is symbolic and allusive. His key themes are the ancient and modern Greek tradition and its meeting with contemporary European culture, brooding over the fate of Hellenism, the emigrant nostalgia and the “lost homelands” (Asia Minor). 1965: The Settlement of Papagos becomes a Community. 1967: Military Coup and seven years of military junta by colonel G. Papadopoulos. 1973-1974: Revolt of the Polytechnic School and Turkish invasion in Cyprus on 20th July 1974. Collapse of the junta on 24th July 1974 - 4 days after the invasion. The junta had followed an aggressive internal repression and bad foreign policy which led to the partition and tragedy of Cyprus. Restoration of democracy in 1974.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция 1977: Death of the great, worldwide known, Greek soprano Maria Callas (Calogeropoulou) (2/12/1923-16/9/1977). She was a leading soprano and the most universally known opera diva. The Scala (in Milano) was the scene of her greatest triumphs in a wide range of roles. In 1955 raised the historical performance of "La Traviata" by Verdi, directed by Luchino Visconti. 1979: Nobel Prize for Literature to the Greek poet Odysseas Elytis. He is one of the most important Greek poets. In 1960 he was honoured with the State Poetry Prize and in 1979 the prize for literature. He is considered as one of the innovators of Greek poetry. 1981: Greece (Hellas) becomes a member of EEC. 1982: Community of Papagos becomes a Municipality. Recently, by “the Program Kallikrates”, the Municipality of Papagos was joined by municipality Cholargos and became the single municipality Papagou - Holargos. 2001: Greece(Hellas) becomes a member of the Economic and Monetary Union. Hellas joined the euro area on 1st January 2001. 2002: Greece(Hellas) adopts euro as currency. On 1st January 2002 the euro replaced the drachma (1 euro = 340.750 drachmas). 2004: The 28th summer Olympics in Athens, Greece(Hellas). (13th -29th August 2004). Nearly 10,500 athletes, 5,500 coaches and team officials from 202 countries were involved. There were 301 medal ceremonies from 28 different sports. For the first time since 1996, all members of the International Olympic Committee took part in the Olympic Games. 2010: Greece faces debt crisis and is forced to seek financial help from the International Monetary Fund and the European Union. The Greek crisis which began in late 2009 awakened the markets that for more than a decade remained indifferent to the differences between the euro zone countries and the problems of competitiveness and fiscal diversion of many countries.


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan 1945 – A II. Világháború vége. Az ország romokban hever. 1948-1953 – Rákosi-korszak, személyi kultusz. "A legrosszabb év talán 1949 vagy 1950 volt. Családunk ekkor a kitelepítettek listájára került, s hogy a költöztető teherautót elkerüljük, budatétényi családi házunkat elhagyva bujkáltunk ... rokonainknál maradtunk kb. 3 hónapon át, a bizonytalanság tudatában, hogy lesz-e fedél egyáltalán a fejünk felett." (Illusztráció: az Államvédelmi Hatóság megalakulása) "Mindenből be kellett szolgáltatnunk bizonyos mennyiséget. Alig maradt valami az embereknél, nehéz idők voltak. Behajtók jöttek mindenért, bár mindenki próbált elrejteni valamit abból, amit megtermelt, de még így is éhesek voltunk mindig. A beszolgáltatott terményért, állatokért nem kaptunk semmit." "Például az apukámat börtönbe zárták pár napra, mert disznót vágott és nem jelentette be. Sajnos voltak besúgók mindenhol és feljelentették." "Munkahelye javasolta továbbtanulásra a Közgazdasági Egyetemre, de be sem hívták, mert pártonkívüli, fejlődőképes „klerikális” volt, nem volt munkás származású." 1956 – Forradalom és szabadságharc. "Egyáltalán nem féltem, mert nem az én biztonságom volt az érdekes, hanem hogy felszabaduljon a haza és kiűzzük az oroszokat az országból." (Illusztráció: forradalmi barrikád) "A tüntetéseken minden ember megbarátkozott mindenkivel, mert a céljaik közösek voltak." "Nagymamám a Magyar Rádióval szemben lakott. Látta, amikor a szovjet katonák lőni kezdték az embereket. A felkelők a muníciót és a halottakat a házukba vitték be. A harc közben az emberek fedezéket kerestek. A végén a nagymamám látta, hogy a Rádió épületének a fala ledőlt." "A Múzeum körúton egy villamos le volt döntve barikádnak. Aznap éjjel a kevés közlekedő villamoson csüngtek az emberek, neki gyalog kellett Lőrincre hazamenni. Lelkes volt a hangulat, eggyé forrt a nemzet. Budapesten forradalom van! - Olga néni ezzel ment haza az édesanyjához. A betört kirakatokhoz nem nyúltak, becsületesek voltak az emberek." "Később szájról-szájra mentek a hírek, biztosat senki sem tudott, csak annyit, hogy kitört a forradalom. Lehet, hogy furcsán hangzik, de fogalmunk sem volt, mégis


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan milyen forradalom tört ki. A szüleink csak suttogtak, hogy mi ne halljunk meg lehetőleg semmit, nehogy féljünk, de a saját aggódásukat nem tudták eltitkolni előlünk." "Az általam legpozitívabbnak tartott személy Mindszenty József hercegprímás volt. Magatartása, felfogása végig egyértelmű, határozott, nem megalkuvó volt. Igazáért vállalta a börtönt. Minden rendszer (nyilas és kommunista) bebörtönözte. Élete példázza a magas erkölcsi értékeként történő kiállás fontosságát." (Illusztráció: Mindszenty bíboros beszédet mond a forradalom idején) "A gyermek – különösen, ha olyan szerető otthonban nőtt fel, mint én – nem érezte e történések igazi súlyát, mert a szüleink nagyon igyekeztek, hogy megkíméljenek minket gyerekeket a nagy megrázkódtatásoktól. Ebben az évben hasított a magyar nemzet egy nagy lyukat a kommunizmus hálóján, az már soha többé nem lett olyan, mint azelőtt volt." "A szabadság rövid ideig tartott és aztán következett a megtorlás. Gyerekként nem mehettünk el otthonról, a tanítás szünetelt. A rádióból tájékozódtunk az eseményekről. Hallottam Nagy Imre beszédét. A szoba ablakából láttam, ahogy a Várban lévő levéltár égett. A harcok távoli zaját hallottuk, talán a Széna tér felöl. Közlekedés nem volt, az ellátás akadozott, de az emberek segítették, szerették egymást. A forradalom vége felé a barátok és a rokonok közül sokan külföldre menekültek, akikkel csak hosszú évek után találkozhattunk." 1957-1989 – Kádár-korszak. Megtorlás, majd később gazdasági változások, a 'legvidámabb barakk' képe. "Majd 1957-ben kezdődött a megtorlás, és ami ezzel járt, a rettegés. Sok száz embert kivégeztek, több ezer embert börtönbe zártak. Miért? Mert más volt a véleményük, mint amit a hivatalos propaganda diktált. A legszebb év 1956 volt. Tele voltunk reményekkel, vigasszal, hogy egy tiszta, demokratikus Magyarországot fogunk felépíteni." "A bűnözőktől nem kellett félni, mert sok volt a rendőr, de az államtól mindenki félt, aki nem szerette a kommunistákat." 1989-1990 – Rendszerváltás. Demokratikus választások. (Illusztráció: az 1990-es parlamenti választási eredmények) 1999 – Magyarország belép a NATO-ba. 2004 – Magyarország belép az Európai Unióba. (idézetek a diákok projektjeiből)


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan 1945 – The end of World War II. The country is in ruins. 1948-1953 – Rákosi-era, personal cult of the communist leader. "The worst year was probably 1949 or 1950. Our family was listed for re-settlement, and to avoid the moving van we left our house and hid at our relatives' place for 3 months, not knowing if we were to have a safe roof above us or not." (Illustration: the establishment of the State Protection Authority) "We had to surrender a certain amount of all our produce. State employees came to collect. We didn't get anything for our goods. Hardly anything remained for the family, so these were hard times. Everybody tried to hide some of the crops and the animals, but we were still hungry most of the time." "My father was imprisoned for a few days because he butchered a pig in secret, without handing over most of the meat and the fat. Unfortunately, there were informers who reported him to the police." "His firm suggested him for further education at the University of Economics, but they didn't even interview him because he didn't come from a worker family, wasn't a party member and had church affiliations." 1956 – Revolution and freedom fight. "I wasn't afraid at all, it wasn't my safety that was important but the independence of our homeland and driving out the Russians from the country." (Illustration: revolutionary barricade) "At the demonstrations everybody made friends easily, because we had common goals." "My grandma lived opposite the building of the Hungarian Radio. She saw when the Soviet soldiers started to shoot the people. The freedom fighters brought their munitions and the corpses into their house, where they tried to take cover during the fight. Then my grandma saw how the wall of the Radio building was demolished." "On Museum Boulevard a tram was turned over for a barricade. That night the few running trams were overloaded with people hanging from the doors, and Greataunt Olga had to walk home, which was a long way away. The atmosphere was animated, the nation came together as one. 'There is a revolution downtown,' she told her mother. A lot of shopwindows were broken, but nobody took the goods, the people were honest."


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan "Later word of mouth came about the breaking out of the revolution, but nobody knew for sure. It might sound strange, but we had no idea about what kind of revolution it was. Our parents were whispering so that we couldn't understand anything, so that we weren't frightened, but their worries were clearly seen." "I consider Primate József Mindszenty to be the most positive personality. His views, his behaviour was clear-cut, determined and unwavering at all times. He went to prison for the Truth. Both regimes (Nazi and Communist) imprisoned him. His life sets an example for standing up for one's high moral values." (Illustration: Cardinal Mindszenty gives a speech during the revolution) "Kids – especially if they grew up in a loving home like ours – didn't quite feel the real burden of the events, because our parents did their best to spare us of the bigger shocks. In this year the Hungarian nation tore a great hole on the net of Communism, which never again became the same as it was." "Freedom lasted for a short time and was followed by retribution. As children, we couldn't leave home, there was no school. We listened to the radio. I heard Prime Minister Imre Nagy's speech. I saw the burning of the Archives from our window. We heard the sounds of firefight from the distance. There was no public transport, provisions were scarce, but the people helped one another lovingly. When the revolution ended, a lot of our friends and relatives fled the country and we didn't see them again for years." 1957-1989 – Kádár-era. Retribution, then economic changes, the image of the 'merriest hut'. "Then in 1957 retribution started, and with it, terror. Hundreds of people were executed, thousands imprisoned. Why? Because they had different opinion from the official propaganda. The best year was 1956. We were full of hope and consolation for building a pure, democratic Hungary." "We didn't need to be afraid of criminals, because there were a lot of policemen, but everybody was afraid of the state, especially those who didn't like Communists." 1989-1990 – Change of regime. Democratic elections. (Illustration: seats in the Parliament in 1990 the results of the free parliamentary elections) 1999 – Hungary joins the NATO. 2004 – Hungary joins the European Union. (quotations from the pupils' projects)


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz

1926-1974 - Portugal viveu em ditadura (regime político totalitarista em que os cidadãos não tinham liberdade de expressão), de 28 de maio de 1926 a 25 de abril de 1974. Durante quase 40 anos, o primeiro-ministro de Portugal foi António de Oliveira Salazar. 1956 -

1961-1974 -

Em 4 de setembro de 1956, foi para o ar a 1ª emissão experimental de televisão (RTP), no recinto da Feira Popular de Lisboa. Em 1957, iniciaram-se as emissões regulares de televisão. Em 1961, começaram a surgir movimentos armados de libertação, nas províncias de Angola, Guiné e Moçambique. Salazar mandou as nossas tropas para África, iniciando a Guerra do Ultramar, que se prolongou até 1974 e que vitimou muitos soldados portugueses.

25 de abril Em 25 de Abril de 1974, um grupo de militares levou a cabo a “Revolução dos Cravos” (assim chamada porque de 1974 - foi feita sem derramamento de sangue e porque o povo apoiou os militares, com cravos vermelhos nas mãos), que instaurou a democracia em Portugal. 1975 -

Na sequência desta revolução, Portugal concedeu a independência às colónias africanas (Guiné - Bissau, Angola, Cabo Verde, S. Tomé e Príncipe e Moçambique), cumprindo a recomendação das Nações Unidas. Macau só se tornou independente em 1999 e Timor em 2002.

1977 -

Fabrica-se o primeiro carro UMM. Chegou a constar na linha de partida do famoso Rali Paris-Dakar, nos anos 80. É, por isso, um motivo de orgulho português e um exemplo da capacidade da engenharia nacional.

1975 -

-

1986 -

Adesão à Comunidade Económica Europeia (C.E.E.), da qual faziam parte os seguintes países: Espanha, Itália, França, Áustria, Luxemburgo, Irlanda, Bélgica, Finlândia, Holanda, Alemanha e a Grécia. Hoje, é a União Europeia (EU).


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz

1992 -

1996 -

1998 -

Festas do Mar - A procissão de Nossa Senhora dos Navegantes integra as Festas do Mar, anteriormente, conhecida como a Festa dos Pescadores. Após uma interrupção de duas décadas, as Festas do Mar regressaram em 1992. Criação da CPLP (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa), da qual fazem parte Angola, Brasil, Cabo Verde, Guiné-Bissau, Moçambique, Portugal, S. Tomé e Príncipe e Timor-Leste. Exposição mundial, em Lisboa, sob o tema “Os Oceanos”. A zona do Parque das Nações sofreu uma profunda intervenção de regeneração, em particular do ponto de vista ambiental, permitindo valorizar todas as singularidades da zona e maximizar as potencialidades de usufruto futuro. José Saramago é galardoado com o prémio Nobel da literatura.

2002 -

Portugal adotou a moeda única europeia, o Euro.

2004 -

Realizou-se o Campeonato Europeu de Futebol 2004 (UEFA Euro 2004). Para organizar o terceiro maior evento desportivo do mundo, Portugal construiu ou renovou 10 estádios. A seleção portuguesa sagrou-se vice-campeã.

2007 - Criação do Agrupamento de Escolas de Alvide, com sede na Escola Secundária com 2.º e 3.º Ciclos de Alvide. É constituído pela Escola Básica do 1º Ciclo/Jardim de Infância de Alvide, Escola Básica do 1º Ciclo com JI Prof. Manuel Gaião e Escola Básica do 1º Ciclo Nº 4 de Cascais. 2009 -

A Casa das Histórias Paula Rego foi inaugurada em setembro, sendo o mais internacional espaço museológico do concelho de Cascais.

2011 -

Integração do Museu-Biblioteca Condes de Castro Guimarães, do Museu do Mar - Rei D. Carlos e do Museu da Música Portuguesa – Casa Verdades de Faria na Rede Portuguesa de Museus.

2011 – 2012 - Portugal encontra-se sob um programa Internacional, devido à crise económica.

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Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz 1926-1974 -

Portugal lived in dictatorship (political totalitarian regime in which citizens had no freedom of expression) from 28 May 1926 to 25 April 1974. For nearly 40 years, the prime minister of Portugal was António de Oliveira Salazar.

1956

On September 4, 1956, was broadcasted the 1st experimental television emission (RTP1), from the fairgrounds in Lisbon. In 1957, began the regular television broadcasts. (2nd channel, RTP2, in 1968).

1961

In 1961, began to emerge armed liberation movements in the provinces of Angola, Mozambique and Guinea. Salazar sent our troops to Africa, beginning the War of “Ultramar”, which lasted until 1974 and killed many Portuguese soldiers.

25th April, 1974

On April 25, 1974, a group of military carried out the "Carnation Revolution" (so called because it was made without bloodshed, and because the people supported the military, with red carnations in their hands), which introduced democracy in Portugal.

1975

Following the revolution, Portugal granted independence to its African colonies (Guinea - Bissau, Angola, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Mozambique), complying with the recommendation of the United Nations. Macau only became independent in 1999 and East Timor in 2002.

1977

Is manufactured the first UMM car. It was on the starting line of the famous Paris-Dakar Rally in the '80s. It is therefore a source of pride and an example of the Portuguese national engineering capacity.

1986

Become a member of the European Economic Community (EEC), today known as the European Union (EU), joining Spain, Italy, France, Austria, Luxembourg, Ireland, Belgium, Finland, Netherlands, Germany and Greece.


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz 1992

Cascais - The procession of Our Lady of Navigators integrates the Sea Festival, formerly known as the Fisherman's Festival. After a break of two decades, the Sea Festival returned in 1992.

1996

Creation of the CPLP (Community of Portuguese Language Countries), with Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, GuineaBissau, Mozambique, Portugal, S. Tome and Principe and East Timor as founding members.

1996

World Exhibition fair in Lisbon, under the theme "The Oceans". The area of the “Park of Nations” suffered a deep intervention and regeneration, in particular from the environmental point of view, allowing appreciate all the uniqueness of the area and maximize the potential for future enjoyment. José Saramago is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

2002

Portugal adopted the European currency, the Euro (€).

2004

Organization of the 2004 European Football Championship (UEFA Euro 2004). To organize the third largest sporting event in the world, Portugal has built or renovated 10 stadiums. The Portuguese national team won the runner-up.

2004

Creation of the Alvide Group of Schools, headquartered in Alvide High School provides schooling from kindergarten to secondary level and is composed by three primary schools and two pre-primary schools.

2009

Paula Rego’s House of Stories was inaugurated in September, the most international space museum in Cascais.

2011

Library-Museum Condes de Castro Guimarães, the Sea Museum - King Carlos and Portuguese Music Museum - Home Verdades de Faria integrated in the Portuguese Museum Network.

2011-2013

Portugal is under an International Financial Rescue program due to the economic crisis.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia /

1948: OEEC ( Avrupa Ekonomik İşbirliği Örgütü) kuruldu. Türkiye bu örgüte üye oldu.

1949: Türkiye, Avrupa Konseyi’ne kabul edildi. Avrupa Konseyi 1949 yılında Avrupa çapında insan hakları, demokrasi ve hukukun üstünlüğünü savunmak amacıyla Avrupa çapında kurulmuş hükümetler arası bir kuruluştur. 1952: Türkiye, NATO üyesi oldu. 1953: Atatürk’ün naşı görkemli bir törenle Anıtkabir’e nakledildi. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin kurucusu ve ilk cumhurbaşkanı Atatürk, 10 Kasım 1938 Perşembe sabahı saat 09:05'te İstanbul Dolmabahçe Sarayı'nda hayatını kaybetti. Cenazesi büyük bir törenle Ankara'ya uğurlandı ve Atatürk 21 Kasım 1938 günü Ankara'da yapılan büyük bir törenle Ankara Etnografya Müzesi'ndeki geçici kabrine konuldu. Bundan 15 yıl sonra da 10 Kasım 1953'te kendisi için yaptırılan Anıtkabir'deki ebedi istirahatgahında toprağa verildi. 1961 : İlk Türk otomobili yapıldı. Anadol, Türkiye’nin ilk yurt içi seri üretim aracıdır. Anadol arabaları ve kamyonetleri Otosan Otomobil Sanayii tarafından 1966-1991 yılları arasında İstanbul’da üretildi. 7 adet Anadol modeli üretilmiştir. 1968: Ankara’da ilk televizyon yayınları başladı. TRT 1, 31 Ocak 1968'de TRT Ankara Televizyonun ilk deneme yayınına başlamasından, 6 Ekim 1986'da TRT 2'nin yayına başlamasına kadar tek Türkçe kanal olan TRT'nin adıdır. 1982'den itibaren kısmen, 1984'te ise tamamen renkli yayına geçmiştir. Türkiye'deki en eski televizyon kanalıdır.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia /

1973: İstanbul Boğaz Köprüsü açıldı. Boğaziçi Köprüsü, Karadeniz ile Marmara Denizi'ni birbirine bağlayan İstanbul Boğazı üzerinde yer alan iki asma köprüden biridir. Yapımı tamamlandığında dünyanın en uzun dördüncü asma köprüsüyken, 2010 yılı itibarıyla on sekizinci sırada bulunmaktadır. 1993:Ülkemizde ilk internet kullanılmaya başlandı. İnternet Türkiye'ye 1993 yılında gelmiştir ve geldikten sonra Türkiye'de kullanımı yaygınlaşmıştır. 1999: Gölcük Depremi oldu. Gölcük Depremi, İzmit Depremi, Marmara Depremi ya da 17 Ağustos 1999 depremi, 17 Ağustos 1999 sabahı, yerel saatle 03:02'de gerçekleşen, Kocaeli/Gölcük merkezli deprem. Richter ölçeğine göre 7,5 Mw büyüklüğünde gerçekleşen deprem, 37 saniye sürdü ve büyük çapta can ve mal kaybına neden olmuştur. 2002 :Türkiye, Eurovision şarkı yarışmasında birinci oldu. "Everyway That I Can" şarkısı ile Sertab Erener, ilk kez Türkiye’ye birinciliği getirmiştir. 2009: Türkiye’nin ilk yüksek hızlı treni seferi Ankara ile Eskişehir hattında yapıldı. 2010: Gazzelilere insani yardım götüren Mavi Marmara gemisine İsrail askerleri saldırıda bulundu. Mavi Marmara, İnsani Yardım Vakfı'nın organizasyonu ile İsrail ablukasındaki Gazze'ye yardım malzemeleri götürmek üzere bir grup gemi ile birlikte yola çıktı. 31 Mayıs 2010 tarihinde Gazze'ye yakın uluslararası sularda İsrail Ordusunun gemiye asker çıkarması üzerine organizasyon amacına ulaşamadı. Gazze insani yardım filosu saldırısı sonucunda gemi yolcularının bir kısmı öldü ya da yaralandı.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia /

1948: OEEC (The Organisation for European Economic Cooperation) came into being. Turkey was a participant. 1949: Turkey was accepted into Council of Europe. The Council of Europe is an international organization promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights democratic development, the rule of law and cultural cooperation. 1952: Turkey became a member of NATO. 1953: Atatürk’s body transferred to Anıtkabir. The Founder of Turkish Republic and the first president Atatürk passed away in Dolmabahçe Palace on the 10th November, in 1938 on Thursday at 09:05. Mustafa Kemal's remains were originally laid to rest in the Ethnography Museum of Ankara, and transferred on 10 November 1953, 15 years after his death into a mausoleum that overlooks Ankara, Anıtkabir. 1961: The first Turkish car was manufactured. Anadol was Turkey's first domestic massproduction passenger vehicle. Anadol cars and pick-ups were manufactured by Otosan Otomobil Sanayii in Istanbul between 1966 and 1991.Seven Anadol models were produced. 1968: TRT 1, the first television channel in Turkey, started their test transmissions on January 31, 1968, and commenced full national broadcasts in December 1971. It was the only and the oldest channel in Turkey until September 15, 1986, when TRT started test transmissions for (TRT 2). After 1984, TRT started totally in colour transmission. 1973: İstanbul Bosphorus Bridge was opened. The Bosphorus Bridge is one of the two bridges in Istanbul, Turkey, spanning the Bosphorus strait and


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia /

thus connecting Europe and Asia. The Bosphorus Bridge had the 4th longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1973, and the longest outside the United States. At 2010, it is the 18th longest suspension bridge span in the world.

1993: Turkey has had public Internet access. The internet came Turkey in 1993 and after that it has been become widespread. 1999: Gölcük earthquake occured. İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli or Gölcük earthquake) was a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that struck northwestern Turkey on August 17, 1999. The event lasted for 37 seconds, and many many people died and too much loss of life and property. 2002: Turkey came first in the Eurovision Song Contest. Turkey won for the first time with the song "Everyway That I Can" by Sertab Erener. 2009:The Turkish State Railways high-speed rail service currently operating on two routes:Ankara to Eskişehir. 2010: Israeli attacked the Mavi Marmara Ship that was carrying humanitarian aid and construction materials to Gaza. Some of the passengers died or injured from the attack.


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya Prima seduta dell'Assemblea Costituente

Quando nel 1945 finì la seconda guerra mondiale, la gente del nostro paese nel 1946 scelse, attraverso il voto, la forma Repubblicana e non la monarchia e con il voto elesse un’Assemblea Costituente. Questa si diede il compito di scrivere una Legge, un Patto, capace di rispecchiare i principi sui quali tutti si potessero trovare d’accordo.

Il 27 dicembre 1947 viene promulgata la COSTITUZIONE ITALIANA Il Presidente della Repubblica Enrico De Nicola mentre firma la nuova Costituzione. Attorno a lui De Gasperi, Saragat e Togliatti

La Carta Costituzionale, con lungimiranza, ci parla oggi come allora di diritti sociali, di di solidarietà, di garanzie democratiche, di libertà individuali e comuni in cui tutti ancora ci riconosciamo e che tutti quotidianamente siamo chiamati a mettere in pratica e a difendere lealmente. L’articolo 1 della nostra Costituzione così recita: Art. 1 L’Italia è una Repubblica democratica, fondata sul lavoro Tuttavia, oggi si sente molto il dramma della mancanza di lavoro, che in Italia coinvolge quasi una famiglia su due. Il lavoro incerto, precario o perduto, alimenta l'insicurezza economica e le paure di un popolo minacciato dalla disoccupazione. Questa è indubbiamente la crisi più dura che il nostro paese abbia attraversato dal dopoguerra ad oggi. Ciò che rende unica la nostra Costituzione, è che si presenta ancora oggi in maniera chiara e moderna, nonostante siano trascorsi sessanta anni dalla sua promulgazione. protesta contro il grosso È stata definita “la più bella del mondo”.

problema del lavoro in Italia


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya 2012: 20 anni dalle stragi dei giudici Falcone e Borsellino

IMMAGINE SIMBOLO DELLA LOTTA ALLA MAFIA

Diffusione dell'estorsione mafiosa nelle province italiane nell'anno 2008, secondo un sondaggio di Confesercenti

“Mafia è un termine diffuso che si riferisce ad una particolare tipologia di organizzazione criminale che ha le sue origini in Sicilia con ramificazioni anche negli Stati Uniti, ed è nota come Cosa Nostra. A partire dagli anni ‘60 / ‘70 cominciò la controffensiva dello Stato verso la mafia, e si iniziò ad indagare. Molti magistrati, prefetti, carabinieri, e perfino giornalisti, che cercarono di combattere la mafia, ma quando provarono ad ostacolare i suoi loschi affari toccando il suo punto debole, il capitale economico, vennero uno dopo l’altro uccisi. Il potere di Cosa Nostra è dovuto a diversi fattori: l’OMERTÀ, l’incapacità delle persone a dire ciò che hanno visto o sentito per paura e mancanza di fiducia nello Stato, la corruzione, la disponibilità di grandi capitali ottenuti grazie ad attività illecite (traffico di sostanze stupefacenti, racket, prostituzione e oggi anche il settore dei rifiuti, una delle attività più floride). Un ruolo fondamentale nella lotta alla mafia è da attribuire anche ai mafiosi PENTITI che hanno deciso di collaborare con la giustizia e che hanno permesso di individuare la struttura interna dell’organizzazione. Ma perché il muro sia definitivamente abbattuto è necessaria una maggiore fiducia nelle istituzioni, una più efficace educazione alla legalità e un’opera più incisiva per il miglioramento delle condizioni di vita, di lavoro, di istruzione soprattutto nelle regioni dove il fenomeno mafioso è più radicato. In sostanza, una maggior presenza dello Stato.


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya

First sitting of Constituent Assembly

the

When the Second World War ended in 1945, the Italians, through a vote, chose the Republican form instead of the monarchy in 1946 and a Constituent Assembly was elected. This one gave itself the task of writing a law, a Treaty, reflecting the principles on

gura 1

which all could agree. On 27th December, in 1947 The ITALIAN CONSTITUTION was promulgated

The President of the Republic, Enrico De Nicola while signing the new Constitution. Around him, De Gasperi, Togliatti and Saragat

The Constitution, with a certain foresight, deals with matters such as solidarity, social rights, democratic guarantees, individual and communal liberties in which people still recognize themselves, and that everyday everybody should put into practice and defend loyally. According to the 1st article of our Constitution: Italy is a Democratic Republic founded on work In spite of this, nowadays the Italians live the drama of a lack of job which involves almost a family of two in Italy. The widespread of precarious work increases the economic insecurity and the fears of a population threatened by the unemployment. This is undoubtedly the hardest crisis that our country has gone through since the end of the second world war. The feature that makes our Constitution unique is that it is still clear and modern, although sixty years have passed since its promulgation. A protest against the serious problem of work

It has also been defined "the most beautiful Constitution in in Italy the world.


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya

2012: 20 years from the attempts on the Sicilian judges’ lives Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino

A SYMBOLIC PICTURE OF ANTI-MAFIA

-spread of mafia extortion in the Italian provinces in 2008 according to a Confesercenti survey.

"Mafia is a common term referring to a particular type of criminal organization that has its origin in Sicily with branches in the United States, and Known as “Cosa Nostra". From the '60s / '70s the State began a counteroffensive towards the Mafia, through an investigative work. Many magistrates, prefects, policemen, and even journalists, tried to fight it, but when they impeded it from its dirty business by touching its weak point, that is to say the economic capital, they were killed one after the other. the power of Cosa Nostra comes from different factors: the OMERTÀ, that is people’s inability to tell what they have seen or heard because of their fears and lack of trust in the State; the corruption and the availability of obtaining large funds through illegal activities (drug trafficking, racketeering, prostitution and the waste sector which is today one of the most flourishing business). A key role in the fight against the mafia is also due to repentant mobsters who have decided to cooperate with the justice allowing it to identify the internal structure of the organization. Anyway, to demolish the wall completely there should be a greater trust in the institutions, an effective legal education and a more effective work in order to improve the living conditions, the employment, the education, especially in those regions where the mafia is deeply rooted. Briefly, there should be a greater presence of the State.


Country and Community History booklet