V18 N3 Robert Gray and 'Columbia's River

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Today, we remember Robert Gray as the captain who first braved the passage into this great seaway he called "Columbia's River." In his own time, the deed was scarcely noted. What mattered then was that he was the first American sea captain to circle the globe, opening new markets to American commerce.

Robert Gray himself has long been an enigma for historians. Despite his achievements and adventures, he left no journals, no diaries for posterity. Beginning on page 4 of this issue of the Quarterdeck, Mr. Jackson presents his interpretation of the events surrounding Gray's entry into the Columbia River on 11 May 1792. Based on decades of research into 18th-century ship design and sail handling, Hewitt sketches how Gray succeeded where others had failed before him-because of skilled seamanship, a good crew, and the willingness to take a calculated risk.

the UARTERDECK

"Ship Columbia Rediviva at Anchor in the River: 6th Anchorage," mixed-media drawing by Hewitt Jackson, 1966. All rights reserved. 15-18 May 1792: "I landed abrest the ship with Capt. Gray to view the country and take possession ... Capt. Grays named this river Columbia's, and the North entrance Cape Hancock, and the South Point Adams." Boit's Log. The drawing is one of several studies commissioned by the late Edmund Hayes on display in the Fur Trade & Exploration gallery. Donor: Edmund Hayes. 1970.390.3

A review and newsletter from the Columbia River Maritime Museum at 1792 Marine Drive in Astoria, Oregon

Robert Gray and Columbia's River, May 1792

During this bicentennial year we have explored a number of the issues surrounding the great maritime explorations of the Northwest Coast in the late 18th century. None is of greater importance than the voyages and discoveries of Robert Gray. As noted maritime scholar and artist Hewitt Jackson has written: ''The mercantile consequences of the Columbia's two voyages were felt far beyond the counting houses of the owners far away in Boston. Each facet of the venture requires study and adequate presentation if a proper understanding is to be reached."

Captain Robert Gray was a merchant fur trader, not an explorer. Yet his explorations on the Northwest Coast had a profound impact on the future of the United States. Gray laid the foundation for an America "from sea to shining sea." All others followed in his wake.

Vol. 18 No. 3 Spring 1992

QUARTERDECK

A ten-foot diameter stainless steel logo, recently installed on the peak of the Museum south wall over the parking area, was completed as the resulL of the generosity of our Museum Auxiliary and Northwest Propeller & Machine Works of Astoria, fabricators of this piece of public art. At this writing, the wiring and lighting are being installed for night display

-Alan C. Goudy

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On April 7th, 1991, Mary Steinbock passed away. It was a Tuesday, which was Mary's day to volunteer at the Columbia River Maritime Museum. Mary took volunteering seriously, or perhaps graciously would be a more appropriate way to describe it At the heart of it, Mary Steinbock was incredibly gracious

This is a year of triple anniversaries. First, 200 years ago Robert Gray entered the Columbia River We are quite pleased that the Columbia River Maritime Museum is hosting the Columbia River Bicentennial Commission's exhibit commemorating this event. Second, Rolf Klep chartered this Museum 30 years ago. Third, just 10 years ago we dedicated our current Museum building on the waterfront. Each of these anniversaries coincides on the same day, May 11, 1992. It is a year of opportunity and we are making the most of it.

We often kidded Mary about being Astoria's "First Lady for Life " Her husband Harry was mayor from 1959 to 1975 . But Mary's habit of service to her community continued for the rest of her life. A complete listing of all the organizations Mary belonged to would take more space than we have available here She was a "Pink Lady" at Columbia Memorial Hospital. She was active in Rotary Anus. She organized and hosted exchanges with Astoria's sister city of Waldorf, Germany, birthplace of John Jacob Astor. She was the current President of the Museum Auxiliary Tuesdays, Mary worked in the Museum Store

Our volunteers are busy! Over 5070 hours were logged by our hardy corps of generous volunteers during calendar year 1991. More than half those hours were donated by 21 individuals in the CRMM 100-Hour Club. We fully expect 1992 to be an even better year for volunteers at the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

Volume 18 No. 3

The QUARTERDECK is published four times a year by the Columbia River Maritime Museum, 1792 Marine Dr, Astoria, OR 97103.

Photo and illustration credits: "Columbia's 6th Anchorage," page 1, blue-tinted brownline of the Columbia's studding sails, page 4, and pen and ink and wash of steering sails, page 7, by Hewitt Jackson, used by permission; journal entries and coastal elevations , pages 8 and 9, and Meares' chart, page 9, from Bibliotheca Australiana facsimile reprints, 1967, by permission of Da Capo Press, New York; Hobe Kytr, pages 3 and 16; Barbara Minard, pages 10 and 11; the Lady Washington, page 13, courtesy of Stuart Parnes , Mystic Seaport.

Our Museum committees are off and running. An ad hoc committee, under the chairmanship of past President Richard Carruthers, is currently reviewing our Mission Statement and Bylaws Our Membership and Marketing Committee has been meeting under Chairman Dave Myers, and is developing our public relations program and expanding our membership base The Finance and Development Committee under Chairman and Vice President Ward Cook is continuing the development work started last year Our Property Committee, under the leadership of Chairman Don Haskell, is working with the architectural firm of Fletcher, Farr and Ayotte to develop plans for the plaza entrance area of the Museum and acoustical treatment of the Great Hall under a grant received from the Collins Foundation. They are also overseeing the pier expansion and transient small vessel float being developed by the city adjacent to the Museum These facilities should be completed for the summer season .

. • •

Obviously, our active Board of Trustees, the Museum Auxiliary and other volunteers, and the staff of the Columbia River Maritime Museum are getting a great deal of satisfaction being a part of this activity. I want to thank the trustees for the opportunity to serve as their president during this exciting time. And I would also like to extend a warm invitation to everyone to come to Astoria to share with us a great year.

An anecdote may help to convey how we all felt about Mary Steinbock. Mary enjoyed having a muffin with her coffee in mid morning She also enjoyed baking, but could not bake just for herself alone. On Tuesdays she would appear with a big bag of the best banana-raisin wheatgerm-bran muffins anyone could imagine. Like a good Jewish grandmother, Bubba Mary would remind staff members to have a muffin . She'd bring in two or three for someone she thought undernourished. When God made Mary, He broke the mold We'll miss her.

An Anniversary Message from your Museum President

We entered the year with a very fruitful trustee fund-raising project, covering the current year's contract payments on the purchase of the successful parking area developed by our late President Jack Williams, Jr., Admiral, USN Retired. This expanded parking area contributed substantially to last year's increased attendance at the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

Printed at Anchor Graphics, Astoria, Oregon

from the Wheelhouse

All the issues detailed above plus the Budget Committee's work under the chairmanship of Rob Mangold were detailed in reports at the spring meeting of the CRMM Board of Trustees in Longview on March 20th, hosted by Secretary Ted Natt

Editor, Hobe Kytr. Editorial Staff : Jerry Ostermiller, Anne Witty, Barbara Minard, Rachel Wynne, Hewitt Jackson

Our Museum staff, in addition to keeping the place running, hosted the Council of American Maritime Museums annual meeting in April, as well as doing a tremendous amount of lastminute work on the Robert Gray Bicentennial exhibit that opened here in May. The year 1992 also marks our scheduled reaccreditation with the American Association of Museums later this summer. Since 1972, the Columbia River Maritime Museum has been one of a very select group of accredited maritime museums in North America.

Goodbye, Mary. We'll Miss You.

The CRMM logo now on the side of the building blends in so well it looks as if it has always been there. This logo is a fitting example of the quality of work done by our local tradespeople. It was created from 3/ 16" thick 316 stainless plate by Northwest Propeller. (For the uninitiated, the numerals "316" designate this particular alloy of stainless steel.)

The final stage of fabrication was to make a mounting jig, which looked sort of like a metal spider web. When it came time for installation, the outside ring of the medallion, together with the mounting jig, was lifted into place until it could be properly positioned with respect to the building. A few trial holes and some minor adjustments later, the mounting jig showed where to lag in the bolts which would eventually hold up the ship part of the design, which was still resting safely on the ground. Then, down came the ring again, off came the jig, and the two parts of the emblem design were mounted separately but positioned as if, well, somebody had figured it all out beforehand.

Making a medallion such as this 15 years ago would have been very difficult and labor intensive. All the cutting would have to have been done on a handsaw. The plasma torch has replaced the handsaw, making this type of fabrication a more reasonable undertaking. The basic idea of the plasma torch is that a tungsten arc is fed with compressed air, which creates an electrically conductive plasma. This arc generates enough heat to vaporize a thin kerf in the stainless steel plate. This process is used for materials such as stainless steel which don't have enough carbon to allow the use of a standard oxygen and acetylene cutting torch.

-Steve Kann

Hooray, and Up She Rises

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 3

I think even Rolf Klep himself, our founder and the designer of the Museum logo, would approve of the new addition.

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After cutting, the pieces for the medallion were welded together and structural stiffeners added. (The "backbone" is on the reverse side of the design, facing the wall.) Even though stainless steel can be highly polished, it was decided to finish it to a more industrial standard and leave the surface showing the directional grinding pattern. This is apparent on a sunny day when the mast and spars reflect the sun's rays in such a way as to look like they were cut from different material.

Here in winter quarters, the crew of the Columbia constructed the small sloop Adventure, of about 45 tons and calculated length of 47 feet, the frames for which had been brought from Boston on board ship They also constructed a small blockhouse, called Fort Defiance. The journal gives an interesting account of the activities at Adventure Cove, as well as fascinating observations about the neighboring Indians. The natives were intensely interested in the construction of the sloop. Mid January the crew of the Columbia began caulking the sloop's bottom. There was danger and treachery on the part of the Indians while the Columbia was hove down, breamed and her bottom payed .

The Columbia on her second voyage had left Boston on 28 September 1790, rounded Cape Horn and arrived on the Northwest Coast on June 4th the following year. They anchored at "Cox's Harbour or Clioquot,'' off present-day Tofino on Vancouver Island's west coast. After a season's trading, the ship returned to this anchorage and prepared to winter on the coast

The discovery of the Columbia River in May of 1792 was a good deal more than just an isolated historical event. True, Bruno de Hezeta had sighted and tried to enter the river in 177 5. The Spanish had recognized its importance and magnitude, but had failed to report and publicize it and lay claim on the basis of discovery. Captain Gray of the Columbia was not remiss in like respects and clearly established the principal American claim to the area. Gray, along with other American ship masters, also participated in the historic transactions at Nootka with the Spanish and the English, and were thus involved in the far reaching consequences of the Nootka Controversy.

Illustration taken from a blue-tinted brownline study of the Columbia's studding (steering) sails by Hewitt Jackson, copyright 1986.

By mid April 1792, the Columbia Rediviva had been cruising the Northwest Coast for some time and had traded for a substantial number of prized sea otter skins . Captain Gray was in search of a suitable harbor and a base to set up a factory (shore-based trading post).

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The brig Boit mentions on 20 September 1791 was the Lady Washington, Captain John Kendrick, re-rigged from her original sloop in Macao the previous year and trading on the Coast for the past several months. The Washington sailed for Canton a few days later.

From the Log of the Columbia, 11 May 1792

"Sent up the main-top-gallant-yard and set all sail. At four, A.M., saw the entrance of our desired port bearing east-south-east, distance six leagues; in steering sails, and hauled our wind in shore."

Probably the best introduction to the discovery of the Columbia is to quote directly from John Boit (opposite), the youthful junior mate of the Columbia, just sixteen at the outset of the voyage. His journal was well kept and is most informative. Those well acquainted with

the history of our Northwest Coast will recall that, before he was yet turned twenty, Boit was given command of the sloop Union, sailing from Boston for the Northwest Coast in 1794. The voyage of the Union was one of the epics of early American commerce and the first circumnavigation by a small sloop.

"20 . This day left Columbia's River, and stood clear of the bars and bore off to the Northward The men at Columbia's River are strait limb'd, fine looking fellows, and the women are very pretty. they are all ig a state of Nature, except the females, who wear a leaf Apron (perhaps ' twas a fig leaf). But some of our gentlemen, that examin'd them pretty close, and near, both within and without reported that it was not a leaf but a nice wove mat in resemblance!! and so we go thus, thus and no Near! !"

"[March 1792] 24. The sloop Adventure is ready for sea Captain Haswell, first mate of ship went on board and took charge, taking with him Mr. Waters (4th mate) and a crew of ten seamen and tradesmen. I think she was one of the prettiest vessels ever I saw, of about 45 tons, with a handsome figure head and false badges, and other ways touch'd off in high stile. There was not a Butt either in the Planks on deck or sides, and the plank not above nine inches wide. She was victuall'd for a four months cruize, and supplied with Articles for the Queen Charlotte Isles trade, on which route 'twas meant she shou'd go, while the ship proceeding along the Southern Coast."

"15 . On the 15th took up the Anchor, and stood up River but soon found the water to be shoal so that the Ship took the Ground, after proceeding 7 or 8 miles from our 1st sta tion, however soon got off again. Sent the Cutter and found the main Channel was on the South side, and there was a sand back in the middle , as we did not expect to procure Otter furs at any distance from the Sea, we contented ourselves in our present situation which was a very pleasant one. I landed abrest the Ship with Capt Gray to view the Country and take possession, leaving charge with the 2d Officer . Found much clear ground, fit for Cultivation, and the woods mostly clear from Underbrush. none of the Natives come near us "

Selected Entries from Boit's Log of the Second Voyage of the Columbia

"12. [The same day, the nautical day being from noon to noon ] N Latt 46°7' W . Long 122°47' This day saw an appearance of a spacious harbour abrest the Ship, haul'd our wind for itt, observ'd two sand bars making off, with a pas sage between them to a fine river. Out pinnace and sent her in ahead and followed with the Ship under short sail, carried in from 1/2 three to 7 fm, and when over the bar had 10 fm Water quite fresh the River extended to the NE as far as the eye cou'd reach, and water fit to drink as far down as the Bars, at the entrance. we directed our course up this noble river in search of a Village. The beach was lin'd with Natives, who ran along shore following the Ship. Soon after above 20 Canoes came off, and brought a good lot of Furs and Salmon, which last they sold for a board Nail. the furs we likewise bought cheap, for Copper and Cloth they appear'd to view the Ship with the greatest astonishment and no doubt we was the first civilized people that they ever saw. We observ'd some of the same people we had before seen at Gray's harbour, and perhaps that was a branch of this same River at length we arriv'd opposite a large village, situate on the North side of the river about 5 leagues from the entrance We purchas'd 4 otter skins for a sheet of Copper, Beaver Skins, 2 Spikes each, and other land furs 1 Spike each

"We lay in this place till the 20th May, during which time we put the ship in good order and fill'd up the water casks along side itt being very good . These natives talk'd the same language as those farther South, but we cou'd not learn itt Observ'd that the Canoes that came from down river brought no Otter Skins, and I beleive the Otter constantly keeps in Salt water. they however always came well stocked with land furs and capitall Salmon. The tide sett down the whole time and was rapid. Whole trees sometimes come down with the Stream. The Indians inform'd us there was 50 Villages on the banks of this river ."

'' [April] 28. This day spoke his Britannic Majestey's Ships Discovery and Chatham, commanded by Captain George Vancover and Lieutanent Wm Broughton, from England, on a voyage of discovery Left England April 1st 1791. Ditto Otaheita January '92 and Sandwich Isles, March '92 . A boat boarded us from the Discovery, and we gave them all the information in our power, especially as respected the Straits of Juan De Fuca, which place they was then in search of. They bore away . . . ''

" [May] 7. 46° 58' Saw an inlett in the land, which had the appearance of an harbour, sent the Cutter under charge of 2d Officer to examine itt. Laying too a strong Current with squally weather. The Boat returned, and the Officer reported that he cou'd find nothing but breakers at the en trance, but farther in itt had the appearance of a good harbour . This appearance being so flattering, Capt. Gray was determin'd not to give itt up. Therefore ordering the boat a head to sound with nessescary signalls the Ship stood in for the weather bar and we soon see from the Mast head a passage in between the breakers.

"[May] 11. Weigh'd and Came to sail, and stretch'd clear of the barr . Named the harbour we had Left, after our Captain, Standing to the South."

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"[September 1792] 20 . On the 20th, weigh'd anchor with light airs and with Boats ahead, assisted by the Brig's crew, we tow'd and sail'd into (winter quarters) which we call'd Adventure Cove, and moor'd Ship for the winter. Vast many of the Natives along side .. .

''Bore off and run in NE b E, having 4 to 9 fathom sand, an excellent strong tide setting out. the boat having made a signall for anchorage and a good harbour we continued to stretch on till completely within the shoals when we anchor'd in 5 fm In an excellent harbour. Vast many canoes came off full of Indians . they appear'd to be a savage sett and was well arm'd, every man having his Quiver and Bow slung over his shoulder Without doubt we are the first Civilized people that ever visited this port their language was different from any we have yet heard. The Men where entirely naked, and the Women, except for a small apron before, made of Rushes, was also in a state of Nature. they was stout made, and very ugly. Their Canoes was from the Logs rudely cut out, with upright ends . We purchas'd many furs and fish "

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No 3

Our concluding selection from young Boit's remarks we note with a particular appreciation of the closing anthropological observations He was about eighteen at this time, just about the age when our present youth would be winding up a high school education.

While in the r i ver, the Columbia changed anchorages a number of times and a detailed chart was prepared. The north entrance was named Cape Hancock and the south Point Adams To the river they gave the name of the ship Trading was good and water and provisions were replenished. Many pertinent and interesting observations were entered in the journal.

Vancouver's journal for 29 April 1792 (page 9) indicates Capt. Gray earlier that month had ''been off the mouth of a river in the latitude of 46 °10 ', where the outset, or reflux, was so strong as to prevent his entering for nine days." This was the same Vancouver had dismissed two days before as "not worthy of more attention." The oversight would later be the bane of British negotiators in the Oregon boundary dispute. No mention is made of this nine-day foray in Boit's Log, which has caused some scholars to question whether in fact it occurred.

Towards the end of April, Gray met up with Capt . George Vancouver off Destruction Island. Vancouver, having passed by and dismissed the prospects presented by Meares' "Deception Bay," was in search of the fabled Straits of Juan de Fuca Vancouver understood from the published report of Capt John Meares that Gray had sailed through the straits in the sloop Washington in the autumn of 1789. This report was in error. There remains a possibility that such a voyage was carried out by John Kendrick in the Washington, which cannot be substantiated because of the unfortunate loss of his journals to history Captain Gray at the time would have already been well on his way to the Sandwich Isles enroute to Canton and home

A New Trading Partner

What did the Chinookan natives of the lower Columbia think of Robert Gray's entry into their river? We can only conjecture They probably knew about sailing vessels from shipwrecks along their shores prior to Gray's arrival. There also had been several opportunities to view at a distance ships passing close by offshore. Thus when Robert Gray entered Columbia's River in May 1792, it likely was their first opportunity to view up close something they already knew about or had heard about from a distance.

The Chinookans also knew the potential value of non-native trade goods . Consider Charles Cultee's account of the tale of Konapee (see the Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No 2, Winter 1992). Copper, strips of iron, and nails salvaged from the burned remains of a galleon wrecked on Clatsop beach early in the 18th century quickly were turned into wealth according to the indigenous values of the time: slaves, curried deerskins, and strings of dentalia.

Following the parlay with Vancouver, the Columbia engaged in a period of cruising about the mouth of the Straits and along what is now the Washington coast, with tolerable success in trading Then, seven days into May, a promising inlet was sighted and entered: Grays Harbor Capt. Gray, in fashion typical of the sort supercargo John Box Hoskins regarded as reckless sailoring, stood in for the bar though the breakers. Reasonable success at trading ensued, but young Boit pointedly notes in his journal the threatening aspect presented by the local natives.

Departing from this place, Capt. Gray appended the name of one of his principal sponsors: Bulfinch's Harbor. His crew thought otherwise. Of the many geographical names Gray left behind on the Northwest Coast, few remain today . Proceeding south along the coast, they came once again to that enticing but elusive outflow near the 46th parallel. Bolstered by the recent success in similar conditions at Bulfinch's Harbor , they made their way under short sail through the breakers and found "a large river of fresh water."

The following moonlit night, the natives made a threatening approach to the ship, and when they were within what was considered a dangerous position, they were driven off by cannon and musket fire with fearful losses. When the Indians returned to trade the following morning they showed neither fear nor resentment-just incredulous wonder-and acted as if nothing had happened. The incident, however, typifies the uneasy nature of this trade between dissimilar cultures, carried on in the early days without having even the common bond of mutually intelligible language. Capt. Gray and his crew were ever on guard against attack

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It should be remarked that young Boit's comment about viewing the country and taking possession on 15 May 1792 has long been called into question. The late Frederick Howay , President of the Canadian Historical Society and eminant author of the Voyages of the Columbia, objected to the validity of the claim on the basis of the fact the words were inserted between the lines and in a different ink Others have noted that th e manuscript is sprinkled with such interlineations . Apart from the obvious issues of national origin and how they might slant interpretation of the data, the plain fact of the matter is that the argument was irrelevant to the ultimate settlement of the Oregon boundary issue. Robert Greenhow in his famous memorial to the Senate of 1840, later expanded into The History of Oregon and California, 1844, mentions the journal of John Boit not at all. The U.S. claim in the boundary dispute with Great Britain was based on the portion of the official log of the Columbia for May 7-20, 1792, as copied by Charles Bulfinch in 1816, in which taking possession is not mentioned. The American negotiating position of the 1840s was based entirely on rights of prior discovery

Further evidence comes from John Meares' report of meeting two natives off the entrance to Shoalwater, or Willapa, Bay. (See page 8.) The sea otter pelts they held up were not in high demand in the native trade network. But with the developing maritime fur trade, following 1785, items of European manufacture had been introduced along the Northwest Coast, and the unit of exchange in demand by the outsiders was the sea otter So news had travelled at least as far as the Chinook/Chehalis community of Willapa Bay. So too, probably, had some of the new trade goods. The native peoples of the greater lower Columbia region, whose culture was based on trade, found themselves on the fringes of a developing trade route coming from farther up the coast. In order to make a decent margin in trade on these exotic goods, they needed to eliminate the middlemen to the north; especially so, since they long had enjoyed just such an advantage at the mouth of the great river, the crossroads between the coast and the interior. With the arrival of the Columbia, quite literally, their ship had come in. H.B.K.

These "royals" (sails) were set flying, that is, they were not carried on set yards, and further were not provided with running sheets and all the other gear of working sails. When not in use they were "sent down" and stowed on deck or along the topgallant backstays just above the deadeyes . They are not detailed in the drawing

In the lead illustration on page 4, the crew is taking down the steering sails in preparation for going over the bar The weather foretopmast steering sail is still set and drawing. The fore stun'sl (water sail) is being taken in. The main topmast steering sail is being sent down and the weather side of the main is clewed up. A driver is still set abaft the mizzen.

To describe the handling of these steering sails would take longer than rigging the ship itself, and the sequence of orders

These kites went out of fashion when wire standing rigging became standard in the later and larger vessels. These ships were loftier and their rig was described as "squarer," that is, the upper yards were proportionately longer, thus resulting in more sail area aloft and overall. This increase in canvas and driving power essentially replaced the traditional light sails of the earlier ships, though some crack packets continued to carry them for years to come.

would be nothing but confusing. The illustrations here provided should suffice for a general understanding of these sails and the attendant gear.

-Hewitt Jackson

My earlier studies of this subject done in the studio were derived from contemporary pictorial material. The more recent work is more detailed and accurate, as studies of the ship and contemporary design have resulted in detailed plans for a number of museum models, including those at the Columbia River Maritime Museum

Our review of the 1792 adventures on the Northwest Coast should not be confused by the introduction of nautical and technical trivia. But a few remarks on sailing practices of the period may be helpful. We will pay particular attention to the details of the ship and sail handling involved upon entering the river. Some of you may want to keep your marine dictionary handy.

The effective fair weather canvas was in the steering sails, the famous "stuns'ls" of the later clippers. They were large and effective sails and when set to port and starboard would effectively double the sail area of the ship. Use was not strictly limited to light airs, and they were rigged in such a way that would allow safe handling in some pretty heavy going. The East Indiamen were famous for this, at least in daytime, though these cautious Britishers would stow them and snug down for the night.

The Columbia Rediviva was a very typical American merchant vessel of her period. Her length between perpendiculars was 83' 6 ", beam 24' 2 "; she had two decks and was of 212 8/94 tons burthen. The most notable difference between the Columbia and the standard vessel of the period was that she carried a crew of 30 or 31 men, while the more normal complement would have been between 16 and 18. This large crew would have allowed for some pretty sharp ship handling, something well beyond what the usual merchant crew would be expected to put forth.

Like most of her working sisters, the Columbia carried a rather short working rig, topgallant sails being pretty much the norm in regular and winter going. For fair weather passages, loftier topgallant masts were carried and sent up, and royals were set flying, and in rare instances a skysail. These loftier fairweather sails were small, often mere ''walloping window blinds," and of doubtful utility. They were more a matter of pride and vanity than anything else

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 3

The drawing on page 4 shows the Columbia nearing the river on the morning of 11 May 1792, the wind light and northwesterly. Saddle Mountain looms over Cape Disappointment and North Head as the ship nears the river. Seen from off the starboard quarter, we have a weather view, a difficult one to present as one must have an intimate knowledge of all the rigging and gear. It is, however, the most informative, as gear and function can be easily traced and understood. Capt. Gray's large crew were downright handy for this sort of sailorizing-almost man-of-war style

Portions of the preceeding article appeared previously in 48 ° North.

Above is a small sketch that graphically shows the setting of the "steering sails," the famed "studding sails" of the later clippers. They came close to doubling the sail area and were useful in fair weather and light airs. Hewitt Jackson, pen and ink and wash, copyright 1992.

The Columbia is shown with her fair weather topgallant masts in place, all set for the summer airs of the Northwest Coast (or the "flying fish" winds of the tropics). These topgallant masts were loftier than the standard rig and allowed the setting of "royals" above the topgallants shown set and drawing in the illustration on page 4 The pole extension of the topgallant mast was referred to as the "royal mast," though it was not a separate stick at all

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On a particular inspection, we observed the fashion of their canoes differed from those of their more Northern neighbours. In their persons and cloaths, indeed, they resembled the people of Nootka; but we observed no ornaments about them which would lead us to suppose that they had ever before communicated with Europeans Nevertheless, their first holding up the otter skins, and the manner in which they conducted themselves afterwards, plainly proves that they had an idea of trade: indeed it is more than probable that some of the natives of

-Capt. John Meares in the Felice, July 1788, published in Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America , 1790.

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''Where Disappointment Continued to Accompany Us''

The distance from Low Point to Cape Shoal-water was too great to admit of an observation in our present situation. The shoals still appeared to run from shore to shore; but when we were about midway, we again bore up near them, in order to discover if there might not be a channel near the cape: we accordingly steered in for the mouth of the bay, when we shoaled our water to eight fathoms. At this time the breakers were not more than three miles from us, and appeared to extend to Cape Shoal-water, when it was thought prudent again to haul off

We had concluded that this wild and desolate shore was without inhabitants, but this opinion proved to be erroneous; for a canoe now came off to us from the point, with a man and a boy. On their approach to the ship, they held up two sea otter skins; we therefore hove to, when they came alongside and took hold of a rope, but could not be persuaded to come on board . We then fastened several trifling articles to a cord, and threw them over the side of the ship, when they were instantly and eagerly seized by the boy, and delivered by him to the man; who did not hesitate a moment to tie the two otter skins to the cord, and waved his hand as a sign for us to take them on board, -which was accordingly done ...

By half past eleven we doubled this cape at a distance of three miles, having a clear and perfect view in every part, on which we did not discern a living creature, or the least trace of habitable life. A prodigious Easterly swell rolled on the shore, and the soundings gradually decreased from forty to fifteen fathoms over a hard, sandy bottom. After we had rounded the promontory, a large bay, as we had imagined, opened to our view, that bore a very promising appearance, and into which we steered with every encouraging expectation.

We now reached the opposite side of the bay, where disappointment continued to accompany us; and, being almost certain that there should we obtain no place of shelter for the ship, we bore up for a distant head-land, keeping our course within two miles of shore.

The name of Cape Disappointment was given to the promontory, and the bay obtained the title of Deception Bay. By an indifferent meridian observation, it lies in the latitude 46 ° 10' North, and in the computed longitude of 235 ° 34' East We can now with safety assert, that no such river as that of Saint Roe exists, as laid down in the Spanish charts : to those of Maurelle we made continual reference, but without deriving any information or assistance from them

The high land that formed the boundaries of the bay, was at great distance, and a flat, level country occupied the intervening space: the bay itself took a rather westerly direction. As we steered in, the water shoaled to nine, eight and seven fathoms, when breakers were seen from the deck, right ahead: and, from the mast-head they were observed to extend across the bay. We therefore hauled out, and directed our course to the opposite shore, to see if there was any channel, or if we could discover any port.

We endeavoured to make ourselves intelligible, by addressing them in the language of King George's Sound, which we found to prevail from thence to the district of Tatootche; but they did not comprehend a word we uttered, and replied in a language which bore not the least resemblance or affinity, as far as we could form judgment, to any tongue we had heard on the coast of America

Sunday 6. The morning of the 6th was very unfavourable to the business of making discoveries; the wind veered to the North, and blew very strong, with a great sea A high bluff promontory bore off us South East, at the distance of only four leagues, for which we steered to double, with the hope that between it and Cape Shoalwater we should find some sort of a harbor. We now discovered distant land beyond this promontory, and pleased ourselves with it being Cape Saint Roe of the Spaniards, near which they are said to have found a good port

Tatootche's district may have occasionally roamed thus far, and communicated the intelligence of strangers arriving in ships to trade for furs. But there is every reason to believe that these people are of a different and distinct nation from those of King George's Sound, Port Cox, and Tatootche . ..

[July 1788] Saturday 5. By two o'clock, we were within two miles of the shore, along which we sailed, which appeared to be a perfect forest, without the vestige of an habitation. The land was low and flat, and our soundings were from fifteen to twenty fathoms over an hard sand . As we were steering for the low point which formed one part of the entrance into the bay or sound, we shoaled our water gradually to six fathoms, when breakers were seen to extend in a direction quite across it, so that it appeared to be inaccessible to ships ...

These strangers appeared to be wholly delighted with their unexpected treasure, and seemed, at first, to be wholly absorbed in their attention to the articles which composed it; but their curiosity was in a short time entirely transferred to the ship, and their eyes ran over every part of it with most rapid transition, while their actions expressed such extreme admiration and astonishment, as to give us every reason to conclude that this was the first time they had ever been gratified with the sight of such an object.

During the time we had been lying to for these natives, the ship had drifted bodily down to the shoals, which obliged us to make sail, when the canoe paddled into the bay. It was our wish to have sent the longboat to sound near the shoals, in order to discover if there w-as any channel; but the weather was so cloudy, and, altogether, had so an unsettled an appearance, that we were discouraged from executing such a design .. .

I Cl,-i,_' Lak<• c:;;:r M -+------+---THE N O\R THE JN PACIFIC OCEAN .JO Longitude .Ea.ft of 9reenwich 0 2 0

On the return of the boat, we found our conjectures had not been ill grounded, that this was the same gentleman who had commanded the sloop Washington at the time, we are informed, she had made a very singular voyage behind Nootka It is not possible to conceive any one to be more astonished than was Mr. Gray, on his being made acquainted, that his authority had been quoted, and the track pointed out that he had been said to have made in the sloop Washington. In contradiction to which, he assured the officers, that he had penetrated only 50 miles into the straits in question, in an E.S.E. direction; that he found the passage 5 leagues wide; and that he understood, from the natives, that the opening extended a considerable distance to the northward; that this was all the information he had respecting this inland sea, and that he returned into the ocean by the same way he had entered at. The inlet he supposed to be the same that De Fuca had discovered, which opinion seemed to be universally accepted by all the modern visitors He likewise informed me of his having been off the mouth of a river in the latitude of 46 ° 10 ', where the outset, or reflux, was so strong as to prevent his entering for nine days. This was, probably, the opening passed by us on the forenoon of the 27th; and was, apparently, inaccessible, not from the current, but from the breakers that extended across it.

9

Sunday 29. At four o'clock, a sail was discovered to the westward standing in shore This was a very great novelty, not having seen any vessel but our consort, during the last eight months. She soon hoisted American colours, and fired a gun to leeward. At six we spoke her. She proved to be the ship Columbia, commanded by Mr. Robert Gray, belonging to Boston, whence he had been absent nineteen months

"Nor Did It Seem Accessible to Vessels of Our Burthen"

JO A CHART of the Interior Part of NORTH AMERICA DEMONSTRATJNG the vay fi•al probnbilzf" of an INLAND NAVIGATION from Huns oNs BAY to theWEST COAST

Detail of map from John Meares' memoir of 1790. By Autumn 1789, John Kendrick was captain of the Washington, not Robert Gray.

The sea had now changed from its natural to river coloured water; the probable consequence of some streams falling into the bay, or into the ocean north of it, through the low land. Not considering the opening worthy of more attention, I continued our pursuit to the N.W. being desirous to embrace the advantages of the now prevailing breeze and pleasant weather, so favourable to our examination of the coast ...

-Capt. George Vancouver in H.M.S. Discovery, published in A Voyage of Discovery Around the World, 1798

[April 1792] Friday 27. [The coast] is pleasingly diversified with eminences and small hills near the sea shore, in which are some shallow sandy bays, with a few detached rocks lying about a mile from the land the mountains stretch towards the sea, and at a distance appeared to form many inlets and projecting points; but the sandy beach that continues along the coast renders it a compact shore [It] descends suddenly to a moderate height; and had it been destitute of timber, which seemed of considerable magnitude and to compose an entire forest, it might be deemed low land. Noon brought us up with a very conspicuous point of land composed of a cluster of hummocks, moderately high, and projecting into the sea from the low land before mentioned These hummocks are barren, and steep near the sea, but their tops thinly covered with wood. On the south side of this promontory was the appearance of an inlet, or small river, the land behind not indicating it to be of any great extent; nor did it seem accessible to vessels of our burthcn, a11 the brcaker5 e.x.LemleJ fiu111 the aLuve vuiuL 2 01 3 miles into the ocean, until they joined those on the beach nearly 4 leagues farther south on ascertaining its latitude, I presumed it to be that which [Meares] calls cape Disappointment; and the opening to the south of it, Deception bay. This Cape was found to be in the latitude of 46° 19', longitude 236° 6'.

"That should make the job easy," said Myers. ''We are hoping many of our members will rise to the challenge to help us reach this very important goal during our 30th anniversary year.''

10

The exceptionally high renewal rate among Columbia River Maritime Museum members suggests that they take great pride in their Museum membership. And with good reason. As Oregon's official maritime museum and one of the country's leading maritime institutions, the CRMM story is one our members can tell with pride.

Under a grant from the Institute for Museum Services, CRMM recently contracted with Jonathan Taggart of Taggart Objects Conservation to complete a conservation assessment of the Museum's collections. Included in the survey were objects on display and in storage, environmental concerns, security, and contingencies for addressing future needs. Taggart, a resident of Astoria and a member of the Museum community, is rated as one of the top museum conservators in the country.

A conservation assessment can be an important tool in planning for future care of collections. We are fortunate at CRMM that one of the most important and expensive steps in this process has already been addressed with the completion of the new HVAC system.

Take Up the Challenge! Museum Membership Drive Under Way

AS A MEMBER OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM

Individual $15 per year Pilot $250 per year

You've seen this membership box before, but have you used it? Now is the time to take action. Just photocopy this page. All you need to do is supply the salesmanship.

Supporting $50 per year Steward $1,000 per year

"We are asking each member to bring at least one new member into the CRMM family this year. You are our most effective resource for new memberships," said Myers. ''With the many events this year at the Museum and in the Astoria area , now is the perfect time to bring a prospective member to the Museum as your guest."

Sign On!

Additional funds are needed to help the Museum reach the goals identified by staff and trustees. The current "wish list" includes hiring a full-time librarian, securing professional assistance in cataloguing books, and establishing a budget to fund more exhibits.

Although the goal sounds ambitious, says Myers, it could be reached easily if each current CRMM member brought in only one new member in 1992.

-Bonnie Darves

Name _____________________________ Mailing Address City ___ State _______ Zip _____

Youth $10 per year Sustaining $100 per year

''The year-round free admission to the Museum, discounts on Museum Store purchases, and the subscription to our outstanding Quarterdeck publication, as well as invitations to our special events and exhibits, make membership in the Columbia River Maritime Museum quite a bargain," said Myers.

Trustees, staff, and volunteers are already making an extra effort to bring in new members to meet the 1992 goal, says Myers To enlist member participation in the drive, a special mailing, including a letter and membership application, was recently sent to all members.

In addition to pride of membership, education and entertainment, Myers suggests that members outline the other benefits of Museum membership when approaching ''prospective recruits.''

Museum's Conservation Needs Assessed

Life Member $5000 Single Payment or Cumulative since 1962

Family $25 per year Sponsor $500 per year

To mark the Museum's 30th year-and to help meet current and future financial needs-Director Jerry Ostermiller and Membership Chairman and Trustee David Myers have set a 1992 membership drive goal of 1,500 new members.

Conservator Jonathan Taggart and Curator Anne Witty chat in her office.

SAI L VESSELS

Moderator : Hobe Kytr

II . Work Is Our Joy : The Story of the Columbia River Gillnetter Audio-visual presentation based on oral histories

Above: W. Hampton Scudder, CRMM exhibit specialist, checks light levels in the shipbuilding display area.

This spring, under the direction of Barbara Minard, CRMM collections manager, a crew of curatorial, exhibits, and maintenance staff made a whirlwind sweep of the galleries, cleaning and caring for objects in display cases. This is no small feat, as is demonstrated by the necessity for the removal of plates of glass weighing over two hundred pounds just to get into some of the display cases.

Preliminary Schedule

I. Folk Culture of the Columbia

"Narrative Traditions of Columbia Valley Cattlemen and Loggers," Jens Lund

Presenter: Jim Bergeron

III. Columbia River Cultural Ecology

Spring Cleaning: A Case for Maintenance

It is important not just for the objects to be clean, they must also be well car e d for. Such things as temperature and humidity must be constantly monitored. Light levels must be carefully balanced: enough lighting so people can see, but not so much that harmful light radiation can contribute to the deterioration of the object itself Next time you're in the galleries, stop and appreciate the work that goes on behind the scenes.

Great River of the West Symposium to Meet at CRMMJune 27th

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 3

Left: John Davis and Rino Bebeloni, maintenance staff, and Steve Kann, curator of large objects, pose in the Sailing Vessels gallery. Sharp-eyed Museum members will note the model is of the British ship Torrens, holder of the record for speed under sail from Plymouth to Adelaide. In like fashion, our case maintenance "swat team" established new records for expeditious handling of delicate tasks during spring cleaning.

The Columbia River Maritime Museum has a reputation for running the cleanest ship in the business A good bit of credit for that is due our hard working maintenance crew. But there is more than meets the eye to making things look good in a museum setting, and it involves considerably more than janitorial duties. When it comes to case maintenance, a good plan and lots of teamwork are required.

"Physical Culture and Ecology of the Columbia River," Robert Bunting

"Three Frontiers," Dean May

11

The Center for Columbia River History, Vancouver, Washington, is sponsoring several day-long conferences throughout the Columbia valley during this bicentenial year. The title of the conference series is : "Great River of the West: The Columbia River in Pacific Northwest History ." On June 27th, it will be our pleasure at the Columbia River Maritime Museum to host a symposium on Cultural Ecology and Folk Culture of the Columbia River

"Folk Tradition and Finns," Robert Walls

The public is invited to attend the conference without charge Registration is not required to attend the conference sessions. Additional details will be forthcoming in the local press as the conference date approaches. But mark your calendar now!

Lunch on your own

Moderator : Laurie Mercier

Holding CAMM '92 in the Pacific Northwest is indicative of an effort by the Council of American Maritime Museums to expand its national perspective As CAMM President Peter Neill said, "We are here to meet with a vital and growing regional maritime movement that is, on the face of it, distinctly unsnobby " CAMM '92 focused on education and entertainment. In fact, the most engaging portions of the conference were those in which strongly held differences of opinion provoked lively discussion. Notably absent from this conference were two topics which would seem to have been naturals for such a gathering of maritime educators : traditional songs of the sea (entertaining and educational), and the topical relev a nce of marine education-in the sense of natural science of the marine environment. Some CAMM members are in fact marine museums. Even those, such as ours, which focus on maritime history to a great extent interpret the history of resource exploitation, the other side of which must be natural history. Perhaps a future conference will address the issues of envi ronmental education and the maritime museum. H B.K.

Museum professionals from major maritime museums in the U S , Canada, and Australia gathered in Astoria recently as the annual conference of the Council of American Maritime Museums for 1992 met at the Columbia River Maritime Museum, April 8 11 Only the sec ond time CAMM has held the conference on the West Coast, this was an opportunity for the Columbia River Maritime Museum to put on a show for the top people in the business, and the first time a national conference has been staged at this institution.

Council of American Maritime Museums Meets at CRMM

The conference began Wednesday eve ning, April 8th, with a reception co hosted by the Pacific Northwest Maritime Heritage Counc il. The Maritime Heritage Council is a relatively new organization of Northwest museums and maritime institutions seeking to broaden regional cooperation in pursuit of maritime preservation and education.

This year's CAMM conference had a theme of education and entertainment The keynote address Thursday morning, April 9th, was given by Dr. William Tramposch, President of the New York State Historical Association at Coopers town. The talk was entitled, ''The Secret of Education is in Respecting the Student," a quote from Ralph Waldo Emerson . During his presentation, Dr. Tram posch recalled visiting the late Dr. Robert Oppenheimer, the renowned nuclear physicist, who in l ater years founded The Exploratorium in San Francisco . Among the anecdotes he recalled from this visit was how Dr Oppenheimer evaluated new exhibits at his science museum geared to young audiences. He related that the elderly physicist, who walked with a cane, would approach a group of young visitors gathered around a new exhibit. Passing nearby, he would purposely knock over one of the folding aluminum chairs which were always kept handy "If no one looks up, it ' s a success . ''

The remainder of the Thursday morning sessions were taken up with issues surrounding the 1992 International Mari time Bicentennial. Speakers included Garry Schalliol of the Washington State Historical Society, Garry Breckon, representing the Oregon Columbia River Bicentennial Commission, and James P. Delgado of the Vancouver Maritime Mu seum Dr. William Lang of the Center for Columbia River History rounded out the morning with a stirring talk on the early contact period in the region.

On Friday, April 10th, the scene shifted to Fort Clatsop National Memorial. Following a CAMM business meeting, conference participants were treated to a "Tour de Fort" by Fort Clatsop staff. Afternoon sessions began with a panel on Native American maritime traditions and modern concerns moderated by CRMM's Anne Witty The panelists included Fred York, regional anthropologist with the National Park Service, Seat tle, Leslie Lincoln, marine anthropologist of Port Townsend, and Carol Craig, representing the Columbia River Inter tribal Fish Commission Caro l Craig's

talk included a moving description of the flooding of Celilo Falls behind the Dalles Dam and what the loss of their ancient fishing grounds meant to her people. She concluded with a plea to work together to restore the salmon runs of the Columbia River. The discussion which followed was both heated and colorful.

Saturday provided an opportunity for field trips. Some opted for donning crash helmets and survival suits to go over the bar with the National Motor Lifeboat School. Others chose an in-river excursion on the bar pilot launch Peacock Still others went for a tour of the Port of Astoria and the Salvage Chief, then off to Tongue Point to see Ogilvie's buoy manufacturing operation and the buoy tender Iris. And a good, and educational, time was had by all.

12

Broadening Perspectives

Thursday evening was highlighted by river tours aboard the replica vessel Lady Washington. Later that evening, a video presentation about interactive exhibits in the U.S. Gallery of the new Australian National Maritime Museum was offered by Gavin Fry of the ANMS

Friday's final session, "Can Good Education be Entertaining?'' was inimitably moderated by Stuart Parnes from Mystic Seaport Panelists included Cindy Orlando of Fort Clatsop, Kathleen Condon of South Street Seaport, and Susan Silverstein and Lee Oestreicher for theater productions at the Navy Museum. The concluding discussions were, once again, spirited, hinging on broad differences concerning interpretive ideas designed to "hook" new museum audiences . In essence, the activist role of ''entertaining education'' challenges comfortable assumptions and pushes the conventional limits of a museum or historic site something with which not all museum professionals are in agreement. Contention gave way to camaraderie, however, as the day concluded with a Northwest salmon bake on the Fort Clat sop grounds.

Thursday afternoon sessions were devoted to new educational ideas and new museum audiences, moderated by Jane Keener, Mystic Seaport Speakers included Mary Ellen Olcese from the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Dick Wagner of the Center for Wooden Boats, and Amy Boyce Osaki, from the Portland Art Museum. The presentations described a diverse set of approaches in a variety of settings . Dick Wagner's inspirational presentation demonstrated that it is indeed possible to go beyond conventional limits in teaching maritime skills "Freedom on the Sound," a day on the water for the physically and mentally handicapped, is a successful program de signed to get people with disabilities out on Seattle's Lake Union in small boats to have fun and learn while doing it.

Columbia, Stewart Holbrook (Comstock, 1992). Out of print for many years, this popular volume by the late "Dean of Portland writers" should be in stock by the time this goes to press Paper, 13 . 95/Members 12 . 55 .

Recommended Bicentennial Reading from the Museum Store

work and writes pretty well to boot. We sold 500 copies of this book at the Museum Store last summer alone Paper, 4.50/Members 4.05.

Astoria etJ Empire, James P . Ronda (University of Nebraska, 1990) . This recently published volume comes highly recommended. John Jacob Astor's fur trading venture on the Columbia River was the beginning of American settlement west of the Rockies Hardback, 25.00/Members 22 50.

13

Columbia's River, J. Richard Nokes (Washington State Historical Society, 1991). Mr Nokes, the retired editor of the Oregonian, brings a passion for research and a career's worth of writing for general audiences to this subject. A great beginning for those who want to learn about Robert Gray and the Columbia. Hardback, 39.95/Members 35.95; paper, 24.95/Members 22.45 .

Columbia, Pamela Jekel (Charter Books, 1986). A Michener-style popular novel; Ms. Jekel obviously did her home-

The Chinook Indians: Traders of the Columbia River, Ruby and Brown, (University of Oklahoma, 1974). This is a fascinating compilation of historical materials on this subject, although a considerable amount of observer bias is accepted uncritically by the authors. Ruby and Brown make a tremendous amount of research on the Chinooks available to the general reader. Paper, 16 95/Members 15.25.

with beautiful illustrations by Hewitt Jackson. Boit was junior officer on the Columbia's second voyage, here master of his own vessel at the tender age of 19. Paper, 12.95/Members 11.65; hardback also available.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No 3

Log of the Union: John Bait's Remarkable Voyage to the Northwest Coast and Around the World, 1794-1796, edited by Edmund Hayes (OHS Press, 1981). This is a gorgeous book at a reasonable price,

The Search for the Northwest Passage, Lucile McDonald (Binford & Mort, 1958). Despite being dated, this is still the best volume in print at this time explaining the exploration of the Northwest Coast for younger readers. Other volumes inspired by the maritime bicentennial are expected within the year Paper, 6.95/Members 6.25.

CAMM delegates enjoy a cruise on the Lady Washington on a lovely spring evening. As the only replica vessel representing the era of the maritime fur trade on the Northwest Coast, the Lady Washington is the official flagship of the International Maritime Bicentennial.

Voyages of the Columbia, 1787-1790 & 1790-1793, Frederick W. Howay (OHS Press, 1991). This is a reprint of the classic scholarly volume first printed by the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1941 and long out of print . If you want the actual extracts from the surviving journals and logs, this is where to find them . Hardback, 40 .00/Members 36.00 .

Bill &. Shirley Gittelsohn May Gustafson

Eugene E. Buell

Marjorie Halderman

George Hammond

Jack &. Margie Lively

Dennis A. Larson

Morley Horder

Robert J. Wujick

Ralph M. Albright

Mr. &. Mrs. Victor L. Fox

Julie Waters

CORPORATE SUSTAINING Mel Emberland

Martha E. Ahearn

Dorothy T. Grieve

Joyce E. Justice

Benjamin A. Niemi

Mr. &. Mrs. H. Buhk

John V. &. Marilyn S. Pedersen

Lester M. &. Bernice R Smith

Mr. &. Mrs. James M. Keane Dan &. Marie Lake

Geary T. &. Isabel T. Becker William&. Mary Behr

Neal A. Nyberg

Bob &. Carmela Newstead

George A. &. Dorann B. Riemer

Mr. &. Mrs. Leo L. Bauer

Warren Gustave Moe

FAMILY

Daniel, Ann, William &. Norah Burdette Gerald &. Karen Carter

Darrell Crawford

STEWARD Jean G. Sandoz

Mr. &. Mrs. Howard Bergman

SUPPORTING

Robert &. Mary Catlin

INDIVIDUAL

Lonnie Prather

John Reagan

SUSTAINING

LCDR Eltinge Grinnell, USNR

Fran Severson

LIFE

Donald N. Dackins

Nancy Loukkula

Frank A. Bauman, II Ken Charters

Theodore A. Kahl

Brian Hardin

Mr. &. Mrs. Robert M. Fletcher

Mr. &. Mrs. Mark A. Watson

Arnold Krippendorf

William A. Sacherek

New Members -January 1 - March 31, 1992

Robert B. Teagle G. R. Watson

Mr. R. L. Borland

Dr. Richard &. Patty Pedersen

Robert N. Hauke

Ruth Truman Jensen

Henry E. Ramvick

The Ransier Family

Amy G. Gill

Richard&. Sara New lands

Richard &. Susan E. Gustafson

Barbara Gray

Mr. &. Mrs. Sherman Aldredge Nathaniel Alles &. Family Allan R. Anderson Doug &. Terry Arnall Astoria Cleaners

Barbara Funk

Judge &. Mrs. Robert E. Jones Donald E. Manzer, C.P.A. Byron D. Ruppel

Steve Felkins

Frank N. Frost

Bob &. Pat Hjorten John 0. Holloway Mr. &. Mrs. Larry O. Ivy Mr. &. Mrs. Arne Jylha Mr. &. Mrs. James Kammeyer Mr. &. Mrs. Mark J. Kann

Gordon &. Lora Childs Crest Motel Arnold &. Erica K. Curtis

Pete Darrah

Charlotte Langsev

Mr. &. Mrs. James Durkheimer

John Crockett

Glenna L. Leino

James F. Danielson

Jerry &. Colleen Keenan Mr. &. Mrs. Arnold Knudsen Mr. &. Mrs. Douglas M. Knutzen Mr. &. Mrs. Mike Kuehl

Earl &. Zona Malinen Terry &. Joyce Meagher

Increased Memberships -January 1 - March 31, 1992

Justin B. Esperance

CORPORATE SUPPORTING McCall Tire Center, Inc.

Edith Olson

Margaret J. Jeremiah Daniel D. Jordan

Mr.&. Mrs. Robert D. McCracken Lowell &. Sue Marsh

Marian C. Ferguson

CORPORATE SUSTAINING Gray Whale Gallery &. Gifts

John W. Dahlsten

Tim &. Joni Rhodes

Mr. &. Mrs. Wesley J. Anderson

Pearl Burns

Carl Gohs

Mr. &. Mrs. Dennis A. Bjork Lloyd &. Evelyn A. Bloomberg Albert &. Arlene Branson

Robert &. Crystal Hovden Jane R. Kendall

Herbert S. &. Anita Everson

Mr. &. Mrs. Paul G. Williamson

Harold E. Spolstra, N Thur! Stalnaker, Jr. Sue Stunkard

Mr. &. Mrs. Stephen B. Dudley

Jeanne M. Fastabend

SUSTAINING

Mr. &. Mrs. Manford Pate

Mr. &. Mrs. Richard C. Tevis

Dodie Gann

Lincoln A Calvert

Dr. &. Mrs. Thomas R. Montgomery

Philip S. Hill

14

Virginia A. Draper

Shawn Higgins

Redmond J. Barnett

Phyllis Erickson

Teresa Nelson

Harry B. &. Jean Rice, Jr. Jim Scheller &. Jann Luesse Mr. &. Mrs. Al Simpson

Robert L. Brandel

Charles Williamson

Mr. &. Mrs. Ross A. Fearey

Mr. &. Mrs. Don Tucker

Mr. &. Mrs. C. Walton, Jr.

Arne &. Kathy Eilertsen Marcella L. Hatch

William Lambert Mel &. Ann Landis Gregory T. &. Margaret K. Lapic Ken &. Catherine Lenhert Dean&. Vicky Lindberg Steven &. Leslie Logan Don Nakonechny &. Patti McCall John H. Magaw

Mr. &. Mrs. Rom Georges, Jr.

Ron &. Pam Peper

John R. &. Jean S. Badewitz

Kathie Murray Ken &. Nancy P. Nash

Stephan Lapic

SUPPORTING

Lou M. Giovanini

Christine Quinn-Brintnall

Charlotte Keiter

Karen N. Nelson

John D. &. Mary Lou Power Paul &. Rena Reimers

Mr. &. Mrs. Harold C. Nelson

Mr. &. Mrs. Eldred W. Hendrickson

Christine Stricklin Mr. &. Mrs. William R. Stuart Dale &. Margaret Tilden Mr. &. Mrs. Jim Van Arsdall Marie J. Vandewater

Capt. &. Mrs. Taylor K. DeMun David Denecke &. Gail Neuburg and Family Kenneth &. Barbara Dugan Aron Faegre Debra Faustini

Cecil S. Woods

Captain &. Mrs. M. R. Boyce Jean Irwin Hoffman

Donald Helligso

Walter Gadsby, Jr.

Susan E. Pakenen Holway

Shirley Marpe

Wade Carter

FAMILY

PILOT

Mr. &. Mrs. Robert W. Chamberlin Kevin Chang Kent Cox

David B. Hallin

Mr. &. Mrs Larry Perkins

Jane E. Albus

Roland &. Jane Mercier Sandi Moore

SAM CHURCHILL

Memorial Donations -January 1 - March 31, 1992

Mr. & Mrs. Graham Barbey

David & Pat Hallin Marcella L. Hatch

ALVIN F. KAMARA Carl & Joyce Bondietti Trygve & Aini Duoos Mr. & Mrs. Albin E. !hander Eldon & Betty Korpela Ed & Sylvia Lundholm

MINNETTE PIETARILA Helen A. Anderson Donald & Nancy Hoff Mrs. Vern Mogenson

15

DOROTHY U CHADSEY Bert & June Tassie

Quarterdeck, Vol 18 No. 3

* *

EDSELL G. AsPMO

Dr & Mrs. Robert D. Neikes

Trygve & Aini Duoos

HONORARY PILOT Tom Jackson

MARTIN GASSNER

EDWIN M STANLEY Mr. & Mrs. Robert G Hemphill

50TH WEDDING ANNIVERSARY JAY AND MARGE LUDWIGSEN Ruth Lutzker

Mr. & Mrs. George Holt Lillian G. Jackson Dorothy R. Mickelson

RUBY MOONEY David & Pat Hallin

ERICH MAX KLAHR John & Helen Acton

MAURICE A. JOHNSON Norman & Idamae Forney

WILBERTA BABBIDGE LIPPS George & Velma McKelvey J. PAUL LOWE Jim & Gurie O'Connor

MARGARET NORDLANDER George & Helen Blinco

Mr. & Mrs. Edward S . Beall

*

Robert A Nikka Carol L. Nygaard Almeda S. Oltmanns Mr. & Mrs. Roderick A. Sarpola Agnes Wolleson

THOMAS L. HUSSEY Mr. & Mrs. William C. Farrens

CAPTAIN EDGAR A. QUINN Captain & Mrs. Joseph L. Bruneau

ARTHUR HONEYMAN FAMILY MEMORIAL Mrs. Alan Honeyman Catherine Honeyman Engmark Barbara Honeyman Roll

Mildred C . Brown Arnold Krippendorf Mrs. John Lee!, Jr. Arnold & Lenore Mart Gerald A. & Mary Smith

SOLOMON SOLONSKY Earl & Zona Malinen

ALIDA H. SAARI Gerald H. & Lois K. Carlson Dee & Ida Hubbard Lillian Jackson Vincent & Sylvia Kearney Helen T. Morgan

AILIE HAINES

Mr & Mrs C. Gordon Childs Allan Maki

Mr & Mrs. Harry Dichter

CHARLES MICHAEL GUSTAFSON

John & Bette Lou Karamanos

ROBERT w GAMBLE

ROY J. STARR Mr. & Mrs. Harry Dichter

BETTY LUBKEN David & Pat Hallin

JOHN DWIGHT MANLEY Gladys H. Duncan Norman R. & Idamae Forney Carl & Dorothy Labiske

Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Nora Johnson Edith Miller

Ron & Joyce Honeyman

FAY RICKERT Ken & Eva Moore

JOHN RODRIGUES Brix Maritime Company

CAPTAIN WILLIAM G. MCCALLUM Patrick A . Butler

LARRY CLEIN

Mr & Mrs. George M. Wilhelm

Columbia River Fisherman's Protective Union Durham and Bates Agencies, Inc. Earl & Zona Malinen Hank Ramvick

Mr. & Mrs. Albin !hander

CLYDE 'CAPTAIN CLYDE' EVERSON

Mel & Shirley Schoessler

ANDREW M. MARINCOVICH Mr. & Mrs. Ray Ala

RONALD J. HONEYMAN Frederic & June Young

Special Donations

ROBERT ALLEN MASON Allan & Peggy Bue

PAULINE MCCALLUM Dorothy G. Butler Jocelyn A. Butler Patrick A. Butler Mr. & Mrs. Homer E. Churchley George & Tomiko Iwasaki Dorance & Kathleen Soule

THELMA G. ANDERSON

DOLLY DEMASE

Seaside Vacuum Cleaners

HULDA M HAARALA

Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Don & Grace Goodall Donald & Carol Haskell Mabel Herold Patricia Longnecker

MARJORIE w. RITTER Robert & Mary Catlin

Brix Maritime Company Maurie Clark Coast Medical Supply Columbia River Maritime Museum Auxiliary Mr & Mrs. J. R. Dant Mr. & Mrs Carl 0 Fisher Mr. & Mrs J. W. Forrester Friends of Old Fort Stevens Madronna Holden Margaret I. Hughes Mr & Mrs. Wayne E McFarland Mr. & Mrs. John S McGowan Mr & Mrs. David M. Myers Hester H. Nau Lloyd & Rebecca Newhouse Marian Kay Palmberg Jean G. Sandoz

James & Ivy Stacy

Mr & Mrs Arvi Ostrom Paul & Rena Reimers Barbara Taylor

The Rev. Sallie E. Shippen Mr. & Mrs. William T.C. Stevens Wheeler Foundation

NANCY HAGEN

Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Hemphill

MILDRED HEDVIG SMITH

IN HONOR OF DAVID MYERS' BIRTHDAY Mr. & Mrs. Alan C Goudy R. B . Pamplin Foundation

REINO R HEIKKILA

Earl & Zona Malin e n Mary Louise Stoner

Mr. & Mrs Walter 0. Fransen

LEO LANDAUER Mr. & Mrs. Ray Peterson

RETA LYNN OLSON Jack & Dorothy Burkhart Gordon & Betty Johnson Oliver & Fay Lindseth Joseph & Donna Parnell George Strom John & Waverlie Warila

MILLICENT STEWART Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe Mr. & Mrs. Victor L. Nunenkamp

FRANCIS FRANK WATTS

RICHARD BUSH

Freda Englund

OIVA 0. KALLIO Mr. & Mrs. Owen Oja

HARLEY LARSEN Brix Maritime Company

Mildred G. Doran

BILLY G HATCH

The new installation is designed to serve several purposes. As a piece of public art, it dresses up the building. Based on Rolf Klep' s design, the medallion also highlights our thirtieth anniversary. Most importantly, it invites visitors to Astoria to take a closer look at the unusual building down on the waterfront. No more will people say , "Oh, you mean there was a maritime museum in Astoria? I wish I had known. I never saw the sign!' '

A symbol of things past and things to come, the ship Columbia is lifted into place on the peak of the Museum south wall. Commissioned by the CRMM Auxiliary, the medallion was fabricated in stainless steel by Northwest Propeller Works of Astoria.

1792 MARINE DRIVE

ASTORIA, OREGON 97103

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED 0891-2661

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM

On the morning of Tuesday, March 2nd, 1992, two big yellow trucks from Pacific Power rolled up the ·Museum service drive and stopped below the main peak on the south wall of the building. Stabilizers locked in place, up went a cherry picker and sky hook. The long awaited medallion of the ship Columbia was ready for installation.

Commissioned by the Columbia River Maritime Museum Auxiliary, this 400pound, 10-foot diameter stainless steel emblem is an enlarged version of the Museum logo that has graced CRMM's front entrance for the past ten years.

ISSN

Astoria, Oregon

A Practical Application of Symbolism

Permit No. 328

Non-Profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE PAID

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