HIGHER EDUCATION AND INNOVATION Design of an Innovative Teaching Module for an Intensive Programme on Aeolian Architecture
Edited by: Vincenzo Sapienza Luca Finocchiaro Marius Voica
HIGHER EDUCATION AND INNOVATION
Design of an Innovative Teaching Module for an Intensive Programme on Aeolian Architecture
A CKNO WLEDGEMENTS The authors ac knowled g e the researc h fram ework an d fin ancial support provided by the Eur ope an Communi ty , that has financ ed the project “Modern iz ing Learning and Teaching for Archit e c tu re through S mart and Long -lasting Partnerships leading to sustainable an d in clusive develo pme n t strate gi e s to Vitalize heritag e Villag es th rough Inn ovative Techn ologies” – VVITA, un d e r th e p rogra mme ERASMUS+; k ey ac tion KA2 – Cooperation for Inn ovation and the Exchange of Good Practi ce s; ac tion KA203 – Strateg ic Partnerships for high er education . Th e European Com missi on ‘s sup p ort f or the prod uc tion of this publication does not constitute an en dorsem en t of th e con te n ts, whi ch re fl e ct the views only of the auth ors, an d the Com mission can n ot be h eld responsible f or an y use whi ch may be mad e of the information contain ed th erein. A l l i mage s b elong to the authors , exc ept if differen tly specifieds in the caption . Lay out b y S ebastiano Grec o
HIGHER EDUCATION AND INNOVATION Design of an Innovative Teaching Module for an Intensive Programme on Aeolian Architecture
Editors: Vincenzo Sapienza, Luca Finocchiaro, Marius Voica Autho rs: Ales s and ra Bon az z a, Simon a Calvagna, Rosa Caponetto, Luc a Finoc c hiaro, Anton io Gagliano, Mihaela +ĆUPĆQ HVFX (OHQ D C ristina Mând res c u, Michele Mangiam eli, Giuseppe Mussumeci, Gianluc a Rod onò, Vincen z o Sapien z a, Alessandro Sardella, Markus Sc hwai, Marius Voic a
VVITA Participants: C h iara Bertolin, Ivo Caliò, Simon a Calvagn a, Luc a Finoc c hiaro, Antonio Gagliano, 0DULQD 0LKĆLOĆ Mih aela +ĆUPĆQHV F X (OHQD &ULVWLQD 0kQ GUHVFX *LXVHSSH 0DUJDQL $GULDQ Moleavin, Gianluc a Rodon ò, Vin cenz o Sapienz a, Markus Schwai, Marius Voic a
EDITO R IA L O FFIC E MDPI S t. Al b a n-A nlag e 66 4052 B ase l , Switzerland
I S B N 978-3-03943-712-2 ( Hbk) I S B N 978-3-03943-711-5 ( PDF) doi . org/10. 3390/books 978-3-03943-711-5
© 2021 b y the authors. C hapters in this volume are Open Access an d distributed under th e Cr e ati v e Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) lic ense, wh ich allows users to download, copy and build up on p ub l i she d artic les, as long as the author and publish er are properly credited, wh ich ensures maxi mum di ssemination and a wid er im pact of our publication s.
CON T E N T S 9
INTRODUCTION Vincenzo Sapienza, Luca Finocchiaro, Marius Voica
PART I - INT E NSI VE P RO GRAMME D ESI GN Dida ct ic module
Gianluca Rodonò, Simona Calvagna
Rura l built h eritage in margin al areas
Simona Calvagna, Gianluca Rodonò
V VIT A project
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Int ensive programme in VVI TA project
Swo t a naly sis an d in n ovation Vincenzo Sapienza, Markus Schwai
RE FE RE NC E S
PART II - AE OLI AN TEACHI NG MO D U LE D ESI GN Lo ca t io n
Aeo lia n in ten siv e period
RE FE RE NC E S
PART III - AE OLI AN TEACHI NG MO D U LE CO NTRI B U TI O NS
STAFF C ONTRI B U TI O NS C o nst ructive ch aracteristics of ty pical aeolian a rchit ecture an d meth ods for ev aluation of sust a inability 5RVD &DSRQHWWR
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G IS t ech n ology usin g free an d open source software Michele Mangiameli, Giuseppe Mussumeci
T he heritage of h an d-built terraces in th e A eolian I slan ds: sha ring best practice for resilien ce improvemen t a nd cultural h eritage preserv ation in a ch an gin g enviro nmen t
Alessandro Sardella, Alessandra Bonazza
STUDE NT C ONTRI B U TI O NS T he “co ntrolled tran sformation ” of v ern acular a rchit ecture
Int ro duction to th e arch ipelago
F ilicudi open space
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C ONC LUSIONS Vincenzo Sapienza, Luca Finocchiaro, Marius Voica
BIOG RAPH IE S
I N TRO DUCT ION
The present book shows the first results of the p r oj e ct VV IT A. VV ITA i s the a cro nym o f “Mo dernizin g Learn i ng and Te a ching f o r Archit ect ure th rough Smart and Long-lasting Partnerships leading to sustainable and inclusive developm e nt s tr ategies t o V it a lize herit a ge Villages t h r o u g h I n n o v a t i v e T e c h n o l o g i e s ” . I t i s i ns e r te d i n the Era smus+ pro gra m, measure K2 S tr ate g i c P a rt nership f o r H igher Education . It involves professors and students of the Ion M i nc u Universit y o f Archit ect ure an d Urbanism of Bucharest (UAUIM), which is the leader, the University of Catania (UNICT), and the Norwegian University of Science and Te c hnolo gy o f T ro ndheim (NT NU). The cor e of t he pro ject co nsist s o f th ree I nte ns i v e Pe r io ds (IP), ea ch o f t hem hosted in one of the co unt ry pa rt ners o f t he project. IP i s a tool ado pt ed in t he Era smus+ Program to encourage transnational teaching and learning of special subjects, through short c ou r s e s i n which invo lved a re st uden ts an d professors of universities of foreign countr i e s , g r ou ped in a St ra t egic Pa rt nersh ip. The IPs of VV IT A a re a ddressed t o d ev elop innovative methodologies in the teaching of refurbishing and revitalizing local, vernacular architecture. Such courses are called Innovative Teaching Modules (ITM). For Norway, an ITM was in last June 2018 and i t w as lo ca t ed in Lo f o t en, a n arch ipelag o off the Sca ndina via n At la nt ic coast, 70 ° N. For Italy, a n IT M wa s in la st September 2018 and it was in the Aeolian Islands, 32 m i l e s off the Sicilia n no rt hern co a st. A n I TM
in R oman ia was programmed for May 2019, in the Danube Delta, off the coast of the Black Sea. These places are very interesting; their peculiarity is the strong relation between architecture and coastal landscape. Un fortun ately , th ey sh ow wide margin al areas th at are un ex ploited. Th erefore, the project is addressed to the revitalization process of th em, th rough arch itecture. The ITM is composed by different modes: lectures, practice, and workshop. Each mode is con n ected with th e oth ers to form a sy stem. I n order to ach iev e th is sy nergy, it is very importan t to h ave a careful design of th e teach in g module. I n th e con temporary view of this subject, binomial teaching-learning is considered indivisible, as well as the partnership between teachers and learners. The learning outcomes are strictly related to th is relation , wh ich is also th e target of th e teach in g design . Th e design of an I TM is th e target of VVITA th at is assign ed to UNI CT. I n particular, this book deals with the generic design of an I TM an d its con tex tualization in th e module of the Aeolian Islands, called the Aeolian Teach in g Module (ATM). Th is book is composed of th ree parts. Th e first on e begin s with a th eoretical introduction on th e didactic design , addressed to show how it is possible to strength the partnership between teachers and learners. A fter, it describes th e ch aracteristics of the VVITA project, the generic ITM, and a SWOT an aly sis of th e I TM design .
Part II contains the design of the ATM; it speaks about the features of the location and describes the activities carried out there. Par t III i s d ivided in t wo sub-pa rt s. Th e first one consists of the contributions of the s taff i nvol v ed in t he AT M. In pa rt icular, it is formed by a corpus of propaedeutic lectu r e s ( on th e pa rt icula rit y o f t he place, on the calculation of the comfort conditions, on the e valua t io n o f t he lo ca l buildin g, an d on the u s e o f t he G IS t echno lo gy). Th e second hal f i s fo rmed by t he f ina l repo rts of th e student groups, a contribution from each one of the m. Af t er a G IS a na lysis o f th e ass i g ne d ar e a, t hey sho w t he revit a lization of the b u i l d i ng cho sen a s t he ca se st udy .
IN TENSIV E PRO G RAMME DESIGN
PA RT I
INTENSIVE PROGR A MME DESIGN Gianluca Rodonò, Simona Calvagna
di dacti c m o d u l e AB O U T T HE U NI VERSI TY’ S DI DACTI C D ESIGN With regard to the pedagogic field, since the Bologna Process, learner-centered methodology (active-learning) has spread and developed [1, 2]. This methodology is based on the planning of learning outcomes; it has been adopted in the policy of the State Members of the EU and finally, in practice. Thanks to this, a new approach on teaching design has been broadly shared; it refers to constructivist theories (Piaget, Vygotsky) and contemplates strategies, methodologies, and actions addressed to the creation of profitable occasions of learning, rather than a mere transmission of contents. Learning is the result of a succession of assimilation activities, with the related “adjustment” of learners that actively “build” their learning; therefore, it is no longer possible to think about learning as an independent action, related only to the ability of teachers to explain subjects. Thus, binomial teaching-learning is considered indivisible, as well as the partnership between teachers and learners. The student is the protagonist of his learning and he is guided by the professor mediator in a process that leads him to the planned outcomes. Didactic design is aimed at defining the environment in which he progresses, thanks to the teacher’s guidance and his active participation. The design defines the rules of the relationship between learners and teachers in order to have a prepositive dialogue, based on the learners’ perceptions of the task assigned to them; it defines
also teaching methods and evaluation modality, in order to compare effective learning outcomes with the planned ones. This kind of approach, affirmed some decades ago in the international scenario, has been encouraged by the cultural debate in the European Community on the theme of higher education. Following this approach, the present university learning programs are addressed to define the outputs of the educational processes and the skills related to them. In this context, the EU focuses on two strategies. The first one is the intergovernmental agreement known as the Bologna Process ; it began in 1999 and has been signed by most of the representatives of the governments of the Old Continent, at different moments. Its aim is to give a response to the needs that emerged from the Agreement of Sorbonne (1998), to harmonize the European system of higher education, as a prerequisite to enhance international mobility. This target has been obtained by defining two cycles of the degree course (Bachelor and Master), which are completed by the course of Philosophiae Doctor (PhD). In the successive meetings, and especially in the Bergen one (2005), a framework for the qualifications of higher education was defined . Every country listed there has promised to arrange its higher education system according to this document. Among the main outputs, there are the Dublin Descriptors  that define five skills
of learning to acquire to have the correspondent license in the attended course: - knowledge and understanding; - applying knowledge and understanding; - making judgements; - communication skills; - learning skills. Apart from the harmonization of the structure of the courses and apart from the definition of the learning typology, the process has the goal to define a quality standard for higher education processes. For this specific aim, in Bologna, they defined standards and guidelines to assure the quality level of the higher education field [6, 7]. The second strategy of the European Community is out of the traditional educational system. It promotes an education strategy for the entire duration of life, which is called Lifelong Learning; it is both formal and informal. The document which promotes such strategy is the European Qualifications for
lifelong learning (EQF) [8, 9], which provides indications on the qualification levels adopted as a guide for education systems. In th is documen t described above, th e quali f i c a t i o n l e v e l d e p e n d s o n c e r t i f i e d k n o w ledge, competence, and skills. Another project related to didactic design is Tuning , which has involved a number of European Universities under the financing o f t h e E u r o p e a n C o m m i s s i o n . I t s m a i n o u tput is a guide to program degree pr ofiles, considering competence and learning outcomes . It is possible to define the ac quired skills as the ability of the learners to use knowledge and competence acquired in the attended course. The skills must be related to the learning outcomes. They are the result of the entire learning experience. The teaching staff can use them to verify if students have developed the competence related to the qualification level that the course aims at.
IN T E N S IVE PROGRAM M E I N ERASM U S + The i d e a of suppo rt ing t he insurgen cy of a common European feeling through young mobility was born at the end of the sixt i e s . F i r s t l y , t h i s i d e a w a s p r o p o s e d b y S ofia Corradi  (also known as “Mamma Erasmus”); she was a pedagogue and an advisor of the Italian Conference of the Uni v e r s i ty Rect o rs (C RU I) t ha t a do pted an d s u p p or te d this pro po sa l. Thanks to this push, the European Community defined the first programme for young mobility in the field of education, training, you th, and spo rt . T he pro gra m, wh ich was triennial, was launched in 1987 and was called Erasmus . This is the backronym of “EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students”; it refers to Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466/69–1536), a Dutch philosopher and theologian who visited most of the countries in Europe, to understand costumes and cultures. For this reason, he became a model of European intellectual life during the Renaissance and he could be considered an icon of the European Union, still now. After its birth, the mobility programme has continuously been renewed. Thanks to it, m or e than 3 millio n st udent s ha ve h ad th e possibility of spending a semester in other countries (not necessary belonging to the EU) . An i m p or tant t o o l int ro duced by Erasmus is the Inte ns i ve Pro gra mme (IP) o f st udy . Th is ki nd of activit y co nsist s o f a sho rt course in w hi c h s tu d ent s a nd pro f esso rs o f univ ersities of for e i g n co unt ries a re invo lved, grouped
in a Strategic Partnership . The goal is to encourage transnational teaching and learning of special subjects. The theme of the IP must be added to the ordinary curricular courses . Before it begins, the u n i v e r s i t y p a r t n e r s m u s t d e c l a r e t h e n u mber of credits (CFU) th e participan ts will get through their participation. This will be establish ed accordin g to th e subject and the len gth of th e I P, for specific degree courses. IPs are shorter than ordinary courses. Th ey last from a min imum of ten day s to six weeks. An IP can be done once or it can be repeated for a limited number of years. It may not consist of research activities or conferences but should provide something new in terms of learning opportunities and skills. The IPs were introduced with the Lifelong Learning Programme in 2007–2013 , which is the financial instrument available to th e E uropean Commission for its directly managed education and training policies, durin g th e period covered by th e E uropean Union’s current financial perspective. The Lifelong Learning Programme continued the main action s laun ch ed un der previous programmes an d h as six sub-programmes : - Comen ius; - E rasmus programme; - Leon ardo da Vin ci; - Grun dtv ig; - Tran sversal programme; - Jean Mon n et Programme. Its objectives were first, to support the de v elopmen t of quality lifelon g learn in g and
thereafter, to help member states of the European Union to develop their own education and training systems. The programme supported three types of actions: connections between countries, exchanges between individuals, and exchanges between institutions. The IP is a sub-action of the thi r d a ct io n. The L i fe l ong Lea rning Pro gra mme was substituted by the Erasmus+ programme in 2 0 1 4 –2020, which ma int a ins t he st ructure of the previous one; it improves the number of s u b - p r ogra mmes a nd ma int a ins also th e p os s i b i l i ty o f t he use o f IPs. The nu m b e r o f IPs required a nd rea lized h as b e e n i ncr e asing o ver t ime. In t he last y ear, the European Community financed almost tw o hu nd r ed IPs o nly f o r It a ly [ 18] . T his is th e m e as u r e of t he success o f t he int roduction of thi s tool .
Architectural and engineering subjects fit very well with the IP, because they allow the students to have direct knowledge of th e sites an d buildin gs with wh ich th ey can be in volv ed. I n th is case, it could be strategic to accompany the initial lectures with practice an d worksh ops. With th e first ones, y ou can con tex tualize th e con cepts in the local landscape or tradition; with the second one, you can address the attention of the students to the design or redesign, wh ich is th e first target of th is matter. European Un ion Programm es 1986-1989
Lifelon g Learning Program me
PA RT I
INTENSIVE PROGR A MME DESIGN Simona Calvagna, Gianluca Rodonò
RU R A L B U ILT HE R I TAG E I N MA R G I N A L A R E AS WHAT DO ES I T M EAN, M ARGI NAL? If we accept the common definition of marginal as an element of secondary importance , not essent ia l f o r t he f unct io nin g of a system, we should think of marginal architectures as a low-quality space, without a p r e ci s e r ol e, a residua l spa ce in a state of p ar ti al ab a ndo nment , like a wa st e [1 9]. The s e conn o t a t io ns ca n be o bserved at th e margins of urban settlements, close to cities, in those areas of transition between dense and widespread settlement that, in the best case, configure urban peripheries, and which degenerate into informal settlements such as slums and favelas. In this case, the margin is considered an urban and metropolitan phenomenon. The urban peripheries associate the physical condition of “margin” with respect to the d e ns e c i ty wit h a so cia l ma rgina lit y, determ i ne d b y th e pro ximit y t o QR Q OLHX[  or a b a n d o n e d a r e a s ( i n d u s t r i a l o r i n f r a s t r u ctural IULFKHV) and the absence of services and fu nc ti o na l mix (do rmit o ry dist ric ts). Th e degrading conditions of the suburbs are w e l l know n a nd ha ve been a f ield of study and experimentation for several decades . In Italy, the experience promoted by Re nz o P i ano, a s pa rt o f his lif et ime sen ator activity, is significant. At the end of 2013, he launched the G124 program, through which every year, a group of young architects, under his guidance, is recruited to experiment concretely his strategy of “mending the s u b u r b s”, a imed a t increa sing t h e quali ty of l i fe of t hese pla ces t hro ugh micro-in te r ve nti ons wit h t a ngible result s, f ramed in
a lon g-term overv iew [2 2]. If we focus our attention not so much on the edge of urban conurbations, but on those areas whose marginality is determined by the condition of EHLQJ RXWVLGH the main centers of economic and cultural development (th e cities), we are faced with th e , JQRUHG Realm recently defined by Rem Koolhaas as “Countryside”. The impressive exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum in New York poses the provocative question: “Are we really heading to an absurd outcome wh ere th e vast majority of man kin d lives in on ly 2 percen t of th e h eart’s “ov erpo pulated” surface – and the remaining 98 percent would be in h abited by on ly on e-fifth of humanity, staying there to service them?”. The forecast of the UN report to which Koolhaas refers [2 4] seems to con firm th e ph enomenon of 7RWDO 8UEDQL]DWLRQ that Henri Lefebvre prefigured as an inescapable world scenario . By turning the spotlight on the enormous territory of the countryside, it h igh ligh ts its complex ity an d asy mmetric relations with urban settlements, in which all services are centralized and to which the countryside directs its production. In this sense, there is no real limit between city and countryside, but there is a hybridization between the two systems in favor of Total Urbanization – as observed by Lefebvre – which has exploded the long-established sociospatial boundaries (city-countryside), creating a densely urbanized landscape whose contours are extremely difficult to th eorize [2 6].
This perspective changes if the concepts of limit and threshold are reconsidered. If the cou ntr yside is a co nt inuo us system with r e s p e c t t o t h e c i t y , i s i t p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t ify new margins with respect to these new w ays of g l oba l urba n set t lement ? The r e ar e pla ces f ro m which it is possible to observe or inhabit the world in a different w a y . M a r g i n a l a r e a s a r e o u t s i d e t h e d o minant economic, financial, cultural, and m ob i l i ty fl o ws, so o ne ca n see in t hem th e permanence of characteristics related to the past. These are often places that are difficult to access or with unfavorable living c ond i ti ons ; remo t e pla ces, where u rban izat i o n p r o c e s s e s h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n a r r i vi ng d u e to geo gra phica l, po lit ica l, or social c au s e s , or iso la t ed pla ces t ha t do t th e urbanized countryside, the last strongholds of stories linked to the land and people who h a v e r e s i s t e d t h e p r o c e s s e s o f h o m o l o g ation of industrialized society. Therefore, marginal architectures should be conside r e d as an expressio n o f geo gra phical an d geomorphological hostile conditions that c har acte r i ze pa rt o f t he Ea rt h; o n t h e oth er hand, they can be understood as an expression of the authentic bond between man and places. Marginal architectures are less interested in contemporary standardization processes, with a more authentic l i nk w i th their la ndsca pe. In ma rgin al areas landscapes, it is possible to perceive this harmonic union, without the anthropic dimension being predominantly overwhelmi ng on the n a t ura l o ne, era sing t he sign s of the p l ac e [ 27] .
WHY ST U DY M ARGI NAL Marginal architecture constitutes a line of research in the debate on contemporary architectural design. What Carlo Aymerich  points out about the dichotomy of positions in which architectural culture recognizes and divides itself is relevant in thi s c onte xt. T he f irst po sit io n is iden tifiable in the “bigness” of which Koolhaas speaks , in the paradigm of the large dimension, which concentrates its attention in ci ti e s and l a rge met ro po lises. T he proposed models are characterized by an overw he l m i ng , shining visibilit y, wit h sen sual geom e tr i e s and iridescent sha pes a nd colors. For these realizations, tools, techniques, and m ate r i a ls current ly a va ila ble allow for t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i v e i n n ovations until recently unimaginable, while ofte n i nvol v ing high invest ment s. D i am e tr i ca lly o ppo sed is a met ho dological ap p r oach tha t ha s a deep dist rust in develop m e nt m o dels ba sed o n linea r a n d quan titative growth and that translates into a p hi l os op hy t ha t shif t s t he a t t ent io n from th e ci ty to the t errit o ry, t o t he rura l la ndscape and small towns with their traditional and p r e - m od e r n co nst ruct io n. In the l atter t heo ret ica l f ra me o f referen ce is the interest in marginal architecture exp r e s s e d b y t his wo rk. The d i d actica l experiment a t io n which is ill u s tr ate d i n t his bo o k is led wit hin t he framework of the study of rural built heritage in m ar g i nal area s a s a reso urce f o r t he arch ite c tu r al d esign. The study of rural marginal contexts is not
o n l y a i m e d a t t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n , r e q u a l i f ication , an d recov ery th rough updati ng interventions, but is considered a source of in spiration to iden tify n ew path s to achieve a new quality of the built environment. Through a decisive innovation in the context of interventions on existing heritage based on tradition al approach es, th is study relaunches the role of the building sector as a driv in g force to promote in clusiv e and sustainable development, towards a partn ersh ip of tech n ical scien tific skills. I t is precisely to follow th e logic of a development th at is as sustain able an d in clusive as possible; today th e basic arch itecture of rural areas deserves n ew atten tion . We can define this kind of architecture as “vernacular” because of its indissoluble link to the societies that produce it and to the environ men t in wh ich it is located [3 0]. Th e prin ciples guidin g th is arch itecture can help to overcome the limits within which the architecture of globalization and industrialization is increasingly imprisoning h uman h abitats, ten din g towards standard ization and consumption of environmental and energy resources. On the one hand, th ere is a lin k to th e ph y sical dimen sion of livin g, wh ich is ex pressed th rough constructive sincerity, anchorage to places, and more gen erally , with a sort of h y bridization between architecture, nature, and construction . On the other hand, vernacular architecture in marginal rural areas is stron gly lin ked to th e place an d respectful of n ature’s rh y th ms. E ven th ough rural set-
tl e m e nts d o no t necessa rily ha ve t h e comforts of contemporary living and do not g u ar ante e inclusio n a nd f a irness o f access to infrastructure and social services; they favor the r edisco very o f a ut hent ic con tact with the natural dimension of living and w i th hu m an mea sures. The p r e s e nce o f cult ura l herit a ge an d ty pical productions could often represent a val i d s tar ti n g po int f o r t he la unch of a development program, with the aim of both increasing the residents’ well-being level and resolving any environmental criticaliti e s [27, 32] . The study of these forms of settlement prior to industrial urbanization – and today’s alternatives to it – is even more interesting following the spread of the COVID pandemic of our times, which has shown how the system of continuous and immoderate growth is not compatible with the essential right to health of the human population .
S t a r t i n g f r o m t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e d idactic experimentation carried out within the VVITA project, illustrated in the following pages, wants to sensitize the new generations of designers to the lesson given by the minor architectures present in marginal rural areas, considered as built heritage. The latter is not only considered a value to be protected, but a tool for the requalification of degraded areas or for the revitalization of aban don ed areas. Th e aim of the design simulations led into the workshop has been to transform the condition of marginality into opportunities for experimenta tion of alternative and innovative habitats. The challenge posed by a project centered on the principles of vernacular architecture is therefore to transform marginal places from derelict to privileged for the observation and practice of new lifestyles and ways of living.
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INTENSIVE PROGR A MME DESIGN /XFD )LQRFFKLDUR 0LKDHOD +ĆUPĆQHVFX (OHQD &ULVWLQD 0kQGUHVFX 0DULXV 9RLFD
V V ITA PR O J E CT VVIT A P R O JECT VV ITA i s the a cro nym o f t he pro j ect called “Modernizing Learning and Teaching for Architecture through Smart and Long-lasting Par tne r s hi p s lea ding t o sust a ina ble an d in clusive development strategies to Vitalize he r i tag e Vi lla ges t hro ugh Inno va t iv e Tech nol og i e s ”  . It is insert ed in t he Erasmus+ p r og r am , mea sure K2 St ra t egic Pa rtn ersh ip for Higher Education. It involves professors and students of the Ion Mincu University of Ar c hi te ct ure a nd U rba nism o f Buch arest ( UAUIM ) , a pro j ect lea der, t he U niversity of Catania (UNICT), and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) of Tr ond he im.
The project proposes a transnational coo peration that raises the question of higher education in Europe and underlines the thematic approach of the complexity of current rural heritage conditions, actual chances and challenges where the traditional division of disciplines is outdated . The overall goal of the project is to enhance the quality and the relevance of higher education in architecture on current approaches of revitalization of rural build heritage environments, rural landscape, an d tradition al con struction sy stems by improvin g an d div ersify in g th e curricula in the university partners involved in VVITA p r o j e c t .
VVITA project team  UAUIM
Partner institution Project Manager Marius Voica
INCD URBAN-INCERC Association “Ivan Patzachin - Mila 23”
Project Management Team Elena Cristina Mândrescu
Association Save Danube and Delta
National Institute of Patrimony
Technische Universität Wien
International Center for the Conservation of Architectural Heritage
Associated Partners The Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development (DDNI)
Lead partner organisation
Communication & Dissemination
VVITA Rural Forward Platform
VVITA - Modernizing Learning and Teaching for Architecture through Smart and Longlasting Partnerships leading to sustainable and inclusive development strategies to Vitalize heritage Villages through Innovative Technologies An Erasmus+ project in the field of Strategic Partnerships for higher education whose main objective is the development of Innovation, through cooperation and the exchange of good practices. Coordonated in Romania by « National Agency for Community Program in the Field of Education and Professional Formation (AgenĠia NaĠională pentru Programe Comunitare în Domeniul EducaĠiei úi Formării Profesionale - ANPCDEFP) ».
Start: 01-11-2017 - End: 31-10-2019 Project Reference: 2017-1-RO01-KA203-037314 EC Grant: 224419 EUR
Sfistofca-Filicudi-Lofoten ¶ Diapositiva 23
This international cooperation will take steps towards the establishment of intercultural changes and the enhancement of different learning processes and teaching modules in education tradition across cultures. The project has a social inclusion approach in the selected local rural settlements with social, civic, interethnic, and intercultural dimensions, and disadvantaged and remote architectural heritages through the activity of the Intensive Programme (IP), hosted by each partner institution. These IPs, which are the core of the VVITA project, serve as local teaching laboratories where the proposed Innovative Teaching Module (ITM) is implemented and tested, as well as the developed methodological guideline, which will lead to a sustainable and inclusive development of strategies to vitalize the heritage of villages. The VVITA project is directly addressed to participants of the partner higher education institutions: teachers and students, in the related disciplines of rural built heritage, but also to the associated partners and different stakeholders in academia and professions. For Italy, the IP is hosted in the Aeolian Islands and it is called Aeolian Teaching Module (ATM); its official name is “Multicultural applied study on rural sustainable spontaneous heritages, approaching multi-inter-criteria analysis for risk evaluations of energy and mechanical performances”.
C OLLOC AT I ON I N TH E CURRI CULU M S TUDIORUM The ITM s of t he VV IT A pro j ect a re a ddressed to s tu d e nts who co me f ro m t he pa r tn er un ive r s i ti e s and f ro m dif f erent degree courses. In particular, UAUIM consists of three faculties: Faculty of Architecture, Faculty of Ur b an P l an ning, a nd F a cult y o f Int erior Ar chitecture. Within its higher education expertise area, the university offers full-time degree programs that are conducted in English for the architecture fields of study and Fr e nc h f o r t he urba nism f ield of study . A l l the s e three co urses a re suit a ble for th e VV ITA p r oj ect . UNICT w as f o unded in 1434 a nd it is on e of the oldest Italian universities. Among the most frequented degree courses, there is Engineering, which is divided in two main branches: Information and Communicati ons Te c hn o lo gy a nd C ivil Engineerin g an d A r chi te c tu re. T his seco nd bra nch is carried out by the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DICAR), with seven degree courses. Among them, a degree course in Architectural Engineering is liste d . It has very high perf o rma nce, because i t has r e c ognit io n by t he Euro pea n Communi ty and al so , it a llo ws it s gra dua t es to write the m s e l v e s bo t h in t he list o f engineers an d i n the l i s t o f a rchit ect s. It f it s very well with the s u b j e ct o f VV IT A.
The Faculty of Architecture at NTNU is internationally recognized for its tight connection between teaching and research activities. New knowledge is continuously developed with a critical and multidisciplin ary approach in th e areas of architecture, urban planning, design, and visual arts, with an emphasis on sustainability, h ealth , aesth etics, eth ics, tech n ology, and innovative processes and learning methods. Th e Faculty h osts four degree courses. Amon g th em, Arch itecture an d Sustainable Architecture have the largest relationship with VVI TA . I n th eory , all studen ts of th ese courses can apply to take part in the VVITA activities, but th e didactic modules are specially addressed to th e studen ts of th e last y ears of th e courses. I n fact, in th ese on es, most of the professionalizing subjects are located. Th e related kn owledge gives to th e participan ts th e ch an ce to take part in th e work of th e I TM with a proactiv e role an d the ITM is also an opportun ity to apply th ese ones. The ITMs are also open to PhD students, with theses related to the themes of VVITA, as evaluation of risks, en ergy efficiency, ecological architecture, rural heritage, or a rural lan dscape study area.
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INTENSIVE PROGR A MME DESIGN Vincenzo Sapienza
IN TE N S IV E P R OG R A M M E I N t he VVI TA PR OJECT DU R A T ION According to the rules established by the EU for the IP , the duration of the ITM is established to be for ten days. This slot cou l d ap p ea r sho rt . Indeed, t he shortn ess is not a l i m i ta t io n, beca use it ma kes th is activity similar to professional work, in which ve r y ofte n t he designer is pushed to get a d e s i g n p r opo sa l in a sho rt a mo unt of time, by clients, financial deadlines, opportuniti e s of the building co mpa nies, a nd so on . In a typ i c al da y o f t he IT M, t here are eigh t hours of work, from nine a.m. to six p.m., w i th an hour f o r t he lunch. O n so me occas i ons , s om e co mmo n ext ra a ct ivit ies are org ani z e d , aft er t he da ily wo rk. The r e ar e s ome except io ns t o t his stan dard or g ani z ati on. F o r inst a nce, o n t he first day , the activities begin in the evening to faci l i tate the pa rt icipa t io n o f peo ple comin g from abroad. Vice versa, on the last day, there is a free afternoon, to allow the opp or tu ni ty to o rga nize t he ret urn t rip. Th e in ternal transfer, from the hosting university
to th e location of th e worksh op, takes half a day . Th e total amoun t is sev en ty -two h ours. Ten h ours are reserved for meetin gs: two hours for the ice breaker meeting, three for the intermediate presentation, and five hours f o r t h e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e l e c t u r e s o ccupy sixteen hours: usually, the first two days after the first one. Practice occupies eight hours, satisfied especially in the first h alf of th e I TM. Th e worksh op takes up the other part of the duration, about thirtysix h ours. I t is importan t to compile a calen dar of the activities and a timetable in advance, to allow th e participan ts to plan th eir journey. A s to th e period of th e y ear, it is n ot simple to ch oose th e best solution , because there are some contrasting needs that are not easy to recon cile. Firstly , it is better to ch oose good seasons, spring and summer, because during the worksh op, it is n ecessary to h av e th e possibility
Duration of the Innovative Teaching Module of VVITA
Ice breaker meeting
3 half days 4 hours for each
Day II – III
4 quarters of the day
4.5 days 8 hours for each
Day V – X
of w or ki ng in t he o pen a ir, f o r surv ey s an d direct observations. Furthermore, on the one hand, it is necessary to take into conside r ati on that st udent s dislike missing ex ams. Therefore, they prefer to have a stop during the d i d ac ti c perio ds o f t heir university an d participate in the ITM, rather than to miss s e s s i ons of exa ms. T his pref erence is n ot so strong in the summer exam session, because it continues for a long time. On the other hand , the fina l pa rt o f t he co urses is gen eral l y r i ch of t he mo st impo rt a nt t o pic s an d it i s not ad vi sa ble t o lo se it . F ina lly, you h ave to take into consideration the possibility of accommodation in the location of the w or ks hop . T heref o re, it is a lso necessary to
exclude the high touristic season, in order to have more possibilities and reduce the cost. Considering the different needs, May or September could be chosen. If you chose A pril, a partial overlap with th e E aster Holiday may reduce the loss of university lessons. This last option could be disagreed with the professors, for the requests of th eir family . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e ration the needs of the teaching staff, but generally, the timetable has the necessary flexibility to recover the lost teaching h ours, wh ile th e oth er busin ess of research an d academy is spread un iformly .
P R E R EQU IS ITES The w or d “prerequisit es” mea ns t he kn owle d g e that st udent s must ha ve bef ore starting the didactic activities. Their definition is a qualifying factor in the teaching design because, in case of lack thereof, the r i s k of i ne fficiency is very high. Wit h out th e ne e d knowledge, in f a ct , it co uld be diffi cult to be efficient in the development of the w or ks . The prerequisites are not declared in the calls of the ITM because the participants must belong to the listed degree courses (and preferably, to the final years) or to PhD courses. Generally, these conditions ar e e nou g h t o ha ve a co nspicuo us budget of knowledge in the field of architecture and e ng i neering subj ect s. In p ar ti cu l ar, IT M ha ve t wo ma in a ctiv ities: - the i nte r p ret a t io n o f t he pla ce; - the r e al i z a t io n o f a revit a liza t io n design . In order to take part in the first activity, havi ng g ood kno wledge in t he f ields of Hist o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , R e p r e s e n t a t i o n T e c hni q u e s , and U rba nism is required. To take p ar t in t he seco nd o ne, it is required to have a go o d kno wledge in t he fields of Architecture Design, Building Technology, Building Science, Building Physics, and B u i l d i ng Re f urbishment a nd Rest o ration . This list is generic; each ITM could require s p e c i fi c kno wledge. T he ca ll o f t he project asks the candidates to show a list of acquired credits during their curriculum studiorum. During the selection phase, the commission of access has to check these documents because the nominations must
t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e k n o w l e d g e a lready acquired by th e can didates as well. At the end of the phase of selection, the commissions have to present a report to the staff, which could establish eventual adjustmen ts of th e didactic program, in order to take into consideration the level of kn owledge.
S T UDENT S’ SELECTI ON S tu d e nts are select ed by f o llo wing th e proc e d u r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . I n p a rti cu l ar , the ca ll o f select io n is publish ed on the w e b s i te o f t he pro ject a nd o n th e web s i te s of the pa rt ner universit ies. It is also advertised both in traditional and innovative w ays . A c c ording t o t he f irst o ne, so me poste r s ar e p r i n t ed a nd lo ca t ed in t he common p ar ts of the buildings o f t he pa rt ner in stituti ons . The ca ll is a lso published t hrough th e s oc i al p ag es o f ea ch universit y departmen t and is sent through some mailing lists, to fol l ow an i nno va t ive wa y. The cal l i s o pened a t lea st t hree mon th s befor e the ITM begins a nd it rema ins open for ab ou t thr e e weeks. A s to the e ligibilit y o f t he pa rt icipan ts, students must belong to a degree course in Architecture, Urbanism/Landscape, Interior Design, Architectural Engineering, and Sustainable Architecture; it also allows in P hD s tu d e n t s wit h a t hesis o n eva luation of Risks, Rural Heritage or Rural Landscape, and othe r simila r t hemes. Students who come from rural areas are p r e fe r r e d beca use t hey co uld t a ke adv an tag e s fr om t he co nt ent s o f t he pro ject VVI TA and i ncrea se t he po ssibilit y o f workin g in thi s fi e l d . The A p p l i c ant Do ssier must be co mposed of the fol l ow i n g do cument s: - Europass curriculum vitae: students have to specify the year of the course, passed exams with the evaluation, and the averag e of e v alua t io ns;
- Letter of intent (max 1 page), in which they have to show the reasons why they would like to take part in th e project; - Recommendation letter (not mandatory, max 1 page); - P ortfolio, un derly in g works of design, d ocumentations, and past courses in the field of th e project (built h eritage, rural, sustainability in buildin gs, buildin g tech n iques). Th e list may con sider oth er specific requests. For in stan ce, th e call may also request applican ts to ex press a favorite field of work, in order to h ave a wide set of compet ences in th e workin g group of th e worksh op. Studen ts h ave to apply by sen din g th e form by email to the members of the project team, who are called to carry out the selection process. Th e process of selection is composed of two sessions: the first one is evaluation of the documents; the second one is an interview with each applicant – th is is n ot man datory . I n th e case of th e n umber of applicants bein g lower th an th e n umber of positions, an extension of the deadline or a re-opening of th e call are possible. Th e studen ts must be in formed th at th ey will receive a grant; the university may prefer to giv e a refun d of th e costs. I n an y case, it is not possible to exceed the unit costs determined by the European Commission, according to the Erasmus+ guideline and wh at th e project VVI TA establish es.
METHODOLOGY The ITM begins with the ice breaker meeting. It is addressed to stimulate the mutual knowledge of the members of staff. It may provide a tour of the city of the host u ni v e r s i ty. The te achi ng a ct ivit y is co mpo sed of differe nt p ar ts , a ll co nnect ed a mo ng t hem, as to for m a s ys tem. T hese pa rt s a re st ructured in the fol l ow i ng wa y. - LECTURES: The first phase of the ITM is dedicated to theory aimed at providing the knowledge necessary to carry out the workshop activities. These lessons are addressed both to cultural and technical issues; for the first subject, for instance, the hi s tor i cal e v o lut io n o f t he pla ce, la n dscape features, and architectural characteristics m ay b e focused o n; f o r t he seco nd on e, for i ns tanc e , c lima t e co ndit io ns, building ch arac te r i s ti c s , a nd t echnica l so f t wa re may be tr e ate d . - PRACTICE : T he lect ures a re a cco mpan ied by practice on the same subject. Thanks to thi s , the st udent s ha ve t he po ss ibility to contextualize knowledge, to apply skills, and to mature competences. Practice is mostly concentered in the first half of the module to intensify the relation with the l i nke d l e cture. - WORKSHOP: Each partner of VVITA has chos e n a pla ce in which t o ha ve a design e xe r c i tati on .
They are marginal and underexploited, ev en if th ey are located in touristic areas. They are also places in which there is a stron g relation between arch itecture, landscape, an d sea. The workshop takes place in these chosen location s an d con sists of an immersive activity. Students are divided into heterogen eous work groups. A study area is assigned to each group, for th e an aly sis. The transfer journey to the location of the workshop takes place after the lectures and the related practice. It has some intermediate stops, in sign ifican t places. This way, the participants, have the possibility to approach gradually th e lan dscape features an d th e cultural issues of th e place. On th e first day of th e worksh op, it is good to organize a walk with all participants. It could also be an opportunity to v isit all the buildings chosen as case studies. Before startin g th e worksh op, it is importan t to explain th e tasks. With a better kn owledge of the place, the students could have a differen t perception of th e work required. The attention must be addressed to the main elements of the place, i.e., relation between architecture and context, materials that are used in the construction process, water and waste systems, natural ventilation , day ligh tin g, an d so on . The assignment of the case studies is realized thanks to a lottery, in order to give each group the same possibility. Working groups are formed so as to h av e represen-
Main activities of the Innovative Teaching Module VVITA I day II day III day
Arriving of the participants Ice break meeting
Venue of the university
Frontal lessons + practice Internal transfer
Approach to the location
Practice V day
Acclimatization Workshop Workshop Intermediate presentation Workshop Practice
Location of the workshop
Final presentation Going back of the participants
tati ve s of all na t io na lit ies a nd o f gen der, in e ach of them. The as s i g ned t a sks t o st udent s must be clear and proportioned to the real possibility to c om p l e te th em. O n t he o ne ha nd, it is n ece s s ar y to have a la rge ra nge o f requests, to meet the preferences and to improve the knowledge of the students. On the other hand , i t i s n ecessa ry t o limit t he req uests, to
improv e th e quality of th e output. Th e tasks must approach different scales (districts and buildings), different subjects (architectures and technologies), and different results (knowledge of the place and revitalization design s). The choice of the case studies is very important. It is possible to list the attributes th at th ey must h ave. Th e case studies must
represent the features of the place, but the y m u s t a lso ha ve so me peculia rities able to keep the attention of the students and to s ti m u l ate idea s f o r ref urbishment design . Boundary and volume must be completely defined, but they can be ruined buildings or i nc om p l et e spa ces. F ina lly, t hey must be e as i l y accessible a nd ea sy t o survey . Th erefore, the staff have to choose the case s tu d i e s w i th a t t ent io n. Al ong the ITM, t wo a ssessment s a re located, the fi nal an d t he int ermedia t e presen tation of the s tu d ent s’ wo rk. In bo t h o f t hese, th e working groups are called to show their work. In the first one, the teaching staff g i v e s c or r e ct io ns a nd a dvice t o each on e. In the second one, they will highlight the s tr e ng ths and wea knesses o f t he works. It i s g ood to prepa re a bo o klet o f t h e I TM. Thi s d oc u m ent ha s t o sho w: - s ynthe s i s of t he dida ct ic a ct ivit ies; - d e s cr i p ti on o f t he lo ca t io n; - l e ar ni ng o ut put s; - tas ks for s t udent s; - e xp e c te d o ut co mes; - w or ki ng g ro ups; - l i nks w i th ot her disciplines; - cal e nd ar a nd t imet a ble o f a ll a ctivities; - p r ac ti cal a nd t o urist ic inf o rma t io n; - s u g g e s ti on s f o r a cco mmo da t io ns. The booklet must provide also images of the l oc ati ons, hist o rica l inf o rma t io n , ph otos and d e s c r i pt io ns o f t he ca se st udies, maps of places, with the indication of meeting points and of transfers, and even blank
pages, to use for notes. The booklet may be av ailable on lin e, or sen t by email, to all participan ts. I t is good to prin t a n umber of h ard copies to deliv er to th e participants. By providin g th em with a badge, it is possible to h elp people to remember each other’s n ames. This could be informal (pins, bangles, or n ecklaces). T h e d i d a c t i c a c t i v i t i e s m a y b e a c c o m p an ied by collateral activities, th at must have two goals: - to in crease th e kn owledge of th e pl ace; - to increase the relationship among the participan ts. These activities must be listed in the program because they could be relevant for someone, in relation to the assigned case studies or th e specific task. To obtain th e first goal, th ese kin ds of activities can be con sidered: - Meetin gs, with someon e wh o lives or works in th e place, wh o can ex plain th e strengths an d weakn esses of th e place, by telling of h is ex perien ce; - Semin aries, with ex perts of subjects related to th e main in terests of VVI TA; - Cin eforum, with a film set in th e spot; - Visits to monuments, museums, belvederes, an d so on . For the second goal, these activities can be con sidered: - Common lun ch es, din n ers, or h appy hours; - R ole-play in g games; - Sport activities (footin g, trekkin g, h ik ing).
ASSESSME NT CRI TERI A AND M ETH ODS The ITM learning process is based on the idea that d e s i g n is t he ma in educa t io nal tool in the ar chi tect ure lea rning f ield. T he studen t can experience his learning process through hi s i ns i g hts a nd rea so ning a bo ut his design proposal. The design proposal “mirrors the cog ni ti v e pro cesses t ha t t a ke pla ce in th e mind of the student. Through the design proposal, the student situates himself in society and cu l tu r e. T he design pro po sa l mediates teaching, and carries on the learning proce s s ” [3 6 ]. Therefore, the assessment of the learning outcomes is made through the evaluation of the coherence among the process, the visual representation of the design, and the p r e vi ou s an a lysis ca rried o ut in t he field. The management of the design process can be considered the main learning outcome of the ITM : thro ugh t his pro cess, st uden ts can Main learning outcomes of the Innovative Teaching Module
principles and strategies to revitalize the local built heritage
XVH RI VSHFLÀF modelling methods and inter-disciplinary design and software
application of the acquired knowledge and skills on the assigned site environment
apply th e acquired kn owledge an d sk ills on the assigned site. The assessment criteria related to th e design process more specifically are: - coherence between the conceptualization of th e an aly sis carried out in th e field and th e design ch oices; - depth an d accuracy of th e readin g of the con tex t in formation ; - ability in revitalizing the local built heritage th rough specific action s. Th e evaluation of th e outputs is realized by the staff during the workshop activities, with in termediate an d fin al presen tation s of the work an d public discussion s an d debates. The students are also called to present a fin al report an d a poster of th eir complete work, in order to sh ow th eir learn in g experience. This request pushes them to have critical reflections on the work they have done.
P OST - P R O C ESSI NG The final outputs of the ITM are refurbishment designs of local buildings or small areas, assigned as case studies. The word “design” must be taken in a wide meaning. In fact, the design could be composed of drawings and sketches but also by analysis, measures, thematic charts, and so on. In addition, the design could be addressed in various directions: from large scale, to detailed drawings; from numerical modelling, to aesthetical concept, and so on. Each group of students must present its work at the end of the ITM. After, it has to compile a final report, within the deadline fixed by the teaching staff and according to a common layout. Both of these performances will be processed by the staff in order to evaluate the quality of the work and the achievement of the previewed outcomes to give to the participants the profit certificate. The reports will be collected and published on the web site and in the final book of the project. The reports will be considered also in other dissemination activities, such as conferences. The students may be called to produce further outputs, related to the collateral activities, as photos, videos, notes, or sketches. They will be used especially in the communication activities as exhibitions or competitions. At the e nd o f t he IT M, t he pa rt icip an ts are also asked to compile a personal evaluation form. With it, they can highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of the module. The anal ys is o f t hese da t a must be used in the d e s i g n o f o t her IT Ms.
PA RT I INTENSIVE PROGR A MME DESIGN Vincenzo Sapienza, Markus Schwai
SWOT AN A LY SIS AND INNOVAT I ON
SWOT analysis  is a good tool to evaluate the main aspects of the ITM and to highlight the items that are important to control during its development. - STRENGTHS: The main goal of the ITM is to design the revitalization of a particular place. For this reason, the possibility of living and working on this site is an important advantage to deepen the knowledge and interpretation of the site. Knowledge of the location is already the first goal; in fact, thanks to the particularity of the chos e n pla ces, direct kno wledge can improve the cultural background of the participants, both students and professors. The nature of the ITM is multinational; this is an important richness because during meetings and practical works, it is possible to compare different opinions and points of view, which often arise from the participants’ cultural background. These different views, opinions, and approaches create a big tank of possibilities. The teaching staff of the ITM is varied; they have different ages, gender, and backgrounds. Each component brings interest into/inside the project. For this reason, goals and outputs have a multicultural nature. This is an important power point because gives the participants, especially the students, the ability to have a global approach to the subjects. - OPPORTUNITIES: The VVITA project plans three ITMs, each one in a different partner
country. Therefore, the participants have the opportunity to relate themselves with the other participants on different occasions, and in different places, with different building traditions. This means that not only are the local challenges of interest and will be dealt with, but also the particularity of each place’s traditional way of doing things/of building things will be transferred knowledge. The official language of the ITM is English. Generally, university students have a good lev el; n everth eless, th e I TM is for th em an opportunity to improve their knowledge of technical terms and idiomatic expressions. - WEAKNESSES: The duration of the ITM must necessarily be short, to reduce the overlap with the regular university courses. For this reason, it is very important to control the development of the period and to respect the timetable. Again, the short time makes the knowledge among the participants superficial. For this reason, the performance of the working groups may be not optimal. Another point to take under control is the costs of the ITM, because the project has a maximum amount to refund to the participants. To avoid extra costs, it is very important to organize transfers, accommodation, and food, in advance. Another challenge here is the language. Although, as described above, it is common to use English as a working language, the lack of enough words to describe situations, other than technical ones (which may
be described with drawings), often leads to misunderstandings and thereafter to social inferences. This must be tackled because a side goal of the ITM is also to be a base for learning, to get to know other people, and friendships.
- THREATS: Since most of the activities during the ITM are outdoors and one particularity of the ITMs is its distant location, at difficult to reach points, the local climatic and weather conditions are a relevant fact. It is impossible to plan these, so it becomes an important part of planning alternative shuffling of activities. Another local challenge is that most of the buildings are not inhabited and are therefore, often difficult to access. This is another theme to think about when planning. The shortness of the ITM could be a problem to balance the learning load. The period is full of activities (lectures, practice, transfers, surveys, drawings, and so on) and so the risk of reducing the deepening of each activity and the quality of the outputs is very high. The locations of the ITM are very interesting places, out of the common touristic tours. The participants could have the curiosity to discover these places and this could be a distraction from the production of the outputs. It is very important to make the groups of students as homogeneous as possible, with the ice breaker meeting and with collateral activities, because it is important to contrast the trend of forming subgroups of students of the same nationality.
Work on site
Too little time to carry out all planned activities
Multidisciplinary of participants
Too little time to learn to know the other participants
Multinationality of participants
Language problems / attitude
Discover new places
Long travel / High costs
The possibility to compare to different building traditions
To improve the knowledge of foreign and technical language
Inaccessibility of the houses
 “European Higher Education Area” [Online]. Available: http://www.ehea.info/ (accessed on October, 2019).  Luttazzo, G., La progettazione della didattica universitaria per risultati di apprendimento, in L. Galliani, C. Zaggia, A. Serbati (a cura di), Apprendere e valutare competenze all’università, Pensa Multimedia, Lecce 2001 (in Italian).  “Consolidating the EHEA” [Online]. Availabe: http://www.processodibologna.it (in Italian), (accessed on October, 2019). > @ )UDPHZRUN IRU WKH 4XDOLÀFDWLRQV RI WKH (XURSHDQ +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ $UHD 0LQLVWU\ RI 6FLHQFH 7HFKQRORJ\ DQG Innovation: Copenhagen, 2005.  Joint Qualitative Initiative group, Shared “Dublin” descriptors for Short Cycle, First Cycle, Second Cycle and Third Cycle Awards, 2004.  Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area, EURASHE; Brussels. 2015.  “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area” [Online]. Available: KWWS ZZZ EGS LW OXFDEDV ORRNP\ZHE WHPSODWHV XSBÀOHV 3URFHVVRB%RORJQD (14$BUHSRUW SGI DFFHVVHG RQ October, 2019).  “European Commission” [Online] Available: https://ec.europa.eu/italy/ (in Italian), (accessed on October, 2019).  European Parliament, Recommendation 2008/C 111/01/CE, Recommendation of the European Parliament and of WKH &RXQFLO RI $SULO RQ WKH HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI WKH (XURSHDQ 4XDOLÀFDWLRQV )UDPHZRUN IRU OLIHORQJ OHDUQLQJ 2IÀFLDO Journal of the European Union, No. 51 in 5-6-2008; European Community: Bruxelles, 2008.  “Tuning Educational Structures in Europe” [Online]. Available: http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/home.html (accessed on October, 2019).  Lokhoff, J., Wegewijs, B., Durkin, K., Wagenaar, R., González, J., Katherine Isaacs A., Donà dale Rose, L., F., Gobbi, 0 $ 7XQLQJ *XLGH WR )RUPXODWLQJ 'HJUHH 3URJUDPPH 3URÀOHV *URQLQJHQ DQG 7KH +DJXH %LOEDR > @ ´6RÀD &RUUDGL 0DPPD (UDVPXVµ >2QOLQH@ $YDLODEOH KWWSV ZZZ VRÀDFRUUDGL HX DFFHVVHG RQ 2FWREHU  “Erasmus Programme” [Online]. Available: c.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/about_en (accessed on October, 2019).  “Welcome Europe” [Online]. Available: www.welcomeurope.com (accessed on October, 2019).  Peritore C., Silvestri L.; Rapporto Annuale Erasmus a.a. 2012/2013, Indire: Rome, 2014, p. 29 (in Italian).  Decision No.1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006.
 “Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013” [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lifelong_ Learning_ Programme_2007%E2%80%932013 (accessed on October, 2019).  Pitoni I. (cured by); Rapporto annuale di monitoraggio Erasmus+ 2017, National Agency Erasmus+: Rome, 2019, p. 22 (in Italian).  Marini S. Nuove Terre. Architetture e Paesaggi Dello Scarto. Macerata: Quodlibet; 2018 (in Italian).  Augé M. Non luoghi. Introduzione a un’antropologia della surmodernità. Milano: Elèuthera; 2009 (in Italian).  Nijman J, Wei YD, Urban inequalities in the 21st century economy, Applied Geography 117: 1-8, 2020.  “Renzo Piano G124” [Online]. Available: https://www.renzopianog124.com (accessed on October, 2019).  AMO, Koolhaas R. Countryside, A Report. Köln: Tachen; 2020.  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, Methodology, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.252: New York, United Nations, 2018.  Lefebvre H. The Urban Revolution. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 2003.  Brenner N. Stato, spazio, urbanizzazione. Milano: Edizioni Angelo Guerini e Associati; 2016 (in Italian).  Calvagna S., Gagliano A., Greco S., Rodonò G., Sapienza V.; Innovative Multidisciplinary Methodology for the Analysis of Traditional Marginal Architecture, Sustainability vol. 12 (4), 2020.  Aymerich C, Dell’acqua AC, Fatta G, Pastore P, Tagliaventi G, Zordan L (a cura di). Architettura di base. Firenze: Alinea; 2007.  Koolhaas R, Mastrigli G. (a cura di), De Pieri F. (trad. it. di), Junkspace. For a radical rethinking of the urban space, Macerata: Quodlibet; 2006.  Noble A G. Traditional Buildings: A Global Survey of Structural Forms and Cultural Functions. London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd; 2007.  Calvagna S, Finocchiaro L, Sapienza V, Rodonò G. Ripensare vernacolare: per un’architettura tra paesaggio e tettonica. In: Conte A, Guida A, (a cura di) Patrimonio in divenire. Conoscere valorizzare abitare. Reuso Matera 2019. VII Convegno internazionale sulla documentazione, conservazione e recupero del patrimonio architettonico e sulla tutela paesaggistica. Roma: Gangemi Editore; p. 2327-2340, 2019 (in Italian). > @ &LDVFKL $ 'H ,XOLR 5 $UHH 0DUJLQDOL H 0RGHOOL *HRJUDÀFL GL 6YLOXSSR 7HRULH H (VSHULHQ]H D &RQIURQWR 6HWWH &LWWj Viterbo, Italy, 2014 (in Italian).
 Acuto M, COVID-19: Lessons for an Urban(izing) World, One Earth 2: 317-319, 2020.  “VVITA - Rural Forward Platform” [Online]. Available: https://sites.google.com/view/vvita/home, (accessed on October, 2019). > @ 6DSLHQ]D 9 %HUWROLQ & &DOLz , )LQRFFKLDUR / *DJOLDQR $ +ĆUPĆQHVFX 0 0kQGUHVFX ( & 0DUJDQL * 0LKĆLOĆ M., Panit A., Roronò G., Voica M.; VVITA project - sustainable and inclusive development of strategies to vitalize villages through innovative architecture technologies. In: 4th Biennial of Architectural and Urban Restoration (BRAU4), CICOP ITALIA: Florence, 2018.  Pauwels, S., De Walsche, J., Declerck, L.; Architectural education and quality assurance in the European Higher Education Area: Design Research as a Plea for Academic Freedom. Open House International, 40(2), 63-73, 2015.  Comino, E., Ferretti, V.; Regional energy planning through SWOT analysis and strategic planning tools.: Impact on renewables development, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, No. 11-6, pp. 1275-1287, 2007.
Vincenzo Sapienza Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Marius Voica Department of Architecture, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania. Mail: email@example.com Luca Finocchiaro Department of Architecture and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Simona Calvagna Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: email@example.com Gianluca Rodonò Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Markus Schwai Department of Architecture and Planning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. Mail: email@example.com 0LKDHOD +ĆUPĆQHVFX Urban Plannig Faculty, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Elena Cristina Mândrescu Department of Architecture, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania. Mail: email@example.com
AEOL IAN T EAC H ING MO DU LE DESIGN
PA RT I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE DESIGN Vincenzo Sapienza
LO CAT ION AEOLIA N C ONTEX T A s the l oc at io n f o r t he It a lia n IT M o f th e VVI TA p r oj e ct, t he Aeo lia n Isla nds ha ve been chos e n; they a re sit ua t ed o f f t he north ern coas t of S i cily, less t ha n 12 na ut ical miles fr om the Cape o f Mila zzo . As i t i s kno wn, t he na me ref ers t o Aeolus, the Gr e e k go d o f t he winds, t o highligh t th is char ac te r i st ic. U lysses, t he H o mer ic h ero, s top p e d here during his lo ng vo yage, an d r e c e i v e d a go a t skin by t he go d, a s a prese nt. In i t, th ere were co llect ed a ll t he win ds to not d i s turb his sa il ba ck t o It haca. Th e com p ani ons o f U lysses, jea lo us a n d ign or ant, op e ned it t o inspect , ro using a storm that s hi p w r ecked t hemselves. The r e ar e s even la rge inha bit ed islan ds an d nu m e r ou s r ocky o ut cro ps. T he la rgest of th e “S e ve n S i s ters” (a s t he lo ca ls ca ll th em) is L i p ar i ; i t ha s a ssumed, since t imes gon e b y, the r ol e o f ca pit a l o f t he isla nds, ev en thou g h S al i na isla nd ha s a la rger econ omic p r e s e nc e . Their hist o ry is do cument ed sin ce the anc i e nt t imes. Alo ng t he dif f eren t ages, the y had very pro spero us perio ds, such as the fr e e kingdo m o f t he Eo linidi people d u r i ng the V I cent ury B. C . o r t he c olon izati on of L ord Ruggero D’ Alt a villa Th e Norm and ; and depressed perio ds, f or ex amp l e the s u r render t o t he Ro ma n f leet of th e Consul Aurelio Cotta during the Punic Wars ( 2 5 2 B .C.) o r t he sa ck o f t he Sa ra cen pirate Ar i ad e no, ca lled Ba rba ro ssa , in 15 44 [1 ]. Re ce ntl y, t he Aeo lia n Isla nds ha ve been r e d i s c ove r ed by t he genera l public th an ks to ‘S tr om b oli’ , a f a mo us Ro bert o Rossellin i m ov i e , p l ay ed by Ingrid Bergma n in 1 949. I t
told a stron g an d tragic love story , in referen ce to a similar visual lan dscape. Filicudi is located in the Western arm formed by the islands; it is one of the most isolated, with the nearer one, Alicudi. Although Stromboli is further off the Sicilian coast, Filicudi and Alicudi are more isolated by the fact that they are a considerable detour from the Milazzo–Lipari–Naples route, the most frequented by the merchant ships (in the past) and by the touristic ones (today). Nevertheless, Filicudi boasts the longest history: a prosperous community, that traded obsidian, lived in the little hill of Cape of Graziano, from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The relation between the inhabitants and the Natural Environment has created a tremendous landscape that is the result of an industrious work of the land. It is also recognized by UNESCO , which put the Aeolian Islands in its World Heritage List in 2000 . Thanks to the isolation that has already been highlighted, Filicudi Island has preserved its landscape in a more efficient way. I n particular, it is ch aracterized by two factors: th e geomorph ology of th e soil and climate con dition s. Th e first of th em has an in fluen ce on h uman in frastructures, the secon d on e on th e arch itectural elements. Durin g th e past cen turies, th e local people h av e created an elaborate terracing sy stem, with lav a ston e walls in Cy clopean Opus, to be able to cultiv ate th eir hilly estates. Nowaday s, th ey are n ot in pristine condition, owing to the lack of maintenance, because the number of locals has
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reduced and the cultivable areas, with less accessibility, have been abandoned. The climatic conditions of the island are those typical of Mediterranean countries (mild weather during the winter and hot dry summers), but here, these climatic conditions are extreme. The summer temperatures are up to 40° C for several days, and precipita-
tion is limited to 30 mm for the entire summer (5% of the total). Moreover, they are buffeted by strong Westerly winds (6–17 knots) . To defend themselves from these adverse conditions, especially during the summer, the Filicudian builders set up a perfect machine à KDELWHU, a comfortable, friendly place with quasi zero energy consumption.
Climatic conditions  SPRING
TEMPERATURE (°C) average maximum
average daily range
average on 7 h
average on 13 h
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (in %)
CLOUD COVER DAYS Clear or almost (0–1 /8)
No. rainy days
PREVALENT WINDS northwesterly (Maestrale); westerly (Ponente); southeasterly (Scirocco)
C HA R AC T ERI STI CS OF AEOLI AN H OUSES A s has al r e a dy been sa id, o n t he isle of Fil i c u d i , the cha ra ct erist ics o f t he Aeolian hou s e s have preserved t heir o riginal sh ape, ac c or d i ng t o it s iso la t io n. The Fi l i c u d ia n ho uses a re o rga nized on two l e ve l s , i n g enera l o n t wo independen t on es; the s tai r ca se is o ut do o rs. T he ro oms are ve r y l ar g e , squa red, a nd direct ly intercon ne cte d , w i tho ut a co rrido r; t hey a re situate d al ong two pa ra llel lines, so t he buildin g has a q u i te regula r vo lume, wit h t wo fron ts: g e ne r al l y, o ne t o t he so ut h a nd an oth er one to the no rt h. A l ar g e terra ce (ca lled in lo ca l dialect bagghiu [4 ], f ro m t he Ara bic wo rd bahah for cou r t) i s set up in t he f ro nt o f t he h ouse, w hi l e at the ba ck, t here is a lit t le y ard. I n the p as t, th e f ro nt t erra ce wa s a lso used to w or k the rura l pro duct s, it end s with a m as onr y s ea t (t he biso lu [ 4] ); it s back is th e p ar ap e t of t he t erra ce. So met imes, espec i al l y for th e t wo -level ho uses, t he baggh io i s cov e r e d by a po rt ico ; it s ro o f f orms th e te r r ac e of the upper level. The v ol can ic na t ure o f t he Aeo lia n I slan ds m ake s the m pa rt icula rly expo sed to earth q u ake s and st ro ngly inf luences t he mason r y typ e . In respo nse t o t his circumstan ce, l ocal b u i l d ers ha ve set up a rea lly efficien t c ons tr u cti on syst em: wit h vert ica l elemen ts that ar e fi r m a nd st ro ng a nd ho rizo n tal elem e nts that a re light a nd f lexible. The m as onr y is co mpo sed o f ro ugh, basaltic s tone s . The edges o f t he building are built w i th s q u ar ed st o nes, bigger a nd den ser, to have a fi r mer co nst ruct io n. T he wa lls are 60
c m thi c k, on t he gro und f lo o r, a nd 50 cm on the u p p er o ne [ 5] . The r oofs are f ra med wit h a series of woode n b e am s , wit h a dia met er o f 15 cm an d s p ace d b y 50 cm, t ha t a re insert ed in th e w al l for two -t hirds o f it s t hickness, after p i tc hi ng their ends t o be wa t erproofed. A s tr ong e r b ea m (dia met er 25 cm) is set up or thog onal ly t o t hem, a s a cro ss-piece. Th e b e am s ar e wa lnut t ree t runks, ro ugh ly dec or ti cate d , so t heir sect io n is co nsiderable tap e r e d [6 ]. C a ne ro o f ing is set up on th e u p p e r s i d e , f ra med o n t he wo o den beams. The e xtr ad os is f o rmed by a ca st ing of lime p u tty and vo lca nic pumice, 15 cm th ick; d u r i ng the pro cess o f ma king it , t he mix ture w as b e ate n in o rder t o wa t er-pro of it [7 ]. Fr e q u e ntl y, gro und f lo o r ro o ms a re covered b y a m as onry va ult , built wit h la va ston es and l i m e . For t his t ype o f co nst ruct ion , th ey c hos e c onica l-sha ped st o nes t o arran ge w i th the na rro wer lo wer pa rt t o con trast e ach one , o n t he surf a ce o f a co n tin uous
wooden cast. Th e fin ish in g of th e wall is a plaster of lime an d v olcan ic san d, painted with lime milk, so th e prevalen t color is wh ite. Th e on ly differen t n otes are the win dows an d th eir lin tels, sh aped with the plaster an d pain ted with a v ivid ton e (the predomin an t colors are blue, cy an-sea, red-clay , an d green ). Due to ex orbitan t tran sportation costs, they used local buildin g materials. Th e only imported on es were th e lime, from N aples, an d th e wood an d can es, from Calabria. You can fin d th e described buildin g, with little variation , on th e oth er islan d too. They formed a built lan dscape largely different from on e th at y ou can fin d in oth er parts of Sicily ; th e reason for th is discrepancy is th at a large part of th e people wh o colon ized th e islan ds in th e past cen turies, to in crease th e local population , came from Campan ia an d th ey brough t with th em the arch itecton ical an d buildin g solutions of th eir region [8 ].
SEIS MIC R E S I STANCE The Aeolian Islands are located in a high seismic area, according to their volcanic natu r e [9, 10] ; t he It a lia n t echnica l regulation classifies this area as level two . This m e ans that , in t he pa st , st ro ng ea rt h quakes hav e b e e n verif ied t here a nd o t her ev en ts, with the same intensity, are expected there. By focusing on Filicudi, it is not possible to establish the exact effects of the earthquakes that oc c u r r ed t here in t he pa st , because of the l ac k of do cument a t io n a bo ut t h em. On the i s l e , there a re a la rge number of damaged buildings, but it is sure that most of the damages come from abandonment and from the absence of maintenance. In any cas e , m os t o f t he F ilicudia n buildings sh ow a ve r y g ood level o f co nserva t io n, from th e s tati c p oi nt o f view (plumb line, a bsen ce of cracks, preservation of secondary elements, e tc .) ; al l this sho ws is t ha t t he a ncien t A eol i an b u i l d e rs rea ched a very high capacity of c ons tr u ct io n. This expertise was based on three key points: ve r ti cal e l ement s t ha t a re f irm a nd stron g; hor i z ontal element s t ha t a re light an d flex ible; and the global regularity of the building [6 ]. It is possible to analyze the main features of the s e thr e e po int s. - VERTICAL LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE: The Aeolian Islands are formed, almost exclus i v e l y, b y l ava st o ne; t heref o re, t he h ouses are founded directly on bedrock, through an enlargement of the transversal section of the w al l s.
Lava ston e is also th e base material of the masonry, which is realized in roughly shaped blocks, linked with mortar. Thanks to the shortness of the interstoreys, the ratio between the height and transversal thickness is low; th erefore, th e walls can be con sidered n ot slen der. An oth er con tribution to th e stren gth of the vertical structure is due to the reciprocal connection between the convergent mason ry walls in each corn er. This conformation, which is often found in the Southern part of Italy [7, 12], can assure high performance, from a mechanical point of v iew, as sh own in th e literature . The shape and mutual connection of the blocks form the most important protection during earth quake stress [6 , 13]. - HORIZONTAL STRUCTURES: There are two ty pes of h orizon tal structure, wh ich are masonry vaults and wooden floors. The first ones are used exclusively in basements. Vaults are recurrent to cover rooms with one or more rock walls because th ey are more suitable to absorb th e h orizon tal th rust. Th is is a recurren t situation because a large part of the island is hilly and so numerous buildin gs are partially ex cav ated in side the rock. The upper floors are built with wood. The wooden beams, which support the floors, lin k th e opposite walls. Th an ks to th eir tensile stren gth , th ey are able to distribute the stress among the vertical masonries more efficien tly [1 3].
- GL OB AL C O NF O RMAT IO N: F ilicudian h ouses are formed by basic, regular geometric, small sized cells added one to each one. Windows and doors have limited dimensions and are central in the walls (this m e ans aw ay f ro m t he co rners). T his design approach meets the needs of mutual collaboration among the structural elements and as s u r e s wide dist ribut io n o f st ress . Most of the lots of fields of Filicudi are along the hillside so it is very common to have c ons tr u cti ons in t he pro ximit y o f slopes; th is condition increases the risk level. Another risk for the buildings could come from the substitution of the wooden roofs with reinforced concrete slabs because they have higher weight and lower ductility. In order to strengthen the buildings, it is necessary to s ol ve these crit icisms. T he shea r stren gth of the m as o nry wa lls co uld be improved by u s i ng p ol ymer net s [ 15] .
B UILDING S USTAI NABI LI TY Every building element of spontaneous architecture has a justification in its function. Its aesthetic value and its influence on the architectonical image of the building are always secondary. According to this principle, you have the Filicudian houses. Here, the main goal was to obtain good protection from the harsh climate conditions, with the lowest cost. Without the help of mathematic models or experimental results, builders of the past were able to determine the essential aim on which to focus their attention: the correct orientation and defence from daytime warming and shading; and now, these are the aims of sustainable design [6, 16]. - ORIENTATION: In the preindustrial age, when the Filicudian houses were born, the Sun’s energy was precious, because it was the most important warming source. However, in Mediterranean regions, architecture is thought to defend its inhabitants from the excessive summer heat, first of all with a correct orientation. This principle is strictly adhered to and it is one of the characteristics that formed the local landscape; in fact, it has conditioned the choice of the island’s area where they have developed the residential agglomerations. Thus, the houses are set up along the hill slopes with better exposure, and they are approximately oriented along the same front line, at different altitudes. Therefore, heliothermic control is more prevalent than the other factors that usually de-
termine the orientation of the windows: the relation with the public space or with the other buildings and the panoramic view. However, that circumstance is facilitated by the local situation. In fact, you have to consider that in Filicudi, the idea of public space is sui generis because it is formed by an intricate network of mule tracks; they are so well integrated with the relative pertinent lots and homes that often you cannot separate limits and reciprocal boundaries. Regarding the buildings’ access to panoramic views, this is not a problem; in fact the hills slope toward the sea and so the main front of the house is orientated towards it. - BUILDING ENVELOPE: The defense from daytime warming depends on the massive nature of the building envelope. In the Filicudian houses, it is formed by walls and roofs that have an average weight and are relatively high. The solar radiation accumulates there during the morning and it is released slowly during the day so the peak of indoor temperatures is shifted in time. In particular, it is during the evening, when the temperature begins to cool. Thus, a percentage of the heat is dissipated outdoors, so the indoor temperature peak may be lower. You can quantify this propriety determining the offset temperature and the attenuation of the elements of the building envelope [16, 17]. As you know, the main role of the building envelope is to assure safety, from the static point of view. Therefore, good indoor environmental conditions act as an unforeseen
feature which adds value to the building. However, there is a shrewdness directly addressed to this aspect: the white color of the façades. In fact, the local materials, the volcanic sands, are dark in color. To have a light dye, they had to import the milk-lime from another region, as was mentioned earlier. - SHADING SYSTEM: You should consider the use of shade as a really important component in Mediterranean buildings. No one enjoys staying in an open square, during a hot, sunny day, without a good reason; they would look for a tree to protect themselves. Therefore, you should plan adequate shading elements for the buildings. In the Filicudian houses, shade is obtained in a really elegant way: cane roofing, along the south façade. It is supported by strong wooden beams, which in turn are supported at either end from steel wall hooks on one side and big masonry pillars on the other. This last element is embodied in the parapet of the terrace and is called pulera [4, 6]. The cane roofing is kept in place by two purlins, one lower and one upper, attached to the wooden beams. Normally, the roof is laid in June and removed in September; in this way, it does not reduce the daylight flow during the winter season. In addition, the houses have a secondary shading element; in fact, for each window, you have a cassina , which is a local version of the Venetian blind–rolling and with fixed blades.
- VENTILATION: A double opening system assures natural ventilation in the Filicudian houses. In fact, in addition to the ordinary windows, normally set up in the façade, with usual shapes and dimensions that bring light and air, they have some openings exclusively assigned for the ventilation of the rooms . They have rather smaller dimensions and are squared, if they are situated over the regular windows (as a fanlight) or circular, when they are located alongside the window. In the internal wall, you have a draught opening, generally half-moon shaped. - RAINWATER COLLECTION: Rainwater is a precious resource in Filicudi, because springs or courses of water are non-existent, including on other Aeolian Islands. Therefore, you must collect and preserve it in an underground cistern. Usually, it is under the terrace and its roof is part of the pavement and the parapet access-point is embodied in the boundary wall. The drainpipes are made by stacking conically clay units, which are called FDWXVL . Often, they are substituted with a copper pipe in the refurbishment works, because it is longer lasting. On the foot of the pipe, there is a flap which can be lowered (called in Italian WUDYDVD WRUH), which is useful for discarding the first water of the raining season. In this way, you can wash the roof and the terrace from the dust accumulated during the dry season and preserve the cistern from the dirt.
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Detail of the threshold
Detail of the terrace
Shrewdness for the sustainability
ENER G Y B E HAVI OR The i nd oor living qua lit y o f t he F ilicudian hou s e s i s s o pla in t o see t ha t a ny quan titati v e m e as u rement sho uld no t be necessary . D u r i ng the h o t summer sea so n, yo u can stay the r e com fo rt a bly, wit ho ut co o ling plan ts or othe r kinds o f a id. T heir hea lth quality m ake s them a n a rchit ect o nic elemen t w hi c h i s v ery a pprecia t ed by t emporary or p e r m ane nt users. H o wever, it is a good rule to tr ans for m pra gma t ic kno wledge in to scie nti fi c e xpert ise t hro ugh mea suremen t of the m os t signif ica nt t hermo t echnical par am e te r s . The c om p u t a t io n wa s ca rried o ut o n a ty pical b u i l d i ng wit h Ma st er C lima [ 18] , an open s ou r ce s oftwa re; it is designed by ‘ A ermec’ and i s b as ed o n t he a ct ua l st a ndard. Th e char ac te r i st ics o f t he ma t eria ls ha ve been as s u m e d by t he da t a ba nk o f t h e same s oftw ar e , but t heir va lues ha ve reviewed by cons i d e r i ng t he o ut put s o f o t hers research on othe r m a so nry a nd lo ca l buildin gs . The Ene r g y Perf o rma nce Index (EPI ) is certai nl y the mo st impo rt a nt o f t hese [1 9]. I t i s p os s i b l e t o ca lcula t e it f o r a specific Fil i cu d i an house, cho sen a s t he ca se study , ob tai ni ng v a lues ro unding t o 17 KWh /m 2 ·y , r e s tr i cti ng the t ime t o t he summer season . Thi s l i m i tatio n is co rrect beca use, as y ou can w e l l u n derst a nd, t hese t ypes of h ouses ar e u s e d p rima rily during t his perio d. Th erefor e , i t i s very clo se t o t he Pa ssive House s tand ar d , especia lly in t he versio ns studied for s ou the r n Euro pea n co unt ries [ 20 ]. Thi s v e r y hi gh perf o rma nce is no t a surprise b e c au s e , as yo u kno w, t his va lue is strictly
in fluen ced by th e followin g aspects [ 6]: - th e orien tation of th e win dows; - th e ty pe of buildin g en velope; - th e ex isten ce of sh adin g sy stems; - th e possibility of n atural ven tilation . All th ese are qualify in g ch aracteristics of Filicudian h ouses. Y ou must con sider also th at th e v alues of th e temperature offset an d atten uation of its peak are v ery positive; in fact , they move aroun d more th an 1 5 h ours and 5% for v ertical elemen ts an d less th an 1 0 hours an d 1 5% for h orizon tal on es. Th erefore, th e math ematic approach has con firmed th e in tuitive observ ation s. Energy Performance evaluated with Masterclima  GENERAL INPUTS Climatic area (A-F)
Type of the building Volumes
COOLING Energy requirement for cooling the building Floor area
159,00 very good
Class of the envelope (I-IV) EPI
The r m otechnica l cha ra ct erist ics of th e buildin g en velope of th e A eolian h ouse [ 47] COVE R I N G R OOF S TRATIG RAPH Y ( f r om b ottom )
Thickness Surface weight
Plaster of lim e
Cast of lime, water and volcanic inert
Periodic thermal transmittance
MASONRY VAULT STRATIGRAPHY (from bottom)
Thickness Surface weight
Plaster of lime
Cast of lime, water and volcanic inert
Periodic thermal transmittance
Attenuation Temperature offset
EXTERNAL VERTICAL MASONRY STRATIGRAPHY (from extern)
Thickness Surface weight
Plaster of lime
Lava stones and lime
Plaster of lime
Periodic thermal transmittance
Attenuation temperature offset
The anal ys is ca rried o ut sho ws clearly th e p e r fe c t co rrespo ndence bet ween th e Fil i cu d i an ho uses a nd t he rules o f t he E n ergy s av i ng s tanda rds; t heref o re it is a sustain ab l e b u i l d i n g a nt e lit t era m. Y ou c an al so co nsider t he F ilicudia n h ouses as an e xample o f a n enviro nment a lly frien dl y b u i l d i ng , a cco rding t o lo ca l build in g regu l ati ons [2 1 , 22] , which def ine several items of s u s tai nabilit y. By respect ing t hem, in th e r e fu r b i s hm ent building wo rks, it is possible to ob tai n a prize, a bo nus t o increase th e v ol u m e of the ho use [ 22] . T his a pproach is s i m i l ar i n other It a lia n Regio ns. T hese items, d e fi ne d b i o -a rchit ect o nic it ems [ 2 3], are g r ou p e d i n f ive t hema t ic a rea s: en ergy , w ate r , m ateria ls, wa st e, a nd hea lt h. Th e Fil i c u d i an ho uses respect numero us poin ts in the l i s t: r e ga rding summer co o ling (art. 2 , ar e a 1° , p oint 7), ra in wa t er reco very (art. 2 , ar e a 2 ° , po int 1), use o f lo ca l material ( ar t. 2 , ar e a 3°, po int 2), a nd high acoustic i ns u l ati on of t he o pa que building en velope ( ar t. 2 , ar e a 5°, po int 3).
PA RT I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE DESIGN Simona Calvagna
A E O L I AN INT E NSIV E P E R I OD LEAR N ING OU TCOM ES As already mentioned, the Italian teaching module of the VVITA project is called the ATM ; i t is f o cused o n t o pics t ha t can be u s e fu l to d eeply underst a nd t he wisdom of the ve r nacula r a rchit ect ure o f t he A eolian I s l a n d s a n d t o d e f i n e p r i n c i p l e s a n d s t r a tegies to reactivate it in order to revitalize the l oc al b uilt herit a ge. At the b as i s o f t his, t here is t he knowledge of the characteristics of traditional Mediterranean architecture, from a typological, histor i c al - c u l tura l, a nd t echnica l-co nstructiv e p oi nt of vi ew. Pa rt icula r a t t ent io n is paid to t h e anchoring o f t h e b u i l d i n g a r t e f a c t s t o the conte xt a nd t o t he co nsequent formal, functional, and constructive relationships between Aeolian architecture and the environment. Belonging to the forms and cultures of Mediterranean life is considered the starti ng p oi nt for t he ident if ica t io n o f features, parameters, and typologies to be taken into consideration in the interventions of refurb i s hm e nt o f t he exist ing built herit age an d i n the c ons truct io n o f new f a cilit ies. The ar chi tect ura l cha ra ct eriza t io n goes beyond the kn o wledge o f t he hist o rical-cultural, landscape, and technical constructive issues, going as far as a thermophysical and m e cha nica l mo delling o f t he built h eritag e . For this purpo se, t he AT M is st ructured to transfer notions and knowledge related to the b as i cs o f t hermo dyna mics an d h eat tr ans m i s s i on , a s well a s t o t he t hermoph y sical properties of traditional building materials in the Mediterranean environment and m or e genera lly, t o t he energy beh av -
ior of h istorical buildin gs. Kn owledge of the climate data of the Aeolian Islands is also foreseen , in order to build a dy n amic characterization of the thermophysical behavior of th e an aly zed buildin gs. Likewise, in order to be able to carry out a mechanical modelling of the buildings wh ich are th e object of an aly sis, th e k nowledge provided by the ATM concerns the structural behavior of the historical buildings in the seismic area, with particular atten tion to seismic action s an d to the relation sh ips between th e geometry an d seismic respon se of th e structures. With th e aim of creatin g an in novative tool (geodatabase) for th e man agemen t of the built h eritage quality , able to in tegrate the acquired multidisciplinary data with their geographical location, the ATM also provides basics of topograph y an d in formatics, in particular with regard to data automatic structurin g, data storage an d man agement sy stems, an d georeferen cin g sy stems. T h e s k i l l s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e A T M a c t i vities concern above all the use of Rapid Evaluation Methods (REM)  in order to achieve a rapid evaluation of the architectural, thermophysical, and mechanical quality of th e an aly zed buildin gs. With the help of thematic checklists, drawn based on models such as th e I TACA P rotocol  or the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) method , it was possible to establish the features and parameters to be analyzed, in order to compare th e differen t case studies an d set, for
e ach of them, qua lit y levels wit h respect to a fi xe d g r i d . The fi e l d w ork relies o n G eo gra phic I n formation System (GIS) technology , implementing the information collected in the fi e l d w i thi n a geo ref erenced da t a sy stem. Therefore, the skills that the students can d e v e l op ar e t he f o llo wing: - use and management of thematic maps at d i ffe r e nt sca les; - c ons tr u ctio n, in a guided wa y, o f a geor e fe r e nc e d da t a syst em (geo da t a base); - data-entry and data-editing in a novel g e od atab ase (a sso cia t io n o f geo metry , top og r ap hy and da t a );
- measurements of internal thermo-hygrom e tr i c comf o rt a nd vent ila t io n, ca lculation of tr ans m i tt a nce a nd a t t enua t io n;
an d skills on th e Aeolian en viron men t. More specifically , th ey can develop th e competen ces of:
- leading a refurbishment design process – with the possibility of introducing new small facilities – in which architectural, energy balance and anti-seismic issues are integrated.
- work in a multidisciplin ary an d multic ultural team;
The main characteristic of vernacular arc h i t e c t u r e i s t o EH FRQWH[WXDO. T h i s t a k e s p l ace i n the co nst ruct io n a nd a rises out of what is permanent rather than from a give n e ve nt  . St a rt ing f ro m t his st atemen t, the s tu d e nts ca n ha ve a n immersive ex perience, applying the acquired knowledge
- make a multidisciplin ary assessmen t of the quality of Aeolian vern acular arch itecture;
- man age a n ovel software tool, based on GI S tech n ology ;
- make a sy n th esis of th e th ree th emes analyzed (architecture, energy balance and seismic restraint) in an integrated design process;
- experiment with a site-specific design p r oc e s s . The educational approach of the ATM is based on multidisciplinarity. Many topics ar e i nvol v ed bo t h in t he da t a -ent ry /editin g ac ti vi ti e s of t he no vel geo da t a ba se an d in the d e s i g n simula t io n a ct ivit ies. History, History of Architecture, and History of Construction are important to understand the Aeolian vernacular architecture i n t h e w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e M e d i t e r r ane an hi s tor ica l buildings. Landscape Analysis and Design are useful to s e e the rela t io nships bet ween arch itectu r e , p e op l e, a nd pla ces. Building Technology and Building Science
provide the tools to understand and improv e th e material quality of th e buil dings, pay in g atten tion to con struction processes. Technical Physics is involved in the activities related to the energy balance assessment. Topography is concerned with the activities of managing the thematic maps an d of realizin g th e n ovel geodatabase. I n addition to th is kn owledge, participants have to show interest in new places and new challenges. In fact, the relationship with the location is the best strength of the ITM and therefore, it is very important to take advan tage of th e full immersion in it. On th e oth er h an d, th e participants are called to work in very particular con d itions, sometimes difficult to access an d manage.
Main learning outcomes of the AMT knowledge characters of traditional Mediterranean architecture
thermo-physical and mechanical modelling of the built heritage
use of REM
ability to synthesize
use of thematic maps
working in a multicultural team
construction of a geodatabase
managing a novel software tool
data-entry and data-editing
assessment of the quality of Aeolian vernacular architecture
measurements of thermo-physic parameters
integrated design process
refurbishment design process
VLWH VSHFLÀF GHVLJQ
data automatic structuring data storage and management systems georeferencing systems
Checklist of the features of the Aeolian Houses
ME T HODOLOGY The ATM i s co mpo sed o f dif f erent momen ts with different teaching/learning activities, al l c onne ct ed a mo ng t hem. - THEORY: The lectures form a corpus to s u p p or t the develo pment o f t he worksh op. The y ar e focused o n t he kno wledge of th e historical-cultural, landscape, and construction issues of Aeolian vernacular arc hi te ctu r e . T he co urses a re a lso o rien ted to provide the necessary technical tools and to faci l i tate t he inclusio n o f a ll st uden ts in the ne w c ont ext o f st udy. T he lect ures are mostly scheduled in the first two days, in Catani a and Lipa ri. - PRACTICE: The second activity is practi ce and i s a ddressed t o co nt ext ualize th e knowledge of the Mediterranean and Aeolian area provided in the previous step, through concrete cases in which to quanti tati v e l y v erif y pa ra digms a nd pa rameters i ntr od u ce d. It co nsist s o f bo t h so lvin g con c r e te p r ob lems a nd o f pra ct ica l a c tivities, such as guided tours, meeting with local e xp e r ts , and f ilm wa t ching. Practice is also connected with technol og i c al i s s u es. F o r inst a nce, a s wit h th e GI S tool, the students are asked to realize the platform in which they have to upload and m anag e th e da t a a bo ut buildings. I t is developed by the students within a guided activity, using an innovative open source GIS s oftw are t o o l. - WORK S HO P: T he t hird a ct ivit y t a kes place
in th e field an d con sists of th e workshop. In it, th e studen ts are called to carry out two tasks: field surveys and design simulations. The two tasks are directly connected: the analysis on the building heritage, carried out with th e h elp of th e R E M, is implemented in the GIS software tool. Subsequently, a design ex ercise based on th e elaborated assessment is carried out, with the aim of resolv in g th e weakn ess an d en h an cing the poten tials of th e case studies. Students are divided into heterogeneous work groups and to each of them is assign ed a larger study area for an aly sis (task 1 ), wh ich is smaller for th e design simulation (task 2 ). - TASK 1. IMMERSIVE DATA-ENTRY/EDITING ACTIVITY IN GIS ENVIRONMENT: The settlement in Filicudi consists of small scattered groups of buildings, mostly residential, located in the south-eastern side of the islan d. Th ey are con n ected to each other by a dense network of mule tracks and a recen tly con structed driveway . Th e study areas assigned to each group are analyzed from different points of view (architectural, th ermo-ph y sical, mech an ical) following th ese ph ases: a) On-site surveys (visual analysis, empirical deductive evaluation, thermophysical measuremen ts); b) Systematization of information, through th e use of kn own databases; c) Data-entry/editing in the GIS en v iron men t;
Didactic activities in ATM Theory
Mediterranean living forms and cultures [V. Sapienza] [G. Giusso] Visit to the Botanical Garden of Catania [G. Giusso] Visit of the Lachea Island Thermophysical properties of traditional building materials in the Mediterranean environment [A. Gagliano]
Task 1 Immersive data-entry/editing activity in GIS environment [staff]
REM [R. Caponetto] Structural behavior of historical buildings in seismic area [I. Caliò] Basics of topography and GIS [M. Mangiameli] Data automatic structuring, data storage and management systems and georeferencing systems [M. Manggiameli] History of Aeolian Islands [R. Vilardo] [M. Martinelli]
Visit to the Lipari Museum Visit to Filobraccio and Capo Graziano [V. Sapienza]
Ancient terraces of Filicudi Island [A. Bonazza] [A. Sardella]
Visit to the Pumice-stone Quarries [E. Carnevale] Visit to Zucco Grande
Task 2 Design simulation of local architecture revitalization [staff]
d) Summary evaluation and attribution of a q u al i ty l abel t o ea ch a na lyzed buildin g. The use of checklists, prepared by the teaching staff, makes the data collection e as y. Through a REM methodology, the system p r ov i d e s th ree indexes f o r ea ch o n e of th e top i c s c overed: 1) Typological/landscape/constructive as p e c ts ; 2) Ene r g y beha vio r;
- TASK 2 . DE SI GN SI MULATI ON OF LOCAL ARCHITECTURE REVITALISATION: The working groups have to deepen their reflections on an assign ed buildin g located within the study area, in order to reach a more precise assessmen t of th e arch itectural quality that takes into account the different relevant issues. The architectural parameters to be evaluated concern the coherence of the construction elements with the traditional buildin g models an d lan dscape ch aracteristics, with particular atten tion to: - Relations con tex t;
3) M e chanica l beha vio r. The sum of them forms a global index that measures the quality of the surveyed b u i l d i ng s . The implemented virtual platform can be q u e r i e d to give a ggrega t ed da t a . Th e sum of the results of all study areas allows the obtaining of information on a significant p or ti on of the who le isla nd.
- Materials used in th e con struction process; - Water an d waste sy stems; - Natural ven tilation ; - Day ligh tin g.
Inputs of the Task 2 Area of study
Destination of the revitalized buildings winter
Valdichiesa Canale Nord
summer typical products shop
electric bike station
List o f t he Aeo lian Teach in g Module participan ts U NIC T HOST PART NER
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Fr om the p oint o f view o f energy balan ce, the evaluation of the building’s thermophysical performance is deepened by introducing the collected data within an e as y- to- u s e so f t wa re [ 29] , a ble t o return a qualification of the studied buildings for a s u b s e q u e nt co mpa riso n bet ween t he differ-
en t case studies. From a mech an ical point of v iew, a v isual an aly sis of th e cracks, accompan ied by a guided assessmen t of the structural features of the buildings, makes it possible to establish a quality label related to th e respon se to th e seismic action of each buildin g.
The design simulation for the revitalization of the built heritage starts from this point. The design choices therefore derive from parametric assessments attentive to the sustainability and coherence of the interve nti ons , to t he peculia r cha ra ct eristics of landscape and traditional architecture, and to the use o f renewa ble energies. Th is ap p l i e s b oth t o ref urbishment a nd to possib l e com p l et io n vo lumes. The designs are addressed to ruined buildings which, unfortunately, are quite fr e q u e nt i n F ilicudi. T his f a ct lea ves th e students quite free and stimulates their creati vi ty and invent io n. The teaching staff provides the new destinations for each building. The projects hav e to for esee a n eleva t ed gra de of flex i b i l i ty, ac c ording wit h t he dif f erence in use i n d i ffe r e nt sea so ns. In wint er, t he f un ction s must be developed in the masonry cells. In summer, according with the increasing nu m b e r of inha bit a nt s, so me a ddit ion s, i.e., kinetic or removable structures, can be cons i d e r e d. In the GIS pla t f o rm it is a lso po ssible to simulate some refurbishment actions, in order to u nd e r s ta nd t heir impa ct o n t he buildin g.
TIMING: The typical workday is organized accordin g to th e followin g timetable. A.M.: Field surv ey s an d ex cursion s. P.M.: Data processing and design and plan n in g. 18.00: 5 minutes per group presentation of th e work don e durin g th e day , in a few slides. This follows with a debate with the staff members to address the activities of th e followin g day s. Th e evaluation of th e outputs is carried out by th e staff in th ree periods. One or two days after the start of the workshop, an intermediate presentation is made, to check the outputs of task 1 and th e con cept of task 2 . Th e last day is reserved for th e oral presentation of th e work. Th e studen ts are also in v ited to present a fin al report an d a poster with in th ree months after the end of the ATM. The final report is included in the final book of VVITA. The posters are used to realize an ex h ibition of th e works in th e common spaces of the University of Catan ia.
Val di Chiesa
 Finley M. I., Mack Smith D., Duggan C.; Breve storia della Sicilia, Laterza: Bari, 1992 (in Italian).  “Aeolian Islands - UNESCO World Heritage Centre” [Online]. Available: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/908.  “Clima - Isole Eolie” [Online]. Available: http://www.e0lie.it/clima.htm (in Italian), (accessed on October, 2019).  Trovato C. S., Tropea G., Piccitto G., Vocabolario siciliano, Centro di Studi Filologici e Linguistici Siciliani: Palermo, 1985-2002 (in Italian).  Perricone M., Oliva A., Tecniche costruttive tradizionali negli insediamenti abitativi di Stromboli, Proceedings of the International symposium: The project in the space of memory: signs, ideas and future development. Naples, 1995 (in Italian).  Calvagna S., Gagliano A., Greco S., Rodonò G., Sapienza V.; Innovative Multidisciplinary Methodology for the Analysis of Traditional Marginal Architecture, Sustainability vol. 12 (4), 2020.  Polverino F., Tra lastrici e terrazzi. CUEN: Neaples, 1999 (in Italian).  Polverino F., Ischia: architettura e terremoto. Clean Edizioni: Neaples, 1998 (in Italian).  Maresca R., Seismicity of the Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy, In: Annales Geophysicae, 1984.  Lucchi F., Peccerillo A., Keller J., Tranne C. A., Rossi P. L., The Aeolian Island Volcanoes, Geological Society, London.  Georgescu E. S., Georgescu M. S., Macri Z., Marino E. M., Margani G., Meita V., Pana R., Cascone S. M., Petran H., Rossi P. P., Sapienza V., Voica M.. Seismic and Energy Renovation: A Review of the Code Requirements and Solutions in Italy and Romania, In: Sustainability, No. 10(5), 1561, 2018.  Sapienza V., Le murature tradizionali nell’area etnea: Modi costruttivi e consistenza materica. Recupero Conservazione, 84, 2008 (in Italian).  Giuffrè A., Sicurezza e conservazione dei centri storici. Il caso Ortigia, Laterza, Rome, 1983 (in Italian).  Gavarini, C., Giuffrè, A., Longhi, G., Ingegneria Antisismica, ESA: Milan, 1991 (in Italian).  Cascone S. M., Sapienza V., Porto S. M., Lionti I., Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nets for Strengthening Lava Stone Masonries in Historical Buildings. SUSTAINABILITY No. 8, 394, 2016.  Sapienza V., The Aeolian houses of Filicudi: an example of spontaneous sustainable architecture. Il Progetto Sostenibile, No. 34, 2014, (in Italian).  Sapienza V., Spontaneous architecture and energetic sustainability: the Aeolian homes of Filicudi Isle. In: Noguchi M.,
ZEMCH-12, ZEMCH Network: Glasgow, 2012.  “Masterclima” [Online]. Available: http://www.masterclima.info/page/Software.asp (accessed on October, 2019).  Sapienza, V., Salemi, A., Patania, F., Cascone, S., Gagliano, G., Lo Faro, A., Lombardo, G., Moschella, A.; Thermal performance of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate area. In: Changing needs, adaptive buildings, smart cities. vol. 1, p. 1017-1024, Milan:PoliScript, 2013.  “Passive-On Project” [Online]. Available: http://www.eerg.it/passive-on.org/en/index.php (accessed on October, 2019).  Sapienza, V., Gagliano, A., Chiaramonte, R.; Energetic sustainability of the building substitution: the rewards and the facilitations of the Italian Piano Casa. In: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal, No. 11, 2013. > @ 6LFLOLDQ $XWKRULW\ /DZ 1R 1RUPH SHU LO VRVWHJQR GHOO·DWWLYLWj HGLOL]LD H OD ULTXDOLÀFD]LRQH GHO SDWULPRQLR HGLOL]LR *D]]HWWD 8IÀFLDOH GHOOD 5HJLRQH 6LFLOLDQD 1R LQ 5HJLRQH 6LFLOLDQD 3DOHUPR LQ Italian). > @ 6LFLOLDQ ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH &RXQFLO 'HFUHH %LRHGLOL]LD *D]]HWWD 8IÀFLDOH GHOOD 5HJLRQH 6LFLOLDQD 1R LQ 7-2010; Regione Siciliana: Palermo, 2010 (in Italian).  Kalman H. D., The Evaluation of Historic Buildings, Parks Canada, 1980.  “ITACA. Istituto per l’Innovazione e Trasparenza degli Appalti e la Compatibilità Ambientale” [Online]. Avialbale: http://itaca.org/valutazione_sostenibilita.asp  “LEED rating system - U.S. Green Building Council” [Online]. Available: https://new.usgbc.org/leed (accessed on October, 2019).  “QGIS - A Free and Open Source Geographic Information System” [Online]. Available: https://www.qgis.org/en/ site/ (accessed on October, 2019).  Frey P., Learning from Vernacular. Towards a new vernacular architecture, Actes Sud: Arles, 2010.  “Docet - CNR” [Online]. Available: http://www.docet.itc.cnr.it/ (accessed on October, 2019). Vincenzo Sapienza Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Simona Calvagna Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: email@example.com
AEOLI A N TEA CHIN G MO DU LE C O NT RIBU T ION S
STA FF CON TR I B UT I ONS
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions 5RVD &DSRQHWWR
CON STR UCT IV E C H A R A CTER I ST I C S OF TYPICAL AEOLIAN ARCHITECTURE AND METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABILITY 1. INTRODUCTION
Thi s s e s s i on a ims t o ident if y t he main ch aracte r i s ti cs o f t he t ypica l Aeo lia n arch itecture and to indicate the most appropriate systems to assess its sustainability. In this p e c u l i a r c o n t e x t , t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s sment is particularly complex because the Aeolian architecture denotes a homogenous and specific housing style, which is i ntr i ns i c al l y linked t o lo ca l cult ure. It is ch arac te r i z e d by a co nst ruct io n co de, wh ich is a direct expression of necessities, that is linked to environmental conditions and to locally available resources. The archipelago is protected by a Territorial Landscape Plan and is included in the list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (in 2000, UN ES CO pla ced t he Aeo lia n Arch ipela g o a m o n g t h e 6 9 1 s i t e s i n t h e w o r l d p r ote c te d b y virt ue o f t heir “enviro nmen t an d/ or c u l tu r al c ha ra ct erist ics”). 2. TYPICAL AEOLIAN ARCHITECTURE
To car r y ou t t he a na lysis o n a buildin g’s sustai nab i l i ty, it is impo rt a nt t o kno w t he fun cti onal and c o nst ruct io n cha ra ct eristics th at d i s ti ng u i s h it . T heref o re, t he f irst part of th e s e s s i on c oncerns just t he cha ra ct eristics of typical Aeolian architecture. In particular, we will start with the typical architectural elements and then, we will describe the s p e ci fi c te chnica l so lut io ns. Aeolian architecture is the result of objective and contextual necessities due to en -
vironmental conditions and the historical genesis. The geomorphological characteristics of places of volcanic nature, the climatic factors (characterized by a high level of sunshine, minimum temperature range, and low amounts of rain), and the limited quantity of available resources (economical, material) have strongly influenced the construction of traditional types of buildings . 2.1. TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Aeolian architecture was strongly influenced by the architecture of the sixteenth century Campania region, which, after migration, was grafted onto a previously Greek–Roman and Islamic architecture. In reality, the first settlements occurred as far back as the Neolithic age between 5500 and 4000 BC. During the following centuries, the archipelago was populated by Etruscans, Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans, then, Arabs and Normans, followed by the S p a n i a r d s ; b u t , m o s t o f t h e c u r r e n t v i l l a ges were built in the nineteenth century. The original element of the typical architecture is a sin gle cubic or parallelepiped shaped cell, with only one entrance door and two possible round windows. The building mainly responded to the needs of defence from external dangers, in particular possible invasions or raids by enemies coming from the sea. Inside the houses, there was the kitchenette (FXIXODUX) on one side and the beds on the other. Nowadays, on the Aeoli-
an archipelago, it is possible to identify two different types of buildings: the vertical one (in steep areas), and, most frequently, the horizontal one (in flat areas). Both types are generated using a “cellular” construction, through the superimposition or combination of cubic elements (rooms), and have similar b u i l d i ng c h a ra ct erist ics, which a re reflect ed in the most recurrent pathologies and on the life cycle of the various components and of the entire building. The other traditional buildings are a combination of these two types. Figure 4 shows the combination of cubic elements for the “horizontal type”; originally, only a single cubic “cell” and a terrace composed the house (fig.1). Subsequently, another “cell” was put beside the first, in place of the patio. This one rotated and adapted to everyday life with functional elements. The typical elements of the traditional building are the following. • T h e bagghiu ( b a g l i o ) , a l a r g e t e r r a c e a the fr ont of t he ho use. • T h e bisòlu, s m a l l s t o n e w a l l s t h a t d e l i m i t
Figure 1. Single cell house
the terrace and are sometimes decorated with majolica tiles. • T h e loggia, a t r e l l i s o f w o o d e n b e a m s cov ered with can e, th e roof of th e terrace. • The pulèra, columns that support the loggia. • T h e princu, a s t o n e w a s h b o w l t h a t r e s t son th e pila, an outdoor tub used to do the laun dry . • The IXUQX, the oven, which is domeshaped, positioned to the side of the terrace above a base used to store firewood. • Th e DVWULFX, th e h orizon tal roof. I t h as animportant function: to isolate the house from the cold in winter and from the heat in summer; but in the past, it was normally used for collectin g rain water (th e raised edge of the terrace, called “petto di colomba” – “dove’s breast” – enabled the collection of rain water in order to convey it to an un dergroun d cistern ).
Figure 2. Two-cell house (vertical type)
Figure 3. Two-cell house (horizontal type)
Figure 4. Combination of two “cells” in a “horizontal type” house
Figure 7. “Pila” and “princu”
Figure 5. Layout of a typical house
Figure 8. “Furnu”
Figure 6. “Bagghiu”
Figure 9. “Astricu”
2.2 ANALYSIS OF THE “TRADITIONAL” BUILDING SOLUTIONS AND SOME REFERENCES ON NEW TECHNOLOGIES
As m e nti oned a bo ve, t he t ypica l arch itectu r e of the Aeo lia n Isla nds is st rict ly lin ked to the e nv i ro nment a l co ndit io ns a nd to th e l oc al l y av aila ble reso urces. T he geo-morp hol og i cal cha ra ct erist ics o f t he location s and the c l ima t ic f a ct o rs ha ve st ro ngly limi te d the l oca l “mo dus a edif ica nd i”; h owe ve r , s i m ult a neo usly, t he a rchitecton ic and te c hnolo gica l cho ices ha ve deliv ered u ni q u e p l aces a nd cult ura l f a ct s of th e M e d i te r r anea n a rea . Thr ou g hou t t ime, severa l f a ct o rs have in flue nce d the building pro cedure (a v ailability of r aw ma t eria ls, co st s o f ma t erials an d s ki l l e d w or k ers, t he ea se a nd speed of th e w or k car r i ed o ut , t he element s’ durability , e tc .) . Thi s ha s led t o a pro gressive tech n ol og i cal tr ansf o rma t io n ext ra neo us t o th e local cu l tu r e . S tar ti ng fr om t he ninet eent h cent ur y , Aeolian cons tr u c t io n pra ct ices were ch aracteri z e d as fol l o ws:
Figure 10. Shapeless stones wall M a s o n r y m a d e o f s h a p e l e s s l o c a l s t o n e s a n d l i m e m o rtar (with c o a r s e p u m i c e c a l l e d “ r u p i d d u ”) . T h e l a v a s t o n e s a r e h e ap e d t o g e t h e r a l m o s t w i t h o u t m o r t a r a n d t h e m a s o n r y c o r n e rs d o n ot have capstones.
)281 ' $7,216 $1' :$//6 - fou nd ati ons ma de o f la va st o n e, with l i m e and p umice mo rt a r; - ve r y s hallo w (h=less t ha n 40 cm) foraone - s tor e y ho use; - no tal l e r t ha n 70 cm t a ll, f o r multi-storey b u i l d i ng s ; - w al l s u s ua lly ma de o f sha peless ston e ( q u ar r i e d i n t he isla nds) a nd mo rtar (rich i n l i m e and co a rse pumice ca lled “rupidd u ” , l ava l a pillus). Subsequent t o th e Mess i na e ar thqua ke (1908), ro ugh-hewn ston e m as onr y w as used, wit h ho rizo nt al mortar cou r s e s ( d i st a nce=70 cm);
Figure 11. Rough-hewn stones and horizontal “courses” of lime mortar M a s o n r y m a d e o f r o u g h - h e w n s t o n e s a n d l i m e m o r t a r w i t h c oarse p u m i c e . M o r t a r c o u r s e s a r e p r e s e n t ( a t a d i s t a n c e o f 70 c m) g i v i n g s t a b i l i t y t o t h e w a l l i n o p p o s i t i o n t o h o r i z o n t a l f o rc e s (se e construction standards in seismic area).
• for the i nt erna l pa rt it io ns, eit her tuff or l av a s tone were o f t en used. +25,=21 7$/ ) /2 2 56 The s ol i d gro und f lo o r wa s ma de of lime and p u m i ce st o ne (so met imes t here was a cr aw l s p ace). T he t ra dit io na l int ermediate fl oor w as ma de o f wo o d a nd co nglomerate : the r e wa s a do uble syst em o f beams ( m ai n and seco nda ry unhewn logs) on w hi c h a r e ed ma t wa s la id; a special con g l om e r ate (ma de o f vo lca nic la pilli, lime m or tar , and f ine pumice) wa s ca sted. Th e fl at r oof ( ca lled “a st ricu”, t hickness 12–1 5 cm ) had a screed ma de o f lime mo rtar, v olcani c l ap i l l i, a nd f ine pumice, la id on a lay e r of b r oke n st o nes, who se f la t side rests on a l aye r of ca nes, t he ent iret y supported by b e am s m ad e o f lo ca l chest nut wood. Th e DVWULFX c ol l ect s t he met eo ric wa t er s, wh ich ar e c hannelled/t ra nspo rt ed int o t he cistern
Figure 12. Some images of the “astricu”
( g e ne r al l y lo ca t ed under t he h ouse), thr ou g h the dra inpipe, ma de o f t erracotta e l e m e nts. A ca ref ul pro cessing by beati ng the s u r fa ce la yer, st ill f resh (in order to c om p l e te l y sa t ura t e t he vo ids a nd th erefor e , the p oro sit y), ensured t he wa ter tigh tne s s of the t erra ce. 9(57,&$/ & 2 11(& 7 ,2 16 The e xte r n a l st a irca ses a nd t he in tern al s tai r s connect ing t he gro und f lo o r with th e fi r s t g e ne r a lly co nsist ed o f so lid ba s alt steps l ai d on a ra mpa nt ma so nry a rch; in side, w ood e n s ta irs were used f o r a ll o t her floors.
Figure 13. Typical staircase (exterior and internal)
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Th e tradition al plaster (in two lay ers) was made of lime mortar with very fin e lapilli. Often th ere was lime-based pain tin g, which was used un til th e 1970s. A s for th e flooring, for both in teriors an d ex teriors, coloured ceramic tiles (comin g from S. Stefano d i Camastra) or pressed cemen t tiles ( sometimes with marble flakes) were used . The ex tern al floors (for storage rooms and terraces) are made of lime, an d pumic e (after cemen t, lime, an d pumice). Traditional doors an d win dows are made of ch estnut wood with oil pain t.
Figure 14. 7KH WUDGLWLRQDO SODVWHU OLPH PRUWDU DQG ÀQH ODSLOOL lime and pumice floor
colored ceramic tiles
pressed cement tiles
pressed cement tiles
Figure 15. 7\SLFDO ÁRRUV
Figure 16. Colourful wooden windows and doors
Ov e r ti m e , dif f erent f a ct o rs ha ve stron gly i nfl u e nce d lo ca l building pro cedures: th e e xhau s ti on o f severa l na t ura l resources, the cl os u r e o f st o ne qua rries, a nd th e con s e q u e nt u s e o f a rt if icia l ma t eria ls, sourced fr om othe r pla ces (Sicily a nd so ut h Italy ); th e cons e q u e nt higher co st o f ma t eria ls, due to m ar i ti m e tra nspo rt ; t he sca rce a vailability of w or ke r s wit h co nso lida t ed experien ce; the r e s e ar ch a nd a pplica t io n o f buildin g p r oc e d u r e s co nsidered a ppro pria t e for th e s w i ft e xe cut io n o f t he wo rk, but lackin g in as s i m i l ati on a nd ela bo ra t io n pro cesses th at ai m at a l o ng-la st ing ma int ena nce of th e s p e ci fi c p erf o rma nces o f ea ch in div idual te c hnol o gica l unit . All o f t hese factors hav e d e te rmined a pro gressive t ra nsformati on of the built enviro nment . Buildin g tech nol og i e s and t ypo lo gica l mo dels foreign to the l oca l cult ure ha ve so met imes been p as s i ve l y i mpo rt ed, det ermining a relevan t and d i ffu s ed t echno lo gica l a nd en viron m e ntal d e c a y. F o r exa mple, st a rt in g from the 1920s , t he “po micement o ” blocks (for l oad - b e ar i n g wa lls a nd pa rt it io ns) made of p u m i c e a nd cement mixt ures w ere prod u ce d i n L i pa ri a nd expo rt ed. In t he 1960s, the r e i nfo rced co ncret e co nglomerate ( c as t i n p l ace) wa s int ro duced, f o r bearin g fr am e s and f o r ribbed ho llo w blo c k floors. Fr om 1 9 7 0 o nwa rds, t he f lo o rs ha ve been m ad e of p ref a brica t ed jo ist s a nd ligh ten i ng b r i cks . F o r t he ext erio r surf a ces, in th e 1970s , a p l a st er ma de o f “ma rble p owders” w i th a ne w f inishing in lime pa st e a nd wh ite ce m e nt w a s used. T he la st deca de saw th e i ntr od u c ti on o f “T erra no va ” pla st er. Sin ce the m i d - 1 9 80s a nd up t o t he ea rly 1 990s, col or e d p l ast ic pa int s (a bso lut ely n ot recom m e nd e d) were int ro duced o nt o th e is-
lan ds, but th ey are n o lon ger utilized. The use of asph altic an d bitumin ous sh eaths for th e waterproofin g of flat roofs began in recen t decades. 3. BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY IN CONTEXTS
Th is section also con cern s th e sustain ability of Aeolian architecture. The aim of these n otes is to giv e basic in formation to evaluate, quickly, the effective sustainability of local buildin gs. Aeolian architecture, like all types of vernacular architecture, represents the result of a stratification of empirical knowledge, lin ked to th e socio econ omic, cultural, and environmental needs of a specific community. Local communities were normally in charge of maintaining their own tradition al con struction processes, or sy st em of knowledge. These are very “fragile”, since th e processes of tran smission of ex perience are especially sen sitive to social, economic, and environmental change. However, they are considered key elements for a sustain able dev elopmen t of our built envi ronments, because they are an expression of social diversity an d sources of practical and technological culture strongly connected to the environmental, economic, an d social n eeds of an y location . Among the negative effects of globalization and industrialization is the tendency toward cultural homogenization, which in architectural terms translates into the use of stan dard project solution s, which in man y cases require a h igh con sumpt ion of environmental and energy resources and present scarce references to the cultural h eritage of th e places wh ere th ey are used
Wall made of “Pomicemento” blocks
Reinforced concrete and hollow clay blocks mixed floor
Prefabricated joists and hollow clay blocks floor
“ Ma r b l e p o w d e r s “ p l a s t e r
Figure 17. Some recent technologies used in the islands
. Contrary to what happens to monum e ntal ar c h it ect ure, which usua lly survives m or e e as i l y t o subst it ut io ns a nd a lteration s ove r ti m e , the o rdina ry t ra dit io na l h ome req u i r e s p e r i o dic mo dif ica t io ns t o a dapt it to new standards of living space and safety. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r i s k s d u r i n g a n i n t e r v e ntion on a minor building and they can be mainly due to the replacement of existing m ate r i al s a nd t he co nt ra st bet ween in dustrial and craft production; a fragility that occu r s i n area s rela t ed t o severa l arch itectu r al e l e m ent s such a s t he repla cemen t of inappropriate consolidation of horizontal structures, or the insertion of systems performed with inappropriate methods. Generally, the aim of the project must be to achi e ve a ba la nced co mpro mise between the p r e s e r va t io n o f t he t ra dit io na l buildin g and i ts ne c essa ry a da pt a t io n t o f u n ction al ne e d s [3 ]. A d d i ti onal l y, in t he ca se o f t he Aeolian I slands, the traditional architectonic signs and the expression of a naturally sustainable construction technique are today undermined by a saturation of the empty s p ace s and f ro m a pro gressive t ypological tr ans for m atio n, f o reign t o t he lo ca l culture, that, while taking advantage of new (not tr u l y com p a t ible) t echno lo gies, ha s caused a g e ne r al i zed degra da t io n. It is necessary to guarantee the possibility of car r yi ng o ut t he necessa ry a dj u stmen ts, avoiding, as far as possible, the mutation of the character and materiality of these b u i l d i ng s . This is why it is exceptionally important to e v al u ate the sust a ina bilit y o f such peculiar contexts. If, on the one hand, the energy consumption needs to be reduced with more thermally performing building soluti ons and co mpo nent s, a nd t he seismic re-
spon se of th ese buildin gs must be improved to prev en t collapse due to an earth quake (a highly plausible risk in an area such as the Aeolian one), on the other hand, the characteristics of such unique places can n ot be ign ored. I n th is sen se, as we will see, man y of th e ratin g sy stems for th e evaluat i o n o f s u s t a i n a b i l i t y h a v e t h e l i m i t o f g i vin g little weigh t to th e compon en t of local specificity . Howev er, th is will be furth er d iscussed in th e n ex t paragraph . 4. SUSTAINA BILITY A N D A SSESSMENT SY STEMS Before un derstan din g h ow to assess the sustain ability of buildin gs in a specific context, we n eed to take a step back an d recall the con cept of sustain ability , wh ich h as gradually un dergon e a tran sformation in relation to th e differen t n eeds th at h ave arisen over time an d wh ich h ave caused a tran sformation in th e way of con ceivin g sustain ability. After the oil crisis of the 1970s, all nations promoted measures and regulations against energy consumption from real estate. The energy consumption assessment became the criterion to evaluate the sustainability of buildings. Subsequently, the concept of sustainability evolved and nowadays, energy consumption is assumed only as one of the parameters by which sustainability is assessed. This is why a multidisciplinary ap proach to sustainability is preferred today . Con tin ued econ omic growth h as led to an overuse of environmental resources, but also an increase in greenhouse gas emission s. Today , all econ omic sectors h ave to en sure a lon g-term ecological balan ce, reducin g th e con sumption of n atural resources according to the restoring capacity of
F i g u re 1 8 . T h e a p p r o a c h t o “ s u s t a i n a b i l i t y ” o v e r t i m e
the p l ane t [ 5] . As is known, nowadays, sustainability (according to ISO 15392-2008) is commonly examined through three dimensions: the e ffe c t of a pheno meno n o r syst em on socie ty ( ofte n ref erred t o a s so cia l sustain ability), its impact on the environment (often r e fe r r e d to a s enviro nment a l sust a inability ), and its economic implications (often refe r r e d to as eco no mic sust a ina bilit y). The ne e d to eva lua t e sust a ina bilit y in order
to classify /label buildin gs h as arisen , and so has the need to guide the design, moving towards a more sustainable approach. Public disclosure of results encourages stakeholders (property owners, planners, and local administrations) to design and build cities and buildings with superior environmental, social, and econ omic performan ce. Howev er, th e question is: h ow does one exactly evaluate sustain ability ?
More than 600 sustainability assessment rating systems are available worldwide. Ne w s ys te ms a re co nt inua lly pro posed an d the most diffused ones receive a yearly update. This evolving situation has led to the release of the standards “Sustainability in Building Construction – Framework for Methods of Assessment of the Environm e ntal Pe r fo rma nce o f C o nst ruct ion Works – Par t 1: B uildings” (ISO 21931– 1, 2010) an d “S u s tai nab ilit y o f C o nst ruct io n Wo rks – Sustai nab i l i ty Assessment o f Buildings – Gen eral Fr am e w o rk” (ISO 15643– 1, 2010) . Systems for sustainability assessment have var i ou s s u b ject s – f ro m energy perf orman ce evaluation to multidimensional quality as s e s s m e nt. B e r ar d i [6 ] gro ups t hem int o : • CED : c u mula t ive energy dema nd sy stems ( on e ne r g y co nsumpt io n); • L CA : l i fe cycle a na lysis syst ems (on en v ir onm e ntal aspect s);
Figure 19. The three dimensions of sustainability
• TQA total quality assessmen t sy stems (ecological, economic, and social aspects). Howev er, man y sy stems can n ot ex clusively be in cluded in on e of th e abovemen tioned categories. CE D sy stems, gen erally m onodimen sion al, ev aluate th e sustain abilit y of a building through energy-related measuremen ts. LCA sy stems measure th e impact of a building on the environment by assessing the emission of substances related to the building’s construction and operation. LCA can h ave on e or more ev aluation parameters, while TQA systems are multidimen sion al because th ey evaluate different parameters. The first two systems have a quantitative approach , wh ile th e TQA sy stem is qualitative or quantitative in relation to different criteria [6 ]. While assessment systems have been giving value to the environmental characteristics, th e surge in importan ce of economic and social evaluations has manifested in systems tailored to developing countries, wh ere evaluatin g th e en v iron men t alone is in sufficien t. I n turn , th is sh ould sh ift the assessmen t sy stems toward a n ew perspective of sustain ability . Owin g to th e ev aluations’ thorough approach, systems demanding considerable detailed information have been developed. The criteria’s intricacy is reported as being the restricting factor for th e promulgation of ratin g sy stems, and even sustainability, within building stakeh olders wh o would be slow to en dorse sustain ability practices. Th erefore, to promote sustainable building assessment systems, it is crucial tocompromise between ease of use and thoroughness of analysis. The fact that multi-criterion TQA systems are more widely used than their LCA counterparts can be attributed to their simplicity
The system boundaries of the building’s LCA can be of three types: cradle-to-grave, cradle-to-gate, and gate-to-gate. The cradle-to-gate approach is an assessment of a partial life cycle of a product, from resource extraction to the factory gate, before the product is transported to the consumer. It is usually used as a basis for environmental product declaration. The gate-to-gate approach is a partial analysis that looks at only one process in the entire production chain. Information about each gate-to-gate module can be linked accordingly in a product chain, including information about the extraction of raw materials, transportation, disposal, and reuse, to provide a full cradle-togate evaluation. The cradle-to-grave approach is the most used because it starts from the pre-use phase, including raw material acquisition, goes through manufacturing and transportation to site, DQG WHUPLQDWHV ZLWK WKH HQG RI OLIH SKDVH ZKLFK LQFOXGHV GHPROLWLRQ UHF\FOLQJ SRWHQWLDO ODQGÀOO and reuse . /&$ DVVHVVPHQWV FRQVLVW RI IRXU SKDVHV ,62 WKH JRDO DQG GHÀQLWLRQ SKDVH WKH OLIH F\FOH inventory, the life cycle impact assessment and the improvement assessment phase. LCA diffusion LQ WKH EXLOGLQJ VHFWRU LV OLPLWHG E\ D ODFN RI LQIRUPDWLRQ ,Q IDFW WKH VSHFLÀFLWLHV RI WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ processes require data for every building material in any region. This lack of information on building materials is especially frequent for the existing buildings. Databases have been created for LCA evaluations and implemented in VSHFLÀFDOO\ GHVLJQHG VRIWZDUH LQ VHYHUDO JHRJUDSKLF DUHDV %((6 LQ WKH 86 %2867($' DQG (19(67 LQ (QJODQG 6,0$352 DQG (FR Quantum in the Netherlands, Ecoinvent in Switzerland, and GaBi in Germany. However, these databases are only valid for assessments LQ D VSHFLÀF UHJLRQ $QRWKHU REVWDFOH IRU /&$ GLIIXVLRQ LV LWV VSHFLDOLVW VWUXFWXUH RXWSXWV RI /&$ V\VWHPV DUH UHSUHVHQWHG E\ HQYLURQPHQWDO impacts expressed through chemical substances, which are not easily understood by construction sector actors. LCA systems assess WKH HQYLURQPHQWDO SDUDGLJP RI VXVWDLQDELOLW\ ZLWKRXW FRQVLGHULQJ VRFLDO DQG HFRQRPLF LPSDFWV 7R ÀW WKLV OLPLW VRPH VWXGLHV UHODWH WKH disaggregation analysis necessary for an LCA to an evaluation of economic costs. For example, BEES and GaBi systems already permit the selection of cost-effective environmentally preferable products . Figure 20. 7KH /&$ SURFHVV GHÀQLWLRQ DQG OLPLWV
and checklist structure. Nevertheless, LCA system analyses can be more exhaustive com p ar e d t o mult i-crit erio n syst ems but still har d to u nderst a nd, wit h t heir use limited to a nu m b e r o f specia list s [ 5] . For the s e r ea so ns (a cco rding t o wh ich multi d i m e ns i ona l, quicker met ho ds a re preferab l e ) , the to pic o f T QA will be a naly zed in the ne xt p ara gra phs.
In order to produce rating systems for the evaluation of a building’s environmental sustainability, scoring methods established on the following four major components h ave been employ ed most often :
4.1 RATING SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING SUSTAINABILITY
- S c o r i n g s y s t e m : a p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r ement system combining points, or credits, earned through the achievement of a performance level set for each point of assessmen t;
To e s tab l i s h a n o bj ect ive a nd co mpreh en sive method of assessment on the wide range of environmental performances of a building is the goal of the rating systems used to evaluate them. They aim to measure a building’s performance with a system that is consistent and harmonized with respect to pre-established standards, g u i d e l i ne s , f a ct o rs, o r crit eria .
- Categories: a certain set of en viron mental performan ce-related items to be accounted for in th e ev aluation ;
- Weighting system: the importance that each poin t pertain in g th e scorin g sy stem is giv en ; - Output: a result produced to demonstrate the environmental performance attained
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throughout the scoring phase through an e xte ns i ve , direct a ppro a ch. Thi s i s the s t ruct ure t ha t ea ch ra t ing sy stem e m p l oye d in t he a ssessment o f a buildin g’s e nv i r onm e n t a l impa ct is built upo n; h owev e r , a nu m b er o f signif ica nt pa rt s prov e diffe r e nt afte r a st udy o f t he det a ils [ 5 ]. Different scopes are examined in all the s ys te m s , w i t h dif f erent levels o f detail. In Table 1, the scopes’ distribution a mon g th e s c he m e s /s y st ems is present ed gra ph ically . Some of the most diffused systems (BREEAM , CAS B EE , LEED, SBT o o l) were presen ted in detail during the lesson, though for the s c op e of the present do cument t h ey were onl y m e nti oned a nd co mpa red. A broader understanding may be obtained by con-
sultin g th e respective websites an d specific man uals. Other important European systems are DGNB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen , German y ) an d HQE TM (Haute Qualité E n viron n emen tale, Fran ce), but th ey are n ot as common an d are n ot cov ered in this lesson . % 5 ( ( $ 0 % 8 , / ' , 1 * 5 ( 6 ( $ 5 & + ( 6 7 $ % / , 6 + 0 ( 1 7 ( 1 9 , 5 2 1 0 (1 7 $ / $ 6 6 (6 6 0 (1 7 0 ( 7 + 2 ' 2 / 2* <
BR E E AM, publish ed by th e Buildin g R esearch Establishment (BRE) in 1990, is the world’s oldest established method of assessing, rating, and certifying the sustainability of buildin gs.
Table 1. Scopes’ distribution among the analyzed rating schemes (* HVAC: heating, ventilation, and airconditioning) 
There are different types of schemes, app l i e d to d i fferent t ypes o f building or situati on, as s ho wn in t he next pa ge, regardin g Refurbishment and Fit-Out Technical Stand ar d s , In u se, New C o nst ruct io n, a n d I n fras tr u ctu r e . They a re a ll def ined in 11. The scheme’s ten categories and 71 criteria allow for the description of the sustainability.
For each category, a percentage-weighting factor and a totalof 112 credits are assigned commensurably, although the latter feature the following conditions: the categories “Energy and CO2” and “Water and Waste” have a set minimum achievement listed in Table 2, along with the schemes’ categories .
Refurbishment and Fit-Out Technical Standard. 7KURXJK WKH DVVHVVPHQW DQG FHUWLÀFDWLRQ SURFHVV WKH VWDQGDUG UHFRJQL]HV DQG UHÁHFWV WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKH EXLOGLQJ RQFH LPSURYHPHQWV KDYH EHHQ PDGH WR the external envelope, structure, core services, local services, or interior design of a building. The standard FDQ EH XVHG WR DVVHVV WKH UHIXUELVKPHQW DQG ÀW RXW RI PRVW W\SHV DQG XVHV RI H[LVWLQJ EXLOGLQJV LQFOXGLQJ homes (note: in the UK, there are separate standalone technical standards for non-domestic and domestic SURMHFWV 7KH VWDQGDUG LQFOXGHV VSHFLÀF DVVHVVPHQW FULWHULD IRU KHULWDJH EXLOGLQJV WKDW WDNH LQWR DFFRXQW the constraints on these types of projects. In-Use. The standard can be used for all existing non-domestic buildings. It is a scheme to help building managers reduce the running costs and improve the environmental performance of existing buildings. It has three parts – Parts 1 (building asset) and 2 (building management) are relevant to all non-domestic, commercial, industrial, retail, and institutional buildings. Part 3 (occupier management) of the BREEAM ,Q 8VH FHUWLÀFDWLRQ VFKHPH LV FXUUHQWO\ UHVWULFWHG WR RIÀFHV %5(($0 ,Q 8VH LV ZLGHO\ XVHG E\ PHPEHUV RI WKH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 6XVWDLQDELOLW\ $OOLDQFH ,6$ ZKLFK SURYLGHV D SODWIRUP IRU FHUWLÀFDWLRQ DJDLQVW WKH VFKHPH New Construction Homes and Commercial Buildings. The New Construction standards can be used to DVVHVV WKH GHVLJQ FRQVWUXFWLRQ LQWHQGHG XVH DQG IXWXUH SURRÀQJ RI QHZ EXLOGLQJ GHYHORSPHQWV LQFOXGLQJ the local, natural, or manmade environment surrounding the building. The standards can be used to assess most types of new buildings, including new homes and additions to existing buildings. Each one uses a common framework that is adaptable, depending upon the type and location of the building. Infrastructure – Civil Engineering and Public Realm. In the short term, a new CEEQUAL will be launched as the successor to CEEQUAL Version 5.2 and BREEAM Infrastructure (Pilot). This will bring together the best of both schemes into a new best practice approach to challenge projects to deliver better outcomes in infrastructure sustainability. It will combine the legacy and track record of CEEQUAL with the new thinking from BREEAM. For now, new projects have two options: register with CEEQUAL Version 5 or pre-register for CEEQUAL (2018). Communities. This standard focuses on the master-planning of whole communities. It is aimed at helping construction industry professionals design places that people want to live and work in, that are good for the environment, and that are economically successful.
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The CASBEE is the Japanese sustainability rating system for buildings. It was develop e d b y a resea rch co mmit t ee est ablish ed in 2001 through the collaboration of academia, industry and national and local g ove r nm e n t s, which est a blished t he Japan S u s tai nab l e Building C o nso rt ium (J SBC) un d e r the au spice o f t he Minist ry o f Lan d, I n -
frastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) . The launch occurred in 2005 for the in tern ation al market, th en it became compulsory in 2 4 mun icipalities of Japan , where it was made mandatory that the results of an assessment performed through CASBEE be attach ed to th e buildin g permits’ application . Th e dimen sion s of a buildin g are the basis for the schemes allowed by CASBEE, which address the four main building life ph ases :
Table 2. BREEAM, categories for each scheme 
- CASBEE for Predesign, used in site selecti on and b uilding pla nning; - CAS B EE for New C o nst ruct io n, used in th e first three years following the building’s c om p l e ti on ; - CA S B EE fo r Exist ing Buildings, used n o earl i e r than on e yea r o f o pera t io n; - CA S B EE for Reno va t io n, who se purpose is to s u p p or t a building ref urbishment. W i th the i ntent io n o f a t t a ining t he specific p u r p os e s , a va st number o f a ncilla ry ratin g s ys te m s ar e a va ila ble t o C ASBEE wh en th e base system is insufficient, for instance for
detach ed h ouses, temporary con structions, heat island effect, urban development, or cities an d market promotion s. Under CASBEE , there are two spaces: in tern al an d ex tern al, div ided by th e virtual en closed space boun dary , wh ich is defined by the site boundary and other elements, with two factors related to th e two spaces. Th us, we h ave put forward CASBE E , in which th e “n egative aspects of en viron men tal impact wh ich go bey on d th e virtual en closed space to th e outside (th e public property)” an d “improv in g liv in g amen ity for th e buildin g users” are con sidered side by side. Un der CASBE E , th ese two factors are defined below as Q an d L, th e main assessment categories, and are evaluated separately. Q
( Q u al i ty) – Built Enviro nment Qua lit y : E v aluate s “i m p r ovement in living a menit y for th e building users, within the virtual enclosed s p ac e ( the priva t e pro pert y)”. L (Load) – Built Environment Load: Evaluates “negative aspects of environmental impact which go beyond the virtual enclosed space to the outside (the public p r op e r ty) ” . The core concept of CASBEE is called BEE ( B u i l t E n v i r o n m e n t E f f i c i e n c y ) . B E E i s a n i ndicator calculated by using Q as the num e r ator an d L a s t he deno mina t o r.
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With three subcategories from which to base the values’ calculations, as reported b y the s c ore sheet in T a ble 3, Q a nd LR can r ang e b e tween 0 a nd 100. Wit h t he Q an d L R v a l u e s o n t h e y - a x i s a n d x - a x i s , r e s p e ctively, BEE is expressed as the gradient of the l i ne on t he gra ph. T he BEE va lue is used to assign a level of performance ranging from C through B–, B+ and A, up to S to the p r oj e c t i n quest io n. Applying t he Q an d LR values and the coefficients of every item, the assessment results sheet analyzes and sets weights, then produces a final BEE ind e x s c or e i n it s la st st ep.
Table 3. CASBEE’s score sheet 
The US Green Building Council (USGB), a nongovernmental organization with representatives from industry, academia, and government, first launched the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Pilot Project P rogram, referred to as LE E D® Version 1.0, in the USA in 1998. This program has since been subject to revisions, integrations, and national customizations. In 2016, the last complete version (4.0) was released but in 2 018, a beta v ersion of the 4.1 version was in troduced, startin g with Existin g Buildin gs. The LEED® Green Building Rating System is on e of th e most widespread sy stems in the world (th e most used accordin g to the U.S. Green Building Council). It is a voluntary
BD+C Building Design and Construction ID+C Interior Design and Construction O+M Building Operations and Maintenance
Applies to buildings that are being newly constructed or going through a major renovation; includes New Construction, Core and Shell, Schools, Retail, Hospitality, Data Centers, Warehouses and Distribution Centers, and Healthcare. $SSOLHV WR SURMHFWV WKDW DUH D FRPSOHWH LQWHULRU ÀW RXW LQFOXGHV Commercial Interiors, Retail, and Hospitality. Applies to existing buildings that are undergoing improvement work or little to no construction; includes Existing Buildings, Schools, Retail, Hospitality, Data Centers, and Warehouses and Distribution Centers.
ND Neighborhood Development
Applies to new land development projects or redevelopment projects containing residential uses, nonresidential uses, or a mix. Projects can be at any stage of the development process, from conceptual planning to construction; includes Plan and Built Project.
Applies to single family homes, low-rise multifamily (one to three stories), or mid-rise multifamily (four to six stories); includes Homes and Multifamily Low-rise and Multifamily Mid-rise.
Cities and communities
Applies to entire cities and subsections of a city. Using the Arc performance platform, LEED for Cities projects can measure and manage their city’s water consumption, energy use, waste, transportation, and human experience.
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s ys te m . Nu mero us schemes a re developed to rate new and existing commercial, institutional, and residential buildings (Table 4). Five categories are included in every s c he m e , co nt a ining t he sa me list of performance requirements. Those which change s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s p eci fi c ar e a o f int erest a nd building ty pe are the number of credits, prerequisites, and p oi nts avai la ble. Tab l e 5 p r ovides a descript io n o f t he categ or i e s i ncl uded in t he LEED® environ men tal r ati ng s che mes.
T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s c h e m e s c o n t a i n m a ndatory prerequisites and non-compulsory credits, which can be selected observing the objectives that are to be achieved. The summation of points for each credit generates the evaluation outcome. A sole weigh t is allotted to each credit according to a strictly establish ed scorin g sy stem that con ceiv es a max imum score of 100 points, in addition of 1 0 bon us poin ts awarded for t h e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t w o s p e c i a l c a t e g ories. A score of 4 0 poin ts is th e min imum requiremen t for passin g th e basic evaluation.
Table 5. LEED’s categories and description 
(40– 49 points)
(80 points and over)
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The S u s tai n a ble Building C ha llenge, prev i ou s l y kno wn a s t he G reen Buildin g Chal l e ng e , is a n int erna t io na l in itiativ e c once i ve d in 1996 t ha t set t he goal of i d e nti fyi ng st a nda rds f o r energy an d en v i r onm e nta l perf o rma nce suit a ble for in te r nati onal a nd na t io na l co ndit io ns. More s p e c i fi cal l y , t he a im o f t he G reen Buildin g Chal l e ng e wa s t o develo p a nd con stan tly u p d ate a met ho do lo gy a ble t o c ombin e the ad vanta ge o f using a co mmon in ternati onal s ta nda rd wit h t he po ssibility of its c om p l e te c o nt ext ua liza t io n wit h respect to the s i ng l e na t io na l a pplica t io n a reas. Thu s , i t w as necessa ry t o det ermine ev alu ati on tools suit a ble f o r t he o bj ective ass e s s m e nt o f a building’ s enviro n men tal, e c onom i c , a nd so cia l impa ct t hrough out i ts l i fe cycl e by mea ns o f va rio us meth odol og i cal b ases. T he co mbined ef f orts of 2 0 c ou ntr i e s ’ represent a t ives led t o t he dev elop m e nt of t he SB met ho d. In a ddition to a c om m on i n t erna t io na l st a nda rd, an oth er fe atu r e of t his met ho d is t he ea se of custom i z ati on f o r ea ch na t io na l co nt ex t. Th e Inte r nati ona l Init ia t ive f o r a Sustain able B u i l t Envi r onment (iiSBE) ma na ges a tech ni c al c om mit t ee t a sked wit h updatin g th e S B m e thod , which is used in t he evaluation
of all design con cepts or ex istin g buildings, regardless of th eir prevalen t use an d geometrical ex ten sion , accordin g to th e four stages: predesign , design , con struction, an d operation . The SB method is the base of origin of the Green Building Tool (GBTool), thereafter modified to be named the Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool). Four levels characterize the performance framework of the SBTool: performance issues, performance categories, performance criteria, and performance subcriteria. Table 7 demonstrates SBTool’s issue areas, in which it is expressed per each phase of a building’s life cycle [5,7]. 4 . 2 C O M P A R I S O N S B E T W E E N T H E D I F F E R E N T S YS TEMS
I t is n ormally difficult to compare th e various sy stems, at times proh ibitiv e. As the purposes targeted by ev ery ratin g sc heme are differen t, an accurate comparison between categories an d subcategories is frequen tly un attain able. Howev er, below, we will briefly present some comparison tables in relation to d ifferen t aspects .
Table 7. Analysis of the SBTool’s issue areas expressed per each phase of a building’s life cycle 
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Urban Planning Projects
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Predesign and Design
Table 11. Life cycle phase of the building assessed by the selected schemes
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Ene r g y p e r f o rma nce a nd so lid wa ste man agement are the main categories to be evaluated; however, the great majority of s c he m e s al so a ssess t he f o llo wing importan t categories: materials, water, waste, water management, and ecology and environmental quality. The least assessed scopes concern resistance to natural disasters, as they are taken into consideration exclus i v e l y b y CASBEE (t ho ugh, in rea lit y, also by tw o othe r syst ems, t ha t a re no t co nsidered in this discussion – German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB) and Haute Qualité Environnement (HQETM). Instead, this factor s hould be int ro duced in a ll coun tries w i th hi g h s eismic/hydro geo lo gica l risk etc. ( s u c h as Ita ly). 4.3 OTHER TWO SYSTEMS FOR SPECIAL CONTEXT
M or e ov e r , a lt ho ugh t hey a re no t especially w i d e s p r e ad, t wo o t her syst ems ha ve been e xam i ne d : t he IT AC A Pro t o co l (o win g to it b e i ng an I t a lia n Assessment Syst em) an d GB C Hi s tor i c Building (beca use it is particul ar l y s u i tab le f o r hist o rica l buildings). Th ese tw o s ys te ms a re mo re suit a ble f o r th e pecu l i ar i ti e s o f a co nt ext such a s t he A eolian one . ,7$&$
The ITA CA P ro t o co l [ 13] is ba sed o n th e SB m e thod of IISBE, cho sen in 2002 a s a refere nce b y the It a lia n regio ns (t he f irst v ersion of the Italian SBTool is from 2002 and was p r e s e nte d at t he Wo rld Sust a ina ble Buildin g conference in Oslo. The Residential SBTool 2002 can be considered the matrix of the ITA CA P r otoco l). T he IT AC A Pro t o col sy stem is configured as a federation of regional evaluation protocols characterized by a
common methodology and technical scien tific requiremen ts. Th e idea is to share a common standard while allowing it to be declin ed locally . Th e I TA CA Protocol, as a result of th e characteristics of th e SB Meth od, allows for contex tualization to th e territorial peculiarities of th e region s, wh ile main tain in g th e same structure, scoring, and weighting system. Th is quality is particularly importan t for Italy as it is characterized by different climatic profiles an d con struction practices. To date, man y I talian R egion s h ave adopted th e I TACA Protocol as a tool to support th eir local policies. Th ere are region al version s of th e protocol in Piedmon t, Liguria, March e, Tuscan y , Lazio, an d Puglia. Th e I TACA Protocol (version 2 011) is composed of 3 4 ev aluation criteria, through wh ich th e level of sustain ability of a buildin g can be objectiv ely an aly zed. Th e criteria are organ ized in to fiv e thematic areas: - site quality ; - con sumption of resources; - en v iron men tal loads; - in door en v iron men tal quality ; - serv ice quality ; For each criterion , depen din g on th e level of performan ce ach iev ed, th e building receives a score ran gin g from –1 to +5 (where zero is th e stan dard con struction practice, 3 th e best curren t practice an d 5 excellen ce). E ach criterion h as a weigh t, based on the SBTool meth odology , wh ich determines its importan ce compared to th e oth ers. Th e weigh ted sum of th e scores from each of th e 3 4 criteria determin es th e overall sustain ability score of th e buildin g.
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The Gr e e n Building C o uncil It a lia h as dev e l op e d a new ra t ing syst em f o r t he certifi cati on of buildings subj ect t o restoration or r e fu r b i s hment . It is ca lled G BC Historic B u i l d i ng ® , ba sed o n t he LEED® system matr i x and , i n pa rt icula r, o n t he LEED® I talia 2 0 0 9 N e w C o nst ruct io n a nd Rest ructurin g v e r s i on. It i s quit e recent : t he f irst buildin g p r oj e ct w as cert if ied in 2018. The GB C Hi st o ric Building® pro t o co l can be u s e d for b uildings co nst ruct ed bef ore 1945 ( p r e - i nd u s tria liza t io n). H o wever, f or buildi ng s b u i l t a f t er 1945 wit h a preindustrial b u i l d i ng p r o cess, in t he presence of h istori c al te s ti m onia l o r cult ura l va lues, lin ked to the for m al , t ypo lo gica l a nd/o r co nstructiv e c har acte r i st ics, it is po ssible t o a pply th e GB C Hi s tor i c Building® pro t o co l. Com p ar e d t o LEED®/G BC , t his protocol ad d s a thema t ic a rea rela t ed t o sustain ab l e i nte r vent io n in t he co nserva t ion field, nam e d “Hi st o ric V a lence” (V S). It h as th e u l ti m ate g oa l o f preserving a ll t ha t is “testim ony w i th t he va lue o f civiliza t io n”. A s i n e xi s ti ng LEED®/G BC syst ems, in GBC Hi s tor i c B u i lding®, t he dist ribut io n of poin ts i s b as e d on t he ef f ect s o f a ct io ns related to the d e s i g n, co nst ruct io n, use, a nd main tenance of th e building (f o r exa mple, green hou s e g as es, t he use o f f o ssil f uels, tox ic and car ci no genic a gent s, a ir a nd water p ol l u ti on, and int erna l co ndit io ns) on th e e nv i r onm e n t a nd o n huma n hea lt h. A l l r e q u i r e ment s a re gro uped wit hin th e foll ow i ng the ma t ic a rea s: - Hi s tor i c Va lence (VS); - S i te S u s taina bilit y (SS); - W ate r M ana gement (G A) - Ene r g y an d At mo sphere (EA); - M ate r i al s a nd Reso urces (MR);
- I n tern al E n viron men tal Quality (I Q); - I n n ovation in Design (I P); - R egion al Priority (P R ). Th e poin ts sy stem associated with credits is based on th e followin g rules: - th e prerequisites are man datory and do n ot give a score; - all credits are worth at least 1 poin t; - all credits have a positive integer value (there are no fractional or negative numbers). The maximum score achievable is 110, divided into 100 points distributed between the VS, SS, GA, EA, MR, and QI areas and in 10 points for the IP and PR areas. 4.4. CRITICAL ISSUES The public receives an easily comprehensible report of how “green” a building may be due to assessment methods producing quantifiable results. This is not to say that scoring systems are impervious to negative issues. Firstly , th e buildin g is awarded a level of certification th at does n ot directly or exten siv ely report its performan ce with in specific categories of sustain able design and th ey are also n ot reliably con gruous to the total reduction in realized en v iron mental impact. Poin ts awarded to more positively impactin g categories of a ratin g sy stem are iden tical to oth ers an d, at times, build ing teams work toward accumulatin g points wh ere th ey are most affordable, n ot by employ in g meth ods more ben eficial to the environ men t. Th is is an issue presen t in all major sustain ability ratin g sy stems th at there are in con sisten cies between th e impact on th e en viron men t of a specific in clusion and its design er’s reward.
The d i s cr e pa ncy o f t he dif f icult y to fulfil var i ou s m et rics co mpo unds t he problem, as ce r tai n requirement s a re ea sily attain ab l e i n one co nt ext wherea s t hey migh t be u nfe as i b l e in o t hers. Pro mo t ing t he use of b i c yc l e s an d public t ra nspo rt a wa rd poin ts i n the L EED, BREEAM, G reen G lo bes, an d Gr e e n S tar syst ems, f o r inst a nce, th ough i m p l e m e nti ng t his met ric ra nges f rom easy to ne ar i m po ssible whet her t he con tex t is m or e or l e ss urba n. Fu r the r m or e, t he co st s rela t ive t o t h e fulfilm e nt of c e rt a in credit s a re higher t h an oth e r s ; for e xample, t he sa me credit is attribute d to the use o f highly ref let ive colors for a b u i l d i ng ’s ro o f a nd t he inst a lla t ion of a g r e e n r oof syst em. Addit io na lly, o wn ers are not g u ar ant eed direct lif ecycle pay back cos ts b y e mplo ying so me o f t he more en v ir onm e ntal l y po sit ive credit s, a lt ho ugh th ey ar e a c oncret e incent ive. The r e s u l t is t ha t o wners a nd developers te nd to d ecide o n t he inclusio n o f credits not b y their impa ct o n t he envir on men t, b u t the i r p o t ent ia l eco no mic benefit . In s u m m ar y, t he eva lua t io n a building’s perfor m ance o n t he ba sis o f a sco re in ev itably i nvol v e s s i mplif ica t io ns t ha t a re o c casion al l y e xce s s ive. In genera l, sco ring meth ods hav e the s e o t her limit a t io ns: - Each i nd i c a t o r is a sso cia t ed wit h a differe nt s c or e , weight ed, a nd decided arbitraril y b y an e xterna l co mmissio n, regardless of the conte xt a nd t he specif ic ca se. - The r e i s a risk o f st a nda rdizing design soluti ons . M any crit eria t end t o pro vide repetiti v e s ol u ti ons t ha t a re no t va lid every wh ere. In thi s s e nse, ma ny syst ems a re try in g to ov e r com e t hese sho rt co mings. Sustain abili ty i s g l ob al, but t he sa me ca nno t be said
about th e meth ods to establish a buildin g’s level of en v iron men tal sustain ability. Th ough in a n umber of ratin g sy stems, the poin t sy stem v aries, display in g a geographic an d cultural sin gularity , an y specific system lacks v ariation regardin g climate or cultural differen ces. - Th ere is n o database to obtain detailed in formation on th e materials an d products with wh ich buildin gs are made. Man y prod ucts h av e ecofrien dly labels even in cases wh ere th e origin is n ot clear – often the meth ods overlook econ omic an d social sustain ability . - The lack of a unified regulatory framework and unequivocal political choices have led to the definition of a high number of certification systems that are difficult to compare. The importance of harmonization has also been implemented at the European level (Commun ication No. 445 – 0 1.0 7.2 014 which highlights the need to create shared and comparable assessment tools to facilitate better use of resources in th e con struction sector). Th e Common E uropean sustainable Built Environment Assessment (CESBA) init i a t i v e ( 2 0 1 4 , 1 3 E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s ) p r ov ides a common framework. Th e mission of CESBA is promoting the promulgation and endorsement of principles of sustainable built environments by way of harmonized assessment systems throughout the built environment’s life cycle. For this reason, it is CESBA’s aim to be Europe’s paramount organization, leading the harmonization of curren t an d future built en viron ment assessmen t sy stems [1 4]. Th e fin din gs from th e various sy stems’ comparison [5 ] are reported below.
- The r ati ng syst ems f o r t he eva lu ation of a b u i l d i ng ’s enviro nment a l impa ct are all ap p r op r i ate f o r current a nd new buildi ng s , al s o dea ling wit h t he ref urbish men t of b u i l d i ng s wit h t he except io n o f t he SBTool. - B REEAM a nd C ASBEE a re a ble t o assess all typ e s of b u ildings, unlike LEED®, which does not c once rn indust ria l buildings. Th e most r e s tr i cte d i s t he SBT o o l, a s urba n plan n in g p r oj e c ts ar e no t co vered by it , in addition to any b ui l ding t ype dif f erent f ro m residen ti al , offi c e , co mmercia l, a nd education al b u i l d i ng s . - B REEAM an d C ASBEE dea l wit h a buildin g’s e nti r e l i fe c ycle pha ses.
In conclusion, regarding the further development of these schemes, beneficial features would be as follows: - Completen ess, in dicatin g th e appropriate an aly sis of all th e elemen ts den o ting a buildin g an d its life cy cle; - A clear represen tation of th e weighting sy stem, with reliable ev iden ce to support th e scorin g sy stem; - Greater h armon ization at th e in ternational lev el would be desirable, wh ile respectin g th e specificities of places.
- The S B Tool syst em ha s so lely been des i g ne d for cert if ying a building’ s low perfor m ance l evel. - Q u anti ti vely spea king, t he categories m os t c ons i dered by t he schemes are en erg y p e r for m ance, so lid wa st e ma na gemen t, m ate r i al , an d wa t er. - The l e as t co nsidered ca t ego ries are “res i s tance aga inst na t ura l disa st ers”, “earth q u ake p r e v ent io n”, a nd “o lf a ct o ry comfor t” . The la ck o f a t t ent io n t o t he issues s u ch as “r esist a nce a ga inst na t ural disaste r s ” and “ea rt hqua ke prevent io n” is a seriou s d e fi c i e n cy when we o pera t e in a h igh r i s k te r r i tor y (hydro geo lo gica l o r seismic) l i ke the Italia n o ne. - Onl y the n ew G BC H ist o ric Building® gives a s p e ci fi c a nswer f o r t he cert if ication of hi s tor i c b u ildings subject t o rest o ration or r e fu r b i s hm ent .
Rosa Caponetto Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
R E FE R ENC ES  Caponetto R., Ferro V., Rodonò U., Architettura tipica eoliana: note per una metodologia di intervento sostenibile, LQ $WWL &RQYHJQR ´/D ULTXDOLÀFD]LRQH GHOOH FRVWH GHO 0HGLWHUUDQHR IUD WUDGL]LRQH VYLOXSSR H LQWHUYHQWL VRVWHQLELOLµ editore, Napoli, 2003 (in Italian).  Todesco S. (a cura di), Atlante dei Beni Etno-antropologici eoliani, EDAS, Messina 1995 (in Italian). > @ 'LSDVTXDOH / 0HFFD , 9HUQDFXUDO DUFKLWHFWXUH DV FRGLÀHG PRGHO IRU WKH FRQWHPSRUDU\ VXVWDLQDEOH SURMHFW ,Q TECHNE n. 12, 2016.  Mileto C., Vegas López-Manzanares, F., Diodato M., Tecniche costruttive tradizionali a Valencia. Metodo e risultati dallo studio materiale dell’architettura. In: Materiali e Strutture. Problemi di conservazione II (4): 95-111. Edizioni Quasar, ISSN 1121-2373 , http://hdl.handle.net/10251/60837 (2013) (in Italian).  Bernardi E., Carlucci S., Cornaro C. and Bohne R. A., An Analysis of the Most Adopted Rating Systems for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Buildings, Sustainability 9 (7), 1226, 2017.  Berardi U., Sustainability Assessment in the Construction Sector: Rating Systems and Rated Buildings. Sustainable Development, Volume 20, Issue 6, 2011. > @ 1JX\HQ % . $OWDQD + &RPSDUDWLYH UHYLHZ RI ÀYH VXVWDLQDEOH UDWLQJ V\VWHPV LQ ,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RQIHUHQFH RQ Green Buildings and Sustainable Cities, Procedia Engineering Volume 21, Volume 1 of 2, Elsevier B.V., Bologna, Italy, 2011  Shuzo Murakami Il contesto di sviluppo del sistema CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building (QYLURQPHQWDO (IÀFLHQF\ '2, 7LB B B L  Say C., Wood A., Sustainable Rating Systems Around the World, CTBUH Journal, Issue II, 2008, http://ctbuh.org/paper  “LEED rating system - U.S. Green Building Council” [Online]. Available: https://www.usgbc.org/leed (accessed on October, 2019).  “Technical Standards - BREEAM” [Online]. Available: https://www.breeam.com/discover/technical-standards/ (accessed on October, 2019). > @ ´&$6%(( &RPSUHKHQVLYH $VVHVVPHQW 6\VWHP IRU %XLOW (QYLURQPHQW (IÀFLHQF\µ>2QOLQH@ $YDLODEOH KWWS ZZZ LEHF or.jp/CASBEE/english/ (accessed on October, 2019).  “iiSBE Italia” [Online]. Available: http://www.iisbeitalia.org/sbmethod/protocollo-itaca (accessed on October, 2019).  “CESBA - Common European Sustainable Built Environment Assessment” [Online]. Available: https://www.cesba. eu/ (accessed on October, 2019).
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions $QWRQLR *DJOLDQR
ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF A TYPICAL AEOLIAN BUILDING IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE ITALIAN ENERGY CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE 1. INTRODUCTION
The b u i l d i ng sect o r, which is a ppro x imately r e s p ons i b l e f o r 40% o f energy co ns umption and 36% of C O 2 emissio ns, ha s huge poten tial energy savings that impose to reduce drastically their energy consumptions and e nvi r onm e nt a l ef f ect s [ 1, 2] . To attai n th e go a l o f reducing f o ssil fuel dependency, the European Union has wisely considered the best courses of action for reducing overall energy consumption and g r e e nhou s e ga s emissio ns. A l o n g w i t h t h o r o u g h a n d n e c e s s a r y m o de r ni z ati on and a dj ust ment t o curren t buildi ng r e q u i r e ment s a nd lif e st a nda rds, en ergy efficiency improvements realized during the r e fu r b i shment o f herit a ge buildin gs ex tend the buildings’ life expectancy. In a l ong p e r i od, f ro m t his po int o f view, it also d e c r e as e s expenses f o r t he buildings’ own ers and users, increases the occupants’ comfort and quality of life while positively affecting the environment and the buildi ng s ’ val u e . In this context, the Energy Performance Certification (EPC) was revealed to be an e ffe cti v e too l f o r eva lua t ing t he en ergy efficiency in buildings, as well as for providi ng u s e fu l r eco mmenda t io ns f o r upgradin g the b u i l d i ng energy perf o rma nce in ligh t of a cos t- e ffe ct ive perspect ive [ 3] . In 2002, the Energy Performance of Buildi ng s D i r e ctive (EPBD) [ 1] int ro duced a simplified tool for the energy performance as s e s s m e nt o f resident ia l buildings E PCs. In 2010, the EPBD recast has introduced new requirements to expand the quality, usabili-
ty, and public acceptance of EPCs . To date, all 28 Member States (MS) formally implemented the EPBD requirements in their national legislation (fig. 1). Th e buildin g en ergy assessmen t is ev aluated th rough differen t meth odologies, which h ave to satisfy th e obligation s of th e European Performance of Buildings Directives [1, 2]. However, the estimation of the building’s en ergy performan ce requires specific inform a t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s d e s c r i b i n g o f t h e e nergy performan ce of th e buildin g en velope as well as th e buildin g services. A lth ough for all th e E uropean Coun tries, the assembly of th e E PC is man datory , different procedures must be followed for mak ing it. I n I taly , th e en ergy certification of build ings follows th e “asset ratin g” procedure, which requires th e followin g assumption s. Data may be obtain ed from th e building inspection or design data. Standard weather conditions, occupancy schedules, and HVAC systems management are used for calculating the energy performance. The certification procedure allows the determination of several energy performance indicators, and subsequently, the attainment of the performance class for the building. Such energy performance indicators, defin ed by th e UNI TS 11300 Section s 1 to 6 , are th e followin g: - h eatin g an d coolin g en ergy n eeds;
Figure 1. (QHUJ\ SHUIRUPDQFH FHUWLÀFDWHV DFURVV WKH (8 > @
- primary Energy consumptions for heating ( P E H ) , ve nti la t io n (PE V ), do mest ic hot water ( PE DHW ) , and light ing (P EL ); - primary consumptions for cooling (PE C ); - energy produced through renewable s o u r c e s ( P E ren) ( e . g . , t h e r m a l s o l a r , p h o t o v ol tai c, b i oma ss); - renewable and non-renewable energy sources and internal or external energy carriers on the border of buildings; - energy needs for transport things or people by elevators and escalators. The building energy performance is assessed through comparison with a reference building (identical to the real one as for geometry, orientation, location in the climatic zone, use, and so on ), which has predefined thermal characteristics and energy parameters.
Th e ratin g sy stem is based on 10 adaptable classes (A 4 , A 3 , A 2 , A 1 , B, C, D, E , F, G), based on a range proportional between the Energy Performance (EP) of the investigated building and the EP of a virtual reference buildin g as described in th e I talian Ministerial Decree 26 Jun e 2 015 [6 ]. The present lecture aims to illustrate the main features of the DOCET software, developed by the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) an d th e Nation al R esearch Coun cil of Italy (CN R ) [7 ]. Th is software, wh ich implements th e algorith ms defin ed by th e UNI TS 11300, allows achievement of the EPC for single buildin gs, e.g., row or sin gle-family h ouses, or lone apartments. Only a single thermal zone may be taken into account. Due to th e simplification assumed, th e E PC d eveloped by DOCET may be used only for residen tial buildin gs with n et area lower than 200 m 2 .
2. BUILDINGS’ IND ICATORS
The b u i l d i ng energy perf o rma nces (E P) are presented as final specific annual energ y n e e d s ( k W h / m 2. y e a r ) , i n c l u d i n g a l l t h e specific energy consumptions for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, l i g hti ng , and mo bilit y; t hese la st a re in clude d onl y for no n-resident ia l buildings, un der a b u i l d i ng ’s no rma l o pera t io ns. The energy performance index for winter air conditioning EPH is calculated by the r ati o of the energy requirement s f or space he ati ng Q H,nd a nd t he a vera ge sea son al efIL FL H QF\ RI W KH KHD W LQJ V\VW HP ǈ H ):
EP H =
Q H, nd ɄH
EP C =
Q C, n d ɄC
EP W =
Q W, nd ɄW
The e ne r g y perf o rma nce index f o r summer ai r c ond i ti o ning, EPC , is ca lcula t ed by th e ratio of the energy requirements for cooli ng Q C,nd and t he ef f iciency o f t he coolin g V \V WH P ǈ C ): (2)
The e ne r g y perf o rma nce index f o r domest i c h o t w a t e r ( D H W ) , E P W, i s c a l c u l a t e d b y the ratio of the energy requirements for D H W p r o d u c t i o n Q W, a n d t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f WKH :DWH U + HD W LQJ 6\VW HP ǈ w ):
The global annual energy requirement is calculated by th e sum of th e primary energy n eeds for each en ergy service, (h ot water heating, air conditioning, and lighting) considering a semi-stationary approach an d mon th ly calculation in terv al. The energy performance of the building is expressed through the global non-renewable en ergy performan ce in dex E P gl, nren, con cern in g th e n et area [kWh /m 2 /y ear]. EPgl,nren= EPH,nren + EPC,nren + EPW,nren + EPV,nren + EPL,nren + EPT,nren (4) E P H,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for win ter air con dition in g; E P C,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for summer air con dition in g; E P W,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for DHW en ergy deman d; E P V,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for mech an ical ven tilation M; E P L,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for ligh tin g in terior; E P T,nren = en ergy performan ce in dex for mobility . Th e terms E P L,nre an d E P T,nren h av e to be taken into account only for non-residential buildin gs. The energy requirement satisfied by a renewable source allows compensating of the energy requirements for the same energy carrier an d up to th e full coverage of such requiremen ts. The energy performance class is obtained by position in g th e E P in dex in a predefined scale of classes, each one representing a performan ce lev el, as sh own in Table 1 .
Figure 2. Building energy balance
Q tr = tran smission en ergy losses; Q ve = ven tilation en ergy losses; Q sol = solar gain s; Q int = in tern al gain s; ǈ H ǈ C = th e gain an d loss utilization factors, respectively .
Table 1. S c a l e o f t h e e n e r g y p e r f o r m a n c e c l a s s
2.1 THERMAL ENERGY NEEDS FOR HEATING AND C O OLI NG Figure 2 depicts the heat fluxes that contr i b u te to the building energy ba la nce. Eq u ati ons 5 a nd 6 a llo w ca lcula t in g of th e t h e r m a l e n e r g y n e e d s f o r h e a t i n g “ Q H,nd” and c ool i ng “Q C,nd ” by a pplying a mon th ly steady-state balance between the energy losses due to transmission and ventilation and the energy gains due both to the sol ar r ad i ati on a nd int erna l so urce, corrected thr ou g h the ga in o r lo ss ut iliza t io n factors, Q H , nd ൌሺ H , tr + Q H,ve ሻǦɄ H ήሺ s o l +Q int ) Q C, nd ൌሺ s o l +Q int ሻǦɄ C ήሺ C ,t r +Q C ,ve )
Since a building may be subdivided into different air-conditioned zones, the thermal exchanges are calculated for each air-con dition ed zon e an d each mon th [8,9]. Th e h eat losses for tran smission an d ventilation h eat flux es to th e outdoor en vironment during the heating period are calculated by E quation s 7 an d 8 , Q H,tr =H tr,adj ήሺɅ int,H ǦɅ e ሻή ሼσ k F r,k Ȱ r,mn,k ሽή Q H,ve =H ve,adj ήሺɅ int,H ǦɅ e ሻή
The heat gains during the cooling period are calculated by E quation s 9 an d 1 0
Q C,tr =H tr,adj ήሺɅ int,H ǦɅ e ሻή ሼσ k F r,k Ȱ r,mn,k ሽή Q C,ve =H ve,adj ήሺɅ int,H ǦɅ e ሻή
H t r,adj = g l oba l co ef f icient o f hea t exch an ge d u e totr ansmissio n f ro m ea ch zo ne, (W/K); H v e,adj = g l oba l co ef f icient o f hea t exch an ge due to the ventilation of the considered z one , ( W/K ); ǉ int,H = i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e z o n e , b e i ng 20 ° C during t he hea t ing per iod; ǉ int,C = i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e z o n e , b e i ng 2 6 ° C during t he co o ling period; ǉe = average monthly temperature of the e xte r nal e n viro nment , (°C ); F r,k= f o r m f a c t o r b e t w e e n t h e k b u i l d i n g com p one nt a nd t he sky va ult ; Ʒ r,m n,k = e xtra t herma l f lux due t o t h e in frared radiation towards the celestial vault from the building component k, mediated ov e r ti m e ( W); t = l e ng th o f t he mo nt h (sec). 2 .2 GLOB A L COEFFI CI ENT OF H EAT EX CHA N GE The transmission of heat from a thermal z one take s pla ce t o wa rds t he ext ern al en v i r o n m e n t , t h e g r o u n d , a n d o t h e r a i r - c o nditioned and non-air-conditioned zones. The global coefficient of heat exchange is given by the sum of all the transmission coe ffi c i e nts
H t r, a d j =H D + H G +H U + H A
75$160,66,21 &2()),&,(17 72 7+( (;7(5 1 $ / ( 1 9, 5 210( 17 The transmission coefficient via the extern al en v iron men t is given by H D ൌσ i U c,i A c,i σ k Ȳ k l k σ j ɖ j
bein g: A c,i = area of th e opaque compon en t (m 2 ); U c,i = transmittance of the component, (W/ m 2K); ƹk = linear thermal transmittance of the k OLQ HDU WK HUPDO EULGJH : PÃ. l k OHQ JWK DORQ J ZK LFK ƹ k (m) is applied; ǘ WK HUPDO WUDQ VPLWWDQ FH RI WK H M SXQFWXDO th ermal bridge (W/K); Th e summation of th e products A c,i and U c ,i is obtain ed by :
HD = transmission heat transfer coefficient to the ou tdo o r enviro nment (W/K); HG = transmission heat transfer coefficient to the g r ound (W/K); HU = transmission heat transfer coefficient to not ai r - c o ndit io ned ro o m’ s (W/K); HA = transmission heat transfer coefficient to air-conditioned areas with a different s e t- p oi nt tempera t ure (W/K).
These transmission coefficients are determined by the heat flow rate due to thermal tran smission , divided by th e difference between th e en v iron men t temperatures on eith er side of th e con struction .
σiUc,iAc,iൌσiUEW,iAEW,i σiUF,iAF,i σiUR,iAR,i σiUW,iSW,i
The subscript stands for the external walls “ EW ”, for floor “ F ”, roof “ R ”, an d win dows “ W ”. For each opaque element of the building envelope (wall, floor, basement, roof, etc.), th e value of th ermal tran smittance U is calculated by 1 U = R +σ ሺ Ȁɉ ) +R si j j j se
Th e U value of th e glass is calculated by 1 U = R +σ ሺ Ȁɉ ) +σ R +R si j j j j s,j se
*5 281 ' +( $ 7 75 $1 6)( 5 &2( )), &, ( 17 F i g u re 3 . V i e w o f a w i n d o w ’ s s e c t i o n
Th e h eat tran sfer via th e groun d is cal culated by
R si = internal surface resistance, (m 2 K/W); R se = e xte r nal surf a ce resist a nce, (m 2 K/W); s = thi ckne ss o f t he ma t eria l (m); ǌ KHDW FRQGXFWLYLW\ RI WKH PDWHULDO : mK).
H G ൌ ή G ή tr,g
Figure 3 shows the different elements that contribute to determine the Uw and Ug val u e s . The w i nd ow’ s t herma l t ra nsmit t a nce is calcu l ate d b y :
U g ήA g + U f ήA f +ɗ g ήL g Aw
b e i ng :
U g = the U- va lue o f t he gla ss (W/m 2 K); A g = the ar ea o f t he gla ss (m 2 ); U f = the U- v a lue o f t he f ra me (W/m 2 K); A f = the ar ea o f t he f ra me (m 2 ); Ǚ g = he at l o ss per met er o f gla ss edge (W/ mK); L g = i s the perimet er o f t he gla ss (m); A w = i s the area o f t he windo w (m 2 ).
A= area of th e elemen t (m 2 ); U g= t h e r m a l t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h e s u s p e n d ed part of the floor (between the internal en v iron men t an d th e un derfloor space) (W/ m 2 K); b tr,g is given in th e UN I /TS 1 1300-1 stand ard. 1 27 $, 5 &21', 7, 21( ' 5 2206 +( $7 75$16 )( 5 &2( )), &, ( 1 7 To consider thermal transmission and solar gains from the conditioned zone towards un con dition ed th ermal zon es (UTZ ) a tuning factor, smaller th an 1 , is in troduced
H U = H i u ή tr,x (1 8)
H iu= g l o b a l c o e f f i c i e n t o f h e a t e x c h a n g e between the unconditioned and the condition ed zon es; b tr,x = tun in g factor For existing buildings, the values of the btr, x factor can be assumed by th e UNI/TS 1 1300-1 stan dard
2.4 I NFR AR E D R A DI A TI ON TOWAR DS THE CELE STI A L VAULT
A iu = ar e a of t he building co mpo nent facin g the non- ai r -co ndit io ned enviro nmen t (m 2 ); U s,iu = the r ma l t ra nsmit t a nce o f t he buildin g com p one nt f a cing t he unco ndit io n ed zon e ( W / m 2K ) .
Th e th ermal flux towards th e celestial vault is given by the infrared radiation towards WK H FHOHVWLDO Y DXOW ´Ȃ r,k ” per th e form factor between th e k buildin g compon en t and the s k y v a u l t F r,k , w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e presen ce of obstruction .
H i u = A i u ή s,iu
2 .3 T HER MAL BRI DGES The contribution due to the thermal bridges has to be taken into account for calculating the transmission heat transfer coefficient HD (eq. 12). The UNI EN ISO 14683:2018 allows the use of fixed values for the linear thermal transmittance of the thermal bridges. Such values vary according to the characteristics of the technical element and as a function of the thermal insulation of the single element. Table 2 shows the default values utilized by DOCET. In e xi s ti ng buildings a nd wit h a la ck of reliable design data, the thermal exchange through thermal bridges can be determined at a flat rate, applying an increase of 5%. Technical element
Not insulated (W/mK)
Table 2. Thermal bridge thermal transmittance
ʣ r,k = R s e ή k ή k ή r ήο Ʌ er
r ൌ ͷ ɂ
A k = area of th e opaque compon en t (m 2 ); U k = t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f t h e k th c o m p o n e n t , (W/m 2 K); R se = ex tern al surface resistan ce (m 2 :Ã. h r = r a d i a t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t , ( W / m 2K ) , c a l c u lated by :
¨ǉ er = differen ce between outdoor air temperature and apparent sky temperature, wh ich can be assumed of 1 1 K; F r,k= s k y v i e w f a c t o r b e t w e e n a b u i l d i n g component and the sky vault, it is calculated by :
F r,k = F ǡ ǡ ሺͳ Ⱦ ሻȀʹ
F R V ǃ X Q V K D G H G Y D O X H R I W K H Y L H Z factor from th e surface to th e sky ; ǃ D Q J O H R I L Q F O L Q D W L R Q R I W K H F R P S R Q H Q W on th e h orizon ; ǃ I R U K R U L ] R Q W D O U R R I L Q J ǃ I R U vertical walls.
F sh,ob,dif = d i f f u s e s h a d i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . T h i s i s calculated by the ratio of the diffuse sky irradiances with and without shading; it is 1.0 in deficiency of shading from external e l e m e nts .
It depends, besides the type of glass, on th e structure of th e compon en t an d the effectiven ess of an y sh ieldin g (e.g., curtains, sh utters).
Ȱ s ol ,k = F ǡ ǡ ڄs ol ,k ڄs ol ,k
F ǡ ǡ = F ڄov ڄf i n
A sol,k = e f f e c t i v e s o l a r a r e a o f t h e k th s u r face, (m 2 ). I sol,k = a v e r a g e m o n t h l y s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e o n th e k th surface, (W/m 2 ). F sh,ob,k = sh adin g reduction factor on the k th surface, wh ich is in turn calculated by Figure 4. Sky view factor
2 .5 S O LAR GAI NS The hou r l y h ea t f lo w ra t e f ro m so la r gain s is c al cu l ate d by
Q s o l ൌσ k Ȱ s ol , k ή
Ʒ so l,k = s ol ar ga ins t hro ugh gla zing ( MJ).
F hor = s h a d i n g f a c t o r d u e t o e x t e r n a l o b struction s (fig. 5 a); F ov = s h a d i n g f a c t o r d u e t o h o r i z o n t a l p r o jection s (fig. 5 b); F fin = sh adin g factor due to vertical projection s (fig. 5c). The three shading factors, which depend on th e orien tation an d th e h eatin g p eriod ,
Figure 5. Shading factors for external obstruction, horizontal, and vertical projections
can be calculated by linear interpolation of the tab ula t ed da t a in Appendix D of th e UNI/TS11300-1 standard, as a function of WKH DQJ O H V ǂ D QG ǃ VKR ZQ LQ ) LJXUH 7+( ())(&7, 9( 62 /$5 $5($ The effective solar area is calculated in a different way for opaque and transparent s u r fac e s . For op aq u e surf a ces,
A s ol , k ൌ Ƚ S, c ή s e ή k ή k
ǂ S,c = c oe fficient o f a bso rba nce; R se = e xte r n a l surf a ce resist a nce (m 2 :Ã.
For tr ans p arent surf a ces, a n equivalen t surface c al l e d a ct ua l so la r co llect ing area A sol i s cal c u l ated a s:
A s o l =F ǡ ڄgl ڄሺ ͳǦ ሻ ڄw, p
F sh,g l = factor o f reduct io n in so la r gain s related to the use of mobile shielding (e.g., cu r tai ns ) . g gl = t o t a l s o l a r e n e r g y t r a n s m i t t a n c e o f the w i nd ow when so la r sha ding is not used, w hi c h i s i n turn ca lcula t ed by:
g gl =F w . gg l,n
F w = e x p o s u r e f a c t o r a n d g g l,n i s t h e t r a n s m i ttanc e of t o t a l so la r energy f o r an an gle of i nc i d e nce o f t he so la r irra dia nce orth ogonal to the surf a ce. F F = fr acti on o f a rea rela t ive t o t he frame.
Th is is calculated by th e ratio between the projected area of th e frame an d th e total projected area of th e win dow component. A w,p = t o t a l p r o j e c t e d a r e a o f t h e glazed component (area of the window compartmen t). 2.6 IN TERN A L GA INS Th e in tern al h eat source (Qin t) in clud es all the energy generated inside the building, which comes from cooking use, plant systems, ligh tin g, electrical plan ts, h ousehold applian ces, an d so on [1 1].
Q i n t ൌ σ k Ȱ i n t ,k ή
Ʒ int,k( W ) = h o u r l y h e a t f l o w r a t e f r o m e a c h in tern al h eat source k (occupan cy , d omestic appliance, artificial light, computers). They can be determined in a real case or prov ided by n orms or tables. t = time period. 2.7 VEN TILA TIO N HEA T TRA N SF ER COEF F ICIENT The ventilation heat transfer coefficient is calculated by
H ve ,adj ൌ ɏ a ڄpa ڄሺσ k ve ,k ڄve ,k,m n )
ve ,k,mn = f ve ,t ,k ڄve ,k ve ,k,mn = f ve ,t ,k ڄve ,k
ǒ a .C pa = air th ermal volumetric capacity.
ǒ a .C pa = 1 ,200 J/(m 3 Ã . R U :K P 3 Ã. q ve,k,mn = t i m e - a v e r a g e d f l o w r a t e o f k th ai r fl ow . b v e,k = te m pera t ure co rrect io n f a ct or for th e k t h ai rfl ow . It is 1 in t he case o f na t ural ven ti l ati on, l e s s t ha n 1 when t he a ir ven tilation temperature is different from the external environment (e.g., adoption of pre-heati ng /cool i ng o r hea t reco very syst em). f v e,t ,k = fr ac tio n o f t ime in which t he flow of k t h ai r occurs; f o r a perma nent sit uation , it i s e q u al to 1. 00. q v e,k = fl ow ra t e o f k th a irf lo w (m 3 /h). 2 .8 B UILDING H EAT TRANSFER COEFFICIEN T The b u i l d i ng hea t t ra nsf er co ef f icien t is obtai ne d b y t he sum o f t ra nsmissio n an d v en ti l ati on he at t ra nsf er co ef f icient s
H = H T + H ve
Fi g u r e 6 s ho ws t he f lo w cha rt o f t he procedure followed for determining the energy fl u x thr ou g h t he building envelo pe.
2.9 THERMA L DYNA MIC BEHAVIOR Th e dy n amic effects due to th e th ermal inertia of th e fabric are taken in to acc ount, introducing a utilizing factor for the gain ´ǈ µ ( TXDWLRQ V DQ G Th is factor is a fun ction of th e ratio between JDLQ DQ G ORVVHV ´Ǆ µ •
ɀ ൌ gain /Q l os s es
7 K H W L P H F R Q V W D Q W Ǖ > K R X U @ L Q F R Q M X Q F W L R Q with the gain/loss ratio characterizes the fabric’s ability to use th e solar an d t he intern al gain s.
C m/ 3 6 0 0 H t r,adj + H ve ,adj
C m = in tern al capacity factor of th e fabric (24 h ) (J/K), H tr,adj+ H ve,adj= c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e r m a l d i s p e r sion (W/K).
F i g u re 6 . Summary of procedure of the calculation of QH,nd
2 .1 0 HE A T ING AND COOLI NG SYSTEM The delivered primary energy for space heating is calculated, starting from the energy needs for space heating considH U L Q J S U H G H I L Q H G H I I L F L H Q F \ I D F W R U V ǈ J O as a function of the characteristics of the s ys te m .
Q p, H =Q H, n d Ȁ Ʉ gl
Q p,H = total prima ry energy needs for h eati ng s p ace .
Figure 7. 6XPPDU\ RI WKH SURFHGXUH RI WKH FDOFXODWLRQ RI ǈgl
They take into account both the primary energy supplied by the heating generator “Q gn,I N ” an d th e primary en ergy used by the auxiliary systems (e.g., electrical pump, v en tilator) “Q aux,p ”.
Q p,H = Q ǡ + Q au x,p
Q ǡ = Q l ,gn + Q l,d + Q l,c + Q l,e
Q l,gn = gen eration sy stem’s en ergy losses;
Q l,d = p i p i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m ’ s e n e r g y l os s e s ; Q l,c = he ati n g co nt ro l syst em’ s energy losses; Q l,e = e m i tters’ energy lo sses. These energy losses can be calculated thr ou g h the ef f iciencies o f t he emission sy sW H P ǈ e U H J X O D W L R Q V \ V W H P ǈ c, d i s t r i b u t i o n V \V WH P ǈ d D QG JHQHUD W LR Q V\VW HP ǈ gn . Fi g u r e 7 i l l u st ra t es t he st eps f o llo wed for dete r m i ni ng th e t o t a l prima ry energy n eeds.
3. UN STEA DY STA TE AN A LYSIS The thermal behavior of masonry under dynamic boundary conditions is characterized through periodic thermal transmittance (Yie) , which expresses the heat flux th rough th e in tern al surface of a facade when the outdoor temperature follows a sinusoidal function. The periodic thermal transmittance also gives the evidence on the capability of an opaque wall to shift and attenuate thermal flux, which crosses
Figure 8. Time lag and decrement factor 
T ime sh ift
D ecrem ent f actor
f < 0.15
Table 3. Rating for time shift and decrement factor based on Italian regulation.
i t ove r 2 4 h. As a genera l rule, t he lower th e value of the thermal transmittance is, the b e tte r the therma l beha vio r o f t he compone nt i s . Italian legislation on the energy performance of buildings prescribes specific requirements for thermal dynamic behavior during the summer period. In particular, ve r ti cal w a lls f a cing f ro m Ea st t o West must hav e e i the r a superf icia l t herma l mass h igh e r t h a n 2 3 0 k g m ï o r a p e r i o d i c t h e r m a l tr ans m i ttance lo wer t ha n 0. 12 W m ï K. T h e d y n a m i c b e h a v i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g e nve l op e i s also described using t wo dy n amic factors – time lag (TL) and the decrement factor ( f) [1 2, 13] . T he t ime la g indicates th e ti m e s hi ft bet ween t he ma ximum o uter an d i nne r s u r face t empera t ure o ccurren ce:
ൌɒ Ts o,max Ǧ ɒ Ts i , m a x
The decrement factor (DF) is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the inner surface temperature fluctuations to the amplitude of the outer surface temperature fluctuations:
-T A T D F = A s i = T si , m ax -T si , m i n so, m ax so, m i n so
b e i ng
T si,m ax and T si ,mi n = t he ma ximum a nd min imum te m p e r atu re o n t he inner surf a ce; T so,max a n d T so,min = t h e m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m te m p era t ure o n t he o ut do o r surface. The D F fac to r mea sures t he decreasin g ratio of the amplitude of the heatwave that propagates from the outer surface to the i nne r s u r face o f a wa ll [ 6] .
Figure 8 illustrates th e time lag an d decremen t factor for a buildin g façade. I n Table 3 , time lag an d decremen t factors are correlated with the dynamic behavior of th e buildin g en v elope [6 ]. 4. CA SE STUDY Th is section of th is report illustrates the application of the EPC procedure on a typical Aeolian building carried out using the DOCE T software. Figure 9 shows a typical Aeolian building used as a case study . Th e islan d of Filicudi is in cluded in the Italian climatic zon e B, wh ich is ch aracterized by the heating degree day (HDD) number of 7 5. Th e period allowed for space h eating is from 1 st December to 3 1 March . 4.1 BUILDING ENVELOPE Preliminary to proceed to the elaboration of th e E PC, it is n ecessary to recov er all the data n ecessary for defin in g th e ty pological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e l l a s t h e t h e r m o p h y sical property of the building envelope, as well as on th e features of th e air con d itionin g sy stem. Figure 10 depicts the first input window of the DOCET software, where general information on the building has to be definite. In particular, it is requested to indicate the year of construction, the color of the building envelope, the type of urban context, the geometric characteristics of the external buildings that could shade the an aly ed h ouse, as well as th e main h ouse’s dimen sion s.
Figure 9. View and plan of a typical Aeolian building
As regards the building’s general data, the i nte r nal he ight , t he number o f f lo ors, gross surface of the air-conditioned environm e nt, and t he usef ul (o r net ) f lo o r area of the air-conditioned environment, as well as the l i ne ar dimensio ns o f t he f a cades for e ac h or i e nt a t io n, ha ve t o be def ined. The thermal transmittance of r, the opaque component of the building envelope (external wall, roof, basement floor), may be selected, among a predefined set of alternatives, as a function of the year of construction, location, actual requirements, etc. These default values of the thermal transmittance are derived by the UNI/TR 11552:2014 technical standard . The s hap e o f t he building unit is described by the surface of each external wall cons i d e r i ng their ca rdina l o rient a t io ns (fig. 11), as w e l l as th e surf a ce o f t he f lo o r, roof, an d u nc ond i ti on ed zo ne.
Th e th ermal tran smittan ce of th e win d ows is determin ed as a fun ction of th e fram e and glass ty pologies. Simplified fixed values of linear thermal transmittance are used according to the characteristics of the technical element an d th e presen ce of th ermal in sulation . Sh adin g sy stems such as in tern al wh ite curtains, fixed external overhangs, or fixed vertical fins can be selected and solar gains through the windows are reduced con sequen tly . Only natural ventilation with an air exchange rate equal to 0.3 (vol/h) can be taken into account. At the end of the phase of input data, the software performs a check on these data and provides as the first output the ratio S/V between the gross volume of the air-conditioned environment (V) and the gross surface of the air-conditioned environment (S).
Figure 10. Building’s general data
Thus, the different terms that determine the building’s energy balance are calculated. Figure 12 shows the calculated values for H T a n d H v : . Ǖ K W K H P R Q W K O \ Y D O X H V R I Q H,nd , and Q C,nd (kWh), and EP H,nd and EP C,nd (kWh/m 2 ). It is possible to observe that energy nee d s for he ati ng spa ces a re EP H,nd = 250 .5 3 kWh / m 2 ye ar , w hich a re rema rka bly higher th an the p r i m ar y energy a llo wa ble f o r new buildi ng s ( EP H,nd = 49 . 23 kWh/m 2 yea r) built in th e s am e cl i m a t ic zo ne. T his f inding indicates a m od e s t p e rf o rma nce o f t he buildin g en v e-
lope of th e in vestigated referen ce build ing during the heating period, in accordance with th e curren t I talian E PC procedure. Otherwise, the energy needs calculated for th e coolin g period are rath er low, EP C , n d =18.40 kWh/m2 year. This finding indicates a good thermal behavior of the Aeolian buildin g durin g th e summer period. As a result, it is possible to assert that the Aeolian buildings were built with the aim to optimize their performance during the summer period in concordance to the hot weather climate that characterizes the Aeolian Islands.
Figure 11. Dimensions of the building envelope surface
Figure 12. Dimensions of the building envelope surface
4 .2 HE A T ING SYSTEM As regards the generation system, DOCET allows selection of the following options: Com b u s ti on syst ems; Bio ma ss syst ems; Heat pumps; District heating. Since, currently, many of the Aeolian buildings are not e q u i p p e d wit h a hea t ing syst em, a con v en tional gas boiler is selected as a heating generator. Moreover, a solar thermal system of 2.00 m2 is included in this analysis. Fi g u r e 13 s ho ws t he no n-renewa ble primary energy needs calculated for the heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, r e s p e cti v e l y . These results indicate that the non-renewa b l e p r i m a r y e n e r g y n e e d s , E P gl,nren, a r e 4 0 6 . 1 5 k W h / m 2, w h i l e t h e n o n - r e n e w a b l e primary energy needs of the reference building, EP gl,nren (ref), are 107.23 kWh/m 2 . Thus, this
Figure 13. Not renewable primary energy need
buildin g h as en ergy con sumption s th at are four times greater th an a n ew buildin g with th e same sh ape. Sin ce a solar th ermal system (2.0 0 m 2 ) for DHW production h as been included, the EPC indicates also the amount of ren ewable primary en ergy (fig. 14). The primary energy is obtained by the summation of both the non-renewable “nren” sources, which come from a fossil fuel source, and renewable energy sources “ren”. Both renewable and non-renewable energies are converted in primary energy, utilizing the primary energy conversion factors fP, nren and fP, ren. These factors include the delivered energy plus a contribution for taking into account the energy “overhead” necessary to ex tract, process, an d tran sport the energy carrier to the dwelling.
Figure 14. Renewable primary energy
The non-renewable primary energy related to electricity consumption depends on the e ne r g y mix (co a l, o il, ga s, bio mass) an d the p r oc e s s ef f iciency in ea ch co untry . Th e c onve r s i on f ro m a prima ry energy resource to delivered energy is calculated through s tand ar d w eight ing f a ct o rs.
T h e t o t a l p r i m a r y e n e r g y E P g l , t o t i s d e t e rmined by the sum of EPgl,nren, and EPgl,ren (fig. 15). As an output, the software provides also the monthly variation of the not renewable, renewable, and total primary en ergy (fig. 16).
Figure 15. Total primary energy need
Figure 16. A yearly variation of the primary energy needs
Figure 17. $ SRUWLRQ RI WKH (QHUJ\ 3HUIRUPDQFH &HUWLÀFDWH
Fi nal l y, Fi g ure 17 sho ws a sect io n o f th e E n e r g y p e r forma nce cert if ica t e, which is writte n i n Ital i an, where t he ma in results of th e b u i l d i ng e n ergy co nsumpt io n a nd its classifi c ati on ar e sho wed. This EPC illustrates the main characteristic of the analyzed building, such as the toponomastic and the geometric data, the gross heated volume and net surface (left p ar t) , and t he energet ic cla ss a nd th e E Pg l ,nr e n, w hich a re respect ively G a nd 406.2 k W h / m 2. T h e e n e r g y p e r f o r m a n c e c e r t i f i c ate has also def ined so me so lut io n s to red u c e b u i l d ing’ s energy co nsumpt ion . I n th e s p e ci fi c co nt ext , a n int erest ing o pportun ity i s r e p r e s e nted by t he inst a lla t io n o f a ph otovoltaic thermal plant, which allows the contemporary generation of both thermal e ne r g y and po wer [ 14] . 5 . C ONC LU SI ONS Thi s ar ti cl e summa rizes t he lect ure proposed i n the c ontext o f t he int ensive scho ol of th e projects VVITA Erasmus+ held in Filicudi in September 2018. The arguments had the aim to illustrate the procedures and the m e thod ol ogies t ha t a llo wed t he evaluation of energy consumption in the framework
of the EPC. An example of EPC, having as reference a typical Aeolian building, has been developed. Such an aly ses h av e h igh ligh ted some interesting outcomes. In particular, it was eviden ced th at th e en ergy n eeds for h eating spaces are 250 .53 kWh/m2 year, which is almost fiv e times h igh er th an th e values required for a new building (49 .23 kWh/m2 y ear). This result indicates the poor performance of the building envelope during the heatin g period. Otherwise, since energy needs during the cooling period are modest, 18.40 kWh/m2 year, it is possible to highlight that such typology of building fabric has the best performance during the summer period in concordance to the weather and climate of th e Aeolian I slan ds. Th e performan ce of th is buildin g h as a furth er decrease wh en th e efficien cies of the energy generation systems are included; a yearly energy need of 406.2 kWh/m2 is reach ed. In light of the coarse analysis carried out, it is man datory to improv e sign ifican tly the efficiencies of the energy generation systems, as well as to in crease th e en ergy produced by th e ren ewable en ergy sy stem.
Antonio Gagliano Department of Electric Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Catania, Italy Mail: email@example.com
R E FE R ENC ES  “Energy Performance of Building Directive 2002” [Online]. Available: Energy Performance of Buildings Directive),2002/91/CE–EPBD, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:001:0065:0071:EN:PDF (accessed on October, 2019).  “Energy Performance of Building Directive 2010” [Online]. Available: Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU (EPBD), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:153:0013:0035:EN:PDF (accessed on October, 2019). > @ %HOXVVL / 'DQ]D / 0HURQL , 6DODPRQH ) 0LQXWROL 6 5RPHR & 6LPSOLÀHG WRRO IRU WKH HQHUJ\ SHUIRUPDQFH assessment of residential buildings. Modelling, Measurement and Control B 87, (3), pp. 122-128, 2018. > @ ´(QHUJ\ SHUIRUPDQFH FHUWLÀFDWHV DFURVV WKH (8µ >2QOLQH@ $YDLODEOH KWWS ESLH HX SXEOLFDWLRQ HQHUJ\ SHUIRUPDQFH FHUWLÀFDWHV DFURVV WKH HX DFFHVVHG RQ 2FWREHU  UNITS 11300 Sections 1 to 6 , https://www.cti2000.eu/la-uni-ts-11300/  Ministry of Economic Development (Italy), Inter-Ministerial Decree 26 June 2015. https://www.iea.org/beep/italy/ FRGHV GHFUHH IRU HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQF\ UHTXLUHPHQWV LQ EXLOGLQJV KWPO  “DOCET software” [Online]. Available: http://www.docet.itc.cnr.it/ (accessed on October, 2019). > @ *DJOLDQR $ *LXIIULGD 6 1RFHUD ) 'HWRPPDVR 0 (QHUJ\ HIÀFLHQW PHDVXUH WR XSJUDGH D PXOWLVWRU\ UHVLGHQWLDO LQ a nZEB, AIMS Energy 5 (4), pp.601-624, 2017. > @ *DJOLDQR $ 1RFHUD ) 3DWDQLD ) 'HWRPPDVR 0 6DSLHQ]D 9 'HSOR\ HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQW WHFKQRORJLHV LQ WKH restoration of a traditional building in the historical center of Catania (Italy), Energy Procedia 62, pp. 62-71, 2014.  ISO 6946:2017 Building components and building elements, Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance, Calculation methods, https://www.iso.org/standard/65708.html (accessed on October, 2019).  Tronchin, L. “Energy performance building evaluation in Mediterranean countries: Comparison between software simulations and operating rating simulation”, Energy & Buildings, 2008. > @ 0RVFKHOOD $ *DJOLDQR /R )DUR $ 0RQGHOOR $ 6DOHPL $ 6DQÀOLSSR * ´$ 0HWKRGRORJ\ IRU DQ ,QWHJUDWHG Approach for Seismic and Energy Refurbishment of Historic Buildings in Mediterranean Area”, Sustainability, 2018.  Gagliano A., Patania F., Nocera F., Signorello C., Assessment of the dynamic thermal performance of massive buildings Energy and buildings 72, pp. 361-370, 2014. > @ *DJOLDQR $ 7LQD * 0 $QHOL 6 1LçHWLþ 6 &RPSDUDWLYH DVVHVVPHQWV RI WKH SHUIRUPDQFHV RI 39 7 DQG conventional solar plants, Journal of cleaner production 219, pp. 304-315, 2019.
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions Michele Mangiameli, Giuseppe Mussumeci
GIS CONTRIBUTION TO BUILDING MANAGEMENT 1. GIS TECHNOLOGY
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a technology that has transformed the way to manage and use all geographic data ne ce s s ar y fo r a ll huma n a ct ivit ies [ 1 ]. All human activities need to place information in a geographical context. Many of the s e act ivit ies co ncern wit h t he recordi ng and p l a nning o f huma n-ma de en v iron ments, with the monitoring and managing of natural environments, with monitoring and m anaging t ra nspo rt , services, n etwork, and navigation systems, and with unders tand i ng s ocia l st ruct ures. To this aim, GIS technology can be used as D i g i tal Da t a Service (DDS) f o r t he man ag e m e nt of enviro nment a l risks, such as th e hyd r og e ol ogica l risk [ 2, 3] a nd t he man agem e nt of r e newa ble energy [ 4] .
Th e GI S tech n ology can be con sidered an en gin eerin g work, well defin ed by an architecture (fig. 1) th at is design ed, built, and tested in all its compon en ts. The hardware components of a GIS application are computers, servers, display devices such as monitors, printing devices, satellite positioning sensors such as GPS, computer n etworks, etc. (fig. 2) an d allow for the analysis, visualization, and sharing of th e spatial in formation . Th e software compon en ts used in GI S technology allows the managing of all information concerning all GIS components. The software components can be divided into three categories (fig. 3): base software, GI S software, an d software for spatial application s.
Softwares Human resources
Spatial Data base
Figure 1. Components of GIS application
Figure 2. Hardware Components of GIS application
Figure 3. Software Components of GIS application
The base software manages the individual hardware components that compose the GIS architecture, i.e., operating systems, networking software, driver for printers, s c anne r s , topo gra phic inst rument s, etc. [1 ]. The GIS s of t wa re a llo ws o ne t o use ty pical GIS tool s on t he spa t ia l da t a a nd th ey are d i v i d e d i nto f ree a nd o pen so urce GI S softw ar e and co mmercia l G IS so f t wa re [5 ]. The first is identified by the acronym FOSS ( Fr e e and O pen So urce So f t wa re) an d is licensed under the GPL (General Public Lice ns e ) . Thi s license gra nt s t he recipien ts of a c om p u ter pro gra m t he right s o f th e free software definition and uses copyleft to ensure the freedoms are preserved, even w he n the wo rk is cha nged o r a dded to. T h i s t e c h n o l o g y i s p o p u l a r a m o n G I S s o f tware, so much that a community called OSGEO [http://www.osgeo.org/] has been created for supporting the collaborative development of open source geospatial software, and promoting its widespread use. The second is payment software typically w i th cl os e d so urce co des. The s oftw are f o r spa t ia l a pplica t ion s deals with data enriched by spatial information and software for the development of GIS ap p l i cati on s. The d ata ma na ged a nd used wit hin th e GI S applications are enriched by spatial characteristics, then georeferenced using top og r ap hy a ppro a ches. These data can be divided into two main c ate g or i e s – ra st er a nd vect o r da t a.
The raster data represent the cartographic support used in the GIS environment, an d in cludes satellite images, orth ophotos, DE M, etc. The vector data allow the computerizing, in tercon n ectin g, an d represen tin g of every elemen t of th e territory , usin g as geometric primitive poin ts, lin es an d poly lin es. Vector data are called a “shape file” an d th is is a proprietary format for the GIS en viron men t. All types of data within the GIS platform are handled, displayed, and shown with a structure of overlapping layers (fig. 4), in w h i c h e a c h l a y e r c a n b e u s e d a n d r e p r esen ted separately . GIS technologies allow the acquisition, analysis, representation, and exportation of th e georeferen ced spatial data wi th rigorous topograph ic approach es. For this aim, it is evident that the GIS environment is much more advanced compared to a CAD (Computer Aided Design) an d is suitable for th e an aly sis of many local resources such as technological networks, land use, transport infrastructures, en v iron men tal assessmen ts, an d social factors; th erefore it can be con sidered a valuable tool for decision support. Therefore, GIS can be used as an environment to manage spatial databases (also external to the GIS software), providing a v alid tool to carry out simulation s with georeferenced data and to simulate risk scen arios th rough real-time spatial data [6, 9].
Figure 4. Types of data used in a GIS application
2. GIS APPLICATION TO VVITA PROJECT In the fr amewo rk o f t he VV IT A pro ject, GI S technology has been used to analyze the architectural, structural, and energy characteristics of some buildings falling within the te r r i tor y o f F ilicudi (Aeo lia n Isla nds, Sici l y, Ital y) . The GIS application has been developed u s i ng the fr ee a nd o pen so urce geograph ic i nfor m ati on syst em QG IS, versio n 2.18 [1 0]. As cartographic support, an orthophoto w i th a D atum WG S84/Pseudo Mercator was m anag e d i n t he G IS enviro nment as a Web M ap S e r vi ce (WMS) la yer do wnlo a ded from the Car tog ra phic Po rt a l o f t he Sicily R egion ( fi g . 5 ) . The different structures present in the orthophoto have been digitized as vector l aye r s , as s o cia t ing a spa t ia l da t a base with the ar c hi te ct ura l, st ruct ura l, a nd en ergetic characteristics of the buildings under exam i nati on (f ig. 6). To determine the quality indexes of the b u i l d i n g s d i g i t i z e d , w e u s e d t h e f i e l d c a lculator available in QGIS, which allows the performance of mathematical operations on the attributes related to the digitized buildings and the generatation of ne w fi e l d s wit h t he ca lcula t ed indices (fig. 7) . Fi nal l y, t he “evis_ t o o l” QG IS plugin was used to associate photos of the digitized b u i l d i ng s i n o rder t o enrich t he spatial datab as e w i th inf o rma t io n rega rding th eir actu al s tate . Indeed, t he plugin a llo ws on e to insert the folder path of the images in the attr i b u te table o f ea ch element , i. e., each r e c or d of th e “buildings” t a ble. Therefore, once a building is queried in the GIS e nviro nment , t he user ca n view th e image relating to the actual state of the b u i l d i ng i n a ddit io n t o a ll o t her inf ormation s tor e d i n the a sso cia t ed t a ble.
Figure 7. Fields calculator
Figure 5. Orthophotos used in a GIS application
Figure 6. Building digitalized as vector layer in the GIS application
Michele Mangiameli Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Giuseppe Mussumeci Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: email@example.com
R E FE R ENC ES  Mussumeci G. – Remote sensing and GIS notes – UNICT-DICAr > @ 0DQJLDPHOL 0 0XVVXPHFL * *,6 DSSURDFK IRU SUHYHQWLYH HYDOXDWLRQ RI URDGV ORVV RI HIÀFLHQF\ LQ K\GURJHRORJLFDO emergencies. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-W3-79-2013, 2013. > @ 0DQJLDPHOL 0 0XVVXPHFL * 5HDO WLPH LQWHJUDWLRQ RI ÀHOG GDWD LQWR D *,6 SODWIRUP IRU WKH PDQDJHPHQW RI hydrological emergencies. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-W3-153-2013, 2013.  Mangiameli M., Mussumeci G., Roccaro P., Vagliasindi F. G. A. Free and open-source GIS technologies for the management of woody biomass. APPLIED GEOMATICS, vol. 11, p. 309-315, ISSN: 1866-9298,doi: 10.1007/s12518-01900265-8, 2019  Arnulf Christl. “Free Software and Open Source Business Models”, Advances in Geographic Information Science, 2008.  Mangiameli M, Mussumeci G, “Real Time Transferring of Field Data into a Spatial DBMS for Management of Emergencies with a Dedicated GIS Platform”. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2014 (ICNAAM 2014), 22-28 September 2014, Rhodes, Greece, http://dx.doi. org/10.1063/1.4912992, 2015. > @ 0DQJLDPHOL 0 0XVVXPHFL * ´$ VSDWLDO '% PRGHO WR VLPXODWH WKH URDG QHWZRUN HIÀFLHQF\ LQ K\GURJHRORJLFDO emergency”. In Proceedings of the 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING 2015 (ICCMSE 2015), 20-23 March 2015, Metropolitan Hotel, Athens, Greece, 2015.  Mangiameli, M., Mussumeci, G., Oliva, S., “Free and Open Source GIS Technologies for the Assessment of Tsunami Hazards in the Ionic Sea “.In Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2019; Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 1–4, 2019, Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11622), pp 216-224, 2019.  Mangiameli M, Muscato G, Mussumeci G, “Road network modeling in open source GIS to manage the navigation of autonomous robots”. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2013 (ICNAAM 2013), 21-27 September 2013, Rhodes, Greece, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4825731, 2013.  Lipenbergs, E., Stafecka, A., Ivanovs, G., Smirnova, I. “Quality of service measurements and service mapping for the mobile internet access”,2017 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring(PIERS), 2017.
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions Alessandro Sardella, Alessandra Bonazza
CON STR UCT IV E C H A R A CTER I ST I C S OF TYPICAL AEOLIAN ARCHITECTURE AND METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABILITY 1. INTRODUCTION
In r e ce nt d eca des, la nd a ba ndo nmen t an d tou r i s m p r e ssure ha s ca used a serio us th reat to fu nc ti ons a nd int egrit y o f t he Aeolian I sl and s ’ r u r al herit a ge la ndsca pe. Almost en ti r e l y ab ando ned a f t er t he seco nd world w ar and ext remely det erio ra t ed because of l ack of use a nd ma int ena nce, terraces i n the A e olia n Archipela go a nd t heir trad i ti onal te chniques o f cult iva t io n represen t a s i g ni fi c ant reso urce f o r st rengt hen in g th e r e s i l i e nce o f t he co mmunit ies o f small isl and s to c l i ma t e cha nge impa ct . It is widely r e c og ni z e d, in f a ct , t ha t t he Medit erran ean ar e a i s a ho t spo t likely t o experience in th e fu tu r e an increa se in pro lo nged drough t p e r i od s and in f requency a nd int en sity of e ve nts of hea vy ra in. Kno wledge-based s tr ate g i e s for sust a ina ble ma na gemen t in a chang i ng enviro nment a re t heref ore n ece s s ar y i n or der t o impro ve la ndsca pe ben efi ts i n the fa ce o f increa sing risks. The p r e s e nt co nt ribut io n a ims a t illustratin g the acti v i ti es ca rried o ut in t he Aeolian I sl and s for r eco vering t he hist o ric con structi on te c hni ques o f dry-st o ne wa lls t ypical of the A e ol i an t erra ces a s a best practice of l and s c ap e ma int ena nce t o be undertaken , for s tr e ng th ening it s resilience t o ex treme e ve nts l i nk ed t o clima t e cha nge. Th ese tr ai ni ng act ivit ies f o llo w t he reco mmen dati on i ncl u d ed in t he st ra t egic do cumen t “E le m e nts for a Na t io na l St ra t egy f o r A daptati on to Cl i ma t e C ha nge”. In t his f ra mework, the fi r s t “In t ro duct o ry co urse, t heoretical and p r acti c a l, f o r t he co nst ruct io n of dry -
ston e walls ty pical of th e A eolian ter raced lan dscape”, organ ized in th e I slan d of Lipari with th e major objective of train ing local people on tradition al tech n iques for th e con struction of dry -ston e walls typical of th e A eolian lan dscape, is presen ted with referen ce also to geological an d environmen tal aspects th at may h ave an in fluence on th e fin al features of th e terraced land scape in small islan ds of v olcan ic origin in th e Mediterran ean Basin . 2 . C L I M A T E C H A N G E I M P A C T O N C U L T U R A L HE R I T A G E . T H E I T A L I A N N A T I O N A L S T R A T E G Y FO R ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
I n spite of th e efforts addressed at th e European lev el from th e perspective of research an d policy for en h an cin g th e resilience of cultural h eritage, in cludin g lan dscape, in a ch an gin g en viron men t, it is widely r ecogn ized th at still, furth er action s are necessary in order to guaran tee th e sustainable man agemen t an d protection of built and n atural en v iron men ts . I t is widely r ecogn ized th at ex treme climate even ts cause risks to h eritage assets, impactin g on the preserv ation an d con serv ation of th eir cultural, h istoric an d artistic v alues, and on th e safety of visitors, staff, an d local commun ities, imply in g un doubtedly n egative con sequen ces for th e local econ omies due to loss of tourism in comes. Th e danger is augmen ted in “h ot spot” region s with built
and natu r a l enviro nment s expo sed, like coas tal ar ea s a nd sma ll isla nds in t he Medi te r r ane an Ba sin t ha t a re co nsidered at a hi g h l e ve l of risk. It s hou l d b e co nsidered t ha t a s a con seq u e nce of clima t e cha nge, a n in creased i nte ns i ty and f requency o f hydrometeor ol og i cal event s, such a s hea vy rain fall, w i nd s tor m s, hea t wa ves, a nd dro ugh ts, is e xp e r i e nced; t hese pheno mena are drivi ng fac tor s in ca using f lo o ding, f ires, an d l and s l i d e s . O ur la ndsca pe is unf ortun atel y at r i s k no t o nly f ro m a high probability of a d i s as ter o ccurring, but in t he majority of c as e s, severe da ma ge is main ly due to the l ac k o f prepa redness in emergen cy s i tu ati ons . Pa rt icula rly, a ba ndo nmen t an d l ac k of m aint ena nce a re a mo ng t h e major cau s e s of i t s vulnera bilit y. In ad d i ti on, it sho uld be evidenced th at g e ne r al l y, n a t io na l a do pt ed pla ns on clim ate change a da pt a t io n st ill do no t in clude s p e ci fi c m ea sures f o r sa f egua rding cultural he r i tag e a nd la ndsca pes. In Europe, at the nati onal level, o nly F ra nce, It aly , an d r e c e ntl y, Ir ela nd int egra t ed st ra t egies for the p r ote ct io n o f built a nd na t ura l en v iron m e nts i nto pla ns f o r a da pt a t io n t o climate chang e . S pecif ica lly, t he It a lia n Nation al S tr ate g y for Ada pt a t io n t o C lima t e Ch an ge cons i s ts of t hree t echnica l-scient if ic docum e nts p u b lished in 2014, pro viding an upd ate d knowledge o f t he impa ct o f climate chang e an d a st ra t egic eva lua t io n on th e ad ap tati on, here list ed:
- Strategic documen t “E lemen ts for a Nation al Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Ch an ge” ; - Tech n ical-scien tific R eport “State of scien tific kn owledge on impacts, v uln erability an d adaptation to climate ch an ge in Italy” ; - Tech n ical-legal R eport “A n aly sis the EU N ation al legislation relevan t to impacts, vuln erability an d adaptation to climate ch an ge” . A multidisciplin ary an d coordin ated approach h as been applied for strategy d evelopmen t in cludin g th e collaboration of differen t targeted stakeh olders, suc h as th e scien tific commun ity , rescue bodies (Civil P rotection , Fire Brigades), an d public auth orities at differen t levels. Th e process, started in July 2 012 an d coordin ated by th e I talian Min istry of th e Environ men t an d P rotection of Lan d an d Sea with th e tech n ical an d scien tific support of th e E uro-Mediterran ean Cen tre on Climate Ch an ge (CMCC), was supported by 232 ex perts an d foresaw th e in v olv ement of stakeh olders sin ce th e v ery begin n in g with ad h oc con sultation s with min istries and region s an d an on lin e public con sultation with citizen s from 30 October 2013 to 20 Jan uary 2014.
The p r i nc i p a l o bject ives o f t he st ra tegy are as fol l ow s : - e val u ati o n o f clima t e cha nge impact on d i ffe r e nt s o cia l-eco no mic sect o rs an d n atu r al s ys te ms.
- implemen tation of con tin uous environmen tal mon itorin g of prioritized climate parameters in prox imity of th e h eritage site at risk (by 2 020);
- i d e nti fi c at io n o f a ct io ns f o r a da ption .
- database creation in support of decision an d policy makers at th e n ation al and region al lev el (by 2020);
- e nhance ment o f t he a da pt a t io n capaci ti e s of natura l, so cia l, a nd eco no mic sector s .
- foster routin e main ten an ce av oiding as much as possible in vasiv e in terven tions (by 2020).
Cu l tu r al Herit a ge a nd la ndsca pes are take n i nto con sidera t io n a s sect o rs a t risk.
- compreh en sion of th e en viron mental, econ omic an d social con tex t (by 2 020);
2.1 ELEMENTS FOR A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE – CULTURAL LANDSCAPE.
- promotion of lon g-term fin an cing main ten an ce action s (ov er 2020).
- r i s k r e d u ct io n ca used by clima t e ch an ge.
The i nte g r at io n o f exist ing risk ma nagemen t p l ans w i th prepa redness st ra t eg ies an d e vac u ati on pla ns specif ica lly dedicated to cu l tu r al and na t ura l herit a ge sa f eguardin g, r e p r e s e nts the principa l a ct io n t o be un dertake n i n vi ew o f a sust a ina ble protection of he r i tag e a sset s, including la ndscape, e xp os e d to clima t e cha nge. T his can be ob tai ne d eit her by reviewing a nd tailorin g the d i r e c ti ves a nd pla ns a lrea dy adopted or p r op os i n g t he inclusio n o f new section s s p e ci fi c al l y a ddressed t o t he t o pic. In the s tr a t egic do cument “Elemen ts for a Nati onal St ra t egy f o r Ada pt a t io n to Clim ate Chan ge”, genera l sho rt (by 2020) an d l ong ( ov e r 2020) t erm “so f t ” reco mmen dati ons ar e given f o r a wa reness ra isin g on cl i m ate c hange impa ct s, cult ura l h eritage vu l ne r ab i l i t y a nd a da pt a t io n st ra t egies to b e ad op te d :
- ex istin g kn owledge tran sferrin g (by 2020);
Con cern in g lan dscapin g assets, th e safeguardin g of terraced lan dscapes by the recovery of dry -ston e wallin g technique is recommen ded as an adaptation strategy to stren gth en th e resilien ce to climate ch an ge by prev en tin g h y drogeological instability an d desertification . With in th is framework, th e presen t contribution aims at illustratin g th e first “I n tr oductory course, th eoretical an d practical, for th e con struction of dry -ston e walls typical of th e Aeolian terraced lan dscape” organ ized in th e I slan d of Lipari, with th e major objective of train in g local people on tradition al tech n iques for th e con struct ion of dry -ston e walls ty pical of th e Aeolian landscape.
3. THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORK OF THE AEOLIAN ISLANDS
The A e ol i a n Isla nds Archipela go, also know n as the Lipa ri Archipela go or Lipari Is l and s , i s lo ca t ed in t he So ut hern Ty rrh eni an S e a at t he No rt h o f Sicily a nd con sists of s e v e n m a in isla nds a nd severa l un in h abi te d i s l e ts . Lipa ri, Vulca no , F ilicudi, A licudi, P anar e a, a nd St ro mbo li belo ng t o th e Muni c i p al i ty of Lipa ri, t he la rgest isla n d of th e A r chi p e l ag o, wherea s Sa lina co mp rises th e M u ni ci p al i ties o f Sa nt a Ma rina , Len i, an d M al fa. The cu r r e nt sha pe o f t he Aeo lia n I slan ds l and s cap e is due t o t he succession of e r u p ti v e act ivit y o ver 250, 000 years. From a g e ol og i ca l po int o f view, t he Aeolian I sl and s ar e def ined a s a V o lca nic Arc an d r e p r e s e nt the mo st a ct ive vo lca nic structu r e i n the Medit erra nea n a rea , in cludin g acti v e ( S tr ombo li a nd Vulca no ) an d dor-
man t (Pan area an d Lipari) volcan oes, togeth er with ex tin ct on es. Active/do rmant volcan oes are in th e cen tral (Vulcan o and Lipari) an d eastern (Stromboli an d Panarea) sector of th e arch ipelago. By contrast, n o h istorical eruption s are recorded in the western side of th e arch ipelago [5 ]. The islan ds of th e arch ipelago ex h ibit strong structural, v olcan ological, an d pet rological v ariation s. Lava flows, lav a d omes, scoriaceous deposits, an d h y dromagmatic py roclastic products ch aracterize the volcan ic activity of th e islan ds. P roducts are ex tremely v ariable from a composition al poin t of v iew from basalt to rh y olite. P rov idin g an outstan din g field for volcan ological studies of on goin g geological processes in th e dev elopmen t of volcan ic lan dforms, th e Aeolian A rch ipelago h as been listed in th e World Heritage List of UNE SCO sin ce 2002. Th e islan ds h av e been well kn own sin c e the
Figure 1. The typical historic terraced landscape of the Aeolian territory: an example of agriculture dry-stone walls system in Alicudi Island (Photo by A. Sardella)
p r e hi s tor i c t ime (4. 000 B. C . ), t ha n ks to its s tr ate g i c g eo gra phica l po sit io n in th e Medi te r r ane an a nd a lso t o t he presence of obs i d i an, a vo lca nic gla ss f ro m la va flow en r i c he d i n s i lica erupt ed in Lipa ri [ 6] . The hu m an presence o n t he isla nds determ i ne d the st a rt o f t he use o f la nd f or subsiste nc e w i th t he pra ct ice o f a griculture an d p as tor al i s m. T he f irst builders o f dry -ston e w al l s , nam ed Eo li, a rrived o n t he A eolian Is l and s fr om Aegea n. The y cons truct ed a rt if icia l t erra ces to create ar ab l e a rea s suppo rt ed by high ston e w al l s . The n ew t echnique o f wa ll con structi on i n d r y-st o ne repla ced t he f ra gile h uts m ad e of reeds. Rema ins o f prehistorical hu ts , d r y- s tone built , a re present in th e archae ol og i ca l sit es o f St ro mbo li, Salin a, Fil i cu d i , and Pa na rea [ 7] . Actu al l y, terra ces a re dist ribut ed in almost al l the i s l ands, wit h t he except io n of Vulcano . Terra ced a rea s in Lipa ri are distr i b u te d p at chier a nd t he isla nds o f A licudi, Fi l i c u d i , S al ina , a nd Pa na rea a re a lmost en ti r e l y te r r aced wit h t he except io n of lan d com p os e d o f lo o se subst ra t es (skiin g) an d cl i ffs ( Fi g . 1 ). In Vulca no , t he a lmost total ab s e nc e of t erra ces is due t o t he last erupti on i n 1888– 1890, which det ermined th e ab and onm ent o f la rge pa rt s o f cultivated te r r ace s . Hi g hl y i nhabit ed a nd ext ensively cultiv ated ( ol i ve tr e e , whea t , ba rley, ca per plan t, leg u m e s , ci trus t ree, veget a bles, et c.) sin ce the m i d d l e o f t he X X cent ury, t erra ced culti v ate d ar ea s were a lmo st a ba ndon ed in 1950–1 9 6 0 , rea ching current ly 90% . Th e p r og r e s s i v e a ba ndo nment o f a gricultural ac ti vi ty and t he la ck o f ma int enan ce of d r y- s tone wa lls implied co nsequen tly a seve r e d am age t o t he la ndsca pe [ 9] .
Figure 2. An example of collapsed dry-stone wall in the Island of Filicudi. (Photo by A. Sardella)
D e te r i or ati on o f dry-st o ne wa lls, a s a con s e q u e nc e o f a ba ndo nment , in t he islan ds is m ai nl y d e termined by: - increase in spontaneous growth of vegetation that causes destabilization of the wall (dislodging and collapsing of single stones); - d i s l od g i n g o f t o p st o nes by t he action of l ar g e ani m als; - e r os i on by ra in a nd wind, pa rticularly d u r i ng e xtr eme event s o f ra in; - fi r e , p ar ti cula rly during pro lo nged drough t p e r i od s . Fi g u r e 2 s h o ws a n exa mple o f a dry -ston e w al l c ol l ap sed in t he isla nd o f F ilicudi. 4. INTRODUCTORY COURSE, THEORETICAL, AND PRACTICAL FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF DRYSTONE WALLS TYPICAL OF THE AEOLIAN TERRACED LANDSCAPE
The cou r s e , f unded by t he Aeo lian I slan d P r e s e r v ati on F und (AIPF ), t o o k pla c e in Lip ar i fr om 1 7 t o 21 April 2018 a nd con sisted of the or e ti ca l a nd pra ct ica l session s, in c l u d i ng the co nst ruct io n o f a rea l dry -ston e w al l i n s i tu , co nduct ed under t he coordinati on of pro f essio na ls in environ men tal s ci e nce , b uilding t echno lo gies, biodiv ersity, g e ol og y , a rcha eo lo gy, a nd craftsmen e xp e r t i n tr a dit io na l building t echniques. I t w as s tr u c tured t o a llo w t he pa rt icipan ts to take ad van t a ge o f a n a ct io n lea rnin g proc e s s on s i g nif ica nt a nd peculia r a spects of te r r i tor i al i dent it y. The e xc hange o f kno wledge a nd ex perie nc e w as a ddressed ma inly t o rec ov er in -
tan gible aspects of rural h eritage an d contribute to th e sustain able main ten an ce and en viron men tal protection of lan dscape from th e en viron men tal, social, an d econ omic poin t of v iew. Th e course aimed to train artisan s capable of carry in g out th e importan t work of ordin ary an d ex traordin ary main tenance of ex istin g ruin ed mason ry or to bu ild ex n ov o dry -ston e walls followin g traditional con struction tech n iques, research in g and ch oosin g th e equipmen t, th e materials, an d th e products n eeded. Th e activ ities an d th e results of th e p roject in terested local residen ts, farmers, c raftsmen , un employ ed person s, volun tary association s, an d ex perts of th e academic an d scien tific commun ity . A total n umber of fifteen participan ts (fourteen males and on e female) with ages ran gin g from 20 to 8 0 atten ded th e course. A lmost 50% of the participan ts were un employ ed, wh ile the rest of th e members came from th e tourism, research , an d agriculture sectors. Th e course lasted 5 day s, with classroom lectures an d practical session s. Classroom lectures focused on th e en viron mental, rural, an d cultural values of th e dry -stone walls of th e terraces in th e A eolian Archipelago; lan dscape protection an d conserv ation ; climate ch an ge an d related ri sks on th e n atural en viron men t; buildin g construction tech n iques of dry -ston e walls (basics of static an d stability of walls, an alysis of materials an d th eir application , sizin g site, ty pes of buildin g materials an d equipment); man agemen t of safety in situ. Guided ex cursion s on h istoric terraces in the I slan ds, wh ere th e con struction technique of th e tradition al dry -ston e walls is particularly represen tativ e, were a fun damental part of th e course, as well as th e visits on
the Is l and o f F ilicudi t o : 1) t he a rchaeological s i te s of F ilo Bra ccio a nd C a po Grazian o and 2) the a rea s o f “Mo nt e T o rrio ne” an d “Fi l i c u d i Po rt o ”, co nsidered exa mples of “B e s t P r act ices” [ 10] . T hese a rea s un derw e nt, i n 2015, a signif ica nt int erven tion of r e c ove r y o f da ma ged dry-st o ne walls by the u s e of t ra dit io na l building t ech n iques, thanks to the suppo rt o f t he Regio n al R ural D e v e l op m ent Pla n o f t he Sicily Region . The p r ac ti ca l a ct ivit y wa s ba sed on th e r e s tor ati on a nd co nst ruct io n o f a dry -ston e wall in an area in Lipari through the followi ng ac ti vi ties under t he guide o f ex perie nce d c r aft smen: set t ing t he wo rk, prepar ati on of th e sit e a rea , select io n o f suitable s tone , s ton e wo rking wit h t ra dit io n al tools, and m e thod o f la ying t he st o nes. The m ai n p h a ses o f wo rk co nduct ed durin g the p r acti c al sessio n o f dry-st o ne wall buildi ng ar e l i s ted belo w: - cleaning and preparation of the reconstruction area with movement of the crumbled stones to the recovery area and separation of the big stones from the small ones to facilitate the reconstruction of the new wall; - preparation of guides to regulate the slope of the wall (10–15%), as shown in Figure 3; - e xc avati o n o f t he f o unda t io n tren ch , b as e m e nt co mpa ct io n, a nd rea lization of the fi r s t l ayer po sit io ning t he la rger ston es; - p l ac e m e n t a nd embedding o f st on es foll ow i ng the i r na t ura l sha pe; - i nte r nal filling wit h sma ll-sized st on es, local l y nam ed PLQXWDPH (F ig. 4); - l aye r i ng a nd leveling (F ig. 5).
Figure 3. Master builders showing how to prepare guides for regulating the slope of the wall before its construction (Photo by A. Sardella)
Th e equipmen t utilized con sisted of pickaxes, sh ovels, iron poles, buckets, wh eelbarrows, lin es, an d plan ks. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Geomorph ological features of th e A eolian I slan ds determin ed over time th e distribution of h uman settlemen ts, empowering better use of lan dscape for th e survival of th e commun ity . On e of th ese lan dscape modellin g tech n iques was, sin ce ancient
Figure 4. 3UDFWLWLRQHUV SRVLWLRQLQJ WKH GUDLQDJH LQWHUQDO ÀOOLQJ RI WKH wall with smaller stones. (Photo by A. Sardella)
Figure 5. Final phase: layering and levelling phases. (Photo by G. Taranto)
ti m e s , the co nst ruct io n o f t erra ces on th ese i nhos p i tab l e vo lca nic la nds by realizin g d r y- s tone wa lls t o co nt a in so il a nd obtain ar ab l e l ands. T erra ces a re reco gnized of p r i m ar y i m po rt a nce f o r t he st rength en in g of l and s cape resilience t o clima t e ch an ge, p l ayi ng a key ro le in prevent ing lan dslides and fl ood s , impro ving slo pe st a bility , striv i ng ag ai ns t la nd ero sio n a nd desertificati on, he i g h t ening bio diversit y, a nd gen erati ng ad e qua t e micro clima t ic con dition s for ag r i c u l ture. T his is t he lea ding reason of the r e ce nt inscript io n (2018) in t he List of Intang i b l e C ult ura l H erit a ge o f U NE SCO of
th e art of dry -ston e wallin g kn owledge and tech n ique, wh ich sh ould kept alive and tran smitted to future gen eration s also by performin g courses like th e on e desc ribed with in th e presen t con tribution . Such courses will con tribute eith er to boost agricultural activ ity by recov erin g th e cultiv ation of th e products of th e past, as a poten tial resource for th e social an d economic developmen t of th e Aeolian territory, an d to protect th e territory an d th e cultural lan dscape by creatin g n ew professional skills an d th e retrain in g of craftsman ship in dan ger of ex tin ction . I n addition , th ey will
faci l i tate t he pro mo t io n o f ma inten an ce of the e xi s ting t erra cing, impro ving con seq u e ntl y the resilience o f t he Aeo lian lan ds c ap e to c lima t e cha nge. The ove r al l o bj ect ive is t o crea t e a con ti nu ou s act ivit y o f t ra ining a nd capacity of b u i l d i ng o ver t ime invo lving lo cal stakehol d e r s ai ming a t :
- prov idin g more cultivable lan d surfaces for th e dev elopmen t of sustain able agriculture;
- ke e p i ng alive a t ra dit io na l cra f t in dan ger of e xti nc ti o n, cha ra ct erized by high profess i onal i s m and qua lit y o f t he pro ducts;
- improv in g th e h y drogeological features of th e area.
e ncou r aging genera t io na l t urn ov er, thr ou g h the t ra nsf er o f skills a cquired by cr afts m e n during t heir pro f essio na l ex perie nce ; - g i vi ng p art icipa nt s t he o ppo rt unity to obtai n p l ac e ment s, ensuring t he necessary tool s and th eo ret ica l a nd pra ct ica l skills;
- protectin g an d en h an cin g th e rural land scape as a leadin g resource for th e promotion an d improv emen t of local economic dev elopmen t;
A future step is to create th e n ecessary ex pertise th at will be acquired for th e creation of an Aeolian R escue Team for the recov ery an d main ten an ce of dry -ston e walls on aban don ed terraces with a h igh degree of deterioration . E ducation al in itiatives for sch olarsh ips an d citizen s are also planned in order to in crease awaren ess of the sign ifican ce an d v alue of cultural lan dsc apes.
- e ncou r aging t he crea t io n o f craftsmen s m al l e nte r prises (SMEs);
Alessandro Sardella Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Alessandra Bonazza Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Italy Mail: email@example.com
R E FE R ENC ES  Bonazza A., Maxwell I., M. Drdácký, Vintzileou E., Hanus C., Ciantelli C., De Nuntiis P., Oikonomopoulou E., Nikolopoulou V., Pospíšil S., Sabbioni C., Strasser P., Safeguarding Cultural Heritage from Natural and Man-Made Disasters - A comparative analysis of risk management in the EU. Corporate Author(s): Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (European Commission). ISBN 978-92-79-73945-3, (catalogue) NC-05-17-059-EN-N. DOI:10.2766/224310. 2018.  Castellari S. et al., Elementi per una Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti Climatici. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 2014a, 239 p. ISBN 9788887728071, 2014, (in Italian). > @ &DVWHOODUL 6 HW DO 5DSSRUWR VXOOR VWDWR GHOOH FRQRVFHQ]H VFLHQWLÀFKH VX LPSDWWL YXOQHUDELOLWj HG DGDWWDPHQWR DL cambiamenti climatici in Italia. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 2014b, 878 p. ISBN 9788887728095, 2014, (in Italian).  Castellari S. et al., Analisi delle normative comunitaria e nazionale rilevante per gli impatti, la vulnerabilità e l’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Roma, 2014c, 155 p. ISBN 9788887728088. 2014, (in Italian).  Lucchi F., Peccerillo A., Keller J., Tranne C.A., Rossi P.L. (eds.), The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes, Geological Society Memoir No. 37, The Geological Society, London (UK), 2013.  Martinelli M.C., Le isole Eolie al centro del Mediterraneo 4000 anni fa, in Eolie Arcipelago Unesco, collana Le Sicilie, Erre produzioni ed., Siracusa, 2016, (in Italian).  Martinelli M.C., Isole Eolie. Filicudi nell’età del Bronzo, Assessorato beni Culturali e dell’Identità siciliana, Palermo. 2015, (in Italian).  Barbera G., Cullotta S., Rossi-Doria I., Ruhl J., Rossi Doria B., I paesaggi a Terrazze in Sicilia: metodologie per l’analisi, la tutela e la valorizzazione, Collana di Studi dell’Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente V. 7, Regione Sicilia, Palermo, 2009, (in Italian).  Tarolli P., Rizzo D., Brancucci G., Terraced Landscapes: Land Abandonment, Soil Degradation, and Suitable Management, in World Terraced Landscapes: History, Environment, Quality of Life, Springer, 2019.  Sardella A., Bonazza A., Dalla lava ai muri in pietra a secco: il paesaggio terrazzato delle isole eolie. In “Paesaggi Terrazzati: scelte per il futuro. Terraced Landscapes: choosing the future”. Ed. Regione del Veneto. PP 164-170. ISBN: 9788890880551, 2018, (in Italian).  “Art of dry stone walling, knowledge and techniques “ [Online]. Available: https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/art-of-drystone-walling-knowledge-and-techniques-01393  “Aeolian Islands - UNESCO World Heritage Centre” [Online]. Available: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/908  “Elementi per una Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento a Cambiamenti Climatici” [Online]. Available: http://www. PLQDPELHQWH LW VLWHV GHIDXOW ÀOHV DUFKLYLR DOOHJDWL FOLPD VQDFFB BHOHPHQWL SGI LQ ,WDOLDQ
ST UD EN T CON TR I B UT I ONS
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions Gianluca Rodonò
The “controlled transformation” of vernacular architecture S tu d e nts , divided int o six gro ups, were cal l e d to ca rry o ut a design int erv en tion on one or mo re a ba ndo ned buildings, in six d i ffe r e nt FRQWUDGD o f t he isla nd o f Filicudi. Eac h of these buildings wa s revit alized by as s i g ni ng d if f erent f unct io ns a t t he service of b oth the lo ca l a nd t o urist ic co mmun ity . The fu ncti ons a re t he f o llo wing: - typ i cal agri-f o o d pro duct s sho p; - ar t ce nte r a nd a rt ga llery; - InfoPoi nt; - research laboratory and observation point; - p u b l i c l i b ra ry a nd co mmunit y center; - w e l l ne s s a nd medica l cent er. The m e thodo lo gica l a ppro a ch suggested b y the s taff t ea m ha s a ddressed th e stud e nts tow a rds mult idisciplina ry an aly ses ai m e d at u n derst a nding t he f ea t ures of th e i s l and ’s ar chit ect ure. Students focused on landscape and morphological aspects, on materials and their mechanical performance, on energy performance, and on passive building behavior. As s how e d bef o re, t hese da t a were upl oad e d i n a n inno va t ive t o o l t o a c h ieve a q u anti tati v e mea sure o f t he qua lit y of local b u i l d i ng herit a ge. This approach has certainly generated a conscious reading of the deep bond between Aeolian landscape and vernacular architecture. Here, over the centuries, building materials have been not only lava stones, wood, and the Arundo Donax (local river reeds), but also what Hiroshi Sambuichi calls “moving materials” , i.e., wind, solar radiation, rain, and all the natural phenom-
ena that make each landscape unique. On e of th e main goals of all th e projects has been th e in sertion of flex ible community fun ction s lin ked to th e fact th at th e i nhabitan ts liv in g on th e islan d in win ter are not th e same as th ose liv in g th ere in th e summer. Th e in h abitan ts of th e islan d change n ot on ly in n umber but also in n eeds, ways of life, an d employ men t. Th erefore, the agri-food sh op, in win ter, becomes a grocery ; th e I n foPoin t becomes a municipal delegation , an d so on . Th e season ality of use of th e spaces allows th e in clusion of users amon g th e mov in g materials, with their presen ce an d ch an gin g n eeds as th e season s ch an ge. Studen ts’ projects h ave accurately used th ese “movin g materials” for th e n ew interv en tion s, in tegratin g th em in to th e followin g differen t design approach es: - con solidation of th e ruin s in order to preserv e th eir testimon ial value; - recon struction of th e ruin s by proposing tradition al v olumes an d con struction processes; - reconstruction or addition with contemporary languages and technologies. I n an y case, th ey are based on “con trolled tran sformation ” [2 ], i.e., an approach that seeks to fin d th e righ t balan ce between the n eed to recon figure th e buildin g to ad apt it to con temporary performan ce standard s
and the need t o preserve t he shape an d m ate r i al s o f t he exist ing buildings. I n th e thr e e d e s i gn a ppro a ches, t he aesth etic m or p hol og ica l designs va ry bet ween th e e xtr e m e s of “co nt inuit y” a nd “con trast” w i th the e x ist ing building, in rela t ion to th e cr i ti cal ana lysis t ha t is ca rried o ut on th e p r e - e xi s te nc e, t he o vera ll design vision , and the s e nsit ivit y o f t he design choice . In ne w d e signed int ervent io ns, t he use of conte m p or ary ma t eria ls in co nt rast with thos e of the building t ra dit io n is gen erall y p r e fe r r e d t o ma rk t he reco gnit ion of th e i nte r ve nti on. T he t echno lo gies used for th e cons tr u c ti o n o f new co mpo nent s are ch arac te r i z e d by cha ra ct erist ics o f ligh tn ess and r e v e r s ibilit y, in o rder t o crea t e approp r i ate con st ruct io n syst ems co mpatible w i th the e xist ing o ne. The typ ol ogica l element t ha t mo st stimul ate d the pro ject idea s wa s def initely th e baggio, an o pen sha ded spa ce in fron t of the buildings, traditionally used as the main w or k and co nvivia l spa ce. T his cha racteristi c of fl e xi bilit y a nd represent a t iveness h as b e e n r e i nterpret ed by t he st udent s by creati ng l i g htweight st eel st ruct ures, season al te m p or ar y pa vilio ns, a nd kinet ic sh adin g d e vi ce s . Al l so lut io ns ha ve co mbined max im u m fl e xi b ilit y wit h a da pt a bilit y o f use an d r e ve r s i b i l i ty o f int ervent io n. The s e p r oj ect s demo nst ra t e ho w vern acul ar ar c hi te ct ures ca n st ill meet t he n eeds of c onte m p or a ry living wit h t he inclusion of a fe w contr olled design int ervent io ns, wh ile m ai ntai ni ng t heir cha ra ct er o f t estimon ial
value of th e place wh ere th ey arise. Th e didactic activ ities h av e been commun icated by an ex h ibition an d some videos posted in th e Social [4 -6].
REFERENCES  Sambuichi H., Architecture of the Inland Sea, Tokyo: Toto; 2016.  Malighetti L.E., Methodologies and strategies for small town centres regeneration. Architecture between tradition and innovation: the Swiss architects case study of Wespi de Mueron Romeo Architetti. TECHNE 2016; 12: 112-121.  Zordan L., Tipo, Tecnica e progetto nella conservazione dei tessuti storici. In: AA.VV. Le tradizioni del costruire in pietra: materiali, tecniche, modelli e sperimentazioni. /·$TXLOD *UXSSR 7LSRJUDÀFR (GLWRULDOH LQ ,WDOLDQ  VVITA - ATM [program] https://www.youtube.com watch?v=mSuQcxaF93g&feature=youtu.be  VVITA - ATM [students] https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=tDeQ0PIzB7o&feature=youtu.be  VVITA - ATM [academic staff] https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=XixrdDOxU2s&feature=youtu.be
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions
INTRODUCT ION TO THE A RCHIPEL AG O THE PUMICE QUARR IES OF LIPAR I
MONTELEONE_Angelo_PhD Student at UNICT
ABSTRACT The Aeolian Islands, due to their volcanic origin, are rich in obsidian and pumice stone. This immense geomorphological heritage has for years been seriously threatened by the effects of human activity, to the point of altering the delicate natural balance of the island. In fact, during the nineteenth century, Lipari was the protagonist of an important industrial development process linked to the extraction of pumice stone. In the 2000s, however, the peculiariWLHV RI ÁRUD IDXQD DQG ODQGVFDSH GHWHUPLQHG WKH recognition of the Aeolian Islands as a world heritage site. With the blocking of every form of mining activity, the reuse of buildings destined in ancient times for mining and production activities would be an opportunity for development and development for the island.
I N D US T R I A L A RC HA EOLOGY
Ind u s tr i al Archa eo lo gy (IA) wa s born in Eng l and abo ut sixt y yea rs a go t h an ks to a s tate m e nt by Micha el Rix, wit h wh ich he tr i e d to a ddress a t t ent io n t o industrial ab and one d a rea s. Bet ween 1950 a nd 1 960, the i nte r e st in t his subj ect grew, startin g fr om the c ase o f t he demo lit io n of E uston s tati on i n L ondo n. T ha nks t o t his, t he importanc e of the reco very a nd reva lu ation of IA , to b e co nsidered hist o rica l heritage of the p e r i od rela t ive t o t he f irst English in dustr i al r e vol u t io n, ha s emerged. So me cases fol l ow e d , s uch a s t he Iro n Bridge over th e Ri v e r S e ve n, which wa s decla red a n ation al m onu m ent a nd is no w included in th e UNES CO W orld H erit a ge List . H o wev er, th e B B C j ou r na list Kennet h H udso n wa s on e of the fi r s t to ma ke a signif ica nt co ntribution , s p r e ad i ng the cult ure o f IA wit h his work, as a r e al d i s ci pline [ 1] . Tw e nty ye ars la t er, t he mo vement became a s u b j e c t o f int erest a lso in It a ly, h av in g b e e n i ntr od uced t o t he Int erna t io nal Con g r e s s he l d a t t he Ro t o nda della Besan a (Mil an) , i n the Sa n Leucio exhibit io n: A rch aeol og y, Hi s tory, a nd Pro j ect . Mo reover th e b i r th of the It a lia n So ciet y f o r Industrial Arc hae ol og y f o llo wed, wit h t he a im of cen sus c u l tu r al as set s a nd indust ria l herit age . IA c ou l d be co nsidered a co mplex discip l i ne , w hi c h st a rt s f ro m t he int erest in buildi ng s that are pro t a go nist s o f t he Industrial
R evolution . I n I taly , I A is more articulated because th e developmen t in production processes, especially in south ern I taly, was lin ked to obsolete meth ods. Large factories, processin g plan ts, and buildin gs con n ected to min in g activities an d to th e production process, still in use un til th e 1990s, are ev iden ce of fun damental importan ce of th e in dustrial era. The slow process of modern ization in v olved in th e south ern region s an d Sicily made these areas protagon ists in th e production and ex port of raw materials, closely related to th e specificities of th e places. However, th e appearan ce of areas was con siderably con dition ed by th e activity of th e large plan ts lin ked to min in g activ ities, characterized by a low level of mech an ization. Th ese are likewise comparable to th e great in dustries of n orth ern E urope an d h ow they take on a sign ifican t importan ce within a cultural an d h istorical path of a territory. On e of th ese is th e case of th e pumice quarries an d mills of Lipari, wh ich in the last two h un dred y ears h ave represen ted a fundamen tal piece for th e econ omy and the appearan ce of th e islan d. A few decades after th eir div estmen t, th ey h av e become opportun ities for th e dev elopmen t of the territory .
T H E A E O L I A N I SLA N D S
L ocate d abo ut 90 km f ro m t he north east coas t of S i cily, less t ha n 12 miles f rom Capo M i l az z o, the Aeo lia n a rchipela go h as seve n l ar g e i sla nds (Lipa ri, V ulca no , Salin a, S tr om b ol i , F ilicudi, Alicudi, a nd P an area) and fi v e m ino r o nes ( Ba siluzzo , Da ttilo, Lisca N e r a, B ot t a ro , a nd Lisca Bia nca), born fr om the s u ccessio n o f 12 erupt ive ven ts refe r ab l e to t he sa me geo lo gica l history [3 ]. Ad m i ni s tr atively, t he a rchipela go belon gs to the p r ovince o f Messina a nd is divided i nto fou r m unicipa lit ies – Lipa ri, Sa n ta Marina S al i na, Leni, a nd Ma lf a – co unt in g a total p op u l atio n o f 15, 000 inha bit a nt s spread ov e r an ar ea o f a bo ut 115 squa re kilomete r s ( 11,5 0 0 ha ). Lipa ri, f o rmerly kn own as “M e l i g u ni s ”, is t he la rgest a nd mo st popul ou s w i th an a rea o f 376 squa re kilometers, al m os t a qua rt er o f t he ext ensio n of th e e nti r e ar c h ipela go . Since t he Neo lith ic per i od , the S i c ilia n isla nds ha ve a lway s been i nhab i te d and no wa da ys, t hey represen t ve r y i m p or t a nt evidence o f t he evolution of p r e hi s toric po pula t io ns. In f a ct , over th e ye ar s , the sa me geo gra phica l position of the A e ol i an a rchipela go a llo wed t heir popu l ati on b y severa l peo ples who , a nimatin g the r ou te s o f t he Medit erra nea n Sea, used the m as a la nding pla ce o r a s a basis for tr ad e i n m a t eria ls. T heref o re, t hey play ed a s tr ate g i c r o le unt il t he f irst Punic war. A fter ce ntu r i e s o f gro wt h, a lt erna t ed with cours-
es of domin ation by settlers, in th e last 200 y ears, th e en tire arch ipelago ex perienced a lon g period of developmen t, closely conn ected to th e econ omy th at affected its fate. However, repopulation an d economic dev elopmen t do n ot alway s coin cide with th e en h an cemen t of th e territories. After th e I talian un ification , govern men ts that succeeded un til 1 945 h ad little in terest in th e econ omic progress of th e smaller Sicilian islan ds, ex perimen tin g in some of these n ew forms of imprison men t. Mean wh ile, th e un con trolled ex ploi tation of territories for th e ex cavation of minerals h as led to an accelerated process of n atural degradation , defacin g th e lands of every form of rare liv in g species an d completely guttin g th e lan dscape of ev ery extractable an d marketable material. Lipari is divided between th e urban c enter of Lipari an d th e h amlets, ex ten din g ad ministratively ov er five of th e sev en island s of th e arch ipelago: Alicudi, Filicudi, Vul cano, Pan area, an d Stromboli. Th e urban center ex ten ds between th e small flat areas close to th e two main peaks an d in to two wonderful in lets on th e sea, “Marin a Lunga” an d “Marin a Corta”.
L I P A R I , T H E P U M I C E I SLA N D
The i s l and , like t he rest o f t he a rchipelago, has v ol canic o rigins a nd it s mo rphology der i v e s fr om the a ct ivit y o f t welve volcan oes ov e r a m i l l io n a nd a ha lf yea rs. Th e territor y, r i c h i n o bsidia n a nd pumice ston e, a char ac te r i zing element o f it s geo morph ol og i cal he r i t a ge, ha s f o r yea rs been seriousl y e nd ang ered by t he ef f ect s o f human acti v i ty, to the po int o f dist o rt ing t he d elicate natu r al b ala nce o f t he isla nd [ 4] . P recisel y, the e xtra ct io n o f minera ls ha s ch aracte r i z e d the hist o ry o f t he isla nd sin ce th e 5th m i l l e nnium BC , when t he init ial docum e nte d act ivit ies ha d a lrea dy begun . A t the ti m e , pumice st o ne f o und c on siderab l e u s e i n t he a bra sio n o f a xes an d fish i ng tool s , while o bsidia n wa s used to make cu tti ng too ls. In la t er cent uries, especially i n Rom an t imes, pumice wa s used main ly i n cons tr u ct io n a s a light ma t eria l for vault cons tr u c ti o n. During t he sixt eent h cen tury , the e xp l oi t a t io n a ct ivit ies o f t he pumice q u ar r i e s g rew t o a rea l business, en courag i ng the st a rt o f sma ll expo rt s t o Tuscan y , Cam p ani a, a nd Ma rseille. In t he eigh teen th ce ntu r y, th e o ppo rt unit ies o f f ered by th e g r ow i ng m a rket so o n a t t ra ct ed t he in terest of i nve s tor s f ro m a ll o ver Euro pe, leadin g to a s i g ni fi can t increa se in expo rt s from 500 to 7 0 0 tons per yea r. Despit e t he importan t com m e r ci a l vo lumes o f t he isla nd, so much to b e d e fi n ed by Deo da t De Do lomieu in 1781 as “th e immense wa reho use t h at supp l i e s the p umice t o a ll o f Euro pe”, th e main source of livelihood was still based on agricu l tu r e , for t he pro duct io n o f Ma lvasia an d r ai s i n w i ne s, ca pers, a nd dried f igs .
Th e in dustrial pumice ex ploitation developed in 1 825, wh en th e Marquis Vito Nunzian te, own er of a con cession for sulfur, alum, an d boric acid min es at Vulcano, receiv ed an auth orization for th e exclusiv e ex ploitation of pumice quarries from Lipari, a product destin ed for th e m arkets of E n glan d, th e Un ited States, an d Russia. Despite th is, in th e first y ears of ex ploitation , th e ex traction process was mainly ch aracterized by rudimen tary meth ods and th e ex cav ators used to sell th e material to th e captain s of th e sailin g sh ips, wh o subsequen tly resold it in various ports of Italy an d Fran ce. Towards th e en d of th e century , some foreign compan ies promoted the con struction in dustrial production facilities. Th erefore, in 1884, an effectiv e regulation was drawn up for a fee on th e pumice ston e th at was ex tracted from th e quarries of th e state property . Un fortun ately, the regularized activity slowed down due to th e impracticability of state property being usurped. Moreov er, th e mon opoly request for th e ex cavation firstly by Barth e, later by th e E olia Society , an d afterwards by Theodor Haan of Dresden , prov ed to be unsuccessful also because of con tin uous disputes with th e mun icipality [6 ]. With th e crisis of 1929, th e Liparese market also suffered a severe blow, with a great reduction in ex ports. I n 1935, a n ew d anger emerged due to th e ch oice of some Aeolian in dustrialists to con cen trate th eir investmen ts in th e Y ali pumice quarries in Greece, wh ere greater product purity an d lower labor costs en sured h igh er profit margins.
Figure 1. UNESCO – Canneto, Lipari. 1924 
Table 1. Main companies related to the extraction and trade of pumice of the XX century ,  COMPANY NAME
SALTALAMACCHIA DIETRICH COMPANY
GEOFFRAY E JACQUET COMPANY
CARBONE GIOV. COMPANY
RHODES H. JAMESS E C.
Connected to pumice quarries
TH. FERLAZZO COMPANY
$1*(/2 'Ļ$0%5$ &203$1<
SAN CRISTOFORO COOPERATIVE
G. RESTUCCIA & CO.
The e c ono my o f Aeo lia n pumice ston e s tar te d ag ain f ro m 1950, wit h t he updatin g i n e xtr acti on met ho ds t hro ugh mec h an izati on. How e ver, t he excessive pa rcelin g repr e s e nte d a st ro ng limit f o r rea l growth , as the i s l and ha d a t o t a l o f 40 sma ll in dividual com p ani e s . The r ati onaliza t io n o f indust ria l processes, s tar ti ng w i th t he gra dua l a cquisit ion of all m i ni ng ac ti vit ies by Pumex SpA, ha s allowed i t to r e ach h uge gro wt h ma rgins since 1 968, al l ow i ng i t to gra dua lly a cquire a ll th e oth e r com p anies. Unti l the e n d o f t he cent ury, t he process of e xtr ac ti ng pumice ha s co nt inued to repres e nt the l e a ding sect o r o f t he eco n omy of the i s l and . It ha s been a f f ect ed by sign ifi cant chan ges o ver t ime, dict a t ed by th e e vol u ti on of a pplica ble t echno lo gies but al s o b y the so cio eco no mic co ndition s of the i s l and , such a s inf luencing t he av ailab i l i ty of ma npo wer. Prima rily, t hree main typ e s of ext ra ct io n – qua rrying, cuttin g, and tu nne ling – co uld be ident ified [9 ]. Ins te ad , b ef o re t he def init ive c essation of the e xtra ct io n a ct ivit ies, t he process took p l ace by using bulldo zers f o r th e ex cav ati on o f t he pro mo nt o ry f ro m th e top to the b ott o m, wit h t he def init io n of h oriz ontal p l anes. T he ext ra ct ed ma t erial was p u s he d i nto ho ppers ma de in t he body of the m ou ntain it self a nd f ro m t he bottom of w hi c h, thr ough specia l unlo a ding mouth s, thi s p r e c i p it a t ed o n co nveyo r belts wh ich conv e ye d it t o t he pro duct io n cha n n els. Final l y, he r e , a f irst gra nulo met ric selection w as m ad e o f t he ma t eria l (la rge ston es,
gran ules, lapillus pumice). At th e ex cavation an d supply of th e pumice, it was followed by its grin din g an d subsequent d ryin g in rotary cy lin drical furn aces, th e use of cy clon es to break down dust, th e sieving an d th e gran ulometric classification of the material th rough th e use of tumblers, d isch argin g in side th e bags, an d fin ally, the boardin g an d th e sale of th e fin ish ed products. Differen t ty pes of pumice ston es, bastardon i, fiori, alessan drin a, rasaglia, limata, pezzame, gran ules etc., can be defined . Th e ev olution of th e in dustrial facilities an d production sy stems goes fro m the adoption of old flat plate ov en s to mod ern drum dry ers or ev en complex drum suction equipmen t in troduced later in order to reduce dust an d reduce th e risks of silicosis. Th erefore, in ten se min in g activity h as encouraged th e growth of h uman settlements, but it h as also caused sign ifican t transformation s in th e areas con cern ed, specifically in th e ex treme n orth ern an d n orth eastern sector of th e islan d. Th e h uman activities, with th eir h igh en viron men tal impact, have n ot on ly modified th e morph ology of the places but h av e altered th e lay out of the sea an d of th e beach areas fallin g within th e origin al sites of th e quarries. Th e rehabilitation of th ese degraded areas is ex t remely importan t, with in terv en tion s aim ed at preservin g an d safeguardin g th e scientific an d cultural value of th e min eral resources presen t, as well as ev iden ce of past mining activ ity an d, th e recovery of th e n eighborin g beach areas to restore th eir use.
T H E UN E S C O REC OGN I TI ON
Al l the s e aspect s, t o get her wit h t h e in tegr i ty of the flo ra , f a una , a nd la ndscape, dete r m i ne d the a ckno wledgment o f th e Aeol i an Is l ands a s a Wo rld H erit a ge Site, with i ncl u s i on i n December 2000 t o t h e list of s i te s r e c og n ized a nd decla red by UNE SCO. The i ns cr i p t io n wa s st ro ngly inf luenced by the e val u a t io n ca rried o ut by t he I UCN – Inte r nati onal U nio n f o r C o nserva t io n of N atu r e and N at ura l Reso urces: “The i s l and s’ vo lca nic la ndf o rms represen t cl as s i c fe at ures in t he co nt inuing study of vol c anol ogy wo rld-wide. Wit h t heir scien ti fi c s tu d y f ro m a t lea st t he 18t h Cen tury , the i s l and s ha ve pro vided t wo o f t he ty pes of e r u p ti ons (V ulca nia n a nd St ro mbolian ) to vol c anolo gy a nd geo lo gy t ext books an d s o have fe a t ured pro minent ly in t he educati on of al l geo scient ist s f o r o ver 200 y ears. The y c onti n ue t o pro vide a rich f ield for v olcanol og i ca l st udies o f o n-go ing geological p r oc e s s e s i n t he develo pment o f la ndforms. The ar e a also ha s a lo ng hist o ry o f lan d use, and s u b s e quent a ba ndo nment , wh ich h as l e d to an on-go ing pro cesses o f maquis recov e r y” [1 0] . Re g i s tr ati on f o r t he Wo rld H erit age List w as val i d ated by U NESC O o n 12/2 /2 002 in Cai r ns , Au s t ra lia . Amo ng t he va rio us poin ts of the d ocument , ho wever, grea t con cern e m e r g e d fo r t he ef f ect s o n t he territory d e te r m i ne d by t he ext ra ct io n o f t h e pumi ce , as r e p ort ed in po int 4 “U rges t h e State Par ty to p ro hibit expa nsio n o f pumice ex tr ac ti on, as it ma y impa ct o n t he values for w hi c h the sit e wa s inscribed o n t h e World He r i tag e L ist ” [ 11] , t he co nt inuous call,
th erefore, to sav e th e site from th e ind iscrimin ate an d un aware use of itself and its precious resources. Sin ce th e n omin ation for in sertion of the arch ipelago in to th e World Heritage List, UN E SCO h as repeatedly in vited local auth orities an d admin istration s to respect the directiv es, un der pen alty of n on -complian ce with can cellation from th e list. The lack of fin an cial resources an d of coo rd ination , despite th e proposal of a Lan dscape Territorial P lan with clear clarifications on th e proposal of th e n atural reservation of Lipari (Fig.2), led UNE SCO to ren ew th e obligation of th e Con ven tion also with th e Italian Gov ern men t. I n th e documen t sent on 2 7 A ugust 2007 by th e I talian N ation al Commission for UNE SCO, precise guaran tees are required for overcomin g th e critical points th at emerged followin g th e ex amin ation of th e con servation status of th e places. Amon g th e n in e poin ts reported, urgency is precisely placed on th e closure of the min e an d th e cessation of min in g activities, in order to defin e a fin al date for th e elimin ation of pumice waste from th e beaches facin g th e processin g areas . Th e closure of th e pumice quarries began th an ks to th e in terven tion of th e Catania judiciary at th e en d of August 2 007, with th e seizure of th e factories, boardin g bridges, an d all th e mach in ery own ed, as well as th e provision for furth er ban s on future ex tractive in itiatives. Th e sequestration of th e assets was followed by th e obligation for th e mun icipality of Lipari to en sure the safety of th e site, usin g th e R egion al Mining
Figure 2. U N E S C O - P e r i m e t e r o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s e r v e o f L i p a r i [ 9 ]
Figure 3. I n d u s t r i a l s i t e o f A c q u a c a l d a
Cor p s –Cata nia Mining Dist rict , t hrough th e e l i m i nati on a nd reuse o f exist ing quarry m ate r i al s , a ct ivit ies ca rried o ut un der th e s u p e r v i s i on o f t he U NESC O Wo rld Heritage Fou nd ati on Sicily, which is ent rusted with the tas k of supervising a ll t he a ct ivities set ou t i n the Ma na gement Pla n. The p r oc e d ure f o r t he clo sure o f t he pumice q u ar r i e s an d t heir dispo sa l wa s co ncluded b y the S i c i lia n Regio n o n 24 Ja nuary 2008, w i th r e i nte gra t io n by t he Regio na l Departm e nt for the wo rk o f wo rkers o f t he former P u m e x i n the Aeo lia n Archa eo lo gical Museu m “L u i g i B erna bò Brea ”. At t he sa me time, the e s tab l i shment o f t he t errest ria l n atural r e s e r ve on t he isla nd o f Lipa ri a nd th e estab l i s hm e nt o f t he Ma rine Pro t ect ed A rea w e r e as l au nched. A l r e ad y i n previo us yea rs, wit h a n ew l aw , the pro ject f o r a Regio nal P umi c e M u s e u m ha d been pla nned. Dev elop e d c oncret ely o nly a f ew yea rs later, th e p r oj e ct i d ea wa s int egra t ed int o t h e in terv e nti on s tr at egies o f t he U NESC O Aeolian Is l and s M ana gement Pla n a s a n “eth n o-an thr op ol og i ca l enha ncement pro ject based on r e c onversio n, co nserva t io n an d en -
h an cemen t aimed at creatin g a Museum Lipari R egion al Pumice”. Th e project in volves th e con v ersion of an an cien t in dustrial site placed in Acquacalda [Fig.3], an exception al testimon y of in dustrial arch aeology for th e documen tation of th e ex tractive an d productive ph ases of pumice [9 ]. Th e buildin g is a pumice mill, wh ich was built in th e y ears between th e en d of the n in eteen th cen tury an d th e begin n ing of th e twen tieth as a mill for th e processing of pumice; it cov ers an area of about 600 square meters an d a h eigh t of 6.9 0 meters. Sin ce th e cessation of activity , it is totally aban don ed an d ruin ous, due to lack of main ten an ce. Th e factory , built with load-bearin g mason ry of lava ston es and lime, h as a rectan gular lay out; th e main en tran ce is from Lun gomare S. Gaetano street an d is bordered to th e east by an old buildin g an d free lan d, to th e south also with free lan d an d to th e west with th e Cucco stream. A fron t of dry ing furn aces in the bottom part giv es access to th e two back rooms, a larger on e in th e n orth originally used as a mill an d a secon d on e for storage with in depen den t access in th e west;
it was built with load-bearing masonry of lava stones and lime, and there is also a 15 meter high chimney made of bricks, filled with bricks for the discharge of the fumes produced by the factory and a large part of the coverage of the first body facing the road, characterized by two pitches covered with tiles and a wooden truss structure. Inside, some important elements of the manufacturing process are still visible, such as pumice drying ovens, the loading path, and preparation for processing and transport of pumice products intended for export. The reconversion project developed around the creation of an educational/informative path for the extraction and processing of pumice, with the realization of six different thematic sections, is divided as follows: - “Archaeological, Mineralogical and Volcanological”, dedicated to the exhibition of minerals and the geological history of the archipelago; - “Traditional pumice cycle”, focused on the reconstruction of the extraction and production of pumice; - “Pumice and history”, based on the display of documents and sources on the diachronic aspects of pumice; - “Pumice and society”, concerning the identification and description of the relationship between the pumice industry and the Aeolian society; - “Technological history”, for the reconstruction and display of a complete production plant; - “Library and multimedia”, consisting of archival and documentary material for the use of visitors. At the base of the initiative proposed by the Superintendency of Cultural and Environmental Heritage of Messina, with the aim of inserting the work within the cultural and museum
circuit of Lipari, there is therefore the valorization of the productive activity with the internal museum path, such to allow at the same time the protection and conservation of obsolete disused technological systems. Although more than twenty years have passed since the establishment of the first law, even today, the promoted initiative has not started and currently, the building is still abandoned. Within the plan of reconversion, the preparation of a project for the construction of a Tourist Complex was also integrated, which has not yet been built. At the same time, several initiatives were promoted within the sustainable redevelopment and recovery program of the quarry areas of the island, aimed at the redevelopment of disused industrial buildings, looking at a masterplan for the Reconversion and Sustainable Recovery Plan of the quarry areas of the Island of Lipari, covering the whole area between Canneto and Acquacalda, starting from the collaboration of universities and research institutions . In 2016, a quarry recovery project was launched, at the same time as the Architecture, Light and Landscape Workshop “Future Lights on a volcanic landscape”. In the same year, a second workshop, “Between the wrinkles of an unexpected glacier – Lipari discovering white pumice quarries”, was organized by the Politecnico di Milano DASTU Department of Architecture and Urban Studies and by the School of Architecture Urban Planning, Construction Engineering with the collaboration of the Municipality of Lipari . With these latest initiatives, the intent was to pursue new ideas for the conversion of the areas through the active participation of students and teachers of architecture. Despite the start of the activities, the problems related to landslides in the affected areas are not completely contained.
REFERENCES  V. Sapienza, RIUSO E CONSERVAZIONE NELL’ARCHEOLOGIA INDUSTRIALE IN SICILIA. Roma, 2015, (in Italian).  E. Celano and S. Chirico, Archeologia industriale , creativita ’ e gestione integrata . Il caso biellese, Tafter J., pp. 1–7, 2011, (in Italian).  G. Racheli, Le isole minori della Sicilia: prospettive di recupero e di sviluppo. Catania: Giuseppe Maimone Editor, 1989, (in Italian).  L. Scimemi, Le linee guida per la valorizzazione del patrimonio UNESCO. Uno studio dei siti siciliani - Tesi di Dottorato in Storia della Cultura e della Tecnica, Università di Palermo, 2013, (in Italian).  D. Stentella, “La storia della pomice a Lipari,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.fondazionemicheletti.it/nebbia/ d-stentella-storia-della-pomice-di-lipari/ (in Italian), (accessed on October, 2019).  M. Giacomantonio, “La raccolta e lavorazione della pomice si riorganizza e industrializza,” 2015. [Online]. Available: La raccolta e lavorazione della pomice si riorganizza e industrializza, (in Italian). > @ 6RFLHWj JHRJUDÀFD ,WDOLDQD %ROOHWWLQR GHOOD 6RFLHWj JHRJUDÀFD LWDOLDQD 6RFLHWj JHRJUDÀFD LWDOLDQD LQ ,WDOLDQ  Ministero delle Finanze - Direzione Generale delle Imposte Dirette, Imposta sui redditi di ricchezza mobile elenco dei contribuenti privati possessori di redditi incerti e variabili delle categorie B e C (esclusa la rivalsa). Libreria dello Stato, 1930, (in Italian).  Regione Siciliana, “Piano di gestione Unesco Isole Eolie,” 2008, (in Italian).  IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, “WORLD HERITAGE NOMINATION – IUCN TECHNICAL EVALUATION ISOLE EOLIE ( AEOLIAN ISLANDS ) ( ITALY ) ADDENDUM TO 1999 IUCN EVALUATION,” 1999.  UNESCO, “DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE 26th SESSION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE,” no. August, 2002.  UNESCO, “Decision: 31 COM 7B.24 ‘State of conservation of World Heritage Properties - Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands)”  UNESCO, “World Heritage 31 COM UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE DECISIONS ADOPTED AT THE 31st SESSION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE COM,” no. July, 2007.  Region of Sicily, Regional Law No. 17 of 15 May 1991. > @ $ 6LGRWL ´5HDOL]]D]LRQH GHO SURJUDPPD GL ULTXDOLÀFD]LRQH H UHFXSHUR VRVWHQLELOH GHOOH DUHH GL FDYD GHOO·,VROD di Lipari. Relazione del 17/01/2017.” [Online]. Available: http://www.liparinet.it/realizzazione-del-programma-diULTXDOLÀFD]LRQH H UHFXSHUR VRVWHQLELOH GHOOH DUHH GL FDYD GHOOLVROD GL OLSDUL QXRYD UHOD]LRQH GHO FRQVXOHQWH VLGRWL LQ ,WDOLDQ  “Parco Geominerario Pomice.” [Online]. Available: http://parcogeominerariopomice.it/, (in Italian).  Region of Sicily -Department of the Territory and the Environment, “Ordinance n. 14 of 10 June 2019 of the Sicilian Region.” (in Italian).
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions
FILICUDI OPEN SPACE
S TUD Y CAS E Val di Chiesa D ES TIN A TIO N O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILDI NG Typical products shop ABSTRACT The wisdom of the vernacular architecture of the Aeolian Islands is a fact. $W ÀUVW WKH XVH RI 5DSLG (YDOXDWLRQ 0HWKRGV 5(0 allowed us to achieve a rapid evaluation of the architectural, thermophysical, and mechanical quality of the buildings in Val di Chiesa. Next, thanks to an innovative tool (geodatabase) for the management of the quality of the built heritage, it was possible to match the conditions of existing buildings. For each building, a band score was set that showed us its quality. A typical products shop was also designed to reactivate and revitalize the entire area of Val di Chiesa.
WORK TEAM GRECO_Sebastiano_Student at UNICT IORDACHE_Ioana-Mihaela_Student at UAUIM IUCA_Maria_Student at UAUIM IVANESCU_Alexandra_Student at UAUIM STANKE_Stefanie Katharina_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A V A L D I CHI ESA
The study area is the FRQWUDGD of Val di Chiesa at 290 meters above sea level. “V al l e d i C hiesa ” is a depressio n formed b y the r e m ains o f a giga nt ic explo sion of a vol c ani c c one. T he wa lls o f t he moun tain s ou tl i ne i t an d ma ke yo u f eel t ha t you are at the c e nte r o f a vo lca no t ha t explo ded an d e xti ng u i s hed. The c hu r c h o f Sa nt o St ef a no gives its n ame to the ar e a. Ext erna lly, it ha s a white raised e d g e and a pyra mida l bell t o wer on th e r i g ht. Ins i d e, t here is a cho ir a bo ve th e en tr anc e , tw o a lt a rs o n ea ch side, an d th e ce ntr al ap se niche. S anto S te fa no is t he pa t ro n sa int of th e isl and and a f est iva l is celebra t ed in th e s u m m e r ar o und t he 3rd o f August . Ne xt to the church st a nds a n a ncien t ceme te r y, w hi c h t est if ies t o t he ha rshness of life of the p as t, a nd in t he va rio us epit aph s, th e r e c e nt hi s to ry (a nd no t ) o f t he inhabitan ts of Fi l i cu d i c a n be underst o o d. The borgo is bo rdered by t he prov in cial r oad “p or to -va ldichiesa -peco rini” to th e nor the as t, while t o t he so ut hwest , it en ds w i th a g r ea t a lt it ude jump t ha t offers a p anor am i c view. T he villa ge is t hen articu l ate d w i th seco nda ry no n-driveway s th at l e ad to var io us building unit s. In this FRQWUDGD, there are all the characteristics of traditional Mediterranean architecture, from the typological, historical-cultur-
al, and technical-constructive point of view. Man y buildin gs are alway s in h abited over th e four season s, wh ereas oth ers are inhabitated on ly occasion ally . Aban don ed buildin gs are very few, but th ese are in degrad ed con dition s. Ov erall, it can be said th at in th is FRQWUDGD, th e tradition al ch aracteristics of th e Aeolian I slan ds can be perceived.
Figure 1. Picture of the study area
Figure 2. Picture of the study area
Figure 3. Planimetry of the study area
Figure 4. GIS map of the study area
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF T HE L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
Th e arch itecture of th e Aeolian I slands is ty pically ch aracterized by its focuses on fun ction ality an d climate adaptabilit y. The local arch itecture of Val di Ch iesa is not an ex ception to th is rule. Th e arch itecture th at was foun d in th e assign ed area consisted mostly of tradition al A eolian architecture th at was refurbish ed to be used as h oliday h omes. Th e buildin gs are th erefore in good con dition an d tradition al features were mostly kept, ev en th ough , n ot always in use. Th e A eolian h ouse con sists of a basic unit, mostly in cube form, wh ich can be combin ed with a vary in g n umber of additional cubes wh ich are eith er orien ted along the slope or stacked v ertically in orth ogonal direction . Local con struction materials are pumice ston e (walls) an d tuff (paving). A ty pical elemen t of Aeolian arch itecture is th e “baggh iu”, wh ich is a sh aded terrace. Th e roof con sists of a wooden con struction wh ich is covered by grapevin es or other vegetation . Ch aracteristically , cy lind rical column s frame th e bagghiu. Furth ermore, a low ston e ben ch “bisola” surroun ds the terrace. Origin al buildin gs in addition have a cistern an d, in some cases, a wood en stov e. Today , Aeolian arch itecture is often known for its colorful appearan ce an d in d eed, man y of th e ex istin g buildin gs in Val d i Ch iesa are pain ted in a ran ge of c olors. Th e win dowsill an d frame con trast with the wall color.
Figure 5. Features of local architecture
TAS K 2 D E S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
The hou s e is lo ca t ed nea r t he edge of th e as s i g ne d area , a t t he int ersect io n of two p aths : one which ca n be t a ken on ly by foot ( as i t i s st eep a nd quit e t ight ) an d on e w hi c h i s d erived f ro m t he ma in ro ad (large e nou g h to be t ra velled by ca r). On a s c al e f ro m 1 t o 10 (1 – no ne-ex isten t; 10 – w al l s , ro o f et c. st ill in t heir place), th e r u i ne d house ca n be given a score of 3 r e g ar d i ng it s physica l co ndit io n. On ly two w al l s r e m ai ned f ully undemo lished, th e rest of the m only o ne-t hird o r j ust t he bottom footp r i nt c ould be o bserved (o ne-t hird of a d oor g ap , o ne-t hird o f a n a rch, o ne-th ird of an i ni ti al yello w pla st er). Fr om w hat it seemed, t hey were usin g it just to thr ow s ome o ld f urnit ure a drif t . Fr om thi s p o int o f view, t he dif f iculty to rei m ag i ne a la yo ut wa s wha t kept o ur min ds b u s y. A s thi s ruin wa s clinging next to a well m ai ntai ne d va ca t io n ho use, we supposed the y w e r e so meho w t wins o n t he upper lev e l . The onl y dif f erence wa s t ha t o ur h ouse had d i r e c t a ccess t o o ne la rge t errain in fr ont of i t by a n undergro und sma ll room. A ci s te r n for co llect ing ra inwa t er wa s also still p r e s e nt on t he gro und f lo o r.
Figure 6. Main entrance of the case study building
Figure 7. Picture of the case study building (west view)
Figure 8. Existing conditions of the case study building
DE SIGN PR OPOSAL
Figure 9. Axonometric view of the new proposal
Figure 10. Perspective view of the new proposal
Th e main con cept was a place wh ere the locals an d v isitors could buy local products but also souven irs, so th e buildin g was d iv ided in to two areas, on e with local prod ucts an d th e oth er on e with souven irs, with access from th e main street. 7K H EDVHPHQ W ÁRRU RI WK H EXLOGLQ J KDV D sh op with local products, two staff zones, an d storage for th e sh op. Outside, from the west access, y ou can see th e dry in g facility , th en th e storage for th e local products, th e bagghiu, an d also, th e even t pavilion an d th e garden market. $W WK H JURXQ G ÁRRU LQ WK H Q RUWK \ RX KDYH th e main en tran ce from th e street to the souv en ir sh op, a h ome delivery statio n, the baggh iu, an d an oth er storage. In the summer time, the locals and visitors can collect their own fresh fruits, vegetables, or spices from the garden market or they can see how these are dried in the traditional dehydrators. Near the garden, there is an outside kitchen with a traditional oven (IXUQX) where they can prepare their own meal for brunches and also a bagghiu where they can have events for community. I n th e win ter, th e garden market is closed , th e ligh t structures are used as storag e and th e baggh iu tran sforms in to a community cen ter for th e locals by addin g walls to th e ex istin g structure. Because th ere is no vegetables or fruits production in th e winter season , th e buildin g h as a storage and packin g area for local products, from which th ey h ome deliver products to th e locals.
Figure 11. Seasonal uses of the garden market
1 SH SHOP OP 2 STAF STAF ST FF A AR REA 3 SH SHOP HOP OP STO TORA RAGE GE 4 PROD PR RO OD DUC CT ST STOR TOR O AG GE 5 DR DRYING G FAC CIIL LIT TY 6 BA BAG GG GHI HIU 7 GA GAR RD DEN EN MA AR RKE ET 8 EV VEN ENT PA PAVI VILL LLIO ON
Figure 12. *URXQG ÁRRU SODQ RI WKH SURSRVDO IRU FDVH VWXG\ EXLOGLQJ
9 EN NTR RY 10 SOU 10 OUVENI VENI VE NIR RS SH HOP P 11 1 HOM OME D DE ELI LIVE VERY RY Y STA ATI TION O ON 12 1 2 BA AGG GGHI GHI HIU 13 3 STO TOR RA AG GE E
Figure 13. )LUVW ÁRRU SODQ RI WKH SURSRVDO IRU FDVH VWXG\ EXLOGLQJ
For th e buildin g, we used on e cistern where th e water from th e rooftop is collected and used in differen t way s. An oth er collecting poin t for water is located in th e gard en. Th e water recy cle sy stem is really important for th e property because th is sy stem helps with th e growth of vegetables, fruits, and differen t species of plan ts. )RU Q DWXUDO Y HQ WLODWLRQ ZH XVHG D VSHFLÀF local arch itectural detail th at h as two windows orien ted from n orth to south on differen t lev els of h eigh t an d th at let air to cover th e en tire room. To main tain th e h istorical wall parts of the old buildin g (gen ius loci), we created a seismic an d structural support. Th e layers of th is sy stem h ave in th e in n ermost part a con crete wall cov ered by a mesh . To conn ect th e in terior part with th e ex terior part, some metal rods are used th at go through th e old rock wall an d become caught with a steel n et. Th is ty pe of sy stem aims to let th e wall look n atural as much as possible. Th e sh adin g sy stem is used on th e bagg h iu an d also for th e ligh t structure in the garden . Th is sy stem is made from wood en sticks an d can be pulled on e above the oth er wh en more ligh t is n eeded or be left free for th e cistern water collectin g system for a fresh sh ade.
Figure 14. Rainwater collection system for the garden market
WALL WITH SEISMIC SYSTEM
LAYERS OF THE WALL
VENTILATION SYSTEM Figure 15. Other proposed systems
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TR A DIT IONA L ATMOSPHER E
S TUD Y CAS E Pecorini Nord D ES TINATION O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILD I NG Art center/Art gallery ABSTRACT The site is located in the southwest of Filicudi Island, in the Pecorini Nord area. There are some particularities of this area which inspired us for the future designing process, like the building’s orientation and its consequences regarding interior zoning. The position of a building is chosen in relation to seasonal variations in the sun’s path and the prevailing wind patterns. Good orientation increases WKH HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQF\ RI WKH EXLOGLQJ PDNLQJ LW PRUH comfortable to live in and cheaper to run. This is the reason why the majority of the buildings are facing the southern light. They open to the landscape through that baggio, a traditional terrace, covered by a YHJHWDO SHUJROD sustained by a structure of wooden beams and massive concrete columns. This baggio is directly connected with the interior, which is separated into different linked functions in row. Another particular fact of the buildings is the color of the façade and the materials used for the structure. A combination of stone, concrete, and wood is usually used, the facade being covered in cement plaster, eventually varnished in traditional colors (e.g., white). As far as the community is concerned, it is very hospitable and open to discussion about the history and tradition of the place. It is a small population who enjoys conserving its habits and lifestyle, living in small households in relation to the relief of the island.
WORK TEAM Badicu_Diana_Student at UAUIM Bosnyak_Andrei-Mihai_Student at UAUIM Popa_Adina_Student at UAUIM Lipari Galvagno_Agata_Student at UNICT Scandura_Anna_Student at UNICT Nankova Filipova_Jeni_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A P E C O RI N I N ORD
The seven Aeolian Islands are situated on the northern coast of Sicily. Because of the tremendous landscape, they have been recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and have been listed since 2000. Filicudi island is situated on the west arm, formed by the islands, and next to Alicudi. They are considered as more isolated because they are a considerable detour from the Milazzo– Lipari–Naples route, which was most frequented by merchant ships (in the past) and is by touristic ones (today). However, it has preserved its landscape in a more efficient way. The terrain is terraced; thus, the buildings are situated along the parallel lines, which form the silhouette of the town. The climate is Mediterranean, characterized by mild weather during the winter and hot dry summers. However, the summer temperatures are extreme with up to 40°C and limited to 30 mm precipitation. There are Western winds. Our group was focused on the Pecorini Nord area, which is located in the western central part of the island. One of the most important buildings, the landmark of the district, is located in the center of the area – the town’s church Chiesa Parrocchiale di San Giuseppe. It functions as a social gathering place for the island’s inhabitants, because of its large terrace at the front, which could be seen as a “town square”. Therefore, it could be as-
sumed as the focal point of the town. Architecturally, the district could be separated into two semi-areas by the church. The northern part is characterized by isolated private houses on one floor, whereas the southern part could be described as a cluster of two-level houses, with extremely narrow streets between them. There are several common characteristics of the buildings. All of them are situated along the parallel lines, so most of them have quite regular rectangular form. They are always oriented with the terrace facing south and every house has viewing access to the sea, because of the terraced terrain. Moreover, the majority of the buildings have lateral access, directly from the main road. The construction of the buildings is masonry of rough, basaltic stones and 50–60cm thickness. The plaster finish is usually in a white, pink, or blue color. All windows are covered with shutters for protection from overheating. Most of the houses have a traditional layout with large transitional living spaces (kitchen, bathroom, living room, bedroom, and storage) and a large terrace “bagghiu” at the front. Most of the terraces floors are covered with decorative mosaic tiles. The canopy construction, positioned over the typical columns, “pulera”, is made by wooden beams and is covered with reeds. Most of the houses have preserved the rainwater collection system.
Figure 1. Satellite image of the study area
Figure 2. Picture of the study area
Figure 3. GIS map of the study area
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF T HE L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
Th e buildin g’s arch itectural aspect is not bad because th ere are a lot of construction s with out tradition al plaster color aspect, but most of th e buildin gs h ave the tradition al elemen ts of Aeolian architecture like pulera, baggh iu, etc., th at are in use. Th e arch itecture is th ough t to d efend its in h abitan ts from th e ex cessiv e summer h eat. I n deed, th e situation about energy requiremen ts is n ot critical. I t is better than wh at we h ad th ough t. Th e buildin gs are alway s orien ted alon g east-west ax is, with th e terrace facin g south . On th is terrace, th ere is a roof th at is laid in Jun e and remov ed in September; in th is way , it d oes n ot reduce th e day ligh t flow durin g the win ter season s. Th e defen se from daytime warmin g depen ds on th e massiv e n ature of th e buildin g en v elope. I t is formed by walls an d roofs th at h av e an average weight an d are relativ ely h igh . A double opening sy stem assures n atural v en tilation , sin gle or cross. Most of th e buildin gs do n ot h ave a h eatin g an d coolin g sy stem. Th e buildin g beh avior is good because the ty pe of soil on wh ich th e buildin g stands is rock. I n addition , th e n umber of openings for each cell is limited, on e or two, and no presen ce of damage or cracks.
Figure 4. T y p i c a l b a g g h i u
TAS K 2 D E S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
The b u i l d i ng is lo ca t ed in t he Peco rin i N ord ar e a, ne ar t he C a t ho lic C hurch of Sain t J os e p h. Thi s ha s inf luenced t he con figurati on of the building beca use it serv ed as the hom e for t he villa ge priest . At t he same ti m e , i t i nco rpo ra t es, besides t he character of the home, a sa cred cro ss. T he buildin g cons i s ts of t wo la rge vo lumes – t he actual b u i l d i ng ( g ro und f lo o r a nd f irst f loor) an d the chap e l . T he who le building is in a state of g r e at d egra da t io n a nd crumblin g, th e chap e l has no co ver, a nd t he walls n eed cons ol i d ati o n beca use t here a re alarmin g cracks in them. At the same time, the main b u i l d i ng r et a ins o nly t hree wa lls, an d th e r oof and th e f lo o r a re dest ro yed. The m ai n cha ra ct er o f t he current buildin g that l e d to t he idea o f o ur co ncept en tails anc hor i ng t he building t o a very high level. Thi s has l e d t o mult iple a ccesses an d en tr anc e p l atf o rms a t dif f erent heights, wh ich i s v e r y r e s tora t ive a nd ha s po t ent ial for our p r op os al . The building ha s t hree main acce s s e s – e a st , west , a nd no rt h – t hrough th e fi r s t fl oor .
Figure 5. Design sketch of chaptel
Figure 6. Design sketch of bagghiu
Figure 7. Design sketch of multifunctional space
Figure 8. Design sketch of south elevation
DE SIGN PR OPOSAL
The first intervention is to strengthen and close the existing building envelope. We propose the use of local materials and traditional construction techniques; thus, all the terraces of the old buildings, the entire southern wall, and the rest of the walls requiring interventions will be rebuilt. The old “bagghiu” will be rebuilt on its old footprint. New wooden beams will be laid and stabilized by embedding them into the southern wall. The southern wall, the main facade of the building, is destroyed. The second intervention considers the attempt to achieve a facade that respects the old positions of the windows/entrances so that the new addition matches the context, but also to bring a new, modern, image to the building. The chapel will be kept under the current conditions; the only intervention is to cover it with a lightweight structure that will protect the interior from direct sunlight. The element that brings novelty to the project is the coverage of the reconstructed “baggio”. It is made of traditional materials (wire-bound reeds) but incorporated into a modern system. We wanted the covers to be easy to mount during summer and disassembly quicker in winter. The system also allows the cover to be opened or closed depending on the sun, maximizing the shading/sunbathing of the building. We also thought about the possibility of this system becoming automated. By using reeds, the atmosphere created in the “baggio” reminds one of the traditional atmosphere of the houses, but by reinterpreting the volumetry, we bring new qualities, namely that the “baggio”’s cover can be changed as needed. Figure 9. Perspective view of the new proposed bagghiu
Figure 10. Aerial view of the proposal for case study building
Figure 11. Planimetry of the proposal for case study building
Figure 12. Perspective view of the new bagghiu
Figure 13. Indoor view of the proposal for case study building
Figure 14. *URXQG ÁRRU SODQ RI WKH SURSRVDO IRU FDVH VWXG\ EXLOGLQJ
Figure 15. )LUVW ÁRRU SODQ RI WKH SURSRVDO IRU FDVH VWXG\ EXLOGLQJ
Figure 16. Axonometry diagram with functions of the proposal for case study building
Figure 17. East and south elevations of the proposal for case study building
Figure 18. Section of the proposal for case study building
Figure 19. Energy class of the building
Bamboo Reed Th e buildin g object of th e in tervention presen ts several problems, due to th e lack of main ten an ce of th e same parts. For this reason , we decided to in terven e mainly in securin g th e ex istin g mason ry an d in the creation of n ew plasters, to safeguard the part of th e buildin g th at still ex ists. Th e first in terven tion to be carried out is the securin g of th e ruin ; th is is carried out by mean s of th e “reticulatus”, wh ich consists of th e in sertion of steel rods lin ked together by a steel cable, wh ich giv es stability to the mason ry . On ce th is importan t procedure h as been carried out, th e ex istin g plaster is cleaned with low-pressure water an d, th e plaster’s gaps are filled; th e join ts are repaired and th e n ew plaster is created. Th e last procedure is th e realization of the last lay er of plaster. Given th e ex cellen t location of th e site, it was decided to take adv an tage of th e natural ven tilation for coolin g rooms, accompan ied by double glazed win dows to prev en t overh eatin g of th e in terior. Following the local tradition, a water collection system will be built using the flat roof. Furth ermore, giv en th e ex cellen t ex posure of th e buildin g, ph otov oltaic pan els will be position ed for h eatin g domestic h ot water.
Figure 20. Roof and grounf attack details
CLEANING WITH LOW PRESSURE WATER
F I L L I N G P L A S T E R GA P S
PLACEMENT OF THE LAST PLASTER LAYER
Figure 21. Constructive interventions
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CANA LE NORD SH A DING
S TUD Y CAS E Canale Nord D ES TIN A TIO N O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILDI NG Info point
ABSTRACT Walking through the in-between of Filicudi, we discovered another sense of “being” in the space, of experiencing a sort of solitude these beautiful vacation houses shared when, free of occupants, they just sat there, bathing in sunlight. Never before have we felt a place so forgotten yet still colorful and lively. There was color and there was whiteness, there was a stillness of the stone thick walls and there was wind, there was movement and there was serenity, where the high cliffs carved by people met the bright blue sea.
WORK TEAM CAPOTA_Ioana_Student at UAUIM PANAIT_Iulia_Student at UAUIM ATTARDO_Ivan_Student at UNICT D’AMICO_Noemi_Student at UNICT ANISKOVA_Alla_Student at NTNU PUGACHENKO_Ilya_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A C A N A L E N ORD
Ou r ob j e ct o f st udy, t he inha bit ed area en ti tl e d Cana le No rd, is f o und a t t he south e as t b as e o f t he F ilicudi isle, a t th e v ery p oi nt w he re Pro vincia le St reet splits in to op p os ab l e direct io ns, st ret ching on ward on the coast sides o f t he isla nd. Thu s , i n a so mewha t privileged location , cl os e s t to t he ha rbo r (t he ma in sh ippin g l i nk) ye t hi gh eno ugh t o peek t o wards th e hor i z on, the no t so dense set t lemen t organi z e s i ts e l f quit e unif o rmly a lo ng th e two s e c ond ar y int ersect ed pa t hs derived from the m ai n r oa d (a s seen in t he sit e plan s). B oth i n te r ms o f dispo sit io n t o wa rds th e resi d e nti al s ys t em (ma rgina lized) a nd state of m ai nte nanc e (ruins), t he co nst ruction s we hav e tar g et ed (pink co lo red in t he gen eral s i te p l an) dif f er f ro m t he ho mo gen eous r e s i d e nti al a rea o f C a na le No rd. T he in terve nti on z on e includes t he rema ins of buildi ng s w hos e pa st a nd use we ha ve n ot been ab l e to d i s co ver, a n o live o rcha rd an d, to ou r s u r p r i s e, t wo dwellings wit h a n important hi s tor y behind t hem: t he mill wh ere local fl ou r u sed t o be grinded a nd an oth er w he r e oi l wa s ma de – wit h o nly t he walls and the m achines st a nding st ra ight as witne s s e s , al ong wit h a f riendly lo ca l wh o was ki nd e nou gh t o revea l t o us t he ingredien ts p r od u c e d t here in t he pa st . Na t urally , afte r d i s cov ering t he na t ure o f t he con structi ons , the mill-o rcha rd-po rt -ho use assembly
began to make sen se an d in spired us into fin din g a con temporary respon se, a useful tran sformation plan for th e future. Ultimately , our goal became to let our experien ce of th is place speak th rough the in terv en tion we proposed, to keep it as ligh t an d min imal as possible, an d h ave it gen erate path way s rath er th an sh eltered. spaces. Th e sh adows would become spaces un der th e sun , we th ough t, with a limit as immaterial as th e sh apes formed on the groun d. We designed a voyage through the land scape, one that would stop only to witness three ultimate experiences offered by the island. That of being in the landscape, and taking the moment to embrace everything around, that of moving through the land scape, and finally, of sitting to watch beyond.
Figure 1. Framework of the study area
Figure 2. Planimetry of the study area
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF TH E L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
B e i ng , w e f o und, sho uld ha ve you h ov er ab ove g r ound, a s t ho ugh po sit io nin g th e s u b j e ct of o ur t ra il o f experience in th e m i d s t of s ky a nd la nd. M ovi ng s ho uld ha ppen up a nd down by c l i m b i ng th ro ugh t he la ndsca pe itself an d on the p u n ct ua l st a irca ses, pla ced eith er al ong s i d e o r perpendicula r t o t he view, havi ng you wa lk a lo ngside a nd t o w ards th e d e s ti nati on .
Watch in g h appen s in th e most in timate of places, th rough wh at was on ce a window frame, a remembran ce of past an d origin – th us, watch in g n ot on ly with on e’s eyes but also th rough an awake con sciousness of th e place wh ich lies ah ead. Th e arch itecture of th e islan d is generated by th e utmost primordial n eed of shelter, th rough pure an d artisan al tech n iques, th erefore resultin g in a tecton ic h ard to replicate today . We tried n ot replicating but seamlessly join in g past an d present with two goals in min d: to tran sform sh adow into space an d create a sen sorial ex perience based on the moment of meeting between “stran ger” an d “islan d”. A s h as previously been men tion ed, the settlemen t of Can ale Nord is, in terms of location , truly privileged; th us, th e fact that its buildin gs are (mostly ) still in h abi ted is n o won der. We were able to n otice a state of arch itectural h omogen eity arisin g from th e ex isten ce an d main ten an ce of the tradition al elemen ts of th e A eolian house. Moreov er, modern tech n ological in tervention s were n ot n umerous (at least as seen from the outside of the homes we were not able to en ter). Th e local arch itecture of the zon e in deed represen ts a perfect machine j K DELWHU, its compon en ts bein g perfectly suited to th e weath er con dition s, lan d features, an d local lifesty le.
Figure 3. Typical Aeolian features
Figure 4. Details: doors and patterns
GI S T H E M A TI C M A P S A N D S C ORES
The fi r s t p art o f t he a na lysis pha se foresees a cog ni ti v e inspect io n f o r a ll t he buildin gs of the s tu dy a rea . F o r ea ch buildin g a surve y has b e en co mpiled wit h inf o rmation of a g e om e tr i ca l, co nst ruct ive, st ruct ural, h istor i c al , and energet ic na t ure. O nce data col l e c ti on is co mplet e, t he next step is to e nte r the i n f o rma t io n int o a da t a base. For thi s p has e , we used t he G IS t o o l. A Ge og r aphic Inf o rma t io n Syst em is des i g ne d to ca pt ure, st o re, ma nipula te, an al yz e , m ana ge, a nd present spa t ia l or geog r ap hi c d a t a .
Th e tool allows us to obtain th ematic maps, an arch itectural score, structural score, an d en ergetic score for each buildin g. The processin g of th e th ree scores determines a fin al score on th e ov erall quality of the buildin gs. Th e purpose of th e an aly si s is to create a study meth od, a n ew tool useful for admin istration s for plan n in g an d design of th e territory .
STATE OF FACT
In our intervention site, there are several buildings. Some of them are in a state of ruin or abandonment, others are better preserved. We have decided to intervene in the structure where we plan WR SODFH WKH PXQLFLSDO RIÀFH ,Q WKLV LPDJH ZH show the actual state of the building. It is a two-elevation building, one of which is underground. The elements of the structure are traditional: from WKH PDVRQU\ ZDOOV WR WKH VWUXFWXUH RI WKH ÁRRUV DV well for the window and the door. There is only one window in the south facade and a ruined wooden door in the east side. %HIRUH GHÀQLQJ WKH LQWHUYHQWLRQ VWUDWHJ\ LW ZDV necessary to know the current performance of the building, to be able, in this way, to choose the PRVW VXLWDEOH LQWHUYHQWLRQV IRU WKH VSHFLÀF FDVH We have conducted an energy analysis with the DOCET software, which allows for the evaluating of energy performance of a building envelope by inserting the thermophysical values of the building components. The simulation result is that our building belongs to the energy class F.
Figure 5. Graphic drawings
TAS K 2 D E S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
The project location can be described as a rather large area that from one side is limited by the road and from the other side by the pedestrian path. The whole territory is permeated with retaining walls, which prevent landslides. The walls create for natural terraces on the site. On one of the terraces, a splendid olive garden was found. As was mentioned before, there are three remains of buildings on the site. One of them, which is located closer to the road, presumably was a dwelling. Only several parts of the external walls were
saved. This building can be considered as the most damaged among all three houses. Regarding its location, the decision to make an entrance, the primary part of the info point in this ruin was made. This building will contain basic information about the island, touristic maps and booklets, descriptions of the most interesting places, and picturesque paths. The other two buildings were closely connected to the pedestrian route and were located on the highest terrace. In the building for oil production,
we decided to make a second part of the info SRLQW ,Q WKH WKLUG EXLOGLQJ WKH PXQLFLSDO RIÀFH was placed. In the vertical part of the building, a waiting space with a toilet was designed, while ofÀFH URRPV ZHUH SXW LQ WKH ORZHU SDUW RI WKH EXLOGing. A naturally created amphitheater links to the RIÀFH URRPV ZKLFK FUHDWHG D SRVVLELOLW\ RI WKH DUrangement of public discussions or meetings near WKH PXQLFLSDOLW\ RIÀFH LQ D YHU\ DXWKHQWLF ZD\ It is assumed that in winter, when the amount of tourists is considerably less than in the summer SHULRG RQO\ WKH PXQLFLSDO RIÀFH EXLOGLQJ FDQ be used. All of the summer exhibition information can be stored in the only closed room of the oil SURGXFWLRQ EXLOGLQJ RQ WKH JURXQG ÁRRU DQG WKH “info point” buildings can be inactive during that period. However, basic functions can be found in WKH PXQLFLSDO RIÀFH ZKLFK ZLOO ZRUN DOO \HDU ORQJ In the summer period, all three buildings will work and will be ready to receive tourists.
Figure 6. Existing conditions of case study building
Figure 7. Traditional millstone
DE SIGN PR OPOSAL
Th e task for th e site was to create a touristic in fo poin t.
Figure 8. Shading system
Figure 9. Shading combinations (1 - Meeting point; 2 - Path; 3 - Conference place)
Th e in fo poin t is a buildin g th at sh ould have con n ection with th e h istory of th e island , but at th e same time, sh ould be well recogn izable by th e tourists – an object th at can be a sy mbol of th e islan d or of th e archipelago area. As a v ery common element, sh adin g was ch osen to be presen ted as a un ique detail of th e islan d arch itecture. Howev er, to make it differen t from the rest of th e structures on th e islan d, special barrin g con struction was design ed. Th e idea was to put in fo poin t sh adin g on v ery thin metal column s. Th is solution also h elped to ach iev e an effect of th e structure of flying abov e th e groun d. Such con struction , from on e side, can be in terpreted as a mon ument to celebrate v ern acular arch itecture, while from th e oth er side, can serve as a sign for th e people. Wh en people will see it , they will recogn ize th e area as th e in fo point. Metal column s could be in stalled in the system of th e groun d “sockets”. A “socket system” provides modularity an d flex ibil ity for th e in fo poin t area, so th e sh adin g can be moved in to differen t position s depend ing on th e circumstan ces. Th ose sockets that are n ot occupied by th e column s can be used to ligh t th e area in th e n igh t, by add in g or remov in g caps on th e lamps. The grid ligh t sy stem on th e groun d gen tly attracts atten tion an d guides tourists in th e n ight. Th e project location can be described as a rath er large area th at from on e sid e,
i s l i m i te d by t he ro a d a nd f ro m t h e oth er s i d e , b y the pedest ria n pa t h. T he wh ole te r r i tor y i s permea t ed wit h ret a inin g walls, w hi ch p r e vent la ndslides. T he wa lls create for natu r al t erra ces, o n t he sit e. O n on e of the te r r aces, a splendid o live ga rden was fou nd . The o t her t wo buildings were closel y c onne cted t o t he pedest ria n ro ute an d
were located on th e h igh est terrace. In the buildin g for oil production , we decided to make a secon d part of th e in fo poin t, with furth er in formation about th e h istory of the islan d an d a deeper h istorical overv iew of th e buildin gs. Th e combin ation of th e ruins, old mach in ery , an d h istorical n otes with a cafeteria un der th e sh adin g with a spec-
Figure 10. Axonometric view of the site
Figure 11. Infopoint 2
Figure 12. 0XQLFLSDO RIÀFH
tacu l ar vi e w ca n help t he t o urist t o feel th e atm os p he r e o f t he pla ce even better. I n the thi r d b uilding, t he municipa l o f fice was p l ace d . In t he vert ica l pa rt o f t he buildin g, a w ai ti ng s pa ce wit h a t o ilet wa s design ed, w hi l e offi c e ro o ms were put in th e lowe r p ar t of t he building. A na t ura lly create d am p hi thea t er links t o t he o f f ice rooms, w hi c h c r e a t ed a po ssibilit y o f t he arran gem e nt of p u blic discussio ns o r meet ings n ear the m u ni ci pa lit y o f f ice in a very a uth en tic w ay. It i s assumed t ha t in wint er, wh en th e am ou nt of t o urist s is co nsidera bly less th an
in th e summer period, on ly th e municipal office buildin g can be used. All of th e summer ex h ibition in formation can be stored in th e on ly closed room of th e oil production buildin g on th e groun d floor an d th e “infopoin t” buildin gs can be in activ e d uring th at period. However, basic fun ctions can be foun d in th e mun icipal office, wh ich will work all y ear lon g. I n th e summer period, all th ree buildin gs will work an d will be read y to receiv e tourists.
DE T A I L
Passing to the interventions, we focused on two aspects: the structure and energy performance. )RU WKH ÀUVW ZH GHFLGHG WR UHLQIRUFH WKH PDVRQU\ with a system developed by the Ruredil company, called FRCM (Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix), which consists of application on the wall
RI D ELGLUHFWLRQDO ÀEHU QHWZRUN WKDW FUHDWHV D UHinforced stratus that supports the structure without DGGLQJ VLJQLÀFDQW ZHLJKW RU PRGLI\LQJ WKH H[WHUnal features. As the last layer, a white plaster is applied, to respect the tradition and harmonize the new intervention with the pre-existence.
Removal of addictions
Figure 13. Scheme of interventions
The intervention on the door instead is very interesting. Our goal is to maintain the building’s original appearance, with its traditional elements DQG DW WKH VDPH WLPH LPSURYH HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQF\ Therefore, we decided to remove the door and use it as a shading element for a new door with double glass, hooked to the wall with a metal proÀOH WKDW RSHQV LQZDUG 7KH HQHUJ\ UHTXDOLÀFDWLRQ project includes the provision of a photovoltaic
system for the production of electricity to be installed on the roof. The aspect of air conditioning has been addressed considering the installation of a heat pump system, while the production of domestic hot water is made with a combined heat pump with storage and solar thermal panels. The frames are equipped with solar shading and double-glazed glass. All these technologies allow WKH DFKLHYHPHQW RI DQ HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQF\ FODVV $
1. Masonry wall 5XUHJROG ÀEHU QHWZRUN 3. Metallic frame 4. Double glazing 5. Original door
Figure 14. Door detail
Figure 15. Energetic strategies
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions
Project logo (drawing/sketch/ word...)
KEE P THE TR A DIT ION
photo or sketchB/N
S TUD Y CAS E Portella D ES TIN A TIO N O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILDI NG University center/observation point
ABSTRACT In order to revitalize the given site and building and transform it into a real attraction point, the project involved a complete study of the area, the landscape, and the quality of the existing architecture. The interventions aimed to preserve the local character and identity as well as the use of technologies WR HQVXUH JRRG HQHUJ\ DQG PHFKDQLFDO HIÀFLHQF\ From a functional point of view, the destination for the chosen Portella site was a university center and an observation point. The privileged location of the building, the plan, and the used materials made this VROXWLRQ DQ RSWLPDO RQH 7KH ÀQDO UHVXOW SURYHV ERWK JRRG IXQFWLRQDOLW\ DQG HQHUJ\ HIÀFLHQF\ SURYLGHV a good connection with the surrounding landscape and environment, and offers a unique perspective of Filicudi island.
WORK TEAM NEAGU_Diana_Student at UAUIM SERBAN_Corina_Student at UAUIM ARTINO_Antonio_Student at UNICT GIBILRAS_Sharon_Student at UNICT ZHOU_Jingjing_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A PORTELLA
Por te l l a i s l oca t ed in t he no rt hwestern side of the i nhabit ed a rea o f F ilicudi islan d, betw e e n S ti m pa gna t o a nd Va l di C hiesa. Th e l oc ati on off ers t he a dva nt a ge o f a pan or am i c vi e w o f t he isla nd a nd represen ts, at the s am e t ime, a cha llenge. T he access to the ar e a is ma de o n a pa t h t ha t con tin u e s w i th a series o f st o ne st a irs. Bein g on a r ou g h te r r ain, t he st reet net wo rk is organ ic and l ad e n wit h st a irs. H o wever, t he sin uous r ou te i s a v ery plea sa nt o ne, beca use a lot of l and s c aped co urt ya rds, ho uses with speci al p ar ti c ula rit ies, a nd spect a cular ty pical ve g e tati on ca n be o bserved. M os t of the t ra dit io na l ho mes ha ve an eastw e s t e xp os ure t ha t a llo ws t hem t o en joy th e s u n thr ou g h o ut t he da y. T he f irst visual imp act w i th the ho uses is given by t he bagg hi u , the tr adit io na l co vered t erra ce, wh ich r e p r e s e nts a co mmo n f ea t ure o f t he wh ole ar e a. In te r ms o f co lo rs, t he a rea pr esen ts a chr om ati c ba la nce. T he buildings are gen e r al l y p ai nt ed in sha des o f whit e th at emp has i z e the co nt ra st wit h t he vegetation , p i nk or l i g ht o ra nge. One of the f irst ho uses t o welco me visitors i s a r u i ne d o ne t ha t no w ret a ins o nly a few w al l s and a ro o f t erra ce. T he co mpon en ts of the tr adit io na l lo ca l a rchit ecture are onl y p ar ti ally visible due t o it s a d v an ced d e g r ad ati on st a t us.
R egardin g th e v egetation , th e area offers a large diversity of plan t species, trees, and sh rubs. Th e most common species are citrus, cactus, olean der, an d differen t climbing plan ts such as Bougain villea, wh ich often decorate th e walls of th e h ouses or even cov ers th e roof of th e baggh iu. Gen erally, th e area h as medium an d low v egetation, th e on ly vertical accen t in th e studied area bein g a tall pin e, located righ t in the access area, th at can also play th e role of a local lan dmark. I t sh ould also be specified th at th e locals are part of a true community an d sh ow an h on est h ospitality . Th e stairs an d th e win din g roads sometimes turn into real play groun ds for th e ch ildren . Portella h as a specific ch arm an d beauty th at can be con siderably h eigh t ened . Th e tradition al Aeolian arch itecture as well as th e topograph ical con figuration of th e area an d th e view upon th e island are some of th e most v aluable ch aracteristics of th e area. Th is proposal aims to emphasize th e iden tity in a modern approach, but with out th reaten in g th e auth en ticity of the tradition al h eritage.
Figure 1. Satellite image of the study area
Figure 2. Picture of the study area
Figure 3. GIS map – Building characteristics
D A TA IN P UT O N G IS The b u i l d i n gs o f t he a rea under in v estigati on w e r e ca t ego rized a cco rding to th eir p ar ti cu l ar fea t ures a nd t o dif f erent th emes: b u i l d i ng , energy, a nd st ruct ura l ch aracte r i s ti cs . For ea ch building a nd f or each the m e , the y were a ssigned dif f erent scores, ac c or d i ng to a predet ermined ra t ing scale. As r e g ar d s t he building cha ra ct eristics, it i s note d th a t bo t h buildings o f h igh an d l ow q u al i ty a re present wit h t he sa me rate.
From th e en ergy poin t of view, most of the studied buildin gs h av e a very low score, indicatin g a poor beh av ior towards thermal stresses an d, abov e all, low lev els of ind oor th ermo-h y grometric comfort.
Figure 4. GIS map – Energy features
Figure 5. GIS map – Structural characteristics
Re g ar d i ng t he current st ruct ura l con dition of the b u i l dings, it sho uld be no t ed th at, g i v e n the pa rt icula rly high sco res, th ere is g ood s tr u c tura l sa f et y. T his is ma in ly relate d to the f a ct t ha t ma ny buildin gs h ave cl os e d s tr u ct ura l meshes, a lso t ha nks to th e m or e or l e ss ef f ect ive wa ll j o int s, detected d u r i ng the surveys. S om e b u i l dings in t he a rea , ho wever, are p ar ti cu l ar l y da ma ged o r even in a state of total ab ando nment o r ruins.
A ddin g th e partial scores obtain ed in the th ree th emes ex plain ed abov e, we obtain ed a gen eral mappin g in dicativ e of the ov erall quality of th e buildin gs an alyzed. From th e observ ation of th e relativ e map (Fig.6 ), it is clear th at aroun d 65% of the buildin gs report discrete or good total condition , wh ile about 2 5% of th e buildin gs are in bad con dition .
Figure 6. GIS map – Total score
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF T HE L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
The Filicudian houses are organized on two levels, in general for two independent homes; the staircase is outdoors. A large terrace (called in local dialect “bagghiu”) is set up in the front of the house, while at the back, there is a little yard. Th e volcan ic n ature of th e A eolian I sland s makes th em particularly ex posed to earthquakes an d stron gly in fluen ces th e masonry ty pe. I n respon se to th is circumstance, local builders h ave set up a really efficient con struction sy stem: with vertical elements th at are firm an d stron g an d h orizon tal elemen ts th at are ligh t an d flex ible. The masonry is composed of rough, basaltic ston es. Th e edges of th e buildin g are built with squared ston es, bigger an d denser. Th e walls are 6 0 cm th ick on , th e ground floor and 50 cm thick on the upper one. The roofs are framed with a series of wood en beams th at are in serted in th e wall for twoth irds of its th ickn ess. A can e roofin g is set up on th e upper side, framed between the wooden beams. The extrados is formed by a castin g of lime putty an d volcan ic pumice.
Figure 7. Typical Aeolian house
TAS K 2 DE S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
At fi r s t s i g h t , t he o ld ho use wa s n oth in g m or e than a ruin wit h no ident it y, but as w e l ooke d clo ser a nd a f t er research , we fou nd ou t much mo re a bo ut t he object of ou r s tu d y. The hou s e wa s o wned by a big f a mily th at ( s i m i l ar l y to ma ny f a milies o n t he islan d) left for a b e tter lif e. T he yo unger gen eration l e ft as the old rema ined una ble t o ten d to the ne e d s o f t he ho useho ld. T he deserted hou s e d e terio ra t ed f a st due t o t he climate and i t e v e n suf f ered a f ire. We fou nd t he ho use wit h so me wa lls an d a p ar t of the ro o f da ma ged a nd a collapsed b ag g hi u . Ho wever, t he ruin inspired us becau s e i t w as sit ua t ed o n high gro un d an d it w as p e r fe c t f o r a n o bserva t o ry. Moreov er, the fact th a t it wa s a big ho use made it p os s i b l e for us t o f ind t he necessa ry space for a u ni v e rsit y cent er. The hou s e ha d t hree int a ct ro o ms, four r oom s p ar t ia lly dest ro yed, a nd t wo rooms car ve d i n st o ne a t a lo wer level t hat were or i g i nal l y co nnect ed wit h t he ga r den but ar e now co vered in rubble.
Figure 8. Sketches with the existing condition
Figure 9. Characteristics of Aeolian house
Figure 10. Existing conditions of the case study building
D E SIGN PR OPOSAL
Th e design proposal is based on stron g principles rooted in th e specific arch itectural an d social con tex t of th e A eolian I slands. On e of th e main targets of our project was to keep th e origin al form of th e building. Th is prin ciple is on e of th e requirements of UNE SCO World Heritage wh en it comes to buildin g in th e A eolian I slan ds. Th is is a way of in tegration in th e con tex t an d also a sign of respect for tradition . R ebuildin g th e baggh iu was th e first and th e most importan t step as it is th e iconic elemen t of Aeolian arch itecture. We also kept its origin al fun ction , a place of gatherin g an d collectiv e work; it is th e focal point of our un iv ersity cen ter. Th e ex istin g structure was rein forced with fiber glass tech n ology an d th e par titions were kept as th ey were but with different fun ction s. Th erefore, th e groun d floor went from a utility space to an accommodation space with two bedrooms carved in stone, a storage un it, an d open workin g space below th e baggh iu. On th e first floor is where th e main activity of th e un iv ersity center takes place: offices, a workin g space, arch ives, an d a small kitch en . Th e last floor is th e place wh ere we d id th e observation poin t. We rebuilt a section of th e collapsed roof in a differen t mann er. We raised th e slabs to emph asize the idea of a n ew roof. Th e addition in height also gives a better view of th e lan dscape aroun d. Th e structure is ligh tweigh t, made of metal wires th at resemble th e traditional can e sun sh ades. Figure 11. Before and after simulations
Figure 12. Outside perspective of the new proposal
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Figure 16. Cross section
Figure 17. Functional schemes
D E TAIL
Th e last floor is th e place wh ere we d id the observation poin t. We rebuilt a section of th e collapsed roof, main tain in g th e stratigraph y of th e tradition al A eolian roof. Therefore, we h av e a first lay er of 15 cm wooden beams, a secon d lay er of can es, and an ex trados realized by a castin g of lime putty an d volcan ic pumice, 1 5 cm th ick. On this roof, th e n ew structure was added. W e put a first lay er of 8 cm wooden beams, conn ected to th e structure below by means of riveted corn er profiles. On th ese beams, a floor was created with wooden plan ks. Th e n ew structure h as n o con tin uous walls, but can es h av e been used to recall the tradition al arch itecture an d at th e same time, create a precise poin t of v iew. Th e canes h av e been con n ected to a metal frame so, in th is way , th e structure is ligh tweight. Fin ally , th e cov er was made with a white cloth th at can be open ed. Th e ex istin g structure was rein forced with fiber glass tech n ology .
Figure 18. Detail section
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Fr om the energy a na lysis o f t he buildin g, the r e s u l ts o f t he DO C ET pro gra m h av e s how n that t he wo rst beha vio r o ccurs in th e w i nte r m onths, while in summer, t he beh avi or i s b e tte r. Fu r the r m or e, by co mpa ring t he results obtai ne d for t he exist ing building a nd th ose ob tai ne d fo r o ur pro po sa l, it ha s emerged that b y m aint a ining t he sa me ma son ry an d i ns e r ti ng only do uble-gla zing, t he buildi ng ’s b e hav io r impro ves. In t he sa me way , the i nc r e ase in energy cla ss is due to th e ad d i ti on of t he hea t pumps, used for h eati ng and c oo ling.
PA RT I I I
AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions
NATUR E IN ARCHITECTUR E
S TUD Y CAS E Canale Sud D ES TIN A TIO N O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILDI NG Public library/Community center
ABSTRACT “The good building is not one that hurts the landscape, but one which makes the landscape more beautiful that it was before the building was built” Frank Lloyd Wright
WORK TEAM MARGINEAN_Alexandru-Marian_ Student at UAUIM PETRESCU_Ana Maria_Student at UAUIM FIORE_Giulia_Student at UNICT CARUSO_Jessica_Student at UNICT ä(+29,ý_Irhana_Student at NTNU DAMBE_Marija Katrina_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A C A N A L E SU D
Canal e s u d is lo ca t ed in t he so ut h part of the i s l and o f F ilicudi, in t he Aeo lia n I slan ds. The s i te p r esent s a rea lly go o d o rien tation ; i n fac t, b eca use o f it s slo pe, a ll buildin gs r e c e i v e s ol a r illumina t io n. Buildings are locate d i n a suburba n co nt ext o n a h ill, with al i g ne d s tr uct ure o r so met imes, t ra nsversal, w i th r e s p e ct t o t he slo pe. T hey a lmost all hav e s ou th o rient a t io n, a nd t heref ore, h av e g ood s ol ar ga ins in wint er, wit h protection fr om the s u nshine in summer t ha nks to some of the ar chit ect ure’ s so lut io ns. Buildin gs ar e s catte r ed but lo ca t ed mo st ly all in th e ce ntr al p art o f t he a rea , a ro und t he streets. Canal e s u d is o ut lined by a ho rseshoe ben d r e p r e s e nte d by t he ma in st reet , a driv ew ay, and s o me pedest ria n pa t hs w ith stairs too i ns i d e the a rea . T heref o re, it is n ot poss i b l e to access every pa rt o f t he area by car , b u t j u st by f o o t o r else by mo torcy cle. S tr u c tu r e s are mo st o f a ll priva t e b uildin gs, b u t 80% of peo ple live here j ust in summer, s o i n w i nte r, t he a rea is a lmo st a ba ndon ed. M ayb e b e ca use o f t ha t , t here a re n ot an y s e r vi ce s for t he co mmunit y. The r e l e van t cha ra ct erist ics o f t he t radition al ar chi te c t ure f ro m t he st udied area, ex tr ac te d fr om t he G IS da t a ba se, a re furth er p r e s e nte d : mo re t ha n 80% o f t he buildin gs hav e b ag ghiu, mo st o f t hem ha vin g fun cti onal p u l e ra a nd ext erna l sha dings. Most of the hou s e s ha ve t heir ext erio r spa ces orga-
n ized aroun d multiple terraces with extern al sh adin gs th at can v ary between 4 and 6 meters wide. Th e h ouses with out bagghiu an d/or pulera are ex ception s in th is area. It is customary to use wood frames for doors an d win dows – PVC frames are ex ceptions in close prox imity of our proposed library. A ddition ally , a common elemen t for the area is th e use of wh ite plastered exterior walls. Th ese ch aracteristics are relevant for th e implemen tation of our in terven tion. Oth er tradition al ch aracteristics found in th e study area are: tradition al colors of the facades (wh ite, ligh t blue, terracotta) and win dow frames (wh ite, cobalt blue), small roun d win dows used for bath rooms, some decorative elemen ts on th e facades, and th e ex isten ce of a water recy clin g sy stem. Th e area seems to h ave a good social capital; th e wh ole h ousin g group forms a maze of social terraces th at can serve th e commun ity .
Figure 1. Framework of the study area
Figure 2. Pictures of the study area
Figure 3. GIS map/masterplan/area pictures
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF T HE L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
I n terms of en ergy efficien cy , most of the h ouses h ave a series of common elements: th ick ex terior walls, sin gle glass windows, n atural ven tilation , good or ex cellent illumin ation , ex tern al sh adin gs, N S card inal orien tation , an d a h eatin g an d cooling sy stem. Th e tech n ical calculation s show U wall= 2 W/sqmK, U win dow= 4.9 W/sqmK, an d U roof= 1 .5 W/sqmK. Th e surv ey shows th at in th is area, th ere is a lack of use of ren ewable en ergy sources an d sh utters for win dows an d doors. Th e an aly sis of th e buildin gs, in terms structural ch aracteristics, rev eals th e following main elemen ts foun d in most of th e buildin gs: flat tradition al roofs; cellular o rganization of th e lay out, th e foun dation s of the h ouses are con n ected, with th e orientation of th e slope bein g parallel with th e slope an d h avin g an in depen den t structure; and th e ex terior walls are th ick an d are made of ston e or mason ry – aroun d 5 5cm. Th e total GI S database allowed us to create a h ierarch y of h ouses th at best meet th e criteria for each category – traditional arch itecture, en ergy efficien cy , an d structure – an d in th e en d, to create a h ierarchy for th e buildin gs th at sum th e most characteristics from th ese th ree categories. The buildin gs with th e h igh est scores must be used as models.
Figure 4. Area composition
TAS K 2 D E S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
Ou r b u i l d i ng is lo ca t ed in t he so uth of th e ar e a, on a pla t ea u t ha t o f f ers a la rge pan or am i c vi e w o f t he a rchipela go . We ch ose thi s b u i l d i ng beca use o f t he ra t io between the s u r fac e o f t he co nst ruct ed a rea an d the te r r ac e a rea , which is a very particu l ar fe atu r e. Besides t ha t , t he t errace offe r s hu g e po t ent ia l in upgra ding t h e public s p ac e of the C a na le Sud. We s aw the t erra ces f ro m t he a rea as a soci al ne tw ork int ert wined f o r t he inh abitan ts and ou r i ntervent io n is seen a s t he cen ter of thi s w hole syst em – a co nt ro l cen ter, a p l ace w he re a ll t he inha bit a nt s could parti c i p ate i n t he t hinking pro cess o f upgradi ng thi s ar ea . The s tr u c tu re o f t he building wa s in decen t cond i ti on, wit h t he st eel bea ms ex posed b u t w i th only a superf icia l la yer o f rust, th e w al l s w i th s lo ppy repa irs but st ill t he repairs d i d the j ob a nd prevent ed wa t er in filtrati on, and the windo w f ra mes cra cked an d w i thou t g l ass. The m ai n fea t ure o f t he sit e, t he t errace, is i n g ood co ndit io n, wit h o nly so me superfici al p l ants a nd a lit t le bit o f dust accumul ati on. S ad ly, t he po st s were in ba d sh ape, u ne v e n and cra cked, a nd t hey ha ve to be r e b u i l t.
Figure 5. Terrace and current condition
Figure 6. Plan view of the case study building
Figure 7. Scale and measurements phase
DE SIGN PR OPOSAL
Th e design proposal aims at th e social ch aracteristic of th e h ousin g ty polog y that Filicudi islan d h as. I n our way of seeing the wh ole area, th e terraces are a laten t place th at can h ost various activities; by connectin g all th e terraces in a social sy stem, you can create a n ew lay er of activities for the in h abitan ts an d also for th e islan d’s guests. Our project will be th e in fo poin t th at explain s all about th e arch ipelago, about th e islan d, an d about th e life of th e inhabitan ts. Th e small buildin g will h ost a public library with an in n er sh arin g sy stem th at can fun ction th e wh ole y ear. By th e building, th e terrace, wh ich is th e con trol center of th e wh ole social terrace sy stem, h osts a pavilion structure, v ery ligh t an d flex ible, that offers th e most n eeded sh ade in th e summer for meetin g action s, workin g events, an d cultural ev en ts. I n addition , th e coatin gs are poly v alen t an d th e user can transform th em from a simple sh adin g piece of material to a h ammock, video projection, an d storage sockets. For th e lan dscape matter, th e ligh t structure creates a v ery delicate view that is alway s movin g an d con n ectin g with the win d, becomin g on e an d th e same.
Figure 8. Design inspiration
Figure 9. Proposal plan / section
Figure 10. Render images
Figure 11. Render images
To improve th e structure’s performance, it h as been decided to modify some aspects. Th e buildin g n eeds a structural rein forcemen t for th e con tain in g walls in order to in crease resistan ce an d give more stability to th e structure. I n th is way , it is possible to improv e th e structure’s beh avior in case of an earth quake. R ein forcemen t is made of a composite structural rein forcemen t used for mason ry con struction s in carbon fibers an d with out epox y resin s. I t is con stituted by a grid located between th e structure an d plaster an d is fix ed th an ks to carbon fiber con n ectors. Th e roof is really important because of th e comfort in door. Therefore, the new stratigraphy includes a primary beam and secondary beam, a layer made up of canes, then a screed, a vapor barrier, and insulation, and finally, a leveling concrete to put over the water proofing. The project includes also the installation of photovoltaics, and so, leveling support with a self-leveling head is provided.
Figure 12. Energy requirements
Figure 13. Structural details
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AEOLI AN TE ACH ING MODULE contributions
RUR A L WELLNESS
S TUD Y CAS E Liscio D ES TIN A TIO N O F REF U RBISH ED BU ILDI NG wellness center / medical center
ABSTRACT The over goal of the project is to enhance the quality and the relevance of higher education architecture of current approaches of revitalization of rural build heritage environment, rural landscape and traditional construction systems. Firstly, we had to study the traditional Aeolian architecture, the local materials and the structural systems, so that we could improve the current state of our building by using a sustainable development to vitalize the heritage of our area.
WORK TEAM ANGHEL_Oana Maria_Student at UAUIM BRATU_Theodora_Student at UAUIM SERBAN_Nicole Diana_Student at UAUIM TORRE_Claudio_Student at UNICT BETAT_Florian_Student at NTNU
TAS K 1 C HE C K O F THE A R E A LISCIO
Fi l i c u d i i s l o ca t ed in t he west ern a rm formed b y the i s l ands, which is o ne o f t he most isol ate d , w i th t he nea rer o ne, Alicudi. Filicud i b oas ts the lo ngest hist o ry: a prosperous com m u ni ty t ha t t ra ded o bsidia n, livin g in the l i ttl e hi ll o f t he C a pe o f G ra zia no, from the N e ol i thic t o t he Bro nze Age. Due to th e i s ol ati on for which t hese isla nds a re recogni z e d b y UNESC O , F ilicudi ha s preserv ed its l and s c ap e in a mo re ef f icient wa y. Durin g the p as t cent uries, t he lo ca l peo ple h ad cr e ate d a co mplex t erra cing syst em so th at the y cou l d cult iva t e t heir hilly est a tes. Al thou g h the clima t ic co ndit io ns of th e i s l and ar e simila r t o t he Medit erran ean cou ntr i e s , h ere t he clima t ic cha n ges are e xtr e m e . In t he summer, t he t emperature r e ache s 40 degrees C elsius f o r several day s and the p r ecipit a t io ns a re limit ed to 5% of the total . In ad d i ti on, so met imes t hey f a ce stron g w e s te r l y w i nds. C o nsidering t he con dition s ab ov e , the F ilicudia n builders ha ve create d a com fo rt a ble, f riendly pla ce with min im u m e ne r gy co nsumpt io n. L i s ci o i s s i tua t ed a t t he middle heigh t on a l e ve l cu r ve , o rient a t ed t o wa rds a spectacu l ar vi e w o f t he ba y. T he ho uses a re locate d al ong th e slo pe, very clo se t o each oth e r , al m os t a s if it wa s o ne neighborh ood. M os t of the ho uses were ref urbished but in the tr ad i ti o na l wa y, a s t here were un usual
elemen ts such as coolin g sy stems, th e color of th e façade an d lin tels, an d modern shutters an d pullers made of differen t materials. I n gen eral, th e h ouses were n ot inhabited, mostly used as a h oliday refuge. On th e wh ole, th is area h ad stron g potential to rev italize th eir h eritage an d to attract tourists.
Figure 1. Map of the study area
Figure 2. Image of the study area
Figure 3. GIS map
FE ATUR E S AND QUAL ITY OF T HE L OCAL AR CH ITE CTUR E
Analyzing the Aeolian Islands’ architecture, we noticed that the Filicudian traditional houses have a distinctive architecture, adapted to the landscape and the climatic con dition s. Th e buildin gs are organ ized on two levels, working as two different houses, so that the staircase is outside. The rooms have a generous, squared surface and are directly connected. In general, the building has a regular volume, with two fronts, one to the south, and the other one to the north. In front of the house, there is a large terrace, named in local dialect, bagghiu, while at the back, there is a little yard with local plants. The original purpose of these terraces was to work on the rural products, in the open air, as it was naturally ventilated. The terrace end has a masonry seat, called the bisolu. Most of the time, because of the two level house, the bagghiu is enclosed by a porticos. Due to the volcanic nature of the Aeolian Islands, the masonry has to be more resistant, with vertical elements that are firm, combined with light and flexible horizontal elements. The composition of the masonry is made of rough basaltic stones, and they used squared stones to reinforce the edges of the building. The thickness of the wall is 60 cm at the bottom, while the upper one is 50 cm. T h e p l a s t e r i s g e n e r a l l y w h i t e s o t h a t i t r eflects the sun, which is made of lime and volcanic sand, painted with lime milk. The color of the windows lintel, which is a vivid tone (blue, cyan—sea, red—clay, and green) stands out on the facade. Figure 4. Traditional bagghiu and pulera
TAS K 2 D E S I G N P R O P OS A L E X I S T I N G C ON D I TI ON
The b u i l d i n g we ha d t o ref urbish was in a p oor cond i t io n, but t here were st ill some archi te c tu r al element s preserved f ro m th e old s tr u ctu r e . Trying t o rea ch t he int erior of th e hou s e , w e ent ered t hro ugh a ruined portico, c ove r e d by ma so nry a rches a nd woode n b e am s used in t he st ruct ure o f th e roof. At the g r ound f lo o r we disco vered a cave w he r e the y pro ba bly shelt ered t heir an imals or s tor e d fo o d pro duct s, a lso a space with a w ate r c i s t ern, which co llect ed t he pluv ial w ate r u s e d f o r t he ho useho ld. T he last room w as p e r haps a ba rn, who se ro o f collapsed and now , i t ha d do uble t he height . The u p p e r f lo o r, we a ssumed, was comp os e d of a kit chen, a t o ilet , a nd t wo large r oom s , d i r ect ly co nnect ed t o t he collapsed te r r ace . Th e ro o f wa s no t built in a traditional way, having a slope instead of a terr ace . It w as a lso ma de wit h a dif f eren t material, which pointed out to us that it was a l ate r ad d i ti o n. T he surro unding ya rd, wh ich w as ov e r g r o wn, ha d a big po t ent ial for ex p l oi tati on i n o ur pro po sa l.
Figure 5. Study case
Figure 6. A detail with the constructive system
Figure 7. A view of the house
DE SIGN PR OPOSAL
Our fun ction was a medical cen ter in the win ter an d a welln ess cen ter in th e summer. I n keepin g with th e tradition al idea of two differen t h ouses in on e buildin g, we separated our fun ction s on each level. Consid erin g th e climate ch aracteristics, on the upper floor, we placed th e ph armacy and first aid so th at th ey are n ear th e en trance, wh ile th e gy m is in th e double space room, con siderin g it is cooler from th e n atural v en tilation . Th e cave is used for therapy in th e summer but th e welln ess center is turn ed in to a laboratory in th e win ter, when th ere are n o v isitors an d th e local people can prepare th e medicin e sin ce th e fruits an d th e plan ts are h arvested at th at time. We recreated th e tradition al baggh iu with a puller an d cov ered by a special roof made by wooden beams. I n addition, to sustain our idea of a welln ess cen ter, we ch ose to cov er th e arch ed terrace with local plan ts with flowers. Moreover, we chose to tran sform our y ard in to a large gard en wh ich combin es medicin al plan ts with d ecorativ e plan ts, so th at it creates a therapeutic circuit.
Figure 8. Existent and proposal
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Figure 11. Elevations northwest and southwest
As regards th e en ergetic an d mech anical aspects, we in troduce man y improvements. Th e mech an ical beh avior is improved by th e FR CM sy stem on both sides of th e walls. I n th is way , we can guaran tee a better compression an d flection resistan ce. The roof is refurbish ed in a tradition al way, but we h ave used an addition al lay er as to obtain a waterproof surface, leav in g to be breath able. For th e en ergetic aspect, we h av e used a groun d source h eat pump, with another h eat ex ch an ger for th e th ermal water of th e welln ess cav e to improve furth er the en ergy efficien cy of th e buildin g. I n th is way , we can obtain th e maximum en ergetic class. We un derstood th at th e tradition al way of buildin g turn s out to be also th e most ad equate, an d we h ave just added tech nology to make it more efficien t.
Figure 12. Constructive details
Figure 13. Energy details
CON CL U SIONS
ITM i s the a cro nym o f Int ensive Teach in g M od u l e s , which a re ext ra dida ct ic courses or g ani z e d by t he universit y pa rt ners of th e Er as m u s + pro j ect ca lled V VIT A. T he Un ivers i ty of Catania , which is o ne o f t h e partne r s , has c ura t ed t he t ea ching d esign of the ITM s . Eac h ITM i s a ddressed t o t he revit alization d e s i g n of a specia l pla ce, cho sen by th e hos t u ni ve rsit y. It is mo st ly developed on the c hos e n sit e, which is a big a dvan tage b e c au s e s tudent s ca n be t o t a lly involv ed in the w or k an d ha ve direct co nt a ct with th e s u b j e c t. A l l t his gives t hem t he o pportun ity of havi ng an experience o f lea rning by doi ng , w i th new sit ua t io ns a nd new relation s hi p s . The ITM is ef f ect ive beca use it dev elop s l e ar ni ng skills t ha t no wa da ys are very i m p or tant, i. e. , crit ica l t hinking, creative thi nki ng , co lla bo ra t ing a nd co mmun icati ng . It i s al s o a ddressed t o develo p life skills
such as flex ibility , social skills, productivity an d leadersh ip in workin g groups. Th e I TM is composed of th ree parts. The main on e is th e worksh op, wh ich is carried out in th e ch osen location to which th e refurbish men t an d revitalization design is addressed. Th e worksh op is an ticipated by in troductiv e lectures, th e related practice th at makes th em con crete. Th e synergy amon g th e v arious activ ities makes the participan ts able to ach ieve th e designed learn in g outcomes. Th e possibility to take part in more th an one I TM giv es teach ers an d studen ts th e opportun ity to establish a productiv e relationship amon g participan ts, by workin g in different places with differen t buildin g traditions. I n I taly , th e I TM is called A TM, because it is located in th e A eolian I sles (ATM means A eolian Teach in g Module). Th e ch oosing of th is place is due to two main reasons: the
s tr ong i nterrela t io n bet ween t he features of the l and sca pe; t he pa rt icula rit y of th e l oc al r e s i d ent ia l t ypo lo gy, which is called the Ae ol i an ho use. T he t wo t a sks assign ed to the s tu d ent s in t he AT M a re: a data-en tr y/e d i ti ng a ct ivit y, o n Aeo lia n houses, in the GIS e nviro nment ; a ref urbishmen t an d r e v i tal i z i ng design simula t io n o f local archi te c tu r e . T his do uble po ssibilit y of work, b oth i n the a rchit ect o nic a nd in t he tech nol og i c al field, increa ses t he knowledge, com p e te nc e, a nd skills o f t he st uden ts. Th is ap p r oach ha s mo re cha nce t o ma tch th eir p r e fe r e nce , co nsidering t ha t t hey are comi ng fr om d i ff erent universit ies a nd differen t d e g r e e c ourses wit h va rio us cult ural backg r ou nd s . The te achi ng st a f f is f o rmed by pro f essors of the p ar tne r universit ies. O f co urse, th e ATM i s an op p ort unit y o f enrichment for th em too. The l e c t ures rega rd t he ma in focus of
th e A TM: on th e particularity of th e place, on th e evaluation of th e local building, on th e use of GI S tech n ology , an d so on . Th e rev italization projects focus on th e possibility of in troducin g flex ible fun ctions in th e local commun ity , accordin g with the ch an gin g n umber an d ty pe of in h abitants of th e islan d amon g win ter an d summer. I n an y case, th ey based th e designs on con trolled tran sformation to ach ieve contemporary performan ce stan dards, while preservin g th e sh ape an d materials of the ex istin g buildin gs. Th e fin al works of th e studen t groups ach ieve a h igh level of quality . I n fact, in a few day s, th ey h av e been able to und erstan d th e main features of th e local architecture an d also, th e relation sh ip with the lan dscape.
A CRON Y M S
ATM CAD DDS D EM D ICAR EQF EPI FOS S GIS GPL GP S IP ITM NTN U QGIS REM S W OT ANALYSIS UAUIM UN ICT VVITA
Aeo lia n T ea chin g Module C o mput er Aided Design Decisio n Support Sy stem Digit a l Eleva t ion Model Depa rt ment Civil E n gin eerin g an d A rch itecture Euro pea n Qualification s Framework Energy Perf o rman ce I n dex F ree a nd O pen Source Software G eo gra phic Information Sy stem G enera l Public Licen se G lo ba l Po sit io nin g Sy stem Int ensive Period Inno va t ive T each in g Module No rwegia n U niversity of Scien ce an d Tech n ology of Tron dh eim Qua nt um G IS Software Ra pid Eva lua t ion Meth od St rengt hen, Weakn ess, Opportun ity , Treats An aly sis Io n Mincu U niversity of A rch itecture an d Urban ism of Buch arest U niversit y o f Catan ia Modernizing Learning and Teaching for Architecture through Smart and Long-lasting Partnerships leading to sustainable and inclusive development strategies to Vitalize heritage Villages through Innova t ive T echno lo gies Web Ma p Service
VINCENZO SAPIENZA Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
MARIUS VOICA Department of Architecture, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania Mail: email@example.com
9LQFHQ]R 6DSLHQ]D ZDV ERUQ LQ &DWDQLD ,WDO\ 6LFLO\ ÀIW\ years ago. He started working in the University of Catania in 1997, as a researcher of Building Techniques and now, he is an Associate Professor and Vice Head of his department. +H LV DOVR 6FLHQWLÀF 'LUHFWRU RI WKH (QDEOLQJ 7HFKQLTXHV IRU Architecture Laboratory (ETA Lab). Every year, he has covered a Chair related to his disciplinary competences. +LV VFLHQWLÀF DFWLYLW\ LV HVVHQWLDOO\ GLYLGHG LQWR WKUHH WKHPDWLF areas: innovative building technologies; building sustainability; history of construction. He has carried out a number of didactic and research periods in foreign universities and in particular, in NTNU of Trondheim University, in Norway (November 2016) and in UAUIM of Bucharest (March, 2017), and UTM of Madrid (February, 2018). He is on the editorial board of the journal MODULO (by Be-Ma Editor, Milan). He was the curator of a special issue, 38/2016, of ilProgettoSostenibile Magazine. Since 2015, he has been Associated Editor of the journal TeMA – Studies on Architectural Engineering.
Marius Voica received his Bachelor degree from “Ion Mincu Institute of Architecture” in Bucharest in 1996 – Faculty RI $UFKLWHFWXUH DQG 8UEDQLVP +H ÀQLVKHG KLV 0DVWHU·V degree in 1999, specializing in “Marketing in Architecture”, and graduated from a post-university course in “Project Management”. In 2007, he received his PhD in Architecture with his thesis “Ecological Architecture: Tradition and Contemporary Technology. Sustainable Development and Ecological Management.” He has been working in higher education in Architecture since 1998. He was also manager of the “URBANPROIECT” branch within The National Institute of Research Development in Construction, Urbanism, and Sustainable Territorial Development URBAN – INCERC. Currently, he works in architectural and construction management, and coordinates the “E.U. Research Funds 2IÀFHµ DQG WKH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 6WXGLR LQ ´$UFKLWHFWXUDO 6\QWKHVLVµ Department at the UAUIM. He has attended scholarships, workshops, and teaching programs at universities in Karlsruhe, Regensburg, Montpellier, Stuttgart, Istanbul, and Vienna. His activity in architecture, urbanism, and interior design has summed up to over 90 projects.
LUCA FINOCCHIARO Department of Architecture and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway 0DLO OXFD ÀQRFFKLDUR#QWQX QR After earning Master’s degree in Building Engineering at the University of Catania (Italy), Luca Finocchiaro moved to Scotland where he earned a Master of Architecture at the *ODVJRZ 6FKRRO RI $UW +H ZRUNHG LQ %DUFHORQD WZLFH ÀUVW as a visiting researcher at the ETSAB in UPC (developing his PhD thesis in bioclimatic design of hospitals) and secondly, practicing architecture. Luca is today Associate Professor in “Climate and built forms” and head of the MSc program in Sustainable Architecture at NTNU. His main interest and research focus is the analysis and understanding of climate and its implementation into the architectural design of buildings able to passively address their environmental performance towards comfort. Climate and morphological parametric analyses have been, in different research projects, addressed in design guidelines for both the design of new EXLOGLQJV DQG WKH HQHUJ\ UHWURÀWWLQJ RI H[LVWLQJ RQHV ,Q Luca was initiator of the NTNU proposal for the Solar Decathlon DQG ODWHU DUFKLWHFW RI WKH /LYLQJ/$% DQG 7HVW &HOO SURMHFWV at the Zero Emission Buildings research center at NTNU.
Alessandra Bonazza Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Italy. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Simona Calvagna Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: email@example.com Rosa Caponetto Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Antonio Gagliano Department of Electric Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: email@example.com 0LKDHOD +ĆUPĆQHVFX Urban Plannig Faculty, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (OHQD &ULVWLQD 0kQGUHVFX Department of Architecture, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Romania. Mail: email@example.com 0LFKHOH 0DQJLDPHOL Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org *LXVHSSH 0XVVXPHFL Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: email@example.com *LDQOXFD 5RGRQz Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Italy. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Alessandro Sardella Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Italy. Mail: email@example.com 0DUNXV 6FKZDL Department of Architecture and Planning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org