V15 N2 Spring 1988 Pile Driver Building the South Jetty of the Columbia River, 1880s

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QUARTERDECK

REVIEW

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SPRING 1988

N0. 2

1792 MARINE DRIVE, ASTORIA, OREGON 97103

PILE DRIVER BUILDING THE SOUTH JETTY OF THE COLUMBIA, 1880's (see story on page 4)


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MARITIME WEEK '88 MAY 14-22

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Events for Astoria's annual Maritime Week will occur at the Museum, unless noted otherwise (* means the event will occur only if the cutter Resolute is in port).

FROM THE QUARTERDECK In no small measure, the success of the Columbia River Maritime Museum is due to the people, whether paid or not, who fill the roles in our staff. Over the long haul, their work has contributed greatly to the Museum's distinguished reputation. Their creative talent, energy, and impressive dedication have been essential in the nearly twenty-six years of the Museum's history. The full-time staff demonstrates a strong commitment to the well-being and development of the Museum. The core of any museum is its collections, the material link to the past. Curator Larry Gilmore and Associate Curator Bruce Weilepp are responsible for the critical role of collecting and preserving the Museum's artifacts, photographs, and library materials. Our office and membership records are administered by Carol Puderbaugh, maintaining the Museum's business in an efficient and orderly fashion. Exhibits Specialist Hampton Scudder develops displays and supervises the operation of the lightship. Doug Davenport , Maintenance Chief, insures that our facilities are clean and attractive. In addition to our paid staff, our institution functions through the efforts of many people who contribute their time and serve in nearly all facets of our activities. Volunteer Coordinalor Mary Steinbock has established a network of people who willingly perform many essential tasks. Our volunteers are regarded as regular staff who take an active role in the development of their skills. The majority assist in the operation of our popular museum shop, managed by Patricia Longnecker. Through the years, the staff, both paid and unpaid, have earned our thanks and gratitude . They have been instrumental in bringing the Museum to this point, and they will continue to be critical in our further development. Stephen L. Recken, Director

Saturday, May 14 10:30 a.m . - 5:00 p.m. Display of Richard Small's steam launch

on Museum plaza (if no rain) . Noon "Row-In" (for all human-powered craft, entry 10 a.m. 11:45 a.m.), followed by buffet for participants. 1:00 p.m. Bagpipe music by Pat Moore. 1:00 - 4:00 p.m. USCG cutter Resolute open house.* 2:00 p.m. Boatswain's pipe demonstration.* 2:45 p.m. Signal flag demonstration.* Sunday, May 15 Noon Oregon City High School Band concert (Museum plaza). 1:00 p.m. Guided tour of lightship Columbia. 1:00 p.m. Bagpipe music by Pat Moore. 1:00 - 3:00 p.m. Paul Barrett demonstrates bookbinding. 1:00 - 4:00 p.m. USCG cutter Resolute open house.* 2:00 p. m. Storytelling by Linda Grznar. 3:00 p.m. Slide/tape program, "When the River Was the Road." Monday, May 16 3:00 p. m. Slide/tape Program, "When the River Was the Road."

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Tuesday, May 17 Film, "Round Cape Horn" (repeat showings).

Wednesday, May 18 Noon Maritime Museum Auxiliary fund-raising luncheon. 1:00 p.m. Bagpipe music by Pat Moore. 2:00 p. m. Boatswain's pipe demonstration.* 2:45 p. m. Signal flag demonstration.* Thursday, May 19 1:00 p.m. Guided tour of lightship Columbia . 3:00 p. m. Slide/tape program, "When the River Was the Road."

Friday, May 20 1:00 p.m. Guided tour of lightship Columbia. 3:00 p.m. Slide/tape program, "When the River Was the Road." 7:00 p.m. Anchor Club Fashion Show at Red Lion Inn.

Saturday, May 21 (Armed Forces Day) All Day Jane Barnes Day events of the Clatsop County Historical Society. Noon Dedication of Ranald MacDonald memorial at site of Fort Astoria. Noon - 4:00 p.m. Bill Barrett demonstrates rope-making. 12:30 - 4:00 p.m. Ship model contest (10:30 entry deadline). 1:00 - 4:00 p.m. USCG cutter Resolute open house.* 1:15 p.m. (approximate} U.S.S. Gambier Bay survivors present award to modellers N.H . Marineau & Bob Norgren.

Museum staff, front row from left: Celerino Bebeloni, Kevin Violette, Carol Puderbaugh, Louise Oja, Patricia Longnecker, Paula Scott, Steve Recken, Doug Davenport; back: Charles Mason, Lisa Wynne, Larry Gilmore, John Davis, Tracy Sund, Bill Dee, Hampton Scudder, Bruce Weilepp, Mike McCusker. Not present: Andrew Cier, Hobe Kytr, Bryan Lenten, and Irene Martin.

Sunday, May 22 (National Maritime Day) Noon - 4:00 p.m. Bill Barrett demonstrates rope-making. 1:00 p.m. Guided tour of lightship Columbia. 1:00 - 4:00 p.m. USCG cutter Resolute open house .* 2:00 p.m. Boatswain's pipe demonstration.* 2:45 p.m. Signal flag demonstration.* Afternoon Coast Guard demonstrates helicopter rescue. 4:30 p.m. Film, "Abandon Ship," starring Tyrone Power. 7:30 p.m. Film, "Abandon Ship," starring Tyrone Power.


NEW EDUCATION COORDINATOR Mr. Hobe Kytr joined the staff during April to replace former Education Coordinator Richard Fencsak, who resigned to pursue other interests. Kytr is a native of Portland and holds both a B.A. (1970) and an M.A.T. (1973) from Reed College in Portland. Since 1974 he has been a self-employed folklorist, musician, and artist, with a special interest in the traditional songs and folklore of the Pacific Northwest. For twelve years, Kytr has been involved in school programs on the occupational history and folklore of Northwest pioneers, fishermen, and loggers. In 1978 he was artist in residence for Clatsop County, under a grant from the Oregon Arts Commission, with the purpose of investigating the folklore of the timber camps. Last year, he was the writer for the Woody Guthrie project, part of the Bonneville Power Administration's observance of its 50th anniversary. Please join us in welcoming Mr. Kytr to the staff. We look forward to working with him.

STEWARDSHIP REPORT A special stewardship report, in commemoration of the Museum's 25th anniversary last year, is due to be distributed lu memlJers i11 lhe near fulure, vussiiJly lJefure lhis issue uf lhe Quarterdeck Review is ready for mailing. In addition to a financial report and membership roster, it also includes outlines of the history of our institution, the present status of its staff and collections, and goals for the future. This special publication was made possible by a $10,000 grant from the Clark Foundation of Portland.

PUT YOUR OAR IN! The Lower Columbia Row-In will again be held on Saturday, May 14th, during Maritime Week. This is a gathering for all types of craft powered exclusively by human muscle, whether oars, paddles, or pedal drive is used. If you have such a boat, please join us for the fun and encourage others to do so. Tie-up floats will be provided alongside the lightship Columbia, and a motorized safety boat will be on hand. For those who wish to compete, there will be two courses, one 3 miles in length, and the other 1.5 miles. Starting time is noon at the Museum, and registration opens at 10:00 a.m. Contact Bruce Weilepp at (503) 325-2323 for details.

Previous competitions have drawn entries from as far afield as Nevada, Idaho, and British Columbia. The 1987 contest attracted 49 models, entered by 26 amateur model builders from 22 different Northwest communities. Contact Larry Gilmore at (503) 325-2323 for further details.

• VOLUNTEER POWER! To honor the huge contribution made to the operation of the Museum by our volunteers, all available staff members, paid and volunteer alike, gathered on the evening of February 29th for a convivial potluck dinner, dubbed the "Leap Year Pasta Party," which featured a great variety of pasta dishes. During the evening, Volunteer Coordinator Mary Steinbock presented these impressive statistics: A total of 79 volunteers donated 4,309 hours of their time, which translated into monetary value would run into the tens of thousands of dollars. The volunteer shop clerks led with 1,657, followed by 1,088 for education functions, 700.5 in curatorial work, 686.5 for office help, 153 for preparation of bulk mailings, and 24 hours miscellaneous help. Certificates of recognition and special pins were given to 17 individuals who donated more than 100 hours: Lucille & Victor Berger, Helen Caspell, Jeanne Clifford, Carel & Jim Mccafferty, Curtis McKinney, Annabell Miller, Barbara Minard, Michael Monteith, Carol Moore, Gurie O'Connor, Pat Samuelson, Michael Soderberg, Mary Steinbock, Frankye Thompson, and Leonard Vernon. Helen Caspcll recorded the most hours, 712, followed by Leonard Vernon with 427, and Barbara Minard with 271.5. Needless to say, the paid staff are deeply grateful to these most generous people, who not only make our own work much easier, but often make certain endeavors possible in the first place. More importantly, they deserve the recognition and appreciation of our entire membership and the general public, who are those they truly serve.

15th MODEL COMPETITION This year is the 15th anniversary of our annual ship model competition, which will be held on Saturday, May 21st. As always, there will be six categories, providing for all types of model watercraft, in both adult and youth divisions. The entry deadline is 10:30 a.m .; no entry fees are charged. All models will be exhibited to the public from 12:30 to 4:00 p .m . A trophy will be awarded to the best model in the show, and certificates and ribbons will be given to winners in each category. Dr. Robert S. Norgren of Beaverton and Eric Adams of l;'ortland, both winners in previous contests, will serve as judges, along with Curator Larry Gilmore.

100-hr. volunteers, front row from left: Carel McCafferty, Bud McKinney, Annabell Miller, Carol Moore, Pat Samuelson, Helen Caspell, Mary Steinbock, Lucille Berger; back row: Jeanne Clifford, Helen Lessard, Mike Monteith, Jim McCafferty, Len Vernon, Victor Berger. Not present: Barb Minard, Gurie O'Connor, Mike Soderberg, and Frankye Thompson.


THE COLUMBIA RIVER JETTIES Ceaselessly battered by the vast forces of the sea, the jetties which stand at the mouth of the Columbia River are familiar landmarks to people who frequent this area, but the function and history of these great structures are less well known. When constructed, they were marvels of technology and among the most ambitious engineering efforts ever undertaken; they remain impressive and functional monuments to the organizational and design skills of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which created them. In the last century, the Columbia River bar gained a well deserved reputation for treachery. As one official put it, "In its natural state, the tides and currents from the ocean, plus the current of the Columbia itself, could alter the entrance almost overnight." Two ship channels existed at the river's mouth, neither of them really deep or dependable enough to safely handle the shipping that used the Columbia after about 1850. The 17 to 21-foot depth of these channels left little margin for error when deepwater vessels crossed the bar, even when there was a high tide and the sea was calm. The turbulent Northwest weather and the tremendous breakers that often rolled over the bar frequently delayed ships for days or even weeks before a safe opportunity to cross occurred.

The wharf at Ft. Stevens with a rock barge and train

Political pressure was applied, as Northwest population and trade grew, for action to increase the safety of shipping using the Columbia River. In response, Congress authorized in 1878 a survey to determine the nature and cost of permanent improvements at the river's mouth. During the 19th century, the Corps of Engineers had increasingly been called on to conduct large-scale civil engineering projects, including improvement of shipping channels and harbors, with the result that they were eventually given permanent responsibility for regulation and improvement of U.S. harbors and navigable rivers. Therefore, carrying out Congress' order fell to Major George L. Gillespie, District Engineer in Portland. He declared that deepening the entrance would be potentially of inestimable benefit to Northwest trade. But he also wrote, "The building of [a] breakwater in the open sea, to cover so wide a harbor entrance, and resting upon such an unstable foundation and exposed to such terrific seas, is an undertaking which any engineer may well hesitate to recommend and tremble to commence.'' Major Gillespie drew up proposals for a jetty extending in a northwesterly direction from Fort Stevens (on Point Adams, Oregon) towards Cape Disappointment, Washington. The idea was that, by narrowing the river's mouth, the whole flow of the Columbia on the ebb tide would be accelerated and directed into one channel, rather than being allowed to spread out and dissipate its force through several smaller channels. This

would stabilize the location of the ship channel, while the scouring effect of the faster current would naturally tend to deepen it. Gillespie's plans were not adopted; meanwhile, in 1881 he was succeeded as district engineer by Captain Charles F. Powell. Northwest shipping interests continued to lobby Congress, which ordered in 1882 that a plan for permanent improvement of the Columbia bar be drawn up by the Army Engineers. After considering voluminous survey data, a proposal was issued by the Board of Engineers that September. It called for a stone jetty 4.5 miles long, which would extend northwest in a slight curve from Fort Stevens to a point about three miles south of Cape Disappointment. It was estimated to cost $3,710,000, but would provide a depth of thirty feet in the ship channel at low tide. Congress authorized the project in July 1884. Work on the jetty commenced in April 1885 and lasted for ten years. It was completed for just under $2,025,000 (45% below budget!) . The grand nature of the project required that various construction facilities, including offices, shops, and a wharf, be built first. A narrow-gauge railway trestle with double tracks was then begun and gradually extended out into the water by a specially designed pile driver, which operated from the end of the completed section. Small steam locomotives and a fleet of flat-bed dump cars hauled out building materials. The jetty foundation was prepared by driving pilings deep into the seabed. Next, fascines (bundles of brushwood) eighteen feet long and one foot in diameter were placed to form a forty-foot-wide "mattress" to minimize erosion of the bottom on which the jetty would rest. Large stones for the jetty were quarried 100 miles up the Columbia and barged down to the wharf at Fort Stevens for transfer to the railway cars, which carried them out on the trestle and dumped them over the side. This method resulted in somewhat haphazard placement and the breakage of many stones, with the result that the ocean immediately began picking the structure apart; so, even before the jetty was completed, a good deal of effort each year had to go into repairs. The workmen were endangered by wind and waves, which frequently broke over the trestle with great force, as the structure progressed into deeper, more exposed water. Outer por-

Loading rock on a dump car using a special cradle


economy and increasing size of ships. Since 1984, the entrance channel has been maintained at 55 feet. The Editor wishes to acknowledge that the prime source for this article was Dr. William F. Willingham's book, Army Engineers and the Development of Oregon: A History of the Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983. A rock train on the south jetty of the Columbia

tions of the trestle sometimes swayed too violently to permit trains to run on it. In 1890, autumn storms entirely washed away 144 feet of track. Construction was having a noticeable effect on the bar by 1889. As predicted, large deposits of sand began to build up around the jetty. This was considered vital to the security of the jetty, since the sand broke the force of waves that would otherwise damage the structure. To prevent tidal flow from carrying the sand away again, the jetty was heightened and four perpendicular rock groins were placed on its north side. When completed in 1895, the south jetty was ninety feet wide across its base, thirty feet high, and projected about ten feet above mean low water. Much of the detailed engineering was the work of Assistant Engineer Gustave Hegardt, who served fourteen years at the mouth of the Columbia. The jetty caused the ship channel to scour out to a depth of thirty feet. Meanwhile, the value of shipping entering the river roughly doubled over that of the previous decade. However, the Columbia's mouth was not stabilized to the degree hoped for, and annual surveys from 1897 on showed a yearly decrease of channel depth. Therefore, dredging, major repairs to the existing jetty, and a new 2.5-mile extension of it were recommended in 1902 and completed in 1913 for an additional $8,000.000. This achieved a channel 37 feet deep. By this time, however, the size of ships had increased enough that 40 feet was considered desirable. Consequently, the north jetty was built from Cape Disappointment, Washington between 1914 and 1917 for another $5,000,000. It was 2.5 miles long and was constructed under contract by Daniel Kern's Columbia Contract Company. The basic construction technique was the same in all this work. Hydrographic surveys in 1918 confirmed that a minimum depth of 40 feet had been attained all across the channel entrance. Construction of the Columbia River jetties was the biggest project undertaken by the Portland District of the Corps of Engineers until the 1930's. When complete, they contained some nine million tons of rock and were the largest jetties on earth. They made it possible for the biggest vessels then operating in the Pacific to cross the Columbia River bar at all stages of the tide and in all but the worst weather. In conjunction with construction of harbor facilities and dredging of river channels, the jetties allowed Portland, between 1919 and 1926, to become one of the world's finest ports. Maintenance of the Columbia River jetties has been an ongoing struggle, however. In 1931, extensive repairs were needed because waves had flattened the end of the south jetty. Additional major reconstructions have been required on several occasions since then. Meanwhile, the ship channel across the Columbia's bar has several times been further deepened by dredging because of the growth of the Northwest

• MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIES REVISED Membership categories and privileges were slightly altered by the Board of Trustees at their February meeting. An "individual'' membership category has been created to replace our old " annual" category, which presently has dues set at $15 per year. This level of membership will now convey free Museum admission privileges only for one person, but will still include a subscription to the Quarterdeck Review and a ten per cent discount on purchases in the Museum shop. The existing "contributing'' level will become a family membership which, besides the subscription and shop discount privileges, will provide unlimited free admission to a husband, wife, and their minor dependents. Dues for this level is currently set at $25. In the near future , these changes will go into effect for all renewals and new memberships, but existing memberships will not be affected until their expiration date.

AUXILIARY BUYS RADIO SYSTEM The hardworking people of the Museum Auxiliary have generously provided more than $300 to purchase much needed communications equipment for the Museum. A Maxon 49-B5 "People Tracker" system, consisting of a base station and several portable walkie-talkies, is making for much more efficient communication between our office staff and maintenance personnel, who are frequently outside the building and beyond easy reach by telephone or intercom.

LIGHTSHIP TO VISIT PORTLAND The Museum will be sending the Columbia to Portland this summer in an effort to extend the "reach" of the Museum to other areas. The ship will make the passage under her own power with a volunteer crew aboard. She is scheduled to be open for public visitation June 28 through July 4 at the Cornerstone Marina, which is located upstream from Governor Tom McCall Waterfront Park and adjacent to the Alexis Hotel. We realize that nearly all our members have already visited the ship, but please encourage your friends and relatives in the Portland area to take advantage of this opportunity to visit the Museum's "flagship." In preparation for such use, the Property Committee of the Board of Trustees, chaired by naval architect Tom Dyer, has overseen necessary maintenance of the ship. Besides the drydocking of the ship that occurred earlier this year, her masts and rigging were inspected, overhauled, sandblasted, and painted at Tongue Point during late April and early May.


NEW MEMBERS, INCREASED SUPPORT (*), JANUARY 1 - MARCH 31, 1988 CORPORATE STEWARD Blasco, Inc. Electrical Construction Co. S.S. Johnson Foundation Sause Bros. Ocean Towing Co., Inc. Tidewater Barge Lines

Mr. & Mrs. Harrison Greenough Robert Morris' Oregon Glass Service* National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in Oregon* Mr. Leonard G. Vernon* Adm. J.G. Williams, Jr.*

SPONSOR Black Ball Marine Henningsen Cold Storage Co. Kleen Blast

CONTRIBUTING Mrs. Helen C. Baker* Mrs. Anna Lee Bowerman• Dr. Lewis H. Carter* Mr. & Mrs. Amo De Bernardis* Mr. W.H. Dole, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Alan 0. Dunkin* Miss Vicki L. Durst* Dr. Robert W. Haglund* Mr. & Mrs. Don Link• Mr. & Mrs. Harold Nelson Dr. & Mrs. John A. Parpala Mr. & Mrs. Cliff Pedersen• Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Recken Mr. Eric Schmieman Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J. Seitz Mr. Forrest Vaughn* Mr. & Mrs. William Whitsell

PILOT Mrs. J. Irwin Hoffman* SUSTAINING Horace Harrison, Jr.• Capt. & Mrs. F.B. Jerrell* Jessie's Ilwaco Fish Co., Inc.* Mrs. Frances M. Keerins* Thunderbird Seafare Restaurant SUPPORTING Comforts of Home Sewing Center* Mrs. Mary Cvitanovich

ANNUAL Mr. & Mrs. Robert Baker Mr. Henry Balensifer Mr. & Mrs. Robert Basel Ms. Merri L. Confer Mr. & Mrs. William A. Dryden Mr. & Mrs. John Estoos Mr. Richard Green Miss Marjorie Halderman Mr. & Mrs. William C. Hartley Mr. Vernon Hellberg Mr. Donald Herlin Miss Cindy L. Hiester Mr. Kenneth C. Jefferies Mr. William L. Jefferies Mr. John H. Magan Mr. Richard M. Molin Mr. & Mrs. Jack Paaso Pioneer Builders Mr. E.B. Post Mr. & Mrs. P. Yuri Samer Mr. & Mrs. David Sypher Mr. Robert H. Thompson, III Mrs. Antoine F. Wing

MEMORIAL DONATIONS, JANUARY 1 - MARCH 31, 1988 OSMO "OS" ADRIAN Ms. Viola M. Kononen Ms. Marilyn Messnick Mr. & Mrs. Carl H. Tolonen Mr. & Mrs. Carl J. Tolonen CARL W. ANGBERG Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mrs. Eleanor Ewenson Mr. & Mrs. Ed Lundholm Mr. & Mrs. Armas E. Niskanen Mr. & Mrs. Mike Riva Ms. Marvell U rell Mr. & Mrs. John Wise KENNETH BACKMAN Mr. & Mrs. John Gizdavich EDNA BLACK Mrs. Dorothea J. Handran Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hansen PETER E. BRACH Mrs. Berenice I. Baker Ms. Margaret Clark Mr. & Mrs. David Cordiner Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Mr . & Mrs. Robert A. Ginn Mr. Chris Helligso Ms. Florence Lindgren Mrs. Gertrude Maki Mrs. Ruben A. Mund Velare D. Planting & Family Ms. Ann C. Roberts Col. & Mrs. Tony Robnett Mrs. Jordis Tetli

nm:,5TILL IlnISTOW Ms. Mary Abrahamson Ms. Viola Abrahamson Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union Mr. & Mrs. Eldon Korpela Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Peitsch Mr. & Mrs. William Puustinen Mr. & Mrs. Jon Westerholm CHUCK CAFFALL Knappton Corporation E.M. "TED" CHERRY Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Haddix MARTHA E. CLASSEN Ms. Theresa Andresen

ED W. HARVEY Mr. & Mrs. James Parker DANIEL HENRY Mrs. Harley Basel Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Fastabend Mr. & Mrs. James E. O'Connor RAGNHILD HISSNER Mr. & Mrs. Perry Nordmark ELMER ISHMAEL Mr. & Mrs. Dewey Maxson JULIUS JOHNSON Mr. & Mrs. Roy Duoos Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos

STEPHEN Y. CULP Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hansen

NELLIE I. JOHNSON Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Forseth Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Hutchens

EUGENE A. DONEY Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hansen

RAGNOR 0. JOHNSON Ms. Frances McLeod

FRANK S. ERICKSON Mr. & Mrs. Larry Telen

INEZ LAVERNE KESTI Ms. Hazel Reith Mr. & Mrs. Steve Young

J. FRANK EWING Mrs. Ann Smeaton HAROLD GJOVIK Mr. & Mrs. Harry L. Larson ANNA GROVE Mr. & Mrs. John Estoos

J.J. HAMMER, JR. Mrs. Ann Smeaton

CHARLES WALTER KINDRED Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor EDWARD J. KOSKI Mr. & Mrs. Roy Aspen Mr. & Mrs. George Crandall Mr. & Mrs. Donald Doran Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mr. & Mrs. Wm. C. Elder & Family Mr. & Mrs. Raymond Johnson


MEMORIAL DONATIONS, CONTINUED Mr. George Kesti Mr. & Mrs. William H. Kilbourne Mr. & Mrs. 0.A. Kiminki Mr. & Mrs. Howard Lovvold Hjalmer Leino Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd Martin Mr. & Mrs. George T. Olsen, Sr. Mr. Gilbert Pitkanen Mr. & Mrs. James Rainey Ms. Hazel Reith Mr. & Mrs. Ervin Rinell Ms. Thelma L. Rundel Mr. & Mrs. Gordon L. Wolfgram Mr. Charles Young, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Charles Young, Sr. CHARLES "CHUCK" KNOWLAND Mrs. Shirley Brooks Cole IRENE KOSKI Mrs. Harley Basel Mr. Troy Basel Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L'Amie KATHERINE LAKE Mrs. Helen C. Aho Mr. & Mrs. Roy Aspen Mr. & Mrs. Ludwig Bakanen & Family Mr. & Mrs. Lynn Bowles Mr. & Mrs. Don Brunner Ms. Barbara S. Doyle Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mrs. Elizabeth T. Fastabend Fernhill Progressive Club Mrs. Dorothea J. Handran Mr. & Mrs. Robert Harris Mr. John P. Heffernan Mrs. Mabel Herold Mrs. Frances Hoare Mr. & Mrs. Richard Huckestein Mr. & Mrs. Theodore W. Ivarie Mr. & Mrs. Sigfred Jensen Mrs. Grace Johnson Ms. Corrine Juniper Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala Mr. & Mrs. Toivo Kivisto Mr. & Mrs. George Koster Mrs. Madeline Kvistad Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Leclaire Mr. & Mrs. Fred Leslie Ms. Ruth Loque Mrs. Ada Lundman Mr. Einar Lundman Mrs. Georgia L. Maki Mr. & Mrs. Al Mather Mr. & Mrs. Ed Nicholas Mr. & Mrs. Jim O'Bryan Mrs. Marjorie Riswick Mrs. Clare A. Ritter Mrs. Hazel G. Savala Mr. & Mrs. Joe Santorsola Mr. Charles Richard Sells Mrs. Elsa Simonsen Mrs. Harriet D. Taylor Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram LYLE V. LAMPMAN Mr, & Mrs. Paul Reimers

G. EDWIN LARSON Mr. & Mrs. Carl Labiske

WILLIAM SCHMUTZLER Mr. & Mrs. William Perkins

TOMMY B. LEE Mr. & Mrs. Roy Duoos Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie

RALPH H. SHAW Ms. Lou Ann Aldrich Mr. & Mrs. Richard Cameron & Family Mrs. Helen Caspell Mr. & Mrs. Harold Hoff Mr. & Mrs. Gene Jensen Mr. & Mrs. Jack Marincovich Mr. & Mrs. Larry Peterson Ms. Sara M. Puffinberger Mr. & Mrs. Mike Riva Mr. & Mrs. Wes Shaner Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Stromsness Mr. & Mrs. Larry Teien

WILLIAM MALMBERG Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Mrs. Ed Ross Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen NICK J. MARINCOVICH Mr. & Mrs. John Gizdavich MARLYN MATTSON Mr. & Mrs. A.B. Curtis, Sr. EDWARD "MAC" McNALLY Mrs. Gertrude Maki PETE MOE Mr. & Mrs. Paul A. Stangland RUHL MORGAN Mrs. Ethel Mae Winters TAISTO A. OJALA Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L'Amie ARTHUR G. OLSVIK Ms. Rae Goforth Mr. Buddy Hoell ALEX L. PARKS Capt. Joseph L. Bruneau Columbia River Bar Pilots Capt. & Mrs. Kenneth McAlpin DANNY W. PATTERSON Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Palmrose ALICE KATHERINE PERSALL Astoria Plywood Corporation Mr. Henry M. Gjovik Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor EDGAR A. QUINN Capt. Joseph L. Bruneau HENRY U. RAASINA Mrs. Helen Raasina Ms. Joy Raasina Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen

HELMI M. SHERMAN Mr. & Mrs. Bill Perkins, Jr. WILLIAM J. SHOLMAN Mr. Albert Aho Ms. Sammie Day Ms. Velma Deweese Mr. & Mrs. Jack Fuller Mr. Ed Grotting Mr. & Mrs. Einar Hansen Mr. & Mrs. Maurice Hendrickson Mr. Carl Johnson Mr. Ed Johnson Mr. & Mrs. John Kemmerer Mr. & Mrs. O.A. Kiminki Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Klein Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Louden Mrs. Gertrude Maki Mr. & Mrs. Cecil Moberg Mr. & Mrs. Arvid North Mr. Arnold Petersen Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Pettett Ms. Carmel Ranta Mr. Onnie Silver Ms. Grace Vestre JOHN M. SMEATON Ms. Louise Jacoby BOB MIKE STRULOEFF Mrs. Harley Basel Mr. Troy Basel Mr. & Mrs. Fred Lloyd Mr. & Mrs. Ruben Mund DELBERT]. UTTER Mrs. Harley Basel

FERNE MORSE REYNOLDS Mr. & Mrs. H. Lawrence Hull & Family

MARY VAN OSDOL Mr. & Mrs. George Webber

M.N. ROYCE Columbia River Bar Pilots

ANNETTE M. VERNON Mr. Tony Cox

FRED S. SANDOZ Mr. & Mrs. Ted Bugas Mr. & Mrs. Arnold Curtis Ms. Josephine Jermann Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund Mrs. Ed Ross

VIOLA WESTERBERG Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor UNO 0 . WINTERS Mrs. Harley Basel Mr. Troy Basel


SPECIAL DONATIONS JANUARY 1 - MARCH 31, 1988

Sign On! AS A MEMBER OF THE

Columbia River Maritime Museum Auxiliary The Community Store Englund Marine Supply Hauke's Markets Knappton Corporation Estate of Wenona Dyer Martin Capt. Kenneth McAlpin North Coast Auto Parnassus Books Pacific Northwest Bell Gene Sause & Company Thunderbird Seafare Restaurant Van Dusen Beverages, Inc. The Wheeler Foundation

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM □

LIFE MEMBER $5000 - Single Payment or Cumulative since 1962 STEWARD $1,000 per year □ SUPPORTING $50 per year SPONSOR $500 per year □ FAMILY $25 per year PILOT $250 per year □ INDIVIDUAL $15 per year $100 per year □ STUDENT $7 .50 per year SUSTAINING

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GAMBIER BAY SURVIVORS TO VISIT

350th ANNIVERSARY OF NEW SWEDEN

More than forty survivors of the escort aircraft carrier U.S.S. Gambier Bay, which was sunk by gunfire from Japanese battleships and cruisers during the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944, are to visit the Museum on Saturday, May 21st. Their purpose is to hold a ceremony expressing their appreciation to Dr. N.H. Marineau (one of our trustees) and Dr. Robert Norgren, who made and donated the model of the Gambier Bay that is now displayed in our naval history exhibit. By great coincidence, a survivor of her sister ship St. Lo, which was sunk by a kamikaze plane in the same action, is tentatively scheduled to visit the Museum that same weekend. The Gambier Bay was one of fifty Casablanca-class carriers built by Kaiser at Vancouver, Washington during World War II. Like many of the others, she commissioned at Astoria, where her air group was also formed.

Scandinavians have played a big role in the nautical heritage of the Northwest, so it seems appropriate for us to note here that 1988 marks the 350th anniversary of the first Swedish settlement in North America. In 1638 the colony of New Sweden was established where Wilmington, Delaware now stands. This was also the first involvement of the Finns in America, for Finland was then an integral part of the Kingdom of Sweden, and many of the first ''Swedish'' colonists were actually Finns. New Sweden was conquered by the Netherlands in 1655, but the Dutch, in turn, soon lost their North American colonies to the British. Transitory though the Swedish colony may have been, it left an enduring mark on our culture, for the Finnish settlers are credited with introducing the log cabin to America.

LARRY GILMORE, EDITOR

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM 1792 MARINE DRIVE ASTORIA, OREGON 97103

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED

ISSN 0891-2661

Non-Profit Organization U .S. POSTAGE PAID Astoria, Oregon Permit No. 209


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