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VERTICAL CITIES ASIA 2014

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VERTICAL CITIES ASIA 2014 MUMBAI, INDIA Credits Editorial Team Dante Borgo, Mitesh Dixit, Ulf Hackauf, Kees Kaan, Yinghao Lin, Katerina Salonikidi, Maria Stamati, Yiannis Tsoskounoglou Editor in Chief Mitesh Dixit Art Direction & Design Maria Stamati Editorial Researchers Dante Borgo, Yinghao Lin, Katerina Salonikidi, Maria Stamati, Yiannis Tsoskounoglou

CP

U

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VCA 2014

CP

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U

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VERTICAL CITIES ASIA 2014 MUMBAI, INDIA Kick off Book Studio Leaders Ulf Hackauf - Urbanism Katerina Salonikidi - Urbanism Mitesh Dixit - Architecture Research Assistant Maria Stamati

CP U

Complex Projects Chair: Prof. ir. Kees Kaan

Urbanism Chair: Prof. Machiel van Dorst

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CONTENT

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INDIA

06

-India’s geographic evolution............................... -900 BCE - 700 CE............................................... -The period of the kingdoms................................ -Colonial era......................................................... -Partition............................................................... -1970 - 1990......................................................... -Bollywood...........................................................

08 10 18 26 34 44 52

INDIA NOW

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A FACTS & FIGURES.......................................... -National scale..................................................... -Statistics............................................................. -Density comparison............................................ -Scale comparison................................................

64 66 70 78 80

B HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT......................... -Historical timeline - Mumbai............................... -Growth.................................................................

82 84 88

C URBAN ANALYSIS........................................... -Block comparison................................................ -Block sections..................................................... -Housing typologies.............................................

90 114 116 120

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INTRODUCTION

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INDIA

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INDIA’S GEOGRAPHIC EVOLUTION

Kuru

Mauraya

900 - 500 BCE

500 - 200 BCE

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Kingdoms and Republics

Devaplala

200 BCE - 700 CE

500 CE - 1500 CE

Mughal

1500 CE - 1750 CE

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1750 CE - 1947 CE

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1947 - now

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900 BCE-700CE

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VEDIC PERIOD (900-500 BCE)

-The Vedic period is characterised by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. -Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups, distinct to Harappan urbanisation having been abandoned.

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-Aryan society became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the four varnas, or social classes: Brahmins: priests and scholars Kshatriya: kings, governors, warriors and soldiers Vaishyas: cattle herders, agriculturists, artisans and merchants Shudras: labourers and service providers -Since Vedic times, “people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms�, a process called Sanskritization. -The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the previous tribal system towards the establishment of kingdoms, called mahajanapadas.

Creative activities of Prajapati, a Vedic deity

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Manuscript of Rigveda (padapatha) in Devanagari

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SECOND URBANIZATION (800-200 BCE)

The Suryaprajnaptisutra, an astronomical work dating to the 3rd or 4th century BCE

The Mahajanapadas (600-300 BCE) were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains.

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Cyrus the Great, 559- 569 BCE

A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka

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The Persian and Greek invasions (500-300 BCE) had important repercussions on Indian civilisation, the political systems and culture.

The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India.

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Nalanda,one of the first great universities in recorded history, from 450 to 1193 BCE

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CLASSICAL AGE (200 BCE-700 CE)

The Indo-Greek Kingdom, was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE, extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. 16

The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE.

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent.

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The Vakataka Empire state is believed to have extended from the southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra River in the south as well as from the Arabian Sea in the western to the edges of Chattisgarh in the east. 17

Harsha Vardhana (c. 590–647), commonly called Harsha, was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 from his capital Kannauj.

The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

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THE PERIOD OF THE KINGDOMS

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LATE CLASSICAL AGE (500-1500 CE)

-This period produced some of India’s finest art, considered the epitome of classical development, and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. -The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade. -Successfully united the South India and extended their influence in the Southeast Asian countries.

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Hazara Rama temple, depicting life in the kingdom

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Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, 1397-1398

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MUGHAL EMPIRE (1500-1750 CE)

-In 1526 the Mughal Empire is established, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. - The Mughals, while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire, had a policy of integration with Indian culture. -he Mughal emperors attempted to fuse their TurkoPersian culture with ancient Indian styles, creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture.

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Taj Mahal, built by the Mughals

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The Mughal Empire at its zenith spanned from Afghanistan to Cape Comorin c. 1700

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POST-MUGHAL PERIOD (1750-1850)

-The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of the subcontinent, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km². - They built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail.

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Maratha Court

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-The Sikh empire, based around the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. - Consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. -At its peak, in the 19th century, the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, and Himachal in the east. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British.

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The Battle of Muktsar December 1705

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COLONIAL ERA

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COMPANY RULE (1750-1857)

- After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the British East India Company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II; this marked the beginning of its formal rule, which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty. - They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudallike structure in Bengal. -Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule, taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. 28

Photograph (1855) of the Dapoorie Viaduct, Bombay

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The evolution of the British East India Company from 1765 to 1857

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THE INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857

- The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company’s rule. - In the aftermath, all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown, which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces. -There were officially 565 princely states in 1947, but only 21 had actual state governments.

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Secundra Bagh after the slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment

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Extend of British terittories States affected by the rebellion States loyal to British with army in rebellion States aiding the British Neutral states States in rebellion

States during the rebellion

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THE INDIAN INDEPEDENCE MOVENT (1920-1947)

- From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. - Others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle; revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. -The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like noncooperation, civil disobedience and economic resistance.

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-These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in August 6th, 1947.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Bombay, 1944

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The original text of the Preamble, before the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution

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PA RT I T I O N

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PARTITION OF INDIA (1947)

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EFFECTS OF THE PARTITION -The new state of Pakistan ,a state created in two halves -The largest mass migration in human history, of some 10 million -Civil unrest, as well as ethnic and religious discord threatened the stability of the new country -India become the world’s largest democracy and consolidated governmental authority over the entire subcontinent (1951) -The most singular conflict unresolved since partition is concerning the former Princely State of Kashmir

What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is brought under the name of totalitarianism or in the holy name of liberty or democracy? Mahatma Gandhi

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AFGANISTAN NEPAL BHUTAN

mumbai 37 INDIA

BEFORE PARTITION AFTER PARTITION

WEST PAKISTAN

EAST PAKISTAN

mumbai

INDIA

India before and after partition

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PARTITION OF INDIA - ARTISTS REACTION

38

“We, the children of Independence, rushed wildly and too fast into our future; he Emergency-born, will be is already more cautious, biding his time; but when he acts, he will be impossible to resist.” Midnight’s Children,

Salman Rushdie

“Freedom is for the educated people who fought for it. We were slaves of the English, now we will be slaves of the educated Indians—or the Pakistanis.” Train to Pakistan, Khushwant Singh

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TIME magazine cover, 27 October 1947

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PARTITION OF INDIA - ARTISTS REACTION

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Love, Deception and Intrigue, Nalini Malani (1985)

Disembodied Voices, Nalini Malani (2005)

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Splitting line,

Nalini Malani (2005)

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PARTITION OF INDIA - ARTISTS REACTION

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Reunion,

Google advertisment (2013)

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1970 - 1990

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WARS AND TREATIES

46

Indian troops in patrol in Sri Lanka

-1971: War with Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh. -1971: Indo-Soviet treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation signed. -1972: The Simpla Agreement is signed between Indira Gandhi and Z.A. Bhutto. -1987: Indian troops deployed to Sri Lanka.

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INDIRA GANDHI

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Indira Gandhi

-1975-1977: President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, on the advice of Indira Gandhi, declares a state of emergency in India. A period of political instability in the country, in which elections and civil liberties were suspended, effectively allowing Indira Gandhi to rule by decree for this period of 21 months. -1977: The Congress Party loses general elections and the Janata party comes into power. The Congress loses elections for the first time in independent India. This is in large part due to the growing unpopularity of Indira Gandhi and her policies. -1980-1984: The Congress Party returned to power with Indira Gandhi as prime minister in 1980, who continued to lead the country until she was assassinated in 1984.

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ANTI-SIKH RIOTS OF 1984

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ECONOMIC LIBERILIZATION OF INDIA IN 1991

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B O L LY W O O D

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GOLDEN AGE 1940-1960

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Pyaasa (meaning “Thirsty”) is a 1957 film produced by, directed by, and starring Guru Dutt. Pyaasa is being featured in Time magazine’s “All-TIME” 100 best movies list.

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Neecha Nagar (meaning “Lowly City�) is a 1946 film directed by Chetan Anand. Neecha Nagar became the first Indian film to gain international recognition, after it shared the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film (Best Film) award at the first Cannes Film Festival in 1946.

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Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence. Lord Meghnad Desai, economist and Bollywood biographer

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Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire (2008), was directly inspired by Bollywood films, and is considered to be a “homage to Hindi commercial cinema”.

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INDIA NOW

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0

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1

3

5 km

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MUMBAI

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FACTS & FIGURES

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NATIONAL SCALE

delhi

kolkata

INDIA area: population: density: GDP: number of states:

mumbai 66

3,287,590 km2 1,131.04 million 344 per/km2 $4,463 trillion 29

INDIA chennai bangalore

area: 3,287,590 km2 population: 1,131.04 millions density: 344 per/km2 gdp: 8.9% number of states: 29

MAHARASHTRA STATE

MAHARASHTRA STATE

area: 307,713 km2 population: 105.51 millions area: density: 343 per/km2307,713 km2 population: 105.51 million gdp: 13% density: number of districts: 35343 per/km2

GDP: 14.4% of the national number of districts: 35

MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION area: 4,355 km2 population: 18.41 millions MUMBAI REGION density:METROPOLITAN 4,080 per/km2 gdp: 39%

area: population: density: GDP:

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4,355 km2 8.41 million 4,080 per/km2 5% of the national

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MUMBAI area: population: density: GDP: number of wards:

438 km2 12.48 million 27,348 per/km2 4.6% of the national 24

source: UN report, 2007

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delhi

NATIONAL SCALE COMPARISON kolkata

mumbai

INDIA area: 3,287,590 km2 population: 1,131.04 millions density: 344 per/km2 gdp: 8.9% number of states: 29

chennai

delhi

bangalore

kolkata

mumbai

MAHARASHTRA STATE

68

chennai

area: 307,713 km2 population: 105.51 millions density: 343 per/km2 gdp: 13% number of districts: 35

bangalore

MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION area: 4,355 km2 population: 18.41 millions density: 4,080 per/km2 gdp: 39%

GREATER MUMBAI area: 438 km2 population: 12.48 millions MUMBAI density: 27,348 per/km2 gdp: 26% number of wards: 24

area: population: density: GDP:

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438 km2 12.48 millions 27,348 per/km2 4.6% of India’s GDP source: UN report, 2007

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DELHI area: population: density: GDP:

1,484 km2 22 million 11,297 per/km2 3.7% of India’s GDP

KOLKATA area: population: density: GDP:

BANGALORE area: population: density: GDP:

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1,276km2 9.6 million 7,600 per/km2 1,8% of India’s GDP

185km2 4.5 million 24,000per/km2 3.3% of India’s GDP

CHENNAI area: population: density: GDP:

426km2 6.5 million 26,702 per/km2 1.5% of India’s GDP

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STATISTICS DEMOGRAPHICS source: census2011.co.in 12,478,477 ppl in Mumbai

Population 18,414,288 ppl in MMR

Sex ratio

853 women per 1000 men in Mumbai

Education

90.2% of the population is educated in Mumbai

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ECONOMY source: cia.gov, delhi.gov $4,463 billion/India

GDP $150 billion/Kalkota $209 billion/Mumbai

Employment

$167 billion/New Delhi

78.6% in men

26.7% in women

CRIME RATES source: osac.gov

Police force

165 officers per 100,000 citizents in Mumbai

9.5% of the total IPC crimes happen in Mumbai

300 sexual assaults in the year 2012-13 72,000 car accidents in the year 2012-13

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TRANSPORTATION source: mmrdamumbai.org

Vehicles

1.53 million vehicles

88% of transportation is conducted by trains and buses Train

6.3 million passanger/day

Bus

5.5 million passanger/day

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DEVELOPMENT OF MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION source: UN report, 2007

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1950 2.9 million ppl

1990 12.3 million ppl

2011 18.4 million ppl

2025 26.4 million ppl (projected)

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STATISTICS RELIGION source: censusindia.gov.in/

Hinduism 67.39%

Islam 18.56%

Buddhism 5.22% Christianity 4.2%

Other 4.63%

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LANGUAGE source: mapsofindia.com

Marathi 68.79%

Hindi 11.03%

Urdu 7.12%

Cujarati 2.39%

Other 10.67%

ETHNICITY source: city-data.com

Maharashtrians 42%

Gujaratis 19%

Marwari, Sindhi, Punjabi, Bohra, Khoja, Koli and others 39%

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LIVING CONDITIONS source: infochangeindia.org, aasra.info, mapsofindia.com, data.worldbank.org

54% of the population of Mumbai live in slums

15% of the population of Mumbai live in appartment buildings

3/day suicides happen in Mumbai 1,308 cases of HIV in 2010 (5,420 in 2007) 0.31% HIV prevalance rate in India 0.55% of the overall HIV rate prevalance in Mumbai 75

66 years the life expectancy

64% of the population of Mumbai work in the informal sector

21.9% is the povery head count ratio at national povery line

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS source: data.worldbank.org

GDP per capita: $1,489 in India $51,749 in USA $45,955 in Netherlands $11,340 in Brazil

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DENSITY COMPARISON

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Mumbai India

Total Pop: 12.48 million

Density: 27,384 ppl/km2

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Rio de Janeiro Brazil

Total Pop: 6.3 million

Density: 4,781 ppl/km2

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Lagos Nigeria

Moscow Russia

Total Pop: 12 million

Total Pop: 11.5 million

Density: 22,009 ppl/km2

Density: 4,581 ppl/km2

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SCALE COMPARISON

Mumbai, India

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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Lagos, Nigeria

Moscow, Russia

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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

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HISTORICAL TIMELINE - MUMBAI

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Start of shipbuilding industry

Mumbai Port Trust formed

India indepedence

Mumbai plague epidemic Industrialization boom

Portoguese presented Mombai to the English

Mumbai ca newly form Marathi-sta

First railway line

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1960

1947

1930

1899

1870

1853

1735

1661

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November 2008 Mumbai terrorists attacks

Municipal city expansion

Torrential July rains and flooding Economic liberalization

Bombay renamed Mumbai

Retail and real estate boom

Great Bombay Textile Strike

Mumbai capital of newly formed Marathi-state

2008

2005

2002

1995

1990

1982

1965

1960

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GROWTH

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1800

1870

1900

1920

1950

1990

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2010

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U R B A N A N A LY S I S

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WATER

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GREEN AREAS

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Priyadarshini Park, Mumbai

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ROADS

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HIGHWAYS

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PRIMARY ROADS

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SECONDARY ROADS

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URBAN DEVELOPMENT

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RAILWAYS

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TRANSPORT

NH8

NH3

104

NH4

international airports stations intercity terminus

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105

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106

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107

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LAND PRICES

108

<1500 1500-2500 2500-5000 5000-8000 8000-10000 10000-15000 > 15000

source: Hema Priya Kabali, Shifting Trajectories, TU Delft <1500 1500-2500

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2500-5000 5000-8000

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NEW PROJECTS

109

new project developments

source: Hema Priya Kabali, Shifting Trajectories, TU Delft

140121_KickOff VCA.indd 109

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DENSITY

110

source: Hema Priya Kabali, Shifting Trajectories, TU Delft

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100,000-120,000 ppl/km2

60,000-65,000 ppl/km2

55,000-60,000 ppl/km2

111

40,000-45,000ppl/km2

25,000-30,000 ppl/km2

35,000-40,000 ppl/km2

20,000-25,000 ppl/km2

30,000-35,000 ppl/km2

15,000-20,000 ppl/km2

5,000-10,000 ppl/km2

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112

140121_KickOff VCA.indd 112

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113

140121_KickOff VCA.indd 113

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BLOCK COMPARISON

114

Mumbai, India

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Lagos, Nigeria

Moscow, Russia

180 0

100

300 m

82

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115

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BLOCK SECTIONS

116

140121_KickOff VCA.indd 116

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117

source: Intergrating Informality, Rohan Varma, TU Delft, Explore Lab

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118

140121_KickOff VCA.indd 118

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119

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HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

120

Residential Unit

Residential + Commercial Unit

Residential + Small Scale Industrial Unit

Small Scale Industrial Unit

source: Intergrating Informality, Rohan Varma, TU Delft, Explore Lab

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121

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AISA SEITIC LACITREV 4102

73:63:11 4102/20/50

Profile for Material Contours

Vertical Cities Asia - Mumbai - Kick Off Book  

Vertical Cities Asia - Mumbai - Kick Off Book  

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