V22 N1 Exploradores! The Spanish and Northwest America

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1775 voyages of exploration from Mexico to Alaskan waters. During this extraordinary voyage, the schooner Sonora accomplished epic feats of seamanship, and the frigate Santiago be-

Like an ancient chant or a half-remembered song, the word exploradores conjures up visions of men in doublets and tall boots, tri-cornered hats with flowing plumes, and long mustachios. They sailed aboard fanciful galleons and lived fabled lives. Some of their adventures took place off our own part of the Northwest Coast, as early as a century after Columbus. But who were they really, the Spanish exploradores? And what brought them here?

came the first European vessel to sight the entrance to the Columbia River. Turn to page 6 for a closer look at the Spanish on the Northwest Coast.

A review and newsletter from the Columbia River Maritime Museum at 1792 Marine Drive in Astoria, Oregon

The Spanish and Northwest America

the UARTERDECK

A new exhibition at the Columbia River Maritime Museum is now taking shape around these questions. Entitled Exploradores! Spanish Adventurers on the Northwest Coast, our story includes strong characters on long voyages against considerable odds. It includes elements of treasure, mystery, and misery all of which were factors in the exploration of the Northwest Coast. And to tell the story, we are using dramatic accounts from the late 18th century Spanish expeditions.

The exhibition Exploradores! examines Spain's long history on the West Coast, and particularly Sonora and Santiago's

-Anne Witty

The dramatic centerpiece of the exhibition is a full-sized model of the 52-foot long Spanish schooner, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe (Our Lady of Guadalupe) commonly known by her nickname Sonora. The Great Hall resembles a shipyard with the ongoing reconstruction of Sonora, which was originally built in 1767 at the royal shipyards in San Blas, New Spain (now Mexico). A lifesized mural animates the schooner with its realistic depiction of life at sea in the cramped, damp and rudimentary quarters of the Sonora. The Spanish ship's boat Buenaventura, built by volunteers at the Oregon Historical Society, provides a vivid glimpse of how the work of exploration was accomplished, from the interior of a small boat using rudimentary equipment.

The last unknown coastline is sketched vaguely on Jacques Bellin's map of 1766. This map served as Hezeta's principal guide during Santiago's Northwest voyage in 1775. Courtesy of Honnold Library, Claremont Colleges, Claremont, California.

Exploradores !

Vol. 22 No.1 Winter1996

J.W. 'Bud' Forrester, Emeritus

The piece of wood he brought in was unusual. It appeared to be a well preserved hand carved wooden block, fiddle-shaped with a deadeye on one end and sheave cheeks on the other. The aperture for the sheave pin was excessively large, indicating it was carved for a wooden pin and therefore of a very old design. Where the block narrowed at its mid point, decorative ears were carved for strength, giving it a certain style. Curator Anne Witty and I recognized that this was a most unusual find. In our discussion of the possibilities we wondered if it could be from the mysterious Spanish shipwrecks ofNeahkanie.

Just By Chance ...

Jack R. Dant

Carl Fisher, Secretary

Willis Van Dusen

Drawing by Javier Pastor of a 16th -17th century Spanish block remarkably similar to one found at Neahkanie.

Sali Diamond

Frank Warren

Rod Leland

June Spence

Lora Gerry Charlotte Jackson

Ward V. Cook, Immediate Past Pres.

Rob Rudd

John Davis

Ted Bugas

from the Wheelhouse

we shared it with museum colleagues. Senor Javier Pastor stated his opinion that the block could well be of Spanish origin. He tentatively dated it as late 16th or 17th Century. As President of the Associacion des Amigos del Museo Maritimo of Spain, he was an excellent and knowledgeable resource.

So how did this object find its way to the Oregon Coast? Researchers have long suspected that one or more Manila galleons came to grief on the Oregon Coast. Bees wax, durable and buoyant, has been recovered from Nehalem beach, as have shards of Chinese porcelain and other objects.

Celerino Bebeloni

You are enthusiastically invited to the Museum to explore this unique new exhibit. It will be a great opportunity to learn more about this little known segment of our maritime history- the Spanish presence on the Northwest Coast.

Mitch Boyce

Months passed and the block was set aside for more pressing projects, until last summer we received a drawing from our colleague Javier Pastor. It showed a similar block rigged for use, based upon information from his own research. His drawing was a dead ringer for the artifact we had in hand.

Karen Carpenter

Trish Custard

-Jerry Ostermiller, Executive Director

Jim McC!askey

Marietta Doney

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Board of Trustees:

Richard T. Carruthers, Emeritus

Peter Brix

Chance often plays a curious role in the events of history. This thought occurred to me during a staff planning session for our upcoming exhibit on Spanish exploration of the Northwest Coast. I was struck by the way a chance discovery came to the Museum and subsequently found its way into an exciting new exhibit.

David Pearson

James H. Gilbaugh, Jr.

Don M. Haskell

Herbert Steinmeyer, Treasurer

John McGowan

W. Hampton Scudder

Richard Reiten

Walter Gadsby, Jr.

Not long ago a Museum visitor asked us to identify an interesting object he chanced to find while walking on the beach. His story really got our attention when he told us that his mystery object was found near Neahkanie .

Sid Snyder

Alan C. Goudy

Allen V. Cellars

Larry Perkins

Kevin Hertig

Museum Staff:

Afterguard

Robley Mangold, Vice President

Anne Morden

Jerry L. Ostermiller, Executive Director

Anne Witty

Eugene Lowe

Alan Green, Jr.

Taking the block to the International Congress of Maritime Museums meeting in Vancouver, B.C.,

This fascinating story is a classic example of the wonders of chance. Just by chance a small object surfaced from almost three hundred years of silty darkness to be discovered by a beachcomber. By chance it was not added to a beach camp fire; instead this alert finder wrote, then brought it to the Columbia River Maritime Museum. And finally, by chance our current exhibit research efforts focus on Spanish maritime history.

This artifact is only one small piece of a much larger story soon to be shared with our Museum visitors. A major new exhibit is now being constructed in the Great Hall entitled "Exploradores! Spanish Adventurers on the Northwest Coast." It will include this rigging block found at Neahkanie, and much, much more.

W. Louis Larson

Charles Shea

And the next time you are strolling one of our fine beaches, keep a lookout for interesting objects One never knows what one may find, just by chance

Jon Englund

Lynne Leland

Justine Van Sickle

Thomas R. Dyer

Rachel Wynne

Russ Bean

Dan Niven

Chris Bennett

Jim Nyberg Rose Palazzo

Evelyn Georges

Mike Foglia

Ted Natt, President

Jim & Rita Durkheimer William Gruhn

H.W. Irwin & D.I. Irwin Foundation Melvin H. Iverson Jackson Foundation folger Johnson

George Holton

Jean Peterson

Captain Robert G. Braun

Anne & Jim Holtz Harold Gill

Vern Cook

Ruth J. Wood

Rose E. Tucker Charitable Trust Justine Van Sickle & Gary Mott Mrs. Susanna von Reibold Mr. & Mrs Ken Ward

Paul N. McCracken

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Evelyn & Maurice Georges Bill & Shirley Gittelsohn

The Rev. Edgar G. Bletcher, DD

David & Pal Hallin Mary Jane Van Dusen

Mr. & Mrs. Dennis M. Wood-Gaines

The Autzen Foundation

Gifts Made In Honor Of Berta Montero Bascom, E.D. Emeritus U.C. Berkeley

Jo Battuello

Suzanne & Gary Nelson

Bob Finzer

George Hammond

Lloyd Halsan William L. Kerr

Lee Caldwell

Mr. & Mrs. F. Davis Finch

Mr. & Mrs. Sidney 0. Gaustad

J. Dan Webster

Mr. & Mrs. John Mewha Dr. Carol Meyers

Dr. Harvey C. Rones

Ernestine Bennett

Mrs. Hester H Nau

Captain John C. Porter

Michael R Frank

Quarterdeck, Vol. 22 No. 1

Joel & Mary Kay Haggard

Roderick & Alma Sarpola

Mr. & Mrs. H. A. Zielske

Andrew Klep

Captain Don E. Hughes Sia-Mo-Shun, Jr. 27-R

Donald D. Murdoch

Mr. Sherrill L. Gregory

Captain & Mrs. Warren G Leback Philip D. Lively Milton E. Love

Dr & Mrs Timothy A. Patrick David & Catherine Perry

Captain Donald N. Dackins Luisa Bello, U. W. '48

Bob & Grace Rudd

Mrs. Patricia M. Reese

Donald & Julie Sterling

Gary Muehlberg

Bruce & Kay North Dr. & Mrs. Douglas M. O'Connor Mr & Mrs Erling Orwick

Bob & Jeanne Wilhelm David & Christina Williams

Captain Donald N. Dackins Ward Cook

Dr. & Mrs. Robert D. Neikes Phil Nock

Lloyd Halsan Richard Randall

Jerry Hankin

Sylvan Durkheimer

Donna Mary Dukich

Mr & Mrs. Richard F. Hudson Margaret I. Hughes Georgina Hutchens

Mr. & Mrs. Ed Steve Charles Swindells

Beverly Aspmo

Leonard & Carin Rydell

WIiliam A. Gavin, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Farmer

Wilfred H. Dole

Donald & Mary Butler

Alan & Margaret Skille

Hugh & Marian Downer

Mr. & Mrs. W. R. Turner

John & Dori Hart William & Georgiana Hay Norma Hebert Howard R. Hedrick Joseph L. Heinz Harold & Evelyn Hendriksen Carl & Keni Hertig Lorene Sails Higgins Charitable Trust George Holton

John Buckley

Thomas J. Murray

Mr. & Mrs. Albert Luukinen Charles & Valeria Luukinen Milton & Dorothy Lundahl Edwin L. Luoma, CPAs Mr. & Mrs. Edward C. Lynch Robert C. Macdonald Don & Rosalee MacRae

Captain ]. F. De Sassise

Ivan & Helen Luukinen Findley

Mr. & Mrs C. A Harrison

Mr. & Mrs. John R Warila

Mr. & Mrs. William H. Bishop

Columbia Fruit & Produce, Inc.

Edith Olson

Paul Seamons & Dee Vadnais

Anonymous

Jim & Judy Capellen

Major Duffy E. Morgan Michael & Patricia Morrissey Marguerite S. Moyer

Dr . Herbert A. Krumbein COL John Mewha

Ward & Lois Cook

Jean & Harry Rice

Shirley Parker Randles

Don & Sue Buhman Margery Sommer

Muriel Bruning

Mary & Ron Sherriffs

Mr. & Mrs. R. W. Turner

Franklin G. Drake

Susanna von Reibold Ramona Sylvester

Mr. & Mrs. John Power

John Clemson

Walter F. Bruning

Mr. & Mrs. James S. Bode

Gordon & Lora Childs

Susan Trabucco & Steve Ferber

Mrs. Robert G. Braun

Mrs. H. B. Cooper, Jr. Crest Motel

Luella Kerr Gwynn Holt

Norman D. Davis, Jr. 0. David Dickson

Jennesse A. Cathers

LTC Jeremy J. Gruhn Lillian Joan Holton

Jim Race

Captain & Mrs. James T. Maher Eino & Sylvia Mattson John McClelland, Jr Lady Anne Kerr McDonald Dr. & Mrs Curtis H. McKinney Walter E McManis Robert E. McNannay Mr. & Mrs. David C. Meyer Clara E. Miles Edith Henningsgaard Miller & Joe Miller

Captain & Mrs C. S. Wetherell Wheeler Foundation

Captain & Mrs. N. V. Brower

Dick & Nancy Carruthers

The Columbia River Maritime Museum thanks our members and friends who have made contributions to the new Exploradores! Spanish Adventurers on the Northwest Coast exhibit. We are busy assembling the 52-foot half model of the schooner Sonora, and creating hands-on educational programs to complement the new exhibit.

Catherine Honeyman Engmark

COL & Mrs. Jack A. Osborne

Mr. & Mrs. Wallace Preble

Geraldine Krumbein

Frank A. Bauman, II Geary T. Becker

Mr. & Mrs. John S. McGowan Bernard Vandewater Marie Vandewater

Mrs. Travis M. Tyrrell USS McGinty DE 365

Karen & Dave Carpenter

Alan & Jane Goudy

Rob Rudd

Mr. & Mrs. Felix G Caballero

Dr. & Mrs. R. P. Moore

Bob & Judy Myers

Captain J. M. Baldry

Mr. & Mrs. Howard B Johnson Loren & Julia Johnson Lt. Donald J. Keigher USNR(R) Mr. & Mrs. Norman F. Kelley Fred, Chris & Daniel King Bill King

George Grebe

Mr. & Mrs. Byron Broms

Lorraine Berg

Tim Dalrymple

Jerry Ostermiller & Lynne Johnson Edwin K. Parker

Gifts Made In Memory Of Susan A. Anderson Welsey J. Anderson

Carl Gohs

Honest John Zonich Travis M. Tyrrell

Mel & Diana Emberland C. S. Emmons

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Tevis

Robert Hale & Company

The j,yanish are Qoming!

Mr. & Mrs. James W. Young Mark Youtsler

Lisa G Paterson

Dirk Winters

Mr. & Mrs. Bill Young

The Rev. & Mrs. John C. Goodenberger

Windridge Gallery

John S. Burlingham

Mr. & Mrs. Herb Kottler Mary J. Laird Mae Larpenteur Lou & Mary Ann Larson Paul C. Leach

Scott Kennedy, an internationally renowned marine artist from Waldport, Oregon, is currently exhibiting an impressive collection of twenty-five paintings and drawings at the Museum. Scott is a versa tile, highly skilled artist devoted to the magic of water, light, motion and wooden boats. His works provide a dramatic, detailed look at working waterfronts of the Pacific Northwest.

Charitable Remainder Trust

You, too, can benefit by creating a charitable remainder trust. Your gift could shield appreciated assets from capital gains taxes, provide an immediate charitable deduction on your income tax, provide lifelong income from the full value of your asset, and create a significant contribution to the Maritime Museum. For more information on this kind of gift, contact your attorney or tax advisor or call me at the Museum at 503-325-2323.

-Rob Rudd, Development Director

Karen Carpenter, Quarterdeck Editor, has seen her job expand to that of Marketing and Communications Coordinator responsible for marketing, advertising, and Museum communications.

Dan Niven joined the Education and Visitor Services Department this winter. In addition to staffing the front desk and lightship Columbia, Dan takes education programs to area schools one day a week. Sali Diamond joined the Museum Store as Store Assistant; we welcome her cheerful sales abilities.

Lora Gerry joins us as Membership Coordinator. As your new representative, Lora brings a wealth of membership and database management experience.

We also send congratulations and good wishes with former Visitor Services staffer Mark Tolonen, recently appointed Curator at the Clatsop County Historical Soci ety; and John Dirschel, who is pursuing his sales career.

Angels' Gate to Starboard Swift of Ipswich. Pen and ink drawing by Scott Kennedy.

We bid farewell to a couple of crew members. Museum members have benefited from the organizational talents of Cristina Ek, who has served as Membership Secretary for the past three years. We wish her much happiness in her new career with daughter Dana, who joined Cris and her husband David in October.

The Museum has recently been the recipient of several "planned" gifts. These donations advance the Museum's efforts to preserve our region's maritime heritage and provide support for our many educational programs. At the same time, the do nors are enjoying increased lifetime income, have avoided capital gains taxes, and will receive sizable charitable deductions on their income taxes

Scott is an avid sailor whose current passion is documenting West Coast sail training vessels. He sails as an active crew member aboard such vessels as Adventuress and Swift of Ipswich, drawing as he goes. He works in several media oil and watercolor painting as well as pen and ink drawing- and often combines drawing and watercolor in the same piece.

Kennedy's show, "Work on the Water: Traditions of Sail & Steam," opened on January 27 and will run through the end of June.

Covering over twenty-five years of his own work on the sea, the show includes pieces depicting the America's Cup competitions, various Northwest waterfronts, and working watercraft of Scandinavia and northern Europe.

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Steve Kann served as the Museum's able and multi-talented Curator of Operations for three years. Steve's skills with machinery and large and fast-moving objects made him a fine addition to the Museum staff. We wish him well as he pursues his many other interests and perhaps another world speed record racing his vintage Hudson Hornet!

"Work on the Sea" Now Open in Kern Room

Crew Runs a Ship Under Full Sail

What an exciting time for the Museum and staff! With new exhibits and events, every area of the Museum is active and busy these days . As on any good ship, it's the crew that makes things happen, both by their individual talents and their teamwork.

-Anne Witty, Curator

Columbia River Maritime Museum News and Notes

Printed at Anchor Graphics, Astoria, Oregon

The Museum Ambassadors program en lists teachers from area schools to serve as their school's expert on the Museum. They are liaisons between the school and the Museum, distributing information about our educational opportunities to their fellow teachers and critiquing established and de veloping programs Since January, this new program already has 62 schools participating throughout Washington and Oregon.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 22 No. 1

Anne Witty, Curator

New Programs Make Waves

Rockey Stone retired from racing in 1970 Recently, Mr. John Laird, a close friend of the Stone family, found the boat in Enumclaw, Wash., where she was owned by Mr. Robert Sperr ing a gift from Rockey Stone over twenty years ago. Mr. Laird cleaned he r up, restoring her to run ning condition for the vintage wooden boat show at Lake Tahoe in August 1995. Although her appearance at this important

The Museum in the Schools program, also launched in January, takes the Museum into classrooms. The five programs ropemaking, maritime crafts, life at sea, navigation and signal flags are offered to teachers throughout Clatsop County and the Ocean Beach School District in Washington

Thanks to a very generous donation from an anonymous donor, the Museum looks forward to beginning a Student Docent program this fall. The program will train middle school-aged students to lead programs and maritime skills demonstrations both in the Museum and at area grade schools.

Ed itor, Karen Carpenter. Editorial Staff: Jerry Ostermiller, Anne Witty, Patricia Turner Custard, Rachel Wynne, Rob Rudd.

In the lead is My Girl R-26, driven by Rockey Stone in a Class C Runabout race off Astoria in the 1950s. Crossing the Columbia River is the ferry Tourist #3, at upper right.

Q

Famous Oregon Racing Boat Joins Fleet

Trophies at the 16th Speedboat Regatta in 1951, joining motorboat racing's exclusive Hall of Fame.

Last summer's outboard motor exhibi tion was a great success, judging by public comment and the large number of absorbed and happy faces poring over 60 vintage outboard motors and boats in the Great Hall. Although the temporary show closed in the fall, the Museum continues its interest in artifacts that document the history of recreational boating in the Northwest. Recently, a world record-holding wooden racing boat joined the Museum fleet: the runabout R-26, My Girl, owned and raced by the late Northwest racing legend W.T. "Rockey" Stone of Willamina, Oregon. This boat, built by Wilbur MacDonald in Port land in the 1950s, had an illustrious career with Mr. Stone at the helm. With My Girl, Mr. Stone became National Highpoint W inner, National Champion and World Record Holder for Class C runabout rac ing. He retired one of the Hearst Perpetual

My Girl is just 13 feet long and about 4 feet in beam. Similar to the Phantom class stock runabouts, she is built of wood, with the foredeck cut out and replaced with a tight nylon covering to reduce weight. She is powered by a customized Johnson Seahorse 2 cycle racing engine, with sev eral parts stamped "Rockey."

Volume 22 No. 1

Several new educational programs are making waves in area schools.

The QUARTERDECK is published four times a year by the Columbia River Maritime Mu seum, 1792 Marine Dr., Astoria, OR 97103

My Girl is a significant addition to the Museum collections. We thank Mr. Laird, Mrs. Stone, and Mr. Sperring for bringing Rockey Stone's story to the Museum's attention, and for their tender restoration of this fine racing boat. Their ge n erous contributions will en ab le us to tell the story of Northwest out board racing to future generations.

Photo and illustration credits : Jacques Bellin's Map, page 1, Honnold Library, Claremont Colleges, Claremont, California; Spanish Block, page 2, Javier Pastor; An gels' Gate, page 4, Scott Kennedy; Run about race, page 5, CRMM archives; Bodege y Quadra, page 7, CRMM archives; Friendly Cove, page 8, CRMM archives.

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Presented by Dan Niven, Museum Educa tion Assistant, the programs bring maritime history and science to life for the students using artifacts, replicas and hands on activi ties. Within a week of announcing the availability of these programs, 47 programs have been reserved, completely filling our sched ule for the rest of the school year!

-Patricia Turner Custard, Visitor Services/Education Coordinator tfARTERDECK

show meant that My Girl was not available for the Museum's Outboard exhibition, Mr. Sp erring later presented her to the Museum's permanent collections. Mrs. Patricia Stone contributed the all important racing outfit: Rockey's life jacket (with used and new sparkplugs in the pockets!), his racing helmet that bold ly proclaims "Fol low Me!," and two of his many dozens of trophies. Photographs and a videotape of My Girl in action complete an exciting pack age of items that bring Northwest powerboat racing vividly to life.

Spain's sphere of influence contained the Mare de/ Sur, the great ocean that Nunez de Balboa would first glimpse from land and claim for Spain in 1513. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese-born navigator who became a Spanish citizen, found a sea route to the Pacific and accomplished the first circumnavigation of the world in 15191522. He named the ocean Mare Pacifico after crossing it without having to weather a storm. Later navigators would discover that the ocean is anything but peaceful.

The next two centuries saw Spanish ships trading across the Pacific, and the imposition of Spanish sovereignty on a large part of the world. But it was not until the mid18th century that Spain launched a systematic exploration of the ocean's shores to the north of New Spain, now Mexico.

About 60 years after Cabrillo and Ferrer, another early expedition under the command of Sebastian Vizcaino may have also reached the southern Oregon coast near Cape Blanco. But evidence of this 1602-1603 exploration is sketchy, as the attempt left no surveys of that part of the coast.

The Spanish claim to sovereignty on the Pacific coast originated with the same impulse that sent Christopher Columbus on his voyages to find the riches of the East.

Treasure, fol[ystery and ftJ[tsery: syanish Exylorations of the Northwest coast

from his first epic voyage to the Caribbean (convinced he had found the Indies and China), Spain and Portugal divided the world between them. Europe's two great maritime empires were deeply Catholic. Both believed that in the course of claiming sovereignty they would carry their "true" religion to the natives of other lands. The papal decree known as the Treaty of Tordesillas, sanctioned by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, gave both countries access to the riches of the newly-discovered lands. An era of New World trade and empire building began to transform Europe.

Prologue: The Age of Exploration in the Pacific

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Shortly after Columbus returned to Spain

During the 17th and early 18th centuries, Spain, secure in her claims, did not systematically explore the Northwest Coast. At that time, however, the first Spaniards may have set foot in the Pacific Northwest. They were accidental visitors, cast away when

In particular, silver fueled a flourishing trade between Acapulco and Manila in the Philippines. This Manila galleon trade obtained Eastern luxuries Chinese silks, porcelain, jewelry, drugs, spices, beeswax and other commodities for the Spanish and their churches. The Manila trade continued Columbus' dream of obtaining the riches of Cathay. The galleons (called naos de China, or China ships) traded annually from about 1565 until 1815.

With America's leaders composing and signing the Declaration of Independence in the hot Philadelphia summer of 1776, the new nation's attention focused on the eastern seaboard and the ongoing war for independence from Great Britain. Thousands of miles away, the Northwest Coast slumbered in its tangled robes of green forest. It was largely uncharted, mostly unknown to the European world. It was, some thought, a portal to the mythical lands wherein a Northwest Passage might yet be found. And off that coast another, very different battle for the possession of the land was taking place.

In 1535, Spanish conquistadors under Hernan Cortes marched into the Aztec capital to establish their colonial government in Mexico The Spanish brutally oppressed the indigenous people. They brought a series of 61 viceroys who ruled New Spain from 1535 until Mexican independence in 1821 These powerful men bent their individual ambitions to influence colonial empire building, and, with it, Spain's maritime trade and exploration of the Pacific.

Searching for safe harbors for the Manila galleons, Viceroy Mendoza of New Spain sent a sea expedition northward to the coast of California in 1542-1543. This expedition, under Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Bartolome Ferrer, took possession of San Diego Bay for Spain, and mapped prominent geographical features possibly reaching as far north as about 43 degrees, off the southern Oregon coast. Herbert K. Beals, eminent historian of Northwest maritime exploration, called the Cabrillo-Ferrer expedition a landmark" not only for its display of dauntless courage, but because it accomplished the first reconnaissance of a coastline possessing some of the best harbors in western North America." (Herbert K. Beals, For Honor and Country: The Diary of Bruno de Hezeta, p.12).

Spain was but one of the European nations playing out the world's political dramas on the Northwest Coast in the 18th century. Her presence was not accidental, but an outgrowth of two centuries sailing the Pacific in search of geographical knowledge, economic advantage, riches, and religious and political dominion· the common factors that shaped European colonization of the New World. And Spain's contributions to the history of Northwest America are the legacy of her naval commanders and seamen. It was their seafaring skills, patriotism, and faith that carried them to this last known of the world's temperate coasts. In turn, the Northwest called upon their considerable bravery as they explored and claimed land for Spain.

As Spain continued to colonize Mexico and South America, the New World empirebuilders were rewarded with vast riches. Gold, silver and gems mined by enslaved South American Indians went to embellish Catholic altars as well as myriad Spanish royal and noble families. The precious metals and gems were also traded for other luxuries from all over the world.

Long before Robert Gray entered our river and named it Columbia's River; before Lt. William Broughton charted the river's lower reaches; before, indeed, the new United States of America came into being Spanish naval commanders, seamen, and clerics were plying the waters off the lands now known as California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. They sought knowledge of this uncharted coast, and safe harbors for their galleons of valuable cargo from the Philippines. They sought to claim their dominion over it, before their rivals in Russia and Britain And like many others they sought a mythical Northwest Passage, linking At lantic and Pacific oceans but, if they found it, they also meant to keep it secret.

Hezeta's Diary includes Bodega y Quadra' s written record of the incident that befell his crew :

From the late 1500s until the mid1700s, the Spanish felt secure in their claims to the Northwest Coast. There was little competition from other European nations, until the startling news reached Spain in the 1760s that Russian explorer Vitus Bering had been exploring the Alaska coast, and that Russia was laying claim to territory and beginning a fur trade. Shaken by the idea that Russian fur traders might discover great riches or a Northwest Passage, Spain began to think about renewed explorations The need grew stronger as British explorers and fur traders asserted their presence on the coast.

the expeditions with formalizing Span- Portrait of Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, ish claims to the coast north of naval commander and diplomat (1744-1794).

The vessels represented a small force to undertake such a long voyage. Altogether about 160 officers and crew manned the ships: as many as 90 aboard Santiago, another 16 to 20 on Sonora, and 50 aboard San Carlos. Conditions were crowded and harsh. Most sailors were fated to lose strength, teeth, and hair to scurvy. The large number of sailors, however, did not guarantee that the vessels could accomplish their objectives: often there were barely enough able-bodied crew to work the ship.

It was from the naval base at San Blas that three significant maritime expeditions embarked to explore the coast of Northwest America in 1774-1779. Viceroy Antonio Maria de Bucareli charged

The 18th Century Spanish Explorations

Perez' voyage was the most northerly reaching to date, getting as far as about 49 degrees (the vicinity of Nootka Sound) even though it fell short of Bucareli' s ambitious instructions to reach the 60th parallel. Upon the Santiago's return to New Spain, Viceroy Bucareli immediately organized a second expedition to further explore the coast.

their ships were blown off course to wreck on Northwest beaches.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 22 No. 1

"It was decided to replenish the water supply, and to cut some poles for the main topsail masts. To do this, [the schooner] had sent the boatswain with six well-armed men When they arrived on land, some three hundred Indians, falling upon them treacherously, had surrounded the boat and knifed those who were in it, with the exception of two men who threw themselves in the water, defending themselves. But they turned back towards land exhausted, and they [aboard the schooner] did not know whether it was reached or whether afterward they suffered the same martyrdom as their mates." (Herbert K. Beals, translator: For Honor and Country: The Diary of Bruno de Hezeta, pp. 77-78).

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The commander of the first Bucareli expedition, Juan Perez, took orders to sail as far north as the 60th parallel, claiming land for Spain and checking on foreign activities. Aboard the frigate Santiago, the members of the expedition surveyed the coastal areas of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. They reached cautiously northward on the unknown fog-blanketed coast, entering the outer harbor of Nootka Sound. (That area, later known as Friendly Cove, would become a gathering place for the maritime fur trade and an important site of diplomatic history.) Along the way, the expedition made direct contact with native peoples in these areas, the first Europeans to do so.

The 1775 Voyages of Sonora and Santiago

Despite the hardships and adversities of the voyage, Hezeta made landings and conducted claiming ceremonies at Trinidad in northern California, Pt. Grenville on the central Washington coast, and at 8ucareli Bay and Krusov Island in southeastern Alaska With the shallow-draft Sonora, other areas were charted

Ample evidence exists that one or two, possibly more, of the Manila galleons came ashore in Oregon. The disappearance of the San Francisco Xavier in 1705 or 1707 (historians differ) may be the origin of Asian beeswax, shards of Chinese porcelain, Spanish coins and other artifacts found on the Oregon beach near Nehalem Bay. The rigging block recently found atNeahkanie and other wooden artifacts may be parts of these ships (see "From the Wheelhouse," this issue). Native American legends and stories tell of light-haired children born to the Indian peoples. Were these possibly the genetic legacy of shipwrecked European mariners?

Monterey, and checking on the location and extent of the Russian presence. Spain might thereby claim additional land before her European rivals, and possibly even locate (or lay to rest) the mythical Northwest Passage linking Atlantic and Pacific oceans. If found, the Northwest Passage would offer enormous benefits in trade and warfare a shortcut around the world

One of the most dramatic and tragic incidents of the voyage occurred when the crew of Sonora's launch went ashore for water on July 14, 1775, near the Quinault River on the Olympic Peninsula. Although most of the Spaniards' encounters with native peoples were friendly, this day turned violent.

The second expedition left San Blas in March 1775 with new instructions to reach the 65th parallel, survey and chart, and claim possession for Spain wherever possible The 77-foot long frigate Santiago sailed under the command of Bruno de Hezeta, expedition leader; her smaller escort schooner Sonora was commanded by Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra. A third vessel, the supply ship San Carlos, was headed for Monterey to reprovision the settlement there. San Carlos would then sail to San Francisco to survey and chart the bay.

It is also important to recall that, although from a European perspective the shores of Northwest America were unmapped and thus unknown, they were not unpeopled. Vigorous native cultures thrived from Alaska to South America The potent encounter of European and American peoples that began with Christopher Columbus' voyages colored the Age of Exploration with excitement, uncertainty, and violence The ongoing exchanges of goods, ideas, people, plants, and germs brought the peoples of the world into an historical era of encounter and colonization, a pattern that changed the world forever.

By 1768, the Spanish began to organize land and sea expeditions to protect their claims in Northwest America. They established colonies at San Diego (1769) and Monterey (1770), and set up a naval base at San Blas, New Spain, on the Pacific coast of what is now Mexico.

The significance of the Hezeta Bodega expedition went beyond the maps produced and the claims of territory for Spain The expedition embodied bravery and remarkable feats of seamanship in the face of great odds. Simply sailing the uncharted

Aboard the Santiago, Bruno de Hezeta turned southward in mid-August and followed the coast closely. He located and charted the mouth of the Columbia River estuary on August 17, 1775, naming it Bahfa de la Asuncion after the August 17th Feast of the Assumption But Hezeta decided against entering the river mouth for fear of risking his ship. Rampant scurvy left the ship short handed, with the crew too weak to handle her in dangerous conditions. (See Quarterdeck, Winter 1992, for a more detailed discussion of Hezeta' s discovery by Hobe Kytr and Hewitt Jackson). The Santiago also fixed the location of prominent Cape Blanco before limping into Monterey, where the debilitated crew was cared for at the mission. At Monterey, they were joined by the Sonora, whose fate had been a matter of speculation since the end

The Resumption of Spanish Exploration

By the end of July, Sonora and Santiago were in the vicinity of Vancouver Island. The two vessels were separated in high seas. Bodega y Quadra, instead of turning back, pushed the schooner Sonora northward to the Alaskan panhandle His achievements in reaching the 58th parallel in a tiny vessel were publicized early on, despite official Spanish secrecy, with the English publication of Antonio Francisco Mourelle' s diary kept as second officer of the Sonora. Thus Sonora sailed into Northwest Coast history long before the substantial geographical discoveries made by Hezeta and his crew were widely known.

of July Together the vessels sailed back into San Blas in November.

Almost ten years after the Bucareli expeditions, the Spanish resumed their explorations . In a flurry of thirty-five voyages between 1788 and 1795, they attempted to press final Spanish claims to Norlhwesl America The catalyst was the increasingly

coast for months with a weakened crew was accomplishment enough. That the small schooner went on farther north than Europeans had pressed before speaks to the confidence of her commander, Bodega y Quadra, and his second in command Francisco Antonio Mourelle.

[I]

"Thus ended our voyage of discovery; and I trust that the fattgues and distresses which we suffered will redound to the advantage and honour of our invincible sovereign, whom may GOD always keey under his holy yrotection!"

Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra also participated in the third expedition sent out by Viceroy Bucareli, in 1779, with fellow naval commander Ignacio Arteaga. They finally reached the 60th parallel to survey and explore around Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula The Spanish still assumed sovereignty over Northwest America, although they also knew that other European explorers most notably Capt. James Cook were voyaging the area.

The three Bucareli expeditions mark the beginning of Spain's systematic Northwest Coast exploration But more than that, they represent epic voyages undertaken by men who, in devoted service to their country, risked enormous odds to sail a hazardous and uncharted coast.

Francisco Antonio Moure!le, November 20, 1775.

Friendly Cove, or Puerto de Nutka, sketched by Jose Cordero in the early 1790s . The Spanish fortified settlement was shared by British fur traders such as the vessel at right. The Spanish vessel Atrevida is at left.

8

The central elements of the exhibition Exploradores! have come to us through the generosity of museum colleagues at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland. The full-size half-breadth reconstruction of the schooner Sonora was originally designed and built by Greg Foster of Galiano Island, B.C. for the exhibition "In Search of the Northern Mystery." With major remodeling of the galleries last year, Society Director Chet Orloff offered the replica to the Columbia River Maritime Museum. Our staff assisted in dismantling it in Portland, and rebuilt Sonora in the Great Hall of the Columbia River Maritime Museum .

The Spanish Legacy

by Greg Foster and built by Bent Thygesen, Sam Johnson and a crew of volunteer boatbuilders

Author's note : There are several excellent works in print that cove r the Spanish presence on the Northwest Coast in greater detail. This article owes a great deal to Herbert Beals' superb translation of Hezeta' s diary

During the 1790s, Russian, English, American, Spanish, and French fur traders and empire builders came together on the Northwest Coast. As these nations played out their territorial dramas, the new United States of America was largely preoccupied in the East with establishing a nation and getting a foothold on world trade. Not for almost three decades did America turn her sights towards creating a dominion from sea to sea. Soon America would be establishing claims in the Pacific coastal areas where Spain had been sending expeditions since the 1500s

"Exploradores! Spanish Adventurers on the Northwest Coast" Opens April 27 - You are all invited!

Spain finally abandoned her fortified settlement at Friendly Cove and tapered off her Northwest explorations after 1795. Empire building became a casualty of Spain's continuing involvement in the French Revolution . It suffered too from the demise in 1788 of King Carlos III, whose keen interest in the scientific value of exploring expeditions in this littleknown part of the world was not continued by his son Carlos IV

There were other landmark voyages of Spanish exploration during this final period, included the globe-circling scientific voyage of Alejandro Malaspina and Jose de Bustamente y Guerra in 1789 1793. The considerable scientific, geopolitical and cartographic achievements of the period to 1796 deserve closer scrutiny than space permits here

The wonderful life-size mural that depicts life aboard Sonora was designed by Greg Foster with Skip Enge of the Oregon Historical Society staff. The Spanish ship's boat, Buenaventura, was likewise designed

Quarterdeck, Vol. 22 No. 1

We also owe thanks to all those who have contributed their skill and talent to creating our exhibition Exploradores! In particular, we would like to acknowledge the contributions of the many scholars whose fine research into Spanish maritime explorations have assisted the Museum in this project : Hewitt Jackson, Herbert K. Beals, Mike Ludeman, and Neil Peterson. Special thanks to John Gaw and Neil Peterson for contributing their labor, and to Iolene WebbPennington for her design work.

We greatly appreciate the support of the many Museum members and friends who ensured that these ma terials could come to life again in a brand new exhibition near the site of Sonora's and Santiago's explorations

fjxhibit 0rand Oyening

The Russians were indeed on the coast. During the 1788 voyage of Esteban Jose Martinez and Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, the Spanish finally encountered their rivals in the Aleutian Islands Initial meetings with the fur traders, representatives of the Shelikov Golikov Company, were undra matic, even though the Spanish firmly be lieved in their sovereign rights to the Coast.

To fortify their claims to the North Pa cific Shores, Spain built a settlement at Nootka Sound's inner harbor in 1789 as the Spanish base for the exploration of Vancouver Island and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. But Spanish claims were no longer certain as negotiators in Europe tried to end the Nootka Controversy. In 1792, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra set off on the Boundary Expedition to work out an agreement with his British counterpart, George Vancouver, at Nootka Sound After th is inconclusive meeting, the Spanish established a settlement at Nunez Gaona (present day Neah Bay) in order to buttress their claims to the land south of the Straits of Juan de Fuca.

9

lucrative sea otter fur trade being conducted by the Russians, British, French and Americans. Historians regard this period as the height of Spanish empire-building in the Northwest, crowning the hundreds of years since Columbus' voyages led Spain to claim her half of the world

Today, many of our coastal place names hint at the legacy of the Spanish explorations. Heceta Head, Lopez Island, the Straits of Juan de Fuca mark the story of exploration as much as do the English names of Mt. Hood, Mt. St. Helens, and Cape Disappoint ment. Today we can remember the Spanish maritime explorers with admiration, and ensure that after hundreds of years of relative obscurity, their pivotal role in Northwest history is properly acknowledged.

-Anne Witty, Curator

This belief was tested severely when Martinez encountered British fur trader James Colnett at Nootka Sound in July 1789. When Martinez was unable to per suade the British to leave Spanish territory, he arrested Colnett and sent ships, officers and crews to the naval base at San Blas. The resultant Nootka Controversy almost led to war between Britain and Spain, and was resolved only with diplomatic nego tiations that continued for several years.

William H. Krohn

Steven D Randolph

Mr. & Mrs. Ron Seaberg

10

Dennis Page & Dorothy Martin

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Balinger Lois Fuger

Mr. Michael J. Ballard

Mr & Mrs. Casey Cochran

Stephen J Blass

Mr. & Mrs. Del Folk

Mr . & Mrs . Chuck Kanavle

Helmsman

Richard & Judith Bressler Captain

Mr. & Mrs. David 0. Johnson

Patti Marquis

Robert Jack

Kirin Armstrong Conrad Schray

Bill Dahlberg William Wodrich Laura Kvamme Windridge Gallery

Mr. & Mrs. R. Keith Allen American Fibre Supply

LTC Clinton M. Cannon Sandra Lee Swain

William R. Lindley

John W. Liedel

Mr. & Mrs. Tom Williams Jack Crowley R B Wallace

Jim Beeks

Russell M. Elmer

Mr. & Mrs. Dennis Degner Marjorie Huddleston

Mr. & Mrs. Gary Fields

Leland H. Lowenson

Michael Ludeman

Joann C. Dawley

Navigator

LTC & Mrs Jeremy J Gruhn Mr. & Mrs. Lester C. Gunther Mrs. Margaret I. Hughes

Bette L. Krause

Captain Jack Vonfeld James M. Vranizan

Senator & Mrs. Sid Snyder

George Cottrell

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Boatswain

Mrs. Ernestine J. Bennett

Jolene Webb-Pennington Boatswain Dorothy A. Johnson

Betty May Hagberg

Helmsman

Mr. & Mrs. Dale Friedemann Dr. & Mrs L. Phaon Gambee

Mr & Mrs. Chris Meik

Ensign/Individual

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen F Mansfield

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Wells

Walter Ainsworth

Mr. & Mrs. Franz Ridgway Colonel & Mrs. Anthony Robnett Mr . & Mrs . Clyde Sayce

John B Fewel

Debbie Twombly Elaine C. Weinberg

Tim Crump & Pam Avila M. A. Schwartz

Pilot

Donald C. Vanderholm Kathleen Brady Joann Stillman

Mr. & Mrs. Frank 0. Glenn

Tony Cox

New Members - August 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995

Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Bishop III Gerald D Capps

Mr. & Mrs. Myron J. Salo Mr. & Mrs . John Tilton

Robert Esposito

Judge & Mrs. John C. Beatty Diane Beeston Donald & Jane Bertucci Mr. & Mrs. Donald E. Boyle Dennis & Audrey Wood-Gaines Mr. & Mrs. Glenn 0 Riddervo

Mr. & Mrs. Bill Young Pilot

Joel Hernandez

Guy Eddie & Sam Adams

Navigator

Allan Long

Lawrence S. Crosby

John L. Glen

Jean Irwin Hoffman Janice M Johnston

Mr. & Mrs. Patrick J. Kearney Janice G. Langley

Captain & Mrs. Jeffrey Salfen

Jerry Hankin

Christopher R. Bunch

Carlton E. Appelo

Captain & Mrs Kell Aursland Mark Barnes & Heather Reynolds Mr. & Mrs John Clemson LCDR & Mrs Dan Neptun Robert J. Wilhelm Wendell Wyatt

Dodie Gann

Jon Bouknight & Lisa Goetz

Larry J Haskell

Steve Merryman

Seaside Chamber of Commerce Lonnie, Lyle & Scott Shane

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Adams

Steve Eltinge

Crew/Family

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert N. Steinmeyer, Hees Enterprises, Inc.

Mr. & Mrs William E. Gardner

Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas D Zafiratos

Vern Larson Victor Richardson

Mr. & Mrs. William R. Orr

Increased Memberships -August 1 - December 31, 1995

Student Lee B Lowenson

Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey C. Honeyman Mary & Christina JacksonThomson J David Kruger

Richard Steele

Mr & Mrs. Dan Supple Wayne F. McCoy

Timothy Neil Thompson & Ensign/Individual Patrick Osborn Eric Heinitz Family

Crew/Family

Norman D. Davis, Jr.

Mark Jenkins

Crew/Family

Michael & Susan Arevalos Judith Mimnaugh

Mr. & Mrs. W. Dean Kendall

Waring Jones

Welcome Back to our Membership-August 1 - December 31, 1995

Mr. & Mrs. David W Kunkel Pa trick Willis & Julie Cleveland

Doug Allen

Mr & Mrs Bob Jackson

Sam Lesser

Bank of Astoria

Kevin T . Stokes

Mr & Mrs. Mark R. Carlson Mr. & Mrs. Don J. Chalmers

Boatswain

Mr. & Mrs . Mike Carrick

Patricia Broadwell

Mr. & Mrs . Bill Williams, Jr .

Douglas C. Jarrett

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Hart Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Knutsen, Knutsen Insurance

Russ Saunders

Helmsman

Mr & Mrs. Arthur E. Farr

Ken Austin

Gladys Cummings

Lila Svenson

Mr. & Mrs. William R. King

William Holt

Ruby K. Smith

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Williamson Mr. & Mrs. Max C. Bigby, Sr. Max Ruef Lee Lahti

Sigurd Lebeck Captain & Mrs. Kell Aursland Mr. & Mrs. Valio Rautio Elli G. Riutta

Mr. & Mrs. Phillip J. Blair

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Fred Rova

Mr. & Mrs. Charles B. Coggins

Mr. & Mrs. John Wise Wayne Tolonen Dorothea J. Handran

Mr. & Mrs. David Hallin

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Cordiner

Rudy Lovvold Margaret I. Hughes

VADM Gordon R. Nagler

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Mestrich, Sr.

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala

Mr. & Mrs. David Hallin

Peter F. Butler

Mr. & Mrs. Gene A. Hill Mr. & Mrs. Ellis Hill

William Clyde Perkins, Sr. Mrs. Lucille Perkins & Family Lawrence Petersen

Leila & Medora Svenson

Columbia River Fisherman's Proleclive Union

Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos

Mr. & Mrs. Harold W. Levitt

Charlotte Meek

Viola Hanson Lund Hope J Moberg Eugene Matthews Captain & Mrs. Dale A. Dickinson

Harold Strasser

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest E. Brown

Donald V. Riswick

Elizabeth Ausnehmer

Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Kearney

Mr. & Mrs. Bruce E. Sinkey

Eldon Benson

Mr. & Mrs. Rob Westerlund

Mr. & Mrs. William R. King

Prudence Ducich

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Ginn

Janis Hanson

Fred Bowers

Andrew Stephen Kustura

Mr. & Mrs. Russ Fluhrer Mr. & Mrs. Donald Helligso Mr. & Mrs. Joseph I.. Thompson

Donald W. Shaw

Mary Ethel Moberg Barbara Tenny

Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas D. Zafiratos

Mr. & Mrs. George Richardson

Bruce Hudson

Pauline McCallum

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon E. Korpela Astoria Lodge #2 Fishhawk Fisheries

Mr. & Mrs. John Ducich Mr. & Mrs. Donald Johnson Georgia Maki Mr. & Mrs. Roderick Sarpola Mr. & Mrs. Jack Temple Gordon Story

Mr. & Mrs Merrill Ginn

William U. Maki Mr. & Mrs. Art Johansen Captain W. G. McCallum Dorothy G. Butler

Mr. & Mrs. George E. Siverson

Merry Tagliavento & David W. Mebust

Howard Lovvold Hjalmer Leino

Paul Reimers

Marilyn E. Jylha

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Hill

Johnnie L. Clayton

Ruby K. Smith

Mr. & Mrs. Richard E. Cameron

A. Honeyman Family Memorial

Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Westerholm

Christine Kauttu Mr. & Mrs. William R. King

Alice Fisher

Quarterdeck, Vol. 22 No. 1

Michael Demase

Rachel Lundell

Mr. & Mrs. Kaarlo J. Karna

Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Brown

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon E. Korpela

Mr. & Mrs. Merrill Carpenter

Sally Leino

Vivian Lahti

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Springer Mr. & Mrs. George E. Siverson Mr. & Mrs. Orvo Piippo Mr. & Mrs. Walter Nelson

Captain Darrell L. Povey

Barbara Honeyman Roll Mrs. A. Alan Honeyman

Mr & Mrs. Donald A. Kessler

Mr. & Mrs. Earl Malinen

Mr. & Mrs. Dick Thompson Marian McBride

Victor Jorgensen Mrs. Betty Jorgensen

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence Barendse Mr. & Mrs. Jon W. Westerholm Barbara E. Sherman

Molene Svenson

Rosilde Hakansen

Marcella L. Hatch

Dorothy G. Butler

Sammy Dibbons

Donald V. Riswick Mr. & Mrs. Lenard J. Hansen

Dorothy G.Butler

Mr. & Mrs. F. L. Pedersen

Mr. & Mrs. Mervin Andersen

Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Berney Mr. & Mrs. Jon Piukkula Mr. & Mrs. Carl H. Paronen Mr. & Mrs. W. Lou Larson Ilmi Leino & Shirley Haglund Will Paulson & Family Mr & Mrs. Eino Mattson Anderson Jewelers Mr. & Mrs. Claude Williamson Vaino Jaakola Mr. & Mrs. George Emken Mr. & Mrs. Jon R. Warila Jim L. Heater

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest J. Barrows Mr. & Mrs. Dick Keller Ed Lundholm

Mr. & Mrs Trygve Duoos Dorothea J. Handran

Mr. & Mrs. Harold C. Hendriksen Mr. & Mrs. Pat Codd

Captain Reino Mattila Mr. & Mrs. Clem Ruef Mr. & Mrs. Howard B Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Palmer Henningsen Florence Lindgren Mr. & Mrs Philip J. Blair Mr. & Mrs. William R.Cunningham Lektro, Inc.

Gladys Cummings

Walter Gadsby, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Oja

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Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe

Michael Francis McSwain

Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Hudson

Pat Hjorten

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Cordiner

Alan J. Bernhoff

Mr. & Mrs. Melvin Hjorten

Mr. & Mrs. Frank H. Satterwhite & Family Ellen K. Sanford Hope J. Moberg

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon E. Korpela

Gladys Cummings

Francis Swigert

Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash Mr. & Mrs. 0. W. Beasley Mr. & Mrs. Alan Ahola Mr. & Mrs. Bob Hansen

James W. Spencer

Mrs. Lucille Perkins

Perry, Rimbaugh & Owen Family

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Scott Mr. & Mrs. Edward H. Aho

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon E. Korpela

Jacqueline Lung

William Puustinen

Mr. & Mrs. Flemming Wilson

Marva Jean Frisbie Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala Allan L. Bue Ellen M. Peterson

Mr. & Mrs. Gene A. Hill

Donald V. Riswick

Captain & Mrs. Joseph Bruneau

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Baptiste

William Leahy Dr. & Mrs. David I. Williams Mr. & Mrs. Gene A. Hill

Mamie Riva

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Trout

Mr. & Mrs. William R. King Elmer Soderstrom Marcella L. Hatch

Eugene Peterson

Adaline Svenson

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala

Charles "Nony" Gray

Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Morris Dr. & Mrs. David I. Williams

Memorial Donations-August 1- December 31, 1995

Ralph Abrahamson

William Leahy

Florence Bishop

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Wilson

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Haglund

Mr Larry W. Lindgren

Wayne Ostrom

Harold W. Pietila

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala Mr. & Mrs. Earl Malinen Donald V. Riswick

Dr. & Mrs. David I. Williams

Kathleen Royal Marcella L. Hatch

Albert Adams

Mr. & Mrs. David Hallin

Theresa Wilson

Mrs. Victor Jorgensen

Eldon E. Korpela

Susan Elizabeth Anderson

Mr. & Mrs. Roy Woods

Lauri Pietila

Olivia Steffans

Norman G. Duncan, Sr.

Andy Callahan

Mr. & Mrs. Edward Rosenfeld

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Haglund

ePnie. tp tlie. t,v,fl,te.rfrmt Pn s flturAfl~ 'fr' s unAfl~, 11tfl~ f8tli 'fr' tt:Jtli, /Pr fl uni1ue. fl.Mtin,g event.

Special Donations

The Pacific Challenge features some 15 20 boats, crewed by true aficionados dressed in period costume, singing sea chanteys and working as traditional seamen The crews, consisting of youth and maritime organizations, are challenged compet

Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Morris

First Interstate Bank of Oregon Mr. & Mrs. J.W "Bud" Forrester

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest J. Barrows Selwyn A. Bingham, Jr. Mr. & Mrs . Peter J. Brix

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED FORWARDING & RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED

Mr. & Mrs. Graham Barbey Barbey Investment Company

Mr. Williams Swindells, Jr. Jonathan Taggart

1792

ing for the prestigious Queen's Cup, awarded to the boat and crew demonstrating the highest degree of skill and spirit. The perennial trophy, provided by the Queen of England through her representatives, is engraved with the w inning crew and boat names.

Mr. & Mrs. J.R. Dant

Mary Jane Van Dusen

Martha E. Ahearn Anonymous

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Soderberg Bill & Madonna Pitman

Dr. & Mrs . Curtis McKinney Lorrie A. McLaughlin Marguerite S. Moyer

Mr. & Mrs. Larry Perkins

MARINE DRIVE

In Honor Of

Donald R Tucker Betty Manners

Mr. & Mrs . Ken Lampi

Bill & Madonna Pitman

Mr & Mrs. Donald M. Haskell Hester H. Hau Mr. & Mrs. Allan Hodge

-,;1,,e :p4e,f,e e1,,"tten'3t e,lff,t,& t, A i&t,r,"

June Spence

Mrs Margaret Wagner Honeyman Captain & Mrs. Paul Jackson Eliot H. Jenkins

USS Astoria "CA34" Reunion Fund

There will be lots to see and do as the crews of over a dozen traditional ship's boats gather to match their seamanship skills. Come cheer on the CRMM crew as we row and sail the jolly boat Peace & Friendship. Starting on Saturday, May 18th at 9:00 a m. you, too, can put your maritime skills to the test! Shoreside events all free include a chance to make rope in the traditional manner, tie knots and be the first to tie a bowline on a hawser. Learn the language of the flag and become an expert at sign flags!

Captain & Mrs. Joseph Bruneau Mr. & Mrs Richard C. Paulsen

There's a lot to do and wonderful prizes. Launch your summertime fun with the whole family at the Pacific Challenge on May 18th and 19th!

Harry Lawrence Wahlstrom

Mr. & Mrs. W. Louis Larson

Reverend & Mrs. John L. Goodenberger Mr. & Mrs. Alan C. Goudy Alan "Punch" Green, Jr.

ASTORIA , OR E GON 97103

Mr. & Mrs Ernest E. Brown Captain & Mrs. Joseph Bruneau Mr. & Mrs. Allen V. Cellars Columbia River Maritime Museum Auxiliary Mr. & Mrs. Ward V. Cook

Frank Warren

Mrs Barbara L. Jorgenson Peter Koerner

The Pacific Challenge is a unique interna-

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Chan

Mr. & Mrs. Pat Codd

Mr. & Mrs James Young

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM

Mrs. "Chink" Curtis' 80th Birthday

Mr. Richard G. Reiten John Shearer

Captain & Mrs. Rod Leland Ann M Lewis Doris Lofgren Longview Daily News Mr. & Mrs. Eugene W . Lowe Mr & Mrs. Robley L. Mangold Mr. & Mrs. John S. McGowan

Mr. & Mrs. Sion Wentworth

Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash

Mr. & Mrs. Ted Natt Ed Parker

Bill & Madonna Pitman

Alice Tolonen

Richard Alfred "Dick" Walsborn

Bank of Astoria

Mr & Mrs. Walter Gadsby, Jr. William A. Gavin, Jr.

Karen Carpenter, Editor Non profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE PAID Astoria, Oegon Permit No. 328

Mr. & Mrs. Donald A. Kessler

tional event featuring beautiful handcrafted 18th and 19th century replica long boats, jolly boats and launches Powered by teams of rowers and sailors, the grace ful craft bring to life the early maritime history and roots of our region, and all of North America

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