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VERTICAL CITIES ASIA EVERYONE HARVESTS TU DELFT TEAM A HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1: MASTERPLAN


5 km

VCA - site

5 km


As Hanoi’s population grows by 70% to 11 million by 2050, an integrated regional masterplan with dense satellite cities linked by transport and clean energy infrastructure can reduce problems typically associated with population growth: pollution, congestion, sprawl, food and housing shortages... Modernization can be the solution to the problems it normally creates...


VERTICAL CITIES ASIA 2013 TU DELFT TEAM A - HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1 About Vertical Cities Asia Competition The Vertical Cities Asia International Design Competition is organised by the National University of Singapore (NUS) School of Design and Environment (SDE), and is sponsored by the World Future Foundation (WFF) and Beijing Vantone Citylogic Investment Corporation. The competition was launched on 1 January 2011, premised on the belief that a new paradigm of high density compact urban development was neces-

sary for rapidly urbanising Asia, which is besieged by massive rural-urban migrations. Either existing urban architectural models will continue to be recycled to accommodate increasing populations with devastating effects on land, infrastructure, and the environment or new models of urban architecture will be formed to take on the specifics of Asian urban development.

Competition Brief - EVERYONE HARVESTS Every year a one square kilometre territory will be the subject of the competition. This area, to house 100,000 people living and working, sets the stage for tremendous research and investigation into urban density, verticality, domesticity, work, food, infrastructure, nature, ecology, structure, and program - their holistic integration and the quest for visionary paradigm will be the challenges of this urban and architectural invention. This new environment will have a full slate of livework-play provisions, with the residential component making up to 50% of the total floor space. In the third of this series of competitions, the theme of “Everyone Harvests” will be explored. By year 2050, food production is projected to increase by about 70 percent globally and nearly 100 percent in developing countries in order to meet the needs of the world’s expected 9 billion-strong population (UN Food and Agriculture Organisation).

However this incremental demand for food worldwide is facing growing challenge with competition for land and water resources, with quarter of all land of the planet being highly degraded (United Nations). With projections of nearly 80% of the world population to reside in urban centres by the year 2050, the brief is seeking for potential solutions for an entirely new approach to urban agriculture. The proposals should provide visions for a sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply that can first fulfil the basic needs of the daily food consumption of the city and if possible, produce surplus that can support the needs of other cities as well. The understanding of “harvesting” will be extended to include energy and water resources. The solutions should seek to introduce innovative ways to effectively utilize resources, such as minimizing water, saving energy and their associated costs related to urban agriculture.

SITE

COMPETITION OBJECTIVE

The site is located about 17km to the west of the city centre of Hanoi, Vietnam. It is part of the Hoai Duc District.. It has the Thang Long Highway running from east to west. The highway from north to south has not been constructed.

The objective of the competition is to seek a holistic solution or a new urban paradigm for a rapidly growing Asian city which also faces the issues of sustainability and quality of life that also addresses the notion of food production in Asian cities.

TEAM A Donatas Baltrusaitis - Lithuania Emilia Bruck - Austria Jonian Silaj - Albania/Greece Tomas Kalinauskas - Lithuania Wouter van Faassen - Netherlands Michael Cerrone - Netherlands Saskia van Eijk - Netherlands Contact Information e-mail: w.vanfaassen@gmail.com mobile: +31 628 21 35 33

CP

Complex Projects Chair: Prof.ir Kees Kaan


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1.

SITE CONDITIONS

2.

WHAT DOES HANOI NEED?

3.

PERKINS EASTMAN HA NOI MASTER PLAN 2030

4.

HANOI VISION 2050

TECHNICAL INDEX


INTRODUCTION Hanoi is a city absorbing the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, at the forefront of the movement away from an agrarian economy. Hanoi faces extreme traffic congestion, air and water pollution, insufficient infrastructure, and too expensive property sprawling in its immediate hinterland. Hanoi is also an unbelievably energetic, adaptive and innovative city. Its architecture is endlessly interesting, from the Do-It-Yourself appendages to socialist-era mass housing to its new towers to its Tube Houses (old and new). We want to harness Hanoi’s resources for a vision for 2050.

The competition brief asks for a high density cluster at, or even over the edge of the city, beyond the 4th ring road. We think that for any urbanism proposal to be successful, it needs to address Hanoi’s combination of needs by absorbing pressure at various points in the region, creating a network of new developments that looks 30 years into the future rather than at the next property bubble. Ultimately, any plan must enable the growth of Hanoi from a city of 3 million to a metropolitan region of 11 million.

Hanoi is surrounded by agricultural land, but the concept of “harvesting” needs to be extended beyond the production of food. For Hanoi, ‘Harvesting’ applies to essentially every resource – from food to energy to education to transportation – that is required, consumed, and produced by the city. This idea requires a masterplan for the entire region that looks not just at the idea that “Everyone Harvests” but of everything.

AIRPORT CITY

HUB CITY AGRICULTURAL CITY

UNIVERSITY CITY

1

Vertical Cities Asia


HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1

2


2. SITE CONDITIONS

Ultimate hinterland - the site presents a ragbag of booming villages, abandoned developments, rich agriculture...

TRICON TOWERS _NEW DEVELOPMENT

SPLENDORA _NEW DEVELOPMENT

HOA LAC

1 km

HA NOI

NAM AN KHANH _NEW DEVELOPMENT

AN KHANH AN THUONG _NEW DEVELOPMENT NAM AN KHANH _NEW DEVELOPMENT

5 km

3

Vertical Cities Asia

The VCA site is characterized by traditional Vietnamese villages (above), agricultural landscapes and new urban developments. A 150-meter wide highway, completed in 2010, cuts through the site (left), connecting the center of Hanoi with the planned University city, Hoa Lac, to the West. Adjacent villages like Van Lung or Phu Vinh (specialized in bamboo crafting) maintain their cultural richness and communal ties even as they undergo their own building boom.


Where development has taken place, it consists of predominantly unfinished large villas, mid-rise apartments, and very long row houses by the side of the road (Splendora, above). While real estate development gained momentum since Doi Moi, making it the most profitable business in Vietnam in 2007, the market has stagnated since 2011. Vietnam now faces oversupply of high end real estate at the same time as having a severe shortage of affordable and social housing.

To gain land for high-end developments like Splendora, agricultural land formerly cultivated by farmers from adjacent villages has been expropriated in recent years. In some cases (above), five years later no development work has begun. It was the sight of eerie ghost towns, uncultivated land and protesting rice farmers, suffering from the expropriation of their agricultural land, which we faced during the site visit, this March.

HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1

4


2. WHAT DOES HANOI NEED? Based on the experience we gained through multiple site visits and a 12-week research period, we defined a set of issues that need to be addressed in their intertwined complexity. A single new development would not be sufficient to cover them‌

5

Vertical Cities Asia

MORE AFFORDABLE HOUSING

MODERNIZED AGRICULTURE

According to the Ministry of Construction, the municipal area of Hanoi currently holds an inventory of 5,780 empty apartments, hundreds of villas and townhouses and an estimate of fallow plots totaling 300,000 ha. At the same time 54% of Hanoi’s population has an immediate need for housing, equaling 1.8 million inhabitants. While Vietnam has some of the expensive land prices in the world, ranked 20th, average income is ranked 120th in the world.

While agricultural production contributes 20% to the annual GDP, 48% of the population continues to be employed in the sector. Diversifying their production, farmers increasingly complement their traditional rice paddies with vegetable cultivation. Vegetable production is less labor intensive, higher in yields and income per hectare. Farmers in the Hanoi region cultivate a variety of vegetables, fruit, and fish as well as rice. As plots remain small, around 360 m2, use of mechanization is rare. Some farmers use animals such as cattle or buffalo, while very few use small tractors, often shared between several farm households. Most of the farmers cultivate their land in the traditional labor intensive way.


SCOOTER-FREE MOBILITY

TRANSPORT

CLEAN ENERGY

Vietnam’s current mobility infrastructure is inadequate to meet the rapidly growing demands placed upon it. While the density of Vietnam’s road network is higher than in other southeast Asian countries, the quality of infrastructure in Vietnam was ranked 119th out of 144 countries in 2012. One of the challenges that the transport sector in Vietnam faces is the road fatalities caused by the increased use of scooters, which clog both roads and (when parked) sidewalks. The number of motorcycles in Vietnam has exploded from 18.3 per 1,000 people in 1990 to 223.4 units per 1,000 people in 2006, when 95% of all registered vehicles are motorcycles.

Food marketing channels for raw food can be classified into traditional and modern distribution systems. The traditional system runs from producer to wholesale units (i.e. assemblers, transporters, wholesalers, etc.) to retail units (i.e. small traders, market retailers, small shops and street vendors). The modern distribution system runs from producer to wholesalers and processors to supermarkets to consumers. The traditional marketing system prevails in Hanoi. Food supply and distribution activities are an important source of income, particularly for poor urban households and seasonal migrants.

In 2005, EVN (Electricity Of Vietnam) reported that 2 million households, 12% of the country, had no access to electricity. As energy consumption increases in tandem with economic growth, Vietnam stopped exporting energy, particularly fossil fuels, in 2010. Energy demands annually increase by 17%, due to the supply shortages of electricity in rural areas. To meet the demands, energy imports, predominantly from China and Laos, are annually growing. Alternative and renewable energy sources, hence, have the potential to play an increasingly important role in Vietnam.

HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1

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Vertical Cities Asia


HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1

8


3. PERKINS EASTMAN HA NOI MASTER PLAN 2030 or energy plan to support the sustainable growth of the cities, and aspects such as Vietnamese urban life, housing, and cultural specificities.

We launched our work not by starting from scratch, but by studying the regional masterplan already in place for Hanoi, designed by the US American and Korean consortium Posco-Perkins and Eastman-Jina (PPJ) in 2008 (and commissioned by the Ministry of Construction). To relieve pressure on central Hanoi, Perkins Eastman propose a series of satellite cities. The location of the new cities is based on geotechnical and environmental studies, focusing on flood security and agricultural land preservation. According to Paul Buchhurst of Perkins Eastman, certain components were not studied: a financial

These are the exact areas – infrastructure and housing – where Hanoi’s need is greatest, and where we choose to elaborate the existing plan. Perkins Eastman’s masterplan proposes an ideal distribution of population and resources to meet Hanoi’s ambitions of becoming an economic gateway with a population of 11 million by 2050. We suggest complementing their plan

with an economic strategy, the detailing of several satellite cities (two of them in new locations), and a regional concept of agricultural diversity and elements specific to the Vietnamese urban quality of life.

Di Thai Nguyn Di Bac Ninh

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

275

Di Phu Tho Di Vinh Yen

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

275

Me Linh

230 Di Lang Son

Dong Anh

Son Tay

220

60 HANOI

589

1.500

Gia Lam

HANOI

60

Hoa Lac Hoa Lac

Di Bac Ninh

2.200

730 Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

60

Di Hai Phong

Xuan Mal Di Tp Hoa Binh

Xuan Mal

Phu Xayen

275 Phu Xayen

1 km

2

3

4

5

6

Masterplan model

Di Tay Bac

Population distribution

Hanoi urban core

≥ 10.000 people/ km�

Expansion of the core.

6.000 - 8.000 people/ km� 5.000 - 6.000 people/ km� 4.000 - 5.000 people/ km�

Administrative center - satellite Eco towns

Di Phu Ly

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

< 4.000 people/ km�

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Urban growth model - Satellite Cities & Eco Towns

Population distribution - satellite cities take a major part of the burden away from central Hanoi

Di Thai Nguyn Di Bac Ninh

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen Di Phu Tho Di Vinh Yen

Re d

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Di Lang Son

riv er

Ba Vi national park HANOI

HANOI

Di Bac Ninh

Hoa Lac

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Di Hai Phong Di Tp Hoa Binh

Xuan Mal

Phu Xayen

1 km

2

3

4

5

6

Di Tay Bac

Di Phu Ly

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Proposed greenbelt - eprotecting agricultural land for traditional farming.

9

Vertical Cities Asia

Mobility & Transport Network - connectivity of satellite towns

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh


PERKINS EASTMAN HANOI VISION 2030 TO 2050

Ambitions for Hanoi until 2050 1. Ease of population & traffic congestion 2. Facilitate population increase of 4.5 million 3. Preserve 70% of Hanoi’s metropolitan area as agricultural land Paul Buckhurst, principal designer

1 km

2

3

4

5

6

Trade, commercial use Healtcare (commercial) Land for religious use, “protected religious landscape” Preserved village

Freeway

Redeveloped villages

Highway

Urbanisedcity areas

Main roads

New development areas for residential function

Road

City core, old city districts

Bridge

City center, mixed function city districs

One level overpass

Education and technology Old villages Parks, urbanised green public space

Four level overpass High speed rail New road direction

Sport and recreation function

Airport

Flood areas, vast green structures of the city

Speed boat terminal

Mountain area

Main port (passengers and cargo)

Mountain area

Cargo port

Agriculture land

Passenger port

Water structures

Tram station

Industrial land

Bus stop Station

Forest land

Parking

Cemetery

Administrative boundaries

Infrastructure

Masterplan boundaries

HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1 10


4. HANOI VISION 2050 TU DELFT INFRASTRUCTURAL MASTERPLAN FOR RED RIVER DELTA REGION Following Perkins Eastman’s design strategy of using satellite cities to absorb a population increase of 11 million by 2050, the goal of our masterplan is to support Hanoi’s urban and economic expansion through an extensive infrastructural network, allowing for a maximum of agricultural land to be

preserved. The masterplan proposes a hierarchy of networks, complementing existing infrastructure with new ways of connecting the center of Hanoi with its satellite cities. The masterplan further extends the Chinese high speed train network into Vietnam, placing Hanoi as a hub for southeast Asia. The densification of the urban expansion areas, as proposed by Perkins Eastman, discourages urban sprawl and sustains the agricultural land. Along main transport arteries, we propose a duality of regional industrialization and agricultural activity.

THAI NGUYEN

VINH YEN PROVINCE

LANG SON

KUNG MING (CHINA)

VINH YEN

SOC SON

HANOI AIRPORT HS

SON TAY

PHUC THO

HA PR

HANOI

HANOI EAST AIRPORT IS

QUOC OAI

HANOI WEST HS

HOA LAC PHO NOI

HAI DUO

CHUC SON

THANH OAI

HAI DUO PROVIN

PHU XUYEN

PHU LY

11 Vertical Cities Asia

HO CHI MINH CITY

HUNG YEN PROVINCE


HANOI

Perkins Eastman infrastructural proposal

HUB CITY

TU Delft further development

Metro network becomes iconic infrastructure

HA LONG

AI DUONG ROVINCE

ONG HAI PHONG

INFRASTRUCTURE MASTERPLAN OF RED RIVER DELT

ONG NCE

LEGEND BORDERS HANOI REGION OTHER REGIONS

RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE HIGH SPEED LINE INTERCITY LINE METRO LINE TRAIN STOPS METRO STOPS

ROAD STRUCTURE

SOUTH CHINA SEA

MAIN HIGHWAYS ROADS OF SECONDARY IMPORTANCE

AREAS URBANISED AREA SMART TECH AGRICULTURE AREA HIGH PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURE AREA

OTHER HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION IN AIRPORT

HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1 12


HARVEST NETWORKS

AGRICULTURE -LOCAL The agricultural network proposes to increase agricultural productivity by means of a diversification and modernization of techniques. Traditional agriculture, maintained within Perkins Eastmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s green belt, is complemented with high-production and smart-tech agricultural zones, located along train lines, roads and waterways linking Hanoi with the harbor of Haiphong.

HIGH PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE

TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE

13 Vertical Cities Asia

SMART TECH AGRICULTURE


MOBILITY & TRANSPORT - REGIONAL The proposed transport network extends existing infrastructure, connecting the industrial and agricultural productivity zones of the Red River Delta. The creation of satellite towns will increase the need for a multilayered public transit system. To compete with the popularity of the scooter, which lies in its inherent freedom and flexibility, the mobility network proposes a supplementing system of Metro, Light Rail, Inter City and High Speed trains.

THAI NGUYEN

LANG SON

KUNG MING (CHINA)

HANOI AIRPORT HS

HA LONG

HANOI EAST AIRPORT IS

HANOI WEST HS

HO CHI MINH CITY

ENERGY - NATIONAL We propose an energy network that extends the existing and planned power plant grid. Considering agricultural and industrial zones, we define strategic locations for renewable energy plants, such as wind parks and solar fields, efficient in production, storage and transportation.

KUMMING (CHINA) 6 430 000

HANOI

6 500 000

HO CHI MINH CITY

HO CHI MINH 6 420 000

EXISTING CONNECTIONS AND INDUSTRIAL LAND 10 km 50 km

150 km

300 km

HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1 14


CREDITS Design Report 01 July 2013 Delft University of Technology c/o Faculty of Architecture Delft, Netherlands Vertical Cities Asia 2013 Everyone Harvests Hanoi, Vietnam Studio Leader Mitesh Dixit Department of Architecture Delft University of Technology Netherlands Studio Mentors James Westcott Department of Architecture Delft University of Technology Henco Bekkering Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology Luisa Calabresse Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology Stef Bogaerds - Teaching Assistant Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology Students Joost Noorden - Netherlands Brendan Bakker - Netherlands Jaewoo Lee - South Korea Alise Jekabsone - Latvia Pim Schachtschabel - Netherlands Marten Reijnen - Netherlands Vaidotas Vaiciulis - Lithuania Donatas Baltrusaitis - Lithuania Emilia Bruck - Austria Jonian Silaj - Greece Tomas Kalinauskas - Lithuania Wouter van Faassen - Netherlands Michael Cerrone - Netherlands Saskia van Eijk - Netherlands Contacts Delft University of Technology c/o Faculty of Architecture Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, Netherlands National University of Singapore School of Design and Environment c/o Department of Architecture 4 Architecture Drive Singapore 117566 Republic of Singapore

CP 17 Vertical Cities Asia

Complex Projects Chair: Prof.ir Kees Kaan


HANOI VISION 2050 PART 1 18


TECHNICAL INDEX I. SITE RESEARCH II. ANALYSIS PERKINS EASTMAN HANOI VISION 2050 III. RANDSTAD CASE STUDY IV. VCA HANOI VISION 2050

Vertical Cities Asia


Technical Index Masterplan


I. SITE RESEARCH The 2030 masterplan is a plan to accommoÂŹdate a 70% population increase by 2050. Hanoi is already straining under the burden of its current population: densifying in the center, sprawling in the hinterland, wearing out the infrastructure. Services like power and (sewÂŹage) water treatment are now already inadequate; without intervention, the situation will be dire in 10-20 years. Perkins Eastman try to distribute this urban pressure across the existing city and new satellites. At the same time it proposes to keep parts of the urban area open to provide a more

An Khanh An Thuong - on hold.

Vertical Cities Asia

livable environment; an opportunity many Chinese cities forgot to take in the last decade. To connect the different cores and to give an alternative for the use of scooters a light rail system and metro system are proposed and partly under construction. New ring roads ease the traffic in the city core and support the new city districts and satellites.

Nam An Khanh Residential-commercial project unfinished and abandoned.

Tricon Towers - with only the structure complete, these three apartment blocks stand abandoned within Splendora.

Splendora - First phase complete

Nam An Khanh - Commercial and financial development; currenly abandoned.


Rice fields separate Splendora from existing village.

Unfinished, abandoned housing (separate from Splendora project).

Unlike ponds in villages, this large pond currently has no use.

Apartment blocks almost finished; most units have sold.

Villas almost completed; 100% have owners.

Next to the villas - terraced houses.

Agricultural land separates Splendora from existing village. Ring road under construction.

Old cemetery next to new ring road.

Splendora management office.

Old pagoda in front of Splendora administrative building.

Phu Vinh village.

Villas adjacent to terraced houses.

Technical Index Masterplan


Foundations of An Khanh An Thuong residential neighborhood.

Pond in Nam An Khanh with leisure elements.

Curvy street in Nam An Khanh.

Pagoda in Phu Vinh village.

The typical house of the Phu Vinh village.

The glass tower confronts its environment.

Land prepared for ring road still.

The village specialises in bamboos, rattan and bonsai trees.

Land has been bought by the state; villagers reconstruct their houses using money recieved for the land.

Some buildings are significantly bigger.

The primary school in Phu Vinh village.

Abandoned row houses along the road.

Vertical Cities Asia


Vast agricultural land

Song Phuong village

Dyke road in “Ghost city.”

Pond on the edge of Nam An Khanh.

The old cemetery of Song Phuong village

The small patch of agricultural land

“Ghost city”

Trees planted before housing.

ing road under constructuon

The street separates Nam An Khanh and Phu Vinh village

Unfinished structure, Nam An Khanh.

Splendora management office

Pond in the center of Splendora project

Pond in Phu Vinh village

Varying architectural styles within the village.

Almost finished villas in Splendora

The pond on the edge of Splendora

Abandoned high rise buildings in the north of Nam An Khanh

Phu Vinh village on Hanoi-Hoa Lac highway.

Industrial land with Mieu Nha village

Brick factory in the North An Khanh.

Hanoi Hoa Lac highway

Technical Index Masterplan


II. ANALYSIS PERKINS EASTMAN HANOI VISION 2050 The 2030 master plan is a plan to accommodate growth. The population of Vietnam is rapidly expanding (up to 40% by 2050) and is placing an enormous pressure on the existing urban centers. Currently uncontrolled densification of the existing districts is taking more and more extreme form. The consequence is that the existing infrastructure can not keep up with the pace of the population growth of the city. Services like power and (sewage) water treatment are now already inadequate, 275 so imagine it in 10 to 20 years.

In the master plan the designers try to distribute this urban pressure over the existing city and new satellites. At the same time it proposes to keep parts of the urban area open to provide a more livable environment; an opportunity many Chinese cities forgot to take in the last decade. To connect the different cores and to give an alternative for the use of scooters a light rail system and metro system are proposed and partly under Diconstruction. Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen New ring roads ease the traffic in the city core and Di Phu Tho the new city districts and satellites. support Di Vinh Yen

POPULATION

275

ROAD NETWORK

Di Thai Nguyn

Di Bac Ninh

589 2.200

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

Di Vinh Yen

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Lang Son

60

220

Di Lang Son

Di Hai Phong

589

1.500 HANOI

60

Di Bac Ninh

2.200

HANOI

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Hoa Lac

730 Di Hai Phong

60

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Di Hai Phong

275

Xuan Mal

Di Hai Phong

Di Bac Ninh

Xuan Mal

Di Hai Phong Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Bac Ninh

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Hoa Lac

60

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Gia Lam

HANOI

Di Phu Tho

275

730

Dong Anh

Di Thai Nguyn

1.500

275

60

Di Lang Son

220

Di Bac Ninh

Di Phu Tho

Hoa Lac

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Son Tay

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

230

Di Bac Ninh

Me Linh

230 60

Di Vinh Yen

Di Thai Nguyn

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Xuan Mal

Phu Xayen 275 1 km

5

Phu Xayen

10

1 km

5

10

Phu Xayen 1 km

2

1 km

3

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1 km

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Population distribution Population distribution

Di Tay Bac

Population distribution 1 km

Di Tay Bac

2

3

4

5

6

≥ 10.000 people/ km�

Highway

≥ 10.000 people/ km�

6.000 - 8.000 people/ km� 5.0006.000 - 6.000 people/ km�people/ - 8.000 4.000 - 5.000 people/ km�

km� 5.000 - 6.000 people/ km� < 4.000 people/ km� 4.000 - 5.000 people/ km�

Di Phu Ly

Di Tay Bac

Main road Park way Express way

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Phu Ly

population in map x 1000

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

RAILWAY

METRO Di Thai Nguyn

Di Thai Nguyn

Di Bac Ninh

Di Bac Ninh

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

Di Phu Tho Di Vinh Yen

Di Phu Tho

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Di Vinh Yen

Me Linh

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Me Linh

Son Tay

Son Tay

Di Lang Son

Di Lang Son

Dong Anh

HANOI

Dong Anh

Gia Lam

HANOI

Gia Lam

Di Bac Ninh

Di Bac Ninh

Hoa Lac

Hoa Lac

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Di Hai Phong

Di Hai Phong Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Xuan Mal

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Xuan Mal

Phu Xayen

1 km 1 km

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Metro scheme Population distribution

Di Tay Bac

Population distribution

Movement of people Highway Main road Light rail Park way Express way Express bus

Di Phu Ly

routs High speed rail UMRT inner city network

Line 1 Highway Main road Line 2 Park way Line 3 Express way Line 4

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tay Bac

Di Phu Ly

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

WATER MANAGEMENT

GREEN STRUCTURE Di Thai Nguyn Di Thai Nguyn

Di Bac Ninh Di Bac Ninh

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen

Di Phu Tho

Di Vinh Yen

Di Phu Tho

Di Vinh Yen

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Di Quang Ninh

Me Linh

Di Vinh Yen

Me Linh

Me Linh Son Tay Son Tay

Re d

Di Lang Son Dong Anh

Son Tay

Dong Anh

Di Lang Son

Dong Anh

riv er

Ba Vi national park

Gia Lam HANOI

Hoa Lac

Gia Lam

HANOI

Gia Lam

Di Bac Ninh Di Bac Ninh

HANOI

Hoa Lac Di Tp Hoa Binh

Hoa Lac Di Hai Phong

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong Di Hai Phong Di Tp Hoa Binh Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Xuan Mal

Xuan Mal

Xuan Mal

Phu Xayen Phu Xayen Phu Xayen

Masterplan model 1 km

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5 1 km

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Hanoi urban core

Surface water plant Expansion of the core. Di Tay Bac Surface water plant planned Surface water plant Administrative center - satellite Di Tay Bac Groundwater waterplant plantplanned Surface Eco towns Ground water plant planned Ground water plant Groundwater waterplant pumping station Ground planned

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Di Phu Ly

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

< 4.000 people/ km�

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Di Phu Ly Di Phu Ly

Ground water pumping station Di Tp Ho Chi Minh Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Vertical Cities Asia

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

HANOI

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh


â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Masterplan does not have a financial strategy or a housing model. The satellite cities are placed based on geological research data, however we did not have enough resources to design a comprehensive transport model. We also did not focus on sustainable energy resources while improving new energy grid.â&#x20AC;?

HANOI Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Paul Buckhurst, principal designer for Hanoi masterplan Perkins and Eastman.

PPJ Perkins Eastman Architects Posco E&C JINA Architects IN ASSOCIATION WITH

Vietnam Institute of Architecture, Urban and Rural Planning Hanoi Urban Planning Institute

Copyright 2011 Perkins Eastman. All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written consent of Perkins Eastman. Illustration and photography by BFJ Planning, Paul Buckhurst, and L. Bradford Perkins unless otherwise noted.

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2/2/2011 11:37:02 AM

Technical Index Masterplan


III. RANDSTAD CASE STUDY The Greater Hanoi region is comparable to the Randstad, in southern Netherlands, both in urban structure and population. The Randstad consists of four major cities in the Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Den Haag. Although every city has its own identity, economy and culture, and are within a considerable distance from each other, they function as one urban network. The reason for this is the elaborate train system which provides multiple connections

and mobility possibilities. Originally a vast green area(almost 40% of the Randstad area) was intended to be preserved in the core of Randstad. However, maintaining the structure became rather difficult due to the sprawl of urban areas. The train network in Randstad consists of three types of trains: high speed, providing international connections; intercity trains, and commuter trains providing connections between the smallest urban areas.

RANDSTAD

RANDSTAD RAILWAY NETWORK

ZWOLLE

AMSTERDAM

ZWOLLE

AMSTERDAM SHIPHOL

AMSTERDAM

SHIPHOL

AMERSFOORT

AMERSFOORT

LEIDEN

LEIDEN UTRECHT

DEN HAAG

DEN HAAG

DEN HAAG

UTRECHT

UTRECHT

ROTTERDAM

DELFT ROTTERDAM

DELFT

ROTTERDAM

RANDSTAD

HANOI

RANDSTAD

AREA & POPULATION 15 km

45 km

15 km

RANDSTAD

HANOI

Randstad: 8300 km²; 7 mln inhabitants

Hanoi: 3300 km²; 11 mln inhabitants (2050).

4300 km² GREEN HEART VS. BELT 15 km

45 km

190 km²

RANDSTAD

4300 km²

45 km

1 km

Randstad: “Green heart” - 40% of the whole randstad area.

30 km

60 km

1 km

Hanoi: Green belt - 70% of Great Hanoi area.

Vertical Cities Asia

GREEN HEART

GREEN BELT

GREEN HEART

30 km


RAILWAY NETWORK 45 km

15 km

HANOI Randstad - Elaborate train network with 3 types of train (sprinter, intercity and high speed).

RANDS

Hanoi - new masterplan introduce light rail to connect the city with satellites and metro.

RANDSTAD

HIGHWAY NETWORK 45 km

15 km

1 km

30 km

60 km

1 km

30 km

AMST Di Thai Nguyn Di Bac Ninh

AMSTERDAM

Di Lao Cai Di Vinh Yen Di Phu Tho

Di Vinh Yen

Di Quang Ninh

Di Vinh Yen

Me Linh

Son Tay Dong Anh

LEIDEN

LEIDEN

Di Lang Son

Gia Lam HANOI

Di Bac Ninh

DEN HAAG

Hoa Lac

DEN HAAG

UTRECHT

Di Tp Hoa Binh

Di Hai Phong

Di Hai Phong Di Tp Hoa Binh

Xuan Mal

ROTTERDAM

ROTTERDAM

Phu Xayen

1 km

6

12 km

Di Tay Bac

Highway Main road

Di Phu Ly

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Di Tp Ho Chi Minh

Randstad - Elaborate higway system circles around the city without entering it.

Hanoi - new highway system allowes heavy traffic roads enter the city center.

Park way Express way

CONNECTIVITY VISION HANOI

5.

4.

3. 2.

1.

The main conclusion from the comparison of Hanoi and Randstad is that to maintain a dispersed urban system we will first of all have to increase the building densities to preserve open green space and provide connectivity opportunities to connect the cities into one urban entity. If we maintain the densities proposed by the Perkins Eastman masterplan the city would sooner or later face urban sprawl. In order to prevent this we decided to increase the Perkins Eastman densities in accordance with the VCA competition requirements. In this way a dispersed urban system could ease the stress in the center of Hanoi as well as maintaining the 70% of the area for preservation of the Hanoi green belt agricultural area.

1. Hanoi 2. Hub City 3. Agricultural City - VCA site 4. University City 5. Airport City.

1 km

5 km

15 km

30 km

Technical Index Masterplan


IV. VCA HANOI VISION 2050 DENSIFICATION One of the main ideas of the new masterplan is to preserve 70% of Greater Hanoi for agriculture. If we map the population growth and densities against the Perkins Eastman masterplan, the result would be the exact urban sprawl that they hope to

URBAN SPRAWL 1 km

5 km

15 km

ąčą30

Masterplan boundary Green belt Current urbanised areas

Vertical Cities Asia

avoid. The purpose of the densification strategy is to pick the right densities for Hanoi in order to preserve the agricultural land and stop urban sprawl. We developed building blocks with different densities. Mixing these different blocks allows us to densify the urban structure while maintaining program requirements and building regulations.


Total program GFA: 2 500 000 m²; Plot: 10.100 m², 50 plots; Plot GFA: 30 000 m²; FAR: 3.

2020 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

Total program GFA: 2 500 000 m²; Plot: 10.100 m², 50 plots; Plot GFA: 30 000 m²; FAR: 3.

Total program GFA: 2 500 000 m²; Plot: 10.100 m², 50 plots; Plot GFA: 50 000 m²; FAR: 5.

2030 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

Total program GFA: 2 500 000 m²; Plot: 10.100 m², 50 plots; Plot GFA: 60 000 m²; FAR: 6.

2050 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

Total program GFA: 2 500 000 m²; Plot: 10.100 m², 50 plots; Plot GFA: 70 000 m²; FAR: 7.

Technical Index Masterplan


MOBILITY

THAI NGUYEN

2 6

2

6

26

6

SECTION A 1

SECTION A

GUYEN

THAI NGUYEN

2

NH

NH

NH CITY

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH 6

2

6

26

6

SECTION A 1 6

2 6

2

6

26

6

26

2

6

6

SECTION A

SECTION A

3

6

SECTION B

6

2

SECTION A 1

3

12

6

26

6

3

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH

SECTION B 2

THAI NGUYEN

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH 3

3

6

3

3

12

3

3

12

SECTION B 6

2

SECTION B

6

26

6

SECTION A 1 3 6

2

6

26

SECTION A

6

3

12

6

SECTION B

1,5

3

1,5

3

SECTION C

6

2

6

26

6

SECTION C B

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH

6

6

1,5

3

SECTION C

1,5

SECTION C 3

6

12

3

3

12

3

3

SECTION B

SECTION B

1,5

Vertical Cities Asia

HO CHI MINH CITY

3

1,5

SECTION C

3

1,5

1,5

11 1,5

1,5 11

1,5

6


SECTION A 2

BAC NINH

NINH

6

2

6

26

6

SECTION A 1

SECTION A

THAI NGUYEN

3

6

3

12

SECTION B

NINH

6

2

6

26

BAC NINH

2

6

6

26

2

6

6

26

SECTION A 1

6

SECTION B SECTION A 2 6

SECTION A

3

6

6

3

12

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH

SECTION B

1,5

THAI NGUYEN

3

6

3

SECTION B

1,5

3

12

3

SECTION B

SECTION C

6

2

6

26

3

12

3

SECTION B

SECTION C

2

6

6

26

6

2

6

6

26

6

6

SECTION A 1

SECTION A

1,5

1,5

3

3

1,5

6

SECTION A 2

BAC NINH

1,5

SECTION C

SECTION C

SECTION C

SECTION C 1,5

HO CHI MINH CITY 3

6

12

3

SECTION B

11

1,5

SECTION D

3

3

3

12

3

SECTION D

SECTION B

SSING THE CITY 15 km

3

30 km

HO CHI MINH CITY 1,5

1,5

1,5

11

1,5

11

SECTION D SECTION D

ROSSING THE CITY 15 km

30 km

1,5

HO CHI MINH CITY 1,5

3

11

1,5

1,5

6

SECTION D

SECTION C

SSING THE CITY 15 km

SECTION D

SECTION C

30 km

HO CHI MINH CITY

1,5

11

1,5

1,5

11

1,5

SECTION D

SECTION D

SSING THE CITY 15 km

30 km

Technical Index Masterplan


PORT CONNECTIVITY One of the main goals of the new masterplan of Hanoi is to create an economically strong region that could compete with main industrial area in Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh city. Hanoi’s capital region can also be strengthened by making a stronger connection with Hai Phong, Vietnam’s largest sea port, and industrial city of Hai Duong, which is in the middle between these two cities.

KUMMING (CHINA) 6 430 000

KUMMING (CHINA) 6 430 000

NANNING (CHINA) 6 660 000

THAI NGUYEN 330 000

QINZHOU (CHINA) 3 500 000

HANOI

6 500 000

HANOI

6 500 000

Hai Phong 1 880 000

VIENTIANE (LAOS) 750 000

VIENTIANE (LAOS) 750 000

Number of industrial zones 21-40

Legenda: Existing railway

11-30

Proposed link

4-10 1-3

HO CHI MINH CITY 6 420 000

HO CHI MINH CITY 6 420 000

CAN THO 1 200 000

EXISTING CONNECTIONS AND POPULATION

EXISTING CONNECTIONS AND INDUSTRIAL LAND

10 km 50 km

10 km 50 km

150 km

300 km

CITIES IN RED RIVER DELTA HAI DUONG - BIGGEST INDUSTRIAL TOWN IN RRD

HAI PHONG - BIGGEST SEA PORT IN VIETNAM...

35 km

50 km +50 km

HAI DUONG

Vertical Cities Asia

150 km

300 km


VINH YEN PROVINCE

VINH YEN

SOC SON

HANOI AIRPORT HS

SON TAY

PHUC THO

HAI DUONG PROVINCE

HANOI

HANOI EAST AIRPORT IS

QUOC OAI

INFRASTRUCTURE MASTERPLAN OF RED RIVER DELTA

HANOI WEST HS

HOA LAC PHO NOI

HAI DUONG

CHUC SON

HAI PHONG

BORDERS HANOI REGION OTHER REGIONS

THANH OAI

RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE

HAI DUONG PROVINCE

HIGH SPEED LINE INTERCITY LINE METRO LINE

PHU XUYEN

HUNG YEN PROVINCE

TRAIN STOPS METRO STOPS

ROAD STRUCTURE MAIN HIGHWAYS ROADS OF SECONDARY IMPORTANCE

AREAS URBANISED AREA SMART TECH AGRICULTURE AREA HIGH PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURE AREA

PHU LY

OTHER

SOUTH CHINA SEA

HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION IN AIRPORT

1 km

5 km

15 km

30 km

PRIMARY & SECONDARY ROAD NETWORK

HIGHWAY NETWORK

INDUSTRIAL AREAS

HAI PHONG

Technical Index Masterplan


metropolitan

population

TRANSPORT

metropolitan

6 million

65 %

population

11

40 % urban

urban

million

source: Labbe, B. (2010) Facing the urban transition in Hanoi: recent urban planning issues and initiatives

with Ho Chi Minh City and China to the north. We are proposing high speed train stops in Hanoi in the central part of the city (Hub City) and at the new airport. We also proposing using the Randstad train system as a model for a new train network electric with intercity train lines connecting major cities and “sprinter” train lines to connect satellite cities with Hanoi. mass

m ob ilit y

air po llu by tra tion ffic

20 x 10

2013

fo ss 2050

1950

ty

GOAL 2050

i ric

l

Reduce air pollution by traffic & increas mobility

ct

e el

2013

Become less dependent on fossile fuels & produce more electricity

2050

9

7.5 7.5

10 10

bus

5 5bicyclebicycle private private car car 5

10 10

5

10 10

trolley bus trolley bus GOAL 20502050 walkingwalking GOAL

PROBLEMS: PROBLEMS:

CONGESTION CONGESTION & & walkingwalking AIR POLUTION AIR POLUTION

15 x 10

ELECTRIC ELECTRIC VEHICLES VEHICLES & RAPID & RAPID TRANSIT TRANSIT

6565 %%

37% 37% 3535 %% electricelectric transit transit scooterscooter

scooterscooter

TRANSIT

35%

9

metro

25%

9

5 x 10

15%

6 million6 million

metropolitan metropolitan

car

1111

40 %40 % urban

urban

1950

source: Labbe, source: B. (2010) Labbe, Facing B. (2010) the urban Facing transition the urban in transition in Hanoi: recentHanoi: urbanrecent planning urban issues planning and initiatives issues and initiatives

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

1986

2010

Doi Moi

ENERGY PLANTS ENERGY PLANTS

Become Become less dependent less dependent on fossile onfuels fossile & fuels & produce produce more electricity more electricity

fo ss fo ile f ss ue ile l fu el

y

ilit

y

ob

ilit

Reduce air Reduce pollution air pollution by trafficby & traffic & increas mobility increas mobility

m

m

ob

air po llu by tra tion ffic air po llu by tra tion ffic

300

busses become CO2 Emission busses become electric electric (g/passenger-km)

scooter becomes scooter becomes affordable250 toaffordable the to the

massmass 200

20502050

150

19501950 20132013

20502050

train

% modal share x travelled km

% modal share x travelled km

10 x 10

9

tram

9 150 x 10 Pedestrian

Bike

Conventional

Tram

BRT

Motorcycle

Metro

TRANSIT TRANSIT

Motor car

9

35% 35% LRT

300

CO2 Emission (g/passenger-km)

Suitable distance for High Speed Rail: 250km-900km

Selection criterion. 1 Relation speed and distance Selection criterion. 2 CO2 Emission & Space consumption

250

Minimum distance for Intercity Rail: 50km

City boundary of Hanoi: 10km

metro

Suitable travel time for GOAL GOAL 20502050 Bike(5km): 15min

train tram

PROVIDE PROVIDE TRANSIT TRANSIT Pedestrian(1km): 12min 50 AS ANAS ALTERNATIVE AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE FORSCOOTER THE SCOOTER

metro IR

0

HSR

Pedestrian

GOAL GOAL 20502050

Bike

Conventional Bus

MAKEMAKE ALL THE ALL THE1km 5km SCOOTERS SCOOTERS AND BUSSES AND BUSSES Metro station electric scooter electric scooter ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ELECTRIC ELECTRIC 10 x 10

25% 25%

9

Hoan Kiem

electric bus electric bus

Tram

BRT

No extra space on the ground

Motorcycle

Metro

taxi

taxi

car

car

bicycle

bicycle

CARBON CARBON FUELFUEL

5 x 10

9

1km

bus

15% 15%

Metro station

19501950 M

1960 1970

1970 1980

1980 1990

1990 2000

19861986 Doi MoiDoi Moi

1km

2000 2010

2020 2030

20132013

20km

GOAL GOAL 20502050

2030 2040

50km

HSR

200km

Hai Doung

Hai Phong

Source: Urban transport in the developing world, 2011 / UK department of environment, 2011 / Asian development bank

GOAL GOAL 20502050

70min

HS

Metro is a important link to travel

2040

20502050

50km 2016 first 2016 metrofirst metro

10km

LRT

2010 2020

10km

Hoa Lac

REDUCE REDUCE CARBON CARBON FUEL FUEL EMISSION EMISSION BY BY AT LEAST AT LEAST 70% 70%

5km

1960

IR

LRT

Airport

MAKEMAKE PEOPLE PEOPLE AWARE AWARE MANMAN POWER POWER Imaginary Suitable distances THAT THAT WALKING WALKING AND AND travel 25% 25% pedestrians pedestriansBIKING from city ARE HEALTY ARE HEALTYcenter for transport BIKING

bus

Motor car

Under 100g/passenger-km of CO2 emission

Source: Urban transport in the developing world, 2011 / UK department of environment, 2011 / Asian development bank

scooter scooter 5 x 10

2016 law to prohibit new non electric scooters

Speed (km/h)

100

50

2050

150

9 9 20 x 10 100 20 x 10

9

2040

200

19501950 20132013

15 x 10

2030

pedestrians

GOAL 2050

MAKE PEOPLE AWARE THAT WALKING AND BIKING ARE HEALTY

2016 first metro

2050 2050 ty ityGOAL GOAL i c c tri ctri c e e el el

GOAL GOAL 2050 2050

2020

2013

a massive need a massive for newneed for new

first metro line first metro line Speed (km/h) is completedis completed

25%

urban urban

million million

introduction introduction of of elctric scooter elctric scooter

MAN POWER

bus

% % 65 65

population population

GOAL 2050

REDUCE CARBON FUEL EMISSION BY AT LEAST 70%

taxi

bicycle

population population

MAKE ALL THE SCOOTERS AND BUSSE ELECTRICAL

electric bus

CARBON FUEL

9

GOAL 2050

electric scooter

ELECTRIC 10 x 10

scooter

metropolitan metropolitan

PROVIDE TRANSIT AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE SCOOTER

tram

% modal share x travelled km

10 10

GOAL 2050

train

3 taxi 3 taxi

private private car car bus

busses become

scooter becomes affordable to the

2050 2050 ? ?

5 taxi 5 taxi

ENERGY PLANTS

GOAL 2050

ile

first metro line is completed

1950

2013 2013

a massive need for new

introduction of elctric scooter

fu e

The purpose of the infrastructure masterplan is to set up the matrix of connections that would connect Hanoi and its satellite cities as well as other strong points in Red river delta. The distances between cities are ideal for rail travel. However the current train system is slow and insufficient. The way to improve it is to introduce high speed train connectionsplit as part modal modal splitof Chinese high speed train network expansion plans. The line would connect Hanoi

2016 law to 2016 prohibit law to new prohibit non electric new non scooters electric scooters

M

50km

IC

13min

20min

LRT

20min

35min

20min

45min

40min

IC 12min 200km

HS

1km

5km

Metro station

Hoan Kiem

Metro station

Vertical Cities Asia

10km

20km

50km

Airport

Hai Doung

Hoa Lac

100km

15min

200km

-5km Nanning

Hai Phong

-1km

10km

20km

Hoan Kiem

Metro station

Train station

Airport

35km

50km

Hoa Lac

Hai Doung

100km

350km

Hai Phong

Nanning


CHINESE HIGH SPEED NETWORK EXPANSION

KUMMING (CHINA)

HANOI (VIETNAM)

VIENTIANE (LAOS)

YANGON (BURMA)

BANGKOK (THAILAND)

Legenda: Existing railway

HO CHI MINH CITY (VIETNAM)

Missing link Spur link

PHNOM PENH (COMBODIA)

KUALA LUMPUR (MALAYSIA)

ASEAN HIGH SPEED TRAIN NETWORK 10 km 50 km

RED RIVER DELTA URBANIZED AREAS

150 km

300 km

HIGH SPEED LINE THAI NGUYEN

LANG SON

KUNG MING (CHINA)

HA LONG

HO CHI MINH CITY

INTERCITY

METRO VINH YEN PROVINCE

VINH YEN

SOC SON

HANOI AIRPORT HS

SON TAY

PHUC THO

HA PR

HANOI

HANOI EAST AIRPORT IS

QUOC OAI

HANOI WEST HS

HOA LAC PHO NOI

HAI DUO

CHUC SON

INTERCITY AND SPRINTER

THANH OAI

HAI DUO PROVIN

PHU XUYEN

HUNG YEN PROVINCE

PHU LY

Technical Index Masterplan


ENERGY The 2030 master plan is a plan to accommodate growth. The population of Vietnam is rapidly expanding (up to 40% by 2050) and is placing an enormous pressure on the existing urban centers. Currently uncontrolled densification of the existing districts is taking an more and more extreme form. The consequence is that the existing infrastructure can not keep up with the pace of the population growth of the city. Services like power and (sewage) water treatment are now already inadequate, so imagine it in 10 to 20 years.

In the master plan the designers try to distribute this urban pressure over the existing city and new satellites. At the same time it proposes to keep parts of the urban area open to provide a more livable environment; an opportunity many Chinese cities forgot to take in the last decade. To connect the different cores and to give an alternative for the use of scooters a light rail system and metro system are proposed and partly under construction. New ring roads ease the traffic in the city core and support the new city districts and satellites.

HOWEVER, WITH DEEP POCkETS, CHINESE POLICY bANKS SUCH AS CHINA DEVELOPMENT BANk AND CHINA EXPORT-IMPORT BANk HAVE OFFERED BILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF CONCESSIONAL LOANS FOR NEW POWER STATIONS IN VIETNAM.

IN RETURN, LARGE CHINESE ENERGY GROUPS SUCH AS DONGFANG ELECTRIC, HARBIN POWER EQUIPMENT AND SHANGHAI ELECTRIC HAVE BEEN AWARDED LUCRATIVE CONTRACTS TO PROVIDE EQUIPMENT AND bUILD POWER STATIONS ACROSS VIETNAM.

A survey by the World Bank has found that Vietnam has wind energy potential capable of producing 513 000 MW annually, ten times the entire national capacity forecast for 2020

Solar potential is 96,000 MW http://en.openei.org/

90% of total biomass is used for household energy needs. (Ministry of Science and

Review of studies on Vietnam hydropower planning shows that total theoretical installation capacity is valued at about 34 000 MW.

Vietnam finds itself located on the world geothermal map, with its capacity expected to be up to 400MW

Technology of Vietnam)

50% of S.Korean’s imported biomass is from Vietnam. http://www.biomass-energy.org/

“Vietnam’s Nuclear Dreams Blossom Despite Doubts” NY Times

Hanoi Power Distribution Sources

AC & DC CURRENCY VISION Hanoi Energy

7535 MW Geothermal +Biomass 15% / 1130 MW

DC

Wind 10% / 750 MW

Solar 20% / 1500 MW

3082 MW 1855 MW

DC

Nuclear 15% / 1130 MW

DC

1130 MW

750 MW

1500 MW

1130 MW

3020 MW

3 Geothermal + 3 Biomass power stations of 200 MW

100 Wind Tourbines of 7,5 MW with a total swept area of 3,2 km²

10 km² of solar panels

A nuclear power plant that proposed in Ky Xuan in Central Vietnam 2 units x 1000 MW

Hydroplants 1.920 MW Hoa Binh + 2.400 MW Son La (in contruction)

AC AC 2011

AC 2020

Vertical Cities Asia

Hydro 40% / 3020 MW

AC 2030

2050


POTTENTIAL ENERGY RESOURCES 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

RENEWABLE RESOURCES Hydro

Major dams with a primary purpose of producing hydroelectric energy

Wind

Potential of wind energy in Vietnam (representing in hours of full power per year) >3000 per year with wind power more than 5 beaufort at the height of 65m

Solar

The most productive areas in terms of average annual soalr energy potential

Geothermal

Locations (geothermal springs and faults) judged as most favorable for geothermal energy production

Biomass

The most productive areas in terms of tons of potential biomass output, such as padi fields, forests, organic waste from farming

OTHER Nuclear

The locations of nuclear power plants planned to operate from 2020.

HOUSEHOLD

Storage

Efficiency Harvesting

COMPRESSED AIR

Wind

Solar

Biomass

RUN LIKE THE WIND FACADE HARVESTING

SCOOTERS ON BATTERY ALGAE PLANT AND WAREHOUSE

SMART DEVICES

Geothermal

HOME BIOMASS CROPS

Waste-to-energy

THERMAL INSULATION

Nuclear/Hydro

COGENERATION

Transportation Management

WIND FARMING TO RESIDENTIAL USE

NATURE ADOPTATION OF ENERGY

SOLAR AGRICULTURE

ENJOY SUN TO THE FULLEST

COMMUNITY MICRO GRID GREEN WORKING PLACES

SMART ADAPTING GROWING ENERGY DEMANDS

TAKE A BATH TOGETHER MATERIAL RECYCLING

FLYWHEELS

HAVE A NICE, NEW & CLEAR DAY

SEMICONDUCTORS - LED ETC.

RENEABLE FUELS BIODIESEL ETC.

SHOW THE ALTERNATIVE USE OF BIOMASS

URBAN POWER FURNITURE SHARE YOUR THERMAL FEELINGS

REUSE, REDUCE, RECYCLE

Environment

HEAT & COOL EXCHANGING

AUTOMATIC WASTE COLLECTING SYSTEM

ELECTRISED MOOD

SMART ENERGY CONTROL

WASTE YOURSELF TO LIFE

LOCAL SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS

BIOREMEDIATION NEIGHBORHOOD FOOD WASTE COLLECTING

WATER IMPOUNDING

RAIL TO HOUSE

HARVESTING COEXISTENCE

CARBON SEQUESTRATION

FAST ENERGY DEMAND RESPONSE HYDRO TOURISM

FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULBS

Technical Index Masterplan


Capacity [MW] 0 - 100 100 200 400 800 1600 - 3200 3200 +

Legend Hydro electric 2025 planned hydro electric plant Coal 2025 planned coal plant Natural gas plant 2025 planned natural gas plant Oil plant Nuclear plant Coal Mine Uong Bi area Coal Mine Hon Gai Coal Mine Cam Pha Natural gas field Oil field Existing 500 kV power line 2025 planned 500 kV power line Existing Gas/Oil pipeline 2025 planned Gas/Oil pipeline

0

50

100

150

200

250 km


POTTENTIAL RESOURCES: HYDRO EXISTING ELECTRICITY LINES PLANNED ELECTRICITY LINES EXISTING MAIN SUBSTATIONS PLANNED MAIN SUBSTATIONS

CURRENT AND PLANNED ENERGY GRID 1 km 5 km

15 km

E.P.: 120 MW

30 km

E.P.: 250 MW

E.P.: 750 MW

POP: 76 000 E.D.: 52 MW

E.P.: 300 MW POP: 280 000 E.D.: 192 MW

POP: 150 000 E.D.: 103 MW

POP: 220 000 E.D.: 150 MW

E.P.: 200 MW

E.P.: 750 MW POP: 254 000 E.D.: 174 MW

POP: 720 000 E.D.: 515 MW

E.P.: 150 MW E.P.: 200 MW E.P.: 150 MW E.P.: 1920 MW

POP: 275 000 E.D.: 190 MW

POP: 850 000 E.D.: 582 MW

E.P.: 200 MW POTTENTIAL RESOURCES HYDRO WIND SOLAR GEOTHERMAL BIOMASS PROPOSED LINKS CITIES

POP: 120 000 E.D.: 82 MW POP: 82 000 E.D.: 56 MW

E.P.: 500 MW

NEW ENERGY GRID 1 km 5 km

E.P.: 1000 MW

15 km

Technical Index Masterplan

30 km


AGRICULTURAL LAND USE

Without proper flood control, large swathes of agricultural land are prone to flooding in rainy seasons.

HANOI

HAI PHONG

1 km

5 km

15 km

ąčą30

Masterplan boundary Main higways - agricultural goods distribution lines Current urbanised areas Traditional agriculture area Traditional agriculture area

Vertical Cities Asia


WATER MANAGEMENT

LEGENDA: WATERS

WATERS AND GREEN AREAS 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

Hanoi is located in the Red River Delta, which flows into the South China Sea.

LEGENDA: FLOOD AREAS IN 2008 WATERS EXISTING DIKES

EXISTING DYKE SYSTEM 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

The existing dyke system protects agricultural land from flooding, but is not adequate to the task.

LEGENDA: RIVER FLOOD AREA NEW LAKES EXISTING DIKES

WATER RESOURCE PLAN 1 km 5 km

15 km

30 km

Wider rivers to absorb increased rainfall and inflow from upstream.

Technical Index Masterplan


CP

Complex Projects

Profile for Material Contours

Hanoi Vision 2050  

Hanoi Vision 2050  

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