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B O R D E R S Architecture of Violence

ST U D I O V I O L E N C E B O R D E R J O U R NA L 2 0 1 4 / 2 0 1 5


Borders Issue #1 Architecture of Violence Journal 2014/2015 In Chicago studio from chair Complex Projects is an architectural studio from TU Delft Netherlands, visiting the city of Chicago in Fall 2015.

Graphic Design: DOMAIN Office Typeface: Akzidenz Grotesk Akzidenz Grotesk Light Baskerville Cover image: by Niels Mulder

Editor in Chief: Mitesh Dixit

Paper: Arctic Paper G-Print 130 Bulk 1.0

Art Director: Mitesh Dixit

Printing and Binding: Contributers:

Assistant Editors: Sebastiaan Buitenhuis Sylvie Dorn Reijiro Sawaki Nicki van Loon Niels Mulder Thomas Ponds Luca De Stefano Arjan van Toorenburg Jordy Vos James Westcott Research Team: Sven Jansse Maria Mateljan Hrvoje Ĺ midihen Davi F. Weber

Text Editors: Mitesh Dixit James Westcott

Sponsors:


V I O L E N C E Mitesh Dixit

The Border between the United States & Mexico is one of the most discussed infrastructural border in the world, primary due to the social, economic, and political co-dependency between the United States & Mexico…the obscenely close juxtaposition of wealth & poverty allows for an unprecedented exploitation between two neighbouring states…The absurd proximity to the Other, i.e. $ ◊ a*,has led to the desire to flee…via the territory which divides the two nations…However, Paradoxically, even though the United States is far more dependent on the exploitation of Mexican labour and resources, most American public opinion regarding the territory is rather negative…as to Americans the territory is a symbolic portal for the ‘other’ to ‘escape’ one world and ‘exploit’ another world…thus for Americans the Other, is not an Object of desire… but the Other which represent a threat or imposition… The proposed answer / design to deal with the ‘crisis’ in this region is typical of contemporary American Geo-Politics - use the problem to solve the problem. In this case, it was the reinforcement of Infrastructure… The border between the US & Mexico illustrates how wonderfully ill-equipped and pathetic urbanist, policy makers, architects and architecture is today at dealing with the complexity of our current society…interventions are typically decorative and/or condescending gestures relying on graphics and formal masks and do not examine the core issues which have made such a wall / border possible: we have not asked why does this border or wall even exist? This region, which is discussed and debated with absolute authority, paradoxically, has little documentation illustrating the physical, cultural, economical, and geographical layers of complexity which define the region…. The intent of the studio is not to learn, understand, or make aware, but to simply examine both the hard & soft layers which define the territory between the United States & Mexico.

Foreword


Borders - Architecture of Violence


Borders In Chicago - Architecture Issue #1 of Violence


Borders - Architecture of Violence


Borders - Architecture of Violence


Borders - Architecture of Violence


Borders: Architecture of Violence


C O N T E N T S

Page

Borders: Architecture of Violence

Violence

Forward by Mitesh Dixit

Decline

Ambition by Mitesh Dixit, James Westcott

1

Border Crossing

Essay by James Westcott

3

The Atlas

Project by Studio

49

UTBF Parliament

Project by Sebastiaan Buitenhuis

61

Vocational Collage

Project by Sylvie Dorn

79

ESSAY

TBD

81

Landmark for Justice

Project by Nicki van Loon

99

ESSAY

TBD

101

Arena De Ciudad

Project by Niels Mulder

115

Paso Del Norte

Project by Thomas Ponds

143

ESSAY

TBD

145

The Golden Rush

Project by Luca De Stefano

161

Food Hub

Project by Reijiro Sawaki

187

Cross Border Station

Project by Arjan van Toorenburg

205

ESSAY

TBD

207

El Stadio

Project by Jordy Vos

225

ESSAY

TBD


Mitesh Dixit and James Westcott

“…In order to understand the rationale behind the fortification of the border and the physical form it has taken in recent years, it is necessary to go back a little first. The US-Mexican border, like most borders, was established by violence – and its architecture is the architecture of violence. The US basically invaded Mexico in a pretty brutal war back in the 1840s. The war was described by President-General Ulysses S. Grant, as “the most wicked war in history”. [9] That may be an exaggeration, but it was a pretty wicked war. It was based on deeply racist ideas. First of all, it started with the annexation of Texas, which was called the re-annexation of Texas on the grounds that it was “really ours all along” […], that they stole it from us, and now we have to re-annex it. That took Texas away from Mexico. The rest of the war, and the later historical period, basically involved additional land grabs.” -Noam Chomsky

The Border between the United States & Mexico is one of the most discussed infrastructural border in the world, primary due to the social, economic, and political co-dependency between the United States & Mexico…the obscenely close juxtaposition of wealth & poverty allows for an unprecedented exploitation between two neighbouring states…The absurd proximity to the Other, i.e. $ ◊ a*,has led to the desire to flee…via the territory which divides the two nations…However, Paradoxically, even though the United States is far more dependent on the exploitation of Mexican labour and resources, most American public opinion regarding the territory is rather negative…as to Americans the territory is a symbolic portal for the ‘other’ to ‘escape’ one world and ‘exploit’ another world…thus for Americans the Other, is not an Object of desire… but the Other which represent a threat or imposition… The proposed answer / design to deal with the ‘crisis’ in this region is typical of contemporary American Geo-Politics - use the problem to solve the problem. In this case, it was the reinforcement of Infrastructure… The border between the US & Mexico illustrates how wonderfully ill-equipped and pathetic urbanist, policy makers, architects and architecture is today at dealing with the complexity of our current society…interventions are typically decorative and/or condescending gestures relying on graphics and formal masks and do not examine the core issues which have made such a wall / border possible: we have not asked why does this border or wall even exist? This region, which is discussed and debated with absolute authority, paradoxically, has little documentation illustrating the physical, cultural, economical, and geographical layers of complexity which define the region…. The intent of the studio is not to learn, understand, or make aware, but to simply examine both the hard & soft layers which define the territory between the United States & Mexico.

Violence Borders: Architecture of Violence


2


James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

Border Crossing Borders - Architecture of Violence

1


U N I T E D T R A N S - B O R D E R F E D E R AT I O N Proposing a new agricultural area and architectural program on an existing agricultural strip, Team

THE TRANSBORDER REGION

Del Rio Acuna Population: 0,27 million

El Paso Juarez

CENTRAL EASTERN CORRIDOR

McAllen Reynosa Population: 1,5 million

Tucson Nogales Nogales

Population: 2,7 million

CENTRAL WESTERN CORRIDOR

Population: 4,3 million

Phoenix

Population: 1,21 million

Calexico Mexicali Juma Population: 1,25 million

Los Angeles Tijuana San Diego Population: 6,5 million

PACIFIC CORRIDOR

ATLANTIC CORRIDOR

INTERSTATE 10

BORDER STATE ZONE

BORDER VISA / FREE MOVER ZONE

HIGH SPEED RAILWAY

EXISTING BORDER

BORDER FREE TRADE ZONE

BORDER STATE

The graduation studio of Borders – The violence of architecture concentrates on the border conditions of the border between the United States of America and Mexico. A region with high potentials, but unfortunately known mostly for its negative perceptions, so a hard place for architecture to take its position in this complexity of layers. The problematic situation is visible in all scales, from (lacking) regional government to divided twin-cities on the border. This graduation project focusses on an intervention in the city of Nogales, a twin-city on the border approximately halfway the border line. Nogales has a morphology that shows the city has a strong will to function as one city, but the border fence brutally splits the city in two parts. The project proposes a vocational college that will provide well-educated employees for the Borders - Architecture of Violence

many industries Nogales has. This vocational college will be situated on a north-south orientated strip connecting the commercial centre of the city with the industrial part of the city (and symbolically connects the American part with the Mexican part of the city). The vocational college contains education buildings, faculties for the various studies and a principal building which functions as a combined library and workshop. This building is meant to be the spine of the masterplan, which is expressed in function and form. Knowledge and collaboration between different crafts/studies are located in this building; it is supposed to be a place to learn, share and meet. The building has a linear form from the outside, as it accentuates the north-south connection and makes a statement where the rest of the masterplan can lean on. The 300 meter long, thin building tries to connect the commercial center of the city (where the current border is situated) with the industrial hart of 3

the city in the south of Nogales. At the same time, east-west incisions connect the local neighborhoods which are separated by a railroad yard in the current situation. The inside of the building is characterised by the circulation path, which also is north-south orientated and designed as a double-curved volume creating spaces and cut off by the façade. These curved concrete walls lead the visitor from space to space, going up and down through the building, giving the route a democratic character without any hierarchiy. It lets corridors melt into open spaces without notion.


ECONOMY CULTURE

1859 Charles Darwin publishes ‘On the Origin of Species’

1900 The corrido (ballad) of the border

IMMIGRATION ARCHITECTURE

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act signed by President Chester A. Arthur 1851 London Great Exhibition

1935 John Stei Tortilla Fl 1917 1924 Immigration Act for literacy Immigration Act of 1924 a.k.a. the Asiatic Barred Zone Act by President Coolidge 1921 The Immigration Act of 1921, 1917 San Diego World Fair President Harding

1893 Chicago World Fair 1865 Abolishment of Slavery in US

WORLD

1853 Crimean War breaks out

MEXICO US BORDER

1869 Suez Canal opens to shipping

1861 Second Mexicon Empire established after French intervention

1917 United States enter World War I 1890 Increasingly, Mexican Americans work for the railroads.

1876 - 1910 The Porfiriato

1848-1855 1861 - 1865 California Gold Rush. American Civil War 1854 Convention of Kanagawa, after US warships lay siege to Edo, Japan opens to trade with US 1862 1853: Gadsden Purchase Battle of Glorieta Pass signed 1857 1861 violation of The ‘Bandits’ Tiburcio Vásquez, Joaquín the Murieta guarantees of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1890 Copper mining in New Mexico

1910 Mexican Revolution

1900 Mining boom in Southern US 1904 The first border patrol

1889 Foundation of International Water and Boundary Commission (IWBC). Ratified by President Benjamin Harrison and Matias Romero

1917 Zimmerman Telegram

1911 Francisco Madero comes to power

1916 General John J. Pershing leads 10,000 American soldiers into Mexico

1931 Lemon Grove, California anti-segregation of Mexicans in schools 1924 More than 89,000 Mexicans come into the United States

1896 First Calculation of the Dow Jones Index, average dropped from 14 to 12

no data available

1850

1875

1900

4

1925

1934 La Liga Pro-D (The School I League)


inbeck, lat

a

1954 The film Salt of the Earth released in US 1953 Operation Wetback: The U.S. Immigration Service deports more than 3.8 million people of Mexican heritage.

1945 Josephina Niggli, Mexican Village

1966 final chapter of the Dollars trilogy by Sergio Leone, 1965 The Immigration and Naturalization Act

1974 Chicano

1980 Borderline

1982 The Border

1983 1984 El Norte Siete en la Mira

1985 Tiempo de Lobos

1995 Mi Familia

2004 A day without a Mexican

2009 Sin Nombre

2010 Border Wars

2013 2015 The Bordertown (animation) Bridge

1945 Trinity Test.

1942 Bracero program

1951 The Bracero program is revived

1947 Brown vs. Board of Education

1964 End of Bracero Program

1970 Mexico hosts the FIFA World Cup

1962 César Chávez organizes the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) in Delano, California.

1974 The Mexican American Women's National Association (MANA)

1985 Maquiladoras become Mexico’s biggest source of foreign exchange

1964 Border Industrialization Program; Maquiladoras

Defensa Escolar Improvement

1950

Borders: Architecture of Violence

1982 Mexican Debt Crisis 1986 Mexico hosts the FIFA World Cup for the second time

2006 Valentín Elizalde is gunned down 1996 Under Clinton Border Patrols are bolstered, sensors are installed and 40 miles of 14-foot fence is built

1994 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

2000

1975

5

2012 Deportation from US reach new heights

2006 The Secure Fence Act.

2025


6


Borders: Architecture of Violence

7


Above: Interviewing the farmers

8


Above: Cotton Valley close to the border

Borders: Architecture of Violence

9


ORTHOGRAPHIC MAP

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

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LANDSCAPE

SOURCE: googlemaps.com Sources: www.maps.google.com citypopulation.de

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Rivers and Lakes National parks and forests River State parks Lake National parks

tucson

Las Cruces El Paso

Other green zones National forests Juarez nogales

douglas agua prieta

Presidio

hermosillo

Chihuahua chihuahua

Delicias

Camargo ciudad obregon

Jose Mariano navajoa parral

Monclova

Torreon Saltilo

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

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National parks and forests Forest State parks Brushland National parks Grassland Other green zones National forests

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

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MOBILITY

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MOBILITY

avi suquilla

Lacor Streetscape

Palo Verde Valley Transit Agency Chuckawalla

indian hills blythe

Imperial Avenue imperial county Amtrak Station-YUMA laguna aaf

cotillo

central station scottsdale Valley Metro phoenix phoenix2 Greyhound Mesa Transit cbs outdoor Lines phoenix3 Skytrain - Sky Harbor scottsdale Terminal 4 Amtrak-Tus

Mexicali west Mexicali calexico

Amtrak Station-YUMA Ligurta Station @ US Highway 80 defeland yuma Rio Sanchez coloradoBoulevard 2 Main Street @ Juan Mexicali est Mexicali centre mexicali Rio colorado I san luis colorado

phoenix

glendale Tufesa

Sycamore/Main Street

Light Rail Station casa grande

maricopa

avra valley

Ajo Transportation

Sonoita

ryan field tucson sells Caborca

puerto penasco

Hermosillo la esperanza

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

4

4

3 4

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

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TRANSPORT

U.S. ROUTE 93

INTERSTATE 10

INTERSTATE 19

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

TOWARDS PHOENIX/NORTH

TOWARDS CALIFORNIA TUCSON

NOGALES

HERMOSILLO

GUAYMAS

TOWARDS LOS MOCHIS/MEXICO CITY

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

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PORTS OF ENTRY avi suquilla

phoenix indian hills

glendale scottsdale

blythe

phoenix2 phoenix3

cotillo

scottsdale

imperial county

laguna aaf

Mexicali/Calexico calexico

casa grande yuma

defeland

San luis/San luis rio colorado

mexicali

avra valley

san luis colorado

Luckville/Sonoita

ryan field tucson

sells

puerto penasco

Puerto penasco

Heroica Guaymas

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

2

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

15

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RESOURCES

SOURCE: http://www.swedishwaterhouse.se/transboundarywaters/?basin=list Sources: http://azmining.com/uploads/majormines2012colorfinal%20smaller.jpg http://es.alamosgold.com/sites/default/files/gallery/mulatosdeposit.jpg

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Active mining resources Gold mines Aquifiers

Aquifier

Silver mines Copper mines Lead mines

NOTES:

Iron mines

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Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

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20

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Coastal lowlands aquifer Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer Edwards-Trinity aquifer Rio Bravo aquifer

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal 16


RESOURCES

Sources: http://www.npr.org/2009/04/24/110997398/visualizing-the-u-s-electric-grid ec.org/atlas/map/?lang=en

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Coal powerpowerplant Petroleum plant

NOT

Borders: Architecture of Violence - TU Delft 2014

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Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

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RESOURCES

Sources: http://www.npr.org/2009/04/24/110997398/visualizing-the-u-s-electric-grid ec.org/atlas/map/?lang=en

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Wind/solar power plant Solar power plant Wind power plant

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Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal 18

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RESOURCES

350 Kv and above 300 Kv and below

source: www.eia.gov/state/maps.cfm Sources: http://www.eia.gov/state/maps.cfm http://www.mapsearch.com/content/dam/mapsearch/site-images/Natural-Gas-Coverage-big.gif

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Natural gas Electrical Petroleum routes pipeline

Natural gas pipeline

NOT

Borders: Architecture of Violence - TU Delft 2014

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Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

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RESOURCES

El Centro Range complex Marine Corp

Sonora Desert US army corps of Engeneer

Airon national Guard

Hohokam Pima

Clemente Island Marine Corp

M.Goldwaterrange2 Air force US army recruiting station

MCASMIRAMAR Marine Coro

Sonora Desert

Airon national Guard Casa Grande recruiting station Ruins

M.Goldwaterrange Air force MCAS Yuma /Bobstump Marine Corp

Organ Pipe cactus

hospital free trade zone

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

Torreon

Maquiladores: https://mapalist.com/Public/pm.aspx?mapid=380341, 9-11-2014

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

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POPULATION CONCENTRATION

population > 1.000.000 > 500.000 > 250.000 > 100.000 > 50.000 > 25.000 > 5.000

California Coast

Sonoran Desert population concentrations

population > 1.00.000 > 500.000 > 250.000 > 100.000 > 50.000 > 25.000 > 5.000

Source: http://www.citypopulation.de/America.html

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

Chihuahuan Desert

population > 1.000.000 > 500.000 > 250.000 > 100.000 > 50.000 > 25.000 > 5.000

population > 1.000.000

0

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> 500.000 > 250.000 > 100.000 > 50.000 > 25.000 > 5.000

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

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POPULATION DENSITY

1

16

62

310

3100 >3100 sq mi

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

1

16

62

310

3100 >3100 sq mi

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

Source: https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/maps/pdfs/thematic/us_popdensity_2010map.pdf http://demographyatbrockport.wikispaces.com/file/view/Mexico_Population_ Density_800_Weekly.jpg/281870370/560x309/Mexico_Population_Density_800_Weekly.jpg

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 1

16

62

310

3100 >3100 sq mi

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

Chihuahuan Desert

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal

11

66

12

5

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20

40 m

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200

400 m

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1

2 km

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5

10 km

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25

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310

100

500

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22

3100 >3100 sq mi

50

100km

5000 >5000

2

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MEDIAN AGE

1%

10%

20%

40%

60% >60%

California Coast

Sonoran Desert median age 23

24

26

31

35

38

41

44

47

55

Source: http://www.governing.com/gov-data/census/median-age-county-population-map.html http://knoema.com/didykrd/mexico-regional-dataset-august-2013

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 26

26

27

31

35

38

41

44

47

Chihuahuan Desert

55

26

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

26

27

31

35

0

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200

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23

38

41

50

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44

47

100km

4 km

55


HOUSEHOLD SIZE

2

2,5

3

>3,5* <3,6*

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the smallest is <3,6

2

2,5

3

>3,5* <3,6*

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the smallest is <3,6 source: http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml#none

California Coast

Sonoran Desert household size 2

2,5

3

>3,5* <3,6*

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the smallest is <3,6

Source: http://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?useExisting=1 http://geo-mexico.com/?p=3162

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 2

2,5

3

>3,5* <3,6*

Chihuahuan Desert

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the smallest is <3,6

2

2,5

3

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

25

50 km

0

>3,5* <3,6*

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the 0 50 100km smallest is <3,6

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal

0

24

2

4 km


GDP PER CAPITA

15

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

>80

15

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

>80

Source: http://www.uscounties.org/countytracker/ http://themexicomonitor.com/2014/07/29/whats-wrong-with-mexicos-economy-informality/

California Coast

15

20

30

40

50

60

Sonoran Desert

70

80

115

16 20

62 30

310 40

3100 50 >3100 60 70mi sq

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

80

>80

>80

GDP

Source: http://www.governing.com/gov-data/economy-finance/personal-income-per-capita-county-map.html http://themexicomonitor.com/2014/07/29/whats-wrong-with-mexicos-economy-informality/

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 15

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Chihuahuan Desert

>80

15

30

40

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

050

0

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

20

0

25

60 50 70 100km 80 >80

2

4 km


HOUSEHOLD INCOME

26

26

27

31

35

38

41

44

47

55

10

20

25

35

50

65

>80

source: http://www.raconline.org/racmaps/mapfiles/education.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_household_income

California Coast

10

20

Sonoran Desert

25

35

50

65

110

16 20

25 62

310 35

3100 50 >3100 65 >80mi sq

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

>80

household income

Source: http://www.city-data.com/income/income-Dallas-Texas.html

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

0

20

25

35

50

65

Chihuahuan Desert

>80

02

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal

20

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

53

0

0

26

55

50

2

0

65

>80

100km

4 km


FOREIGN BORN CITIZENS 0%

5%

13%

25%

50%

U.S. county with total population less than 10.000

0%

5%

13%

25%

50%

U.S. county with total population less than 10.000

Source: INEGI http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/biinegi/default.aspx?ii=i#A http://www.arizonaindicators.org/demographics/demographics-overview http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/united-states/quick-facts/california/foreign-born-population-percent#map

California Coast

Sonoran Desert Foreign born population 0%

5%

13%

25%

50%

U.S. county with total population less than 10.000

Source: http://blogs.lib.uconn.edu/outsidetheneatline/2012/10/24/ geography-of-the-foreign-born-population-1960-2010-census-bureau-report/ http://geo-mexico.com/?p=4031

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 0%

5%

13%

25%

Chihuahuan Desert

50%

U.S. county with total population less than 10.000

0%

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

5%

0

13%

50

25%

50%

100km

U.S. county with total population less than 10.000

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

0

27

2

4 km


HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX 0,7

0,7

0,8

1

1,5

1,75

2

0,8

1

1,5

1,75

2

2,25 2,25+

2,25

Source: http://mic.com/articles/85537/if-the-u-s-were-graded-using-the-un-s-index-for-african-development-here-s-what-we-d-see Índice de Desarrollo Humano Municipal en México, 2010 http://www.mx.undp.org/content/dam/mexico/docs/Publicaciones/PublicacionesReduccionPobreza/InformesDesarrolloHumano/UNDP-MX-PovRed-I DHmunicipalMexico-032014.pdf

California Coast

Sonoran Desert

10,7

16 0,8

62 1

310 1,5

3100 1,75 >3100 2 2,25 sq mi

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

Source: http://mic.com/articles/85537/if-the-u-s-were-graded-using-the-un-s-index-for-african-development-here-s-what-we-d-see http://app1.semarnat.gob.mx/dgeia/informe_12eng/01_poblacion/cap1_2.html

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 0,7

0,8

1

1,5

1,75

2

Chihuahuan Desert

2,25

0,7

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal

0,8

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

1

0

0

28

1,5

50

2

1,75

2

100km

4 km

2,25


POVERTY RATE 1%

2

2,5

3

>3,5* <3,6*

10%

20%

40%

60% >60%

4,1

*In the U.S. the biggest household is >3,5 and in Mexico the smallest is <3,6

Source: coneval.gob.mx http://www.coneval.gob.mx/Informes/Coordinacion/INFORMES_Y_PUBLICACIONES_PDF/REPORT_OF_POVERTY_IN_MEXICO_2010.pdf http://app1.semarnat.gob.mx/dgeia/informe_12eng/01_poblacion/cap1_2.html http://www.coneval.gob.mx/Informes/Coordinacion/INFORMES_YPUBLICACIONES_PDF/REPORT_OF_POVERTY_IN_MEXICO_2010.pdf Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/data/statecounty/data/2010.html

California Coast

Sonoran Desert 11%

1%

10%

20%

40%

60% >60%

1

16 10%

62 20%

310 3100 40% 60% >3100 >60% sq mi

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

poverty rate

Source: http://www.city-data.com/income/income-Dallas-Texas.html http://app1.semarnat.gob.mx/dgeia/informe_12eng/01_poblacion/cap1_2.html

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 1%

10%

20%

40%

Chihuahuan Desert

60% >60%

1%

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

0

10%

0

29

20%

5040% 100km 60% >60%

2

4 km


UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 2%

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

14%

14%

Source: http://geo-mexico.com/?p=2460 Local Area Unemployment Statistics Map, Bureau of Labour statistics http://data.bls.gov/map/MapToolServlet

California Coast

2%

4%

6%

Sonoran Desert

8%

10%

12%

12%

16 4%

62 6%

310 8%

3100 sq mi 10% >3100 12% 14%

1

25

100

500

5000 >5000 km²

14%

unemployment rate

Source: http://geo-mexico.com/?p=2460 http://www.uscounties.org/countytracker/

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre 2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

Chihuahuan Desert

14%

2%

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal

4%

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

6%

0

0

30

8%

50

2

10%

12%

100km

4 km

14%


LITERACY RATE

<45% 45%

75%

85%

92%

98%

percent attaining at least high school education

<45% 45%

75%

85%

92%

98%

percent attaining at least high school education

source: http://www.raconline.org/racmaps/mapfiles/education.png http://www.oecd.org/edu/Mexico_EAG2013%20Country%20Note.pdf

California Coast

<45% 45%

75%

85%

92%

Sonoran Desert 1 45% 16 <45%

75% 62

85% 310 3100 92% >3100 98% sq mi

1

100

500

98% 25

5000 >5000 km²

percent attaining at least high school education

Source: http://www.raconline.org/racmaps/mapfiles/education.png http://www.oecd.org/edu/Mexico_EAG2013%20Country%20Note.pdf

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre <45% 45%

75%

85%

92%

Chihuahuan Desert

98%

percent attaining at least high school education

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0 <45% 45%

75%

25 85%

92%

50 km 98%

percent attaining at least 0 50 100km high school education 0

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal Borders: Architecture of Violence

31

2

4 km


EDUCATION LEVEL

<60% 60%

70%

80%

90%

98%

<60% 60%

70%

80%

90%

98%

source: http://nces.ed.gov/naal/estimates/StateEstimates.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mexican_states_by_literacy_rate

California Coast

<60% 60%

Sonoran Desert

70%

80%

90%

98%

60% <60% 1 16

70% 62

80% 3100 90% >3100 98% sq mi 310

1

100

500

25

5000 >5000 km²

literacy rates

Source: https://ibis.health.state.nm.us/indicator/view/LiteracyAdult.Cnty.html http://www-tcall.tamu.edu/docs/09illitmap.html http://www.inegi.org.mx/inegi/contenidos/espanol/prensa/contenidos/estadisticas/2011/alfabetizaciĂłn11.asp?s=inegi&c=2808&ep=69

Mandrean Archipelago & Sierra Madre

45% <60% <45% 60%

75% 70%

85% 80%

92% 90%

Chihuahuan Desert

98%

percent attaining at least high school education

0

20

40 m

0

200

400 m

0

1

2 km

0

5

10 km

0

25

50 km

<60% 60%

Texas Plains & Western Gulf Coastal 32

70%

80%

90%

0

50

100km

0

2

4 km

98%


BORDER STATE ZONE

BORDER VISA / FREE MOVER ZONE

BORDER FREE TRADE ZONE

BORDER STATE

Borders: Architecture of Violence

33


34


BORDER STATE ZONE

BORDER VISA / FREE MOVER ZONE BORDER FREE TRADE ZONE

BORDER STATE ZONE

Borders: Architecture of Violence

35


MEXICALI/ CALEXICO

SAN DIEGO/ TIJUANA

EL PASO/ CIUDAD JUAREZ NOGALES/ NOGALES DEL RIO/ ACUNA

36


Borders: Architecture of Violence

37


city

land area

population

density

density

GDP

21 mile city radius

21 mile percentage

mobility routes

border and border crossings

1 345 000

1 500

65 000

640 km2

1 300 00

2 000

25 000

mile s

965 km2

21

San Diego-Tijuana

man-made

Calexico-Mexicali

man-made 20 km2

39 000

1 800

35 000

220 km2

690 000

3 140

15 000

55 km2

21 000

385

25 000

80 km2

220 000

2 750

15 000

665 km2

675 000

1000

40 000

190 km2

1 320 000

7 000

15 000

50 km2

35 000

680

35 000

50 km2

145 000

2 900

25 000

Nogales-Nogales

man-made

El Paso -Juarez

natural

Del Rio-Acuna

natural

38


San Diego-Tijuana

city

city diagrams

growth by 2050 growth by 2050

50 %

21 mile city radius potential

identity

border strategy

2 018 000 international sea port

sea port and tourist city 50 %

new regional identity

the new international sea port is the in-between zone and shared economic interest of San Diego and Tijuana

1 950 000

Calexico-Mexicali

port

50 %

58 500 agriculture center

50 %

1 035 000

the city limits are defined by the edge of Mexicali and the 21 mile agriculture zone on the north which becomes and essential part of the city

agriculture

Nogales-Nogales

50 %

31 500 industrial city / transportation hub

50 %

the city of Nogales becomes “trapped” inside the border and becomes a longitudinal in-between zone attached to the interstate highway

330 000 industry+mobility route

1 350 000

El Paso -Juarez

100 %

center of the region

“unified” city

100 %

2 640 000

the existing in-between space is turned into a buffer zone between 2 countries that is filled with social and cultural content which transcends the gap

the compactness of the city

53 000

Del Rio-Acuna

50 %

national park city 50 %

218 000 national park + water shed

Borders: Architecture of Violence

39

the national park and watershed becomes an important part of city’s functioning. nature is what connects Del Rio and Acuna


HVDC transmission line Fossil Energy

Nuclear Energy

Solar Energy

Wind Energy

Hydro Energy

40

El Paso Juarez

Del Rio Acuna

McAllen Reynosa

Extended Wind Park Population: 1,5 million

New Nuclear Power Zone

Population: 2,7 million

Nogales

Population: 1,21 million

Phoenix

Population: 0,27 million

Tucson

Large Scale Solar Plants Nogales Population: 4,3 million

Calexico MexicaliNew Juma

Extended Wind Park Population: 1,25 million

Population: 6,5 million

Los Angeles Tijuana San Diego


Los Angles+San Diego/Tijuana Calexico/Mexicali+San Luis/San Luis Rio

Phoenix+Tucson+Nogales Los Angles

El Paso / Juarez

Chihuahua San Antonio + Houston Grain (People+Livestock) for Wole

Corpus Christi +San Antonio + Houston

Hermosillo Los Angles + San Diego/TIjuana Grain (People+Livestock) for Wole Laredo/Nuevo Laredo+San Antonio + Houston

Borders: Architecture of Violence

41

Required Total Area : 6,728,922ha Total Agriculture Area : 6,851,000ha


A SO

D

A

JU

N SO C TU

GOLDEN RUSH FAST FREIGHT TRACK

MAIN COMMERCIAL SEAPORT

GOLDEN RUSH FAST TRACK GOLDEN RUSH STANDARD TRACK

MAIN LANDPORT

2050 PLANNED FAST TRACK 2050 PLANNED SLOW TRACK 2050 PLANNED HIGH VOLUME FREIGHT 2050 PLANNED TEXAS CENTRAL RAILWAY (Private project, www.texascentral.com) 2050 PLANNED CALIFORNIA HIGH SEED RAILWAY (Currently under construction, www.hsr.ca.gov)

MAIN COMMERCIAL AIRPORT COMMERCIAL AIRPORT, PLANNED EXPANSION

42

AT A M

M O N TE R R EY

M

O

R

O

S

C

O

R

PU

S

C

H

R

IS

TI

LA

R

ED

O

D D EL EL R R IO IO

C H IU H U A H U A

H ER M O SIL LO

S SA AN N AN A T N O TO N N IO IO

N N OG O A G L A E LE S S

EN

SE

N

A

D

A

EL

PA

M EX IC YU A M LI A

LL

R

A

S

EZ

PH

O

EN

IX

L LO OS S AN A G N E G L EL E ES S SA SAOTA N D N Y IE YS ME GO ID SA R O

GOLDEN RUSH STANDARD FREIGHT TRACK

HOUSTON HOUSTON


Los Angeles

Phoenix San Diego / Tijuana Calexico / Mexicali San Luis / San Luis Rio Tucson El Paso / Juarez Nogales / Nogales

Houston

San Antonio Del Rio / Acuna

Hermosillo Chihuahua

Piedras Negras

Corpus Christi Laredo / Nuevo Laredo

McAllen / Reynosa Brownsville / Matamoros Monterrey

Borders: Architecture of Violence

43


UNITED TRANSBORDER FEDERATION

44


UNITED TRANSBORDER FEDERATION LEGISLATIVE

EXECUTIVE

JUDICIAL

HOUSE OF COMMONS

CLUSTER MAYORS

REGIONAL COURT

‘makes laws’

SENATE

2 per cluster (2 year term)

elected per district, 1 per 20.000 residents (2 year term)

‘enforces laws’

1 per cluster (5 year term)

‘evaluates laws’

7 judges

REGION APPELLATE COURT 3 judges

CLUSTER COURT JUDGES 3 judges

LOCAL COURTS

judges per population

CLUSTERS PROVIDE: -2 senators -1 mayor

Borders: Architecture of Violence

DISTRICTS PROVIDE: -1 representative per 100.000

45


46

CENTRAL WESTERN CORRIDOR

Population: 4,3 million

Phoenix

Tucson Nogales Nogales Population: 1,21 million

Calexico Mexicali Juma Population: 1,25 million

Los Angeles Tijuana San Diego Population: 6,5 million

PACIFIC CORRIDOR


Population: 0,27 million

Population: 2,7 million

CENTRAL EASTERN CORRIDOR

McAllen Reynosa Population: 1,5 million

Del Rio Acuna

El Paso Juarez

ATLANTIC CORRIDOR

INTERSTATE 10

BORDER STATE ZONE

BORDER VISA / FREE MOVER ZONE

HIGH SPEED RAILWAY

EXISTING BORDER

BORDER FREE TRADE ZONE

BORDER STATE

Borders: Architecture of Violence

47


U T BF

PA R L I A M E N T

A new political representation of the Cross-Border Region Words: Sebastiaan Buitenhuis Pictures: Sebastiaan Buitenhuis

Above: site plan

PARLIAMENT OF THE UNITED TRANS-BORDER FEDERATION P5 Presentation - Posters 3 July 2015, Delft Sebastiaan Buitenhuis

Borders: Architecture of Violence

49


50


Above: The concrete border cutting through downtown El Paso/Ciudad Juarez, forming the Northern edge of the Chamizal area Photo: Ron Reiring

This region needs a new overlying structure in order to make it work properly. This to create a new system that removes the need for the current myriad of organizations that in most circumstances work against each other, in national mindsets, instead of seeing the potential of the area as a region. These organisations work in frameworks of their national governments which strive for the best outcome for their country and not the region. What has come out from this research is that by strengthening this region both nations can benefit more from clean water, locally produced products, better education and enormous amounts of resources. This new government, comparable to the EU, focuses on empowering this region so it can reach its full potential. This government needs a new seat, a seat of power which represents all the border inhabitants.

secretive deals. While there is a need for these kind of deliberations to further the process I move this part of the political system right into the open by situating all the rooms around a public atrium. This void in the centre of the building is there as to show the inside of the political machine. The Chamizal site in Juarez is the result of the channelling of the Rio Grande during the 1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. The border in this part of the region is made up by the deepest point of the river. Because of the unpredictable flows of the river this piece of land changed ownership a couple of times over the decades resulting in a number of conflicts. The resulting Chamizal dispute was settled with rerouting the river in a concrete channel in 1964. The land given to Mexico has been a programmatic void in the city. This resulted in the question how can we keep the attraction that the border provides while at the same time revamp a piece of relative undeveloped downtown of Juarez/El Paso. The resulting strategy saw us reconfigure the border procedures and introducing a new governing body. The resulting plan provided in a new impuls for the city through the added program of the government functions but also introduce a new border crossing typology and cross border programs like sporting venues and shared infrastructure. Through this way we try to reinforce the potentials on both sides of the border and accelerate the development of the region.

Looking at contemporary parliament buildings are found that there is a clear separation in these existing systems of the public and the politics. The audience is elevated to spectator but has no opportunity to voice their opinions in the matters talked about by the politicians. The proposal is therefore to create an egalitarian parliament, a forum going back to the days of the Romans and the Greeks. Where the public can voice their opinions on an equal footing with the parliament members. Another phenomenon of the existing parliament buildings is that all the members are put away in a separate building that houses their offices and deliberation rooms. This furthers the idea of backroom politics and

Borders: Architecture of Violence

51


AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

-1 - -4500mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

GF - +0mm

AA'

AA'

-1 - -4500mm

-1 - -4500mm

GF - +0mm

GF - +0mm

-+ - +4200mm

-+ - +4200mm

-+ - +4200mm

-+ - +4200mm

AA'

-1 - -4500mm

-1 - -4500mm

GF - +0mm

-1

GF - +0mm GF - +0mm

GF - +0mm

Ground Floor

-+ - +4200mm -+ - +4200mm

-+ - +4200mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

2 - +8400mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

2 - +8400mm

3 - +12600mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

2 - +8400mm

3 - +12600mm

AA'

3 - +12600mm

4 - +16800mm

4 - +16800mm

4 - +16800mm

4 - +16800mm

AA'

AA'

2 - +8400mm

2 - +8400mm

3 - +12600mm 3 - +12600mm

3 - +12600mm

3 - +12600mm

4 - +16800mm 4 - +16800mm

+3

+4

4 - +16800mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

5 - +21000mm

5 - +21000mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

5 - +21000mm

6 - +25200m

6 - +25200m

AA'

5 - +21000mm

5 - +21000mm

6 - +25200m

7 - 29400mm

6 - +25200m

7 - 29400mm

7 - 29400mm

7 - 29400mm 7 - 29400mm

7 - 29400mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

8 - +33600mm

+7

8 - +33600mm

7 - 29400mm AA'

6 - +25200m 6 - +25200m

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

6 - +25200m

9 - +37800mm

+8

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

8 - +33600mm

9 - +37800mm

AA'

9 - +37800mm

10 - +42000mm

10 - +42000mm

10 - +42000mm

10 - +42000mm

AA'

AA'

8 - +33600mm

8 - +33600mm

9 - +37800mm

9 - +37800mm 9 - +37800mm

9 - +37800mm

10 - +42000mm 10 - +42000mm

10 - +42000mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

11 - +46200mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

12- +50400mm

Floorplan Matrix - 1:500

AA'

AA'

AA'

11 - +46200mm

11 - +46200mm

AA'

+11

12- +50400mm

12- +50400mm

12- +50400mm

12- +50400mm

+12

13 - +54600mm

13 - +54600mm

13 - +54600mm

13 - +54600mm

Floorplan Floorplan Matrix - 1:500 Matrix - 1:500 11 - +46200mm

11 - +46200mm

Floorplan Matrix Floorplan - 1:500 Matrix - 1:500

52


AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

-1 - -4500mm

-1 - -4500mm

-1 - -4500mm

GF - +0mm

AA'

GF - +0mm

GF - +0mm

-+ - +4200mm

-+ - +4200mm

AA'

GF - +0mm GF - +0mm

AA'

-+ - +4200mm -+ - +4200mm

AA'

-+ - +4200mm

2 - +8400mm

+1

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

3 - +12600mm

+2

AA' AA'

AA' AA'

-+ - +4200mm

2 - +8400mm

AA'

2 - +8400mm

3 - +12600mm

AA'

3 - +12600mm 3 - +12600mm

3 - +12600mm

4 - +16800mm

4 - +16800mm

4 - +16800mm 4 - +16800mm AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

4 - +16800mm

5 - +21000mm

AA'

6 - +25200m AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

4 - +16800mm

5 - +21000mm

5 - +21000mm

6 - +25200m

+5

6 - +25200m 6 - +25200m

AA'

6 - +25200m

7 - 29400mm

+6

7 - 29400mm 7 - 29400mm

AA'

7 - 29400mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

7 - 29400mm

8 - +33600mm

AA'

9 - +37800mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

7 - 29400mm

8 - +33600mm

8 - +33600mm

9 - +37800mm

9 - +37800mm 9 - +37800mm

AA'

10 - +42000mm

10 - +42000mm 10 - +42000mm

AA'

+9

AA'

9 - +37800mm

+10

10 - +42000mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

10 - +42000mm

AA'

11 - +46200mm

12- +50400mm

AA'

AA'

AA'

AA'

Floorplan Matrix - 1:500 10 - +42000mm

11 - +46200mm

11 - +46200mm

12- +50400mm

12- +50400mm

AA'

13 - +54600mm

N

Floorplan Floorplan Matrix - 1:500Matrix - 1:500

12- +50400mm 12- +50400mm

13 - +54600mm 13 - +54600mm

AA'

P4 Presentation - Posters P4 Presentation - Posters 21 May 2015, Delft 21 May 2015, Delft Sebastiaan Buitenhuis Sebastiaan Buitenhuis Studentbumber / 4036727 Studentbumber / 4036727

13 - +54600mm

Roof

Above: Floor plan matrix

13 - +54600mm Borders: Architecture of Violence

53 P4 Presentation - Posters 21 May 2015, Delft

13 - +54600mm


54


0 Borders: Architecture of Violence

55

500

1000 m


Above: Section of the building, showing the full height atrium around which the other functions are arranged

climatic principle

56


Above: Impressions of the UTBF Parliament

Borders: Architecture of Violence

57


VO C AT I O NA L

C O L L E G E

The intervention of an educational program to unite the devided twin-city Nogales and create opportunities to use its full potential as the industrial and transportation hub of the Border Region Words: Sylvie Dorn Pictures: Sylvie Dorn

The graduation studio of Borders â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The violence of architecture concentrates on the border conditions of the border between the United States of America and Mexico. A region with high potentials, but unfortunately known mostly for its negative perceptions, so a hard place for architecture to take its position in this complexity of layers. The problematic situation is visible in all scales, from (lacking) regional government to divided twin-cities on the border. This graduation project focusses on an intervention in the city of Nogales, a twin-city on the border approximately halfway the border line. Nogales has a morphology that shows the city has a strong will to function as one city, but the border fence brutally splits the city in two parts.

Borders: Architecture of Violence

The project proposes a vocational college that will provide well-educated employees for the many industries Nogales has. This vocational college will be situated on a north-south orientated strip connecting the commercial centre of the city with the industrial part of the city (and symbolically connects the American part with the Mexican part of the city). The vocational college contains education buildings, faculties for the various studies and a principal building which functions as a combined library and workshop. This building is meant to be the spine of the masterplan, which is expressed in function and form. Knowledge and collaboration between different crafts/studies are located in this building; it is supposed to be a place to learn, share and meet. The building has a linear form from the outside, as it accentuates the north-south connection and makes a statement where the rest of the masterplan can lean on. 61

The 300 meter long, thin building tries to connect the commercial center of the city (where the current border is situated) with the industrial hart of the city in the south of Nogales. At the same time, east-west incisions connect the local neighborhoods which are separated by a railroad yard in the current situation. The inside of the building is characterised by the circulation path, which also is north-south orientated and designed as a double-curved volume creating spaces and cut off by the façade. These curved concrete walls lead the visitor from space to space, going up and down through the building, giving the route a democratic character without any hierarchiy. It lets corridors melt into open spaces without notion.


Scheme of the city Nogales introducing the educational program to complete the North -South chain

EDUCATION

LEISURE

(INFRA)STRUCTURE

28%

29,5%

42,5%

18%

10%

21%

DEPARTMENTS STUDENT CENTER VOCATIONAL COLLEGE VOCATIONAL COLLEGE

8,5% 6%

26,5%

SPORT CENTER

COMMERCE INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

sport hall 7,5% sport fields 13,5%

train: 4% restaurants 4% market 4,5% bus: 1% light rail: 1%

student: 8% single family: 13,5% multi family: 5%

TOTAL GFA MASTERPLAN: 58.800 m2 62

10%

DISTRIBUTION CENTERS


N

above: site plan including all elements (infrastructure, education, leisure) Borders: Architecture of Violence

25m

63

50m

100m


Search for the right way to emphasize the longitudinal North-South orientated building without creating a wall for the surroundings by making East-West connections possible.

64


The public area enters the building and shapes the building and it volumes from the inside. The rounded forms support the natural flow of walking through the building, even if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s just for crossing the area without visiting the building.

Borders: Architecture of Violence

65


above: site plan at the location of the library, the main building of the vocational campus.

66


above: photo of the site; an abandoned rail track

Borders: Architecture of Violence

above: photo of the border fence through city center

67


above: impression of the East-West passage near the theatre stairs

above: impression of the elevated square inside the building providing access to the class rooms

68


N

5m

ground floor

Borders: Architecture of Violence

first floor

69

second floor

10m

20m


70


Borders: Architecture of Violence

71


1

2

1

3

2

4

3

5

4

above: cross sections middle: longitudinal section below: east facade

72

6

5

7

6

7

5m

10m

20m


above: 1:2000 site model

Borders: Architecture of Violence

73


above: physical model at the theatre stairs

above: physical model of the workshop area

74


perforated concrete facade

concrete columns in facade

concrete floors

concrete shell construction

total structure

above: structure of the building

Borders: Architecture of Violence

75


James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

Border Crossing Borders: Architecture of Violence

79


L A N D M A R K

F O R

J U S T I C E

A binational courthouse Words: Nicki van Loon Pictures: Nicki van Loon

The research, done as a group, showed that the region along the US-Mexican border, the border region, has lot of potential and opportunities. The region could really benefit by working together, but is obstructed by the border, which manifests itself often as a big wall running through landscapes and even cities. To get the most out of its potential, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve decided that the region needs a governmental body. This United Transborder Federation will act as a representative for the border region, a binational governmental body which deals with the regions topics like agriculture, resources, economics, infrastructure, culture, education and health. This new border region also poses questions on how to deal with the binational judicial questions. The nature of a border is to separate, and at the same time bring together; the same goes for the US/Mexican border. It is superimposed on the landscape, literally dividing ecoregions, Borders: Architecture of Violence

cultures, cities and even families in two. It attracts those people who cross the border on a daily basis, for a number of legitimate reasons. But it also attracts those who seek the American Dream and try to cross the border illegally, from complete families often escaping the poverty and/or violence in Central America to alien children basically doing the same. The latter, after apprehension, often needs to appear in immigration court. Besides these illegal immigrants, the border also attracts a rather large group of people that smuggle goods, mainly drugs, guns and money, across the border. The courthouse deals with both issues. It will be a safe haven for immigrants where they will be heard and on the other hand the court will show itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s judicial power by dealing with some of the biggest, yet to be convicted, criminals from the whole border region. The courthouse houses both a criminal court as a civil court, but will also act 81

as an immigration shelter. Not only the children that are apprehended by the border patrol have go here, but it will be also possible to ask for asylum. The courthouse responds to an existing situation and is located on the border of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, maybe the most extrapolated location all along the border of the Walled World. The building is a landmark for justice and a boundary marker at the same time. The building highlights the fact that the border brings two countries together. Not only in a physical sense, but also, in this case, a judicial cooperation. The building expresses, through the different sized blocks, materials and functions, the differences that can be found on both sides of the border and brings them together as one. By shifting the volumes it expresses the different functions and its relations. Through the inclined tubes and because of the different terraces different types of users are able to see


o

Above: Siteplan along the border, a seperate approach for the judge, the criminal and the immigrant Previous page: Architecture of Violence, the US-Mexican border, the Rio Grande, between El Paso and Ciudad Juarez (2014)

84

10

25

50 m


EL PASO ‘SAFEST CITY OF THE US’

CIUDAD JUAREZ ‘MURDER CAPITAL OF THE WORLD’ 0

Above: “The perfect paradox” (2010) and the Landmark for Justice

Borders: Architecture of Violence

85

2,5

5 km


Above: A more serene manifestation of the US-Mexican border, the Rio Grande, between Presidio and Ojinaga (2014)

86


Above: The judgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lobby overlooking the border region

Borders: Architecture of Violence

87


Facade +152.5m

Roof +148.3m

Mechanical | level 32 +143.8m

Judicial office | level 31 +139.3m

Judicial office | level 30 +134.8m

Judicial office | level 29 +130.3m

Judicial office | level 28 +125.8m

Prosecutor's office | level 27 +121.3m

Prosecutor's office | level 26 +116.8m

Prosecutor's office | level 25 +112.3m

Prosecutor's office | level 24 +107.8m

Canteen | level 23 +103.3m

Canteen | level 22 +98.8m

Registry office | level 21 +93.9m

Registry office | level 20 +89.4m

Registry office | level 19 +84.9m

Registry office | level 18 +80.4m

Registry office | level 17 +75.9m

Registry office | level 16 +71.4m

Registry office | level 15 +66.9m

Registry office | level 14 +62.4m

Registry office | level 13 +57.9m

Registry office | level 12 +53.4m

Registry office | level 11 +48.9m

Registry office | level 10 +44.4m

Lobby | level 09 +38.6m

Mechanical | level 08 +35.6m

Holding cells | level 07 +29.0m

Holding cells | level 06 +26.1m

Criminal court | level 05 +12.2m

Criminal court | level 04 +18.9m

Criminal court | level 03 +15.5m

Criminal court | level 02 +12.1m

Immigration shelter | level 01 +0.6m

Court plaza | ground level +0.6m

Parking | level - 01 -4.5m

Parking | level -02 -9.0m

o 1

3

10 m

Above: Section Aa, different types of vertical circulation define the building

88


B 4050

B

A

C

4050

D 4050

E

F

4050

8100

8100

1

4050

2

5400

3

4

a 8100

A

5400

5

4050

6

7

b

B

C

8100

4050

D 4050

E 2025

F

G

B

A

2025

8100

H 5400

5400

1

2

a 8100

A

5400

3

4

b B

C

B

A 8100

8100

D 5400

E 5400

F 8100

G 8100

8100

1

2

a 8100

A

5400

3

5400

4

8100

5

8100

6

7

b

o 1

3

Borders: Architecture of Violence

10 m

Above, from top to bottom: Level 22, the canteen; Level 02&04, the criminal court; Ground, court plaza.

89


plaza | ground

Canteen | level 22

Criminal court | levels 02 & 04

o 1

3

10 m

Above: South facade

90


Above: The Landmark for Justice

Borders: Architecture of Violence

91


Above: Approach as incriminated, looking up at the judicial power

92


Above: The building expresses, through the different sized blocks, materials and functions, the differences that can be found on both sides of the border and brings them together as one.

Borders: Architecture of Violence

93


Above: The Binational Courthouse is a landmark for justice and a boundary marker at the same time.

94


o

0,5

2

3m

Above: Fragment of different blocks in function, appearance and structure Next page: Matrix of all floor plans

Borders: Architecture of Violence

95


Mechanical | level 32 +143.8m

Judicial office | level 31 +139.3m

Judicial office | level 30 +134.8m

Judicial office | level 29 +130.3m

Prosecutorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office | level 25 +112.3m

Prosecutorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office | level 24 +107.8m

Canteen upper level | level 23 +103.3m

Canteen | level 22 +98.8m

Registry office | level 18 +80.4m

Registry office | level 17 +75.9m

Registry office | level 16 +71.4m

Registry office | level 15 +66.9m

Registry office | level 11 +48.9m

Registry office | level 10 +44.4m

Lobby | level 09 +38.6m

Mechanical | level 08 +35.6m

Criminal court | level 04 +18.9m

Criminal court tribune level | level 03 +15.5m

Criminal court | level 02 +12.1m

Immigration shelter | level 01 +7.7m

o

5

15

30 m

96


Judicial office | level 28 +125.8m

Prosecutorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office | level 27 +121.3m

Prosecutorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office | level 26 +118.8m

Registry office | level 21 +93.9m

Registry office | level 20 +89.4m

Registry office | level 19 +84.9m

Registry office | level 14 +62.4m

Registry office | level 13 +57.9m

Registry office | level 12 +53.4m

Holding cells back office | level 07 +29m

Holding cells| level 06 +26.1m

Criminal court tribune level | level 05 +22.2

Court plaza | ground +0.6m

Parking | level -1 -4.5m

Parking | level -2 -9.0m

Borders: Architecture of Violence

97


James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

Border Crossing Borders: Architecture of Violence

99


A R E NA

D E

C I U DA D

A bullfighting arena in the city center of Ciudad Juarez Words: Niels Mulder Pictures: Niels Mulder

Above: Model of the arena

Situated in the west of Texas on the border is the city of El Paso. Divided by a wall and a concrete ditch fifty meters wide Ciudad Juarez is seperated on the other side of the Border. The isolation of Ciudad Juarez in the last years has caused for what used to be a city centre vibrant with activity and tourists to now be desolate. Most of the bars, markets, attractions and recreation were forced to close and have left empty voids within the city. Promenades and pedestrian areas have fallen in decay. This all leads to the urge to reconnect the cities. By reconnecting the city Borders: Architecture of Violence

centers, which have a true distance of less than two kilometers, we can start the stitching of the cities. The downtown area of El Paso has a vibrant cultural and economic life. Which is very attractive for individuals from within as well outside of the city. Through making the center of Ciudad Juarez and the border itself attractions/ vibrant areas we create a desire to cross the border in both directions. Thus stimulating the local community and changing the perception of the area. The project proposes a very public and attractive program in the form of a new bullfighting arena in the city center of Ciudad Juarez. The project is located on one 101

of the major connecting spines between the two city centers and is easy accessible from both cities. This spine links the downtown area of El Paso to the border bridge and the bullfighting arena in Ciudad Juarez creating a strong connection between them. As a part of an overall masterplan to reconnect the cities the project aims to do this on all scales, from a very local stimulation of activity and reestablishing of the community in Mexico to connecting the border cities and with this the border region as whole.


Showing the open space and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;voidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; between the cities

All the commerce centres around the connection between cities, showing itsinportance

The El Paso del Notre bridge crossing the border

102

The interventions strengthening the connection


Site plan showing the arena embedded alongside the main connecting axis between the US and Mexico

Borders: Architecture of Violence

103


Arles Amphitheatre 90 AD

Monumental Plaza de Toros, Mexico City 1946

Common functionality of an arena

Proposed functionality of the arena

Traditional Plaza de Toros

proposed Plaza de Toros

only in bullfighting season average 25 fights over 4/5 months

A arena that is more connected/embedded in the city. Where the bullfighting and other activities are publicly accessible througout the arena sits on a square as everyNowadays season.

The arena itself does not take position opportunity to cross borders in many ways. closed of andin monumental attitude in the environment, as fortresses within the city in not theembedded ethic debate of Bull fighting. It Instead of the obvious, the western intervenes andfrom addresses questions on the bullfightdiscussion of the ethics in bullfighting, the This is a remnant the culture and tradition behind ing as an aristocratic different levels. sport. arena critiques a less obvious subject: the position of the typology of the arena in It is an incubator of activity, a place that society. facilitates events, celebration of culture and tries to reconnect a broken part of the urban The core typology of the arena, the fabric, the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;voidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; between Ciudad Juarez and amfitheater, used to be a public space El Paso. a place for the performing arts and Because of its social program of celebration celebration of culture. As it transformed and entertainment that attracts its public into an arena especially in modern times from the US and Mexico it has the the public character of the arena was lost. 104

a fortress in the city, often disrupting its fabric with a kolos that only functions once a week. The call for buildings to have a round the clock use is often solved by adding functions, not addressing the use of the arena itself. The majority of the arena is still not open to the public for more than once or twee a week. The current situation in Ciudad Juarez demands a different approach.

At the time the ring is not used it should fulfill another function.


Nolli map of the ‘Arena de Ciudad’ and supporting program

Axonometry of the ‘Arena de Ciudad’ situated in the plaza Antonio Balderas, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

Borders: Architecture of Violence

105


Site plan of the arena embedded in the plaza

Collage showing the arena in use

106


Borders: Architecture of Violence

107


pedestrian bridge

seating area

additional program

108


C

D

B -11,4 m

penns

end

pitch entrance surgery

bull penns

-12,4 m

back entrance

slaughter house

H horse penns

shrine -10 m

E

E

lounge

-12,5 m

A

A

toreodors

dress room

-3,1m

-9 m

dress room

technical room

lounge

dressing room band

mid level entrance

-6 m

mid level entrance

technical room

G

-7,6m

toilets

-4,5m

toilets toilets toilets bar/lounge

-6,2m

F

C

Borders: Architecture of Violence

109

B

D

public


Cross section

112


Section over the arena and the plaza

Section of the inner space

Borders: Architecture of Violence

113


114


View towards El Paso

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Borders: Architecture of Violence

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Siteplan El Paso - CIudad Juarez, 1:6000

116


WI L L

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P HOTOSH OP

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BORDER PATROL

MEX TOURISM OFFICE DUTY FREE

AA

RESTAURANT

LABOUR CENTRE

ENTERTAINMENT

BAR CANTINA AMERICAN WAREHOUSE CASINO

BUSINESS CENTRE

BUSINESS

BB

PHARMACY

RESTAURANT

NIGHTCLUB

LANGUAGE TRAINING

VISA CENTER

RESTAURANT

DUTY FREE

SHOPPING

US TOURISM OFFICE

EVENTS

CC

Different functions on the pedestrian level of the bridge +7.4m, 1:2000

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DOG KENNEL

BORDER OFFICES

BORDER OFFICES

EXIT INSPECTION/ MEXICO CUSTOMS ONE-WAY GATES

TOILETS (F)

TOILETS (F)

TOILETS (M)

STAFF PARKING

SURVEILLANCE CENTER

STREET VENDOR SPACES

SURVEILLANCE CENTER

STREET VENDOR SPACES

RY

FRANKLIN MOUNTAIN SQUARE

DUTY FREE SHOP

MEX TOURISM CENTRE

MEX TOURISM CENTRE

AA

CAFE LABOUR CENTRE

TOILETS (F)

TOILETS (M)

CAFE

PLAZA DEL CHRISTO REY

CANTINA

EVENT SPACE

AMERICAN WAREHOUSE

CASINO

CASINO BUSINESS CENTRE

BB

SPEAK EASY

BAR

NIGHTCLUB

NIGHTCLUB LANGUAGE CENTER

EVENT SPACE

TOILETS (M)

TOILETS (F)

VISA APPLICATION CENTRE

RESTAURANT

US TOURISM OFFICE

PLAZA SIERRA DE JUAREZ

SURVEILLANCE CENTER

SURVEILLANCE CENTER

DUTY FREE SHOP

STREET VENDOR SPACES

STREET VENDOR SPACES

TOILETS (M)

TOILETS (M)

TOILETS (F)

ONE-WAY GATES BORDER OFFICES

EXPEDITION

ESTIGATION LS

EXIT INSPECTION/ MEXICO CUSTOMS

BORDER OFFICES

CC

Vehicle Level +7.4m, 1:2000

Pedestrian Level +13.4m, 1:2000

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Pedestrian Level

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Vehicle level

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Access area

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Cross Section CC

Cross Section AA

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TEXT ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE OF CROSSING THE BRIDGE

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James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

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EPJ International Train Station : the Generic Monument Design: Luca De Stefano Pictures: Luca De Stefano

The twin cities

Above: Aerial view of the El Paso - Juarez International Train Station

of El Paso and

To face the population

Juarez are not only the geographical center of the border region,

growth and boost shared management of facilities I designed a new plan

but they also are logistically and ideologically very central. Both cities

for train traffic in the city. The proposal consisted of a new freight hub

count more than one million inhabitants and the number is about to double

in the border crossing of Santa Teresa, shared and managed by the two

in the coming 20 years. Moreover they present an extremely organic urban

countries, in order to eliminate from the cities goods traffic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that consists

fabric, that suggests an intense interaction between the two sides of the

now the main traffic in the urban area. The land regenerated would be re-

border, even if there is nowadays an extremely critical situation. El Paso is

assigned to absorb the upcoming growth and to reinject a new interactive

in fact one of the safest cities in the US, while Juarez was the center of the

system of mobility in the city.

drug wars and it became in 2006 the most dangerous city in Mexico. As a consequence the crossing from the American side it is extremely reduced

The Golden Rush and the new train lines designed for the regional plan

while the infrastructural interaction between the two cities it is almost

were in this way integrated with a new urban metro lines, reusing part

inexistent.

of the existing freight infrastructure. Moreover the research showed the possibility of placing additional train lines in the Rio Grande ditch, taking

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Above: Urban Model scale 1:500 (USA on the top, Mexico at the bottom)

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EXISTING RAILWAYS, HIGHWAYS AND STATIONS

EX

1. EL 2. PA D FE O SO W R R N -U O TO C N W A IO R N N R TR D IL EP A M N EX O SF T IC ER A N C O EN TE R

EL PASO/JUAREZ 21 MILES RADIUS

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1. SANTA TERESA INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TERMINAL 2. EL PASO/JUAREZ INTERNATIONAL TRAIN STATION 3. GOLDEN RUSH SUPER FAST TRACK (500 Km/h) 4. GOLDEN RUSH STANDARD TRACK 5. EXISTING MOBILITY LINE 6. GOLDEN RUSH FREIGHT TRACK 7. EXISTING FREIGHT LINES HAVE BEEN SLIGHTLY MODIFIED FOR THE NEW SANTA TERESA FREIGHT POLICY

DE

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Above: El Paso-Juarez 21 miles radius: Existing train lines and stations (top) and strategy for 2050 (bottom)

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5.0

10.0

15.0

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Above: El Paso-Juarez International Train station: Cross section (USA on the left, Mexico on the right)

The twin cities of El Paso and Juarez are not only the geographical center

I designed a new plan for train traffic in the city. The proposal consisted

of the border region,

of a new freight hub in the border crossing of Santa Teresa, shared and

but they also are logistically and ideologically very central. Both cities

managed by the two countries, in order to eliminate from the cities goods

count more than one million inhabitants and the number is about to double

traffic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that consists now the main traffic in the urban area. The land

in the coming 20 years. Moreover they present an extremely organic urban

regenerated would be reassigned to absorb the upcoming growth and to

fabric, that suggests an intense interaction between the two sides of the

reinject a new interactive system of mobility in the city.

border, even if there is nowadays an extremely critical situation. El Paso is in fact one of the safest cities in the US, while Juarez was the center of the

The Golden Rush and the new train lines designed for the regional plan

drug wars and it became in 2006 the most dangerous city in Mexico. As a

were in this way integrated with a new urban metro lines, reusing part

consequence the crossing from the American side it is extremely reduced

of the existing freight infrastructure. Moreover the research showed the

while the infrastructural interaction between the two cities it is almost

possibility of placing additional train lines in the Rio Grande ditch, taking

inexistent.

advantage of the very low water level. As a result the injection of the new lines would have been less invasive for the surroundings. Central hub and

To face the population growth and boost shared management of facilities

main connection for the new mobility systems was a shared train station in

134


the city center of the two cities.

tial developments. The design have been arranged to turn the Chamizal zone, from a urban limit, into a social attractor. The EPJ international train

As emerged from the research the Chamizal area can be considered the

station is part of the new masterplan and it consists of main mobility hub

symbol of the new border region. These area, now on the Mexican side,

of the area.

was historically object of a very long political dispute that ended in 1964, when the concrete ditch for the Rio Grande was built and the border

Basing on the analysis, the location for the project was selected in one of

was finally set. The river was in fact used as track for the border but it

the areas left from the freight trains, in order to reuse part of the existing

have various times changed its path during the years, generating political

infrastructure and create a social attractor for the city. The area chosen it is

disagreements. The Chamizal is the leftover of these changes. It is now

in proximity of both city centers, on the aster edge of the Chamizal

mostly disconnected from the city of Juarez and left as a park.

zone. Case studies analyzed showed how train stations and border crossings tend to be isolated systems, closed to urban interaction, therefore

For its nature of Urban Island and for its ideological value it have been

the program previously set have been rearranged to include more social

chosen to be the representative area of the new border region, hosting

attractors.

governmental buildings, as well as community centers and new residen-

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135


Above: Structural Model scale 1:50

136


Above: Exploded axo (Orange: Golden Rush Train Station; Purple: Events; Red: Golden Rush Headquarters; Blue: US National train station; Brown: Mex National train station)

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Above: View of the access to the national platforms

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Above: Main entrance on the US side (Top), View of the border crossing bridge (Middle), Golden Rush International Platforms (Bottom)

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F O O D

H U B

/

F O O D

VA L L E Y

Feeding the border cities and promoting transborder cooperation Rei Sawaki

Above: Short Section Perspective

The design of the Food Hub / Food Valley is a result of different levels of research. In the regional scale (the whole scale of the border region), I chose “Food” as my main problem of focus and zoomed into the agricultural strip divided by the U.S, Mexico border in the middle that sits right next to El Paso and Juarez, which later became the site for the Food Valley. Starting to focus on the agricultural strip, I started to find all sorts of problems happening in the strip: the division of the strip, the crops grown, the little local consumption of the crops produced, the water problem, the bovine TB problem and the working conditions of the migrant famers. The strip was clearly coming to its limits and needed a new vision for it, leading to the proposal of the

Borders: Architecture of Violence

Food Valley. I am proposing to transform the strip into the optimal food shed for El Paso and Juarez and in order to make it functioning, the central facility “Food Hub” arose. Based on the analysis of the current site and the research on healthy diet, the master plan of the site was determined in order to feed El Paso and Juarez better healthy food. The Food Hub is a complex of different programs supporting the valley: distribution center, wholesales market, process factory, research center, farm school and accommodation. The programs were determined by the research of the strip where I picked up the problems and finding ways to deal with it. The design of the Food Hub became my main architectural focus, where I tried

141

to bring these different programs together and create a space where you can see the diversity and complexity behind food in order to feed cities. The Graduation Border Studio deals with the entire area around the border of U.S and Mexico. The border is a result of act of violence from the U.S government where they have tried to expand their land in the past changing the border 3 times and currently imposing a militarized border because of the Secure Fence act in 1994. When thinking about the border, all sorts of images can already arise (drug wars, dangerous border cities in Mexico and etc.), but as a studio we decided to drop all of our presumptions and look at the border in a clear mind. That is why we used ecological zoning


India Indonesia China Japan Korea Norway Switzerland Italy Sweden Netherlands Austria Denmark Belgium France Germany Portugal Israel Finland Poland Brazil Russian Fed South Africa Spain Slovak Rep Slovenia OECD Average Estonia Greece Czech Rep Iceland Turkey Luxembourg Ireland United Kingdom Chile Canada Australia Hungary New Zealand Mexico United States

3.6%

12%

32.4%

142

35.3%


Breakfast

El

Lunch

Dinner

Paso

Bacon

and

Eggs

Tacos

Frito

Pie

Juarez

Migas

Con

Huevo

Breakfast

El

Burrito

Steak

Lunch

Meal

Dinner

Paso

Green

Eggs

and

Ham

Carne

Asada

Tacos

Frito

Pie

Juarez

Chorizo

Migas

Burrito

Albondigas

Soup

Above: Improving the Food Habit Left: Obesity rate ranking Source: OECD Health Statistics 2014

The design of the Food Hub / Food Valley is a result of different levels of research. In the regional scale (the whole scale of the border region), I chose “Food” as my main problem of focus and zoomed into the agricultural strip divided by the U.S, Mexico border in the middle that sits right next to El Paso and Juarez, which later became the site for the Food Valley.

Borders: Architecture of Violence

Starting to focus on the agricultural strip, I started to find all sorts of problems happening in the strip: the division of the strip, the crops grown, the little local consumption of the crops produced, the water problem, the bovine TB problem and the working conditions of the migrant famers. The strip was clearly coming to its limits and needed

143

a new vision for it, leading to the proposal of the Food Valley. I am proposing to transform the strip into the optimal food shed for El Paso and Juarez and in order to make it functioning, the central facility “Food Hub” arose.


Above: Cotton Valley / Juarez Valley Satelite Image

144


Above: Cotton Valley close to the border

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146


Above: Analysis matrix of the Strip Left: Agricultural references

The design of the Food Hub / Food Valley is a result of different levels of research. In the regional scale (the whole scale of the border region), I chose “Food” as my main problem of focus and zoomed into the agricultural strip divided by the U.S, Mexico border in the middle that sits right next to El Paso and Juarez, which later became the site for the Food Valley. Starting to focus on the

Borders: Architecture of Violence

agricultural strip, I started to find all sorts of problems happening in the strip: the division of the strip, the crops grown, the little local consumption of the crops produced, the water problem, the bovine TB problem and the working conditions of the migrant famers. The strip was clearly coming to its limits and needed a new vision for it, leading to the proposal of the Food

147

Valley. I am proposing to transform the strip into the optimal food shed for El Paso and Juarez and in order to make it functioning, the central facility “Food Hub” arose.


148


F O O D

Above: Food Valley Plan Scale: 1:200,000

V A L L E Y

P L A N

1:80, 000

Beef (large)

Avocado

Freight Railway

Pork (large)

Potato

Main Roads

Poultry (large)

Onion

Residential Area

Beef (small)

Salad

Water

Pork (small)

Tomato

Port

Poultry (small)

Apple

Eggs

Stone Fruit

Dairy

Strawberry

Grain

Berries

Wheat / Corn

Orange

Beans

Lemon / Lime

Pepper

0

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1km


Above: Single Storey

Above: Middle Rise

Above: Cube

Above: Tower

Above: 5 Storey Height

Above: 9 Storey Height

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Central Office Transportation Connection Distribution Center Fruit Processing Vegetable Processing Accommodation

8,000m2 41,000m2 300,000m2 10,500m2 9,800m2 28,000m2 5,500m2

Above: Functional Scheme of Food Hub Left: Volume Study

The design of the Food Hub / Food Valley is a result of different levels of research. In the regional scale (the whole scale of the border region), I chose “Food” as my main problem of focus and zoomed into the agricultural strip divided by the U.S, Mexico border in the middle that sits right next to El Paso and Juarez, which later became the site for the Food Valley. Starting to focus on the

Borders: Architecture of Violence

agricultural strip, I started to find all sorts of problems happening in the strip: the division of the strip, the crops grown, the little local consumption of the crops produced, the water problem, the bovine TB problem and the working conditions of the migrant famers. The strip was clearly coming to its limits and needed a new vision for it, leading to the proposal of the Food

151

Valley. I am proposing to transform the strip into the optimal food shed for El Paso and Juarez and in order to make it functioning, the central facility “Food Hub” arose.


Above: Axonometric

152


Above: Exploded Axonometric

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P E R S P E C T I V

Food

154


V E

Above: Long Section Perspective S E C T I O N

d Hub

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Above: Arriving to Food Hub

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1:1,200

GL PLAN 1;1,500

1. Truck Loading Dock

Elevator Platform 1.2.Truck Loading Dock Grain Elevator 2.3.Elevator Platform 3.4.Grain Elevator Storage Refrigerated 4.5.Refrigerated Storage Variable Event Space 5.6.Variable Event Space Stairs to Food Floor 6. Stairs to Food Floor 7. Train / Boat Loading Dock 7. Train / Boat Loading Dock TrainPlatform Platform 8.8.Train ForkLift LiftSlope Slope Food Floor 9.9.Fork to to Food 10. Escalator to Food Floor Floor 10. to Food Floor 11.Escalator Car Parking 11. Parking 12.Car Farm Shuttle Bus Stop

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1. Can Floor 2. Utility 3. Maintenance 4. Storage 5. Finished Storage 6. Shipping / Receiving 7. Reception 8. Locker 9. Jar Floor 10. Grain Elevator Receiving Point 11. Refrigerated Storage 12. Canteen Kitch 13. Locker 14. Storage 15. Washing Room 16. Grain Preparation G Grain L Auction P L AHall/ N Farmer’s Forum 17. 1 : 1Capacity:430 ,200 18. Farmer’s Consultation 1. Truck 19. Office Loading Dock 2. Elevator Platform 20. Stairs / Elevator to Catwalk 21. Middlemen’s Stores 3. Grain Elevator 22. Vegetable Fruit Auction Hall / 4. Refrigerated Storage Convertible Hall Capacity:2200 5. VariableCultural Event Space (1100 each) 6. Stairs to Food Floor 23. Fruit/Vegetable Preparation 7. Train / Boat Loading 24. Middlemen’s Stores Dock 8. Train Platform 25. Meat Preparation 9. Fork Slope to Food Floor 26. DairyLift Preparation 27. Platform 10.Elevator Escalator to Food Floor 28. Lounge Cafe 11.Visitor’s Car Parking 29. Space Bus Stop 12.Terrace Farm Shuttle

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1. Locker 2. New Food Valley Processed Goods Development Center L Management P L A N 3.GWater 1 , 2 0 0Hygiene / Control 4.1 :Pest 5. Product Inspection Truck Loading Dock 6.1.Longterm Irrigation Development 7.2.Research Lounge Elevator Center Platform 8.3.Organic Farming Development Grain Elevator 9.4.Breed Improvement Refrigerated Storage 10. Genetics 5. Variable Event Space 11. Poly Culture Development 6. Stairs to Food Floor 12. Grain Elevator 7. Train / Boat Loading 13. Refrigerated Storage Dock 8. Train Platform 14. Archive 15. Canteen Space 9. Fork Lift Eating Slope to Food Floor 16. SchooltoOffice 10.Farm Escalator Food Floor 17. School Class Room 11.Farm Car Parking 18. Workers,Student Lobby / Lounge

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Above: Model Photo Hotel

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Above: Model Photo Auction Hall

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Above: Arriving to Floor Level

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Above: Food Hub / Food Valley Collage

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C RO SS- B O R D E R

T R A I N STAT I O N

Calexico-Mexicali Bordercrossing: Arjan van Toorenburg

Above: Site plan

In the last 20 years the US government has transformed the rather permeable US-Mexico border into a fortress like border characterized by the heavily guarded border wall. While culture and language is shared around the border region on both sides, the border separates a region which has the tendency to work as one. Congested border crossing areas shows a mobility problem which is unwanted for both Mexico and the US. This militarization of the border in the last decades, and the formation of one-sided policies, have resulted in the development of a region which now seems to be unable to deal with its challenges and therefore the regions potential remains untapped. The aim of the studio is to develop strategies and interventions, transcending all scales, that allow the border regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential and expected growth to unfold in an optimized way.

This thesis proposal is dealing with the border crossing area of Calexico (US) and Mexicali (Mexico) in absence of the physical border. As the border crossing facilities become obsolete, In the memory of the city, the site remains a place to move to and trough. Already connected to the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main infrastructure, this site is ideal to introduce the central railway station. By introducing this stitching element, the disconnected area becomes a catalyst for growth and an important structuring element for development in absence of the border. The site is characterized by a riverbed, disconnecting different urban areas. The proposed riverbed landscape is designed to connect these urban areas through a public route, which is covered by an elevated building volume to provide shade for this route. Vertical 167

connections between the outdoor public route and the elevated volume allow the outdoor route and the functions above to work together. By inserting a trainstation between urban areas which are separated by the border and a riverbed, and by intergrating it within existing and proposed layers of mobility and points in the city, thearchitecture of the trainstation transforms the former border crossing area, from a point of congestion to a point of connectivity and mobility. On the urban scale by connecting the different urban areas and plugging into the local lightrail and bus network; on the regional scale by connecting the city to other border region cities trough a highspeed rail.


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Proposal as briding element

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The site is marked by the intersection of the New River, the border fence and bordercrossing facilities

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80 m


This 1:1000 site model of 1m² shows how the building volume bridges the riverbed. Brushed steel sheets are engraved with the lines of streets and plots. Together with opague plexiglass buildings, and a blue polyester building volume, the model shows the intervention on an urban scale.

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1:200 Physical model

Impression of the center slit

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Collage showing the how the northern tip of the volume covers a lightrail stop.

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Cross section showing a hole in the volume, creating an atrim like space

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A A

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+1 +1 PLAN PLAN 1:200 1:200

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GF PLAN PLAN 1:200 1:200 GF

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Arjan Arjan van van Toorenburg Toorenburg P5 P5


1:200 Physical model

Collage impression, Public route

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James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

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E L

E STA D I O

The commencement of a healthier US-Mexico cross-border region Words: Jordy Vos Pictures: Jordy Vos

Above: site plan of the cross-border urban proposal

A cross-border proposal for a multipurpose stadium may not be the first thought one may have for the intricate matters taking effect along the border region of the U.S.A. and Mexico. The contrasts spoken about in this book concerns the diversities in people, habits, economies, politics e.g. Though, among many of these differences north and south of the border there are a few similiarities. One of them is the common dilemma of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s struggle with overweight. El Paso, TX, U.S.A, has dealt with some of the worst floods in the last twohundred years. During this time the border - which in El Paso / Cd.

Borders: Architecture of Violence

Juarez consists originally of the Rio Grande River - shifted south and north leaving the Chamizal area in Ciudad Jaurez relatively unused untill late in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;60s when the U.S. Government canalized the Rio Grande. The urban proposal for the Chamizal area started off with local initiatives, such as Move! El Paso. Promoting these initiatives and bringing them cross-border to altogether to address the common health issues. To do so, a very precise bottom-up approach is essential, providing an urban plan and architecture - in this case sports and nutritional programs - associated with peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s love for sports teams, parks and interactivity on a level they can participate in.

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Above: Photo of the borderwall in Nogales, Mexico

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Above: photo of road sign along highway in the U.S.A.

The health epidemic along the border wall - with itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worst diabetes conditions on the Texas-Mexico border - isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a border-problem per se. Nearly seventy-five percent of the people in both the U.S.A and Mexico cope with overweight, half of those with obesity derived from their socio-economic status, their lifestyle and diet. As the former does apply to the border region, the latter two are general problems in both countries. Nevertheless are they strongly related to the socio-economic status of local inhabitants. (Healthy) Food is often expensive and fastfood sometimes seems a quick and cheaper solution. As both countries - especially in the border region - consist of vast landscapes en remote villages, the car is in general the best way to go around. This in turn does not promote the health condition in the border region. As a group we visited the border region in late 2014. Starting off at the Atlantic we reached the Pacific Ocean in somewhat fifteen days. During

Borders: Architecture of Violence

the trip we crossed the border about seven times, being struck by major differences in both cities just on the other side of the border-wall. In some cases the border acts as a catalyst; strenghtening both cities enonomy, in other cases the border is merely a blockade and acts as a defense wall for the U.S.A. In the event of the catalyst, Americans would use the (cheap) Mexican healthcare e.g.. Mexicans on the contrary would visit the U.S. for the shopping malls and fastfood restaurants. After half a year of research about the health conditions of the border region - with the main focus on the region of El Paso/Cd Juarez - a proposal was layed out to address these conditions. Continuing on existing initiatives and taking them cross-border an urban plan with a community stadium was proposed to incoperate a new lifestyle for the inhabitants of both cities.

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Above: photo of the physical model showing the three layers of interactivity

Interactivity as key word to develop a stadium for the locals, rather than a money-machine in the suburbs that is only used for big events and hard to reach without a car. The proposal includes a three layered stadium for athletes - sports clubs, professionals -, visitors and casual participants. A stadium between two large cities to act as a buffer zone and connector to address the regional health issues. To create a stadium for the people, the sports route connecting the two cities is of uttermost importance. This route, extending the Move! El

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Paso initiative was continued through the building as the first layer of interactivity. Onto this route, visitors and casual athletes, could cycle, run or walk the stadium along various activities such as tennis courts, yoga lessons, a gym and the aquatics center. On regular hours the stadium functions as a community hub. Sportsfields are used by casual athletes and local sport clubs. Tribunes host friends and families and visitors can run through the stadium as part of their walk in the park. On special occasions, the tribunes extend over the smaller sportfields offering thousands of seats for official (i.e.


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Above: photo of the physical model of one of the exterior entrances

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Above: impression of the sports-route through the stadium

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Above: impression of the convertible aquatics center over summer and ice skating over winter.

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Above: photo of the physical model of one of the sport route entrances

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Above: photo of the physical model of one of the exterior entrances

The proposal is lesser of a building, more of a framework. Painted in white, it is for people to colour, to interact with one another, to activate the stadium. The framework was initially set up with the believe architecture can change peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behaviour, if only it interacts with peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interest.

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Three main entraces mark the square and closed side of the building, giving space for outdoor activities such as skateboard ramps, basketball, dance events etc. The open side of the building is marked by large cantilevers and open facades. This is where the sportsroute continues from the park. The open facades were continued along the sportsroute,

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Above: west elevation - view from the U.S. border towards the stadium

Above: section cut through the tennis and athletics courts.

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25 meters

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Column diameter: 1500mm

Seating area stabilizes the structure Above: structural diagram

The main challenge for a large proposal such as a community stadium in the desert was the structure and building physics. The creation of large (over fourty meters) cantilevers to protect the people from weather influences the structure was beneficial to balance out the structure and bearing the secondary structure of the sportsroute.

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Above: structural details

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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James Westcott

Arrival When entering the United States, you arrive in a land that believes in equal opportunity to succeed. A freedom of infinite possibilities defines this territory. And yet, it is a region contradictorily guarded at all times from intruders who might threaten this mindset, which is in fact so individualistic that it could collapse in an instant. With freedom inextricably comes danger. Border control ensures only moneymakers and tourists enter this nation:

One hundred years earlier, French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville made a similar comment about his encounters with individualism in America, observing that every man he encountered was “apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands.” Limitless expansion Upon arrival, early European settlers stood at a seemingly endless frontier, an adventurous land of prairies, deserts and mountains, which was soon known as the Wild West. Fear of the forces of nature, wildlife and Native Americans was born amongst the explorers, who were emboldened as they overcame them. With the Ten Amendments, the right to bear arms for personal protection was legally bound. The territory expanded rapidly until there was nothing more to explore. Communities spread across the nation, often in the absence of law enforcement and therefore under the threat of violence. This limitless sprawl is still visible today. Cities stretch out vastly across acres of land instead of condensing within defined boundaries, culminating in often desolated suburbs. Thus, the isolation of many communities has never vanished; the same violence from decades before still persists due to lack of law enforcement. Are suburbs a revival of the Wild West?

“Business or pleasure?” When standing in line for approval, the long wait is eased with a short film playing on loop on multiple screens across the border control booths. It is a video put together by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Department of State in partnership with Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, and propagates diversity and greatness, aiming to excite foreigners and citizens alike. A triumphant tune accompanies the montage of generic portraits, capturing subjects within their natural habitats: the elderly happily gardening, the businessman already thinking about his next appointment downtown. Its resemblance to a Disneyland commercial is undeniable. The question arises whether this video shows reality or instead reflects how this nation wishes to be perceived.

The urge toward limitless expansion is rooted not only in the expansion of land, but also in the individual pursuit of happiness and prosperity. Yet danger lies in the ever-lasting longing for more. Expansion has turned into a capitalistic mentality. To counter the speed of capital growth (and thus spending) of the economy, which would ultimately lead to huge inflations, the federal reserve bank was founded as a monetary institution controlling rates of interest to keep the inflation at a steady rate. A free market economy offers endless growth, but also bears the danger of prioritizing the pursuit of profit above all else, thereby producing capital growth for only the richest. Owned ‘things’ become the expression of wealth and within this individual pursuit, the fellow man without it is not a matter of interest.

At their booths, officers ask a series of personal questions to determine if you pose a threat. The smallest suspicion is further investigated in the interrogation room, which resembles a courthouse, with multiple rows of benches facing an elevated desk, behind which officers in uniform stare you down. The clear message is to stay put until called to the front; the use of digital devices is prohibited. You begin to wonder whether racial segregation is truly an issue of the past, as the vast majority of fellow suspects are minorities. The American Dream America’s reputation as the land of opportunities originated with the arrival of early European immigrants, who fled religious oppression in search for freedom. It is widely believed that the concept of the American Dream was not officially coined until 1931 by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America:

In its origins, the American Dream was about equal opportunity to success and happiness through hard work. It is now a mere optimistic state of mind oriented toward growth and prosperity. The dream has reached its half-life. Downtown it blooms, every man earning and achieving merely for himself and his family, while the war of poverty is fought in lawless suburban communities, stigmatized and blamed for the violence. This all adds up to an endless growth of inequality. Will the dream ever revive?

“That dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

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Borders - Architecture of Violence


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Borders - Architecture of Violence


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